Science.gov

Sample records for photovoltaic module production

  1. Review of Photovoltaic Energy Production Using Thin Film Modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gessert, Timothy

    2011-04-01

    It is now widely accepted that thin-film photovoltaic (PV) devices will be important contributors of new US electricity generation. The annual production of PV devices needed to meet conservative U.S. Department of Energy goals for 2050 represents ˜100 square miles of active module area (20 GW), or ˜200 times the total area of photovoltaic modules installed in the US by 2004. However, if the rate of growth observed in PV module production for the past eight years continues, 100 square miles of annual US PV production could be achieved as early as 2018. Further, the amount PV installed by 2036 could generate the entire 2004 US Total Energy Consumption (˜100 Quadrillion BTU's, i.e., the combined energy consumed in the US from petroleum, coal, natural gas, nuclear, and all renewable sources). Regardless of what assumptions are made, PV represents a significant future market for related materials and technologies. This talk will discuss thin-film PV devices within the context of the major PV technologies in production today, and indicate areas where improved material and device understanding would be beneficial. This work was performed with the support of US Department of Energy Contract No. DE-AC36-08-GO28308. This abstract is subject to government rights.

  2. High Throughput, Continuous, Mass Production of Photovoltaic Modules

    SciTech Connect

    Kurt Barth

    2008-02-06

    AVA Solar has developed a very low cost solar photovoltaic (PV) manufacturing process and has demonstrated the significant economic and commercial potential of this technology. This I & I Category 3 project provided significant assistance toward accomplishing these milestones. The original goals of this project were to design, construct and test a production prototype system, fabricate PV modules and test the module performance. The original module manufacturing costs in the proposal were estimated at $2/Watt. The objectives of this project have been exceeded. An advanced processing line was designed, fabricated and installed. Using this automated, high throughput system, high efficiency devices and fully encapsulated modules were manufactured. AVA Solar has obtained 2 rounds of private equity funding, expand to 50 people and initiated the development of a large scale factory for 100+ megawatts of annual production. Modules will be manufactured at an industry leading cost which will enable AVA Solar's modules to produce power that is cost-competitive with traditional energy resources. With low manufacturing costs and the ability to scale manufacturing, AVA Solar has been contacted by some of the largest customers in the PV industry to negotiate long-term supply contracts. The current market for PV has continued to grow at 40%+ per year for nearly a decade and is projected to reach $40-$60 Billion by 2012. Currently, a crystalline silicon raw material supply shortage is limiting growth and raising costs. Our process does not use silicon, eliminating these limitations.

  3. Apparatus and processes for the mass production of photovoltaic modules

    DOEpatents

    Barth, Kurt L.; Enzenroth, Robert A.; Sampath, Walajabad S.

    2007-05-22

    An apparatus and processes for large scale inline manufacturing of CdTe photovoltaic modules in which all steps, including rapid substrate heating, deposition of CdS, deposition of CdTe, CdCl.sub.2 treatment, and ohmic contact formation, are performed within a single vacuum boundary at modest vacuum pressures. A p+ ohmic contact region is formed by subliming a metal salt onto the CdTe layer. A back electrode is formed by way of a low cost spray process, and module scribing is performed by means of abrasive blasting or mechanical brushing through a mask. The vacuum process apparatus facilitates selective heating of substrates and films, exposure of substrates and films to vapor with minimal vapor leakage, deposition of thin films onto a substrate, and stripping thin films from a substrate. A substrate transport apparatus permits the movement of substrates into and out of vacuum during the thin film deposition processes, while preventing the collection of coatings on the substrate transport apparatus itself.

  4. Photovoltaic module and interlocked stack of photovoltaic modules

    DOEpatents

    Wares, Brian S.

    2014-09-02

    One embodiment relates to an arrangement of photovoltaic modules configured for transportation. The arrangement includes a plurality of photovoltaic modules, each photovoltaic module including a frame. A plurality of individual male alignment features and a plurality of individual female alignment features are included on each frame. Adjacent photovoltaic modules are interlocked by multiple individual male alignment features on a first module of the adjacent photovoltaic modules fitting into and being surrounded by corresponding individual female alignment features on a second module of the adjacent photovoltaic modules. Other embodiments, features and aspects are also disclosed.

  5. Photovoltaic module reliability workshop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mrig, L.

    The paper and presentations compiled in this volume form the Proceedings of the fourth in a series of Workshops sponsored by Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI/DOE) under the general theme of photovoltaic module reliability during the period 1986 to 1990. The reliability photovoltaic (PV) modules/systems is exceedingly important along with the initial cost and efficiency of modules if the PV technology has to make a major impact in the power generation market, and for it to compete with the conventional electricity producing technologies. The reliability of photovoltaic modules has progressed significantly in the last few years as evidenced by warrantees available on commercial modules of as long as 12 years. However, there is still need for substantial research and testing required to improve module field reliability to levels of 30 years or more. Several small groups of researchers are involved in this research, development, and monitoring activity around the world. In the U.S., PV manufacturers, DOE laboratories, electric utilities and others are engaged in the photovoltaic reliability research and testing. This group of researchers and others interested in this field were brought together under SERI/DOE sponsorship to exchange the technical knowledge and field experience as related to current information in this important field. The papers presented here reflect this effort.

  6. Formed photovoltaic module busbars

    DOEpatents

    Rose, Douglas; Daroczi, Shan; Phu, Thomas

    2015-11-10

    A cell connection piece for a photovoltaic module is disclosed herein. The cell connection piece includes an interconnect bus, a plurality of bus tabs unitarily formed with the interconnect bus, and a terminal bus coupled with the interconnect bus. The plurality of bus tabs extend from the interconnect bus. The terminal bus includes a non-linear portion.

  7. Bracket for photovoltaic modules

    DOEpatents

    Ciasulli, John; Jones, Jason

    2014-06-24

    Brackets for photovoltaic ("PV") modules are described. In one embodiment, a saddle bracket has a mounting surface to support one or more PV modules over a tube, a gusset coupled to the mounting surface, and a mounting feature coupled to the gusset to couple to the tube. The gusset can have a first leg and a second leg extending at an angle relative to the mounting surface. Saddle brackets can be coupled to a torque tube at predetermined locations. PV modules can be coupled to the saddle brackets. The mounting feature can be coupled to the first gusset and configured to stand the one or more PV modules off the tube.

  8. Photovoltaic module reliability workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Mrig, L.

    1990-01-01

    The paper and presentations compiled in this volume form the Proceedings of the fourth in a series of Workshops sponsored by Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI/DOE) under the general theme of photovoltaic module reliability during the period 1986--1990. The reliability Photo Voltaic (PV) modules/systems is exceedingly important along with the initial cost and efficiency of modules if the PV technology has to make a major impact in the power generation market, and for it to compete with the conventional electricity producing technologies. The reliability of photovoltaic modules has progressed significantly in the last few years as evidenced by warranties available on commercial modules of as long as 12 years. However, there is still need for substantial research and testing required to improve module field reliability to levels of 30 years or more. Several small groups of researchers are involved in this research, development, and monitoring activity around the world. In the US, PV manufacturers, DOE laboratories, electric utilities and others are engaged in the photovoltaic reliability research and testing. This group of researchers and others interested in this field were brought together under SERI/DOE sponsorship to exchange the technical knowledge and field experience as related to current information in this important field. The papers presented here reflect this effort.

  9. Photovoltaic module and interlocked stack of photovoltaic modules

    DOEpatents

    Wares, Brian S.

    2012-09-04

    One embodiment relates to an arrangement of photovoltaic modules configured for transportation. The arrangement includes a plurality of photovoltaic modules, each photovoltaic module including a frame having at least a top member and a bottom member. A plurality of alignment features are included on the top member of each frame, and a plurality of alignment features are included on the bottom member of each frame. Adjacent photovoltaic modules are interlocked by the alignment features on the top member of a lower module fitting together with the alignment features on the bottom member of an upper module. Other embodiments, features and aspects are also disclosed.

  10. Photovoltaic Cz Silicon Module Improvements

    SciTech Connect

    Jester, T. L.

    1998-09-01

    Work focused on reducing the cost per watt of Cz silicon photovoltaic modules under Phase II of Siemens Solar Industries' DOE/NREL PVMaT 4A subcontract is described in this report. New module designs were deployed in this phase of the contract, improvements in yield of over 10% were realized, and further implementation of Statistical Process Control was achieved during this phase. Module configurations representing a 12% cost reduction per watt were implemented in small scale production under Phase II of this contract. Yield improvements are described in detail, yield sensitivity to wafer thickness is quantified, and the deployment of SPC in critical process steps is reported here.

  11. Commercial production of thin-film CdTe photovoltaic modules. 1995 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Brog, T.K.

    1997-02-01

    This report presents a general overview of progress made in Golden Photon Inc.`s commercial production of thin-film CdTe photovoltaic modules. It describes the improvement in the number of batch runs processed through substrate deposition, all inter-connection, and encapsulation process steps; a progressive increase in the total number of panels processed each month; an improvement in cumulative process yields; and the continual attention given to modifying operating parameters of each major process step. The report also describes manpower status and staffing issues. The description of the status of subcontract progress includes engineering design; process improvement and development; cost improvement and raw materials; environment, safety, and health; and manufacturing cost and productivity optimization. Milestones and deliverables are also described.

  12. Photovoltaic concentrator module technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richards, Elizabeth H.; Chamberlin, Jay L.; Boes, Eldon C.

    Significant developments in the development of photovoltaic (PV) concentrator technology are described. Concentrator cell research, advances in PV concentrator cell technology, and PV concentrator module development are described. Reliability issues currently of concern, including the applicability of wet insulation resistance tests to concentrator modules, correlation of accelerated thermal cycling tests with life expectancy in the field, and the importance of quality assurance during manufacture, are discussed. Two PV concentrator power systems installed in 1989 are discussed. A PV concentrator initiative program established by the DOE is given, and the results of the latest cost study are presented.

  13. Photovoltaic module and module arrays

    DOEpatents

    Botkin, Jonathan; Graves, Simon; Lenox, Carl J. S.; Culligan, Matthew; Danning, Matt

    2012-07-17

    A photovoltaic (PV) module including a PV device and a frame. The PV device has a PV laminate defining a perimeter and a major plane. The frame is assembled to and encases the laminate perimeter, and includes leading, trailing, and side frame members, and an arm that forms a support face opposite the laminate. The support face is adapted for placement against a horizontal installation surface, to support and orient the laminate in a non-parallel or tilted arrangement. Upon final assembly, the laminate and the frame combine to define a unitary structure. The frame can orient the laminate at an angle in the range of 3.degree.-7.degree. from horizontal, and can be entirely formed of a polymeric material. Optionally, the arm incorporates integral feature(s) that facilitate interconnection with corresponding features of a second, identically formed PV module.

  14. Photovoltaic module and module arrays

    DOEpatents

    Botkin, Jonathan; Graves, Simon; Lenox, Carl J. S.; Culligan, Matthew; Danning, Matt

    2013-08-27

    A photovoltaic (PV) module including a PV device and a frame, The PV device has a PV laminate defining a perimeter and a major plane. The frame is assembled to and encases the laminate perimeter, and includes leading, trailing, and side frame members, and an arm that forms a support face opposite the laminate. The support face is adapted for placement against a horizontal installation surface, to support and orient the laminate in a non-parallel or tilted arrangement. Upon final assembly, the laminate and the frame combine to define a unitary structure. The frame can orient the laminate at an angle in the range of 3.degree.-7.degree. from horizontal, and can be entirely formed of a polymeric material. Optionally, the arm incorporates integral feature(s) that facilitate interconnection with corresponding features of a second, identically formed PV module.

  15. Reliability of photovoltaic modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, R. G., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    In order to assess the reliability of photovoltaic modules, four categories of known array failure and degradation mechanisms are discussed, and target reliability allocations have been developed within each category based on the available technology and the life-cycle-cost requirements of future large-scale terrestrial applications. Cell-level failure mechanisms associated with open-circuiting or short-circuiting of individual solar cells generally arise from cell cracking or the fatigue of cell-to-cell interconnects. Power degradation mechanisms considered include gradual power loss in cells, light-induced effects, and module optical degradation. Module-level failure mechanisms and life-limiting wear-out mechanisms are also explored.

  16. Photovoltaic module mounting system

    SciTech Connect

    Miros, Robert H. J.; Mittan, Margaret Birmingham; Seery, Martin N.; Holland, Rodney H.

    2012-04-17

    A solar array mounting system having unique installation, load distribution, and grounding features, and which is adaptable for mounting solar panels having no external frame. The solar array mounting system includes flexible, pedestal-style feet and structural links connected in a grid formation on the mounting surface. The photovoltaic modules are secured in place via the use of attachment clamps that grip the edge of the typically glass substrate. The panel mounting clamps are then held in place by tilt brackets and/or mid-link brackets that provide fixation for the clamps and align the solar panels at a tilt to the horizontal mounting surface. The tilt brackets are held in place atop the flexible feet and connected link members thus creating a complete mounting structure.

  17. Photovoltaic module mounting system

    SciTech Connect

    Miros, Robert H. J.; Mittan, Margaret Birmingham; Seery, Martin N; Holland, Rodney H

    2012-09-18

    A solar array mounting system having unique installation, load distribution, and grounding features, and which is adaptable for mounting solar panels having no external frame. The solar array mounting system includes flexible, pedestal-style feet and structural links connected in a grid formation on the mounting surface. The photovoltaic modules are secured in place via the use of attachment clamps that grip the edge of the typically glass substrate. The panel mounting clamps are then held in place by tilt brackets and/or mid-link brackets that provide fixation for the clamps and align the solar panels at a tilt to the horizontal mounting surface. The tilt brackets are held in place atop the flexible feet and connected link members thus creating a complete mounting structure.

  18. Flexible, rollable photovoltaic cell module

    SciTech Connect

    Cull, C.R.; Hartman, R.A.; Koch, P.E.

    1986-03-04

    A photovoltaic module is described consisting of: busbar means; individual photovoltaic cell strips, each cell strip having an electrically conductive substrate layer, a semiconductor body deposited on the substrate layer, and a transparent electrically conductive layer deposited on the semiconductor body, the transparent electrically conductive layer being selectively sectioned to define electrically distinct photovoltaic cells carried by the cell strip; grid means deposited on the transparent electrically conductive layer of each of the photovoltaic cell; continuous electrically conductive filament means alternately and repetitively connected, at contact points, to the electrically conductive substrate layer of one photovoltaic cell strip and to the grid means of another photovoltaic cell strip; wherein the filament means is connected medially of the lateral edges of the respective cell strips; and means for connecting the transparent electrically conductive layer of one photovoltaic cell strip to the busbar means.

  19. Photovoltaic module with adhesion promoter

    SciTech Connect

    Xavier, Grace

    2013-10-08

    Photovoltaic modules with adhesion promoters and methods for fabricating photovoltaic modules with adhesion promoters are described. A photovoltaic module includes a solar cell including a first surface and a second surface, the second surface including a plurality of interspaced back-side contacts. A first glass layer is coupled to the first surface by a first encapsulating layer. A second glass layer is coupled to the second surface by a second encapsulating layer. At least a portion of the second encapsulating layer is bonded directly to the plurality of interspaced back-side contacts by an adhesion promoter.

  20. Vacuum lamination of photovoltaic modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burger, D. R.

    1982-01-01

    Vacuum lamination of terrestrial photovoltaic modules is a new high volume process requiring new equipment and newly develop materials. Equipment development, materials research, and some research in related fields and testing methods are discussed.

  1. Photovoltaic solar concentrator module

    SciTech Connect

    Chiang, C.J.

    1991-05-16

    This invention consists of a planar photovoltaic concentrator module for producing an electrical signal from incident solar radiation which includes an electrically insulating housing having a front wall, an opposing back wall and a hollow interior. A solar cell having electrical terminals is positioned within the interior of the housing. A planar conductor is connected with a terminal of the solar cell of the same polarity. A lens forming the front wall of the housing is operable to direct solar radiation incident to the lens into the interior of the housing. A refractive optical element in contact with the solar cell and facing the lens receives the solar radiation directed into the interior of the housing by the lens and directs the solar radiation to the solar cell to cause the solar cell to generate an electrical signal. An electrically conductive planar member is positioned in the housing to rest on the housing back wall in supporting relation with the solar cell terminal of opposite polarity. The planar member is operable to dissipate heat radiated by the solar cell as the solar cell generates an electrical signal and further forms a solar cell conductor connected with the solar cell terminal to permit the electrical signal generated by the solar cell to be measured between the planar member and the conductor.

  2. Review of Photovoltaic Energy Production Using CdTe Thin-Film Modules: Extended Abstract Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Gessert, T. A.

    2008-09-01

    CdTe has near-optimum bandgap, excellent deposition traits, and leads other technologies in commercial PV module production volume. Better understanding materials properties will accelerate deployment.

  3. Reliability Research for Photovoltaic Modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, Ronald J., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Report describes research approach used to improve reliability of photovoltaic modules. Aimed at raising useful module lifetime to 20 to 30 years. Development of cost-effective solutions to module-lifetime problem requires compromises between degradation rates, failure rates, and lifetimes, on one hand, and costs of initial manufacture, maintenance, and lost energy, on other hand. Life-cycle costing integrates disparate economic terms, allowing cost effectiveness to be quantified, allowing comparison of different design alternatives.

  4. AC photovoltaic module magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Jennings, C.; Chang, G.J.; Reyes, A.B.; Whitaker, C.M.

    1997-12-31

    Implementation of alternating current (AC) photovoltaic (PV) modules, particularly for distributed applications such as PV rooftops and facades, may be slowed by public concern about electric and magnetic fields (EMF). This paper documents magnetic field measurements on an AC PV module, complementing EMF research on direct-current PV modules conducted by PG and E in 1993. Although not comprehensive, the PV EMF data indicate that 60 Hz magnetic fields (the EMF type of greatest public concern) from PV modules are comparable to, or significantly less than, those from household appliances. Given the present EMF research knowledge, AC PV module EMF may not merit considerable concern.

  5. Mounting support for a photovoltaic module

    SciTech Connect

    Brandt, Gregory Michael; Barsun, Stephan K.; Coleman, Nathaniel T.; Zhou, Yin

    2013-03-26

    A mounting support for a photovoltaic module is described. The mounting support includes a foundation having an integrated wire-way ledge portion. A photovoltaic module support mechanism is coupled with the foundation.

  6. Ballasted photovoltaic module and module arrays

    DOEpatents

    Botkin, Jonathan; Graves, Simon; Danning, Matt

    2011-11-29

    A photovoltaic (PV) module assembly including a PV module and a ballast tray. The PV module includes a PV device and a frame. A PV laminate is assembled to the frame, and the frame includes an arm. The ballast tray is adapted for containing ballast and is removably associated with the PV module in a ballasting state where the tray is vertically under the PV laminate and vertically over the arm to impede overt displacement of the PV module. The PV module assembly can be installed to a flat commercial rooftop, with the PV module and the ballast tray both resting upon the rooftop. In some embodiments, the ballasting state includes corresponding surfaces of the arm and the tray being spaced from one another under normal (low or no wind) conditions, such that the frame is not continuously subjected to a weight of the tray.

  7. Photovoltaic concentrator module improvements study

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, S.L.; Kerschen, K.A. ); Hutchison, G. ); Nowlan, M.J. )

    1991-08-01

    This report presents results of a project to design and fabricate an improved photovoltaic concentrator module. Using previous work as a baseline, this study conducted analyses and testing to select major module components and design features. The lens parquet and concentrator solar cell were selected from the highest performing, available components. A single 185X point-focus module was fabricated by the project team and tested at Sandia. Major module characteristics include a 6 by 4 compression-molded acrylic lens parquet (0.737 m{sup 2} area), twenty-four 0.2 ohms-cm, FZ, p-Si solar cells (1.56 cm{sup 2} area) soldered to ceramic substrates and copper heat spreaders, and an aluminized steel housing with corrugated bottom. This project marked the first attempt to use prismatic covers on solar cells in a high-concentration, point-focus application. Cells with 15 percent metallization were obtained, but problems with the fabrication and placement of prismatic covers on these cells lead to the decision not to use covers in the prototype module. Cell assembly fabrication, module fabrication, and module optical design activities are presented here. Test results are also presented for bare cells, cell assemblies, and module. At operating conditions of 981 watts/m{sup 2} DNI and an estimated cell temperature of 65{degrees}C, the module demonstrated an efficiency of 13.9 percent prior to stressed environmental exposure. 12 refs., 56 figs., 7 tabs.

  8. Recovering valuable metals from recycled photovoltaic modules.

    PubMed

    Yi, Youn Kyu; Kim, Hyun Soo; Tran, Tam; Hong, Sung Kil; Kim, Myong Jun

    2014-07-01

    Recovering valuable metals such as Si, Ag, Cu, and Al has become a pressing issue as end-of-life photovoltaic modules need to be recycled in the near future to meet legislative requirements in most countries. Of major interest is the recovery and recycling of high-purity silicon (> 99.9%) for the production of wafers and semiconductors. The value of Si in crystalline-type photovoltaic modules is estimated to be -$95/kW at the 2012 metal price. At the current installed capacity of 30 GW/yr, the metal value in the PV modules represents valuable resources that should be recovered in the future. The recycling of end-of-life photovoltaic modules would supply > 88,000 and 207,000 tpa Si by 2040 and 2050, respectively. This represents more than 50% of the required Si for module fabrication. Experimental testwork on crystalline Si modules could recover a > 99.98%-grade Si product by HNO3/NaOH leaching to remove Al, Ag, and Ti and other metal ions from the doped Si. A further pyrometallurgical smelting at 1520 degrees C using CaO-CaF2-SiO2 slag mixture to scavenge the residual metals after acid leaching could finally produce > 99.998%-grade Si. A process based on HNO3/NaOH leaching and subsequent smelting is proposed for recycling Si from rejected or recycled photovoltaic modules. Implications: The photovoltaic industry is considering options of recycling PV modules to recover metals such as Si, Ag, Cu, Al, and others used in the manufacturing of the PV cells. This is to retain its "green" image and to comply with current legislations in several countries. An evaluation of potential resources made available from PV wastes and the technologies used for processing these materials is therefore of significant importance to the industry. Of interest are the costs of processing and the potential revenues gained from recycling, which should determine the viability of economic recycling of PV modules in the future. PMID:25122953

  9. Apparatus for encapsulating a photovoltaic module

    DOEpatents

    Albright, Scot P.; Dugan, Larry M.

    1995-10-24

    The subject inventions concern various photovoltaic module designs to protect the module from horizontal and vertical impacts and degradation of solar cell efficiency caused by moisture. In one design, a plurality of panel supports that are positioned adjacent to the upper panel in a photovoltaic module absorb vertical forces exerted along an axis perpendicular to the upper panel. Other designs employ layers of glass and tempered glass, respectively, to protect the module from vertical impacts. A plurality of button-shaped channels is used around the edges of the photovoltaic module to absorb forces applied to the module along an axis parallel to the module and direct moisture away from the module that could otherwise penetrate the module and adversely affect the cells within the module. A spacer is employed between the upper and lower panels that has a coefficient of thermal expansion substantially equivalent to the coefficient of thermal expansion of at least one of the panels.

  10. Residential photovoltaic module and array requirements study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nearhoof, S. L.; Oster, J. R.

    1979-01-01

    Design requirements for photovoltaic modules and arrays used in residential applications were identified. Building codes and referenced standards were reviewed for their applicability to residential photovoltaic array installations. Four installation types were identified - integral (replaces roofing), direct (mounted on top of roofing), stand-off (mounted away from roofing), and rack (for flat or low slope roofs, or ground mounted). Installation costs were developed for these mounting types as a function of panel/module size. Studies were performed to identify optimum module shapes and sizes and operating voltage cost drivers. It is concluded that there are no perceived major obstacles to the use of photovoltaic modules in residential arrays. However, there is no applicable building code category for residential photovoltaic modules and arrays and additional work with standards writing organizations is needed to develop residential module and array requirements.

  11. Modelling of Photovoltaic Module Using Matlab Simulink

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afiqah Zainal, Nurul; Ajisman; Razlan Yusoff, Ahmad

    2016-02-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) module consists of numbers of photovoltaic cells that are connected in series and parallel used to generate electricity from solar energy. The characteristics of PV module are different based on the model and environment factors. In this paper, simulation of photovoltaic module using Matlab Simulink approach is presented. The method is used to determine the characteristics of PV module in various conditions especially in different level of irradiations and temperature. By having different values of irradiations and temperature, the results showed the output power, voltage and current of PV module can be determined. In addition, all results from Matlab Simulink are verified with theoretical calculation. This proposed model helps in better understanding of PV module characteristics in various environment conditions.

  12. Planar photovoltaic solar concentrator module

    DOEpatents

    Chiang, Clement J.

    1992-01-01

    A planar photovoltaic concentrator module for producing an electrical signal from incident solar radiation includes an electrically insulating housing having a front wall, an opposing back wall and a hollow interior. A solar cell having electrical terminals is positioned within the interior of the housing. A planar conductor is connected with a terminal of the solar cell of the same polarity. A lens forming the front wall of the housing is operable to direct solar radiation incident to the lens into the interior of the housing. A refractive optical element in contact with the solar cell and facing the lens receives the solar radiation directed into the interior of the housing by the lens and directs the solar radiation to the solar cell to cause the solar cell to generate an electrical signal. An electrically conductive planar member is positioned in the housing to rest on the housing back wall in supporting relation with the solar cell terminal of opposite polarity. The planar member is operable to dissipate heat radiated by the solar cell as the solar cell generates an electrical signal and further forms a solar cell conductor connected with the solar cell terminal to permit the electrical signal generated by the solar cell to be measured between the planar member and the conductor.

  13. Planar photovoltaic solar concentrator module

    DOEpatents

    Chiang, C.J.

    1992-12-01

    A planar photovoltaic concentrator module for producing an electrical signal from incident solar radiation includes an electrically insulating housing having a front wall, an opposing back wall and a hollow interior. A solar cell having electrical terminals is positioned within the interior of the housing. A planar conductor is connected with a terminal of the solar cell of the same polarity. A lens forming the front wall of the housing is operable to direct solar radiation incident to the lens into the interior of the housing. A refractive optical element in contact with the solar cell and facing the lens receives the solar radiation directed into the interior of the housing by the lens and directs the solar radiation to the solar cell to cause the solar cell to generate an electrical signal. An electrically conductive planar member is positioned in the housing to rest on the housing back wall in supporting relation with the solar cell terminal of opposite polarity. The planar member is operable to dissipate heat radiated by the solar cell as the solar cell generates an electrical signal and further forms a solar cell conductor connected with the solar cell terminal to permit the electrical signal generated by the solar cell to be measured between the planar member and the conductor. 5 figs.

  14. Photovoltaic module bypass diode encapsulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepard, N. J., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    The design and processing techniques necessary to incorporate bypass diodes within the module encapsulant are presented. The Semicon PN junction diode cells were selected. Diode junction to heat spreader thermal resistance measurements, performed on a variety of mounted diode chip types and sizes, have yielded values which are consistently below 1 deg C per watt, but show some instability when thermally cycled over the temperature range from -40 to 150 deg C. Three representative experimental modules, each incorporating integral bypass diode/heat spreader assemblies of various sizes, were designed. Thermal testing of these modules enabled the formulation of a recommended heat spreader plate sizing relationship. The production cost of three encapsulated bypass diode/heat spreader assemblies were compared with similarly rated externally mounted packaged diodes. It is concluded that, when proper designed and installed, these bypass diode devices will improve the overall reliability of a terrestrial array over a 20 year design lifetime.

  15. Tests Of Amorphous-Silicon Photovoltaic Modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, Ronald G., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Progress in identification of strengths and weaknesses of amorphous-silicon technology detailed. Report describes achievements in testing reliability of solar-power modules made of amorphous-silicon photovoltaic cells. Based on investigation of modules made by U.S. manufacturers. Modules subjected to field tests, to accelerated-aging tests in laboratory, and to standard sequence of qualification tests developed for modules of crystalline-silicon cells.

  16. Photovoltaic module electrical termination design requirement study

    SciTech Connect

    Mosna, F.J. Jr.; Donlinger, J.

    1980-07-01

    Motorola Inc., in conjunction with ITT Cannon, has conducted a study to develop information to facilitate the selection of existing, commercial, electrical termination hardware for photovoltaic modules and arrays. This volume of the report contains the executive summary. Module and array design parameters were investigated and recommendations were developed for use in surveying, evaluating, and comparing electrical termination hardware. Electrical termination selection criteria factors were developed and applied to nine generic termination types in each of the four application sectors: remote, residential, intermediate and industrial. Existing terminations best suited for photovoltaic modules and arrays were identified. Cost information was developed to identify cost drivers and/or requirements which might lead to cost reductions. The general conclusion is that there is no single generic termination that is best suited for photovoltaic application, but that the appropriate termination is strongly dependent upon the module construction and its support structure as well as the specific application sector.

  17. Reliability evaluation of a photovoltaic module using accelerated degradation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laronde, Rémi; Charki, Abdérafi; Bigaud, David; Excoffier, Philippe

    2011-09-01

    Many photovoltaic modules are installed all around the world. However, the reliability of this product is not enough really known. The electrical power decreases in time due mainly to corrosion, encapsulation discoloration and solder bond failure. The failure of a photovoltaic module is obtained when the electrical power degradation reaches a threshold value. Accelerated life tests are commonly used to estimate the reliability of the photovoltaic module. However, using accelerated life tests, few data on the failure of this product are obtained and the realization of this kind of tests is expensive. As a solution, an accelerated degradation test can be carried out using only one stress if parameters of the acceleration model are known. The Wiener process associated with the accelerated failure time model permits to carry out many simulations and to determine the failure time distribution when the threshold value is reached. So, the failure time distribution and the lifetime (mean and uncertainty) can be evaluated.

  18. Photovoltaic hydrogen production

    SciTech Connect

    Hiser, H.W.; Memory, S.B.; Veziroglu, T.N.; Padin, J.

    1996-10-01

    This is a new project, which started in June 1995, and involves photovoltaic hydrogen production as a fuel production method for the future. In order to increase the hydrogen yield, it was decided to use hybrid solar collectors to generate D.C. electricity, as well as high temperature steam for input to the electrolyzer. In this way, some of the energy needed to dissociate the water is supplied in the form of heat (or low grade energy), to generate steam, which results in a reduction of electrical energy (or high grade energy) needed. As a result, solar to hydrogen conversion efficiency is increased. In the above stated system, the collector location, the collector tracking sub-system (i.e., orientation/rotation), and the steam temperature have been taken as variables. Five locations selected - in order to consider a variety of latitudes, altitudes, cloud coverage and atmospheric conditions - are Atlanta, Denver, Miami, Phoenix and Salt Lake City. Plain PV and hybrid solar collectors for a stationary south facing system and five different collector rotation systems have been analyzed. Steam temperatures have been varied between 200{degrees}C and 1200{degrees}C. During the first year, solar to hydrogen conversion efficiencies have been considered. The results show that higher steam temperatures, 2 dimensional tracking system, higher elevations and dryer climates causes higher conversion efficiencies. Cost effectiveness of the sub-systems and of the overall system will be analyzed during the second year. Also, initial studies will be made of an advanced high efficiency hybrid solar hydrogen production system.

  19. The AC photovoltaic module is here!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strong, Steven J.; Wohlgemuth, John H.; Wills, Robert H.

    1997-02-01

    This paper describes the design, development, and performance results of a large-area photovoltaic module whose electrical output is ac power suitable for direct connection to the utility grid. The large-area ac PV module features a dedicated, integrally mounted, high-efficiency dc-to-ac power inverter with a nominal output of 250 watts (STC) at 120 Vac, 60 H, that is fully compatible with utility power. The module's output is connected directly to the building's conventional ac distribution system without need for any dc wiring, string combiners, dc ground-fault protection or additional power-conditioning equipment. With its advantages, the ac photovoltaic module promises to become a universal building block for use in all utility-interactive PV systems. This paper discusses AC Module design aspects and utility interface issues (including islanding).

  20. LIFE CYCLE DESIGN OF AMORPHOUS SILICON PHOTOVOLTAIC MODULES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The life cycle design framework was applied to photovoltaic module design. The primary objective of this project was to develop and evaluate design metrics for assessing and guiding the Improvement of PV product systems. Two metrics were used to assess life cycle energy perform...

  1. Photovoltaic Product Directory and Buyers Guide

    SciTech Connect

    Watts, R.L.; Smith, S.A.; Dirks, J.A.; Mazzucchi, R.P.; Lee, V.E.

    1984-04-01

    The directory guide explains photovoltaic systems briefly and shows what products are available off-the-shelf. Information is given to assist in designing a photovoltaic system and on financial incentives. Help is given for determining if photovoltaic products can meet a particular buyer's needs, and information is provided on actual photovoltaic user's experiences. Detailed information is appended on various financial incentives available from state and federal governments, sources of additional information on photovoltaics, sources of various photovoltaic products, and a listing of addresses of photovoltaic products suppliers. (LEW)

  2. Photovoltaic module with light reflecting backskin

    DOEpatents

    Gonsiorawski, Ronald C.

    2007-07-03

    A photovoltaic module comprises electrically interconnected and mutually spaced photovoltaic cells that are encapsulated by a light-transmitting encapsulant between a light-transparent front cover and a back cover, with the back cover sheet being an ionomer/nylon alloy embossed with V-shaped grooves running in at least two directions and coated with a light reflecting medium so as to provide light-reflecting facets that are aligned with the spaces between adjacent cells and oriented so as to reflect light falling in those spaces back toward said transparent front cover for further internal reflection onto the solar cells, whereby substantially all of the reflected light will be internally reflected from said cover sheet back to the photovoltaic cells, thereby increasing the current output of the module. The internal reflector improves power output by as much as 67%.

  3. Hole-thru-laminate mounting supports for photovoltaic modules

    SciTech Connect

    Wexler, Jason; Botkin, Jonathan; Culligan, Matthew; Detrick, Adam

    2015-02-17

    A mounting support for a photovoltaic module is described. The mounting support includes a pedestal having a surface adaptable to receive a flat side of a photovoltaic module laminate. A hole is disposed in the pedestal, the hole adaptable to receive a bolt or a pin used to couple the pedestal to the flat side of the photovoltaic module laminate.

  4. Natural sunlight accelerated weathering of photovoltaic modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zerlaut, G. A.; Anderson, T. B.; Arnett, J. C.

    Photovoltaic modules are exposed to the equivalent of ten years of sunlight aging in an accelerated exposure testing and evaluation program, the objective being to determine the long-term durability characteristics of flat plate modules in comparatively short periods of time. The modules are illuminated with concentrated sunlight in a large, sun-tracking, Fresnel-reflecting solar concentrator. The effects of the accelerated exposure are assessed by performing periodic visual inspections and electrical measurements. It is found that field-experienced failure modes are duplicated, that acceleration factors of 6x to 8x are readily attainable, and that the test method is feasible as a predictive tool for photovoltaic module lifetime durability.

  5. Natural sunlight accelerated weathering of photovoltaic modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zerlaut, G. A.; Anderson, T. B.; Arnett, J. C.

    1981-01-01

    Photovoltaic modules are exposed to the equivalent of ten years of sunlight aging in an accelerated exposure testing and evaluation program, the objective being to determine the long-term durability characteristics of flat plate modules in comparatively short periods of time. The modules are illuminated with concentrated sunlight in a large, sun-tracking, Fresnel-reflecting solar concentrator. The effects of the accelerated exposure are assessed by performing periodic visual inspections and electrical measurements. It is found that field-experienced failure modes are duplicated, that acceleration factors of 6x to 8x are readily attainable, and that the test method is feasible as a predictive tool for photovoltaic module lifetime durability.

  6. Report of an exploratory study: safety and liability considerations for photovoltaic modules/panels, Low Cost Solar Array Project

    SciTech Connect

    Weinstein, A.S.; Meeker, D.G.

    1981-01-01

    Product safety and product liability considerations are explored for photovoltaic module/array devices. A general review of photovoltaic literature was made using computerized literature searches. A literature search was also made of relevant legal material as it applies to design. Recommendations are made to minimize or eliminate perceived hazards in manufacture and use of a photovoltaic module/array. (MHR)

  7. Solar Photovoltaic Cell/Module Shipments Report

    EIA Publications

    2016-01-01

    Summary data for the photovoltaic industry in the United States. Data includes manufacturing, imports, and exports of modules in the United States and its territories. Summary data include volumes in peak kilowatts and average prices. Where possible, imports and exports are listed by country, and shipments to the United States are listed by state.

  8. Evaluation tests for photovoltaic concentrator receiver sections and modules

    SciTech Connect

    Woodworth, J.R.; Whipple, M.L.

    1992-06-01

    Sandia has developed a third-generation set of specifications for performance and reliability testing of photovoltaic concentrator modules. Several new requirements have been defined. The primary purpose of the tests is to screen new concentrator designs and new production runs for susceptibility to known failure mechanisms. Ultraviolet radiation testing of materials precedes receiver section and module performance and environmental tests. The specifications include the purpose, procedure, and requirements for each test. Recommendations for future improvements are presented.

  9. Photovoltaic module spread-of-flame testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugimura, R. S.; Otth, D. H.; Arnett, J. C.

    1984-10-01

    Photovoltaic modules used in solar energy conversion are tested for flammability. Class B burning brand tests were conducted with the following results: module glass shattered and hydrocarbon encapsulants ignited. Penetration of back surface material was the prime cause of failure. Materials with greater flame and heat resistance are under consideration to increase back surface integrity up to Class A burning brand standard. The most promising is stainless steel foil.

  10. Ultralight photovoltaic modules for unmanned aerial vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Nowlan, M.J.; Maglitta, J.C.; Darkazalli, G.; Lamp, T.

    1997-12-31

    New lightweight photovoltaic modules are being developed for powering high altitude unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). Modified low-cost terrestrial solar cell and module technologies are being applied to minimize vehicle cost. New processes were developed for assembling thin solar cells, encapsulant films, and cover films. An innovative by-pass diode mounting approach that uses a solar cell as a heat spreader was devised and tested. Materials and processes will be evaluated through accelerated environmental testing.

  11. Photovoltaic Module Qualification Plus Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Kurtz, S.; Wohlgemuth, J.; Kempe, M.; Bosco, N.; Hacke, P.; Jordan, D.; Miller, D. C.; Silverman, T. J.; Phillips, N.; Earnest, T.; Romero, R.

    2013-12-01

    This report summarizes a set of test methods that are in the midst of being incorporated into IEC 61215 for certification of a module design or other tests that go beyond certification to establish bankability.

  12. Accelerated degradation testing of a photovoltaic module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charki, Abdérafi; Laronde, Rémi; Bigaud, David

    2013-01-01

    There are a great many photovoltaic (PV) modules installed around the world. Despite this, not enough is known about the reliability of these modules. Their electrical power output decreases with time mainly as a result of the effects of corrosion, encapsulation discoloration, and solder bond failure. The failure of a PV module is defined as the point where the electrical power degradation reaches a given threshold value. Accelerated life tests (ALTs) are commonly used to assess the reliability of a PV module. However, ALTs provide limited data on the failure of a module and these tests are expensive to carry out. One possible solution is to conduct accelerated degradation tests. The Wiener process in conjunction with the accelerated failure time model makes it possible to carry out numerous simulations and thus to determine the failure time distribution based on the aforementioned threshold value. By this means, the failure time distribution and the lifetime (mean and uncertainty) can be evaluated.

  13. REGULATIONS ON PHOTOVOLTAIC MODULE DISPOSAL AND RECYCLING.

    SciTech Connect

    FTHENAKIS,V.

    2001-01-29

    Environmental regulations can have a significant impact on product use, disposal, and recycling. This report summarizes the basic aspects of current federal, state and international regulations which apply to end-of-life photovoltaic (PV) modules and PV manufacturing scrap destined for disposal or recycling. It also discusses proposed regulations for electronics that may set the ground of what is to be expected in this area in the near future. In the US, several states have started programs to support the recycling of electronic equipment, and materials destined for recycling often are excepted from solid waste regulations during the collection, transfer, storage and processing stages. California regulations are described separately because they are different from those of most other states. International agreements on the movement of waste between different countries may pose barriers to cross-border shipments. Currently waste moves freely among country members of the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), and between the US and the four countries with which the US has bilateral agreements. However, it is expected, that the US will adopt the rules of the Basel Convention (an agreement which currently applies to 128 countries but not the US) and that the Convection's waste classification system will influence the current OECD waste-handling system. Some countries adopting the Basel Convention consider end-of-life electronics to be hazardous waste, whereas the OECD countries consider them to be non-hazardous. Also, waste management regulations potentially affecting electronics in Germany and Japan are mentioned in this report.

  14. Microinverters for employment in connection with photovoltaic modules

    SciTech Connect

    Lentine, Anthony L.; Nielson, Gregory N.; Okandan, Murat; Johnson, Brian Benjamin; Krein, Philip T.

    2015-09-22

    Microinverters useable in association with photovoltaic modules are described. A three phase-microinverter receives direct current output generated by a microsystems-enabled photovoltaic cell and converts such direct current output into three-phase alternating current out. The three-phase microinverter is interleaved with other three-phase-microinverters, wherein such microinverters are integrated in a photovoltaic module with the microsystems-enabled photovoltaic cell.

  15. Photovoltaic product directory and buyers guide

    SciTech Connect

    Watts, R.L.; Smith, S.A.; Mazzucchi, R.P.

    1981-06-01

    Basic information on photovoltaic conversion technology is provided for those unfamiliar with the field. Various types of photovoltaic products and systems currently available off-the-shelf are described. These include products without batteries, battery chargers, power packages, home electric systems, and partial systems. Procedures are given for designing a photovoltaic system from scratch. A few custom photovoltaic systems are described, and a list is compiled of photovoltaic firms which can provide custom systems. Guidance is offered for deciding whether or not to use photovoltaic products. A variety of installations are described and their performance is appraised by the owners. Information is given on various financial incentives available from state and federal governments. Sources of additional information on photovoltaics are listed. A matrix is provided indicating the sources of various types of photovoltaic products. The addresses of suppliers are listed. (LEW)

  16. Photovoltaic module with removable wind deflector

    DOEpatents

    Botkin, Jonathan; Graves, Simon; Danning, Matt; Culligan, Matthew

    2013-05-28

    A photovoltaic (PV) module assembly including a PV module, a deflector, and a clip. The PV module includes a PV device and a frame. A PV laminate is assembled to the frame, and the frame includes a support arm forming a seat. The deflector defines a front face and a rear face, with the clip extending from either the trailing frame member or the rear face of the deflector. In a mounted state, the deflector is nested within the seat and is releasably mounted to the trailing frame member via the clip. In some embodiments, the support arm forms a second seat, with the PV module assembly providing a second mounted state in which the deflector is in a differing orientation/slope, nested within the second seat and releasably mounted to the trailing frame member via the clip.

  17. Photovoltaic module with removable wind deflector

    DOEpatents

    Botkin, Jonathan; Graves, Simon; Danning, Matt; Culligan, Matthew

    2012-08-07

    A photovoltaic (PV) module assembly including a PV module, a deflector, and a clip. The PV module includes a PV device and a frame. A PV laminate is assembled to the frame, and the frame includes a support arm forming a seat. The deflector defines a front face and a rear face, with the clip extending from either the trailing frame member or the rear face of the deflector. In a mounted state, the deflector is nested within the seat and is releasably mounted to the trailing frame member via the clip. In some embodiments, the support arm forms a second seat, with the PV module assembly providing a second mounted state in which the deflector is in a differing orientation/slope, nested within the second seat and releasably mounted to the trailing frame member via the clip.

  18. Chemical bonding technology for terrestrial photovoltaic modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coulter, D. R.; Cuddihy, E. F.; Plueddeman, E. P.

    1983-01-01

    Encapsulated photovoltaic modules must hold together for 20 years, reliably resisting delamination and separation of any of the component materials. Delamination of encapsulation materials from each other, or from solar cells and interconnects, can create voids for accumulation of water, promoting corrosive failure. Delamination of silicone elastomers from unprimed surfaces was a common occurrence with early modules, but the incidences of silicone delamination with later modules decreased when adhesion promoters recommended by silicone manufacturers were used. An investigation of silicone delamination from unprimed surfaces successfully identified the mechanism, which was related to atmospheric oxygen and moisture. This early finding indicated that reliance on physical bonding of encapsulation interfaces for long life in an outdoor environment would be risky. For long outdoor life, the material components of a module must therefore be held together by weather-stable adhesion promoters that desirably form strong, interfacial chemical bonds.

  19. Photovoltaic module with removable wind deflector

    DOEpatents

    Botkin, Jonathan; Graves, Simon; Danning, Matt; Culligan, Matthew

    2014-02-18

    A photovoltaic (PV) module assembly including a PV module, a deflector, and a clip. The PV module includes a PV device and a frame. A PV laminate is assembled to the frame, and the frame includes a support arm forming a seat. The deflector defines a front face and a rear face, with the clip extending from either the trailing frame member or the rear face of the deflector. In a mounted state, the deflector is nested within the seat and is releasably mounted to the trailing frame member via the clip. In some embodiments, the support arm forms a second seat, with the PV module assembly providing a second mounted state in which the deflector is in a differing orientation/slope, nested within the second seat and releasably mounted to the trailing frame member via the clip.

  20. Endurance Tests Of Amorphous-Silicon Photovoltaic Modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, Ronald G., Jr.; Sugimura, Russell S.

    1989-01-01

    Failure mechanisms in high-power service studied. Report discusses factors affecting endurance of amorphous-silicon solar cells. Based on field tests and accelerated aging of photovoltaic modules. Concludes that aggressive research needed if amorphous-silicon modules to attain 10-year life - value U.S. Department of Energy established as goal for photovoltaic modules in commercial energy-generating plants.

  1. Understanding and managing health and environmental risks of CIS, CGS, and CdTe photovoltaic module production and use: A workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Moskowitz, P.D.; Zweibel, K.; DePhillips, M.P.

    1994-04-28

    Environmental, health and safety (EH&S) risks presented by CIS, CGS and CdTe photovoltaic module production, use and decommissioning have been reviewed and discussed by several authors. Several EH&S concerns exit. The estimated EH&S risks are based on extrapolations of toxicity, environmental mobility, and bioavailability data for other related inorganic compounds. Sparse data, however, are available for CIS, CGS or CdTe. In response to the increased interest in these materials, Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has been engaged in a cooperative research program with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), the Fraunhofer Institute for Solid State Technology (IFT), the Institute of Ecotoxicity of the GSF Forschungszentrum fair Umwelt und Gesundheit, and the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) to develop fundamental toxicological and environmental data for these three compounds. This workshop report describes the results of these studies and describes their potential implications with respect to the EH&S risks presented by CIS, CGS, and CdTe module production, use and decommissioning.

  2. Microsystem enabled photovoltaic modules and systems

    DOEpatents

    Nielson, Gregory N; Sweatt, William C; Okandan, Murat

    2015-05-12

    A microsystem enabled photovoltaic (MEPV) module including: an absorber layer; a fixed optic layer coupled to the absorber layer; a translatable optic layer; a translation stage coupled between the fixed and translatable optic layers; and a motion processor electrically coupled to the translation stage to controls motion of the translatable optic layer relative to the fixed optic layer. The absorber layer includes an array of photovoltaic (PV) elements. The fixed optic layer includes an array of quasi-collimating (QC) micro-optical elements designed and arranged to couple incident radiation from an intermediate image formed by the translatable optic layer into one of the PV elements such that it is quasi-collimated. The translatable optic layer includes an array of focusing micro-optical elements corresponding to the QC micro-optical element array. Each focusing micro-optical element is designed to produce a quasi-telecentric intermediate image from substantially collimated radiation incident within a predetermined field of view.

  3. Development of a commercial photovoltaic concentrator module

    SciTech Connect

    Saifee, S.T.; Hutchison, G.

    1992-09-01

    The ojective of this work was to develop the design and prototype of a commercial high-concentration photovoltaic (PV) module. The design is for a 282-sun point-focus concentrating module. Most of the components, subassemblies, and design features incorporate simplifications and ease of manufacturing. The Solar Kinetics, Inc. (SKI) module is designed to incorporate high-efficiency, single-crystal silicon PV cells. The housing is made with aluminum laminated for voltage stand-off and simultaneously providing high thermal conductivity. The Fresnel lens injection molded by American Optical (AO) as singles. The cell assembly consists of a copper heat spreader, a photovoltaic cell soldered, a top and bottom contact, and a reflective secondary optical element (SOE). The cell assemblies passed all of the initial electrical characterization and high-potential tests. Under environmental cycling, the only bond that failed was the PV cell-to-heat spreader interface. The other components (top contact, bottom contact, SOE) passed all the environmental cycling tests. The cell assemblies were designed to be mounted onto the receiver section with a thermally conductive RTV. This geometry was subjected to environmental testing. There was no delamination of this bond nor was there electrical breakdown when the assemblies were subjected to the hi-pot test. A mock module was fabricated for environmental evaluation. This module was subjected to the humidity/freeze cycling to assess the performance of the lens mounting design. This module was also subjected to the rain test after the humidity/freeze cycling and checked for water leaks. The lens showed small displacement from its original position after the environmental cycling. One tablespoon of water did collect inside the module.

  4. Reliability Issues for Photovoltaic Modules (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Kurtz, S.

    2009-10-01

    Si modules good in field; new designs need reliability testing. CdTe & CIGS modules sensitive to moisture; carefully seal. CPV in product development stage; benefits from expertise in other industries.

  5. Space photovoltaic modules based on reflective optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andreev, V. M.; Larionov, V. R.; Rumyantsev, V. D.; Shvarts, M. Z.

    1995-01-01

    The conceptual design and experimental results for two types of space application concentrator photovoltaic modules, employing reflective optical elements, are presented. The first type is based on the use of compound parabolic concentrators, the second type is based on the use of line-focus parabolic troughs. Lightweight concentrators are formed with nickel foil coated silver with a diamond-like carbon layer protection. Secondary optical elements, including lenses and cones, are introduced for a better matching of concentrators and solar cells. Both types of modules are characterized by concentration ratios in the range 20x to 30x, depending on the chosen range of misorientation angles. The estimated specific parameters of these modules operating with single junction AlGaAs/GaAs solar cells are 240 W/sq m and 3 kg/sq m.

  6. Module process optimization and device efficiency improvement for stable, low-cost, large-area, cadmium telluride-based photovoltaic module production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albright, S. P.; Johnson, S. X.

    1994-06-01

    This report describes work performed under a three-phase subcontract. The objectives of the program include (1) achievement of active-area efficiencies of greater than 14% on small cells; (2) achievement of aperture-area efficiencies of greater than 13% on 0.09-sq m (1 sq ft) modules; (3) achievement of aperture-area efficiencies of greater than 12.5% on 0.37-sq m (4 sq ft) modules; and achievement of greater than 20-year module life (based on life testing extrapolations) with no greater than 10% efficiency degradation. The results obtained and described herein include the following: (1) efficiencies of 12.7% were achieved on small-area devices; (2) 0.09-sq m(1 sq ft) modules achieved greater than 8% aperture-area efficiency, but work for further efficiency improvement was redirected toward the 0.37-sq m(4 sq ft) modules; (3) 0.37-sq m (4 sq ft) modules achieved 26.5-W output, which calculates to 8.0% aperture-area efficiency; (4) consistent prototype production was focused on and substantially achieved within Phase 2; (5) life testing at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory showed no inherent stability problems with the CdTe technology, and the accuracy of module measurement was satisfactorily resolved; and (6) a 'cradle-to-cradle' recycling program was begun based upon the philosophy that the establishment of such mechanisms will be required to ensure maximum recapture and recycling of all manufacturing waste materials and/or modules returned from the field.

  7. Cell shunt resistance and photovoltaic module performance

    SciTech Connect

    McMahon, T.J.; Basso, T.S.; Rummel, S.R.

    1996-05-01

    Shunt resistance of cells in photovoltaic modules can affect module power output and could indicate flawed manufacturing processes and reliability problems. The authors describe a two-terminal diagnostic method to directly measure the shunt resistance of individual cells in a series-connected module non-intrusively, without deencapsulation. Peak power efficiency vs. light intensity was measured on a 12-cell, series-connected, single crystalline module having relatively high cell shunt resistances. The module was remeasured with 0.5-, 1-, and 2-ohm resistors attached across each cell to simulate shunt resistances of several emerging technologies. Peak power efficiencies decreased dramatically at lower light levels. Using the PSpice circuit simulator, the authors verified that cell shunt and series resistances can indeed be responsible for the observed peak power efficiency vs. intensity behavior. The authors discuss the effect of basic cell diode parameters, i.e., shunt resistance, series resistance, and recombination losses, on PV module performance as a function of light intensity.

  8. Photovoltaic-module encapsulation design and materials selection: Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Cuddihy, E.; Carroll, W.; Coulbert, C.; Gupta, A.; Liang, R.

    1982-06-01

    Encapsulation-material system requirements, material-selection criteria, and the status and properties of encapsulation materials and processes available to the module manufacturer are presented in detail. Technical and economic goals established for photovoltaic modules and encapsulation systems and their status are described for material suppliers to assist them in assessing the suitability of materials in their product lines and the potential of new-material products. A comprehensive discussion of available encapsulation technology and data is presented to facilitate design and material selection for silicon flat-plate photovoltaic modules, using the best materials available and processes optimized for specific power applications and geographic sites. A basis is provided for specifying the operational and environmental loads that encapsulation material systems must resist. Potential deployment sites for which cost effectiveness may be achieved at a module price much greater than $0.70/W/sub p/, are also considered; data on higher-cost encapsulant materials and processes that may be in use and other material candidates that may be justified for special application are discussed. Described are encapsulation-system functional requirements and candidate design concepts and materials that have been identified and analyzed as having the best potential to meet the cost and performance goals for the Flat-Plate Solar Array Project. The available data on encapsulant material properties, fabrication processing, and module life and durability characteristics are presented.

  9. Status of photovoltaic concentrator modules and systems

    SciTech Connect

    Maish, A.B.

    1994-04-01

    Several leading line- and point-focus photovoltaic concentrator system development programs are reviewed, including those by ENTECH, SEA Corporation, AMONIX, and Alpha Solarco. Concentrating collectors and trackers are gaining maturity and reaching product status as designs are made more manufacturable and reliable. Utilities are starting to take notice of this emerging technology, and several privately-funded utility installations are underway. Several advantages are offered by concentrators, including low system and capital cost and rapid production ramp-up. These are discussed along with issues generally raised concerning concentrator technology.

  10. Research Opportunities in Reliability of Photovoltaic Modules (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Hacke, P.

    2010-05-01

    The motivation for an increased scope and a more proactive effort in reliability research of photovoltaic modules and systems includes reducing the levelized cost of energy and gaining better confidence in the energy and financial payback for photovoltaic systems. This increased reliability and confidence will lead to greater penetration of photovoltaics in the energy portfolio and greater employment in photovoltaics and related industries. Present research needs include the fundamental degradation mechanisms of polymers, connectors and other module components, mapping of failure mechanisms observed in the field to those in accelerated lifetime tests, determining the acceleration factors, and improving standards for modules such that tests can appropriately be assigned to evaluate their long term durability. Specific mechanisms discussed are corrosion in module components, metastability in thin-film active layers, delamination and loss of elastic properties in module polymeric materials, and inverter failure. Presently, there is hiring of reliability scientists and engineers at many levels of the value chain for photovoltaics.

  11. Safety-related requirements for photovoltaic modules and arrays. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Levins, A.

    1984-03-01

    Underwriters Laboratories has conducted a study to identify and develop safety requirements for photovoltaic module and panel designs and configurations for residential, intermediate, and large scale applications. Concepts for safety systems, where each system is a collection of subsystems which together address the total anticipated hazard situation, are described. Descriptions of hardware, and system usefulness and viability are included. This discussion of safety systems recognizes that there is little history on which to base the expected safety related performance of a photovoltaic system. A comparison of these systems, as against the provisions of the 1984 National Electrical Code covering photovoltaic systems is made. A discussion of the UL investigation of the photovoltaic module evaluated to the provisions of the Proposed UL Standard for Flat-Plate Photovoltaic Modules and Panels is included. Grounding systems, their basis and nature, and the advantages and disadvantages of each are described. The meaning of frame grounding, circuit grounding, and the type of circuit ground are covered. The development of the Standard for Flat-Plate Photovoltaic Modules and Panels has continued, and with both industry comment and a product submittal and listing, the Standard has been refined to a viable document allowing an objective safety review of photovoltaic modules and panels. How this document, and other UL documents would cover investigations of certain other photovoltaic system components is described.

  12. Method of manufacturing a large-area segmented photovoltaic module

    DOEpatents

    Lenox, Carl

    2013-11-05

    One embodiment of the invention relates to a segmented photovoltaic (PV) module which is manufactured from laminate segments. The segmented PV module includes rectangular-shaped laminate segments formed from rectangular-shaped PV laminates and further includes non-rectangular-shaped laminate segments formed from rectangular-shaped and approximately-triangular-shaped PV laminates. The laminate segments are mechanically joined and electrically interconnected to form the segmented module. Another embodiment relates to a method of manufacturing a large-area segmented photovoltaic module from laminate segments of various shapes. Other embodiments relate to processes for providing a photovoltaic array for installation at a site. Other embodiments and features are also disclosed.

  13. Thin photovoltaic modules at ultra high concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Higueras, Pedro; Ferrer-Rodríguez, Juan Pablo; Shanks, Katie; Almonacid, Florencia; Férnández, Eduardo F.

    2015-09-01

    A new design concept of high concentration photovoltaic (HCPV) module is studied both by ray-tracing simulation and by building a prototype. This set-up is based on the idea of concentrating sunlight from different optical units to a single commercial multi-junction solar cell, which is located in a different plane than that of the primary optics (e.g. Fresnel lenses). A two-optical-unit set-up, as a first approach, is built and measured with the solar simulator "Helios 3198". These results are compared to the measurement results of the single-unit of one Fresnel lens and the same solar cell. The feasibility of this new design has been confirmed theoretically and practically.

  14. Photovoltaic module certification and laboratory accreditation criteria development

    SciTech Connect

    Osterwald, C.R.; Hammond, R.; Zerlaut, G.; D`Aiello, R.

    1994-12-31

    This paper presents an overview of a model product certification and test laboratory accreditation program for photovoltaic (PV) modules that was recently developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and Arizona State University. The specific objectives of this project was to produce a document that details the equipment, facilities, quality assurance procedures, and technical expertise an accredited laboratory needs for performance and qualification testing of PV modules, along with the specific tests needed for a module design to be certified. Development of the document was done in conjunction with a criteria development committee consisting of representatives from 30 US PV manufacturers, end users, standards and codes organizations, and testing laboratories. The intent is to lay the groundwork for a future US PV certification and accreditation program that will be beneficial to the PV industry as a whole.

  15. Photothermal characterization of encapsulant materials for photovoltaic modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liang, R. H.; Gupta, A.; Distefano, S.

    1982-01-01

    A photothermal test matrix and a low cost testing apparatus for encapsulant materials of photovoltaic modules were defined. Photothermal studies were conducted to screen and rank existing as well as future encapsulant candidate materials and/or material formulations in terms of their long term physiochemical stability under accelerated photothermal aging conditions. Photothermal characterization of six candidate pottant materials and six candidate outer cover materials were carried out. Principal products of photothermal degradation are identified. Certain critical properties are also monitored as a function of photothermal aging.

  16. Photovoltaic module certification/laboratory accreditation criteria development

    SciTech Connect

    Osterwald, C.R.; Hammond, R.L.; Wood, B.D.; Backus, C.E.; Sears, R.L.; Zerlaut, G.A.; D`Aiello, R.V.

    1995-04-01

    This document provides an overview of the structure and function of typical product certification/laboratory accreditation programs. The overview is followed by a model program which could serve as the basis for a photovoltaic (PV) module certification/laboratory accreditation program. The model covers quality assurance procedures for the testing laboratory and manufacturer, third-party certification and labeling, and testing requirements (performance and reliability). A 30-member Criteria Development Committee was established to guide, review, and reach a majority consensus regarding criteria for a PV certification/laboratory accreditation program. Committee members represented PV manufacturers, end users, standards and codes organizations, and testing laboratories.

  17. Photovoltaic Array Space Power flight experiment plus diagnostics (PASP+) modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooley, William T.; Adams, Steven F.; Reinhardt, Kitt C.; Piszczor, Michael F.

    1992-01-01

    The Photovoltaic Array Space Power Plus Diagnostics flight experiment (PASP+) subsumes twelve solar array modules which represent the state of the art in the space photovoltaic array industry. Each of the twelve modules individually feature specific photovoltaic technologies such as advanced semiconductor materials, multi-bandgap structures, lightweight array designs, advanced interconnect technologies, or concentrator array designs. This paper will describe each module in detail including the configuration, components, materials, anticipated on orbit performance, and some of the aspects of each array technology. The layout of each module and the photovoltaic cells or array cross section will be presented graphically. A discussion on the environmental constraints and materials selection will be included as well as a delineation of the differences between the modules and the baseline array configuration in its intended application.

  18. Economic Feasibility of Recycling Photovoltaic Modules

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, J.K.; Fthenakis, V.

    2010-12-01

    The market for photovoltaic (PV) electricity generation has boomed over the last decade, and its expansion is expected to continue with the development of new technologies. Taking into consideration the usage of valuable resources and the generation of emissions in the life cycle of photovoltaic technologies dictates proactive planning for a sound PV recycling infrastructure to ensure its sustainability. PV is expected to be a 'green' technology, and properly planning for recycling will offer the opportunity to make it a 'double-green' technology - that is, enhancing life cycle environmental quality. In addition, economic feasibility and a sufficient level of value-added opportunity must be ensured, to stimulate a recycling industry. In this article, we survey mathematical models of the infrastructure of recycling processes of other products and identify the challenges for setting up an efficient one for PV. Then we present an operational model for an actual recycling process of a thin-film PV technology. We found that for the case examined with our model, some of the scenarios indicate profitable recycling, whereas in other scenarios it is unprofitable. Scenario SC4, which represents the most favorable scenario by considering the lower bounds of all costs and the upper bound of all revenues, produces a monthly profit of $107,000, whereas the least favorable scenario incurs a monthly loss of $151,000. Our intent is to extend the model as a foundation for developing a framework for building a generalized model for current-PV and future-PV technologies.

  19. Terrestrial Photovoltaic Module Accelerated Test-To-Failure Protocol

    SciTech Connect

    Osterwald, C. R.

    2008-03-01

    This technical report documents a test-to-failure protocol that may be used to obtain quantitative information about the reliability of photovoltaic modules using accelerated testing in environmental temperature-humidity chambers.

  20. Qualification testing of flat-plate photovoltaic modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, A. R.; Griffith, J. S.; Ross, R. G., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    The placement of photovoltaic modules in various applications, in climates and locations throughout the world, results in different degrees and combinations of environmental and electrical stress. Early detection of module reliability deficiencies via laboratory testing is necessary for achieving long, satisfactory field service. This overview paper describes qualification testing techniques being used in the US Department of Energy's flat-plate terrestrial photovoltaic development program in terms of their significance, rationale for specified levels and durations, and test results.

  1. Residential photovoltaic module and array requirements study, appendices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nearhoof, S. L.; Oster, J. R.

    1979-01-01

    Regional building code variations, federal and city codes, and the national electric code are reviewed for their possible effects on the design of photovoltaic modules. Problems that photovoltaic arrays may impose on the insurability of residences are also discussed. Mounting configurations are developed for the modules, and grounding, wiring, terminal, and voltage requirements are established. Installation and materials costs are presented along with performance criteria.

  2. Yellowing reaction in encapsulant of photovoltaic modules

    SciTech Connect

    Shigekuni, T.; Kumano, M.

    1997-12-31

    To clarify the mechanism of the yellowing reaction in encapsulant used for photovoltaic (PV) modules, a low molecular weight substance in EVA (Ethylene vinyl acetate) under accelerated weathering test (Dew cycle test, 1000 hours) with yellow change and virgin EVA were extracted with methanol. Extracts were chemically analyzed by GCIR (Gas Chromatography Infrared-Ray spectroscopic analysis), GC-AED (Gas Chromatography Atomic Emission Detector), and FDMS (Field Desorption Mass Spectroscopy). The conditions of this accelerated test were based on JIS-K9117. The analysis results showed that 2,6-di-t-butyl-4-methyl phenol of antioxidant and 2-hydroxy-4-octoxy-benzophenone of UV absorbent were consumed after the weathering test and that 3,5-di-t-butyl-4-hydroxy-benzaldehyde having yellow color was newly produced. A mechanism of the yellowing reaction in encapsulant was presented here that 2,6-di-t-N-O radical from Bis-2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-4-piperidinyl sebacate to produce 3,5 di-t-butyl-4-hydroxy benzaldehyde.

  3. Laminated photovoltaic modules using back-contact solar cells

    DOEpatents

    Gee, James M.; Garrett, Stephen E.; Morgan, William P.; Worobey, Walter

    1999-09-14

    Photovoltaic modules which comprise back-contact solar cells, such as back-contact crystalline silicon solar cells, positioned atop electrically conductive circuit elements affixed to a planar support so that a circuit capable of generating electric power is created. The modules are encapsulated using encapsulant materials such as EVA which are commonly used in photovoltaic module manufacture. The module designs allow multiple cells to be electrically connected in a single encapsulation step rather than by sequential soldering which characterizes the currently used commercial practices.

  4. Development of photovoltaic array and module safety requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Safety requirements for photovoltaic module and panel designs and configurations likely to be used in residential, intermediate, and large-scale applications were identified and developed. The National Electrical Code and Building Codes were reviewed with respect to present provisions which may be considered to affect the design of photovoltaic modules. Limited testing, primarily in the roof fire resistance field was conducted. Additional studies and further investigations led to the development of a proposed standard for safety for flat-plate photovoltaic modules and panels. Additional work covered the initial investigation of conceptual approaches and temporary deployment, for concept verification purposes, of a differential dc ground-fault detection circuit suitable as a part of a photovoltaic array safety system.

  5. Safety-related requirements for photovoltaic modules and arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levins, A.; Smoot, A.; Wagner, R.

    1984-01-01

    Safety requirements for photovoltaic module and panel designs and configurations for residential, intermediate, and large scale applications are investigated. Concepts for safety systems, where each system is a collection of subsystems which together address the total anticipated hazard situation, are described. Descriptions of hardware, and system usefulness and viability are included. A comparison of these systems, as against the provisions of the 1984 National Electrical Code covering photovoltaic systems is made. A discussion of the Underwriters Laboratory UL investigation of the photovoltaic module evaluated to the provisions of the proposed UL standard for plat plate photovoltaic modules and panels is included. Grounding systems, their basis and nature, and the advantages and disadvantages of each are described. The meaning of frame grounding, circuit groundings, and the type of circuit ground are covered.

  6. Module process optimization and device efficiency improvement for stable, low-cost, large-area, cadmium telluride-based photovoltaic module production

    SciTech Connect

    Albright, S.P.; Ackerman, B.; Chamberlin, R.R.; Jordan, J.F. )

    1992-04-01

    This report describes work under a three-year phased subcontract to develop CdS/CdTe devices and modules and to further improve the technology base at Photon Energy, Inc. (PEI) to better address the commercialization issues and objectives of the PEI and the US Department of Energy. During this reporting period we (1) achieved efficiencies of 12.7% on small area devices, (2) achieved 1-ft{sup 2} modules with over 8% aperture-area efficiency (and active area efficiencies up to {approximately}10%), (3) tested 4-ft{sup 2} modules at NREL at 23.1 (21.3) watts, normalized (6.3% efficiency), and (4) found no inherent stability problems with CdTe technology during life testing, at both NREL and PEI. 7 refs.

  7. Forecasting photovoltaic array power production subject to mismatch losses

    SciTech Connect

    Picault, D.; Raison, B.; Bacha, S.; de la Casa, J.; Aguilera, J.

    2010-07-15

    The development of photovoltaic (PV) energy throughout the world this last decade has brought to light the presence of module mismatch losses in most PV applications. Such power losses, mainly occasioned by partial shading of arrays and differences in PV modules, can be reduced by changing module interconnections of a solar array. This paper presents a novel method to forecast existing PV array production in diverse environmental conditions. In this approach, field measurement data is used to identify module parameters once and for all. The proposed method simulates PV arrays with adaptable module interconnection schemes in order to reduce mismatch losses. The model has been validated by experimental results taken on a 2.2 kW{sub p} plant, with three different interconnection schemes, which show reliable power production forecast precision in both partially shaded and normal operating conditions. Field measurements show interest in using alternative plant configurations in PV systems for decreasing module mismatch losses. (author)

  8. Photovoltaic cell and production thereof

    DOEpatents

    Narayanan, Srinivasamohan; Kumar, Bikash

    2008-07-22

    An efficient photovoltaic cell, and its process of manufacture, is disclosed wherein the back surface p-n junction is removed from a doped substrate having an oppositely doped emitter layer. A front surface and edges and optionally the back surface periphery are masked and a back surface etch is performed. The mask is not removed and acts as an anti-reflective coating, a passivating agent, or both. The photovoltaic cell retains an untextured back surface whether or not the front is textured and the dopant layer on the back surface is removed to enhance the cell efficiency. Optionally, a back surface field is formed.

  9. Photovoltaic module electrical termination design requirement study. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Mosna, F.J. Jr.; Donlinger, J.

    1980-07-01

    Motorola Inc., in conjunction with ITT Cannon, has conducted a study to develop information to facilitate the selection of existing, commercial, electrical termination hardware for photovoltaic modules and arrays. Details of the study are presented in this volume. Module and array design parameters were investigated and recommendations were developed for use in surveying, evaluating, and comparing electrical termination hardware. Electrical termination selection criteria factors were developed and applied to nine generic termination types in each of the four application sectors. Remote, residential, intermediate and industrial. Existing terminations best suited for photovoltaic modules and arrays were identified. Cost information was developed to identify cost drivers and/or requirements which might lead to cost reductions. The general conclusion is that there is no single generic termination that is best suited for photovoltaic application, but that the appropriate termination is strongly dependent upon the module construction and its support structure as well as the specific application sector.

  10. Photovoltaic Module Reliability Workshop 2013: February 26-27, 2013

    SciTech Connect

    Kurtz, S.

    2013-10-01

    NREL's Photovoltaic (PV) Module Reliability Workshop (PVMRW) brings together PV reliability experts to share information, leading to the improvement of PV module reliability. Such improvement reduces the cost of solar electricity and promotes investor confidence in the technology--both critical goals for moving PV technologies deeper into the electricity marketplace.

  11. Photovoltaic Module Reliability Workshop 2011: February 16-17, 2011

    SciTech Connect

    Kurtz, S.

    2013-11-01

    NREL's Photovoltaic (PV) Module Reliability Workshop (PVMRW) brings together PV reliability experts to share information, leading to the improvement of PV module reliability. Such improvement reduces the cost of solar electricity and promotes investor confidence in the technology--both critical goals for moving PV technologies deeper into the electricity marketplace.

  12. Integral bypass diodes in an amorphous silicon alloy photovoltaic module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanak, J. J.; Flaisher, H.

    1991-01-01

    Thin-film, tandem-junction, amorphous silicon (a-Si) photovoltaic modules were constructed in which a part of the a-Si alloy cell material is used to form bypass protection diodes. This integral design circumvents the need for incorporating external, conventional diodes, thus simplifying the manufacturing process and reducing module weight.

  13. Photovoltaic Module Reliability Workshop 2014: February 25-26, 2014

    SciTech Connect

    Kurtz, S.

    2014-02-01

    NREL's Photovoltaic (PV) Module Reliability Workshop (PVMRW) brings together PV reliability experts to share information, leading to the improvement of PV module reliability. Such improvement reduces the cost of solar electricity and promotes investor confidence in the technology--both critical goals for moving PV technologies deeper into the electricity marketplace.

  14. Photovoltaic Module Reliability Workshop 2012: February 28 - March 1, 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Kurtz, S.

    2013-11-01

    NREL's Photovoltaic (PV) Module Reliability Workshop (PVMRW) brings together PV reliability experts to share information, leading to the improvement of PV module reliability. Such improvement reduces the cost of solar electricity and promotes investor confidence in the technology--both critical goals for moving PV technologies deeper into the electricity marketplace.

  15. Photovoltaic Module Reliability Workshop 2010: February 18-19, 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Kurtz, J.

    2013-11-01

    NREL's Photovoltaic (PV) Module Reliability Workshop (PVMRW) brings together PV reliability experts to share information, leading to the improvement of PV module reliability. Such improvement reduces the cost of solar electricity and promotes investor confidence in the technology--both critical goals for moving PV technologies deeper into the electricity marketplace.

  16. Methodology for a reliability study on photovoltaic modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desombre, A.

    It is found that an assessment of the reliability of photovoltaic solar modules involves an analysis of the stresses encountered in use and of the failure mechanisms that depend on the design and manufacture of the module. It is stressed that research must be carried out on acceleration tests and on calculating acceleration factors for each method of manufacture and each environmental parameter.

  17. Photovoltaic module performance and durability following long-term field exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Ellibee, D.E.; Hansen, B.R.; King, D.L.; Kratochvil, J.A.; Quintana, M.A.

    1998-09-08

    Our investigations of both new and field-aged photovoltaic modules have indicated that, in general, today's commercially available modules area highly reliable product. However, by using new test procedures, subtle failure mechanisms have also been identified that must be addressed in order to achieve 30-year module lifetimes. This paper summarizes diagnostic test procedures, results, and implications of in-depth investigations of the performance and durability characteristics of commercial modules after long-term field exposure. A collaborative effort with U.S. module manufacturers aimed at achieving 30-year module lifetimes is also described.

  18. History of Accelerated and Qualification Testing of Terrestrial Photovoltaic Modules: A Literature Review

    SciTech Connect

    Osterwald, C. R.; McMahon, T. J.

    2009-01-01

    We review published literature from 1975 to the present for accelerated stress testing of flat-plate terrestrial photovoltaic (PV) modules. An important facet of this subject is the standard module test sequences that have been adopted by national and international standards organizations, especially those of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC). The intent and history of these qualification tests, provided in this review, shows that standard module qualification test results cannot be used to obtain or infer a product lifetime. Closely related subjects also discussed include: other limitations of qualification testing, definitions of module lifetime, module product certification, and accelerated life testing.

  19. Recycling of cadmium and selenium from photovoltaic modules and manufacturing wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Moskowitz, P.D.; Zweibel, K.

    1992-01-01

    Since the development of the first silicon based photovoltaic cell in the 1950's, large advances have been made in photovoltaic material and processing options. At present there is growing interest in the commercial potential of cadmium telluride (CdTe) and copper indium diselenide (CIS) photovoltaic modules. As the commercial potential of these technologies becomes more apparent, interest in the environmental, health and safety issues associated with their production, use and disposal has also increased because of the continuing regulatory focus on cadmium and selenium. In future, recycling of spent or broken CdTe and CIS modules and manufacturing wastes may be needed for environmental, economic or political reasons. To assist industry to identify recycling options early in the commercialization process, a Workshop was convened. At this Workshop, representatives from the photovoltaic, electric utility, and nonferrous metals industries met to explore technical and institutional options for the recycling of spent CdTe and CIS modules and manufacturing wastes. This report summarizes the results of the Workshop. This report includes: (1) A discussion of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act regulations and their potential implications to the photovoltaic industry; (2) an assessment of the needs of the photovoltaic industry from the perspective of module manufacturers and consumers; (3) an overview of recycling technologies now employed by other industries for similar types of materials; and, (4) a list of recommendation.

  20. Recycling of cadmium and selenium from photovoltaic modules and manufacturing wastes. A workshop report

    SciTech Connect

    Moskowitz, P.D.; Zweibel, K.

    1992-10-01

    Since the development of the first silicon based photovoltaic cell in the 1950`s, large advances have been made in photovoltaic material and processing options. At present there is growing interest in the commercial potential of cadmium telluride (CdTe) and copper indium diselenide (CIS) photovoltaic modules. As the commercial potential of these technologies becomes more apparent, interest in the environmental, health and safety issues associated with their production, use and disposal has also increased because of the continuing regulatory focus on cadmium and selenium. In future, recycling of spent or broken CdTe and CIS modules and manufacturing wastes may be needed for environmental, economic or political reasons. To assist industry to identify recycling options early in the commercialization process, a Workshop was convened. At this Workshop, representatives from the photovoltaic, electric utility, and nonferrous metals industries met to explore technical and institutional options for the recycling of spent CdTe and CIS modules and manufacturing wastes. This report summarizes the results of the Workshop. This report includes: (1) A discussion of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act regulations and their potential implications to the photovoltaic industry; (2) an assessment of the needs of the photovoltaic industry from the perspective of module manufacturers and consumers; (3) an overview of recycling technologies now employed by other industries for similar types of materials; and, (4) a list of recommendation.

  1. Cost effective flat plate photovoltaic modules using light trapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bain, C. N.; Gordon, B. A.; Knasel, T. M.; Malinowski, R. L.

    1981-01-01

    Work in optical trapping in 'thick films' is described to form a design guide for photovoltaic engineers. A thick optical film can trap light by diffusive reflection and total internal reflection. Light can be propagated reasonably long distances compared with layer thicknesses by this technique. This makes it possible to conduct light from inter-cell and intra-cell areas now not used in photovoltaic modules onto active cell areas.

  2. 22. 7% efficient silicon photovoltaic modules with textured front surface

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, J.; Wang, A.; Campbell, P.; Green, M.A. . Photovoltaics Special Research Centre)

    1999-07-01

    This paper reports the highest ever independently confirmed efficiency for a photovoltaic module as demonstrated by two 778-cm[sup 2] silicon solar cell modules of 22.7% efficiency. A key feature of these modules was the use of a pyramidally textured top module surface to reduce reflection from this surface as well as from the underlying cell surface, by trapping light within the top cover sheet. Higher current density and higher energy conversion efficiency for such a textured module are theoretically predicted and experimentally measured compared to a standard module with a planar front surface. This advantage becomes more significant for obliquely incident light.

  3. Quantifying Solar Cell Cracks in Photovoltaic Modules by Electroluminescence Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Spataru, Sergiu; Hacke, Peter; Sera, Dezso; Glick, Stephen; Kerekes, Tamas; Teodorescu, Remus

    2015-06-14

    This article proposes a method for quantifying the percentage of partially and totally disconnected solar cell cracks by analyzing electroluminescence images of the photovoltaic module taken under high- and low-current forward bias. The method is based on the analysis of the module's electroluminescence intensity distribution, applied at module and cell level. These concepts are demonstrated on a crystalline silicon photovoltaic module that was subjected to several rounds of mechanical loading and humidity-freeze cycling, causing increasing levels of solar cell cracks. The proposed method can be used as a diagnostic tool to rate cell damage or quality of modules after transportation. Moreover, the method can be automated and used in quality control for module manufacturers, installers, or as a diagnostic tool by plant operators and diagnostic service providers.

  4. Photovoltaic module certification/laboratory accreditation criteria development: Implementation handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Osterwald, C.R.; Hammond, R.L.; Wood, B.D.; Backus, C.E.; Sears, R.L.; Zerlaut, G.A.; D`Aiello, R.V.

    1996-08-01

    This document covers the second phase of a two-part program. Phase I provided an overview of the structure and function of typical product certification/laboratory accreditation programs. This report (Phase H) provides most of the draft documents that will be necessary for the implementation of a photovoltaic (PV) module certification/laboratory accreditation program. These include organizational documents such as articles of incorporation, bylaws, and rules of procedure, as well as marketing and educational program documents. In Phase I, a 30-member criteria development committee was established to guide, review and reach a majority consensus regarding criteria for a PV certification/laboratory accreditation program. Committee members represented PV manufacturers, end users, standards and codes organizations, and testing laboratories. A similar committee was established for Phase II; the criteria implementation committee consisted of 29 members. Twenty-one of the Phase I committee members also served on the Phase II committee, which helped to provide program continuity during Phase II.

  5. Real-time performance testing of photovoltaic-concentrator modules

    SciTech Connect

    Pritchard, D.A.

    1981-01-01

    A description of the resources at the Photovoltaic Advanced Systems Test Facility (PASTF) is presented. These resources include a multi-level data acquisition system for collector module performance testing, associated user-interactive software for accomplishing these tests, and extensive support hardware. A group of standard tests has been developed for module characterization. Descriptions of these tests and sample results for a variety of module designs are also presented.

  6. Analysis techniques used on field degraded photovoltaic modules

    SciTech Connect

    Hund, T.D.; King, D.L.

    1995-09-01

    Sandia National Laboratory`s PV System Components Department performs comprehensive failure analysis of photovoltaic modules after extended field exposure at various sites around the world. A full spectrum of analytical techniques are used to help identify the causes of degradation. The techniques are used to make solder fatigue life predictions for PV concentrator modules, identify cell damage or current mismatch, and measure the adhesive strength of the module encapsulant.

  7. Applications of ethylene vinyl acetate as an encapsulation material for terrestrial photovoltaic modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuddihy, E. F.; Coulbert, C. D.; Liang, R. H.; Gupta, A.; Willis, P.; Baum, B.

    1983-01-01

    Terrestrial photovoltaic modules must undergo substantial reductions in cost in order to become economically attractive as practical devices for large scale production of electricity. Part of the cost reductions must be realized by the encapsulation materials that are used to package, protect, and support the solar cells, electrical interconnects, and other ancillary components. As many of the encapsulation materials are polymeric, cost reductions necessitate the use of low cost polymers. The performance and status of ethylene vinyl acetate, a low cost polymer that is being investigated as an encapsulation material for terrestrial photovoltaic modules, are described.

  8. Testing experience of photovoltaic modules for a multimegawatt power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Iliceto, A.; Previ, A.; Fleres, S.; Scuto, M.

    1994-12-31

    The planning of the 3,3 MWp photovoltaic power station of Serre (Salerno) required that ENEL performed a complete set of tests, both on the module types proposed by five pv module manufacturers (type test), and during the test sessions at manufacturer`s site on the batches of modules to be shipped to Serre (acceptance tests), and at the assembly line at Serre on the pv panels (on field tests). Type tests on modules were performed by JRC and CONPHOEBUS, module acceptance tests were performed by CONPHOEBUS and CISE, on field tests were performed by CONPHOEBUS. A list of the tests performed, and the most frequent defects encountered during the testing sessions will be shown in this paper. It is important to note that the aim of these notes is not to give a mark to any PV supplier, but only to put in evidence the actual state of the art of photovoltaic industry.

  9. Photovoltaic module mounting clip with integral grounding

    DOEpatents

    Lenox, Carl J.

    2010-08-24

    An electrically conductive mounting/grounding clip, usable with a photovoltaic (PV) assembly of the type having an electrically conductive frame, comprises an electrically conductive body. The body has a central portion and first and second spaced-apart arms extending from the central portion. Each arm has first and second outer portions with frame surface-disrupting element at the outer portions.

  10. Report of an exploratory study: Safety and liability considerations for photovoltaic modules/panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinstein, A. S.; Meeker, D. G.

    1981-01-01

    An overview of legal issues as they apply to design, manufacture and use of photovoltaic module/array devices is provided and a methodology is suggested for use of the design stage of these products to minimize or eliminate perceived hazards. Questions are posed to stimulate consideration of this area.

  11. Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology (PVMaT) improvements for ENTECH's concentrator module

    SciTech Connect

    O'Neill, M.J.; McDanal, A.J.; Perry, J.L.; Jackson, M.C.; Walters, R.R. )

    1991-11-01

    This final technical report documents ENTECH's Phase 1 contract with Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology (PVMaT) project. Under this project we prepared a detailed description of our current manufacturing process for making our unique linear Fresnel lens photovoltaic concentrator modules. In addition, we prepared a detailed description of an improved manufacturing process, which will simultaneously increase module production rates, enhance module quality, and substantially reduce module costs. We also identified potential problems in implementing the new manufacturing process, and we proposed solutions to these anticipated problems. Before discussing the key results of our program, however, we present a brief description of our unique photovoltaic technology. The key conclusion of our PVMAT Phase 1 study is that our module technology, without further breakthroughs, can realistically meet the near-term DOE goal of 12 cents/kWh levelized electricity cost, provided that we successfully implement the new manufacturing process at a production volume of at least 10 megawatts per year. The key recommendation from our Phase 1 study is to continue our PVMaT project into Phase 2A, which is directed toward the actual manufacturing technology development required for our new module production process. 15 refs.

  12. Electrochemical aging effects in photovoltaic modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mon, G. R.

    1986-01-01

    Leakage currents were experimentally measured in PV modules undergoing natural aging outdoors, and in PV modules undergoing accelerated aging in laboratory environmental chambers. The significant contributors to module leakage current were identified with a long range goal to develop techniques to reduce or stop module leakage currents. For outdoor aging in general, module leakage current is relatively insensitive to temperature fluctuations, but is very sensitive to moisture effects such as dew, precipitation, and fluctuations in relative humidity. Comparing ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) and polyvinyl butyral (PVB), module leakage currents are much higher in PVB as compared to EVA for all environmental conditions investigated. Leakage currents proceed in series along two paths, bulk conduction followed by interfacial (surfaces) conduction.

  13. Photovoltaic module mounting clip with integral grounding

    DOEpatents

    Lenox, Carl J.

    2008-10-14

    An electrically conductive mounting/grounding clip, for use with a photovoltaic assembly of the type having an electrically conductive frame, comprises an electrically conductive body. The body has a central portion and first and second spaced-apart arms extending generally perpendicular to the central portion. Each arm has an outer portion with each outer portion having an outer end. At least one frame surface-disrupting element is at each outer end. The central portion defines a plane with the frame surface-disrupting elements pointing towards the plane. In some examples each arm extends from the central portion at an acute angle to the plane.

  14. Photovoltaic module energy rating methodology development

    SciTech Connect

    Kroposki, B.; Myers, D.; Emery, K.; Mrig, L.; Whitaker, C.; Newmiller, J.

    1996-05-01

    A consensus-based methodology to calculate the energy output of a PV module will be described in this paper. The methodology develops a simple measure of PV module performance that provides for a realistic estimate of how a module will perform in specific applications. The approach makes use of the weather data profiles that describe conditions throughout the United States and emphasizes performance differences between various module types. An industry-representative Technical Review Committee has been assembled to provide feedback and guidance on the strawman and final approach used in developing the methodology.

  15. Photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seippel, R. G.

    This book attempts to provide the reader with a cursory look at solar energy from a quarry of quartz to a sophisticated solar system. The progression of the theories of light is discussed along with the progression of photoelectricity, light rays, the optical spectrum, light reception, photodetection, aspects of photometry and radiometry, preferred terms in radiometric measurement, semiconductor physics, and light energy availability. Other subjects explored are related to manufacturing processes, photovoltaic materials, crystal growing, slicing techniques, wafer finishing, solar cell fabrication, photovoltaic cell types, concentrators, module fabrication, problems of quality assurance, photovoltaic systems, and the photovoltaics hierarchy. Attention is given to the polycrystalline cell, insulator cells, cadmium sulfide cells, amorphous silicon cells, an electrochemical cell, and the low-cost solar array project.

  16. Photovoltaic module encapsulation design and materials selection, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuddihy, E.; Carroll, W.; Coulbert, C.; Gupta, A.; Liang, R. H.

    1982-01-01

    Encapsulation material system requirements, material selection criteria, and the status and properties of encapsulation materials and processes available are presented. Technical and economic goals established for photovoltaic modules and encapsulation systems and their status are described. Available encapsulation technology and data are presented to facilitate design and material selection for silicon flat plate photovoltaic modules, using the best materials available and processes optimized for specific power applications and geographic sites. The operational and environmental loads that encapsulation system functional requirements and candidate design concepts and materials that are identified to have the best potential to meet the cost and performance goals for the flat plate solar array project are described. Available data on encapsulant material properties, fabrication processing, and module life and durability characteristics are presented.

  17. Temperature dependence of photovoltaic cells, modules, and systems

    SciTech Connect

    Emery, K.; Burdick, J.; Caiyem, Y.

    1996-05-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) cells and modules are often rated in terms of a set of standard reporting conditions defined by a temperature, spectral irradiance, and total irradiance. Because PV devices operates over a wide range of temperatures and irradiances, the temperature and irradiance related behavior must be known. This paper surveys the temperature dependence of crystalline and thin-film, state-of-the-art, research-size cells, modules, and systems measured by a variety of methods. The various error sources and measurement methods that contribute to cause differences in the temperature coefficient for a given cell or module measured with various methods are discussed.

  18. Model institutional infrastructures for recycling of photovoltaic modules

    SciTech Connect

    Moscowitz, P.D.; Reaven, J.; Fthenakis, V.M.

    1996-07-01

    This paper describes model approaches to designing an institutional infrastructure for the recycling of decommissioned photovoltaic modules; more detailed discussion of the information presented in this paper is contained in Reaven et al., (1996)[1]. The alternative approaches are based on experiences in other industries, with other products and materials. In the aluminum, scrap iron, and container glass industries, where recycling is a long-standing, even venerable practice, predominantly private, fully articulated institutional infrastructures exist. Nevertheless, even in these industries, arrangements are constantly evolving in response to regulatory changes, competition, and new technological developments. Institutional infrastructures are less settled for younger large- scale recycling industries that target components of the municipal solid waste (MSW) stream, such as cardboard and newspaper, polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and high-density polyethylene (HDPE) plastics, and textiles. In these industries the economics, markets, and technologies are rapidly changing. Finally, many other industries are developing projects to ensure that their products are recycled (and recyclable) e.g., computers, non-automotive batteries, communications equipment, motor and lubrication oil and oil filters, fluorescent lighting fixtures, automotive plastics and shredder residues, and bulk industrial chemical wastes. The lack of an an adequate recycling infrastructure, attractive end-markets, and clear the economic incentives, can be formidable impediments to a self- sustaining recycling system.

  19. Hermetic edge sealing of photovoltaic modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The edge sealing technique is accomplished by a combination of a chemical bond between glass and aluminum, formed by electrostatic bonding, and a metallurgical bond between aluminum and aluminum, formed by ultrasonic welding. Such a glass to metal seal promises to provide a low cost, long lifetime, highly effective hermetic seal which can protect module components from severe environments. Development of the sealing techniques and demonstration of their effectiveness by fabricating a small number of dummy modules, up to eight inches square in size, and testing them for hermeticity using helium leak testing methods are reviewed. Non-destructive test methods are investigated.

  20. Interconnect fatigue design for terrestrial photovoltaic modules

    SciTech Connect

    Mon, G. R.; Moore, D. M.; Ross, Jr., R. G.

    1982-03-01

    Fatigue of solar cell electrical interconnects due to thermal cycling has historically been a major failure mechanism in photovoltaic arrays; the results of a comprehensive investigation of interconnect fatigue that has led to the definition of useful reliability-design and life-prediction algorithms are presented. Experimental data gathered in this study indicate that the classical strain-cycle (fatigue) curve for the interconnect material is a good model of mean interconnect fatigue performance, but it fails to account for the broad statistical scatter, which is critical to reliability prediction. To fill this shortcoming the classical fatigue curve is combined with experimental cumulative interconnect failure rate data to yield statistical fatigue curves (having failure probability as a parameter) which enable: (1) the prediction of cumulative interconnect failures during the design life of an array field; and (2) the unambiguous - i.e., quantitative - interpretation of data from field-service qualification (accelerated thermal cycling) tests. Optimal interconnect cost-reliability design algorithms are derived based on minimizing the cost of energy over the design life of the array field. This procedure yields not only the minimum break-even cost of delivered energy, but also the required degree of interconnect redundancy and an estimate of array power degradation during the design life of the array field. The usefulness of the design algorithms is demonstrated with realistic examples of design optimization, prediction, and service qualification testing.

  1. The research on thermal adaptability reinforcement technology for photovoltaic modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Nana; Zhou, Guozhong

    2015-10-01

    Nowadays, Photovoltaic module contains more high-performance components in smaller space. It is also demanded to work in severe temperature condition for special use, such as aerospace. As temperature rises, the failure rate will increase exponentially which makes reliability significantly reduce. In order to improve thermal adaptability of photovoltaic module, this paper makes a research on reinforcement technologies. Thermoelectric cooler is widely used in aerospace which has harsh working environment. So, theoretical formulas for computing refrigerating efficiency, refrigerating capacity and temperature difference are described in detail. The optimum operating current of three classical working condition is obtained which can be used to guide the design of driven circuit. Taken some equipment enclosure for example, we use thermoelectric cooler to reinforce its thermal adaptability. By building physical model and thermal model with the aid of physical dimension and constraint condition, the model is simulated by Flotherm. The temperature field cloud is shown to verify the effectiveness of reinforcement.

  2. Lightweight photovoltaic module development for unmanned aerial vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Nowlan, M.J.; Maglitta, J.C.; Lamp, T.R.

    1998-07-01

    Lightweight photovoltaic modules are being developed for powering high altitude unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). Terrestrial crystalline silicon solar cell and module technologies are being applied to minimize module cost, with modifications to improve module specific power (W/kg) and power density (W/m{sup 2}). New module processes are being developed for assembling standard thickness (320 mm) and thin (125 mm) solar cells, thin (50 to 100 mm) encapsulant films, and thin (25 mm) cover films. In comparison, typical terrestrial modules use 300 to 400 mm thick solar cells, 460 mm thick encapsulants, and 3.2 mm thick glass covers. The use of thin, lightweight materials allows the fabrication of modules with specific powers ranging from 120 to 200 W/kg, depending on cell thickness and efficiency, compared to 15 W/kg or less for conventional terrestrial modules. High efficiency designs based on ultra-thin (5 mm) GaAs cells have also been developed, with the potential for achieving substantially higher specific powers. Initial design, development, and module assembly work is completed. Prototype modules were fabricated in sizes up to 45 cm x 99 cm. Module materials and processes are being evaluated through accelerated environmental testing, including thermal cycling, humidity-freeze cycling, mechanical cycling, and exposure to UV and visible light.

  3. Overview of photovoltaic module reliability testing at NREL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burdick, Joseph; Pruett, Jim

    1994-06-01

    The goals of the photovoltaic module reliability testing program at NREL include working with PV manufacturers to improve the long-term reliability of their modules, as well as obtaining an understanding of the correlation between indoor (accelerated) testing and outdoor (natural) exposure in order to reasonably predict PV module service lifetime. In addition, when problems occur, it is important to perform accurate failure analysis techniques to determine failure mechanisms, and, hopefully, obtain realistic solutions. At NREL, we have developed both indoor and outdoor module reliability testing programs to investigate these various, complex issues. These programs involve module qualification testing, photostability studies, accelerated weathering, and outdoor, real-time exposure testing. An overview of these various ongoing programs, their goals, approaches, and methods, will be presented here.

  4. 77 FR 4764 - Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaic Cells, Whether or Not Assembled Into Modules, From the People's...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-31

    ... Preliminary Determination in the Countervailing Duty Investigation, 76 FR 81914 (December 29, 2011... International Trade Administration Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaic Cells, Whether or Not Assembled Into Modules... duty investigation of crystalline silicon photovoltaic cells, whether or not assembled into...

  5. 77 FR 73017 - Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaic Cells, Whether or Not Assembled Into Modules, From the People's...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-07

    ... Determination and Final Affirmative Critical Circumstances Determination, 77 FR 63788 (October 17, 2012). Scope... International Trade Administration Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaic Cells, Whether or Not Assembled Into Modules... issuing a countervailing duty order on crystalline silicon photovoltaic cells, whether or not...

  6. A series connection architecture for large-area organic photovoltaic modules with a 7.5% module efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Soonil; Kang, Hongkyu; Kim, Geunjin; Lee, Seongyu; Kim, Seok; Lee, Jong-Hoon; Lee, Jinho; Yi, Minjin; Kim, Junghwan; Back, Hyungcheol; Kim, Jae-Ryoung; Lee, Kwanghee

    2016-01-01

    The fabrication of organic photovoltaic modules via printing techniques has been the greatest challenge for their commercial manufacture. Current module architecture, which is based on a monolithic geometry consisting of serially interconnecting stripe-patterned subcells with finite widths, requires highly sophisticated patterning processes that significantly increase the complexity of printing production lines and cause serious reductions in module efficiency due to so-called aperture loss in series connection regions. Herein we demonstrate an innovative module structure that can simultaneously reduce both patterning processes and aperture loss. By using a charge recombination feature that occurs at contacts between electron- and hole-transport layers, we devise a series connection method that facilitates module fabrication without patterning the charge transport layers. With the successive deposition of component layers using slot-die and doctor-blade printing techniques, we achieve a high module efficiency reaching 7.5% with area of 4.15 cm2.

  7. A series connection architecture for large-area organic photovoltaic modules with a 7.5% module efficiency.

    PubMed

    Hong, Soonil; Kang, Hongkyu; Kim, Geunjin; Lee, Seongyu; Kim, Seok; Lee, Jong-Hoon; Lee, Jinho; Yi, Minjin; Kim, Junghwan; Back, Hyungcheol; Kim, Jae-Ryoung; Lee, Kwanghee

    2016-01-01

    The fabrication of organic photovoltaic modules via printing techniques has been the greatest challenge for their commercial manufacture. Current module architecture, which is based on a monolithic geometry consisting of serially interconnecting stripe-patterned subcells with finite widths, requires highly sophisticated patterning processes that significantly increase the complexity of printing production lines and cause serious reductions in module efficiency due to so-called aperture loss in series connection regions. Herein we demonstrate an innovative module structure that can simultaneously reduce both patterning processes and aperture loss. By using a charge recombination feature that occurs at contacts between electron- and hole-transport layers, we devise a series connection method that facilitates module fabrication without patterning the charge transport layers. With the successive deposition of component layers using slot-die and doctor-blade printing techniques, we achieve a high module efficiency reaching 7.5% with area of 4.15 cm(2). PMID:26728507

  8. Strategies for recycling CdTe photovoltaic modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eberspacher, Chris; Gay, Charles F.; Moskowitz, Paul D.

    1994-12-01

    Recycling end-of-life cadmium telluride (CdTe) photovoltaic (PV) modules may enhance the competitive advantage of CdTe PV in the marketplace, but the experiences of industries with comparable Environmental, Health and Safety (EH&S) challenges suggest that collection and recycling costs can impose significant economic burdens. Customer cooperation and pending changes to US Federal law may improve recycling economics.

  9. Photovoltaic module soiling studies, May 1978-October 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, A.R.; Maag, C.R.

    1980-11-01

    The retention of particulate contamination on the surface of flat-plate photovoltaic devices is adversely affecting electrical performance of outdoor-exposed modules. The results of an experimental study being performed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Low-Cost Solar Array Project to characterize and understand the effects of outdoor contaminants on sensitive optical surfaces of flat-plate photovoltaic modules and cover materials are described. Comparative electrical and optical performance data from photovoltaic modules and materials subjected to outdoor exposure at field test sites throughout the United States have been collected and examined. The results show significant time- and site-dependence. During periods when natural removal processes do not dominate, the rate of particulate contamination accumulation appears to be largely material-independent. The effectiveness of natural removal processes, especially rain, is strongly material-dependent. Glass and acrylic top-cover materials retain fewer particles than silicone rubber does. Side-by-side outdoor exposure testing for long duration is presently the most effective means of evaluating soiling differences between materials. Changes in spectral transmission as a function of time and location and limited scattering data are presented.

  10. Results of testing a development module of the second-generation E-Systems concentrating photovoltaic-thermal module

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, T D

    1982-04-01

    An actively-cooled linear Fresnel lens concentrating photovoltaic and thermal module, designed and built by E-Systems, was tested in the Photovoltaic Advanced Systems Test Facility. Physical, electrical, and thermal characteristics of the module are presented. Module performance is characterized through the use of multiple linear regression techniques.

  11. Hermetic edge sealing of photovoltaic modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nowlan, M. J.

    1983-01-01

    The feasibility of using an electrostatic bonding (ESB) and ultrasonic welding process to produce hermetic edge seals on terrestrial solar cell modules was investigated. The fabrication sequence is to attach an aluminum foil "gasket' to the perimeter of a glass sheet. A cell circuit is next encapsulated inside the gasket, and its aluminum foil back cover is seam welded ultrasonically to the gasket. An ESB process for sealing aluminum to glass was developed in an ambient air atmosphere, which eliminates the requirement for a vacuum or pressure vessel. An ultrasonic seam welding process was also developed which did not degrade the quality of the ESB seal. Good quality welds with minimal deformation were produced. The effectiveness of the above described sealing techniques was tested by constructing 400 sq cm (8 x 8 s64 sq in) sample modules, and then subjecting them to nondestructive fine and gross leak tests. The gross leak tests identified several different causes of leaks which were then eliminated by modifying the assembly process.

  12. Basic Application Technologies of Bifacial Photovoltaic Solar Modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joge, Toshio; Eguchi, Yoshio; Imazu, Yasuhiro; Araki, Ichiro; Uematsu, Tsuyoshi; Matsukuma, Kunihiro

    In order to realize a photovoltaic(PV) solar power system which is low cost and flexible on its installation, authors have studied on vertical installations of bifacial solar modules. Simulation studies and field tests were made to evaluate daily and yearly output energies when bifacial modules are vertically installed with various azimuth angles. It is clarified that the yearly generated energies by a vertically installed bifacial module is equivalent to that of a mono-facial module faced to the south with an optimum tilt, regardless the azimuth angles. According with the above results, some applications have been successfully demonstrated including a fence-integrated PV system and a pole mounted PV system.

  13. Comparative performance testing of photovoltaic modules in tropical climates of Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosyid, Oo Abdul

    2016-02-01

    Solar energy is one of the most significant types of the sustainable and renewable energy sources that have been used in Indonesia. Photovoltaic (PV) is known as the direct conversion of the sunlight to electricity energy with the used of solar cells. There are number of different types of solar PV modules, from an ever increasing range of manufacturers. Each of them claims that they are the best for one reason or another. This paper reports the study results of energy yield measurements of different PV module technologies performed at the outdoor testing facility of the Energy Technology Center (B2TE-BPPT) Kawasan Puspiptek Serpong-Indonesia from March 2014 through February 2015. The purposes of the study wereto evaluate and compare the performances of three different PV modules during a medium term outdoor exposure at the tropical climate of Indonesia. Normalized energy yields (Y), module efficiency (η), and performance ratio (PR) were calculated for each module, and the effect of module temperature and solar irradiance on these parameters was investigated. Monocrystalline PV module was better in terms of module efficiency and overall power production. Meanwhile micromorph silicon (uc-Si) showed the lowest module efficiency, but the more power production compared with polycrystalline PV module. Module efficiency and performance ratio showed a decreasing trend with increase of module temperature.

  14. Emerging photovoltaic module technologies at PVUSA: A five-year assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Townsend, T.

    1995-04-01

    The Photovoltaics for Utility Scale Applications (PVUSA) project tests two types of photovoltaic systems: new modules fielded as 20-kW Emerging Module Technology (EMT) arrays, and more mature technologies fielded as 20- to 500-kW turnkey Utility Scale (US) systems. This report summarizes experiences of the PVUSA project in operating the first six 20-kW EMT photovoltaic systems. Five systems are installed at Davis, California, and one at Kihei, Hawaii. Products selected for testing and demonstration were judged to have potential for significant technical advancement or reduction in manufacturing cost. Features leading to selection of each system and findings over the average 5 years of operation are compared in the report. Factory product qualification test experiences along with field acceptance test results are documented. Evaluation includes a broad range of performance parameters, including long-term efficiency, seasonal generation patterns, and maintenance. While some of the arrays have operated as well as any commercial system, others have fared poorly. Throughout the procurement and operation of these precommercial PV modules, PVUSA has provided feedback to vendors, critical for product improvement. The data and evaluations in this report will be of further benefit to manufacturers and provide general comparative information on a variety of technologies to researchers in utilities, government, and industry alike.

  15. NREL Determines Better Testing Methods for Photovoltaic Module Durability (Fact Sheet), NREL Highlights, Research & Development

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-11-01

    NREL discoveries will enable manufacturers to produce more robust photovoltaic modules. Over the past decade, some photovoltaic (PV) modules have experienced power losses because of the system voltage stress that modules experience in fielded arrays. This is partly because qualification tests and standards do not adequately evaluate the durability of modules that undergo the long-term effects of high voltage. Scientists at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) tried various testing methods and stress levels to demonstrate module durability to system voltage potential-induced degradation (PID) mechanisms. The results of these accelerated tests, along with outdoor testing, were used to estimate the acceleration factors needed to more accurately evaluate the durability of modules to system voltage stress. NREL was able to determine stress factors, levels, and methods for testing based on the stresses experienced by modules in the field. These results, in combination with those in the literature, suggest that constant stress with humidity and system voltage is more damaging than stress applied intermittently or with periods of recovery comprising hot and dry conditions or alternating bias in between. NREL has determined some module constructions to be extremely durable to PID. These findings will help the manufacturers of PV materials and components produce more durable products that better satisfy their customers. NREL determined that there is rapid degradation of some PV modules under system voltage stress and evaluated degradation rates in the field to develop more accurate accelerated testing methods. PV module manufacturers will be better able to choose robust materials and durable designs and guarantee sturdier, longer-lasting products. As PV modules become more durable, and thus more efficient over the long term, the risks and the cost of PV power will be reduced.

  16. A data science approach to understanding photovoltaic module degradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheeler, Nicholas R.; Gok, Abdulkerim; Peshek, Timothy J.; Bruckman, Laura S.; Goel, Nikhil; Zabiyaka, Davis; Fagerholm, Cara L.; Dang, Thomas; Alcantara, Christopher; Terry, Mason L.; French, Roger H.

    2015-09-01

    The expected lifetime performance and degradation of photovoltaic (PV) modules is a major issue facing the levelized cost of electricity of PV as a competitive energy source. Studies that quantify the rates and mechanisms of performance degradation are needed not only for bankability and adoption of these promising technologies, but also for the diagnosis and improvement of their mechanistic degradation pathways. Towards this goal, a generalizable approach to degradation science studies utilizing data science principles has been developed and applied to c-Si PV modules. By combining domain knowledge and data derived insights, mechanistic degradation pathways are indicated that link environmental stressors to the degradation of PV module performance characteristics. Targeted studies guided by these results have yielded predictive equations describing rates of degradation, and further studies are underway to achieve this for additional mechanistic pathways of interest.

  17. Space Station Freedom photovoltaic power module design status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jimenez, Amador P.; Hoberecht, Mark A.

    1989-01-01

    Electric power generation for the Space Station Freedom will be provided by four photovoltaic (PV) power modules using silicon solar cells during phase I operation. Each PV power module requires two solar arrays with 32,800 solar cells generating 18.75 kW of dc power for a total of 75 kW. A portion of this power will be stored in nickel-hydrogen batteries for use during eclipse, and the balance will be processed and converted to 20 kHz ac power for distribution to end users through the power management and distribution system. The design incorporates an optimized thermal control system, pointing and tracking provision with the application of gimbals, and the use of orbital replacement units to achieve modularization. The design status of the PV power module, as derived from major trade studies, is discussed at hardware levels ranging from component to system. Details of the design are presented where appropriate.

  18. Space Station Freedom photovoltaic power module design status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jimenez, Amador P.; Hoberecht, Mark A.

    1989-01-01

    Electric power generation for Space Station Freedom will be provided by four photovoltaic (PV) power modules using silicon solar cells during Phase 1 operation. Each PV power module requires two solar arrays with 32,800 solar cells generating 18.75 kW of dc power for a total of 75 kW. A portion of this power will be stored in nickel-hydrogen batteries for use during eclipse, and the balance will be processed and converted to 20 kHz ac power for distribution to end users through the power management and distribution system. The design incorporates an optimized thermal control system, pointing and tracking provision with the application of gimbals, and the use of orbital replacement units (ORU's) to achieve modularization. Design status of the PV power module, as derived from major trade studies, is discussed at hardware levels ranging from component to system. Details of the design are presented where appropriate.

  19. Sequential and combined acceleration tests for crystalline Si photovoltaic modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masuda, Atsushi; Yamamoto, Chizuko; Uchiyama, Naomi; Ueno, Kiyoshi; Yamazaki, Toshiharu; Mitsuhashi, Kazunari; Tsutsumida, Akihiro; Watanabe, Jyunichi; Shirataki, Jyunko; Matsuda, Keiko

    2016-04-01

    The sequential combination test for photovoltaic modules is effective for accelerating degradation to shorten the test time and for reproducing degradation phenomena observed in modules exposed outdoors for a long time. The damp-heat (DH) test, thermal-cycle (TC) test, humidity-freeze (HF) test or dynamic mechanical load (DML) test is combined for the test modules. It was confirmed that chemical corrosion degradation or physical mechanical degradation is reproduced by the combination of the above tests. Cracks on the back sheet and delamination, often observed upon outdoor exposure, were well reproduced by the combination of DH and TC tests and TC and HF tests, respectively. Sequential DH and TC tests and DML and TC tests accelerated the degradation. These sequential tests are expected to be effective in reducing the required time of indoor testing for ensuring long-term reliability.

  20. Two terminal diagnostics for cells in series connected photovoltaic modules

    SciTech Connect

    McMahon, T.J.; Basso, T.S.

    1995-11-01

    The authors have developed a method that allows us to know if a cell`s shunt resistance is affecting the output of a two-terminal, series-connected photovoltaic module, without the need of encapsulation. This two-terminal diagnostic method directly measures the shunt resistance of the individual cells within a series-connected module non-intrusively. Being a phase sensitive, lock-in technique, individual cell shunt resistance values are measured over a wide range, from a fraction of an ohm to thousands of ohms. The authors have applied this method to amorphous Si, Si and CuInSe{sub 2}-based modules, some with as few as eight cells in series, but usually with 28 to 68 cells. ``Two-terminal values`` are more accurate for cells that have lower shunt resistance, i.e., the ``problem`` cells. Cells with visual defects may be a significant problem if they provide a substantial shunt path.

  1. Launch packaging options for the photovoltaic power module cargo element

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoberecht, Mark A.; Vogt, Scott T.

    1989-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration recently embarked on the Space Station Freedom program, which will utilize the Shuttle Orbiter for transportation to orbit. This task will be accomplished with a number of flights over several years. Each flight is unique in terms of the hardware that is manifested and the method by which it is integrated to form viable cargo elements. Work Package 4 is responsible for the electric power system for Space Station Freedom, and was delegated the authority to develop a photovoltaic (PV) power module cargo element. The PV power module consists of several unique assemblies. The first of these is the combined solar array/beta gimbal assembly. The remaining assemblies form the single combined integrated equipment assembly for each PV power module. These three combined assemblies are packaged into a launch cradle to form the PV power module cargo element, which is placed in the cargo bay of the Shuttle Orbiter for transportation to orbit. Various constraints determine the packaging options for the three PV power module combined assemblies. The size and shape of the combined assemblies in relation to the Shuttle Orbiter cargo bay dimensions and other manifested hardware are ultimately a factor in determining the acceptable packaging schemes for the PV power module cargo element. Several packaging options for the PV power module cargo element are presented. These options are discussed in terms of their impact on the overall flight hardware manifest as determined by the various constraints.

  2. Solar kinetics` photovoltaic concentrator module and tracker development

    SciTech Connect

    White, D.L.; Howell, B.

    1995-11-01

    Solar Kinetics, Inc., has been developing a point-focus concentrating photovoltaic module and tracker system under contract to Sandia National Laboratories. The primary focus of the contract was to achieve a module design that was manufacturable and passed Sandia`s environmental testing. Nine modules of two variations were assembled, tested, and characterized in Phase 1, and results of these tests were promising, with module efficiency approaching the theoretical limit achievable with the components used. The module efficiency was 11.9% at a solar irradiance of 850 W/sq m and an extrapolated cell temperature of 25 C. Improvements in module performance are anticipated as cell efficiencies meet their expectations. A 2-kW tracker and controller accommodating 20 modules was designed, built, installed, and operated at Solar Kinetics` test site. The drive used many commercially available components in an innovative arrangement to reduce cost and increase reliability. Backlash and bearing play were controlled by use of preloaded, low slip-stick, synthetic slide bearings. The controller design used a standard industrial programmable logic controller to perform ephemeris calculations, operate the actuators, and monitor encoders.

  3. Solar kinetics` photovoltaic concentrator module and tracker development

    SciTech Connect

    White, D.L.; Howell, B.

    1995-11-01

    Solar Kinetics, Inc., has been developing a point-focus concentrating photovoltaic module and tracker system under contract to Sandia National Laboratories. The primary focus of the contract was to achieve a module design that was manufacturable and passed Sandia`s environmental testing. Nine modules of two variations were assembled, tested, and characterized in Phase 1, and results of these tests were promising, with module efficiency approaching the theoretical limit achievable with the components used. The module efficiency was 11.9% at a solar irradiance of 850 W/m{sup 2} and an extrapolated cell temperature of 25{degrees}C. Improvements in module performance are anticipated as cell efficiencies meet their expectations. A 2-kW tracker and controller accommodating 20 modules was designed, built, installed, and operated at Solar Kinetics` test site. The drive used many commercially available components in an innovative arrangement to reduce cost and increase reliability. Backlash and bearing play were controlled by use of preloaded, low slip-stick, synthetic slide bearings. The controller design used a standard industrial programmable logic controller to perform ephemeris calculations, operate the actuators, and monitor encoders.

  4. Thermal control system for Space Station Freedom photovoltaic power module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hacha, Thomas H.; Howard, Laura

    1994-01-01

    The electric power for Space Station Freedom (SSF) is generated by the solar arrays of the photovoltaic power modules (PVM's) and conditioned, controlled, and distributed by a power management and distribution system. The PVM's are located outboard of the alpha gimbals of SSF. A single-phase thermal control system is being developed to provide thermal control of PVM electrical equipment and energy storage batteries. This system uses ammonia as the coolant and a direct-flow deployable radiator. The description and development status of the PVM thermal control system is presented.

  5. Thermal control system for Space Station Freedom photovoltaic power module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hacha, Thomas H.; Howard, Laura S.

    1992-01-01

    The electric power for Space Station Freedom (SSF) is generated by the solar arrays of the photovoltaic power modules (PVM's) and conditioned, controlled, and distributed by a power management and distribution system. The PVM's are located outboard of the alpha gimbals of SSF. A single-phase thermal control system is being developed to provide thermal control of PVM electrical equipment and energy storage batteries. This system uses ammonia as the coolant and a direct-flow deployable radiator. This paper presents the description and development status of the PVM thermal control system.

  6. Photovoltaic module encapsulation design and materials selection. Volume II

    SciTech Connect

    Cuddihy, E.

    1984-06-01

    This is Volume II of Photovoltaic Module Encapsulation Design and Materials Selection: a periodically updated handbook of encapsulation technology, developed with the support of the Flat-Plate Solar Array Project (FSA), managed for the Department of Energy (DOE) by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Volume II describes FSA encapsulation technology developed between June 1, 1982, and January 1, 1984. Emphasis during this period shifted from materials development to demonstration of reliability and durability in an outdoor environment; the updated information in this volume reflects the developing technology base related to both reliability and encapsulation process improvements.

  7. Model institutional infrastructures for recycling of photovoltaic modules

    SciTech Connect

    Reaven, S.J.; Moskowitz, P.D.; Fthenakis, V.

    1996-01-01

    How will photovoltaic modules (PVMS) be recycled at the end of their service lives? This question has technological and institutional components (Reaven, 1994a). The technological aspect concerns the physical means of recycling: what advantages and disadvantages of the several existing and emerging mechanical, thermal, and chemical recycling processes and facilities merit consideration? The institutional dimension refers to the arrangements for recycling: what are the operational and financial roles of the parties with an interest in PVM recycling? These parties include PVM manufacturers, trade organizations; distributors, and retailers; residential, commercial, and utility PVM users; waste collectors, transporters, reclaimers, and reclaimers; and governments.

  8. International photovoltaic products and manufacturers directory, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Shepperd, L.W.

    1995-11-01

    This international directory of more than 500 photovoltaic-related manufacturers is intended to guide potential users of photovoltaics to sources for systems and their components. Two indexes help the user to locate firms and materials. A glossary describes equipment and terminology commonly used in the photovoltaic industry.

  9. Photovoltaic power modules for NASA's manned space station

    SciTech Connect

    Tatro, C.A.

    1987-01-01

    The capability and the safety of manned spacecraft are largely dependent upon reliable electric power systems. Two similar space power systems able to survive the low Earth orbit environment, are being considered for NASA's Manned Space Station (SS), scheduled to begin operation in the mid 1990's. The Space Station Electric Power System (EPS) is composed of Photovoltaic (PV) Power Modules, Solar Dynamic (SD) Power Modules, and the Power Management and Distribution (PMAD) System. One EPS configuration will deliver 37.5 kW of PV based, utility grade, ac power to SS users. A second 75 kWe PV based EPS option is also being considered for SS deployment. The two EPS options utilize common modules and differ only in the total number of PV Power Modules used. Each PV Power Module supplies 18.75 kWe of ac power and incorporates its own energy storage and thermal control. The general requirements and the current preliminary design configuration of the Space Station PV Power Modules are examined.

  10. Low cost solar array project production process and equipment task. A Module Experimental Process System Development Unit (MEPSDU)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Technical readiness for the production of photovoltaic modules using single crystal silicon dendritic web sheet material is demonstrated by: (1) selection, design and implementation of solar cell and photovoltaic module process sequence in a Module Experimental Process System Development Unit; (2) demonstration runs; (3) passing of acceptance and qualification tests; and (4) achievement of a cost effective module.

  11. Producing thin film photovoltaic modules with high integrity interconnects and dual layer contacts

    DOEpatents

    Jansen, Kai W.; Maley, Nagi

    2000-01-01

    High performance photovoltaic modules are produced with improved interconnects by a special process. Advantageously, the photovoltaic modules have a dual layer back (rear) contact and a front contact with at least one layer. The front contact and the inner layer of the back contact can comprise a transparent conductive oxide. The outer layer of the back contact can comprise a metal or metal oxide. The front contact can also have a dielectric layer. In one form, the dual layer back contact comprises a zinc oxide inner layer and an aluminum outer layer and the front contact comprises a tin oxide inner layer and a silicon dioxide dielectric outer layer. One or more amorphous silicon-containing thin film semiconductors can be deposited between the front and back contacts. The contacts can be positioned between a substrate and an optional superstrate. During production, the transparent conductive oxide layer of the front contact is scribed by a laser, then the amorphous silicon-containing semiconductors and inner layer of the dual layer back contact are simultaneously scribed and trenched (drilled) by the laser and the trench is subsequently filled with the same metal as the outer layer of the dual layer back contact to provide a superb mechanical and electrical interconnect between the front contact and the outer layer of the dual layer back contact. The outer layer of the dual layer back contact can then be scribed by the laser. For enhanced environmental protection, the photovoltaic modules can be encapsulated.

  12. Producing thin film photovoltaic modules with high integrity interconnects and dual layer contacts

    DOEpatents

    Jansen, Kai W.; Maley, Nagi

    2001-01-01

    High performance photovoltaic modules are produced with improved interconnects by a special process. Advantageously, the photovoltaic modules have a dual layer back (rear) contact and a front contact with at least one layer. The front contact and the inner layer of the back contact can comprise a transparent conductive oxide. The outer layer of the back contact can comprise a metal or metal oxide. The front contact can also have a dielectric layer. In one form, the dual layer back contact comprises a zinc oxide inner layer and an aluminum outer layer and the front contact comprises a tin oxide inner layer and a silicon dioxide dielectric outer layer. One or more amorphous silicon-containing thin film semiconductors can be deposited between the front and back contacts. The contacts can be positioned between a substrate and an optional superstrate. During production, the transparent conductive oxide layer of the front contact is scribed by a laser, then the amorphous silicon-containing semiconductors and inner layer of the dual layer back contact are simultaneously scribed and trenched (drilled) by the laser and the trench is subsequently filled with the same metal as the outer layer of the dual layer back contact to provide a superb mechanical and electrical interconnect between the front contact and the outer layer of the dual layer back contact. The outer layer of the dual layer back contact can then be scribed by the laser. For enhanced environmental protection, the photovoltaic modules can be encapsulated.

  13. Parameter Estimation for Single Diode Models of Photovoltaic Modules

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, Clifford

    2015-03-01

    Many popular models for photovoltaic system performance employ a single diode model to compute the I - V curve for a module or string of modules at given irradiance and temperature conditions. A single diode model requires a number of parameters to be estimated from measured I - V curves. Many available parameter estimation methods use only short circuit, o pen circuit and maximum power points for a single I - V curve at standard test conditions together with temperature coefficients determined separately for individual cells. In contrast, module testing frequently records I - V curves over a wide range of irradi ance and temperature conditions which, when available , should also be used to parameterize the performance model. We present a parameter estimation method that makes use of a fu ll range of available I - V curves. We verify the accuracy of the method by recov ering known parameter values from simulated I - V curves . We validate the method by estimating model parameters for a module using outdoor test data and predicting the outdoor performance of the module.

  14. 77 FR 72884 - Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaic Cells and Modules From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-06

    ... in the Federal Register on June 13, 2012 (77 FR 35425). The hearing was held in Washington, DC, on... COMMISSION Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaic Cells and Modules From China Determinations On the basis of the... reason of imports of crystalline silicon photovoltaic cells and modules from China, provided for...

  15. 77 FR 14732 - Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaic Cells, Whether or Not Assembled Into Modules, From the People's...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-13

    ... People's Republic of China: Initiation of Antidumping Duty Investigation, 76 FR 70960 (November 16, 2011... International Trade Administration Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaic Cells, Whether or Not Assembled Into Modules... of crystalline silicon photovoltaic cells, whether or not assembled into modules, from the...

  16. A Photovoltaics Module for Incoming Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dark, Marta L.

    2011-01-01

    Photovoltaic-cell-based projects have been used to train eight incoming undergraduate women who were part of a residential summer programme at a women's college. A module on renewable energy and photovoltaic cells was developed in the physics department. The module's objectives were to introduce women in science, technology, engineering and…

  17. Photovoltaic Cz silicon module improvements. Annual technical progress report, November 9, 1995--November 8, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    King, R.R.; Mitchell, K.W.; Jester, T.L.

    1998-02-01

    Work focused on reducing the cost per watt of Cz silicon photovoltaic modules under Phase I of Siemens Solar Industries` DOE/NREL PVMaT 4A subcontract is described. Module cost components are analyzed and solutions to high-cost items are discussed in terms of specific module designs. The approaches of using larger cells and modulus to reduce per-part processing cost, and of minimizing yield loss are particularly leveraging. Yield components for various parts of the fabrication process and various types of defects are shown, and measurements of the force required to break wafers throughout the cell fabrication sequence are given. The most significant type of yield loss is mechanical breakage. The implementation of statistical process control on key manufacturing processes at Siemens Solar Industries is described. Module configurations prototyped during Phase I of this project and scheduled to begin production in Phase II have a projected cost per watt reduction of 19%.

  18. Outdoor Performance of a Thin-Film Gallium-Arsenide Photovoltaic Module

    SciTech Connect

    Silverman, T. J.; Deceglie, M. G.; Marion, B.; Cowley, S.; Kayes, B.; Kurtz, S.

    2013-06-01

    We deployed a 855 cm2 thin-film, single-junction gallium arsenide (GaAs) photovoltaic (PV) module outdoors. Due to its fundamentally different cell technology compared to silicon (Si), the module responds differently to outdoor conditions. On average during the test, the GaAs module produced more power when its temperature was higher. We show that its maximum-power temperature coefficient, while actually negative, is several times smaller in magnitude than that of a Si module used for comparison. The positive correlation of power with temperature in GaAs is due to temperature-correlated changes in the incident spectrum. We show that a simple correction based on precipitable water vapor (PWV) brings the photocurrent temperature coefficient into agreement with that measured by other methods and predicted by theory. The low operating temperature and small temperature coefficient of GaAs give it an energy production advantage in warm weather.

  19. Spectral losses of high concentrator photovoltaic modules depending on latitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soria-Moya, Alberto; Fernández, Eduardo F.; Almonacid, Florencia; Mallick, Tapas K.

    2015-09-01

    High concentrator photovoltaic (HCPV) modules and systems are affected by changes on the incident solar spectrum. It is well known that among all the atmospheric parameters, the air mass has the largest impact on the spectral behavior of HCPV devices. The air mass can be considered as a geometrical parameter which depends entirely on the Sun's zenith angle (θ). Because of this, the yield of HCPV modules is affected by latitude. In this paper, a new method to estimate the gains/losses of energy due to the spectral impact has been introduced. Furthermore, the annual spectral losses depending on latitude have been calculated for several theoretical modules. For default values defined in the standard AM1.5d ASTM G-173-03 spectrum, results show that the spectral losses are almost independent of latitude for locations with low latitude values. Losses between 3% and 5% on the annual energy yield have been estimated for those areas. For high latitudes, the losses increase until they reach values between 10% and 14%. Results depend on the multi-junction solar cells and optical devices of the HCPV module considered.

  20. A review of incentives, strategies and model technologies for recycling photovoltaic modules

    SciTech Connect

    DePhillips, M.P.; Moskowitz, P.D.

    1994-03-07

    This paper identifies existing recycling programs for consumer products with similar composition to photovoltaic (PV) modules, including cathode-ray tubes, electronic circuit boards, batteries, and automobile windshield glass. Discussed are incentives, the selection of technologies, and strategies used to recycle these products. Since the technologies for recycling these products exist, developing a process, or series of processes, for PV modules should primarily be a matter of customization. Developing an entire recycling program that is economically feasible will provide a greater challenge. Achieving this will require careful analysis of incentives, use of various combinations of strategies, and inclusion of multiple industries for additional technical processes. This can contribute to the success of a program by dividing the costs and ensuring that secondary products and materials enter into a diverse amount of markets.

  1. Thin-film-based CdTe photovoltaic module characterization: Measurements and energy prediction improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lay-Ekuakille, A.; Arnesano, A.; Vergallo, P.

    2013-01-01

    Photovoltaic characterization is a topic of major interest in the field of renewable energy. Monocrystalline and polycrystalline modules are mostly used and, hence characterized since many laboratories have data of them. Conversely, cadmium telluride (CdTe), as thin-film module are, in some circumstances, difficult to be used for energy prediction. This work covers outdoor testing of photovoltaic modules, in particular that regarding CdTe ones. The scope is to obtain temperature coefficients that best predict the energy production. A First Solar (K-275) module has been used for the purposes of this research. Outdoor characterizations were performed at Department of Innovation Engineering, University of Salento, Lecce, Italy. The location of Lecce city represents a typical site in the South Italy. The module was exposed outdoor and tested under clear sky conditions as well as under cloudy sky ones. During testing, the global-inclined irradiance varied between 0 and 1500 W/m2. About 37 000 I-V characteristics were acquired, allowing to process temperature coefficients as a function of irradiance and ambient temperature. The module was characterized by measuring the full temperature-irradiance matrix in the range from 50 to 1300 W/m2 and from -1 to 40 W/m2 from October 2011 to February 2012. Afterwards, the module energy output, under real conditions, was calculated with the "matrix method" of SUPSI-ISAAC and the results were compared with the five months energy output data of the same module measured with the outdoor energy yield facility in Lecce.

  2. Photovoltaic module soiling studies, May 1978 - October 1980

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, A. R.; Maag, C. R.

    1980-01-01

    Comparative electrical and optical performance data from photovoltaic modules and materials subjected to outdoor exposure at field test sites throughout the United States were collected and examined. The results show significant time and site dependence. During periods when natural removal processes do not dominate, the rate of particulate contamination accumulation appears to be largely material-independent. The effectiveness of natural removal processes, especially rain, is strongly material-dependent. Glass and acrylic top cover materials retain fewer particles than silicone rubber does. Side by side outdoor exposure testing for long duration is presently the most effective means of evaluating soiling differences between materials. Changes in spectral transmission as a function of time and location and limited scattering data are presented.

  3. Environmental requirements for flat plate photovoltaic modules for terrestrial applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, A. R.; Ross, R. G., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The environmental test requirements that have been developed for flat plate modules purchased through Department of Energy funding are described. Concurrent with the selection of the initial qualification tests from space program experience - temperature cycling and humidity - surveys of existing photovoltaic systems in the field revealed that arrays were experiencing the following failure modes: interconnect breakage, delamination, and electrical termination corrosion. These coupled with application-dependent considerations led to the development of additional qualification tests, such as cyclic pressure loading, warped mounting surface, and hail. Rationale for the selection of tests, their levels and durations is described. Comparisons between field-observed degradation and test-induced degradation show a positive correlation with some of the observed field effects. Also, the tests are proving useful for detecting design, process, and workmanship deficiencies. The status of study efforts for the development of environmental requirements for field-related problems is reviewed.

  4. Product Module Rig Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holdeman, James D. (Technical Monitor); Chiappetta, Louis, Jr.; Hautman, Donald J.; Ols, John T.; Padget, Frederick C., IV; Peschke, William O. T.; Shirley, John A.; Siskind, Kenneth S.

    2004-01-01

    The low emissions potential of a Rich-Quench-Lean (RQL) combustor for use in the High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) application was evaluated as part of Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) 1.0.2.7 of the NASA Critical Propulsion Components (CPC) Program under Contract NAS3-27235. Combustion testing was conducted in cell 1E of the Jet Burner Test Stand at United Technologies Research Center. Specifically, a Rich-Quench-Lean combustor, utilizing reduced scale quench technology implemented in a quench vane concept in a product-like configuration (Product Module Rig), demonstrated the capability of achieving an emissions index of nitrogen oxides (NOx EI) of 8.5 gm/Kg fuel at the supersonic flight condition (relative to the program goal of 5 gm/Kg fuel). Developmental parametric testing of various quench vane configurations in the more fundamental flametube, Single Module Rig Configuration, demonstrated NOx EI as low as 5.2. All configurations in both the Product Module Rig configuration and the Single Module Rig configuration demonstrated exceptional efficiencies, greater than 99.95 percent, relative to the program goal of 99.9 percent efficiency at supersonic cruise conditions. Sensitivity of emissions to quench orifice design parameters were determined during the parametric quench vane test series in support of the design of the Product Module Rig configuration. For the rectangular quench orifices investigated, an aspect ratio (length/width) of approximately 2 was found to be near optimum. An optimum for orifice spacing was found to exist at approximately 0.167 inches, resulting in 24 orifices per side of a quench vane, for the 0.435 inch quench zone channel height investigated in the Single Module Rig. Smaller quench zone channel heights appeared to be beneficial in reducing emissions. Measurements were also obtained in the Single Module Rig configuration on the sensitivity of emissions to the critical combustor parameters of fuel/air ratio, pressure drop, and residence

  5. Product reliability and thin-film photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaston, Ryan; Feist, Rebekah; Yeung, Simon; Hus, Mike; Bernius, Mark; Langlois, Marc; Bury, Scott; Granata, Jennifer; Quintana, Michael; Carlson, Carl; Sarakakis, Georgios; Ogden, Douglas; Mettas, Adamantios

    2009-08-01

    Despite significant growth in photovoltaics (PV) over the last few years, only approximately 1.07 billion kWhr of electricity is estimated to have been generated from PV in the US during 2008, or 0.27% of total electrical generation. PV market penetration is set for a paradigm shift, as fluctuating hydrocarbon prices and an acknowledgement of the environmental impacts associated with their use, combined with breakthrough new PV technologies, such as thin-film and BIPV, are driving the cost of energy generated with PV to parity or cost advantage versus more traditional forms of energy generation. In addition to reaching cost parity with grid supplied power, a key to the long-term success of PV as a viable energy alternative is the reliability of systems in the field. New technologies may or may not have the same failure modes as previous technologies. Reliability testing and product lifetime issues continue to be one of the key bottlenecks in the rapid commercialization of PV technologies today. In this paper, we highlight the critical need for moving away from relying on traditional qualification and safety tests as a measure of reliability and focus instead on designing for reliability and its integration into the product development process. A drive towards quantitative predictive accelerated testing is emphasized and an industrial collaboration model addressing reliability challenges is proposed.

  6. The design and research of distributed cooling type high concentrated photovoltaic module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Mingchong; Yao, Shun; Chen, Bingzhen; Yang, Guanghui; Guo, Limin; Peng, Na; Shen, Du; Bao, Wei; Yang, Cuibai; Zhang, Yang; Wang, Zhiyong

    2015-10-01

    At present, the conversion efficiency of high concentrated photovoltaic modules is about 30%, most of the solar energy is converted into heat, which will result in solar cell temperature rise and subsequent module efficiency decrease. For existing module with large solar cell, the heat source is concentrated and additional cooling fins must be used, resulting in high system complexity and cost rise. In order to lower the cost of photovoltaic, we developed distributed cooling type module with simple structure. This paper depicts a distributed cooling design for high concentrated photovoltaic module, as well as the thermal simulation of this design with analysis software. Module prototype was also made to test the actual effect. The final outdoor results showed high consistency with the simulation results. The chip temperature can be lower than 45° and the module outdoor working efficiency is higher than 26% and lower temperature provide a guarantee of long-term reliability to module packaging material.

  7. High-throughput manufacturing of thin-film CdS/CdTe photovoltaic modules. Annual subcontract report, 16 September 1996--15 January 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Sandwisch, D.W.

    1998-08-01

    Cadmium telluride (CdTe) is recognized as one of the leading materials for low-cost photovoltaic modules. Solar Cells, Inc., has developed this technology and is scaling its pilot production capabilities to a multi-megawatt level. The Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology (PVMaT) subcontract supports these efforts. Activities during the third phase of the program concentrated on process development, equipment design and testing, quality assurance, ES and H programs, and large-scale next-generation coating-system prototype development. These efforts broadly addressed the issues of the manufacturing process for producing thin-film, monolithic CdS/CdTe photovoltaic modules.

  8. Photovoltaic module encapsulation design and materials section, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuddihy, E. F.

    1984-01-01

    Tests for chemical structure, material properties, water absorption, aging and curing agent of Ethylene Vinyl Acetate (EVA) and UV absorption studies are carried out. A computer model was developed for thermal optical modeling, to investigate dependence between module operating temperature and solar insolation, and heat dissapation behavior. Structural analyses were performed in order to determine the stress distribution under wind and heat conditions. Curves are shown for thermal loading conditions. An electrical isolation was carried out to investigate electrical stress aging of non-metallic encapsulation materials and limiting material flaws, and to develop a computer model of electrical fields and stresses in encapsulation materials. In addition, a mathematical model was developed and tests were conducted to predict hygroscopic and thermal expansion and contraction on a plastic coated wooden substrate. Thermal cycle and humidity freezing cycle tests, partial discharge tests, and hail impact tests were also carried out. Finally, the effects of soiling on the surface of photovoltaic modules were investigated. Two antisoiling coatings, a fluorinated silane and perflourodecanoic acid were considered.

  9. 77 FR 37877 - Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaic Cells, Whether or Not Assembled Into Modules, From the People's...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-25

    ... Determination of Critical Circumstances, 77 FR 31309 (May 25, 2012), under the section entitled ``Preliminary... International Trade Administration Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaic Cells, Whether or Not Assembled Into Modules... determination in the antidumping duty investigation of crystalline silicon photovoltaic cells, whether or...

  10. 76 FR 78313 - Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaic Cells and Modules From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-16

    ... notice in the Federal Register of October 27, 2011 (76 FR 66748). The conference was held in Washington... COMMISSION Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaic Cells and Modules From China Determinations On the basis of the... is materially injured by reason of imports from China of crystalline silicon photovoltaic cells...

  11. Thermal and other tests of photovoltaic modules performed in natural sunlight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stultz, J. W.

    1979-01-01

    The nominal operating cell temperature (NOCT), an effective way to characterize the thermal performance of a photovoltaic module in natural sunlight, is developed. NOCT measurements for more than twenty different modules are presented. Changes in NOCT reflect changes in module design, residential roof mounting, and dirt accumulation. Other test results show that electrical performance is improved by cooling modules with water and by use of a phase change wax. Electrical degradation resulting from the marriage of photovoltaic and solar water heating modules is demonstrated. Cost-effectiveness of each of these techniques is evaluated.

  12. Photovoltaic Shading Testbed for Module-Level Power Electronics: 2014 Update

    SciTech Connect

    Deline, C.; Meydbray, J.; Donovan, M.

    2014-08-01

    The 2012 NREL report 'Photovoltaic Shading Testbed for Module-Level Power Electronics' provides a standard methodology for estimating the performance benefit of distributed power electronics under partial shading conditions. Since the release of the report, experiments have been conducted for a number of products and for different system configurations. Drawing from these experiences, updates to the test and analysis methods are recommended. Proposed changes in data processing have the benefit of reducing the sensitivity to measurement errors and weather variability, as well as bringing the updated performance score in line with measured and simulated values of the shade recovery benefit of distributed PV power electronics. Also, due to the emergence of new technologies including sub-module embedded power electronics, the shading method has been extended to include power electronics that operate at a finer granularity than the module level. An update to the method is proposed to account for these emerging technologies that respond to shading differently than module-level devices. The partial shading test remains a repeatable test procedure that attempts to simulate shading situations as would be experienced by typical residential or commercial rooftop photovoltaic (PV) systems. Performance data for multiple products tested using this method are discussed, based on equipment from Enphase, Solar Edge, Maxim Integrated and SMA. In general, the annual recovery of shading losses from the module-level electronics evaluated is 25-35%, with the major difference between different trials being related to the number of parallel strings in the test installation rather than differences between the equipment tested.

  13. Exploration of external light trapping for photovoltaic modules.

    PubMed

    van Dijk, Lourens; van de Groep, Jorik; Di Vece, Marcel; Schropp, Ruud E I

    2016-07-11

    The reflection of incident sunlight by photovoltaic modules prevents them from reaching their theoretical energy conversion limit. We explore the effectiveness of a universal external light trap that can tackle this reflection loss. A unique feature of external light traps is their capability to simultaneously recycle various broadband sources of reflection on the module level, such as the reflection from the metal front grid, the front interfaces, the reflective backside of the cell, and the white back sheet. The reflected light is recycled in the space between the solar cell and a mirror above the solar cell. A concentrator funnels the light into this cage through a small aperture in the mirror. As a proof-of-principle experiment, a significant reflectance reduction of a bare crystalline silicon (c-Si) photodiode is demonstrated. In contrast to conventional light trapping methods, external light trapping does not induce any damage to the active solar cell material. Moreover, this is a universally applicable technology that enables the use of thin and planar solar cells of superior electrical quality that were so far hindered by limited optical absorption. We considered several trap designs and identified fabrication issues. A series of prototype millimeter-scale external metal light traps were milled and applied on an untextured c-Si photodiode, which is used as a model for future thin solar cells. We determined the concentrator transmittance and analyzed the effect of both the concentration factor and cage height on the absorptance and spatial intensity distribution on the surface of the solar cell. This relatively simple and comprehensive light management solution can be a promising candidate for highly efficient solar modules using thin c-Si solar cells. PMID:27410902

  14. High-throughput manufacturing of thin-film CdS/CdTe photovoltaic modules. Annual subcontract report, 16 November 1994--15 November 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Sandwisch, D.W.

    1997-02-01

    The objectives of this subcontract are to advance Solar Cells, Inc.`s (SCI`s) photovoltaic manufacturing technologies, reduce module production costs, increase module performance, and provide the groundwork for SCI to expand its commercial production capacities. Activities during the second year of the program concentrated on process development, equipment design and testing, quality assurance, and ES and H programs. These efforts broadly addressed the issues of the manufacturing process for producing thin-film monolithic CdS/CdTe photovoltaic modules.

  15. Environmental and health aspects of copper-indium-diselenide thin-film photovoltaic modules

    SciTech Connect

    Steinberger, H.; Thumm, W.; Freitag, R.; Moskowitz, P.D.; Chapin, R.

    1994-12-31

    Copper-indium-diselenide (CIS) is a semiconductor compound that can be used to produce thin-film photovoltaic modules. There is on-going research being conducted by various federal agencies and private industries to demonstrate the commercial viability of this material. Because this is a new technology, and because scant information about the health and environmental hazards associated with the use of this material is available, studies have been initiated to characterize the environmental mobility and environmental toxicology of this compound. The objective of these studies is to identify the environmental and health hazards associated with the production, use, and disposal of CIS thin-film photovoltaic modules. The program includes both experimental and theoretical components. Theoretical studies are being undertaken to estimate material flows through the environment for a range of production options as well as use and disposal scenarios. The experimental programs characterize the physical, chemical e.g. leachability and biological parameters e.g. EC{sub 50} in daphnia and algae, and feeding studies in rats.

  16. Environmental and health aspects of copper-indium-diselenide thin-film photovoltaic modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinberger, Hartmut; Thumm, Werner; Freitag, Renate; Moskowitz, Paul D.; Chapin, Robert

    Copper-indium-diselenide (CIS) is a semiconductor compound that can be used to produce thin-film photovoltaic modules. There is on-going research being conducted by various federal agencies and private industries to demonstrate the commercial viability of this material. Because this is a new technology, and because scant information about the health and environmental hazards associated with the use of this material is available, studies have been initiated to characterize the environmental mobility and environmental toxicology of this compound. The objective of these studies is to identify the environmental and health hazards associated with the production, use, and disposal of CIS thin-film photovoltaic modules. The program includes both experimental and theoretical components. Theoretical studies are being undertaken to estimate material flows through the environment for a range of production options as well as use and disposal scenarios. The experimental programs characterize the physical, chemical (e.g. leachability), and biological parameters (e.g. EC(sub 50)) in daphnia and algae, and feeding studies in rats.

  17. Results of the PRDA 35 qualification tests of the Motorola concentrating photovoltaic module

    SciTech Connect

    Pritchard, D.A.

    1981-10-01

    A passively-cooled, Fresnel lens, concentrating photovoltaic module, designed and built by Motorola, Incorporated, was tested to the PRDA 35 specifications. The PRDA 35 module test program is described. Physical, electrical, and thermal characteristics of the module are presented. Module performance is shown using multiple linear regression techniques: some change was measured after environmental exposure. In addition, sample cell assemblies were evaluated for effects of severe environmental conditions. Results presented herein show the module has met the qualification goals.

  18. Cost-effective flat-plate photovoltaic modules using light trapping. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bain, C.N.; Gordon, B.A.; Knasel, T.M.; Malinowski, R.L.

    1981-04-01

    Work in optical trapping in thick films is extended to form a design guide for photovoltaic engineers. Details of the methods, techniques, and considerations that are used in the definition and analysis of light trapping photovoltaic panels are provided. Assumptions, sources of data, optical and cost modeling methods and the techniques used in the analysis are included. The ways to use light trapping are discussed, and methods are described to use simplified design and costing equations to predict performance and cost benefits. Four significant ways to use the findings presented are: a minimum design change module; an optimum packing factor module concept; roof or wall integrated panels; and modules using light trapping from cell grids. Finally, a design guide is included which shows how to construct photovoltaic modules to exploit light trapping. It is claimed that up to 20% improvements in standard module performance can be expected. (LEW)

  19. Long-term performance analysis of copper indium gallium selenide thin-film photovoltaic modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaul, Ashwani; Pethe, Shirish A.; Dhere, Neelkanth G.

    2012-01-01

    Current accelerated qualification tests of photovoltaic (PV) modules mostly assist in avoiding premature failures but can neither duplicate changes occurring in the field nor predict useful product lifetime. Therefore, outdoor monitoring of field-deployed thin-film PV modules was undertaken at FSEC with the goal of assessing their performance in hot and humid climate under high system-voltage operation. Significant and comparable degradation rate of -5.13±1.53% and -4.5±1.46% per year was found using PVUSA type regression analysis for the positive and negative strings, respectively of 40W glass-to-glass Cu-In-Ga-Se (CIGS) thin-film PV modules in the hot and humid climate of Florida. Using the current-voltage measurements, it was found that the performance degradation within the PV array was mainly due to a few (8% to 12%) modules that had substantially higher degradation. The remaining modules within the array continued to show reasonable performance (>96% of the rated power after ˜ four years).

  20. Electrochemical and galvanic corrosion effects in thin-film photovoltaic modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mon, G.; Wen, L.; Meyer, J.; Ross, R., Jr.; Nelson, A.

    The electrochemical and galvanic corrosion properties of thin-film photovoltaic (TF-PV) modules and module subcomponents are determined and interpreted in the light of established corrosion science. Results of a detailed study of thin-film aluminum metallization corrosion are presented. Bar-graph corrosion, observed in fielded modules, has been induced experimentally and found to be electrochemical in nature. Corrosion rates and passivation techniques for TF-PV modules are discussed.

  1. Evaluation of cleaners for photovoltaic modules exposed in an outdoor environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knapp, W. D.

    1979-01-01

    Power recovery of silicone encapsulated and glass covered photovoltaic modules, exposed for two years to a suburban environment, was measured after washing with a variety of cleaners including detergents, abrasive soap, and hydrocarbon solvents. Silicone encapsulated modules in operating environments may experience significant power losses or require extensive periodic cleaning. Glass front-faced modules in similar situations are much less affected. Organic hydrocarbon solvents or abrasives were found to be about five times more effective than mild detergents in cleaning encapsulated modules.

  2. Electrochemical and galvanic corrosion effects in thin-film photovoltaic modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mon, G.; Wen, L.; Meyer, J.; Ross, R., Jr.; Nelson, A.

    1988-01-01

    The electrochemical and galvanic corrosion properties of thin-film photovoltaic (TF-PV) modules and module subcomponents are determined and interpreted in the light of established corrosion science. Results of a detailed study of thin-film aluminum metallization corrosion are presented. Bar-graph corrosion, observed in fielded modules, has been induced experimentally and found to be electrochemical in nature. Corrosion rates and passivation techniques for TF-PV modules are discussed.

  3. The design and development of a rectangular, shingle-type photovoltaic module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shepard, N. F., Jr.

    A shingle-type photovoltaic module has been designed and developed to meet the requirements of specifications for residential applications. The module is ideally suited for installation directly to the sheathing of a sloping, south-facing roof of a residential, industrial, or commercial building. The design requirements are examined, taking into account also module safety requirements. Aspects of module design and analysis are discussed, giving attention to installation details, solar cells and electrical circuit design, the encapsulation system, substrate lamination, and the module-to-module interconnecting cable. Details of module assembly experience and test and outdoor exposure experience are also considered.

  4. The design and development of a rectangular, shingle-type photovoltaic module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepard, N. F., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    A shingle-type photovoltaic module has been designed and developed to meet the requirements of specifications for residential applications. The module is ideally suited for installation directly to the sheathing of a sloping, south-facing roof of a residential, industrial, or commercial building. The design requirements are examined, taking into account also module safety requirements. Aspects of module design and analysis are discussed, giving attention to installation details, solar cells and electrical circuit design, the encapsulation system, substrate lamination, and the module-to-module interconnecting cable. Details of module assembly experience and test and outdoor exposure experience are also considered.

  5. Photovoltaic technology assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Backus, C.E.

    1981-01-01

    After a brief review of the history of photovoltaic devices and a discussion of the cost goals set for photovoltaic modules, the status of photovoltaic technology is assessed. Included are discussions of: current applications, present industrial production, low-cost silicon production techniques, energy payback periods for solar cells, advanced materials research and development, concentrator systems, balance-of-system components. Also discussed are some nontechnical aspects, including foreign markets, US government program approach, and industry attitudes and approaches. (LEW)

  6. Module process optimization and device efficiency improvement for stable, low-cost, large-area, cadmium telluride-based photovoltaic module production. Annual subcontract report, 1 July 1990--31 December 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Albright, S.P.; Ackerman, B.; Chamberlin, R.R.; Jordan, J.F.

    1992-04-01

    This report describes work under a three-year phased subcontract to develop CdS/CdTe devices and modules and to further improve the technology base at Photon Energy, Inc. (PEI) to better address the commercialization issues and objectives of the PEI and the US Department of Energy. During this reporting period we (1) achieved efficiencies of 12.7% on small area devices, (2) achieved 1-ft{sup 2} modules with over 8% aperture-area efficiency (and active area efficiencies up to {approximately}10%), (3) tested 4-ft{sup 2} modules at NREL at 23.1 (21.3) watts, normalized (6.3% efficiency), and (4) found no inherent stability problems with CdTe technology during life testing, at both NREL and PEI. 7 refs.

  7. Progress Toward a Stabilization and Preconditioning Protocol for Polycrystalline Thin-Film Photovoltaic Modules

    SciTech Connect

    del Cueto, J. A.; Deline, C. A.; Rummel, S. R.; Anderberg, A.

    2010-08-01

    Cadmium telluride (CdTe) and copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS) thin-film photovoltaic (PV) modules can exhibit substantial variation in measured performance depending on prior exposure history. This study examines the metastable performance changes in these PV modules with the goal of establishing standard preconditioning or stabilization exposure procedures to mitigate measured variations prior to current-voltage (IV) measurements.

  8. Photovoltaic Shading Testbed for Module-Level Power Electronics

    SciTech Connect

    Deline, C.; Meydbray, J.; Donovan, M.; Forrest, J.

    2012-05-01

    This document describes a repeatable test procedure that attempts to simulate shading situations, as would be experienced by typical residential rooftop photovoltaic (PV) systems. This type of shading test is particularly useful to evaluate the impact of different power conversion setups, including microinverters, DC power optimizers and string inverters, on overall system performance. The performance results are weighted based on annual estimates of shade to predict annual performance improvement. A trial run of the test procedure was conducted with a side by side comparison of a string inverter with a microinverter, both operating on identical 8kW solar arrays. Considering three different shade weighting conditions, the microinverter was found to increase production by 3.7% under light shading, 7.8% under moderate shading, and 12.3% under heavy shading, relative to the reference string inverter case. Detail is provided in this document to allow duplication of the test method at different test installations and for different power electronics devices.

  9. Amorphous silicon photovoltaic modules and test devices design, fabrication and testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanleeuwen, M.

    1985-01-01

    In July of 1984, Hughes and JPL initiated a contract for Hughes to design, fabricate and test 10 thin film Amorphous Silicon (a-Si) photovoltaic power modules. These modules were to be 1 ft x 4 ft in size. They were to be preceded by the delivery of 10 a-Si 4 in. square test devices. This effort is very timely since thin film PV development has progressed to the point where intermediate load power applications are on the horizon. It is important to know if current a-Si submodule design and manufacturing processes yield a product that is compatible with the packaging needed to meet a 20 to 30 year life span expectancy. The term submodule is assigned to an interconnected assembly of 28 a-Si cells deposited on a 1 foot square glass superstrate. These assemblies are equipped with electrical terminations, i.e., copper tabs at the four corners of the inverted submodules. It is these submodules that are to be interconnected and packaged into power modules, as opposed to the interconnected individual crystalline cells packaged into todays PV modules. A discussion of the fabrication methods and results follows.

  10. Review of the environmental effects of the Space Station Freedom photovoltaic power module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nahra, Henry K.

    1989-01-01

    An overview is provided of the environment in the low Earth orbit (LEO), the interaction of this environment with the Photovoltaic (PV) Power system of the Space Station Freedom is reviewed, and the environmental programs are described that are designed to investigate the interactions of the LEO environment with the photovoltaic power system. Such programs will support and impact the design of the subsystems of the PV module in order to survive the design lifetime in the LEO natural and induced environment.

  11. Cost effective flat plate photovoltaic modules using light trapping. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bain, C.N.; Gordon, B.A.; Knasel, T.M.; Malinowski, R.L.

    1981-04-01

    Work in optical trapping in 'thick films' is described to form a design guide for photovoltaic engineers. A thick optical film can trap light by diffusive reflection and total internal reflection. Light can be propagated reasonably long distances compared with layer thicknesses by this technique. This makes it possible to conduct light from inter-cell and intra-cell areas now not used in photovoltaic modules onto active cell areas.

  12. Operation and maintenance cost data for residential photovoltaic modules/panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oster, J. R., Jr.; Zaremski, D. R., Jr.; Albert, E. M.; Hawkins, S. L.

    1980-01-01

    Costs associated with the operation and maintenance of residential photovoltaic modules and arrays are studied. Six basic topics related to operation and maintenance to photovoltaic arrays are investigated: maintenance; cleaning; panel replacement; gasket repair/replacement; wiring repair/replacement; and termination repair/replacement. The effects of the mounting types (rack mount, stand off mount, direct mount and integral mount) and the installation/replacement type (sequential, partial interruption and independent) are identified and described. Methods of reducing maintenance costs are suggested.

  13. Comparison of photovoltaic cell temperatures in modules operating with exposed and enclosed back surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Namkoong, D.; Simon, F. F.

    1981-01-01

    Four different photovoltaic module designs were tested to determine the cell temperature of each design. The cell temperatures were compared to those obtained on identical design, using the same nominal operating cell temperature (NOCT) concept. The results showed that the NOCT procedure does not apply to the enclosed configurations due to continuous transient conditions. The enclosed modules had higher cell temperatures than the open modules, and insulated modules higher than the uninsulated. The severest performance loss - when translated from cell temperatures - 17.5 % for one enclosed, insulated module as a compared to that module mounted openly.

  14. Photovoltaic-module bypass-diode encapsulation. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-06-20

    The design and processing techniques necessary to incorporate bypass diodes within the module encapsulant are presented in this annual report. A comprehensive survey of available pad-mounted PN junction and Schottky diodes led to the selection of Semicon PN junction diode cells for this application. Diode junction-to-heat spreader thermal resistance measurements, performed on a variety of mounted diode chip types and sizes, have yielded values which are consistently below 1/sup 0/C per watt, but show some instability when thermally cycled over the temperature range from -40 to 150/sup 0/C. Based on the results of a detailed thermal analysis, which covered the range of bypass currents from 2 to 20 amperes, three representative experimental modules, each incorporating integral bypass diode/heat spreader assemblies of various sizes, were designed and fabricated. Thermal testing of these modules has enabled the formation of a recommended heat spreader plate sizing relationship. The production cost of three encapsulated bypass diode/heat spreader assemblies were compared with similarly rated externally-mounted packaged diodes. An assessment of bypass diode reliability, which relies heavily on rectifying diode failure rate data, leads to the general conclusion that, when proper designed and installed, these devices will improve the overall reliability of a terrestrial array over a 20 year design lifetime.

  15. Photovoltaic module and array performance characterization methods for all system operating conditions

    SciTech Connect

    King, D.L.

    1996-12-31

    This paper provides new test methods and analytical procedures for characterizing the electrical performance of photovoltaic modules and arrays. The methods use outdoor measurements to provide performance parameters both at standard reporting conditions and for all operating conditions encountered by typical photovoltaic systems. Improvements over previously used test methods are identified, and examples of the successful application of the methodology are provided for crystalline- and amorphous-silicon modules and arrays. This work provides an improved understanding of module and array performance characteristics, and perhaps most importantly, a straight- forward yet rigorous model for predicting array performance at all operating conditions. For the first time, the influences of solar irradiance, operating temperature, solar spectrum, solar angle-of- incidence, and temperature coefficients are all addressed in a practical way that will benefit both designers and users of photovoltaics.

  16. Optimized design and research of secondary microprism for dense array concentrating photovoltaic module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Guanghui; Chen, Bingzhen; Liu, Youqiang; Guo, Limin; Yao, Shun; Wang, Zhiyong

    2015-10-01

    As the critical component of concentrating photovoltaic module, secondary concentrators can be effective in increasing the acceptance angle and incident light, as well as improving the energy uniformity of focal spots. This paper presents a design of transmission-type secondary microprism for dense array concentrating photovoltaic module. The 3-D model of this design is established by Solidworks and important parameters such as inclination angle and component height are optimized using Zemax. According to the design and simulation results, several secondary microprisms with different parameters are fabricated and tested in combination with Fresnel lens and multi-junction solar cell. The sun-simulator IV test results show that the combination has the highest output power when secondary microprism height is 5mm and top facet side length is 7mm. Compared with the case without secondary microprism, the output power can improve 11% after the employment of secondary microprisms, indicating the indispensability of secondary microprisms in concentrating photovoltaic module.

  17. Photovoltaic Cz Silicon Module Improvements; Final Subcontract Report, 9 November 1995 - 8 November 1998

    SciTech Connect

    T. L. Jester.

    1999-06-17

    This report describes work that focused on reducing the cost per watt of Cz silicon photovoltaic modules under Siemens Solar Industries' (SSI) DOE/NREL Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology (PVMaT) 4A subcontract. SSI researchers deployed new module designs, realized improvements in yield of more than 25%, and implemented statistical process control (SPC). They have described yield improvements in detail and reported on the deployment of SPC in critical process steps. The sum of all improvements resulted in a greater than 17% cost per watt reduction in manufacturing.

  18. Examination of a Junction-Box Adhesion Test for Use in Photovoltaic Module Qualification (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, D. C.; Wohlgemuth, J. H.

    2012-08-01

    Engineering robust adhesion of the junction-box (j-box) is a hurdle typically encountered by photovoltaic (PV) module manufacturers during product development. There are historical incidences of adverse effects (e.g., fires) caused when the j-box/adhesive/module system has failed in the field. The addition of a weight to the j-box during the 'damp heat' IEC qualification test is proposed to verify the basic robustness of its adhesion system. The details of the proposed test will be described, in addition to the preliminary results obtained using representative materials and components. The described discovery experiments examine moisture-cured silicone, foam tape, and hot-melt adhesives used in conjunction with PET or glass module 'substrates.' To be able to interpret the results, a set of material-level characterizations was performed, including thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, and dynamic mechanical analysis. PV j-boxes were adhered to a substrate, loaded with a prescribed weight, and then placed inside an environmental chamber (at 85C, 85% relative humidity). Some systems did not remain attached through the discovery experiments. Observed failure modes include delamination (at the j-box/adhesive or adhesive/substrate interface) and phase change/creep. The results are discussed in the context of the application requirements, in addition to the plan for the formal experiment supporting the proposed modification to the qualification test.

  19. Examination of a junction-box adhesion test for use in photovoltaic module qualification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, David C.; Wohlgemuth, John H.

    2012-10-01

    Engineering robust adhesion of the junction-box (j-box) is a hurdle typically encountered by photovoltaic (PV) module manufacturers during product development. There are historical incidences of adverse effects (e.g., fires) caused when the j-box/adhesive/module system has failed in the field. The addition of a weight to the j-box during the "damp heat" IEC qualification test is proposed to verify the basic robustness of its adhesion system. The details of the proposed test will be described, in addition to the preliminary results obtained using representative materials and components. The described discovery experiments examine moisture-cured silicone, foam tape, and hot-melt adhesives used in conjunction with PET or glass module "substrates." To be able to interpret the results, a set of material-level characterizations was performed, including thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, and dynamic mechanical analysis. PV j-boxes were adhered to a substrate, loaded with a prescribed weight, and then placed inside an environmental chamber (at 85°C, 85% relative humidity). Some systems did not remain attached through the discovery experiments. Observed failure modes include delamination (at the j-box/adhesive or adhesive/substrate interface) and phase change/creep. The results are discussed in the context of the application requirements, in addition to the plan for the formal experiment supporting the proposed modification to the qualification test.

  20. Examination of a Junction-Box Adhesion Test for Use in Photovoltaic Module Qualification: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, D. C.; Wohlgemuth, J. H.

    2012-08-01

    Engineering robust adhesion of the junction-box (j-box) is a hurdle typically encountered by photovoltaic (PV) module manufacturers during product development. There are historical incidences of adverse effects (e.g., fires) caused when the j-box/adhesive/module system has failed in the field. The addition of a weight to the j-box during the 'damp heat' IEC qualification test is proposed to verify the basic robustness of its adhesion system. The details of the proposed test will be described, in addition to the preliminary results obtained using representative materials and components. The described discovery experiments examine moisture-cured silicone, foam tape, and hot-melt adhesives used in conjunction with PET or glass module 'substrates.' To be able to interpret the results, a set of material-level characterizations was performed, including thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, and dynamic mechanical analysis. PV j-boxes were adhered to a substrate, loaded with a prescribed weight, and then placed inside an environmental chamber (at 85C, 85% relative humidity). Some systems did not remain attached through the discovery experiments. Observed failure modes include delamination (at the j-box/adhesive or adhesive/substrate interface) and phase change/creep. The results are discussed in the context of the application requirements, in addition to the plan for the formal experiment supporting the proposed modification to the qualification test.

  1. Fabrication of stable, large-area thin-film CdTe photovoltaic modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, T. X.

    1995-06-01

    During the period of this subcontract, May 1991 through February 1995, Solar Cells, Inc. has developed and demonstrated a low-cost process to fabricate stable large-area cadmium telluride based thin-film photovoltaic modules. This report summarizes the final phase of the project which is concentrated on process optimization and product life tests. One of the major post-deposition process steps, the CdCl2 heat treatment, has been experimentally replaced with alternative treatments with vapor chloride or chlorine gas. Material and device qualities associated with alternative treatments are comparable or superior to those with the conventional treatment. Extensive experiments have been conducted to optimize the back-electrode structure in order to ensure long term device stability. Numerous small-area cells and minimodules have been subjected to a variety of stress tests, including but not limited to continuous light soak under open or short circuit or with resistive load, for over 10,000 hours. Satisfactory stability has been demonstrated on 48 and 64 sq cm minimodules under accelerated tests and on 7200 sq cm large modules under normal operating conditions. The conversion efficiency has also been significantly improved during this period. The total area efficiency of 7200 sq cm module has reached 8.4%, corresponding to a 60.3 W normalized output; the efficiency of 64 sq cm minimodules and 1.1 sq cm cells has reached 10.5% (aperture area) and 12.4% (total area), respectively.

  2. Trial Run of a Junction-Box Attachment Test for Use in Photovoltaic Module Qualification (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, D.; Deibert, S.; Wohlgemuth, J.

    2014-06-01

    Engineering robust adhesion of the junction-box (j-box) is a hurdle typically encountered by photovoltaic (PV) module manufacturers during product development and manufacturing process control. There are historical incidences of adverse effects (e.g., fires), caused when the j-box/adhesive/module system has failed in the field. The addition of a weight to the j-box during the 'damp-heat', 'thermal-cycle', or 'creep' tests within the IEC qualification protocol is proposed to verify the basic robustness of the adhesion system. The details of the proposed test are described, in addition to a trial run of the test procedure. The described experiments examine 4 moisture-cured silicones, 4 foam tapes, and a hot-melt adhesive used in conjunction with glass, KPE, THV, and TPE substrates. For the purpose of validating the experiment, j-boxes were adhered to a substrate, loaded with a prescribed weight, and then subjected to aging. The replicate mock-modules were aged in an environmental chamber (at 85 deg C/85% relative humidity for 1000 hours; then 100 degrees C/<10% relative humidity for 200 hours) or fielded in Golden, Miami, and Phoenix for 1 year. Attachment strength tests, including pluck and shear test geometries, were also performed on smaller component specimens.

  3. Thermal and Electrical Effects of Partial Shade in Monolithic Thin-Film Photovoltaic Modules

    SciTech Connect

    Silverman, Timothy J.; Deceglie, Michael G.; Sun, Xingshu; Garris, Rebekah L.; Alam, Muhammad Ashraful; Deline, Chris; Kurtz, Sarah

    2015-06-14

    Photovoltaic cells can be damaged by reverse bias stress, which arises during service when a monolithically integrated thin-film module is partially shaded. We introduce a model for describing a module's internal thermal and electrical state, which cannot normally be measured. Using this model and experimental measurements, we present several results with relevance for reliability testing and module engineering: Modules with a small breakdown voltage experience less stress than those with a large breakdown voltage, with some exceptions for modules having light-enhanced reverse breakdown. Masks leaving a small part of the masked cells illuminated can lead to very high temperature and current density compared to masks covering entire cells.

  4. Thermal and Electrical Effects of Partial Shade in Monolithic Thin-Film Photovoltaic Modules: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Silverman, Timothy J.; Deceglie, Michael G.; Sun, Xingshu; Garris, Rebekah L.; Alam, Muhammad Ashraful; Deline, Chris; Kurtz, Sarah

    2015-09-02

    Photovoltaic cells can be damaged by reverse bias stress, which arises during service when a monolithically integrated thin-film module is partially shaded. We introduce a model for describing a module's internal thermal and electrical state, which cannot normally be measured. Using this model and experimental measurements, we present several results with relevance for reliability testing and module engineering: Modules with a small breakdown voltage experience less stress than those with a large breakdown voltage, with some exceptions for modules having light-enhanced reverse breakdown. Masks leaving a small part of the masked cells illuminated can lead to very high temperature and current density compared to masks covering entire cells.

  5. 77 FR 35425 - Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaic Cells and Modules From China; Scheduling of the Final Phase of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-13

    ... 7, 2011. See 76 FR 61937 (Oct. 6, 2011) and the newly revised Commission's Handbook on E-Filing... COMMISSION Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaic Cells and Modules From China; Scheduling of the Final Phase of... crystalline silicon photovoltaic cells and modules, provided for in subheadings 8501.31.80, 8501.61.00,...

  6. Simulation of an active cooling system for photovoltaic modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdelhakim, Lotfi

    2016-06-01

    Photovoltaic cells are devices that convert solar radiation directly into electricity. However, solar radiation increases the photovoltaic cells temperature [1] [2]. The temperature has an influence on the degradation of the cell efficiency and the lifetime of a PV cell. This work reports on a water cooling technique for photovoltaic panel, whereby the cooling system was placed at the front surface of the cells to dissipate excess heat away and to block unwanted radiation. By using water as a cooling medium for the photovoltaic solar cells, the overheating of closed panel is greatly reduced without prejudicing luminosity. The water also acts as a filter to remove a portion of solar spectrum in the infrared band but allows transmission of the visible spectrum most useful for the PV operation. To improve the cooling system efficiency and electrical efficiency, uniform flow rate among the cooling system is required to ensure uniform distribution of the operating temperature of the PV cells. The aims of this study are to develop a 3D thermal model to simulate the cooling and heat transfer in Photovoltaic panel and to recommend a cooling technique for the PV panel. The velocity, pressure and temperature distribution of the three-dimensional flow across the cooling block were determined using the commercial package, Fluent. The second objective of this work is to study the influence of the geometrical dimensions of the panel, water mass flow rate and water inlet temperature on the flow distribution and the solar panel temperature. The results obtained by the model are compared with experimental results from testing the prototype of the cooling device.

  7. Byproduct mineral commodities used for the production of photovoltaic cells

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bleiwas, Donald I.

    2010-01-01

    Rising fossil fuel costs, environmental concerns relating to global climate change, and Government policy to signifcantly increase our Nation's energy independence have placed greater emphasis on the generation of electricity from renewable sources, such as the Sun (light and heat), water, and wind, which for all intents and purposes are inexhaustible resources. Although the total amount of electricity generated from the direct conversion of sunlight through photovoltaic cells is relatively small compared with that from other forms of renewable energy, the rate of growth in the sector is signifcant. The total value of energy of photovoltaic cells produced worldwide increased to nearly 7 gigawatts (GW) in 2008 from 45 megawatts (MW) in 1990, a compound annual growth rate of about 30 percent. In the United States, manufacturing of photovoltaic cells has grown exponentially to about 480 MW in 2008, accounting for 6 percent of world production, from less than 10 MW of photovoltaic capacity in 1990 (Benner, 2007; U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration, 2010), a compound annual growth rate of approxi-mately 23 percent. A production capacity of 1 GW of electricity [or 8,760 gigawatthours1 (GWh)] is equivalent to the annual electricity requirements for roughly 800,000 average households in the United States (U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration, 2010). This estimate does not include losses of electricity, such as during transmission through power lines.

  8. Improved Coefficient Calculator for the California Energy Commission 6 Parameter Photovoltaic Module Model

    SciTech Connect

    Dobos, A. P.

    2012-05-01

    This paper describes an improved algorithm for calculating the six parameters required by the California Energy Commission (CEC) photovoltaic (PV) Calculator module model. Rebate applications in California require results from the CEC PV model, and thus depend on an up-to-date database of module characteristics. Currently, adding new modules to the database requires calculating operational coefficients using a general purpose equation solver - a cumbersome process for the 300+ modules added on average every month. The combination of empirical regressions and heuristic methods presented herein achieve automated convergence for 99.87% of the 5487 modules in the CEC database and greatly enhance the accuracy and efficiency by which new modules can be characterized and approved for use. The added robustness also permits general purpose use of the CEC/6 parameter module model by modelers and system analysts when standard module specifications are known, even if the module does not exist in a preprocessed database.

  9. Effects of light illumination during damp/dry heat tests on a flexible thin film photovoltaic module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakurai, Keiichiro; Takano, Akihiro; Takani, Masayoshi; Masuda, Atsushi

    2015-09-01

    Current injected damp heat (CDH) test have been reported to accelerate certain type of long-term degradation observed in at least one prototype flexible thin film silicon photovoltaic (PV) modules deployed in field [1]. This report have raised a question that whether conventional DH tests should be combined with current injection or light illumination to better reproduce long-time degradations of flexible thin film modules. To answer this question, we have been testing multiple flexible products available in the market, as part of the activities of Japanese Task Group 8 of the International PV Quality Assurance Task Force (PVQAT) [2]. Here, we present some results of our damp (or dry) heat testing with light illumination on a flexible CIGS module product with relatively poor moisture barriers.

  10. Solder fatigue reduction in point focus photovoltaic concentrator modules

    SciTech Connect

    Hund, T.D.; Burchett, S.N.

    1991-01-01

    Solder fatigue tests have been conducted on point focus photovoltaic concentration cell assemblies to identify a baseline fatigue life and to quantify the fatigue life improvements that result using a copper-molybdenum-copper low-expansion insert between the solar cell and copper heat spreader. Solder microstructural changes and fatigue crack growth were identified using cross sections and ultrasonic scans of the fatigue solder joints. The Coffin-Manson and Total Strain fatigue models for low-cycle fatigue were evaluated for use in fatigue life predictions. Since both of these models require strain calculations, two strain calculation methods were compared: hand-calculated shear strain and a finite element method shear strain. At present, the available theoretical models for low-cycle solder fatigue are limited in their ability to predict failure; consequently, extensive thermal cycling is continuing to define the fatigue life for point focus photovoltaic cell assemblies. 9 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Performance and reliability of photovoltaic modules at various MIT LL test sites

    SciTech Connect

    Forman, S. E.; Themelis, M. P.

    1980-01-01

    Between March 1977 and the present, MIT Lincoln Laboratory, in conjunction with the US Department of Energy, has placed 85 kW of photovoltaic modules at various experimental test sites in the United States. These sites range in size and function from a 25-kW System Test Facility, where all the components in a PV system are tested, down to a 0.1-kW Environmental Test Site, where modules alone undergo weathering and soil accumulation experiments. To date, 144 modules (amounting to 2.75 kW) of 4533 have experienced electrical failure. This report summarizes the performance and reliability of photovoltaic modules at two experimental test sites: a 25-kW array field at Mead, Nebraska, and a 7.5-kW array field at Arlington, Texas.

  12. Structural cost optimization of photovoltaic central power station modules and support structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutton, P. D.; Stolte, W. J.; Marsh, R. O.

    1979-01-01

    The results of a comprehensive study of photovoltaic module structural support concepts for photovoltaic central power stations and their associated costs are presented. The objective of the study has been the identification of structural cost drivers. Parametric structural design and cost analyses of complete array systems consisting of modules, primary support structures, and foundations were performed. Area related module cost was found to be constant with design, size, and loading. A curved glass module concept was evaluated and found to have the potential to significantly reduce panel structural costs. Conclusions of the study are: array costs do not vary greatly among the designs evaluated; panel and array costs are strongly dependent on design loading; and the best support configuration is load dependent

  13. A pulse-width modulated, high reliability charge controller for small photovoltaic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Gerken, K.; Welsh, D.

    1997-02-01

    This report presents the results of a development effort to design, test and begin production of a new class of small photovoltaic (PV) charge controllers. Sandia National Laboratories provided technical support, test data and financial support through a Balance-of-System Development contract. One of the objectives of the development was to increase user confidence in small PV systems by improving the reliability and operating life of the system controllers. Another equally important objective was to improve the economics of small PV systems by extending the battery lifetimes. Using new technology and advanced manufacturing techniques, these objectives were accomplished. Because small stand-alone PV systems account for over one third of all PV modules shipped, the positive impact of improving the reliability and economics of PV systems in this market segment will be felt throughout the industry. The results of verification testing of the new product are also included in this report. The initial design goals and specifications were very aggressive, but the extensive testing demonstrates that all the goals were achieved. Production of the product started in May at a rate of 2,000 units per month. Over 40 Morningstar distributors (5 US and 35 overseas) have taken delivery in the first 2 months of shipments. Initial customer reactions to the new controller have been very favorable.

  14. Building America Case Study: Photovoltaic Systems with Module-Level Power Electronics

    SciTech Connect

    2015-09-01

    Direct current (DC) power optimizers and microinverters (together known as module-level power electronics, or MLPE) are one of the fastest growing market segments in the solar industry. According to GTM Research in The Global PV Inverter Landscape 2015, over 55% of all residential photovoltaic (PV) installations in the United States used some form of MLPE in 2014.

  15. 77 FR 25400 - Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaic Cells, Whether or Not Assembled Into Modules, From the People's...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-30

    ..., 76 FR 70966 (November 16, 2011), and Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaic Cells, Whether or Not Assembled Into Modules, From the People's Republic of China: Initiation of Antidumping Duty Investigation, 76 FR..., 77 FR 17439 (March 26, 2012). Because the AD and CVD investigations were initiated simultaneously...

  16. Robust Measurement of Thin-Film Photovoltaic Modules Exhibiting Light-Induced Transients: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Deceglie, Michael, G.; Silverman, Timothy J.; Marion, Bill; Kurtz, Sarah R.

    2015-09-09

    Light-induced changes to the current-voltage characteristic of thin-film photovoltaic modules (i.e. light-soaking effects) frustrate the repeatable measurement of their operating power. We describe best practices for mitigating, or stabilizing, light-soaking effects for both CdTe and CIGS modules to enable robust, repeatable, and relevant power measurements. We motivate the practices by detailing how modules react to changes in different stabilization methods. We also describe and demonstrate a method for validating alternative stabilization procedures, such as those relying on forward bias in the dark. Reliable measurements of module power are critical for qualification testing, reliability testing, and power rating.

  17. Robust measurement of thin-film photovoltaic modules exhibiting light-induced transients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deceglie, Michael G.; Silverman, Timothy J.; Marion, Bill; Kurtz, Sarah R.

    2015-09-01

    Light-induced changes to the current-voltage characteristic of thin-film photovoltaic modules (i.e. light-soaking effects) frustrate the repeatable measurement of their operating power. We describe best practices for mitigating, or stabilizing, light-soaking effects for both CdTe and CIGS modules to enable robust, repeatable, and relevant power measurements. We motivate the practices by detailing how modules react to changes in different stabilization methods. We also describe and demonstrate a method for validating alternative stabilization procedures, such as those relying on forward bias in the dark. Reliable measurements of module power are critical for qualification testing, reliability testing, and power rating.

  18. Thermal and optical performance of encapsulation systems for flat-plate photovoltaic modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minning, C. P.; Coakley, J. F.; Perrygo, C. M.; Garcia, A., III; Cuddihy, E. F.

    1981-01-01

    The electrical power output from a photovoltaic module is strongly influenced by the thermal and optical characteristics of the module encapsulation system. Described are the methodology and computer model for performing fast and accurate thermal and optical evaluations of different encapsulation systems. The computer model is used to evaluate cell temperature, solar energy transmittance through the encapsulation system, and electric power output for operation in a terrestrial environment. Extensive results are presented for both superstrate-module and substrate-module design schemes which include different types of silicon cell materials, pottants, and antireflection coatings.

  19. Thermal and other tests of photovoltaic modules performed in natural sunlight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stultz, J. W.

    1978-01-01

    The bulk of the testing was the characterization of twenty-nine modules according to their nominal operating cell temperature (NOCT) and the effect on NOCT of changes in module design, various residential roof mounting configurations, and dirt accumulation. Other tests, often performed parallel with the NOCT measurements, evaluated the improvement in electrical performance by cooling the modules with water and by channeling the waste heat into a phase change material (wax). Electrical degradation resulting from the natural marriage of photovoltaic and solar water heating modules was also demonstrated. Cost effectiveness of each of these techniques are evaluated in light of the LSA cost goal of $0.50 per watt.

  20. Performance degradation of grid-tied photovoltaic modules in a hot-dry climatic condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suleske, Adam; Singh, Jaspreet; Kuitche, Joseph; Tamizh-Mani, Govindasamy

    2011-09-01

    The crystalline silicon photovoltaic (PV) modules under open circuit conditions typically degrade at a rate of about 0.5% per year. However, it is suspected that the modules in an array level may degrade, depending on equipment/frame grounding and array grounding, at higher rates because of higher string voltage and increased module mismatch over the years of operation in the field. This paper compares and analyzes the degradation rates of grid-tied photovoltaic modules operating over 10-17 years in a desert climatic condition of Arizona. The nameplate open-circuit voltages of the arrays ranged between 400 and 450 V. Six different types/models of crystalline silicon modules with glass/glass and glass/polymer constructions were evaluated. About 1865 modules were inspected using an extended visual inspection checklist and infrared (IR) scanning. The visual inspection checklist included encapsulant discoloration, cell/interconnect cracks, delamination and corrosion. Based on the visual inspection and IR studies, a large fraction of these modules were identified as allegedly healthy and unhealthy modules and they were electrically isolated from the system for currentvoltage (I-V) measurements of individual modules. The annual degradation rate for each module type is determined based on the I-V measurements.

  1. Estimating Parameters for the PVsyst Version 6 Photovoltaic Module Performance Model

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, Clifford

    2015-10-01

    We present an algorithm to determine parameters for the photovoltaic module perf ormance model encoded in the software package PVsyst(TM) version 6. Our method operates on current - voltage (I - V) measured over a range of irradiance and temperature conditions. We describe the method and illustrate its steps using data for a 36 cell crystalli ne silicon module. We qualitatively compare our method with one other technique for estimating parameters for the PVsyst(TM) version 6 model .

  2. Development of a photovoltaic module qualification test based on combined-environment accelerated stress data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trenchard, S. E.; Royal, E.; Anderson, R. T.

    The U.S. Coast Guard has developed a qualification test to screen photovoltaic modules for utilization on marine aids to navigation. The test is based on a combined-environment of hot and cold saltwater immersion and air pressurization. The test has demonstrated a very high acceleration factor and excellent correlation of electrical failures with modules in a concurrent real-time marine exposure.

  3. Development of a photovoltaic module qualification test based on combined-environment accelerated stress data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trenchard, S. E.; Royal, E.; Anderson, R. T.

    1982-01-01

    The U.S. Coast Guard has developed a qualification test to screen photovoltaic modules for utilization on marine aids to navigation. The test is based on a combined-environment of hot and cold saltwater immersion and air pressurization. The test has demonstrated a very high acceleration factor and excellent correlation of electrical failures with modules in a concurrent real-time marine exposure.

  4. Ability of photovoltaic modules to withstand lightning strikes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felder, B.; Robb, J. D.

    The ability of glass superstrate and metal/plastic substrate modules to withstand lightning strikes was examined. Each of three different types of modules were exposed to four nearby and one direct strike of high voltage, long arc simulated lightning, and to one direct strike of high current, long duration lightning. Visual and electrical examination demonstrated that the high voltage strikes produced no electrical damage to the glass superstrate modules and little to the plastic substrate module. The high current, long duration strike resulted in varying degrees of physical damage to all modules but little or no loss in electrical performance.

  5. Cost Analysis of a Concentrator Photovoltaic Hydrogen Production System

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, J. R.; McConnell, R. D.; Mosleh, M.

    2005-08-01

    The development of efficient, renewable methods of producing hydrogen are essential for the success of the hydrogen economy. Since the feedstock for electrolysis is water, there are no harmful pollutants emitted during the use of the fuel. Furthermore, it has become evident that concentrator photovoltaic (CPV) systems have a number of unique attributes that could shortcut the development process, and increase the efficiency of hydrogen production to a point where economics will then drive the commercial development to mass scale.

  6. Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology (PVMaT) improvements for ENTECH`s concentrator module. Final technical report, 9 January 1991--14 April 1991

    SciTech Connect

    O`Neill, M.J.; McDanal, A.J.; Perry, J.L.; Jackson, M.C.; Walters, R.R.

    1991-11-01

    This final technical report documents ENTECH`s Phase 1 contract with Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology (PVMaT) project. Under this project we prepared a detailed description of our current manufacturing process for making our unique linear Fresnel lens photovoltaic concentrator modules. In addition, we prepared a detailed description of an improved manufacturing process, which will simultaneously increase module production rates, enhance module quality, and substantially reduce module costs. We also identified potential problems in implementing the new manufacturing process, and we proposed solutions to these anticipated problems. Before discussing the key results of our program, however, we present a brief description of our unique photovoltaic technology. The key conclusion of our PVMAT Phase 1 study is that our module technology, without further breakthroughs, can realistically meet the near-term DOE goal of 12 cents/kWh levelized electricity cost, provided that we successfully implement the new manufacturing process at a production volume of at least 10 megawatts per year. The key recommendation from our Phase 1 study is to continue our PVMaT project into Phase 2A, which is directed toward the actual manufacturing technology development required for our new module production process. 15 refs.

  7. Production of solar photovoltaic cells on the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Criswell, David R.; Ignatiev, Alex

    1991-01-01

    Solar energy is directly available on the sunward lunar surface. Most, if not all, the materials are available on the Moon to make silicon based solar photovoltaic cells. A few additional types are possible. There is a small but growing literature on production of lunar derived solar cells. This literature is reviewed. Topics explored include trade-offs of local production versus import of key materials, processing options, the scale and nature of production equipment, implications of storage requirements, and the end-uses of the energy. Directions for future research and demonstrations are indicated.

  8. Photovoltaic module hot spot durability design and test methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnett, J. C.; Gonzalez, C. C.

    1981-01-01

    As part of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Low-Cost Solar Array Project, the susceptibility of fat-plate modules to hot-spot problems is investigated. Hot-spot problems arise in modules when the cells become back-biased and operate in the negative-voltage quadrant, as a result of short-circuit current mismatch, cell cracking or shadowing. The details of a qualification test for determining the capability of modules of surviving field hot-spot problems and typical results of this test are presented. In addition, recommended circuit-design techniques for improving the module and array reliability with respect to hot-spot problems are presented.

  9. Operation and maintenance cost data for residential photovoltaic modules/panels

    SciTech Connect

    1980-07-01

    Burt Hill Kosar Rittelmann Associates has conducted a study to identify and estimate costs associated with the operation and maintenance of residential photovoltaic modules and arrays. Six basic topics related to operation and maintenance to photovoltaic arrays were investigated - General (Normal) Maintenance, Cleaning, Panel Replacement, Gasket Repair/Replacement, Wiring Repair/Replacement, and Termination Repair/Replacement. The effects of the mounting types - Rack Mount, Stand-Off Mount, Direct Mount, and Integral Mount - and the installation/replacement type - Sequential, Partial Interruption, and Independent - have been identified and described. Recommendation on methods of reducing maintenance costs are made.

  10. SOLERAS - Analysis of photovoltaic concentrator module failures and repair methods

    SciTech Connect

    Huraib, F.S.; Imamura, M.S.; Salim, A.A.; Rao, N.R.

    1987-06-01

    This report presents the results of the failure analysis, performed from early 1984 through September 1986 on the open-circuited modules, and the assessment of repairing these modules on site at the Solar Village. 16 refs., 26 figs., 19 tabs.

  11. Influence of volcanic tephra on photovoltaic (PV)-modules: An experimental study with application to the 2010 Eyjafjallajokull eruption, Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zorn, Edgar; Walter, Thomas R.

    2016-04-01

    Large volcanic eruptions may lead to significant tephra dispersion, crossing borders and affecting distant and industrial societies in various ways. While the effects of volcanic ash clouds on the aviation industry have been recognized, damaging effects on the photovoltaic energy sector are poorly investigated. Here we describe the influence of volcanic tephra deposition on photovoltaic (PV) modules that we experimentally analyzed and evaluated. A systematic set of experiments was conducted under controlled conditions using an artificial light source and measuring the electrical power generated from the PV-modules with the aim to determine the dependency of the amount of tephra covering a module and its subsequent loss in power production (measured in voltage and current) as well as the influence of the tephra grain size. We find that a mass of fine tephra has a stronger influence on the PV-modules power generation than the same mass of coarser particles. An application to the fine-grained 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption in Iceland and the resulting ash-cloud reveals that the power produced by PV-modules in continental Europe might have been affected significantly. Deposits were thick enough to cause complete failures of PV-modules up to a distance of about 300 km downwind. Although this distance is largely over the ocean in this particular case, our results imply that similar and larger eruptions of other volcanoes elsewhere might harm commercial or private energy production at distances of hundreds to thousands of kilometers from the volcano. Given that volcanic eruptions are frequent and the fact that the PV-industry is growing rapidly, negative impacts are expected in the future, requiring close tephra dispersion monitoring and PV-maintenance strategies.

  12. Concentrating Photovoltaic Module Testing at NREL's Concentrating Solar Radiation Users Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Bingham, C.; Lewandowski, A.; Stone, K.; Sherif, R.; Ortabasi, U.; Kusek, S.

    2003-05-01

    There has been much recent interest in photovoltaic modules designed to operate with concentrated sunlight (>100 suns). Concentrating photovoltaic (CPV) technology offers an exciting new opportunity as a viable alternative to dish Stirling engines. Advantages of CPV include potential for>40% cell efficiency in the long term (25% now), no moving parts, no intervening heat transfer surface, near-ambient temperature operation, no thermal mass, fast response, concentration reduces cost of cells relative to optics, and scalable to a range of sizes. Over the last few years, we have conducted testing of several CPV modules for DOEs Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) program. The testing facilities are located at the Concentrating Solar Radiation Users Facility (CRULF) and consist the 10 kW High-Flux Solar Furnace (HFSF) and a 14m2 Concentrating Technologies, LLC (CTEK) dish. This paper will primarily describe the test capabilities; module test results will be detailed in the presentation.

  13. A photovoltaics module for incoming science, technology, engineering and mathematics undergraduates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dark, Marta L.

    2011-05-01

    Photovoltaic-cell-based projects have been used to train eight incoming undergraduate women who were part of a residential summer programme at a women's college. A module on renewable energy and photovoltaic cells was developed in the physics department. The module's objectives were to introduce women in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) majors to physical phenomena, to develop quantitative literacy and communication skills, and to increase the students' interest in physics. The students investigated the performance of commercially available silicon semiconductors through experiments they designed, carried out and analysed. They fabricated and tested organic dye-based solar cells. This article describes the programme, the solar cell module, and presents some experimental results obtained by the students.

  14. PVSIM{copyright}: A simulation program for photovoltaic cells, modules, and arrays

    SciTech Connect

    King, D.L.; Dudley, J.K.; Boyson, W.E.

    1996-06-01

    An electrical simulation model for photovoltaic cells, modules, and arrays has been developed that will be useful to a wide range of analysts in the photovoltaic industry. The Microsoft{reg_sign} Windows{trademark} based program can be used to analyze individual cells, to analyze the effects of cell mismatch or reverse bias(`hot spot`) heating in modules and to analyze the performance of large arrays of modules including bypass and blocking diodes. User defined statistical variance can be applied to the fundamental parameters used to simulate the cells and diodes. The model is most appropriate for cells that can be accurately modeled using a two-diode equivalent circuit. This paper describes the simulation program and illustrates its versatility with examples.

  15. Synergic system between photovoltaic module and microbial fuel cell with simultaneous pollution control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasyliv, Oresta; Dhere, Neelkanth G.

    2015-05-01

    Combined photovoltaic module-microbial fuel cell construction shows prospect of advanced autonomous functioning effective energy-production system with the possibility of round-the-clock power generation. Application of Desulfuromonas sp. as anode biocatalyst in photovoltaic (PV) - microbial fuel cell (MFC) could support highly effective eco-friendly energy derivation with simultaneous reduction of organic and inorganic wastes in water environment. D. acetoxidans is exoelectrogenic bacterium that supports S0-reduction with H2S formation and S0-oxidation while an electrode serves as the electron acceptor. Simultaneous sulfur redox processes enhance electron transfer to the electrode surface that may increase the effectiveness of microbial fuel cell performance. It was shown that D. acetoxidans IMV B-7384 possesses selective resistance to 0.5-2.5 mM of copper, iron, nickel, manganese and lead ions. Metal-resistant strains of this bacterium may help overcome H2S toxicity, which is produced because of dissimilative S0-reduction, since divalent cations will interact with sulfide ions, forming insoluble precipitates. Thus D. acetoxidans IMV B-7384 may be applied for remediation of toxic metal ions from water environments because of metal fixation in form of insoluble complexes of metal sulfides. D. acetoxidans IMV B-7384 is presumed to have the capability to convert organic compounds, such as malate, pyruvate, succinate and fumarate via reductive stage of tricarboxylic acid cycle. Thus application of effluents as anolyte in MFC, based on D. acetoxidans IMV B-7384, may cause decrease of its organic content with formation of simple benign constituents, such as CO2 and H2O. Hence the advanced system for eco-friendly energy generation with simultaneous water pollution control is proposed.

  16. Interim qualification tests and procedures for terrestrial photovoltaic thin-film flat-plate modules

    SciTech Connect

    DeBlasio, R.; Mrig, L.; Waddington, D.

    1990-01-01

    This document provides recommended procedures and specifications for qualification tests that are structured to evaluate terrestrial thin-film flat-plate photovoltaic nonconcentrating modules intended for power generation applications. The qualification tests provided in this document are designed to evaluate flat-plate thin-film photovoltaic (PV) module design performance and susceptibility to known failure mechanisms. Emphasis is placed on testing and evaluating module performance characteristics and design features that will affect possible degradation of module performance and physical properties resulting from solar exposure, environmental weathering, mechanical loading, corrosion, and module shadowing. Because of limited thin-film module field operation experience and the evolutionary nature of new thin-film module material technologies and designs, these tests should not be considered definitive or complete, nor do they provide a basis to predict 30-year field life. Current understanding of failure and degradation mechanisms and the relationship between accelerated tests and field reliability is not sufficient to allow accurate estimation of life-expectancy, nor are the cycling tests given in this document considered to be equivalent to a full 30-year field exposure. However, the test and evaluation procedures given in this document provide a common approach for conducting qualification tests. Acceptable results from these tests should provide reasonable assurance that the modules that pass these tests will perform reliably in the field but for an unspecified period of time. 8 refs., 6 figs.

  17. Interim qualification tests and procedures for terrestrial photovoltaic thin-film flat-plate modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deblasio, R.; Mrig, L.; Waddington, D.

    1990-01-01

    This document provides recommended procedures and specifications for qualification tests that are structured to evaluate terrestrial thin-film flat-plate photovoltaic nonconcentrating modules intended for power generation applications. The qualification tests provided in this document are designed to evaluate flat-plate thin-film photovoltaic (PV) module design performance and susceptibility to known failure mechanisms. Emphasis is placed on testing and evaluating module performance characteristics and design features that will affect possible degradation of module performance and physical properties resulting from solar exposure, environmental weathering, mechanical loading, corrosion, and module shadowing. Because of limited thin-film module field operation experience and the evolutionary nature of new thin-film module material technologies and designs, these tests should not be considered definitive or complete, nor do they provide a basis to predict 30-year field life. Current understanding of failure and degradation mechanisms and the relationship between accelerated tests and field reliability is not sufficient to allow accurate estimation of life-expectancy, nor are the cycling tests given in this document considered to be equivalent to a full 30-year field exposure. However, the test and evaluation procedures given in this document provide a common approach for conducting qualification tests. Acceptable results from these tests should provide reasonable assurance that the modules that pass these tests will perform reliably in the field but for an unspecified period of time.

  18. Crystalline-silicon photovoltaics summary module design and reliability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, R. G., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    The evolution of the design and reliability of solar modules was described. Design requirements involved 14 different considerations, including residential building and material electrical codes, wind-loading, hail impact, operating temperature levels, module flammability, and interfaces for both the array structure and the operation of the system. Reliability research involved in diverse investigations including glass-fracture strength, soiling levels, electrochemical corrosion, and bypass-diode qualification tests. Based on these internationally recognized studies, performance assessments, and failure analyses, the Flat-plate Solar Array Project in its 11-year duration served to nuture the development of 45 different solar module designs from 15 PV manufacturers.

  19. Ultralight amorphous silicon alloy photovoltaic modules for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanak, J. J.; Chen, Englade; Fulton, C.; Myatt, A.; Woodyard, J. R.

    1987-01-01

    Ultralight and ultrathin, flexible, rollup monolithic PV modules have been developed consisting of multijunction, amorphous silicon alloys for either terrestrial or aerospace applications. The rate of progress in increasing conversion efficiency of stable multijunction and multigap PV cells indicates that arrays of these modules can be available for NASA's high power systems in the 1990's. Because of the extremely light module weight and the highly automated process of manufacture, the monolithic a-Si alloy arrays are expected to be strongly competitive with other systems for use in NASA's space station or in other large aerospace applications.

  20. Measuring solar spectral and angle-of-incidence effects on photovoltaic modules and solar irradiance sensors

    SciTech Connect

    King, D.L.; Kratochvil, J.A.; Boyson, W.E.

    1997-11-01

    Historically, two time-of-day dependent factors have complicated the characterization of photovoltaic module and array performance; namely, changes in the solar spectrum over the day and optical effects in the module that vary with the solar angle-of-incidence. This paper describes straightforward methods for directly measuring the effects of these two factors. Measured results for commercial modules, as well as for typical solar irradiance sensors (pyranometers) are provided. The empirical relationships obtained from the measurements can be used to improve the methods used for system design, verification of performance after installation, and diagnostic monitoring of performance during operation.

  1. Metastable Changes to the Temperature Coefficients of Thin-Film Photovoltaic Modules

    SciTech Connect

    Deceglie, M. G.; Silverman, T. J.; Marion, B.; Kurtz, S. R.

    2014-07-01

    Transient changes in the performance of thin-film modules with light exposure are a well-known and widely reported phenomenon. These changes are often the result of reversible metastabilities rather than irreversible changes. Here we consider how these metastable changes affect the temperature dependence of photovoltaic performance. We find that in CIGS modules exhibiting a metastable increase in performance with light exposure, the light exposure also induces an increase in the magnitude of the temperature coefficient. It is important to understand such changes when characterizing temperature coefficients and when analyzing the outdoor performance of newly installed modules.

  2. Microscopic Degradation Mechanisms in Silicon Photovoltaic Module under Long-Term Environmental Exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuda, Keiko; Watanabe, Takeshi; Sakaguchi, Koichi; Yoshikawa, Masanobu; Doi, Takuya; Masuda, Atsushi

    2012-10-01

    We used several analytical methods to identify the mechanism underlying the performance degradation in a photovoltaic (PV) module subjected to long-term (10 years) field exposure. Cloudy visual defects in this module were caused by delamination between the poly(ethylene vinyl acetate) (EVA) and antireflection coating films on the Si substrate. The delamination was considered to be caused by the formation of a segregation layer and oxidative degradation of EVA. Furthermore, it was found that sodium ions diffused from the superstrate glass into the EVA film and Si cell. We confirm that diffusion of sodium ions caused the degradation of Si cells and the superstrate glass of this module.

  3. Electrochemical degradation of amorphous-silicon photovoltaic modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mon, G. R.; Ross, R. G., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Techniques of module electrochemical corrosion research, developed during reliability studies of crystalline-silicon modules (C-Si), have been applied to this new investigation into amorphous-silicon (a-Si) module reliability. Amorphous-Si cells, encapsulated in the polymers polyvinyl butyral (PVB) and ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA), were exposed for more than 1200 hours in a controlled 85 C/85 percent RH environment, with a constant 500 volts applied between the cells and an aluminum frame. Plotting power output reduction versus charge transferred reveals that about 50 percent a-Si cell failures can be expected with the passage of 0.1 to 1.0 Coulomb/cm of cell-frame edge length; this threshold is somewhat less than that determined for C-Si modules.

  4. Partial shade stress test for thin-film photovoltaic modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silverman, Timothy J.; Deceglie, Michael G.; Deline, Chris; Kurtz, Sarah

    2015-09-01

    Partial shade of monolithic thin-film PV modules can cause reverse-bias conditions leading to permanent damage. In this work, we introduce a partial shade stress test for thin-film PV modules that quantifies permanent performance loss. The test reproduces shading and loading conditions that may occur in the field. It accounts for reversible light-induced performance changes and for the effects of light-enhanced reverse breakdown. We simulated the test procedure using a computer model that predicts the local voltage, current and temperature stress resulting from partial shade. We also performed the test on three commercial module types. Each module type we tested suffered permanent damage during masked ash testing totaling < 2 s of light exposure. During the subsequent stress test these module types lost 4%{11% in Pmp due to widespread formation of new shunts. One module type showed a substantial worsening of the Pmp loss upon light stabilization, underscoring the importance of this practice for proper quantification of damage.

  5. Cost and Potential of Monolithic CIGS Photovoltaic Modules

    SciTech Connect

    Horowitz, Kelsey A.; Woodhouse, Michael

    2015-06-14

    A bottom-up cost analysis of monolithic, glass-glass Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S)2 (CIGS) modules is presented, illuminating current cost drivers for this technology and possible pathways to reduced cost. At 14% module efficiency, for the case of U.S. manufacturing, a manufacturing cost of $0.56/WDC and a minimum sustainable price of $0.72/WDC were calculated. Potential for reduction in manufacturing costs to below $0.40/WDC in the long-term may be possible if module efficiency can be increased without significant increase in $/m2 costs. The levelized cost of energy (LCOE) in Phoenix, AZ under different conditions is assessed and compared to standard c-Si.

  6. Cost and Potential of Monolithic CIGS Photovoltaic Modules

    SciTech Connect

    Horowitz, Kelsey; Woodhouse, Michael

    2015-06-17

    A bottom-up cost analysis of monolithic, glass-glass Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S)2 (CIGS) modules is presented, illuminating current cost drivers for this technology and possible pathways to reduced cost. At 14% module efficiency, for the case of U.S. manufacturing, a manufacturing cost of $0.56/WDC and a minimum sustainable price of $0.72/WDC were calculated. Potential for reduction in manufacturing costs to below $0.40/WDC in the long-term may be possible if module efficiency can be increased without significant increase in $/m2 costs. The levelized cost of energy (LCOE) in Phoenix, AZ under different conditions is assessed and compared to standard c-Si.

  7. Dark current-voltage measurements on photovoltaic modules as a diagnostic or manufacturing tool

    SciTech Connect

    King, D.L.; Hansen, B.R.; Quintana, M.A.; Kratochvil, J.A.

    1997-10-01

    Dark current-voltage (dark I-V) measurements are commonly used to analyze the electrical characteristics of solar cells, providing an effective way to determine fundamental performance parameters without the need for a solar simulator. The dark I-V measurement procedure does not provide information regarding short-circuit current, but is more sensitive than light I-V measurements in determining the other parameters (series resistance, shunt resistance, diode factor, and diode saturation currents) that dictate the electrical performance of a photovoltaic device. The work documented here extends the use of dark I-V measurements to photovoltaic modules, illustrates their use in diagnosing module performance losses, and proposes their use for process monitoring during manufacturing.

  8. Fatigue degradation and electric recovery in Silicon solar cells embedded in photovoltaic modules

    PubMed Central

    Paggi, Marco; Berardone, Irene; Infuso, Andrea; Corrado, Mauro

    2014-01-01

    Cracking in Silicon solar cells is an important factor for the electrical power-loss of photovoltaic modules. Simple geometrical criteria identifying the amount of inactive cell areas depending on the position of cracks with respect to the main electric conductors have been proposed in the literature to predict worst case scenarios. Here we present an experimental study based on the electroluminescence (EL) technique showing that crack propagation in monocrystalline Silicon cells embedded in photovoltaic (PV) modules is a much more complex phenomenon. In spite of the very brittle nature of Silicon, due to the action of the encapsulating polymer and residual thermo-elastic stresses, cracked regions can recover the electric conductivity during mechanical unloading due to crack closure. During cyclic bending, fatigue degradation is reported. This pinpoints the importance of reducing cyclic stresses caused by vibrations due to transportation and use, in order to limit the effect of cracking in Silicon cells. PMID:24675974

  9. Measuring complex for studying cascade solar photovoltaic cells and concentrator modules on their basis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larionov, V. R.; Malevskii, D. A.; Pokrovskii, P. V.; Rumyantsev, V. D.

    2015-06-01

    The design and implementation of several measuring complexes intended for studying cascade solar photovoltaic converters are considered. The complexes consist of a solar simulator and an electronic unit with an active load. The high-aperture light source of the complex reproduces solar intensity over wide spectral range λ = 350-1700 nm with an angle of divergence of ±0.26°, which are characteristic of solar radiation. The active load of the electronic unit allows taking both dark and illuminated I- V characteristics of test objects within about 1 ms during the quasi-stationary part of the irradiation pulse. The small size and low power consumption of the complexes hold out the hope that they will be widely used in designing, refining, and testing cascade efficient photovoltaic converters made of III-V materials and solar modules integrating these converters with concentrator modules.

  10. Fatigue degradation and electric recovery in Silicon solar cells embedded in photovoltaic modules.

    PubMed

    Paggi, Marco; Berardone, Irene; Infuso, Andrea; Corrado, Mauro

    2014-01-01

    Cracking in Silicon solar cells is an important factor for the electrical power-loss of photovoltaic modules. Simple geometrical criteria identifying the amount of inactive cell areas depending on the position of cracks with respect to the main electric conductors have been proposed in the literature to predict worst case scenarios. Here we present an experimental study based on the electroluminescence (EL) technique showing that crack propagation in monocrystalline Silicon cells embedded in photovoltaic (PV) modules is a much more complex phenomenon. In spite of the very brittle nature of Silicon, due to the action of the encapsulating polymer and residual thermo-elastic stresses, cracked regions can recover the electric conductivity during mechanical unloading due to crack closure. During cyclic bending, fatigue degradation is reported. This pinpoints the importance of reducing cyclic stresses caused by vibrations due to transportation and use, in order to limit the effect of cracking in Silicon cells. PMID:24675974