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1

Processing English with a Generalized Phrase Structure Grammar  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a natural language processing system implemented at Hewlett-Packard's Computer Research Center. The system's main components are: a Generalized Phrase Structure Grammar (GPSG); a top-down parser; a logic transducer that outputs a first-order logical representation; and a \\

Jean Mark Gawron; Jonathan King; John Lamping; Egon Loebner; E. Anne Paulson; Geoffrey K. Pullum; Ivan A. Sag; Thomas Wasow

1982-01-01

2

A phrase-driven grammar system for interactive data visualization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Phrase-Driven Grammar System (PDGS) is a novel GUI for facilitating the visualization of data. The PDGS integrates data source applications and external visualization tools into its framework and functions as a middle-layer application to coordinate their operations. It allows users to formulate data query and visualization descriptions by selecting graphical icons in a menu or on a map. To specify data query and visualization intuitively and efficiently, we designed Graphical User Interface and a natural-language-like grammar, Phrase-Driven Grammar (PDG). The formulation of PDG data query and visualization descriptions is a constrained natural-language phrase building process. PDG phrases produce graphical visualizations of the data query, allowing users to interactively explore meaningful data relationships, trends, and exceptions.

Lee, Sang Yun; Neumann, Ulrich

2008-01-01

3

Structured Contextual Grammars  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this paper is to start investigations on the possibilities of introducing a structure in the strings generated by internal contextual grammars. First, we consider the idea of associating a tree to a derivation in such a grammar. This can be done in a natural way, by associating parentheses to the contexts of the grammar. In this way

Carlos Martín-Vide; Gheorghe P?un

1998-01-01

4

Parsing Discontinuous Phrase Structure with Grammatical Functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a novel technique for parsing discontinuous phrase structure representations, labeled with both phrase\\u000a labels and grammatical functions. Phrase structure representations are transformed into dependency representations with complex\\u000a edge labels, which makes it possible to induce a dependency parser model that recovers the phrase structure with both phrase\\u000a labels and grammatical functions. We perform an evaluation on the

Johan Hall; Joakim Nivre

2008-01-01

5

Gender and Heritage Spanish Bilingual Grammars: A Study of Code-Mixed Determiner Phrases and Copula Constructions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study examined heritage speaker grammars and to what extent they diverge with respect to grammatical gender from adult L2 learners. Results from a preference task involving code-mixed Determiner Phrases (DPs) and code-mixed copula constructions show a difference between these two types of operations. Heritage speakers patterned with the…

Valenzuela, Elena; Faure, Ana; Ramirez-Trujillo, Alma P.; Barski, Ewelina; Pangtay, Yolanda; Diez, Adriana

2012-01-01

6

Can intonational phrase structure be primed (like syntactic structure)?  

PubMed

In 3 experiments, we investigated whether intonational phrase structure can be primed. In all experiments, participants listened to sentences in which the presence and location of intonational phrase boundaries were manipulated such that the recording included either no intonational phrase boundaries, a boundary in a structurally dispreferred location, a boundary in a preferred location, or boundaries in both locations. In Experiment 1, participants repeated the sentences to test whether they would reproduce the prosodic structure they had just heard. Experiments 2 and 3 used a prime-target paradigm to evaluate whether the intonational phrase structure heard in the prime sentence might influence that of a novel target sentence. Experiment 1 showed that participants did repeat back sentences that they had just heard with the original intonational phrase structure, yet Experiments 2 and 3 found that exposure to intonational phrase boundaries on prime trials did not influence how a novel target sentence was prosodically phrased. These results suggest that speakers may retain the intonational phrasing of a sentence, but this effect is not long-lived and does not generalize across unrelated sentences. Furthermore, these findings provide no evidence that intonational phrase structure is formulated during a planning stage that is separate from other sources of linguistic information. PMID:24188467

Tooley, Kristen M; Konopka, Agnieszka E; Watson, Duane G

2014-03-01

7

Tree Adjoining Grammars for RNA Structure Prediction  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we are concerned with identifying a subclass of tree adjoining grammars (TAGs) that is suitable for the application to modeling and predicting RNA secondary structures. The goal of this paper is twofold: For the purpose of applying to the RNA secondary structure prediction problem, we first introduce a special subclass of TAGs and develop a fast parsing

Yasuo Uemura; Aki Hasegawa; Satoshi Kobayashi; Takashi Yokomori

1999-01-01

8

Human kinship, from conceptual structure to grammar.  

PubMed

Research in anthropology has shown that kin terminologies have a complex combinatorial structure and vary systematically across cultures. This article argues that universals and variation in kin terminology result from the interaction of (1) an innate conceptual structure of kinship, homologous with conceptual structure in other domains, and (2) principles of optimal, "grammatical" communication active in language in general. Kin terms from two languages, English and Seneca, show how terminologies that look very different on the surface may result from variation in the rankings of a universal set of constraints. Constraints on kin terms form a system: some are concerned with absolute features of kin (sex), others with the position (distance and direction) of kin in "kinship space", others with groups and group boundaries (matrilines, patrilines, generations, etc.). Also, kin terms sometimes extend indefinitely via recursion, and recursion in kin terminology has parallels with recursion in other areas of language. Thus the study of kinship sheds light on two areas of cognition, and their phylogeny. The conceptual structure of kinship seems to borrow its organization from the conceptual structure of space, while being specialized for representing genealogy. And the grammar of kinship looks like the product of an evolved grammar faculty, opportunistically active across traditional domains of semantics, syntax, and phonology. Grammar is best understood as an offshoot of a uniquely human capacity for playing coordination games. PMID:21205333

Jones, Doug

2010-10-01

9

ncRNA consensus secondary structure derivation using grammar strings.  

PubMed

Many noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) function through both their sequences and secondary structures. Thus, secondary structure derivation is an important issue in today's RNA research. The state-of-the-art structure annotation tools are based on comparative analysis, which derives consensus structure of homologous ncRNAs. Despite promising results from existing ncRNA aligning and consensus structure derivation tools, there is a need for more efficient and accurate ncRNA secondary structure modeling and alignment methods. In this work, we introduce a consensus structure derivation approach based on grammar string, a novel ncRNA secondary structure representation that encodes an ncRNA's sequence and secondary structure in the parameter space of a context-free grammar (CFG) and a full RNA grammar including pseudoknots. Being a string defined on a special alphabet constructed from a grammar, grammar string converts ncRNA alignment into sequence alignment. We derive consensus secondary structures from hundreds of ncRNA families from BraliBase 2.1 and 25 families containing pseudoknots using grammar string alignment. Our experiments have shown that grammar string-based structure derivation competes favorably in consensus structure quality with Murlet and RNASampler. Source code and experimental data are available at http://www.cse.msu.edu/~yannisun/grammar-string. PMID:21523935

Achawanantakun, Rujira; Sun, Yanni; Takyar, Seyedeh Shohreh

2011-04-01

10

Unfolding and Event Structure Semantics for Graph Grammars  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose an unfolding semantics for graph transformation systems in the double-pushout (DPO) approach. Mimicking Winskel’s\\u000a construction for Petri nets, a graph grammar is unfolded into an acyclic branching structure, that is itself a (nondeterministic\\u000a occurrence) graph grammar describing all the possible computations of the original grammar. The unfolding can be abstracted\\u000a naturally to a prime algebraic domain and then

Paolo Baldan; Andrea Corradini; Ugo Montanari

1999-01-01

11

Development and Validation of a Diagnostic Grammar Test for Japanese Learners of English  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports on the development and validation of the English Diagnostic Test of Grammar (EDiT Grammar) for Japanese learners of English. From among the many aspects of grammar, this test focuses on the knowledge of basic English noun phrases (NPs), especially their internal structures, because previous research has indicated the…

Koizumi, Rie; Sakai, Hideki; Ido, Takahiro; Ota, Hiroshi; Hayama, Megumi; Sato, Masatoshi; Nemoto, Akiko

2011-01-01

12

Grammar-guided writing for AAC users.  

PubMed

A method of grammar-guided writing has been devised to guide graphic sign users through the construction of text messages for use in e-mail and other applications with a remote receiver. The purpose is to promote morphologically and syntactically correct sentences. The available grammatical structures in grammar-guided writing are the highest frequency phrase and sentence types in a database of tagged and parsed e-mail messages. A companion learning path allows users to begin with simple grammatical structures, advancing in steps to more complex structures as their language skills develop. In order to give further support during e-mail composition, grammar-guided writing has been augmented with two complementary text input methods. One is a quick and easy method of choosing preprogrammed messages and e-mail phrases. The other is a more traditional method of selecting graphic signs freely without grammar guidance. PMID:17937055

Hunnicutt, Sheri; Magnuson, Tina

2007-01-01

13

Image Grammar: Using Grammatical Structures To Teach Writing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book is based on the premise that a writer is much like an artist who paints images, only using grammatical structures as tools. In conjunction with this approach, each chapter is divided into concepts and strategies: concepts illustrate how professional writers have applied image grammar to develop their art, and strategies provide…

Noden, Harry R.

14

Rosenbaum's IBM Grammar No. 2: An Adaptation for Child Language. Papers and Reports on Child Language Development, No. 2.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper, based on Rosenbaum's (1967) grammar of adult English, attempts to apply ideas of deep structure and transformations to child grammar. The main rules predicated include phrase structure rules, segment structure rules, contextual features, and transformational rules. In this approach, the role of transformations is to segment and place…

Ingram, David

15

A Modular Account of Information Structure in Extensible Dependency Grammar  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce a modular, dependency-based formalization of Information Structure (IS) based on Steedman's prosodic account (1, 2). We state it in terms of Extensible Dependency Grammar (XDG) (3), introducing two new dimensions modeling 1) prosodic structure, and 2) theme\\/rheme and focus\\/background partitionings. The approach goes without a non-standard syntactic notion of constituency and can be straightforwardly extended to model interactions

Ralph Debusmann; Oana Postolache; Maarika Traat

2005-01-01

16

Implicit Acquisition of Grammars with Crossed and Nested Non-Adjacent Dependencies: Investigating the Push-Down Stack Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A recent hypothesis in empirical brain research on language is that the fundamental difference between animal and human communication systems is captured by the distinction between finite-state and more complex phrase-structure grammars, such as context-free and context-sensitive grammars. However, the relevance of this distinction for the study…

Udden, Julia; Ingvar, Martin; Hagoort, Peter; Petersson, Karl M.

2012-01-01

17

Children's Knowledge of Hierarchical Phrase Structure: Quantifier Floating in Japanese  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The interpretation of floating quantifiers in Japanese requires knowledge of hierarchical phrase structure. However, the input to children is insufficient or even misleading, as our analysis indicates. This presents an intriguing question on learnability: do children interpret floating quantifiers based on a structure-dependent rule which is not…

Suzuki, Takaaki; Yoshinaga, Naoko

2013-01-01

18

Multi-Dimensional Contributions to Garden Path Strength: Dissociating Phrase Structure from Case Marking  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Psycholinguistic investigations of reanalysis phenomena have typically focused on revisions of phrase structure. Here, we identify a further subcomponent of syntactic reanalysis, namely the revision of case marking. This aspect of reanalysis was isolated by examining German subject-object ambiguities that require a revision towards a…

Bornkessel, Ina; McElree, Brian; Schlesewsky, Matthias; Friederici, Angela D.

2004-01-01

19

Auditory temporal structure processing in dyslexia: processing of prosodic phrase boundaries is not impaired in children with dyslexia.  

PubMed

Reading disability in children with dyslexia has been proposed to reflect impairment in auditory timing perception. We investigated one aspect of timing perception--temporal grouping--as present in prosodic phrase boundaries of natural speech, in age-matched groups of children, ages 6-8 years, with and without dyslexia. Prosodic phrase boundaries are characterized by temporal grouping of functionally related speech elements and can facilitate syntactic processing of speech. For example, temporary syntactic ambiguities, such as early-closure structures, are processed faster when prosodic phrase boundaries are present. We examined children's prosodic facilitation by measuring their efficiency of sentence processing for temporary syntactic ambiguities spoken with (facilitating) versus without (neutral) prosodic phrase boundaries. Both groups of children benefited similarly from prosodic facilitation, displaying faster reaction times in facilitating compared to neutral prosody. These findings indicate that the use of prosodic phrase boundaries for speech processing is not impaired in children with dyslexia. PMID:24338429

Geiser, Eveline; Kjelgaard, Margaret; Christodoulou, Joanna A; Cyr, Abigail; Gabrieli, John D E

2014-04-01

20

MAPping Phrase Markers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An analysis of language acquisition in English and Dutch focuses on a theory of phrase structure. It is argued that the previously posited phrase structure operations of projection and adjunction can be dispensed with in favor of the single operation of "merge." One version of merge is shown to account for a range of data from child English and…

Powers, Susan M.

21

Syntactic Structure and Artificial Grammar Learning: The Learnability of Embedded Hierarchical Structures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Embedded hierarchical structures, such as "the rat the cat ate was brown", constitute a core generative property of a natural language theory. Several recent studies have reported learning of hierarchical embeddings in artificial grammar learning (AGL) tasks, and described the functional specificity of Broca's area for processing such structures.…

de Vries, Meinou H.; Monaghan, Padraic; Knecht, Stefan; Zwitserlood, Pienie

2008-01-01

22

PP Extraction and Extraposition in Functional Discourse Grammar  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article inquires into the nature of "attributive" prepositional phrases from a Functional Discourse Grammar (FDG) perspective. On the basis of the observation that such prepositional phrases can easily be separated from their host noun phrases by extraposition or extraction, it is argued that they do not belong to the noun phrase

Van de Velde, Freek

2012-01-01

23

Prosodic Aids to Speech Recognition: Acoustic-Prosodic Patterns in Selected English Phrase Structures.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The final two studies have been completed in a four year effort on developing prosodic aids to speech recognition. A procedure for using intonational phrase boundaries to select among alternative word and phrase hypotheses has been developed, refined, and...

W. A. Lea

1976-01-01

24

Evaluation of several lightweight stochastic context-free grammars for RNA secondary structure prediction  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: RNA secondary structure prediction methods based on probabilistic modeling can be developed using stochastic context-free grammars (SCFGs). Such methods can readily combine different sources of information that can be expressed probabilistically, such as an evolutionary model of comparative RNA sequence analysis and a biophysical model of structure plausibility. However, the number of free parameters in an integrated model for

Robin D. Dowell; Sean R. Eddy

2004-01-01

25

Case Grammar in Philippine Languages. Preliminary Draft.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents evidence from Philippine languages which suggests a number of modifications in the theory of case grammar. Philippine languages and adjacent related languages mark the case relationship between the verb and one noun phrase in the sentence by a particle on the noun phrase and an affix on the verb, a phenomenon which in recent…

Stevens, Alan M.

26

RNA secondary structure prediction using stochastic context-free grammars and evolutionary history  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motivation: Many computerized methods for RNA secondarystructure prediction have been developed. Few of thesemethods, however, employ an evolutionary model, thusrelevant information is often left out from the structuredetermination. This paper introduces a method whichincorporates evolutionary history into RNA secondarystructure prediction. The method reported here is based onstochastic context-free grammars (SCFGs) to give a priorprobability distribution of structures.

Bjarne Knudsen; Jotun Hein

1999-01-01

27

Determiner Phrase and Definiteness in Old High German  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates the status of nominal functional categories in the Old High German (OHG) "Isidor" and "Tatian" translations and Otfrid's "Evangelienbuch" and the structure of the extended nominal group, including the Noun Phrase (NP) and the functional phrases Determiner Phrase (DP), Case Phrase (KP) and Number Phrase (NumP), which govern…

Kraiss, Andrew M.

2011-01-01

28

Experimental Parser for Systemic Grammars.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes a general parsing method for systematic grammars. Systematic grammars contain a paradigmatic analysis of language in addition to structural information, so a parser must assign a set of grammatical features and functions to each cons...

R. T. Kasper

1988-01-01

29

Deriving a probabilistic syntacto-semantic grammar for biomedicine based on domain-specific terminologies  

PubMed Central

Biomedical natural language processing (BioNLP) is a useful technique that unlocks valuable information stored in textual data for practice and/or research. Syntactic parsing is a critical component of BioNLP applications that rely on correctly determining the sentence and phrase structure of free text. In addition to dealing with the vast amount of domain-specific terms, a robust biomedical parser needs to model the semantic grammar to obtain viable syntactic structures. With either a rule-based or corpus-based approach, the grammar engineering process requires substantial time and knowledge from experts, and does not always yield a semantically transferable grammar. To reduce the human effort and to promote semantic transferability, we propose an automated method for deriving a probabilistic grammar based on a training corpus consisting of concept strings and semantic classes from the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS), a comprehensive terminology resource widely used by the community. The grammar is designed to specify noun phrases only due to the nominal nature of the majority of biomedical terminological concepts. Evaluated on manually parsed clinical notes, the derived grammar achieved a recall of 0.644, precision of 0.737, and average cross-bracketing of 0.61, which demonstrated better performance than a control grammar with the semantic information removed. Error analysis revealed shortcomings that could be addressed to improve performance. The results indicated the feasibility of an approach which automatically incorporates terminology semantics in the building of an operational grammar. Although the current performance of the unsupervised solution does not adequately replace manual engineering, we believe once the performance issues are addressed, it could serve as an aide in a semi-supervised solution.

Fan, Jung-Wei; Friedman, Carol

2011-01-01

30

Syntactic structure and artificial grammar learning: the learnability of embedded hierarchical structures.  

PubMed

Embedded hierarchical structures, such as "the rat the cat ate was brown", constitute a core generative property of a natural language theory. Several recent studies have reported learning of hierarchical embeddings in artificial grammar learning (AGL) tasks, and described the functional specificity of Broca's area for processing such structures. In two experiments, we investigated whether alternative strategies can explain the learning success in these studies. We trained participants on hierarchical sequences, and found no evidence for the learning of hierarchical embeddings in test situations identical to those from other studies in the literature. Instead, participants appeared to solve the task by exploiting surface distinctions between legal and illegal sequences, and applying strategies such as counting or repetition detection. We suggest alternative interpretations for the observed activation of Broca's area, in terms of the application of calculation rules or of a differential role of working memory. We claim that the learnability of hierarchical embeddings in AGL tasks remains to be demonstrated. PMID:17963740

de Vries, Meinou H; Monaghan, Padraic; Knecht, Stefan; Zwitserlood, Pienie

2008-05-01

31

Tagalog Reference Grammar.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This reference text of Tagalog grammar provides extensive description with illustrative examples of the language. Language classification and grammatical analysis are predicated on principles of transformational generative grammar. Seven categories of materials include: (1) pronunciation, (2) basic sentence structure, (3) nominals and their…

Schachter, Paul; Otanes, Fe T.

32

Grammar Games  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The mere mention of a grammar lesson can set students' eyes rolling. The fun activities described in this article can turn those blank looks into smiles. Here, the author presents grammar games namely: (1) noun tennis; (2) the minister's cat; (3) kids take action; (4) what's my adverb?; (5) and then I saw...; and (6) grammar sing-along.

Brown, Kim

2004-01-01

33

The emergence of grammar: Systematic structure in a new language  

PubMed Central

This report contains a linguistic description of a language created spontaneously without any apparent external influence in a stable existing community. We describe the syntactic structure of Al-Sayyid Bedouin Sign Language, a language that has arisen in the last 70 years in an isolated endogamous community with a high incidence of nonsyndromic, genetically recessive, profound prelingual neurosensory deafness. In the space of one generation from its inception, systematic grammatical structure has emerged in the language. Going beyond a conventionalized list of words for actions, objects, people, characteristics, and so on, a systematic way of marking the grammatical relations among those elements has appeared in the form of highly regular word order. These systematic structures cannot be attributed to influence from other languages, because the particular word orders that appear in Al-Sayyid Bedouin Sign Language differ from those found both in the ambient spoken languages in the community and in the other sign language found predominantly in the surrounding area. Therefore, the emerging grammatical structures should be regarded as an independent development within the language.

Sandler, Wendy; Meir, Irit; Padden, Carol; Aronoff, Mark

2005-01-01

34

Robust and efficient multiclass SVM models for phrase pattern recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phrase pattern recognition (phrase chunking) refers to automatic approaches for identifying predefined phrase structures in a stream of text. Support vector machines (SVMs)-based methods had shown excellent performance in many sequential text pattern recognition tasks such as protein name finding, and noun phrase (NP)-chunking. Even though they yield very accurate results, they are not efficient for online applications, which need

Yu-chieh Wu; Yue-shi Lee; Jie-chi Yang

2008-01-01

35

Modeling Structure-Function Relationships in Synthetic DNA Sequences using Attribute Grammars  

PubMed Central

Recognizing that certain biological functions can be associated with specific DNA sequences has led various fields of biology to adopt the notion of the genetic part. This concept provides a finer level of granularity than the traditional notion of the gene. However, a method of formally relating how a set of parts relates to a function has not yet emerged. Synthetic biology both demands such a formalism and provides an ideal setting for testing hypotheses about relationships between DNA sequences and phenotypes beyond the gene-centric methods used in genetics. Attribute grammars are used in computer science to translate the text of a program source code into the computational operations it represents. By associating attributes with parts, modifying the value of these attributes using rules that describe the structure of DNA sequences, and using a multi-pass compilation process, it is possible to translate DNA sequences into molecular interaction network models. These capabilities are illustrated by simple example grammars expressing how gene expression rates are dependent upon single or multiple parts. The translation process is validated by systematically generating, translating, and simulating the phenotype of all the sequences in the design space generated by a small library of genetic parts. Attribute grammars represent a flexible framework connecting parts with models of biological function. They will be instrumental for building mathematical models of libraries of genetic constructs synthesized to characterize the function of genetic parts. This formalism is also expected to provide a solid foundation for the development of computer assisted design applications for synthetic biology.

Cai, Yizhi; Lux, Matthew W.; Adam, Laura; Peccoud, Jean

2009-01-01

36

Comments on Skinner's grammar.  

PubMed

The strong tradition of "school room" grammars may have had a negative influence on the reception given a functional analysis of verbal behavior, both within and without the field of behavior analysis. Some of the failings of those traditional grammars, and their largely prescriptive nature were outlined through reference to other critics, and conflicting views. Skinner's own treatment of grammatical issues was presented, emphasizing his view of a functional unit and his use of the autoclitic and intraverbal functions to describe alternatives to a formal or structural analysis. Finally, the relevance of stimulus control variables to some recurring questions about verbal behavior and, specifically grammar, were mentioned. PMID:22477082

Mabry, J H

1993-01-01

37

Syntactic Structures as Multidimensional Trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

We survey a sequence of results relating model-theoretic and language-theoreticdefinability over an infinite hierarchy of multi-dimensional tree-like structures and explore their applications to a corresponding range of theoriesof syntax. We discuss, in particular, results for Government and Binding Theory(GB), Tree-Adjoining Grammar (TAG) and Generalized Phrase-Structure Grammar(GPSG) along with a generalized version of TAG extending TAG in much the sameway that

James Rogers

2003-01-01

38

A Phrase Flipper for the Assistance of Writers of Abstracts and Other Texts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

FlipPhr is a MicroSoft Windows application program that rearranges ("flips") phrases or other expressions in accordance with rules in a grammar. The flipping may be invoked with a single keystroke from within various Windows application programs that allow cutting and pasting of text. The user may modify the grammar to provide for different kinds…

Craven, Timothy C.

1995-01-01

39

Stratificational Grammar.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

According to the author, most grammarians have been writing stratificational grammars without knowing it because they have dealt with units that are related to one another, but not simply as a whole to its parts, or as a class to its members. The question, then, is not whether a grammar is stratified but whether it is explicitly stratified. This…

Algeo, John

1968-01-01

40

Evaluation of several lightweight stochastic context-free grammars for RNA secondary structure prediction  

PubMed Central

Background RNA secondary structure prediction methods based on probabilistic modeling can be developed using stochastic context-free grammars (SCFGs). Such methods can readily combine different sources of information that can be expressed probabilistically, such as an evolutionary model of comparative RNA sequence analysis and a biophysical model of structure plausibility. However, the number of free parameters in an integrated model for consensus RNA structure prediction can become untenable if the underlying SCFG design is too complex. Thus a key question is, what small, simple SCFG designs perform best for RNA secondary structure prediction? Results Nine different small SCFGs were implemented to explore the tradeoffs between model complexity and prediction accuracy. Each model was tested for single sequence structure prediction accuracy on a benchmark set of RNA secondary structures. Conclusions Four SCFG designs had prediction accuracies near the performance of current energy minimization programs. One of these designs, introduced by Knudsen and Hein in their PFOLD algorithm, has only 21 free parameters and is significantly simpler than the others.

Dowell, Robin D; Eddy, Sean R

2004-01-01

41

Drama Grammar: Towards a Performative Postmethod Pedagogy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents the original concept of drama grammar, the synthesis of grammar instruction and drama pedagogy, which integrates both structural and communicative paradigms through a dialectic combination of acting and linguistic analysis. Based on the principles of drama pedagogy, drama grammar makes use of techniques from the performing…

Even, Susanne

2011-01-01

42

Creative Grammar and Art Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The grammar of creative practices is described by George Steiner as the "articulate organisation of perception, reflection and experience, the nerve structure of consciousness when it communicates with itself and with others." Steiner's description of creative grammar is consistent with Lev Vygotsky's comment that "art is the social within us, and…

Cunliffe, Leslie

2011-01-01

43

Learning restricted probabilistic link grammars  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a language model employing a new headed- disjunctsformulation of Lafferty et al.'s (1992) probabilistic link grammar, together with (1) an EM training method for estimating the probabilities, and (2) a procedure for learn ing some simple lexicalized grammar structures. The model in its simplest form is a generalization of -gram models, but in its general form possesses context-free

Eva Wai-man Fong; Dekai Wu

1995-01-01

44

Music summarization using key phrases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Systems to automatically provide a representative summary or `key phrase' of a piece of music are described. For a `rock' song with `verse' and `chorus' sections, we aim to return the chorus or in any case the most repeated and hence most memorable section. The techniques are less applicable to music with more complicated structure although possibly our general framework

Beth Logan; Stephen Chu

2000-01-01

45

[Acquisition of German morphosyntax in the context of constituent movement into the complementizer phrase position].  

PubMed

German is a genuine verb-second (V2) language. For V2 languages it is assumed that all sentence structures can be derived from the underlying subordinate clause structure via the movement of individual components. The acquisition of German V2 structures represents a critical step in German first language acquisition and is usually mastered at the age of 3 years. However, not all children succeed in filtering the necessary information from the spoken input in order to acquire this key component of German syntax. Use of canonical sentence structures alone is not a confirmation of a successful V2 acquisition. Moreover, this structure often represents some kind of interim grammar. Only the use of complementizer phrase (CP)-related structures, such as wh-questions or topicalizations of objects is a real indication of a successful V2 acquisition. PMID:24633377

Miller, S; Ptok, M

2014-04-01

46

An Amharic Reference Grammar.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This reference grammar presents a structural description of the orthography, phonology, morphology, and syntax of Amharic, the national language of Ethiopia. The Amharic material in this work, designed to prepare the student for speaking and reading the language, appears in both Amharic script and phonetic transcription. See ED 012 044-5 for the…

Leslau, Wolf

47

Holistic Grammar.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Parodies holistic approaches to education. Explains an educational approach which simultaneously teaches grammar and arithmetic. Lauds the advantages of the approach as high student attrition, ease of grading, and focus on developing the reptilian portion of the brain. Points out common errors made by students. (AYC)

Pierstorff, Don K.

1981-01-01

48

Searching the ASRS Database Using QUORUM Keyword Search, Phrase Search, Phrase Generation, and Phrase Discovery.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

To support Search Requests and Quick Responses at the Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS), four new QUORUM methods have been developed: keyword search, phrase search, phrase generation, and phrase discovery. These methods build upon the core QUORUM me...

M. W. McGreevy

2001-01-01

49

On the Factor Structure of the Grammar Section of University of Tehran English Proficiency Test (UTEPT)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study was conducted with 3,385 participants who took an English language proficiency test as a partial requirement for entering a PhD program in different fields of education. This test has three sections which are grammar, vocabulary and reading comprehension. To determine the construct validity of the test, a series of analyses were done.…

Salehi, Mohammad; Rezaee, Abbas Ali

2009-01-01

50

The Teaching of Grammar: The Relationship of Structure to Communication. ACTFL Master Lecture Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teaching grammar for its own sake is largely counterproductive when the goal of instruction is to have students communicate spontaneously, fluently, and accurately in the target language. The ideal foreign language program is one providing the best possible environment for language acquisition to take place. Explicit teaching about the language…

Higgs, Theodore V.

51

Integer programming-based method for grammar-based tree compression and its application to pattern extraction of glycan tree structures  

PubMed Central

Background A bisection-type algorithm for the grammar-based compression of tree-structured data has been proposed recently. In this framework, an elementary ordered-tree grammar (EOTG) and an elementary unordered-tree grammar (EUTG) were defined, and an approximation algorithm was proposed. Results In this paper, we propose an integer programming-based method that finds the minimum context-free grammar (CFG) for a given string under the condition that at most two symbols appear on the right-hand side of each production rule. Next, we extend this method to find the minimum EOTG and EUTG grammars for given ordered and unordered trees, respectively. Then, we conduct computational experiments for the ordered and unordered artificial trees. Finally, we apply our methods to pattern extraction of glycan tree structures. Conclusions We propose integer programming-based methods that find the minimum CFG, EOTG, and EUTG for given strings, ordered and unordered trees. Our proposed methods for trees are useful for extracting patterns of glycan tree structures.

2010-01-01

52

Processing Elided Verb Phrases with Flawed Antecedents: the Recycling Hypothesis  

PubMed Central

Traditional syntactic accounts of verb phrase ellipsis (e.g. “Jason laughed. Sam did [ ] too.”) categorize as ungrammatical many sentences that language users find acceptable (they “undergenerate”); semantic accounts overgenerate. We propose that a processing theory, together with a syntactic account, does a better job of describing and explaining the data on verb phrase-ellipsis. Five acceptability judgment experiments supported a “VP recycling hypothesis,” which claims that when a syntactically-matching antecedent is not available, the listener/reader creates one using the materials at hand. Experiments 1 and 2 used verb phrase ellipsis sentences with antecedents ranging from perfect (a verb phrase in matrix verb phrase position) to impossible (a verb phrase containing only a deverbal word). Experiments 3 and 4 contrasted antecedents in verbal versus nominal gerund subjects. Experiment 5 explored the possibility that speakers are particularly likely to go beyond the grammar and produce elided constituents without perfect matching antecedents when the antecedent needed is less marked than the antecedent actually produced. This experiment contrasted active (unmarked) and passive antecedents to show that readers seem to honor such a tendency.

Arregui, Ana; Clifton, Charles; Frazier, Lyn; Moulton, Keir

2006-01-01

53

Searching the ASRS Database Using QUORUM Keyword Search, Phrase Search, Phrase Generation, and Phrase Discovery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To support Search Requests and Quick Responses at the Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS), four new QUORUM methods have been developed: keyword search, phrase search, phrase generation, and phrase discovery. These methods build upon the core QUORUM methods of text analysis, modeling, and relevance-ranking. QUORUM keyword search retrieves ASRS incident narratives that contain one or more user-specified keywords in typical or selected contexts, and ranks the narratives on their relevance to the keywords in context. QUORUM phrase search retrieves narratives that contain one or more user-specified phrases, and ranks the narratives on their relevance to the phrases. QUORUM phrase generation produces a list of phrases from the ASRS database that contain a user-specified word or phrase. QUORUM phrase discovery finds phrases that are related to topics of interest. Phrase generation and phrase discovery are particularly useful for finding query phrases for input to QUORUM phrase search. The presentation of the new QUORUM methods includes: a brief review of the underlying core QUORUM methods; an overview of the new methods; numerous, concrete examples of ASRS database searches using the new methods; discussion of related methods; and, in the appendices, detailed descriptions of the new methods.

McGreevy, Michael W.; Connors, Mary M. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

54

An Experiment in Teaching Grammar in Context.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes how the author, in his seventh-grade English class, taught "little grammar" (sentence structure, parts of speech, and usage) and "big grammar" (such as essay structure, points of an argument, and rhetorical devices) through reading meaningful texts drawn from their history class. Discusses successes and difficulties with this approach,…

Smoot, W. Scott

2001-01-01

55

Transition network grammars for natural language analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of augmented transition network grammars for the analysis of natural language sentences is described. Structure-building actions associated with the arcs of the grammar network allow for the reordering, restructuring, and copying of constituents necessary to produce deep-structure representations of the type normally obtained from a transformational analysis, and conditions on the arcs allow for a powerful selectivity which

William A. Woods

1970-01-01

56

Probabilistic Techniques for Phrase Extraction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study proposes a probabilistic model for automatically extracting English noun phrases for indexing or information retrieval. The technique is based on a Markov model, whose initial parameters are estimated by a phrase lookup program with a phrase dictionary, then optimized by a set of maximum entropy parameters. (Author/LRW)

Feng, Fangfang; Croft, W. Bruce

2001-01-01

57

Greek Grammar  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

While some may view ancient Greek as a "dead language", this informative and edifying website proves that the language is far from dead, and that there much to be gained through close consideration of this magisterial language. Created and maintained by Professor Marc Huys, a faculty member of the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven in Belgium, the site serves as a clearinghouse of available online resources for studying ancient Greek. Throughout the site's various areas, Professor Huys has reviewed each individual resource and provided a brief description of its contents and also assigned a rating to each distinct resource. Some of these topical areas include reviews of sites on Greek fonts, systematic grammar, history of the Greek language, and dictionaries. The site is rounded out by a "What's New?" area which contains information about the latest additions to the site.

58

Rhetorical or Functional Grammar and the Teaching of Composition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Some insights into the nature of functional grammar can be useful for teachers of composition. There are four ways that functional grammar stands in opposition to common linguistics in the United States. First, for functionalists (those practicing functional grammar), the starting point is with kinds of meanings, not with kinds of structures; the…

Vande Kopple, William J.

59

Grammar as a Programming Language. Artificial Intelligence Memo 391.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Student projects that involve writing generative grammars in the computer language, "LOGO," are described in this paper, which presents a grammar-running control structure that allows students to modify and improve the grammar interpreter itself while learning how a simple kind of computer parser works. Included are procedures for programing a…

Rowe, Neil

60

Grammar-Guided Writing for AAC Users  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A method of grammar-guided writing has been devised to guide graphic sign users through the construction of text messages for use in e-mail and other applications with a remote receiver. The purpose is to promote morphologically and syntactically correct sentences. The available grammatical structures in grammar-guided writing are the highest…

Hunnicutt, Sheri; Magnuson, Tina

2007-01-01

61

Document Similarity Using a Phrase Indexing Graph Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Document clustering techniques mostly rely on single term analysis of text, such as the vector space model. To better capture the structure of documents, the underlying data model should be able to represent the phrases in the document as well as single terms. We present a novel data model, the Document Index Graph, which indexes Web documents based on phrases

Khaled M. Hammouda; Mohamed S. Kamel

2004-01-01

62

Intonational Phrase Structure Processing at Different Stages of Syntax Acquisition: ERP Studies in 2-, 3-, and 6-Year-Old Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explored the electrophysiology underlying intonational phrase processing at different stages of syntax acquisition. Developmental studies suggest that children's syntactic skills advance significantly between 2 and 3 years of age. Here, children of three age groups were tested on phrase-level prosodic processing before and after this…

Mannel, Claudia; Friederici, Angela D.

2011-01-01

63

Decoding Word Phrases-Translating verbal phrases to variable expressions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson is designed to help students decode word phrases and then translate them from word form into numerical form. It provides a resource, in the form of a foldable, that can be kept all year and used anytime the students needs to decode word phrases.

Sisson, Patty

2012-06-13

64

Syntactic Functions in Functional Discourse Grammar and Role and Reference Grammar: An Evaluative Comparison  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this paper is to compare the treatment of syntactic functions, and more particularly those traditionally labelled as Subject and Object, in Functional Discourse Grammar and Role and Reference Grammar. Relevant aspects of the overall structure of the two theories are briefly described. The concept of alignment between levels of the…

Butler, Christopher S.

2012-01-01

65

A Composite Method Based on Formal Grammar and DNA Structural Features in Detecting Human Polymerase II Promoter Region  

PubMed Central

An important step in understanding gene regulation is to identify the promoter regions where the transcription factor binding takes place. Predicting a promoter region de novo has been a theoretical goal for many researchers for a long time. There exists a number of in silico methods to predict the promoter region de novo but most of these methods are still suffering from various shortcomings, a major one being the selection of appropriate features of promoter region distinguishing them from non-promoters. In this communication, we have proposed a new composite method that predicts promoter sequences based on the interrelationship between structural profiles of DNA and primary sequence elements of the promoter regions. We have shown that a Context Free Grammar (CFG) can formalize the relationships between different primary sequence features and by utilizing the CFG, we demonstrate that an efficient parser can be constructed for extracting these relationships from DNA sequences to distinguish the true promoter sequences from non-promoter sequences. Along with CFG, we have extracted the structural features of the promoter region to improve upon the efficiency of our prediction system. Extensive experiments performed on different datasets reveals that our method is effective in predicting promoter sequences on a genome-wide scale and performs satisfactorily as compared to other promoter prediction techniques.

Datta, Sutapa; Mukhopadhyay, Subhasis

2013-01-01

66

Pfold: RNA secondary structure prediction using stochastic context-free grammars  

Microsoft Academic Search

RNA secondary structures are important in many biological processes and efficient structure predic- tion can give vital directions for experimental investigations. Many available programs for RNA secondary structure prediction only use a single sequence at a time. This may be sufficient in some applications, but often it is possible to obtain related RNA sequences with conserved secondary struc- ture. These

Bjarne Knudsen; Jotun Hein

2003-01-01

67

Exploiting structural classifications for function prediction: towards a domain grammar for protein function.  

PubMed

The ability to assign function to proteins has become a major bottleneck for comprehensively understanding cellular mechanisms at the molecular level. Here we discuss the extent to which structural domain classifications can help in deciphering the complex relationship between the functions of proteins and their sequences and structures. Structural classifications are particularly helpful in understanding the mosaic manner in which new proteins and functions emerge through evolution. This is partly because they provide reliable and concrete domain definitions and enable the detection of very remote structural similarities and homologies. It is also because structural data can illuminate more clearly the mechanisms by which a broader functional repertoire can emerge during evolution. PMID:19398323

Dessailly, Benoît H; Redfern, Oliver C; Cuff, Alison; Orengo, Christine A

2009-06-01

68

Role and Reference Grammar.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses Role and Reference Grammar (RRG), which is a structuralist-formalist theory of grammar. RRG grew out of an attempt to answer two fundamental questions: (1) what would linguistic theory look like if it were based on the analysis of Lakhota, Tagalog, and Dyirbal, rather than on the analysis of English?; and (2) how can the…

Van Valin, Robert D., Jr.

69

A Marathi Reference Grammar.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Marathi reference grammar designed for adult students is based on the model of transformational grammar developed by Zellig Harris, and may be of interest to linguists as well. The basic grammatical facts of Marathi are set forth in eleven chapters: (1) the Marathi sound system, (2) the Devenagari script, (3) nouns, pronouns, and adjectives,…

Berntsen, Maxine; Nimbkar, Jai

70

Grammar Instruction and Technology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Much of the research literature from the past 25 years has supported the importance of teaching grammar in the context of writing instruction (Calkins, 1980; DiStefano & Killion, 1984; Weaver, 1996,1998). Unlike other content areas, practice does not make perfect when learning grammar. While isolated drill and practice of grammatical concepts may…

Lacina, Jan

2005-01-01

71

INVERSION TRANSDUCTION GRAMMAR COVERAGE OF ARABIC-ENGLISH WORD ALIGNMENT FOR TREE-STRUCTURED STATISTICAL MACHINE TRANSLATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the first known direct measurement of word alignment coverage on an Arabic-English parallel corpus using inversion transduction grammar constraints. While direct measurements have been reported for several European and Asian languages, to date no results have been available for Arabic or any Semitic language despite much recent activity on Arabic- English spoken language and text translation. Many recent

Dekai Wu; Marine Carpuat; Yihai Shen

2006-01-01

72

Grammar A and Grammar B: Rhetorical Life and Death.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the past, writers have chosen stylistic devices within the parameters of the traditional grammar of style, "Grammar A," characterized by analyticity, coherence, and clarity. But many contemporary writers are creating a new grammar of style, "Grammar B," characterized by synchronicity, discontinuity, and ambiguity, which relies on such devices…

Guinn, Dorothy Margaret

73

Phrase sets for evaluating text entry techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

In evaluations of text entry methods, participants enter phrases of text using a technique of interest while performance data are collected. This paper describes and publishes (via the internet) a collection of 500 phrases for such evaluations. Utility programs are also provided to compute statistical properties of the phrase set, or any other phrase set. The merits of using a

I. Scott MacKenzie; R. William Soukoreff

2003-01-01

74

On the Formal Componential Structure of the Transformational-Generative Model of Grammar.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the relationship that exists between the syntactic and phonological components of the transformational-generative model insofar as their formal structures are concerned. It is demonstrated that the number and importance of the structural similarities between the syntax and the phonology make it necessary to provide for them in…

Brew, P. J.

1970-01-01

75

Extracting noun phrases for all of MEDLINE.  

PubMed Central

A natural language parser that could extract noun phrases for all medical texts would be of great utility in analyzing content for information retrieval. We discuss the extraction of noun phrases from MEDLINE, using a general parser not tuned specifically for any medical domain. The noun phrase extractor is made up of three modules: tokenization; part-of-speech tagging; noun phrase identification. Using our program, we extracted noun phrases from the entire MEDLINE collection, encompassing 9.3 million abstracts. Over 270 million noun phrases were generated, of which 45 million were unique. The quality of these phrases was evaluated by examining all phrases from a sample collection of abstracts. The precision and recall of the phrases from our general parser compared favorably with those from three other parsers we had previously evaluated. We are continuing to improve our parser and evaluate our claim that a generic parser can effectively extract all the different phrases across the entire medical literature.

Bennett, N. A.; He, Q.; Powell, K.; Schatz, B. R.

1999-01-01

76

The minimalist grammar of action  

PubMed Central

Language and action have been found to share a common neural basis and in particular a common ‘syntax’, an analogous hierarchical and compositional organization. While language structure analysis has led to the formulation of different grammatical formalisms and associated discriminative or generative computational models, the structure of action is still elusive and so are the related computational models. However, structuring action has important implications on action learning and generalization, in both human cognition research and computation. In this study, we present a biologically inspired generative grammar of action, which employs the structure-building operations and principles of Chomsky's Minimalist Programme as a reference model. In this grammar, action terminals combine hierarchically into temporal sequences of actions of increasing complexity; the actions are bound with the involved tools and affected objects and are governed by certain goals. We show, how the tool role and the affected-object role of an entity within an action drives the derivation of the action syntax in this grammar and controls recursion, merge and move, the latter being mechanisms that manifest themselves not only in human language, but in human action too.

Pastra, Katerina; Aloimonos, Yiannis

2012-01-01

77

L1/L2 Spanish Grammars and the Pragmatic Deficit Hypothesis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigates whether the underspecification of Number, which has been proposed to account for the structural properties of child grammars, can provide an explanation for changes in developing first- and second-language Spanish grammars. (Author/VWL)

Liceras, J. M.; Valenzuela, E.; Diaz, L.

1999-01-01

78

Vocabulary and Grammar Knowledge in Second Language Reading Comprehension: A Structural Equation Modeling Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using structural equation modeling analysis, this study examined the contribution of vocabulary and grammatical knowledge to second language reading comprehension among 190 advanced Chinese English as a foreign language learners. Vocabulary knowledge was measured in both breadth (Vocabulary Levels Test) and depth (Word Associates Test);…

Zhang, Dongbo

2012-01-01

79

Transformational Grammars Again.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The note presents some criticisms of Chomsky's theory of Transformational Grammar, and in particular of his most recent attempt to demarcate syntax from semantics by means of the distinction between selectional and subcategorization rules. I argue that, a...

Y. Wilks

1967-01-01

80

Customizing Grammar Checking.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analysis of the use of Gram.mat.ik IV grammar checker software in business communication classes found 114 errors the program did not identify in 67 student papers. Modifications of the software were recommended to increase its usefulness. (SK)

Spinks, Nelda H.; Wells, Barron W.; Meche, Melanie

1997-01-01

81

Extracting Biochemical Interactions from MEDLINE Using a Link Grammar Parser  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many natural language processing approaches at vari- ous complexity levels have been reported for extracting biochemical interactions from MEDLINE. While some algorithms using simple template matching are unable to deal with the complex syntactic structures, others exploit- ing sophisticated parsing techniques are hindered by greater computational cost. This study investigates link grammar parsing for extracting biochemical interactions. Link grammar parsing

Jing Ding; Daniel Berleant; Jun Xu; Andy W. Fulmer

2003-01-01

82

Synthetic grammar learning: Implicit rule abstraction or explicit fragmentary knowledge?  

Microsoft Academic Search

3 experiments were designed to demonstrate that classifying new letter strings as grammatical (i.e., conforming to a set of rules called a synthetic grammar) or ungrammatical may proceed from fragmentary conscious knowledge of the bigrams constituting the grammatical strings displayed in the study phase, rather than from an unconscious structured representation of the grammar, as Reber (1989) contended. In Experiment

Pierre Perruchet; Chantal Pacteau

1990-01-01

83

Dictionary of Phrase and Fable  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Bartleby.com (see the March 24, 2000 Scout Report) has recently placed this new work online. It is E. Cobham Brewer's 1898 Dictionary of Phrase and Fable, a collection of more than 18,000 entries "that reveal the etymologies, trace the origins and otherwise catalog 'words with a tale to tell.'" The entries can be browsed alphabetically or searched by keyword.

84

Study of Free-Index Phrases.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Results are presented of research undertaken to identify the defining characteristics of free-index phrases, to develop an algorithm to produce surrogate free-index phrases from the titles and abstracts of INSPEC documents, and to evaluate the performance...

J. Katzer R. N. Oddy P. Das-Gupta

1985-01-01

85

Building Fluency through the Phrased Text Lesson  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Teaching Tip article explores the importance of phrasing while reading. It also presents an instructional intervention strategy for helping students develop greater proficiency in reading with phrases that reflect the meaning of the text.

Rasinski, Timothy; Yildirim, Kasim; Nageldinger, James

2012-01-01

86

Checking the Grammar Checker: Integrating Grammar Instruction with Writing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Notes Rei Noguchi's recommendation of integrating grammar instruction with writing instruction and teaching only the most vital terms and the most frequently made errors. Presents a project that provides a review of the grammar lessons, applies many grammar rules specifically to the students' writing, and teaches students the effective use of the…

McAlexander, Patricia J.

2000-01-01

87

A Grammar of Buem, the Lelemi Language.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A detailed grammar of Buem, one of the Togo-Remnant Languages spoken in Ghana's Volta region, describes the major structures and many minor structures occurring in informal and semi-formal speech. The phonetics and much of the phonology are described in taxonomic terms, and the vowel harmony system, syntax, and morphology are described in a…

Allan, Edward Jay

88

QR in Child Grammar: Evidence from Antecedent-Contained Deletion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We show that 4-year-olds assign the correct interpretation to antecedent-contained deletion (ACD) sentences because they have the correct representation of these structures. This representation involves Quantifier Raising (QR) of a Quantificational Noun Phrase (QNP) that must move out of the site of the verb phrase in which it is contained to…

Syrett, Kristen; Lidz, Jeffrey

2009-01-01

89

Missing Phrase Recovering by Combining Forward and Backward Phrase Translation Tables  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a method to recover missing phrases dropped in the phrase extraction algorithm. Those phrases, therefore, are not translated even though we tested the system with the training data. On the other hand, in native-to-foreign, or backward training, some missing phrases can be recovered. In this paper, we combined two phrase translation tables extracted by the source-to-target and target-to-source training for the sake of more complete phrase translation table. We re-estimated the lexical weights and phrase translation probabilities for each phrase pair. Additional combining weights were applied to both tables. We assessed our method on different combining weights by counting the missing phrases and calculating the BLEU scores and NIST scores. Approximately 7% of missing phrases are recovered and 1.3% of BLEU score is increased.

Porkaew, Peerachet; Supnithi, Thepchai

90

Dependency Grammar: Classification and Exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Syntactic representations based on word-to-word dependencies have a long tradition in descriptive linguistics [29]. In recent years, they have also become increasingly used in computational tasks, such as information extraction [5], machine translation [43], and parsing [42]. Among the purported advantages of dependency over phrase structure representations are conciseness, intuitive appeal, and closeness to semantic representations such as predicate-argument structures. On the more practical side, dependency representations are attractive due to the increasing availability of large corpora of dependency analyses, such as the Prague Dependency Treebank [19].

Debusmann, Ralph; Kuhlmann, Marco

91

Exploring story grammar structure in the book reading interactions of African American mothers and their preschool children: a pilot investigation  

PubMed Central

The aim of this investigation was to identify the book reading behaviors and book reading styles of middle class African American mothers engaged in a shared book reading activity with their preschool children. To this end, the mothers and their children were videotaped reading one of three books, Julius, Grandfather and I, or Somewhere in Africa. Both maternal and child behaviors were coded for the frequency of occurrence of story grammar elements contained in their stories and maternal behaviors were also coded for their use of narrative eliciting strategies. In addition, mothers were queried about the quality and quantity of book reading/story telling interactions in the home environment. The results suggest that there is a great deal of individual variation in how mothers use the story grammar elements and narrative eliciting strategies to engage their children in a shared book reading activity. Findings are discussed in terms of suggestions for additional research and practical applications are offered on ways to optimally engage African American preschool children and African American families from diverse socioeconomic backgrounds in shared book reading interactions.

Harris, Yvette R.; Rothstein, Susan E.

2014-01-01

92

Grammar - Comma - a New Beginning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggests that educators fundamentally change the way they teach grammar. Offers the author's experience with some curious success with students taking on grammar as part of their writing process, and gives some ideas about starting the teaching of grammar in a radically different place and as a radical agent. Speaks against using student writing…

Ehrenworth, Mary

2003-01-01

93

Representation Issues in Systemic Functional Grammar and Systemic Grammar and Functional Unification Grammar.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Nigel is a large diverse computational grammar for text generation. Its framework is an implementation of Systemic Functional Theory of grammar and it constitutes a context in which the representation of systemic theory can be explored and studied. This p...

C. Matthiessen R. Kasper

1987-01-01

94

Representational Issues in Systemic Functional Grammar and Systemic Grammar and Functional Unification Grammar. ISI Reprint Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Consisting of two separate papers, "Representational Issues in Systemic Functional Grammar," by Christian Matthiessen and "Systemic Grammar and Functional Unification Grammar," by Robert Kasper, this document deals with systemic aspects of natural language processing and linguistic theory and with computational applications of M. A. K. Halliday's…

Matthiessen, Christian; Kasper, Robert

95

Implicit Learning of Recursive Context-Free Grammars  

PubMed Central

Context-free grammars are fundamental for the description of linguistic syntax. However, most artificial grammar learning experiments have explored learning of simpler finite-state grammars, while studies exploring context-free grammars have not assessed awareness and implicitness. This paper explores the implicit learning of context-free grammars employing features of hierarchical organization, recursive embedding and long-distance dependencies. The grammars also featured the distinction between left- and right-branching structures, as well as between centre- and tail-embedding, both distinctions found in natural languages. People acquired unconscious knowledge of relations between grammatical classes even for dependencies over long distances, in ways that went beyond learning simpler relations (e.g. n-grams) between individual words. The structural distinctions drawn from linguistics also proved important as performance was greater for tail-embedding than centre-embedding structures. The results suggest the plausibility of implicit learning of complex context-free structures, which model some features of natural languages. They support the relevance of artificial grammar learning for probing mechanisms of language learning and challenge existing theories and computational models of implicit learning.

Rohrmeier, Martin; Fu, Qiufang; Dienes, Zoltan

2012-01-01

96

A BINI GRAMMAR, PART 1--PHONOLOGY.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A PHONOLOGY OF BINI GRAMMAR (A LANGUAGE OF WESTERN NIGERIA) HAS BEEN DESIGNED FOR A HIGHLY HETEROGENEOUS AUDIENCE. THE VOLUME IS AIMED AT (1) AREA SPECIALISTS INTERESTED IN LANGUAGE OR CULTURE STUDIES OF AFRICA, (2) ETHNOGRAPHERS FOCUSING ON THE SOCIAL STRUCTURE OF THE EDO-SPEAKING PEOPLES, (3) HISTORIANS WORKING ON THE BENIN PROJECT OF IBADAN…

WESCOTT, ROGER W.

97

Yes, We Still Need Universal Grammar  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a recent paper [Lidz, J., Gleitman, H., & Gleitman, L. (2003). Understanding how input matters: Verb learning and the footprint of universal grammar. "Cognition," 87, 151-178], we provided cross-linguistic evidence in favor of the following linked assertions: (i) Verb argument structure is a correlate of verb meaning; (ii) However, argument…

Lidz, Jeffrey; Gleitman, Lila R.

2004-01-01

98

Attribute Grammars in Prolog.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report shows how to implement attribute grammars (AG's) in Prolog. Two methods are proposed to systematically convert an AG into Prolog. The reasons for doing so are three-fold. First Prolog is a descriptive programming language. A Prolog program can ...

M. J. Walsteijn M. F. Kuiper

1986-01-01

99

Multiple Grammars and MOGUL  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Optionality is a central phenomenon in second language acquisition (SLA), for which any adequate theory must account. Amaral and Roeper (this issue; henceforth A&R) offer an appealing approach to it, using Roeper's Multiple Grammars Theory, which was created with first language in mind but which extends very naturally to SLA. They include…

Truscott, John

2014-01-01

100

Studies in Inuktitut Grammar  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This dissertation addresses a number of issues about the grammar of Eastern Canadian Inuktitut. Inuktitut is a dialect within the Inuit dialect continuum which is a group of languages/dialects within the Eskimo-Aleut language family. (Eastern Canadian Inuktitut has an ISO 693-3 language code of "ike".) Typologically, it is an ergative language…

Beach, Matthew David

2012-01-01

101

Principled Grammar Teaching  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A key aspect of the acquisition of grammar for second language learners involves learning how to make appropriate connections between grammatical forms and the meanings which they typically signal. We argue that learning form/function mappings involves three interrelated principles. The first is the Given-to-New Principle, where existing world…

Batstone, Rob; Ellis, Rod

2009-01-01

102

Teaching Grammar for Proficiency.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses a foreign language pedagogy that facilitates teaching for communication and teaching grammar, which is defined as a system for converting meaning into language. The teacher is advised to do in the classroom only what cannot be done elsewhere. Four instructional tactics are described. (SED)

Higgs, Theodore V.

1985-01-01

103

The acquisition of the determiner phrase in bilingual and second language French  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study deals with the acquisition of Functional Categories in the French Determiner Phrase. The development of determiners and prenominal adjectives in three bilingual Swedish-French children is compared with that of four Swedish second language learners of French. It is argued that acquisition is crucially different in these two cases. The bilingual children initially have restrictions on phrase structure, resulting

JONAS G RANFELDT

2000-01-01

104

Automatic hypertext information retrieval in a corporate memory using noun phrases in context  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we describe a method to generate an information retrieval hypertext structure on a large collection of homogeneous documents by generating links only between noun phrases that are pertinent for navigation. Noun phrases are selected by automatic extraction and filtered on the basis of the linguistic context class where they appear, also determined automatically.

Maria Nav; Daniela Garcia

105

Grammar as a Hostage to Ideology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Claims that grammar instruction does not improve written composition have led some teachers to a confident consensus that they do not have to deal with grammar, yet many still firmly believe in teaching it. Grammar instruction (meaning pedagogical or school grammar rather than scientific or linguistic grammar) can be viewed from the metaphorical…

Walker, Laurie

106

NEWCAT: Parsing natural language using left-associative grammar  

SciTech Connect

This book shows that constituent structure analysis induces an irregular order of linear composition which is the direct cause of extreme computational inefficiency. It proposes an alternative left-associative grammar which operates with a regular order of linear compositions. Left-associative grammar is based on building up and cancelling valencies. Left-associative parsers differ from all other systems in that the history of the parse doubles as the linguistic analysis. Left-associative grammar is illustrated with two left-associative natural language parsers: one for German and one for English.

Hausser, R.

1986-01-01

107

Grammar Dilemma: Teaching Grammar as a Resource for Making Meaning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adopting a functional perspective that views grammar as a rich resource for making contextualized meanings in a culture- and language-specific way, the article reconsiders the role of explicit grammar instruction in developing communicative abilities of second language learners. It draws on two distinct but complementary research frameworks,…

Liamkina, Olga; Ryshina-Pankova, Marianna

2012-01-01

108

Universal Grammar, statistics or both?  

PubMed

Recent demonstrations of statistical learning in infants have reinvigorated the innateness versus learning debate in language acquisition. This article addresses these issues from both computational and developmental perspectives. First, I argue that statistical learning using transitional probabilities cannot reliably segment words when scaled to a realistic setting (e.g. child-directed English). To be successful, it must be constrained by knowledge of phonological structure. Then, turning to the bona fide theory of innateness--the Principles and Parameters framework--I argue that a full explanation of children's grammar development must abandon the domain-specific learning model of triggering, in favor of probabilistic learning mechanisms that might be domain-general but nevertheless operate in the domain-specific space of syntactic parameters. PMID:15450509

Yang, Charles D

2004-10-01

109

Grammar-based music composition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract L - Systems have traditionally been used as a popular method for the modelling of space - filling curves, biological systems and morphogenesis In this paper, we adapt string re - writing grammars based on L - Systems into a system for music composition Representation of pitch, duration and timbre are encoded as grammar symbols, upon which a series

J. Mccormack

1996-01-01

110

A Reference Grammar of Bena  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This dissertation is a grammar of Rena (ISO bez), a Bantu language spoken in southwestern Tanzania by approximately 600,000 people. Bena is largely undocumented, and though aspects of Bena grammar have been described, there is no usable, detailed treatment of the Bena language. Therefore the goal of this dissertation is provide the first detailed…

Morrison, Michelle Elizabeth

2011-01-01

111

A Pedagogical Grammar of Tboli.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Tboli is a language spoken by people living in southwestern Mindanao, Philippines, in the province of South Cotabato. The pedagogical grammar of Tboli has been written to help non-Tboli interested in learning to speak Tboli. A discussion of spelling and pronunciation includes the alphabet and spelling rules. Other forms of grammar described are…

Forsberg, Vivian M.

1992-01-01

112

Satellite design by design grammars  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper deals with the application of engineering design grammars for a satellite design process. The situation of today's satellite design facilities is addressed and the need for an automated design process support is explained.The suggested method is to use graph grammars as a new representation of design. A design compiler acts as a ‘front-end’ for existing computation and visualisation

Jörg Schaefer; Stephan Rudolph

2005-01-01

113

Regular right part grammars and their parsers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces an alternative to context-free grammars called regular right part (RRP) grammars, which resemble PASCAL syntax diagrams. Formally, RRP grammars have production right parts, which are nondeterministic finite state machines (FSMs), and, as a special case, regular expression, since these can be converted to FSMs. RRP grammars describe the syntax of programming languages more concisely and more understandably

Wilf R. LaLonde

1977-01-01

114

Ambiguity Detection for Programming Language Grammars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Context-free grammars are the most suitable and most widely used method for describing the syntax of programming languages.\\u000aThey can be used to generate parsers, which transform a piece of source code into a tree-shaped representation of the code's syntactic structure.\\u000aThese parse trees can then be used for further processing or analysis of the source text.\\u000aIn this sense,

H. J. S. Basten

2011-01-01

115

Guide to Grammar and Writing  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Charles Darling, Professor of English/Humanities at Capital Community-Technical College (Hartford, Connecticut), provides this site, a compendium of English grammar, usage, and writing information at the sentence, paragraph, and essay levels. Each section contains easily understood information about concepts related to the topic. Most sections contain answered quizzes. These 76 quizzes are also available in a separate section. An index to the 142 grammar and writing topics covered is also available separately. A bibliography and "Ask Grammar" site, among other features, are also provided.

Darling, Charles.

1998-01-01

116

NPI any and connected exceptive phrases  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses two puzzles in the semantics of connected exceptive phrases (EP): (i) the compatibility of EPs modifying\\u000a noun phrases headed by the negative polarity item (NPI) determiner any and (ii) the ability of a negative universal quantifier modified by an EP to license strong NPIs. Previous analyses of EPs\\u000a are shown to fail to solve these puzzles. A

Jon Gajewski

2008-01-01

117

A Machine Learning Approach to Coreference Resolution of Noun Phrases  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present a learning approach to coreference resolution of noun phrases in unrestricted text. The approach learns from a small, annotated corpus and the task includes resolving not just a certain type of noun phrase (e.g., pronouns) but rather general noun phrases. It also does not restrict the entity types of the noun phrases; that is, coreference

Wee Meng Soon; Hwee Tou Ng; Chung Yong Lim

2001-01-01

118

A REFERENCE GRAMMAR OF ADAMAWA FULANI. AFRICAN LANGUAGE MONOGRAPH NUMBER 8.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THIS REFERENCE WORK IS A STRUCTURAL GRAMMAR OF THE ADAMAWA DIALECT OF FULANI AS SPOKEN IN NIGERIA AND CAMEROUN. IT IS PRIMARILY WRITTEN FOR LINGUISTS AND THOSE WHO ALREADY KNOW FULANI. THE GRAMMAR IS DIVIDED INTO THREE PARTS--(1) PHONEMICS AND MORPHOPHONEMICS, DISCUSSING SEGMENTAL AND SUPRASEGMENTAL PHONEMES, PERMITTED SEQUENCES OF PHONEMES,…

STENNES, LESLIE H.

119

Linking speech errors and phonological grammars: Insights from Harmonic Grammar networks  

PubMed Central

Phonological grammars characterize distinctions between relatively well-formed (unmarked) and relatively ill-formed (marked) phonological structures. We review evidence that markedness influences speech error probabilities. Specifically, although errors result in both unmarked as well as marked structures, there is a markedness asymmetry: errors are more likely to produce unmarked outcomes. We show that stochastic disruption to the computational mechanisms realizing a Harmonic Grammar (HG) can account for the broad empirical patterns of speech errors. We demonstrate that our proposal can account for the general markedness asymmetry. We also develop methods for linking particular HG proposals to speech error distributions, and illustrate these methods using a simple HG and a set of initial consonant errors in English.

Goldrick, Matthew; Daland, Robert

2009-01-01

120

Estimating Translation Probabilities Considering Semantic Recoverability of Phrase Retranslation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The general method for estimating phrase translation probabilities consists of sequential processes: word alignment, phrase pair extraction, and phrase translation probability calculation. However, during this sequential process, errors may propagate from the word alignment step through the translation probability calculation step. In this paper, we propose a new method for estimating phrase translation probabilities that reduce the effects of error propagation. By considering the semantic recoverability of phrase retranslation, our method identifies incorrect phrase pairs that have propagated from alignment errors. Furthermore, we define retranslation similarity which represents the semantic recoverability of phrase retranslation, and use this when computing translation probabilities. Experimental results show that the proposed phrase translation estimation method effectively prevents a PBSMT system from selecting incorrect phrase pairs, and consistently improves the translation quality in various language pairs.

Lee, Hyoung-Gyu; Kim, Min-Jeong; Quan, Yingxiu; Rim, Hae-Chang; Park, So-Young

121

Compiling circular attribute grammars into Prolog  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes an algorithm for compiling attribute grammars into Prolog. The attribute grammars may include inherited and synthesized attributes and contain recursive (circular) definitions. The semantics of the recursive definitions is defined in terms of a fixed-point finding function. The generated Prolog code stands in direct relation to its attribute grammar, where logical variables play the role of synthesized or inherited attributes. Thus an effective method for the execution of recursive attribute grammars has been defined and applied.

Arbab, B.

1986-05-01

122

Artificial Grammar Learning and Neural Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent FMRI studies indicate that language related brain regions are engaged in artificial grammar (AG) processing. In the present study we investigate the Reber grammar by means of formal analysis and network simulations. We outline a new method for describing the network dynamics and propose an approach to grammar extraction based on the state-space dynamics of the network. We conclude

Karl Magnus Petersson; F. C. Donders; Portugal Peter Grenholm

123

SPECIFICATION AND UTILIZATION OF A TRANSFORMATIONAL GRAMMAR.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

SCIENTIFIC REPORT NO. 1 OF THIS PROJECT CONTAINS FOUR PARTS. THE FIRST, BY P. ROSENBAUM AND D. LOCHAK, PRESENTS AND EXPLAINS THE "IBM CORE GRAMMAR OF ENGLISH" AND GIVES A SET OF 66 DERIVATIONS CONSTRUCTED IN TERMS OF THE CORE GRAMMAR. PART II, "DESIGN OF A GRAMMAR TESTER" BY D. LIEBERMAN, SUMMARIZES THE DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS OF THE TESTER AND…

LIEBERMAN, D.; AND OTHERS

124

Translation of attribute grammars into procedures  

Microsoft Academic Search

An efficient method for evaluating attribute grammars by translating them into sets of procedures is presented. The basic idea behind the method is to consider nonterminal symbols of the grammar as functions that map their inherited attributes to their synthesized attributes. Associated with the nonterminal symbols are procedures that realize the functions. The attribute grammar is translated into a program

Takuya Katayama

1984-01-01

125

Generating French with a Reversible Unification Grammar  

Microsoft Academic Search

this paper, we describe the linguistic solutionsto some of the problems encountered in writing areversible French grammar. This grammar is primarilyintended to be one of the components of amachine translation system built using ELU, 1 anenhanced PATR-II style unification grammar linguisticenvironment based on the UD system described inJohnson and Rosner (1989), but it is also part of ourmore general experimentation

Dominique Estival

1990-01-01

126

Phrasing Effects in Comprehending PP Constructions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The role of prosodic phrasing in sentence comprehension was investigated by means of three different tasks, namely auditory word monitoring (Experiment 1), self-paced reading (Experiment 2) and cross-modal comparison (Experiment 3). In all three experiments a critical prosodic unit or frame comprising a determiner, a noun and a Prepositional…

Pynte, Joel

2006-01-01

127

On Anaphora and the Binding Principles in Categorial Grammar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In type logical categorial grammar the analysis of an expression is a resource-conscious proof. Anaphora represents a particular challenge to this approach in that the antecedent resource is multiplied in the semantics. This duplication, which corresponds logically to the structural rule of contraction, may be treated lexically or syntactically. Furthermore, anaphora is subject to constraints, which Chomsky (1981) formulated as Binding Principles A, B, and C. In this paper we consider English anaphora in categorial grammar including reference to the binding principles. We invoke displacement calculus, modal categorial calculus, categorial calculus with limited contraction, and entertain addition of negation as failure.

Morrill, Glyn; Valentín, Oriol

128

Normative Topographic ERP Analyses of Speed of Speech Processing and Grammar Before and After Grammatical Treatment  

PubMed Central

Typically developing (TD) preschoolers and age-matched preschoolers with specific language impairment (SLI) received event-related potentials (ERPs) to four monosyllabic speech sounds prior to treatment and, in the SLI group, after 6 months of grammatical treatment. Before treatment, the TD group processed speech sounds faster than the SLI group. The SLI group increased the speed of their speech processing after treatment. Post-treatment speed of speech processing predicted later impairment in comprehending phrase elaboration in the SLI group. During the treatment phase, change in speed of speech processing predicted growth rate of grammar in the SLI group.

Yoder, Paul J.; Molfese, Dennis; Murray, Micah M.; Key, Alexandra P. F.

2013-01-01

129

Document recognition: an attribute grammar approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A formulation of a hierarchical page decomposition technique for technical journal pages using attribute grammars is presented. In this approach, block-grammars are recursively applied until a page is classified into its most significant sub-blocks. While a grammar devised for each block depends on its logical function, it is possible to formulate a generic description for all block grammars using attribute grammars. This attribute grammar formulation forms a generic framework on which this syntactic approach is based, while the attributes themselves are derived from publication-specific knowledge. The attribute extraction process and the formulation itself are covered in this paper. We discuss an application of attribute grammars to a document analysis problem, the extraction of logical, relational information from the image of tables.

Viswanathan, Mahesh; Green, Edward; Krishnamoorthy, Mukkai

1996-03-01

130

SWAHILI GRAMMAR AND SYNTAX. DUQUESNE STUDIES, AFRICAN SERIES 1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THIS COMPREHENSIVE STUDY OF SWAHILI, ONE OF THE BANTU LANGUAGES IN THE NIGER-CONGO GROUP, IS BASED ON THE AUTHOR'S 37 YEARS OF WRITING AND TEACHING EXPERIENCE IN EAST AFRICA. THE STUDY IS INTENDED TO PRESENT THE SWAHILI LANGUAGE IN TERMS OF ITS OWN STRUCTURE, RATHER THAN IN TERMS OF LATIN OR ENGLISH GRAMMARS. A PRELIMINARY SECTION IN PART ONE…

LOOGMAN, ALFONS

131

The PROCOPE semantic network: an alternative to action grammars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Formalisms for the description of procedural knowledge, such as action grammars and production systems, do not allow for direct handling of the semantic of objects which are involved in the actions. As models focusing on rules, objects only appear through rule triggering conditions, and hence preclude opportunities to make the overall semantic structure of the task world explicit.After a critical

Sébastien Poitrenaud

1995-01-01

132

Block diagram generation and parsing based on graph grammar  

Microsoft Academic Search

A block diagram is a graphical model with which it is possible to concisely visualize a system structure and is widely used in control engineering and other fields. However, there are few studies that try to formulate a syntax of block diagrams. In this research, we define a block diagram grammar which generates block diagrams by means of subgraph rewriting

Koushi Anzai; Yoshihiro Adachi; Suguru Kobayashi; Kensei Tsuchida

1997-01-01

133

What Artificial Grammar Learning Reveals about the Neurobiology of Syntax  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper we examine the neurobiological correlates of syntax, the processing of structured sequences, by comparing FMRI results on artificial and natural language syntax. We discuss these and similar findings in the context of formal language and computability theory. We used a simple right-linear unification grammar in an implicit artificial…

Petersson, Karl-Magnus; Folia, Vasiliki; Hagoort, Peter

2012-01-01

134

Grammar-Based Anomaly Methods for HTTP Attacks  

Microsoft Academic Search

HTTP-related vulnerabilities are being more commonly exploited as HTTP applications becoming the number one application across the Internet. Several HTTP specific anomaly methods have been proposed, among which grammar-based methods tend more likely to reflect the underlying structure of HTTP communications, therefore showed a promising classifying capability between benign and malicious accesses. Because of being separately proposed among other methods,

Xiaofeng Yang; Mingming Sun; Xuelei Hu; Jingyu Yang

2009-01-01

135

A Comparative Study on the Effectiveness of Two Song-Teaching Methods: Holistic vs. Phrase-by-Phrase  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of our study was to compare the effectiveness of two song-teaching methods: holistic and phrase-by-phrase. Thirty-two first-grade children (n = 32) from two music classes in an urban elementary school were taught two folksongs. The first class (n = 16) was taught one song through the phrase-by-phrase method and another song through the…

Persellin, Diane; Bateman, Laura

2009-01-01

136

A Reference Grammar of Pashto.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This grammar of Pashto was designed to accompany a set of beginning- and intermediate-level instructional materials for teaching the Pashto language to English speakers, but can be used separately as a reference by readers who are not learning the language. Introductory sections in English and Pashto describe the content and organization. The…

Tegey, Habibullah; Robson, Barbara

137

Teachers' Theories in Grammar Teaching.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Considers how research into researchers' theories in English language teaching (ELT) can enhance our understanding of instruction and provide the basis of effective teacher-development work. The nature of teachers' theories is illustrated with examples from classroom research on grammar teaching. Discusses a study conducted with five…

Borg, Simon

1999-01-01

138

Theories of Artificial Grammar Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Artificial grammar learning (AGL) is one of the most commonly used paradigms for the study of implicit learning and the contrast between rules, similarity, and associative learning. Despite five decades of extensive research, however, a satisfactory theoretical consensus has not been forthcoming. Theoretical accounts of AGL are reviewed, together…

Pothos, Emmanuel M.

2007-01-01

139

A Grammar of Inupiaq Morphosyntax  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This dissertation is a reference grammar of the Malimiut Coastal dialect of Inupiaq (ISO: ESI, ESK, IPK), an Eskimo-Aleut language of northwestern Alaska spoken by the Inupiat people. It complements existing descriptions of Inupiaq by filling gaps in documentation. With approximately 2000 speakers, mainly above 50 years of age, Inupiaq is…

Lanz, Linda A.

2010-01-01

140

Essentials of Asheninka Perene Grammar  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The objective of this dissertation is to present a preliminary grammatical account of Asheninka Perene an endangered Arawak language of Southeastern Peru. The description and analysis of the language is based on the 29-week field research conducted in an area of the Southwest Amazonian high jungle. Interesting issues of Asheninka Perene grammar

Mihas, Elena

2010-01-01

141

Learnable Classes of Categorial Grammars.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Learnability theory is an attempt to illuminate the concept of learnability using a mathematical model of learning. Two models of learning of categorial grammars are examined here: the standard model, in which sentences presented to the learner are flat strings of words, and one in which sentences are presented in the form of functor-argument…

Kanazawa, Makoto

142

Sentence Building and Transformational Grammar.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When ninth-grade students are searching for help in expressing their newly discovered ideas, the principles of transformational grammar can be brought to their aid in the following ways: (1) Assign a provocative topic to the students which they are to discuss as fully as possible in one sentence. (2) Present only the kernel sentences of a…

McGuire, Eileen J.

1967-01-01

143

A Lifetime of Grammar Teaching  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author has worked as a language teacher, teacher educator, and second language acquisition (SLA) researcher for over forty years. During this time grammar has figured largely in his thinking, in part because it has traditionally been so central to language pedagogy and in part because he became fascinated with how the human mind grapples with…

Ellis, Rod

2012-01-01

144

Block diagram grammar and signal flow graph grammar with their applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

A block diagram grammar and a signal flow graph grammar were previously defined as a theoretical and practical foundation for the computerized analysis and design of control systems and filters by using block diagrams and\\/or signal flow graphs. They are formalized on the basis of a context-sensitive graph grammar. In this research, a knowledge representation method in order to generate

Y. Adachi; S. Kobayashi; Y. Suda; K. Tsuchida

1999-01-01

145

An Algorithm for finding Noun Phrase Correspondences in Bilingual Corpora  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper describes an algorithm that employs English and French text taggers to associate noun phrases in an aligned bilingual corpus. The taggers provide part-of-speech categories which are used by finite-state recognizers to extract simple noun phrases for both languages. Noun phrases are then mapped to each other using an iterative re-estimation algorithm that bears similarities to the Baum-Welch algorithm

Julian Kupiec

1993-01-01

146

Phrase-based Document Similarity Based on an Index Graph Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Document clustering techniques mostly rely on single term analysis of the document data set, such as the Vector Space Model. To better capture the structure of documents, the underlying data model should be able to represent the phrases in the document as well as single terms. We present a novel data model, the Document Index Graph, which in- dexes web

Khaled M. Harnmouda; Mohamed S. Kamel

2002-01-01

147

Exploration of picture grammars, grammar learning, and inductive logic programming for image understanding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Grammars have been used for the formal specification of programming languages, and there are a number of commercial products which now use grammars. However, these have tended to be focused mainly on flow control type applications. In this paper, we consider the potential use of picture grammars and inductive logic programming in generic image understanding applications, such as object recognition. A number of issues are considered, such as what type of grammar needs to be used, how to construct the grammar with its associated attributes, difficulties encountered with parsing grammars followed by issues of automatically learning grammars using a genetic algorithm. The concept of inductive logic programming is then introduced as a method that can overcome some of the earlier difficulties.

Ducksbury, P. G.; Kennedy, C.; Lock, Z.

2003-09-01

148

Propelling Students into Active Grammar Participation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"O! this learning, what a thing it is." -W. Shakespeare, "The Taming of the Shrew." The aim of this action research was to find out if active grammar involvement amongst students might lead to better results. My approach was to activate my students during grammar instruction by using cooperative learning: that is a form of learning in which…

Jurhill, Dennis A.

2011-01-01

149

Romanian Grammar Workbook for Peace Corps Volunteers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed as a reference tool for continued language learning beyond the beginning level, this workbook provides explanations and sets of exercises for learning, practicing, and understanding the major points of Romanian grammar. The manual contains 11 units on certain grammar problems for use with a tutor or under self-guided learning…

Peace Corps (Moldova).

150

A Prototype Grammar Kit in Prolog.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a prototype of a computerized grammar kit written in PROLOG and designed for children interested in exploring language. PROLOG's advantages for building parsers, generators, translators, and question-answering systems are discussed, and a scenario of a child working on a grammar project using the kit and implementation issues are…

Kahn, Kenneth M.

1984-01-01

151

A BINI GRAMMAR, PART 3--LEXEMICS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

IN THIS THIRD VOLUME OF BINI GRAMMAR, THREE CHAPTERS ARE PRESENTED ON LEXEMICS--(1) LEXEMICS, (2) LEXEME GRADES, AND (3) LEXEME CLASSES. THE AUTHOR DEFINES THE TERM "LEXEME" AS A FORM INTERMEDIATE BETWEEN A MORPHEME AND A GRAMMEME. LESS TECHNICALLY, LEXEMES ARE DEFINED AS WORDS AND WORD-LIKE FORMS. THE OTHER TWO VOLUMES ON BINI GRAMMAR WERE…

WESCOTT, ROGER W.

152

A BINI GRAMMAR, PART 2--MORPHOLOGY.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

IN THIS PUBLICATION, TWO CHAPTERS ARE PRESENTED ON THE MORPHOLOGY OF BINI GRAMMAR--(1) GRAMMATICAL PROCEDURES, WHICH INCLUDE GRAMMATICAL METHOD, GRAMMATICAL PROCESS, AND GRAMMATICAL ANALYSIS, AND (2) FORMS, WHICH INCLUDE AFFIXES AND ROOTS. (SEE ED 003 870 FOR PART ONE OF BINI GRAMMAR, PHONOLOGY, AND ED 003 872 FOR PART THREE, LEXEMICS.) (JC)

WESCOTT, ROGER W.

153

Non-Intrusive Grammar in Writing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since introducing a grammar unit can be daunting and frustrating for both teachers and students, a collaborative unit for a 10th-grade class was planned that would satisfy an administrative requirement but also maintain the integrity of the writing program. The unit was planned by developing an approach of non-intrusive grammar instruction at the…

Roberts, Claudette M.; Boggase, Barbara A.

154

Towards a Pedagogy of Grammar Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Grammar can be viewed both as knowledge and as ability. When viewed as knowledge, the focus is on rules for sentence formation. When viewed as ability, the focus is on how grammar is used as a resource in the creation of spoken and written texts. Twelve principles are proposed as the basis for a pedagogy that focusses on acquiring learning to use…

Richards, Jack C.; Reppen, Randi

2014-01-01

155

Program distribution estimation with grammar models  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research extends conventional Estimation of Distribution Algorithms (EDA) to Genetic Programming (GP) domain. We propose a framework to estimate the distribution of solutions in tree form. The core of this framework is a grammar model. In this research, we show, both theoretically and experimentally, that a grammar model has many of the properties we need for estimation of distribution

Y. Shan; R. I. McKay; H. A. Abbass; D. Essam

2004-01-01

156

A Comparative Evaluation of French Grammar Checkers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Four grammar checkers, all of French Canadian origin, were evaluated: "Le Correcteur 101,""GramR,""Hugo Plus," and "French Proofing Tools." Results indicate that "Le Correcteur 101" is the best French grammar checker on the market and worth its premium cost. (two references) (CK)

Burston, Jack

1996-01-01

157

Grammar template query system  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

An information server directs users of the information server to desired sources of information where the desired sources of information are determined, at least in part, based on user input. The information server includes a query input processor, a question processor and an answer processor. The query input processor is used for accepting an initial user query. The question processor processes the initial user query to identify a set of possible well-formed questions selected from the question database, where a well-formed question is a question in the database that is coupled to at least one answer reference. The answer reference is typically either an answer or a pointer to a possible location of an answer. In a specific embodiment, the information server is coupled to the Internet so that users can pose questions using a Web browser from any Internet-connected device. In some systems, the question processor includes a tokenizer for tokenizing the initial user query into a list of words, a parser for generating a syntactic structure from the list of words, a normalizer for reducing the syntactic structure to a canonical syntactic structure, and a matcher for matching the canonical syntactic structure against a semantic network to obtain a weighted list of well-formed questions representative of possible semantic meanings for the initial user query.

2003-06-24

158

Adaptation to Aphasia: Grammar, Prosody and Interaction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper investigates recurrent use of the phrase "very good" by a speaker with non-fluent agrammatic aphasia. Informal observation of the speaker's interaction reveals that she appears to be an effective conversational partner despite very severe word retrieval difficulties that result in extensive reliance on variants of the phrase "very…

Rhys, Catrin S.; Ulbrich, Christiane; Ordin, Mikhail

2013-01-01

159

Weakly Regular Quantum Grammars and Asynchronous Quantum Automata  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we define weakly regular quantum grammars (WRQG), regular quantum grammars (RQG), asynchronous quantum automata (AQA) and synchronous quantum automata (SQA). Moreover, we investigate the relationships between quantum languages generated by weakly quantum regular grammars and by asynchronous quantum automata. At the mean time, we discuss the relationships between regular quantum grammars and synchronous quantum automata.

Xi, Zhengjun; Li, Yongming; Wang, Xin

2009-02-01

160

20 CFR 201.1 - Words and phrases.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Benefits 1 2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Words and phrases. 201.1 Section 201.1 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD...RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT DEFINITIONS § 201.1 Words and phrases. For the purposes of the regulations in this...

2009-04-01

161

20 CFR 201.1 - Words and phrases.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Words and phrases. 201.1 Section 201.1 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD...RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT DEFINITIONS § 201.1 Words and phrases. For the purposes of the regulations in this...

2010-04-01

162

Discovering Unordered and Ordered Phrase Association Patterns for Text Mining  

Microsoft Academic Search

. This paper considers the problem of finding all frequentphrase association patterns in a large collection of unstructured texts,where a phrase association pattern is a set of consecutive sequences ofarbitrary number of keywords which appear together in a document. Forthe ordered and the unordered versions of phrase association patterns, wepresent efficient algorithms, called Levelwise-Scan, based on the sequentialcounting technique of

Ryoichi Fujino; Hiroki Arimura; Setsuo Arikawa

2000-01-01

163

Prosodic Phrasing and Modifier Attachment in Standard Arabic Sentence Processing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This dissertation investigates the syntax-prosody interface in Standard Arabic, focusing on the ambiguity of a modifier (relative clause or adjective phrase) in relation to the two nouns in a complex noun phrase. Ambiguity resolution tendencies for this construction differ across languages, contrary to otherwise universal parsing tendencies. One…

Abdelghany, Hala

2010-01-01

164

Parsing facades with shape grammars and reinforcement learning.  

PubMed

In this paper, we use shape grammars (SGs) for facade parsing, which amounts to segmenting 2D building facades into balconies, walls, windows, and doors in an architecturally meaningful manner. The main thrust of our work is the introduction of reinforcement learning (RL) techniques to deal with the computational complexity of the problem. RL provides us with techniques such as Q-learning and state aggregation which we exploit to efficiently solve facade parsing. We initially phrase the 1D parsing problem in terms of a Markov Decision Process, paving the way for the application of RL-based tools. We then develop novel techniques for the 2D shape parsing problem that take into account the specificities of the facade parsing problem. Specifically, we use state aggregation to enforce the symmetry of facade floors and demonstrate how to use RL to exploit bottom-up, image-based guidance during optimization. We provide systematic results on the Paris building dataset and obtain state-of-the-art results in a fraction of the time required by previous methods. We validate our method under diverse imaging conditions and make our software and results available online. PMID:23682000

Teboul, Olivier; Kokkinos, Iasonas; Simon, Loic; Koutsourakis, Panagiotis; Paragios, Nikos

2013-07-01

165

Modelling dynamics with context-free grammars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article presents a strategy to model the dynamics performed by vehicles in a freeway. The proposal consists on encode the movement as a set of finite states. A watershed-based segmentation is used to localize regions with high-probability of motion. Each state represents a proportion of a camera projection in a two-dimensional space, where each state is associated to a symbol, such that any combination of symbols is expressed as a language. Starting from a sequence of symbols through a linear algorithm a free-context grammar is inferred. This grammar represents a hierarchical view of common sequences observed into the scene. Most probable grammar rules express common rules associated to normal movement behavior. Less probable rules express themselves a way to quantify non-common behaviors and they might need more attention. Finally, all sequences of symbols that does not match with the grammar rules, may express itself uncommon behaviors (abnormal). The grammar inference is built with several sequences of images taken from a freeway. Testing process uses the sequence of symbols emitted by the scenario, matching the grammar rules with common freeway behaviors. The process of detect abnormal/normal behaviors is managed as the task of verify if any word generated by the scenario is recognized by the grammar.

García-Huerta, Juan-M.; Jiménez-Hernández, Hugo; Herrera-Navarro, Ana-M.; Hernández-Díaz, Teresa; Terol-Villalobos, Ivan

2014-03-01

166

Grammar disruption in a patient with Neuro-Sweet syndrome.  

PubMed

This paper for the first time reports detailed neurolinguistic findings in a patient with Neuro-Sweet syndrome. In this patient the presenting symptoms of central nervous system (CNS) involvement primarily consisted of a selective grammar deficit restricted to spontaneous speech. On MRI a left prefrontal ischemic stroke (superior part BA 6) and two small subcortical left parietal infarctions were found. Neurolinguistic analyses, however, did not reveal a profile consistent with any observations of agrammatism caused by structural damage to the language areas critically involved in grammatical processing. It is hypothesized that selectively distorted grammar might reflect disruption of the frontosubcortical network involved in language processing. Prefrontal neurobehavioral abnormalities associated with functional disruption of the inferior medial frontal regions as demonstrated by SPECT, additionally suggest that agrammatic symptoms may be linked to a higher-level cognitive disorder following encephalopathic CNS involvement. PMID:21879995

Mariën, Peter; Tops, Wim; Crols, Roel; Jonkers, Roel; De Deyn, Peter P; Verhoeven, Jo

2012-06-01

167

A new method of cardiographic image segmentation based on grammar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The measurement of the most common ultrasound parameters, such as aortic area, mitral area and left ventricle (LV) volume, requires the delineation of the organ in order to estimate the area. In terms of medical image processing this translates into the need to segment the image and define the contours as accurately as possible. The aim of this work is to segment an image and make an automated area estimation based on grammar. The entity "language" will be projected to the entity "image" to perform structural analysis and parsing of the image. We will show how the idea of segmentation and grammar-based area estimation is applied to real problems of cardio-graphic image processing.

Hamdi, Salah; Ben Abdallah, Asma; Bedoui, Mohamed H.; Alimi, Adel M.

2011-10-01

168

Terminal context in context-sensitive grammars.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Investigation of the conditions whereunder context-sensitive grammars generate context-free languages. The obtained results indicate that, if every noncontext-free rewriting rule of a context-sensitive grammar has as left context a string of terminal symbols and the left context is at least as long as the right context, then the language generated is context-free. Likewise, if every noncontext-free rewriting rule of a context-sensitive grammar has strings of terminal symbols as left and right contexts, then the language generated is also context-free.

Book, R. V.

1972-01-01

169

The grammar of transcriptional regulation.  

PubMed

Eukaryotes employ combinatorial strategies to generate a variety of expression patterns from a relatively small set of regulatory DNA elements. As in any other language, deciphering the mapping between DNA and expression requires an understanding of the set of rules that govern basic principles in transcriptional regulation, the functional elements involved, and the ways in which they combine to orchestrate a transcriptional output. Here, we review the current understanding of various grammatical rules, including the effect on expression of the number of transcription factor binding sites, their location, orientation, affinity and activity; co-association with different factors; and intrinsic nucleosome organization. We review different methods that are used to study the grammar of transcription regulation, highlight gaps in current understanding, and discuss how recent technological advances may be utilized to bridge them. PMID:24390306

Weingarten-Gabbay, Shira; Segal, Eran

2014-06-01

170

On search guide phrase compilation for recommending home medical products.  

PubMed

To help people find desired home medical products (HMPs), we developed an intelligent personal health record (iPHR) system that can automatically recommend HMPs based on users' health issues. Using nursing knowledge, we pre-compile a set of "search guide" phrases that provides semantic translation from words describing health issues to their underlying medical meanings. Then iPHR automatically generates queries from those phrases and uses them and a search engine to retrieve HMPs. To avoid missing relevant HMPs during retrieval, the compiled search guide phrases need to be comprehensive. Such compilation is a challenging task because nursing knowledge updates frequently and contains numerous details scattered in many sources. This paper presents a semi-automatic tool facilitating such compilation. Our idea is to formulate the phrase compilation task as a multi-label classification problem. For each newly obtained search guide phrase, we first use nursing knowledge and information retrieval techniques to identify a small set of potentially relevant classes with corresponding hints. Then a nurse makes the final decision on assigning this phrase to proper classes based on those hints. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our techniques by compiling search guide phrases from an occupational therapy textbook. PMID:21096155

Luo, Gang

2010-01-01

171

A Relationship: Word Alignment, Phrase Table, and Translation Quality  

PubMed Central

In the last years, researchers conducted several studies to evaluate the machine translation quality based on the relationship between word alignments and phrase table. However, existing methods usually employ ad-hoc heuristics without theoretical support. So far, there is no discussion from the aspect of providing a formula to describe the relationship among word alignments, phrase table, and machine translation performance. In this paper, on one hand, we focus on formulating such a relationship for estimating the size of extracted phrase pairs given one or more word alignment points. On the other hand, a corpus-motivated pruning technique is proposed to prune the default large phrase table. Experiment proves that the deduced formula is feasible, which not only can be used to predict the size of the phrase table, but also can be a valuable reference for investigating the relationship between the translation performance and phrase tables based on different links of word alignment. The corpus-motivated pruning results show that nearly 98% of phrases can be reduced without any significant loss in translation quality.

Chao, Lidia S.

2014-01-01

172

Estimating Grammar Parameters using Bounded Memory.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Estimating the parameters of stochastic context-free grammars (SCFGs) from data is an important, well-studied problem. Almost without exception, existing approaches make repeated passes over the training data. The memory requirements of such algorithms ar...

B. Heeringa T. Oates

2002-01-01

173

Some Grammar Formalisms for Natural Language Processing,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the report an overview of some existing formalisms of grammar for natural language processing is given. Each formalism is described and evaluated and some systems using the formalism are mentioned. First the Augmented Transition Network (ATN) and the D...

A. van Rijn

1988-01-01

174

Parallel communicating grammar systems with terminal transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary.   We introduce a new variant of PC grammar systems, called PC grammar systems with terminal transmission, PCGSTT for short.\\u000a We show that right-linear centralized PCGSTT have nice formal language theoretic properties: they are closed under gsm mappings\\u000a (in particular, under intersection with regular sets and under homomorphisms) and union; a slight variant is, in addition,\\u000a closed under concatenation and

Henning Fernau

2001-01-01

175

Cognitive Adequacy in Structural-Functional Theories of Language  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses the role played by cognition in three linguistic theories which may be labelled as "structural-functional": Functional (Discourse) Grammar, Role and Reference Grammar and Systemic Functional Grammar. It argues that if we are to achieve true cognitive adequacy, we must go well beyond the grammar itself to include the processes…

Butler, Christopher S.

2008-01-01

176

Introducing a Translation Dictionary into Phrase-Based SMT  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a method to effectively introduce a translation dictionary into phrase-based SMT. Though SMT systems can be built with only a parallel corpus, translation dictionaries are more widely available and have many more entries than parallel corpora. A simple and low-cost method to introduce a translation dictionary is to attach a dictionary entry into a phrase table. This, however, does not work well. Target word order and even whole target sentences are often incorrect. To solve this problem, the proposed method uses high-frequency words in the training corpus. The high-frequency words may already be trained well; in other words, they may appear in the phrase table and therefore be translated with correct word order. Experimental results show the proposed method as far superior to simply attaching dictionary entries into phrase tables.

Okuma, Hideo; Yamamoto, Hirofumi; Sumita, Eiichiro

177

Nicht-referentielle Nominalphrasen (Non-Referential Noun Phrases)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Appeared as Working Report No. 21 of the Linguistic Institute of the University of Cologne; critical observations on S. Kuno's Some Properties of Non-Refential Noun Phrases,'' in Studies in General and Oriental Linguistics, 1970. (RS)

Leys, Odo

1973-01-01

178

POSTVERBAL WH-PHRASES IN MALAGASY, TAGALOG AND TSOU  

Microsoft Academic Search

We argue that postverbal wh-phrases in Malagasy, Tagalog and Tsou are subject to the same general constraint on marking of postverbal trigger argument. We show that the trigger is not necessarily definite or specific; the non-occurrence of wh-phrase trigger in postverbal position therefore cannot be due to the definite\\/specific constraint on the trigger argument. There exists evidence, little noticed in

PAUL LAW; H ANS-MARTIN GÄRTNER; Zentrum für Allgemeine; Sprachwissenschaft Zentrum; Allgemeine Sprachwissenschaft

2005-01-01

179

Efficient Phrase-Based Document Similarity for Clustering  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose a phrase-based document similarity to compute the pair-wise similarities of documents based on the suffix tree document (STD) model. By mapping each node in the suffix tree of STD model into a unique feature term in the vector space document (VSD) model, the phrase-based document similarity naturally inherits the term tf-idf weighting scheme in computing

Hung Chim; Xiaotie Deng

2008-01-01

180

The French Noun Phrase in Preschool Children with SLI: Morphosyntactic and Error Analyses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We studied spontaneous speech noun-phrase production in eight French-speaking children with SLI (aged 5;0 to 5; 1) and controls matched on age (4;10 to 5;11) or MLU (aged 3;2 to 4;1). Results showed that children with SLI prefer simple DP structures to complex ones while producing more substitution and omission errors than controls. The three…

Royle, Phaedra; Stine, Isabelle

2013-01-01

181

Phrasal Ordering Constraints in Sentence Production: Phrase Length and Verb Disposition in Heavy-NP Shift  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heavy-NP shift is the tendency for speakers to place long or “heavy” noun phrase direct objects at the end of a sentence rather than in the canonical postverbal position. Three experiments using several task variations confirmed that length of the noun phrase influenced the ordering of the noun phrase and prepositional phrase during production. We also found that heavy-NP shift

Lynne M. Stallings; Maryellen C. MacDonald; Padraig G. O'Seaghdha

1998-01-01

182

The Syntax and Semantics of Phonological Phrasing in Shanghai and Hokkien.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It has been observed that phonological phrasing in Shanghai Chinese distinguishes certain determiners from others and wh-quantifier phrases from non-wh-quantifier phrases. This article shows that such phonological phrasing distinctions are also found in Hokkien Chinese but in a more restricted environment. (Author/VWL)

Soh, Hooi Ling

2001-01-01

183

Implementation of a Natural Language Processor Using Functional Grammar.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This thesis presents the design and implementation of a natural language processor using Functional Grammar. Traditionally, grammars have consisted of a set of words and a set of semantic and syntactic rules which combine the words to form sentences. Thus...

F. G. Orchard

1985-01-01

184

Using Attribute Grammars to Derive Efficient Functional Programs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Two mappings from attribute grammars to lazy functional programs are defined. One of these mappings is an efficient implementation of attribute grammars. The other mapping yields inefficient programs. It is shown how some transformations of functional pro...

M. F. Kuiper S. D. Swierstra

1986-01-01

185

Specification of a Programming Support Environment by Graph Grammars.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper illustrates that programmed graph grammars are a well-suited formal description method to specify incremental program construction within a programming support environment. A programmed graph grammar consists of a set of graph replacement rules...

G. Engels W. Schaefer

1982-01-01

186

Multi-input\\/multi-output block diagram grammar  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multi-input\\/multi-output block diagram grammar for a block diagram with multiple inputs and\\/or multiple outputs is formalized in terms of a context-sensitive graph grammar. This grammar is defined by adding to the single-input, single-output block diagram grammar we proposed previously dummy nodes and new productions for dealing with multiple inputs and\\/or multiple outputs. A parser based on the multi-input\\/multi-output block

Yoshihiro Adachi; Suguru Kobayashi; Kensei Tsuchida

1998-01-01

187

Generating Statistical Language Models from Interpretation Grammars in Dialogue Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we explore statistical lan- guage modelling for a speech-enabled MP3 player application by generating a corpus from the interpretation grammar written for the application with the Gram- matical Framework (GF) (Ranta, 2004). We create a statistical language model (SLM) directly from our interpretation grammar and compare recognition per- formance of this model against a speech recognition grammar

Rebecca Jonson

2006-01-01

188

Grammar and the Lexicon. Working Papers in Linguistics 16.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this volume, five working papers are presented. "Minimal Signs and Grammar" (Lars Hellan) proposes that a significant part of the "production" of grammar is incremental, building larger and larger constructs, with lexical objects called minimal signs as the first steps. It also suggests that the basic lexical information in grammar is…

University of Trondheim Working Papers in Linguistics, 1993

1993-01-01

189

Grammar and the Teaching of Writing: Limits and Possibilities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intended for practitioners, this study has three principal aims: (1) to reduce the breadth of formal grammar instruction by first locating those areas where grammar and writing overlap and then identifying those kinds of writing problems most amenable to treatment with a grammar-based approach; (2) to decrease the classroom hours spent on formal…

Noguchi, Rei R.

190

Does intensive explicit grammar instruction make all the difference?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the effect of explicit grammar instruction on grammatical knowledge and writing proficiency in first-year students of French at a UK university. Previous research suggests that explicit grammar instruction results in gains in explicit knowledge and its application in specific grammar-related tasks, but there is less evidence that it results in gains in production tasks. A cohort of

Ernesto Macaro; Liz Masterman

2006-01-01

191

Playful Explicitness with Grammar: A Pedagogy for Writing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The place of grammar within the teaching of writing has long been contested and successive research studies have indicated no correlation between grammar teaching and writing attainment. However, a recent study has shown a significant positive impact on writing outcomes when the grammar input is intrinsically linked to the demands of the writing…

Myhill, Debra; Jones, Susan; Watson, Annabel; Lines, Helen

2013-01-01

192

Successful Techniques in Grammar Instruction. ERIC Topical Bibliography and Commentary.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Grammar study needs to be functional. Learners need to have a sense of how knowledge of grammar can help them communicate more effectively, both orally and in writing. The focus of grammar instruction is shifting from repetition and rote drills, memorizing parts of speech, and diagramming to develop an awareness of language in general and how it…

Smith, Carl B., Ed.

193

When Is a Verb? Using Functional Grammar to Teach Writing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While evidence shows that grammar study focused on identification, description, and definition (IDD) fails to enhance writing performance, the grammar most students study remains focused on the IDD tradition. We taught a functional grammar that featured what words do in sentences, rather than what words are called and how they are defined, to two…

Fearn, Leif; Farnan, Nancy

2007-01-01

194

Strategic Processing in Grammar Learning: Do Multilinguals Use More Strategies?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Multilinguals appear to become better at learning additional languages the more languages they know, and in particular, to be faster at learning grammar. This study investigates the use of grammar learning strategies in 144 participants who knew between 2 and 12 languages each, using a language background questionnaire, a set of 40 grammar

Kemp, Charlotte

2007-01-01

195

Difficulties in Teaching and Learning Grammar in an EFL Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The role of grammar instruction in an ESL/EFL context has been for decades a major issue for students and teachers alike. Researchers have debated whether grammar should be taught in the classroom and students, for their part, have generally looked upon grammar instruction as a necessary evil at best, and an avoidable burden at worst. The paper…

Al-Mekhlafi, Abdu Mohammed; Nagaratnam, Ramani Perur

2011-01-01

196

The Motion Grammar for physical human-robot games  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce the Motion Grammar, a powerful new representation for robot decision making, and validate its properties through the successful implementation of a physical human-robot game. The Motion Grammar is a formal tool for task decomposition and hybrid control in the presence of significant online uncertainty. In this paper, we describe the Motion Grammar, introduce some of the formal guarantees

Neil Dantam; Pushkar Kolhe; Mike Stilman

2011-01-01

197

Foreign-Language Grammar Instruction via the Mother Tongue  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The chapter reports the results of a controlled experiment which suggest that foreign-language grammar instruction that forges explicit connections with the grammar of the students' mother tongue aids learning, at least as far as students' application of discrete-point grammar rules is concerned. (Contains 2 figures and 3 notes.) [This document…

Paradowski, Michal B.

2007-01-01

198

The Noun Phrase in Tagalog-English Code Switching. Studies in Philippine Linguistics, Vol. 1, No. 1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The structure of the Noun Phrase (NP) is analyzed in a corpus featuring Tagalog-English code-switching. Instances of first language (L1) NP's appearing as subjects and complements in second language (L2) sentential units are examined to gain insight into code-switching. Ten thirty-minute tapes of a radio program in Tagalog provided the corpus for…

Bautista, Maria Lourdes S.

1977-01-01

199

Lexical noun phrases in texts written by deaf children and adults with different proficiency levels in sign language  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report an analysis of lexical noun phrases (NPs) in narrative and expository texts written by Dutch deaf individuals from a bimodal bilingual perspective. Texts written by Dutch deaf children and adults who are either proficient in Sign Language of the Netherlands (SLN) or low-proficient in SLN were compared on structures that either overlap in Dutch and SLN (presence of

Liesbeth Maria van Beijsterveldt; Janet van Hell

2010-01-01

200

LL Leftmost k-Linear Scattered Context Grammars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present paper introduces a new variant of a scattered context grammar, called an LL leftmost k-linear scattered context grammar. It is an ordinary scattered context grammar without erasing rules, where (1) every scattered context rule is composed of k-linear rules, (2) if we take the first components of every rule, the resulting context-free grammar is an LL grammar, and (3) every rule is applied in a leftmost way. We study the generative power of this variant and its parsing properties, including time and space complexity. In the conclusion, several remarks regarding the achieved results are made.

Meduna, Alexander; Vrábel, Lukáš; Zemek, Petr

2011-09-01

201

System, method and apparatus for generating phrases from a database  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A phrase generation is a method of generating sequences of terms, such as phrases, that may occur within a database of subsets containing sequences of terms, such as text. A database is provided and a relational model of the database is created. A query is then input. The query includes a term or a sequence of terms or multiple individual terms or multiple sequences of terms or combinations thereof. Next, several sequences of terms that are contextually related to the query are assembled from contextual relations in the model of the database. The sequences of terms are then sorted and output. Phrase generation can also be an iterative process used to produce sequences of terms from a relational model of a database.

McGreevy, Michael W. (Inventor)

2004-01-01

202

System, Method and Apparatus for Discovering Phrases in a Database  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A phrase discovery is a method of identifying sequences of terms in a database. First, a selection of one or more relevant sequences of terms. such as relevant text, is provided. Next, several shorter sequences of terms, such as phrases, are extracted from the provided relevant sequences of terms. The extracted sequences of terms are then reduced through a culling process. A gathering process then emphasizes the more relevant of the extracted and culled sequences of terms and de-emphasizes the more generic of the extracted and culled sequences of terms. The gathering process can also include iteratively retrieving additional selections of relevant sequences (e.g.. text). extracting and culling additional sequences of terms (e.g.. phrases). emphasizing and de-emphasizing extracted and culled sequences of terms and accumulating all gathered sequences of terms. The resulting gathered sequences of terms are then output.

McGreevy, Michael W. (Inventor)

2004-01-01

203

Semantics for coordinated substitution grammars as implemented in Prolog  

SciTech Connect

A solution is provided by the coordinate substitution grammars (CSubGs), a form of two-level grammar in which indices and their corresponding rules comprise a meta-level grammar used to instantiate rules in the base grammatical form. Through the use of these indices, all syntactic coordination can be concisely and descriptively represented in the grammar. It is demonstrate that the CSubGs can generate the recursively enumerable sets, although they can be constrained to generate only the context-free or indexed languages. A program was developed to translate the grammar rules into Prolog clauses, as is done with definite clause grammars. The remainder of the problem, determining how CSubGs and their indices can affect the natural-language semantics in a Prolog implementation, is investigated by studying grammars for various English-language constructs.

Larson, T.J.

1987-01-01

204

Chomsky's Universal Grammar and Halliday's Systemic Functional Linguistics: An Appraisal and a Compromise  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent developments in theories of language (grammars) seem to share a number of tenets which mark a drastic shift from traditional disentangled descriptions of language: emphasis on a big number of discrete grammatical rules or a corpus of structure patterns has given way to a more unitary, explanatory powerful description of language informed by…

Bavali, Mohammad; Sadighi, Firooz

2008-01-01

205

Commentary to "Multiple Grammars and Second Language Representation," by Luiz Amaral and Tom Roeper  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this commentary, the author defends the Multiple Grammars (MG) theory proposed by Luiz Amaral and Tom Roepe (A&R) in the present issue. Topics discussed include second language acquisition, the concept of developmental optionality, and the idea that structural decisions involve the lexical dimension. The author states that A&R's…

Pérez-Leroux, Ana T.

2014-01-01

206

BIBLIOGRAPHY AND GLOSSARY FOR CHINESE GRAMMAR.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THIS BIBLIOGRAPHY LISTS 937 TITLES IN THE FIELD OF CHINESE GRAMMAR FROM AMERICAN AND FOREIGN BOOKS, MAGAZINES, AND JOURNALS. THE AUTHORS AND TITLES ARE LISTED IN PINYIN SYSTEM TRANSCRIPTION WITH A TRANSLATION OF THE TITLE IN ENGLISH AND WITH CHINESE LOGOGRAPHS AFTER THE SOURCE CITATION FOR THOSE ENTRIES ORGINALLY WRITTEN IN CHINESE. ENTRIES ARE…

LIU, LILLIAN; WANG, W. S-Y

207

Translation grammars for compilation and decompilation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A notation is presented for specifying the compilation and decompilation of high-level language programs. Given the decompilation grammar of a programming language, it is possible to study certain properties of that language, such as the redundancy of source language constructs that yield identical object code sequences and the ambiguity of object code generated by procedure calls.

Victor Schneider; Gary Winiger

1974-01-01

208

Caught'Ya! Grammar with a Giggle.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Helping students in grades 3 through 11 to master the mechanics of language, this book describes the "Caught'ya" approach to teaching grammar, in which students correct error-filled sentences that form an ongoing humorous plot. The book notes that the sentences are presented 3 to 5 times a week at the start of class and take less than 10 minutes…

Kiester, Jane Bell

209

Multiple Grammars: Old Wine in Old Bottles  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Amaral and Roeper (this issue; henceforth A&R) argue that all speakers -- regardless of whether monolingual or bilingual -- have multiple grammars in their mental language representations. They further claim that this simple assumption can explain many things: optionality in second language (L2) language behaviour, multilingualism, language…

Sorace, Antonella

2014-01-01

210

Multiple Grammars and Second Language Representation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents an extension of the Multiple Grammars Theory (Roeper, 1999) to provide a formal mechanism that can serve as a generative-based alternative to current descriptive models of interlanguage. The theory extends historical work by Kroch and Taylor (1997), and has been taken into a computational direction by Yang (2003). The proposal…

Amaral, Luiz; Roeper, Tom

2014-01-01

211

Nigel: A Systemic Grammar for Text Generation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Programming a computer to write text which meets a prior need is a challenging research task. As part of such research, Nigel, a large programmed grammar of English, has been created in the framework of systemic linguistics begun by Halliday. In addition ...

W. C. Mann, C. M.I.M. Matthiessen

1983-01-01

212

Spelling and Grammar Checkers: Are They Intrusive?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Spelling and grammar checkers help to make surface errors more apparent; do they influence the way in which people revise the content of their writing? We investigated whether the presence of checkers distracts students from making content revisions. Twenty-five freshmen, 20 English majors and 20 graduate students revised two essays on a computer,…

Figueredo, Lauren; Varnhagen, Connie K.

2006-01-01

213

Towards Teaching a "Grammar of Culture."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is proposed that for second language learners to develop communicative competence, their instruction must address the sociolinguistic, discourse, and strategic aspects of target language use. These three aspects of communicative competence are termed the "grammar of culture," and they are essential to understanding what is appropriate in…

Marsh, David

214

A Progressive Grammar of the Tamil Language.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The first chapter of this grammar of prose Tamil introduces the alphabet and orthography. Following chapters deal with parts of speech and verb constructions. A final chapter deals with colloquialisms and foreign words. Appended are lists of abbreviations, grammatical and temporal terms, and other information useful to the student, as well as a…

Arden, A. H.; Clayton, A. C.

215

Grammar and the English National Curriculum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1998 the regulatory body for the National Curriculum, the Qualifications and Curriculum Authority, acknowledged that there was "widespread uncertainty" over the grammar requirements of the English Curriculum. In this paper I argue that the QCA still has not addressed this uncertainty. I analyse the 1999 and 2011 Primary English Curricula,…

Paterson, Laura Louise

2010-01-01

216

What Is a Rule of Grammar?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article offers commentary on the Multiple Grammars (MG) language acquisition theory proposed by Luiz Amaral and Tom Roeper in this issue. It argues that more precise definitions are needed for the terms "rule," "simple," and "productive." Topics discussed include Amaral and Roeper's verb second (V2) rule,…

Lardiere, Donna

2014-01-01

217

Learning grammar rules of building parts from precise models and noisy observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The automatic interpretation of dense three-dimensional (3D) point clouds is still an open research problem. The quality and usability of the derived models depend to a large degree on the availability of highly structured models which represent semantics explicitly and provide a priori knowledge to the interpretation process. The usage of formal grammars for modelling man-made objects has gained increasing interest in the last few years. In order to cope with the variety and complexity of buildings, a large number of fairly sophisticated grammar rules are needed. As yet, such rules mostly have to be designed by human experts. This article describes a novel approach to machine learning of attribute grammar rules based on the Inductive Logic Programming paradigm. Apart from syntactic differences, logic programs and attribute grammars are basically the same language. Attribute grammars extend context-free grammars by attributes and semantic rules and provide a much larger expressive power. Our approach to derive attribute grammars is able to deal with two kinds of input data. On the one hand, we show how attribute grammars can be derived from precise descriptions in the form of examples provided by a human user as the teacher. On the other hand, we present the acquisition of models from noisy observations such as 3D point clouds. This includes the learning of geometric and topological constraints by taking measurement errors into account. The feasibility of our approach is proven exemplarily by stairs, and a generic framework for learning other building parts is discussed. Stairs aggregate an arbitrary number of steps in a manner which is specified by topological and geometric constraints and can be modelled in a recursive way. Due to this recursion, they pose a special challenge to machine learning. In order to learn the concept of stairs, only a small number of examples were required. Our approach represents and addresses the quality of the given observations and the derived constraints explicitly, using concepts from uncertain projective geometry for learning geometric relations and the Wakeby distribution together with decision trees for topological relations.

Dehbi, Y.; Plümer, L.

218

Grammar Intervention: Content and Procedures for Facilitating Children's Language Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children with language impairment (LI) show an overall immaturity in grammatical structure. This includes difficulties with basic sentence constituents, pronouns, verb form elaboration, negative and interrogative sentences, noun phrase elaboration, and complex sentences. This article describes explicit instruction and scaffolding strategies, based…

Eisenberg, Sarita L.

2013-01-01

219

Combined Grammar for the Modeling of Building Interiors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As spatial grammars have proven successful and efficient to deliver LOD3 models, the next challenge is their extension to indoor applications, leading to LOD4 models. Therefore, a combined indoor grammar for the automatic generation of indoor models from erroneous and incomplete observation data is presented. In building interiors where inaccurate observation data is available, the grammar can be used to make the reconstruction process robust, and verify the reconstructed geometries. In unobserved building interiors, the grammar can generate hypotheses about possible indoor geometries matching the style of the rest of the building. The grammar combines concepts from L-systems and split grammars. It is designed in such way that it can be derived from observation data fully automatically. Thus, manual predefinitions of the grammar rules usually required to tune the grammar to a specific building style, become obsolete. The potential benefit of using our grammar as support for indoor modeling is evaluated based on an example where the grammar has been applied to automatically generate an indoor model from erroneous and incomplete traces gathered by foot-mounted MEMS/IMU positioning systems.

Becker, S.; Peter, M.; Fritsch, D.; Philipp, D.; Baier, P.; Dibak, C.

2013-11-01

220

Efficient Phrase-Based Document Indexing for Web Document Clustering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Document clustering techniques mostly rely on single term analysis of the document data set, such as the Vector Space Model. To achieve more accurate document clustering, more informative features including phrases and their weights are particularly important in such scenarios. Document clustering is particularly useful in many applications such as automatic categorization of documents, grouping search engine results, building a

Khaled M. Hammouda; Mohamed S. Kamel

2004-01-01

221

How Listeners Weight Acoustic Cues to Intonational Phrase Boundaries  

PubMed Central

The presence of an intonational phrase boundary is often marked by three major acoustic cues: pause, final lengthening, and pitch reset. The present study investigates how these three acoustic cues are weighted in the perception of intonational phrase boundaries in two experiments. Sentences that contained two intonational phrases with a critical boundary between them were used as the experimental stimuli. The roles of the three acoustic cues at the critical boundary were manipulated in five conditions. The first condition featured none of the acoustic cues. The following three conditions featured only one cue each: pause, final lengthening, and pitch reset, respectively. The fifth condition featured both pause duration and pre-final lengthening. A baseline condition was also included in which all three acoustic cues were preserved intact. Listeners were asked to detect the presence of the critical boundaries in Experiment 1 and judge the strength of the critical boundaries in Experiment 2. The results of both experiments showed that listeners used all three acoustic cues in the perception of prosodic boundaries. More importantly, these acoustic cues were weighted differently across the two experiments: Pause was a more powerful perceptual cue than both final lengthening and pitch reset, with the latter two cues perceptually equivalent; the effect of pause and the effects of the other two acoustic cues were not additive. These results suggest that the weighting of acoustic cues contributes significantly to the perceptual differences of intonational phrase boundary.

Yang, Xiaohong; Shen, Xiangrong; Li, Weijun; Yang, Yufang

2014-01-01

222

Bilingual Medical Phrase Book (In English and Laotian).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This phrase book offers Laotian refugees and immigrants with limited English proficiency a short-cut, word-for-word bilingual reference tool for dealing with medical problems and situations in English-language environments. Seven chapters deal with different issues of the medical encounter and five appendixes present specialized terms and…

Thuy, Vuong G.

223

How listeners weight acoustic cues to intonational phrase boundaries.  

PubMed

The presence of an intonational phrase boundary is often marked by three major acoustic cues: pause, final lengthening, and pitch reset. The present study investigates how these three acoustic cues are weighted in the perception of intonational phrase boundaries in two experiments. Sentences that contained two intonational phrases with a critical boundary between them were used as the experimental stimuli. The roles of the three acoustic cues at the critical boundary were manipulated in five conditions. The first condition featured none of the acoustic cues. The following three conditions featured only one cue each: pause, final lengthening, and pitch reset, respectively. The fifth condition featured both pause duration and pre-final lengthening. A baseline condition was also included in which all three acoustic cues were preserved intact. Listeners were asked to detect the presence of the critical boundaries in Experiment 1 and judge the strength of the critical boundaries in Experiment 2. The results of both experiments showed that listeners used all three acoustic cues in the perception of prosodic boundaries. More importantly, these acoustic cues were weighted differently across the two experiments: Pause was a more powerful perceptual cue than both final lengthening and pitch reset, with the latter two cues perceptually equivalent; the effect of pause and the effects of the other two acoustic cues were not additive. These results suggest that the weighting of acoustic cues contributes significantly to the perceptual differences of intonational phrase boundary. PMID:25019156

Yang, Xiaohong; Shen, Xiangrong; Li, Weijun; Yang, Yufang

2014-01-01

224

Lexical Access during the Production of Idiomatic Phrases  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In three experiments we test the assumption that idioms have their own lexical entry, which is linked to its constituent lemmas (Cutting & Bock, 1997). Speakers produced idioms or literal phrases (Experiment 1), completed idioms (Experiment 2), or switched between idiom completion and naming (Experiment 3). The results of Experiment 1 show that…

Sprenger, Simone A.; Levelt, Willem J. M.; Kempen, Gerard

2006-01-01

225

Hyphens for Disambiguating Phrases: Effectiveness for Young and Older Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to investigate whether hyphens that disambiguate phrasing in ambiguous sentences influence reading rate and reading comprehension for younger and older adults. Moreover, as working memory (WM) has been implicated in age-related changes in sentence comprehension for both auditory and written materials, we asked if it…

Anema, Inge; Obler, Loraine K.

2012-01-01

226

Processing Elided Verb Phrases with Flawed Antecedents: The Recycling Hypothesis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Traditional syntactic accounts of verb phrase ellipsis (e.g., ''Jason laughed. Sam did [ ] too.'') categorize as ungrammatical many sentences that language users find acceptable (they ''undergenerate''); semantic accounts overgenerate. We propose that a processing theory, together with a syntactic account, does a better job of describing and…

Arregui, Ana; Clifton, Charles, Jr.; Frazier, Lyn; Moulton, Keir

2006-01-01

227

77 FR 6138 - Draft Policy on Interpretation of the Phrase “Significant Portion of Its Range” in the Endangered...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Draft Policy on Interpretation of the Phrase ``Significant Portion of Its Range...comments on the draft policy interpreting the phrase ``significant portion of its range...final policy on interpretation of the phrase ``significant portion of its...

2012-02-07

228

The Acquisition of Lexical Phrases in Academic Writing: A Longitudinal Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lexical phrases are both numerous and functionally important in written texts. Despite this, L2 learners often find their use problematic, typically overusing a limited number of well-known phrases, while at the same time lacking a diverse enough phrasal repertoire to employ lexical phrases in a native-like manner. While a number of studies have…

Li, Jie; Schmitt, Norbert

2009-01-01

229

Development of phrase translation systems for handheld computers: from concept to field  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe the development and conceptual evolution of handheld spoken phrase translation systems, beginning with an initial unidirectional system for translation of English phrases, and later extending to a limited bidirectional phrase translation system between English and Pashto, a major language of Afghanistan. We review the challenges posed by such projects, such as the constraints imposed by the computational platform,

Horacio Franco; Jing Zheng; Kristin Precoda; Federico Cesari; Victor Abrash; Dimitra Vergyri; Anand Venkataraman; Harry Bratt; Colleen Richey; Ace Sarich

2003-01-01

230

Two Discourse Generators. A Grammar and a Lexicon for a Text-Production System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Computer generation of text, linguistically justified grammars, KDS, PROTEUS, natural language, systemic grammar, text generation. Computer generation of text linguistically justified grammars, knowledge representation methods, PENMAN, natural language, s...

W. C. Mann, C. M.I.M. Matthiessen

1982-01-01

231

Changing Approaches to the Conceptualization and Teaching of Grammar  

Microsoft Academic Search

The traditional view of grammar as simply a collection of word classes and rules for their combination is being supplemented\\u000a by theories that conceive of grammar in terms of its cognitive and social origins. Such theories are being used to support\\u000a research from psycholinguistic and sociolinguistic perspectives into the learning and teaching of language and how grammar\\u000a is implicated in

Beverly Derewianka

232

Using attribute grammars for the genetic selection of back-propagation networks for character recognition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Determining exactly which neural network architecture, with which parameters, will provide the best solution to a classification task is often based upon the intuitions and experience of the implementers of neural network solutions. The research presented in this paper is centered on the development of automated methods for the selection of appropriate networks, as applied to character recognition. The Network Generating Attribute Grammar Encoding system is a compact and general method for the specification of commonly accepted network architectures that can be easily expanded to include novel architectures, or that can be easily restricted to a small subset of some known architecture. Within this system, the context-free component of the attribute grammar specifies a class of basic architectures by using the non-terminals to represent network, layers and component structures. The inherited and synthesized attributes indicate the connections necessary to develop a functioning network from any parse tree that is generated from the grammar. The attribute grammar encoding is particularly conducive to the use of genetic algorithms as a strategy for searching the space of possible networks. The resultant parse trees are used as the genetic code, permitting a variety of different genetic manipulations. We apply this approach in the generation of backpropagation networks for recognition of characters from a set consisting of 20,000 examples of 26 letters.

Browse, Roger A.; Hussain, Talib S.; Smillie, Matthew B.

1999-03-01

233

Grammar-based Automatic 3D Model Reconstruction from Terrestrial Laser Scanning Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The automatic reconstruction of 3D buildings has been an important research topic during the last years. In this paper, a novel method is proposed to automatically reconstruct the 3D building models from segmented data based on pre-defined formal grammar and rules. Such segmented data can be extracted e.g. from terrestrial or mobile laser scanning devices. Two steps are considered in detail. The first step is to transform the segmented data into 3D shapes, for instance using the DXF (Drawing Exchange Format) format which is a CAD data file format used for data interchange between AutoCAD and other program. Second, we develop a formal grammar to describe the building model structure and integrate the pre-defined grammars into the reconstruction process. Depending on the different segmented data, the selected grammar and rules are applied to drive the reconstruction process in an automatic manner. Compared with other existing approaches, our proposed method allows the model reconstruction directly from 3D shapes and takes the whole building into account.

Yu, Q.; Helmholz, P.; Belton, D.; West, G.

2014-04-01

234

Visual grammars and their neural networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We exhibit a systematic way to derive neural nets for vision problems. It involves formulating a vision problem as Bayesian inference or decision on a comprehensive model of the visual domain given by a probabilistic grammar. A key feature of this grammar is the way in which it eliminates model information, such as object labels, as it produces an image; correspondence problems and other noise removal tasks result. The neural nets that arise most directly are generalized assignment networks. Also there are transformations which naturally yield improved algorithms such as correlation matching in scale space and the Frameville neural nets for high-level vision. Networks derived this way generally have objective functions with spurious local minima; such minima may commonly be avoided by dynamics that include deterministic annealing, for example recent improvements to Mean Field Theory dynamics. The grammatical method of neural net design allows domain knowledge to enter from all levels of the grammar, including `abstract' levels remote from the final image data, and may permit new kinds of learning as well.

Mjolsness, Eric

1992-07-01

235

Systemic-Functional Grammar: Some Implications for Language Teaching.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews aspects of Halliday's Systemic-Functional Grammar, emphasizing language functions, modality vs modulation, process types, transitivity, information distribution, and cohesion. Implications for language teaching are discussed. (AM)

McTear, Michael F.

1979-01-01

236

Een brede computationele grammatica voor het Nederlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a wide-coverage computational parser and grammar for Dutch. The grammar is developed within the tradition of Head-driven Phrase Structure Grammar and provides detailed and linguistically motivated accounts for most syntactic phenomena in Dutch. A broad overview of the grammar and lexicon is given, as well as a more detailed discussion of the analysis of comparatives and partitive constructions.

Leonoor van der Beek; Gosse Bouma; Gertjan van Noord

2002-01-01

237

Prosodic phrasing in a Polish text-to-speech system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This contribution presents the linguistic research underlying the implementation of prosodic phrasing in a Polish text-to-speech system 1. While in the past few years concatenative text-to - speech technology dramatically improved the acoustic quality of the synthesized voices, yet the naturalness and expressivity of present text-to-spe ech systems are still unsatisfactory. In particular , these systems usually read with a

Morena Danieli; Beata Dobrzy; Alberto Pacchiotti; Elena Cabrio

238

Grammar Predicts Procedural Learning and Consolidation Deficits in Children with Specific Language Impairment  

PubMed Central

The Procedural Deficit Hypothesis (PDH) posits that Specific Language Impairment (SLI) can be largely explained by abnormalities of brain structures that subserve procedural memory. The PDH predicts impairments of procedural memory itself, and that such impairments underlie the grammatical deficits observed in the disorder. Previous studies have indeed reported procedural learning impairments in SLI, and have found that these are associated with grammatical difficulties. The present study extends this research by examining the consolidation and longer-term procedural sequence learning in children with SLI. The Alternating Serial Reaction Time (ASRT) task was given to children with SLI and typically-developing (TD) children in an initial learning session and an average of three days later to test for consolidation and longer-term learning. Although both groups showed evidence of initial sequence learning, only the TD children showed clear signs of consolidation, even though the two groups did not differ in longer-term learning. When the children were re-categorized on the basis of grammar deficits rather than broader language deficits, a clearer pattern emerged. Whereas both the grammar impaired and normal grammar groups showed evidence of initial sequence learning, only those with normal grammar showed consolidation and longer-term learning. Indeed, the grammar-impaired group appeared to lose any sequence knowledge gained during the initial testing session. These findings held even when controlling for vocabulary or a broad non-grammatical language measure, neither of which were associated with procedural memory. When grammar was examined as a continuous variable over all children, the same relationships between procedural memory and grammar, but not vocabulary or the broader language measure, were observed. Overall, the findings support and further specify the PDH. They suggest that consolidation and longer-term procedural learning are impaired in SLI, but that these impairments are specifically tied to the grammatical deficits in the disorder. The possibility that consolidation and longer-term learning are problematic in the disorder suggests a locus of potential study for therapeutic approaches. In sum, this study clarifies our understanding of the underlying deficits in SLI, and suggests avenues for further research.

Hedenius, Martina; Persson, Jonas; Tremblay, Antoine; Adi-Japha, Esther; Verissimo, Joao; Dye, Cristina D.; Alm, Per; Jennische, Margareta; Tomblin, J. Bruce; Ullman, Michael T.

2011-01-01

239

Dynamic Systems Theory and Universal Grammar: Holding up a Turbulent Mirror to Development in Grammars  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research over the last decades has shown that language development in its multiple forms is characterized by a succession of stable and unstable states. However, the variation observed is neither expected nor can it be accounted for on the basis of traditional learning concepts conceived of within the Universal Grammar (UG) paradigm. In this…

Plaza-Pust, Carolina

2008-01-01

240

The Multiple Grammars Theory and the Nature of L2 Grammars  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article offers the author's commentary on the Multiple Grammar (MG) language acquisition theory proposed by Luiz Amaral and Tom Roeper in the present issue and touches on other second language acquisition research. Topics discussed include the concept of second language (L2) optionality, a hypothesis regarding the acquisition of the…

Liceras, Juana M.

2014-01-01

241

A Relational Grammar Approach to Verb Agreement in Lakota.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Verb agreement, rules, and their application in Lakota, a Siouan language, are examined in the framework of relational grammar. It is argued that certain relational grammar concepts, especially the notions of level and working 2, provide the necessary theoretical apparatus for formulating concise rules of verb agreement in Lakota. The rules…

Plunkett, Gray; McKeever, Michael

242

Systemic Approach in Teaching Grammar to Adult Learners.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article addresses difficulty in English-as-a-Second-Language grammar instruction, offering the systemic approach as an alternative method of teaching grammar. Observation of the process of learning various grammatical rules reveals a tendency to make two types of errors (formational and functional). Analysis of grammatical errors made by…

Meskhi, Anna

243

Billy's Story: Grammar in Context (Rainbow Teachers/Rainbow Students).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Shows how teaching grammar through writing can be a successful strategy. Points out the steps one teacher used in teaching a writing and grammar process with her sixth graders and illustrates its effectiveness, both with one high-risk student and also through a school disruption caused by fire. (SR)

Haddox, Gretchen

1998-01-01

244

Where Is She? Gender Occurrences in Online Grammar Guides  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines seven online grammar guides for instances of linguistic sexism. The grammar sentences from .edu Websites were analyzed based on NCTE's "Guidelines for Gender-Fair Use of Language" (2002) using the criteria of generic he and man; titles, labels, and names; gender stereotypes; order of mention (firstness); and ratio of male to…

Amare, Nicole

2007-01-01

245

Second Language Learners' Beliefs about Grammar Instruction and Error Correction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Learner beliefs are an important individual difference in second language (L2) learning. Furthermore, an ongoing debate surrounds the role of grammar instruction and error correction in the L2 classroom. Therefore, this study investigated the beliefs of L2 learners regarding the controversial role of grammar instruction and error correction. A…

Loewen, Shawn; Li, Shaofeng; Fei, Fei; Thompson, Amy; Nakatsukasa, Kimi; Ahn, Seongmee; Chen, Xiaoqing

2009-01-01

246

The Effectiveness of Incidental Teaching of Grammar to Iranian Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports the results of a study and a pilot study. The "study" considers the effectiveness of incidental teaching of grammar in a learning class of English As A Second Language by Persian speaking students. The "pilot study" examines the students' attitudes toward the incidental learning of grammar from the perspective of field…

Ghabanchi, Z.

2010-01-01

247

The Constituent Ordering Process in Functional Discourse Grammar  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An essential task for the morphosyntactic level within the grammatical component of Functional Discourse Grammar (FDG) is the handling of constituent ordering. This area of grammar, which is known as positional syntax, constitutes the subject of the present paper, in which the ordering of constituents is examined within the framework of a dynamic…

Connolly, John H.

2012-01-01

248

Customising Linguistics: Developing an Electronic Grammar Database for Teachers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Considers issues in customizing descriptions of English grammar in the context of creating an electronic database for secondary school teachers in Hong Kong. In developing the database, the aim was to incorporate insights from functional grammar and corpus linguistics while keeping information accessible and relevant to teachers only familiar with…

Lock, Graham; Tsui, Amy B. M.

2000-01-01

249

Environmental Peace Education in Foreign Language Learners' English Grammar Lessons  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

English language teachers create contexts to teach grammar so that meaningful learning occurs. In this study, English grammar is contextualized through environmental peace education activities to raise students' awareness of global issues. Two sources provided data to evaluate the success of this instructional process. Fourth-year pre-service…

Arikan, Arda

2009-01-01

250

Investigating Effects of Computer-Based Grammar Tutorials  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This dissertation study examined a broad question of whether computer-based grammar tutorials are effective and welcome tools to review grammar for language learners by investigating effects of three different modes of such tutorials on learners' knowledge and satisfaction. For this study, I developed experimental tutorials in three different…

Kolesnikova, Anna

2011-01-01

251

Grammar for College Writing: A Sentence-Composing Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Across America, in thousands of classrooms, from elementary school to high school, the time-tested sentence-composing approach has given students tools to become better writers. Now the authors present a much anticipated sentence-composing grammar worktext for college writing. This book presents a new and easier way to understand grammar: (1) Noun…

Killgallon, Don; Killgallon, Jenny

2010-01-01

252

Story Grammar Skills in School-Age Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors describe the development and role of story grammars and note the implications for assessment of story production and retelling, scrambled stories, and the macrocloze technique (testing the child's ability to predict or infer missing information). Remediation procedures for improving prediction skills and training story grammar

Page, Judith L.; Stewart, Sharon R.

1985-01-01

253

Addressing the Grammar-Gap in Task-Work.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews current views about the status of grammar learning through task work and suggests that grammar learning can be addressed at different stages during task performance: prior to the task, during the task, and after the task. Examples are given of how this can be achieved in materials' design and in the classroom.(Adjunct ERIC Clearinghouse on…

Richards, Jack C.

1999-01-01

254

Formalized Epistemology, Logic, and Grammar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The task of a formal epistemology is defined. It appears that a formal epistemology must be a generalization of "logic" in the sense of Wittgenstein's Tractatus. The generalization is required because, whereas logic presupposes a strict relation between activity and language, this relation may be broken in some domains of experimental enquiry (e.g., in microscopic physics). However, a formal epistemology should also retain a major feature of Wittgenstein's "logic": It must not be a discourse about scientific knowledge, but rather a way of making manifest the structures usually implicit in knowledge-gaining activity. This strategy is applied to the formalism of quantum mechanics.

Bitbol, Michel

255

Interface Problems: Structural Constraints on Interpretation?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Five experiments investigated the interpretation of quantified noun phrases in relation to discourse structure. They demonstrated, using questionnaire and on-line reading techniques, that readers in English prefer to give a quantified noun phrase in (VP-external) subject position a presuppositional interpretation, in which the noun phrase limits…

Frazier, Lyn; Clifton, Charles; Rayner, Keith; Deevy, Patricia; Koh, Sungryong; Bader, Markus

2005-01-01

256

From Constraints to TAGs: A Transformation from Constraints into Formal Grammars  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an approach specifying constraints on labeled trees, such as are commonly used within (computational) linguistic theories, and show how to translate these constraints to formal grammars, in particular context-free grammars and (lexicalized) tree adjoining grammars. Our method offers the formal advantages of constraint-based formalisms and at the same time op- erational efficiency for the analysis of formal grammars.

Adi Palm

1996-01-01

257

The Effectiveness of Teaching Traditional Grammar on Writing Composition at the High School Level  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Traditional grammar instruction is a challenging element of the English curriculum; both students and teachers struggle with the rules and dull nature of grammar. However, understanding grammar is important because students need to understand the language they speak in order to be effective communicators, and teachers provide grammar instruction…

Jaeger, Gina

2011-01-01

258

Experimental investigations of weak definite and weak indefinite noun phrases  

PubMed Central

Definite noun phrases typically refer to entities that are uniquely identifiable in the speaker and addressee’s common ground. Some definite noun phrases (e.g. the hospital in Mary had to go the hospital and John did too) seem to violate this uniqueness constraint. We report six experiments that were motivated by the hypothesis that these “weak definite” interpretations arise in “incorporated” constructions. Experiments 1-3 compared nouns that seem to allow for a weak definite interpretation (e.g. hospital, bank, bus, radio) with those that do not (e.g. farm, concert, car, book). Experiments 1 and 2 used an instruction-following task and picture-judgment task, respectively, to demonstrate that a weak definite need not uniquely refer. In Experiment 3 participants imagined scenarios described by sentences such as The Federal Express driver had to go to the hospital/farm. The imagined scenarios following weak definite noun phrases were more likely to include conventional activities associated with the object, whereas following regular nouns, participants were more likely to imagine scenarios that included typical activities associated with the subject; similar effects were observed with weak indefinites. Experiment 4 found that object-related activities were reduced when the same subject and object were used with a verb that does not license weak definite interpretations. In Experiment 5, a science fiction story introduced an artificial lexicon for novel concepts. Novel nouns that shared conceptual properties with English weak definite nouns were more likely to allow weak reference in a judgment task. Experiment 6 demonstrated that familiarity for definite articles and anti- familiarity for indefinite articles applies to the activity associated with the noun, consistent with predictions made by the incorporation analysis.

Klein, Natalie M.; Gegg-Harrison, Whitney M.; Carlson, Greg N.; Tanenhaus, Michael K.

2013-01-01

259

A Tree-to-String Phrase-based Model for Statistical Machine Translation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Though phrase-based SMT has achieved high translation quality, it still lacks of generaliza- tion ability to capture word order differences between languages. In this paper we describe a general method for tree-to-string phrase- based SMT. We study how syntactic trans- formation is incorporated into phrase-based SMT and its effectiveness. We design syntac- tic transformation models using unlexicalized form of synchronous

Thai Phuong Nguyen; Akira Shimazu; Tu-Bao Ho; Minh Le Nguyen; Vinh Van Nguyen

2008-01-01

260

Bracketed Two-Level Grammars - A Decidable and Practical Approach to Language Definitions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bracketed two-level grammars are not a variation of two-level grammars (van Wijngaarden grammars) but consitute a restriction within the general scheme. The resulting grammars give rise to an effective top-down analysis, where the replacement of metanotions is governed by rules similar to the evaluation dependencies in attribute grammars. Supplemented by the formalized concept of predicates, the class of languages is

Lutz Michael Wegner; Formale Beschreibungsverfahren

1979-01-01

261

Grammar, Punctuation, and Capitalization: a Handbook for Technical Writers and Editors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Writing problems are addressed which are often encountered in technical documents and preferences are indicated (Langley's) when authorities do not agree. It is directed toward professional writers, editors, and proofreaders. Those whose profession lies in other areas (for example, research or management), but who have occasion to write or review others' writing will also find this information useful. A functional attitude toward grammar and punctuation is presented. Chapter 1 on grammar presents grammatical problems related to each part of speech. Chapter 2 on sentence structure concerns syntax, that is, effective arrangement of words, with emphasis on methods of revision to improve writing effectiveness. Chapter 3 addresses punctuation marks, presenting their function, situations when they are required or incorrect, and situations when they are appropriate but optional. Chapter 4 presents capitalization, which is mostly a matter of editorial style and preference rather than a matter of generally accepted rules. An index and glossary are included.

Mccaskill, Mary K.

1990-01-01

262

Model-based object classification using unification grammars and abstract representations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The design and implementation of a high level computer vision system which performs object classification is described. General object labelling and functional analysis require models of classes which display a wide range of geometric variations. A large representational gap exists between abstract criteria such as `graspable' and current geometric image descriptions. The vision system developed and described in this work addresses this problem and implements solutions based on a fusion of semantics, unification, and formal language theory. Object models are represented using unification grammars, which provide a framework for the integration of structure and semantics. A methodology for the derivation of symbolic image descriptions capable of interacting with the grammar-based models is described and implemented. A unification-based parser developed for this system achieves object classification by determining if the symbolic image description can be unified with the abstract criteria of an object model. Future research directions are indicated.

Liburdy, Kathleen A.; Schalkoff, Robert J.

1993-04-01

263

Genetic algorithms based on genetic grammar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The cell represents the basic unit of life. It can be interpreted as a chemical machine which can solve special problems. The present knowledge we have of molecular biology allows the characterization of the metabolism as a processing method. This method is an evolutionary product which has been developed over millions of years. First we will present the analyzed features of the metabolism. Then we will go on to compare this processing method with methods which are discussed in computer science. The comparison shows that there is no method in the field of computer science which uses all the metabolic features. This is the reason why we formalize the metabolic processing method. In this paper we choose to use a grammatical formalism. A genetic grammar is the basis of the metabolic system which represents the metabolic processing method. The basic unit of this system (logic unit) will be shown. This allows the discussion of the complexity of realizing the metabolic system in hardware.

Hofestaedt, Ralf; Mueller, Hermann

1992-08-01

264

Well Translatable Grammars and Algol-Like Languages.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Languages are discussed which are generated by a contextless grammar with semantics assigned to them. For such languages, a distinction between translatability and good translatability is made. For a language that translates well into another language, an...

K. Culik

1968-01-01

265

Ain't Them Grammar Rules No Good?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A case is made for observing the rules of English grammar. Without these rules, it would be impossible to communicate effectively. Unfortunately, many people view these rules as obstacles, rather than aids, to the expression of their thoughts. (CK)

Foley, Louis

1970-01-01

266

Learning Fuzzy Context-Free Grammar - A Preliminary Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This paper takes up the topic of a task of learning fuzzy context-free grammar from data. The induction process is divided\\u000a into two phases: first the generic grammar is derived from the positive sentences, next the membership grades are assigned\\u000a to the productions taking into account the occurrences of productions in a learning set. The problem of predicting the location

Olgierd Unold

2010-01-01

267

Bottom-Up\\/Top-Down Image Parsing with Attribute Grammar  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a simple attribute graph grammar as a generative representation for man-made scenes such as buildings, hallways, kitchens, and living rooms and studies an effective top-down\\/bottom-up inference algorithm for parsing images in the process of maximizing a Bayesian posterior probability or equivalently minimizing a description length (MDL). This simple grammar has one class of primitives as its terminal

Feng Han; Song-Chun Zhu

2009-01-01

268

COMPARING TWO GRAMMAR-BASED GENERATION A CASE STUDY  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we compare two grammar-based gen- eration algorithms: the Semantic-Head-Driven Genera- tion Algorithm (SHDGA), and the Essential Arguments Algorithm (EAA). Both algorithms have successfully addressed several outstanding problems in grammar- based generation, including dealing with non-mono- tonic compositionality of representation, left-recursion, deadlock-prone rules, and nondeterminism. We con- centrate here on the comparison of selected properties: generality, efficiency, and

Miroslav Martinovic; Tomek Strzalkowski

269

Normal ordering problem and the extensions of the Stirling grammar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the connection between context-free grammars and normal ordered problem, and then to explore various extensions of the Stirling grammar. We present grammatical characterizations of several well known combinatorial sequences, including the generalized Stirling numbers of the second kind related to the normal ordered problem and the r-Dowling polynomials. Also, possible avenues for future research are described.

Ma, S.-M.; Mansour, T.; Schork, M.

2014-04-01

270

Interlanguage Syntax of Arabic-Speaking Learners of English: The Noun Phrase.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the interlanguage syntax of Arabic speaking learners of English in the area of the noun phrase, focusing on the closed system elements that can occur before or after the noun head, the noun head and pronouns in line with Quirk and Greenbaum's (1977) treatment of the noun phrase. Participants were 25 Arabic speaking English…

Zughoul, Muhammad Raji

271

An "Alms-Basket" of "Bric-a-Brac": "Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase and Fable".  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the development and history of "Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase and Fable," a reference source first published in 1870 that includes the etymology of phrases, allusions and words. Discusses reviews that reflected and shaped its status as a standard reference book, describes the current edition, and considers its enduring value. (LRW)

Bunge, Charles A.

1999-01-01

272

Effects of Musical Expertise and Boundary Markers on Phrase Perception in Music  

Microsoft Academic Search

A neural correlate for phrase boundary perception in music has recently been identified in musicians. It is called music closure positive shift (''music CPS'') and has an equivalent in the perception of speech (''language CPS''). The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of musical expertise and different phrase boundary markers on the music CPS, using event-related

Christiane Neuhaus; Thomas R. Knösche; Angela D. Friederici

2006-01-01

273

20 CFR 345.302 - Definition of terms and phrases used in experience-rating.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definition of terms and phrases used in experience-rating. 345.302 Section 345.302... Contribution Rates § 345.302 Definition of terms and phrases used in experience-rating. (a) Account....

2010-04-01

274

43 CFR 1810.1 - Rules of construction; words and phrases.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2009-10-01 false Rules of construction; words and phrases. 1810.1 Section 1810.1 Public Lands: Interior...General Rules § 1810.1 Rules of construction; words and phrases. Except where the context of the regulation or of...

2009-10-01

275

45 CFR 2554.6 - What does the phrase âknow or have reason to knowâ mean?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 4 2009-10-01 2009-10-01 false What does the phrase âknow or have reason to knowâ mean? 2554.6 Section 2554...REGULATIONS Overview and Definitions § 2554.6 What does the phrase âknow or have reason to knowâ mean? A person knows...

2009-10-01

276

Planning in Sentence Production: Evidence for the Phrase as a Default Planning Scope  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Controversy remains as to the scope of advanced planning in language production. Smith and Wheeldon (1999) found significantly longer onset latencies when subjects described moving-picture displays by producing sentences beginning with a complex noun phrase than for matched sentences beginning with a simple noun phrase. While these findings are…

Martin, Randi C.; Crowther, Jason E.; Knight, Meredith; Tamborello, Franklin P., II; Yang, Chin-Lung

2010-01-01

277

20 CFR 345.302 - Definition of terms and phrases used in experience-rating.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Definition of terms and phrases used in experience-rating. 345.302 Section 345.302... Contribution Rates § 345.302 Definition of terms and phrases used in experience-rating. (a) Account....

2009-04-01

278

Phrase Length Matters: The Interplay between Implicit Prosody and Syntax in Korean "Garden Path" Sentences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In spoken language comprehension, syntactic parsing decisions interact with prosodic phrasing, which is directly affected by phrase length. Here we used ERPs to examine whether a similar effect holds for the on-line processing of written sentences during silent reading, as suggested by theories of "implicit prosody." Ambiguous Korean sentence…

Hwang, Hyekyung; Steinhauer, Karsten

2011-01-01

279

13 CFR 142.6 - What does the phrase âknow or have reason to knowâ mean?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What does the phrase âknow or have reason to knowâ mean? 142.6 Section 142...REGULATIONS Overview and Definitions § 142.6 What does the phrase âknow or have reason to knowâ mean? A person knows...

2010-01-01

280

Pragmatic constraint on the interpretation of complex noun phrases in Spanish and English  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four experiments examined the role of a broad pragmatic constraint, the modifiability of individual noun phrases (NPs), in the attachment of prepositional phrases to complex NPs (e.g., the woman in the room with red hair). Experiment 1 demonstrated that NPs that have received relatively specific prior modification are less likely to take additional modific ation than NPs that have received

Robert Thornton; Maryellen C. MacDonald; Mariela Gil

1999-01-01

281

Natural Language Processing in Support of Decision-Making: Phrases and Part-of-Speech Tagging.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Increasing information retrieval performance using phrases and part-of-speech (POS) information is one example of a type of decision-making performance that is improved when using this linguistic information. The relative effectiveness of using multi-term phrases as opposed to individual terms is shown, as well as the relative worth of POS tagged…

Losee, Robert M.

2001-01-01

282

The On-Line Processing of Verb-Phrase Ellipsis in Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We investigate the on-line processing of verb-phrase ellipsis (VPE) constructions in two brain injured populations: Broca's and Anomic aphasics. VPE constructions are built from two simple clauses; the first is the antecedent clause and the second is the ellipsis clause. The ellipsis clause is missing its verb and object (i.e., its verb phrase

Poirier, Josee; Shapiro, Lewis P.; Love, Tracy; Grodzinsky, Yosef

2009-01-01

283

43 CFR 1810.1 - Rules of construction; words and phrases.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Rules of construction; words and phrases. 1810.1 Section 1810... § 1810.1 Rules of construction; words and phrases. Except where the context...the regulations of this chapter: (a) Words importing the singular include and...

2010-10-01

284

A Bidirectional Study on the Acquisition of Plural Noun Phrase Interpretation in English and Spanish  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper investigates how learners interpret definite plural noun phrases (e.g., "the tigers") and bare (article-less) plural noun phrases (e.g., "tigers") in their second language. Whereas Spanish allows definite plurals to have both generic and specific readings, English requires definite plurals to have specific, nongeneric readings. Generic…

Ionin, Tania; Montrul, Silvina; Crivos, Monica

2013-01-01

285

It's Not Just the "Heavy NP": Relative Phrase Length Modulates the Production of Heavy-NP Shift  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Heavy-NP shift is the tendency for speakers to place long direct object phrases at the end of a clause rather than next to the verb. Though some analyses have focused on length of the direct object phrase alone, results from two experiments demonstrate that the length of the direct object relative to that of other phrases, and not the length of…

Stallings, Lynne M.; MacDonald, Maryellen C.

2011-01-01

286

Priming prepositional phrase attachment: evidence from eye-tracking and event-related potentials.  

PubMed

Three syntactic-priming experiments investigated the effect of structurally similar or dissimilar prime sentences on the processing of target sentences, using eye tracking (Experiment 1) and event-related potentials (ERPs) (Experiments 2 and 3) All three experiments tested readers' response to sentences containing a temporary syntactic ambiguity. The ambiguity occurred because a prepositional phrase modifier (PP-modifier) could attach either to a preceding verb or to a preceding noun. Previous experiments have established that (a) noun-modifying expressions are harder to process than verb-modifying expressions (when test sentences are presented in isolation); and (b) for other kinds of sentences, processing a structurally similar prime sentence can facilitate processing a target sentence. The experiments reported here were designed to determine whether a structurally similar prime could facilitate processing of noun-attached modifiers and whether such facilitation reflected syntactic-structure-building or semantic processes. These findings have implications for accounts of structural priming during online comprehension and for accounts of syntactic representation and processing in comprehension. PMID:23859219

Boudewyn, Megan A; Zirnstein, Megan; Swaab, Tamara Y; Traxler, Matthew J

2014-01-01

287

Improved Identification of Noun Phrases in Clinical Radiology Reports Using a High-Performance Statistical Natural Language Parser Augmented with the UMLS Specialist Lexicon  

PubMed Central

Objective: The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate a method of extracting noun phrases with full phrase structures from a set of clinical radiology reports using natural language processing (NLP) and to investigate the effects of using the UMLS® Specialist Lexicon to improve noun phrase identification within clinical radiology documents. Design: The noun phrase identification (NPI) module is composed of a sentence boundary detector, a statistical natural language parser trained on a nonmedical domain, and a noun phrase (NP) tagger. The NPI module processed a set of 100 XML-represented clinical radiology reports in Health Level 7 (HL7)® Clinical Document Architecture (CDA)–compatible format. Computed output was compared with manual markups made by four physicians and one author for maximal (longest) NP and those made by one author for base (simple) NP, respectively. An extended lexicon of biomedical terms was created from the UMLS Specialist Lexicon and used to improve NPI performance. Results: The test set was 50 randomly selected reports. The sentence boundary detector achieved 99.0% precision and 98.6% recall. The overall maximal NPI precision and recall were 78.9% and 81.5% before using the UMLS Specialist Lexicon and 82.1% and 84.6% after. The overall base NPI precision and recall were 88.2% and 86.8% before using the UMLS Specialist Lexicon and 93.1% and 92.6% after, reducing false-positives by 31.1% and false-negatives by 34.3%. Conclusion: The sentence boundary detector performs excellently. After the adaptation using the UMLS Specialist Lexicon, the statistical parser's NPI performance on radiology reports increased to levels comparable to the parser's native performance in its newswire training domain and to that reported by other researchers in the general nonmedical domain.

Huang, Yang; Lowe, Henry J.; Klein, Dan; Cucina, Russell J.

2005-01-01

288

THE EFFECT OF A KNOWLEDGE OF GENERATIVE GRAMMAR UPON THE GROWTH OF LANGUAGE COMPLEXITY.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THE EFFECT OF KNOWLEDGE OF GENERATIVE GRAMMAR UPON COMPOSITION SKILLS WAS INVESTIGATED. GENERATIVE GRAMMAR DESCRIBES THE PSYCHOLOGICAL PROCESS OF PRODUCING SENTENCES. IN THIS STUDY, GENERATIVE GRAMMAR WAS TAUGHT TO NINTH- AND TENTH-GRADE STUDENTS. SEVERAL SPECIFIC QUESTIONS GUIDED THE STUDY--CAN HIGH SCHOOL PUPILS LEARN TO APPLY THE RULES OF A…

BATEMAN, DONALD R.; ZIDONIS, FRANK J.

289

The intrinsically exponential complexity of the circularity problem for attribute grammars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attribute grammars are an extension of context-free grammars devised by Knuth as a mechanism for including the semantics of a context-free language with the syntax of the language. The circularity problem for a grammar is to determine whether the semantics for all possible sentences (programs) in fact will be well defined. It is proved that this problem is, in general,

Mehdi Jazayeri; William F. Ogden; William C. Rounds

1975-01-01

290

Using Transformation Grammar Theory to Rebuild Language Confidence in Slow Learners in the Junior High School.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 17 lessons in this book are based on transformational grammar theory, but they are not designed to teach grammar--not even transformational grammar theory. The authors have used them with students who speak a variety of non-standard English and who have previously been unsuccessful in English classes. These students would write little or…

Midkiff; Don R.; Midkiff, Ronald

291

Capturing a rebel: modeling the Harley-Davidson brand through a motorcycle shape grammar  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential for capturing brand identity within a shape grammar is discussed. A two-dimensional motorcycle shape grammar is presented, along with constraints that associate the resulting designs with the Harley-Davidson brand. Confirmation of the grammar's brand representation is shown through a customer-based survey.

Michael J. Pugliese; Jonathan Cagan

2002-01-01

292

Electrical Stimulation of Broca's Area Enhances Implicit Learning of an Artificial Grammar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Artificial grammar learning constitutes a well-established model for the acquisition of grammatical knowledge in a natural setting. Previous neuroimaging studies demonstrated that Broca's area (left BA 44\\/45) is similarly activated by natural syntactic processing and artificial grammar learning. The current study was conducted to investigate the causal relationship between Broca's area and learning of an artificial grammar by means of

Meinou H. de Vries; Andre C. R. Barth; Sandra Maiworm; Stefan Knecht; Pienie Zwitserlood; Agnes Flöel

2010-01-01

293

The Nature of the Initial State Zulu L2 Grammar and Subsequent Interlanguage Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A notable feature of developing interlanguage grammars is the apparent optionality in those areas of grammar where optionality is not characteristic of stable state grammars. In the Valueless Features Hypothesis, it is proposed that the appearance of apparent optionality in the very early stages of interlanguage development is due to the partial…

Dube, Sibusisiwe

2000-01-01

294

The contribution of phonological short-term memory to artificial grammar learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three experiments investigated the contribution of phonological short-term memory (STM) to grammar learning by manipulating rehearsal during study of an auditory artificial grammar made up from a vocabulary of spoken Mandarin syllables. Experiment 1 showed that concurrent, irrelevant articulation impaired grammar learning compared with a nonverbal control task. Experiment 2 replicated and extended this finding, showing that repeating the grammatical

Jackie Andrade; Alan Baddeley

2011-01-01

295

Language Practice with Multimedia Supported Web-Based Grammar Revision Material  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study was to investigate the perceptions of elementary-level English language learners towards web-based, multimedia-annotated grammar learning. WEBGRAM, a system designed to provide supplementary web-based grammar revision material, uses audio-visual aids to enrich the contextual presentation of grammar and allows learners to…

Baturay, Meltem Huri; Daloglu, Aysegul; Yildirim, Soner

2010-01-01

296

The category of typed graph grammars and its adjunctions with categories of derivations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motivated by the work which has been done for Petri-nets, the paper presents a categorical approach to graph grammars in the large. In the large means, that we define categories of graph grammars, graph transition systems, and graph derivation systems which embody the notion grammar, direct derivation, and derivation, respectively, as they are defined in the classical algebraic theory. For

A. Corradini; H. Ehrig; M. Loewe; U. Montanari; J. Padberg

297

The Role of Grammar in the Writing Curriculum: A Review of the Literature  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For most Anglophone countries, the history of grammar teaching over the past 50 years is one of contestation, debate and dissent: and 50 years on we are no closer to reaching a consensus about the role of grammar in the English/Language Arts curriculum. The debate has been described through the metaphor of battle and grammar wars (Kamler, 1995;…

Myhill, Debra; Watson, Annabel

2014-01-01

298

Using conceptual metaphor and functional grammar to explore how language used in physics affects student learning  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This paper introduces a theory about the role of language in learning physics. The theory is developed in the context of physics students and physicists talking and writing about the subject of quantum mechanics. We found that physicistsâ language encodes different varieties of analogical models through the use of grammar and conceptual metaphor. We hypothesize that students categorize concepts into ontological categories based on the grammatical structure of physicistsâ language. We also hypothesize that students overextend and misapply conceptual metaphors in physicistsâ speech and writing. Using our theory, we will show how, in some cases, we can explain student difficulties in quantum mechanics as difficulties with language.

Brookes, David T.; Etkina, Eugenia

2008-07-23

299

Using conceptual metaphor and functional grammar to explore how language used in physics affects student learning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper introduces a theory about the role of language in learning physics. The theory is developed in the context of physics students and physicists talking and writing about the subject of quantum mechanics. We found that physicists’ language encodes different varieties of analogical models through the use of grammar and conceptual metaphor. We hypothesize that students categorize concepts into ontological categories based on the grammatical structure of physicists’ language. We also hypothesize that students overextend and misapply conceptual metaphors in physicists’ speech and writing. Using our theory, we will show how, in some cases, we can explain student difficulties in quantum mechanics as difficulties with language.

Brookes, David T.; Etkina, Eugenia

2007-06-01

300

Can Prosody Be Used to Discover Hierarchical Structure in Continuous Speech?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We tested whether adult listeners can simultaneously keep track of variations in pitch and syllable duration in order to segment continuous speech into phrases and group these phrases into sentences. The speech stream was constructed so that prosodic cues signaled hierarchical structures (i.e., phrases embedded within sentences) and non-adjacent…

Langus, Alan; Marchetto, Erika; Bion, Ricardo Augusto Hoffmann; Nespor, Marina

2012-01-01

301

Extending Phrase-Based Decoding with a Dependency-Based Reordering Model.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Phrase-based decoding is conceptually simple and straightforward to implement, at the cost of drastically oversimplified reordering models. Syntactically aware models make it possible to capture linguistically relevant relationships in order to improve wo...

P. Resnik T. Hunter

2009-01-01

302

Increases in individualistic words and phrases in American books, 1960-2008.  

PubMed

Cultural products such as song lyrics, television shows, and books reveal cultural differences, including cultural change over time. Two studies examine changes in the use of individualistic words (Study 1) and phrases (Study 2) in the Google Books Ngram corpus of millions of books in American English. Current samples from the general population generated and rated lists of individualistic words and phrases (e.g., "unique," "personalize," "self," "all about me," "I am special," "I'm the best"). Individualistic words and phrases increased in use between 1960 and 2008, even when controlling for changes in communal words and phrases. Language in American books has become increasingly focused on the self and uniqueness in the decades since 1960. PMID:22808113

Twenge, Jean M; Campbell, W Keith; Gentile, Brittany

2012-01-01

303

Glossary of Initialisms, Terms, Acronyms, Phrases, etc. 2nd ed. Publication No. 17 (Revised).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This glossary of terms includes definitions for over 500 words, acronyms, initialisms, and phrases generally used in librarianship or used specifically in Colorado State University (CSU) libraries. The glossary is in alphabetical order. Cross references a...

1983-01-01

304

The Effects of Deductive and Guided Inductive Instructional Approaches on the Learning of Grammar in the Elementary Foreign Language College Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates the effectiveness of deductive and guided inductive approaches for teaching grammar in college French classrooms. Forty-seven second-semester French students were taught eight grammatical structures: four with a deductive instructional approach and four with a guided inductive instructional approach. A quasi-experimental…

Haight, Carrie; Herron, Carol; Cole, Steven P.

2007-01-01

305

Using attributed grammars to test designs and implementations  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a method for generating test cases that can be used throughout the entire life cycle of a program. This method uses attributed translation grammars to generate both inputs and outputs, which can then be used either as is, in order to test the specifications, or in conjunction with automatic test drivers to test an implementation against the specifications.

A. G. Duncan; J. S. Hutchison

1981-01-01

306

Warlpiri and the grammar of non-configurational languages  

Microsoft Academic Search

The grammar of Warlpiri, an Aboriginal language of Central Australia, exhibits a number of properties which have come to be associated with the typological label 'non-configurational,' including, among others, (i) free word order, (ii) the use of syntactically discontinuous expressions, and (iii) extensive use of null anaphora. The present paper represents a report on work in progress dealing with the

Ken Hale

1983-01-01

307

What Activity Do You Recommend for Teaching Grammar?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents three teachers' suggestions for teaching grammar. Discusses how the first teacher suggests studying active and passive voice, the second teacher has students construct slang dictionaries, and the third teacher uses sentence combining that engages students and encourages carryover to their writing. (SG)

Shafer, Gregory; Swindle, Stephenie; Joseph, Nancy

2003-01-01

308

Core and Peripheral Grammar and the Acquisition of Inflection.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The distinction between core and peripheral grammar made in government-binding theory sheds light on some questions concerning the acquisition of the inflectional morphology of different languages. The schedule for acquisition of the inflectional system may be determined not by the learning of particular affixes but by whether inflection is a core…

Hyams, Nina

309

Towards a Minimum Discourse Grammar for ESP Reading Courses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes ongoing research aimed toward finding a minimum discourse grammar to help Brazilian students learning English for special purposes to cope with the sort of texts they have to read in their own disciplines. The research has involved review of scientific philosophy, a reading miscue study, and a comparison of English and Portuguese…

Deyes, Tony

1987-01-01

310

Non-context-free grammars generating context-free languages  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

If G is a grammar such that in each non-context-free rule of G, the right side contains a string of terminals longer than any terminal string appearing between two nonterminals in the left side, then the language generated by G is context free. Six previous results follow as corollaries of this theorem.

Baker, B. S.

1974-01-01

311

On the Form of Bilingual Grammars: The Phonological Component.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research is based on the assumption that a Spanish/English bilingual is aware of the phonological and semantic relatedness of the many hundreds of pairs of transparently cognate items in the two languages. This awareness is linguistically significant in that it is reflected in the internalized grammar of the bilingual. The bilingual speaker…

Elerick, Charles

312

Functional Grammar in the ESL Classroom: Noticing, Exploring and Practicing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A set of easy to use techniques helps students discover for themselves how grammar works in real world contexts and how grammatical choices are not just about form but about meaning. Sample teaching ideas, covering a wide range of grammatical topics including verb tense, voice, reference and the organization of texts, accompanies each procedure.…

Lock, Graham; Jones, Rodney

2011-01-01

313

Functional Grammar and Its Application in the Composition Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Notes that, although linguistics has had little influence on composition pedagogy, the study of functional grammar or linguistic performance (how language is actually used) is of direct value to composition theory. Offers an extended discussion of a functional approach to punctuation instruction, and proposes a functional approach in other areas…

Meyer, Charles

1989-01-01

314

Error Recognition and Feedback with Lexical Functional Grammar.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the error recognition module of an interactive system with a special focus on the underlying grammar theory. Using the system, the learners are invited to produce complete written sentences in small question-answer dialogs with the computer. (Author/VWL)

Reuer, Veit

2003-01-01

315

Teacher Knowledge on Grammar Teaching: A Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study aims to explore teachers' knowledge and belief on how to teach grammar to Turkish learners of English as a foreign language. It is designed as a case study. Its data and findings are limited to the selected setting which is the Department of Basic English at Hacettepe University, Turkey. The research process was composed of two stages.…

Sarac-Suzer H. Sezgi

2007-01-01

316

Cognitive Adequacy in a Dialogic Functional Discourse Grammar  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Functional Discourse Grammar (FDG), as a theory of the organization of natural languages, seeks to attain pragmatic, typological and cognitive adequacy. The attempt to achieve cognitive adequacy has been fraught with problems stemming from the vagueness of the concept and the difficulty of adapting to trends in psycholinguistics. Specifically,…

Mackenzie, J. Lachlan

2012-01-01

317

Kabiye Grammar Handbook. Peace Corps Language Handbook Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This handbook contains 20 lessons on Kabiye phonology and grammar and is intended particularly for Peace Corps volunteers in Togo. Each lesson contains explanations in English, vocabulary, and oral and written exercises. A number of pen-and-ink drawings of cultural interest illustrate the lessons. An answer key to the written exercises and a…

Sedlak, Philip A. S.

318

Ewe (for Togo): Grammar Handbook. Peace Corps Language Handbook Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This handbook is composed of: (1) 20 grammar lessons; (2) an introduction to the handbook and to the Ewe language; (3) an appendix presenting the most important differences between Ewe and Mina, the lingua franca in the capital and in markets, offices, and work-sites throughout Togo; (4) answers to written summary exercises; (5) an Ewe-English…

Kozelka, Paul R.

319

Grammar Drills: What CALL Can and Cannot Do.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The contributions and limitations of computer technology in the presentation of grammar drills, particularly in a second language, are examined by comparing and contrasting the new technology with traditional textbook instruction. It is noted that, in many ways, computer-assisted language learning (CALL) is a derivative form of traditional…

McCarthy, Brian

320

Grammar and Semantics of Natural Languages: Research Workshop Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This volume contains the papers presented at a workshop which brought together authorities from several different disciplines, each working in the area of natural language analysis, to participate in intensive, technical discussions of the issues involved in developing adequate grammars and semantics of natural languages. The disciplines…

Gammon, Elizabeth, Ed.

321

The Theoretical Significance of Universal Grammar in Second Language Acquisition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evidence that native language acquisition is possible because children are born with an innate language faculty--universal grammar (UG)--is considerable. In second language acquisition by older learners, this notion is less clear. Discusses the poverty of stimulus phenomena (POS) in relation to this, and argues that while POS phenomena are…

Hawkins, Roger

2001-01-01

322

Characterizations of Recursively Enumerable Languages by Means of Insertion Grammars  

Microsoft Academic Search

An insertion grammar is based on pure rules of the form uv ? uxv (the string x is inserted in the context (u, v)). A strict subfamily of the context-sensitive family is obtained, incomparable with the family of linear languages. We prove here that each recursively enumerable language can be written as the weak coding of the image by an

Carlos Martín-vide; Gheorghe Paun; Arto Salomaa

1998-01-01

323

Spoken Grammar and ELT Course Materials: A Missing Link?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Drawing on the evidence of a growing body of corpus research over the past two decades, this article investigates the phenomenon of spoken grammar in conversational English and the extent to which our current knowledge of the area is reflected in contemporary textbooks for English as a foreign language (EFL) learners. The article reports on a…

Cullen, Richard; Kuo, I-Chun

2007-01-01

324

Attribute Grammar Specification for a Natural Language Understanding Interface  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper investigates key issues pertaining to Natural Language Interface [NLI] development. The notion of natural language understanding interfaces (NLUIs) is introduced. Special attention is devoted to problems related to the specification of natural language static semantics. The points we raise involve the applicability of attribute grammars to NLUI design. The considerations to be developed stem from the insight gained

Zoltán Alexin; Tibor Gyimóthy; Tamás Horváth; Károly Fábricz

1990-01-01

325

The Pedagogic Effectiveness of Developmental Readiness in ESL Grammar Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The project reported in this paper aims to test the concept of "learner developmental readiness" and its pedagogic effectiveness in the teaching of foreign language grammar. It focuses on the teaching of English as a second language (ESL) in a formal classroom context. The aim is to ascertain whether a specific teaching order based on the concept…

Mansouri, Fethi; Duffy, Loretta

2005-01-01

326

Effectiveness of Using Games in Teaching Grammar to Young Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The primary aim of this study was to explore the effectiveness of using games in teaching grammar to young learners from the view points of Turkish EFL teachers working in primary schools. English language teacher' (n = 15) opinions were collected through a questionnaire and the results of this study demonstrated that Turkish EFL teachers have a…

Yolageldili, Gulin; Arikan, Arda

2011-01-01

327

Normal and Scrambled Grammar in Discrimination, Imitation, and Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the relationship between syntax discrimination and other language skills with 50 children each in kindergarten, first grade and second grade. Also, the children were asked to imitate and show comprehension of normal and scrambled grammar sentences. (Author/JH)

Bohannon, John Neil, III

1976-01-01

328

Shifting Perspectives about Grammar: Changing What and How We Teach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Today, when the author reads articles or hears discussions about teaching grammar, she finds interesting dichotomies in perspectives. Some people see language issues as right or wrong: That's it. No flexibility. This perspective is evident when people look at issues of language in stark contrasts instead of in relation to context. Another…

Dean, Deborah

2011-01-01

329

E-Learning Turkish Language and Grammar: Analyzing Learners' Behavior  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study analyses the behavior and the preferences of the Greek learners of Turkish language, who use a particular e-learning website in parallel with their studies, namely: http://turkish.pgeorgalas.gr. The website offers free online material in Greek and English language for learning the Turkish language and grammar. The traffic of several…

Georgalas, Panagiotis

2012-01-01

330

The Strategies Approach: Effective for Reviewing Grammar and Punctuation Concepts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article is based on results of a quasi-experimental study in which the efficacy of the strategies approach for reviewing grammar and punctuation concepts was assessed in a business communication course. The control group studied rules-based review materials; the treatment group studied strategies-based review materials. On the three sets of…

Quible, Zane K.

2008-01-01

331

Grammar-based task analysis of web logs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The daily use of Internet-based services is involved with hundreds of different tasks being performed by multiple users. A single task is typically involved with a sequence of Web URLs invocation. We study the problem of pattern detection in Web logs to identify tasks performed by users, and analyze task trends over time using a grammar-based framework. Our results are

Savitha Srinivasan; Arnon Amir; Prasad M. Deshpande; Vladimir Zbarsky

2004-01-01

332

Optimality parsing and local cost functions in Discontinuous Grammar  

Microsoft Academic Search

After a brief survey of Discontinuous Grammar (DG), we propose local cost functions as a generalization of violable constraints in OT, probabilities in PCFG, and processing times in distributed competition models. We demonstrate how local cost functions can be used in DG to encode violable constraints on word order, landing sites, islands, agreement, and selectional restrictions, as well as lexical

Matthias T. Kromann

2001-01-01

333

La nomenclature grammaticale (version 1975) (Grammar Nomenclature 1975 Version]).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews a glossary of grammatical terms published by the French government for use in the public schools and finds it lacking both theoretically and pedagogically. A detailed analysis describes its numerous shortcomings and underlines the authors' misconception that progress in teaching grammar depends entirely on standardization of terminology.…

Mitterand, Henri

1980-01-01

334

Morphological Variability in Interlanguage Grammars: New Evidence from the Acquisition of Gender and Number in Italian Determiner Phrases and Direct Object Pronouns  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper, I investigate the phenomenon of morphological variability in the production of Italian determiners, descriptive adjectives, and direct object pronouns by adult English learners of Italian to determine whether morphological errors are the result of computational or representational difficulties. Second language acquisitionists do…

Santoro, Maurizio

2012-01-01

335

Linguistic Grammar Learning and DRD2-TAQ-IA Polymorphism  

PubMed Central

As research into the neurobiology of language has focused primarily on the systems level, fewer studies have examined the link between molecular genetics and normal variations in language functions. Because the ability to learn a language varies in adults and our genetic codes also vary, research linking the two provides a unique window into the molecular neurobiology of language. We consider a candidate association between the dopamine receptor D2 gene (DRD2) and linguistic grammar learning. DRD2-TAQ-IA polymorphism (rs1800497) is associated with dopamine receptor D2 distribution and dopamine impact in the human striatum, such that A1 allele carriers show reduction in D2 receptor binding relative to carriers who are homozygous for the A2 allele. The individual differences in grammatical rule learning that are particularly prevalent in adulthood are also associated with striatal function and its role in domain-general procedural memory. Therefore, we reasoned that procedurally-based grammar learning could be associated with DRD2-TAQ-IA polymorphism. Here, English-speaking adults learned artificial concatenative and analogical grammars, which have been respectively associated with procedural and declarative memory. Language learning capabilities were tested while learners’ neural hemodynamic responses were simultaneously measured by fMRI. Behavioral learning and brain activation data were subsequently compared with the learners’ DRD2 (rs1800497) genotype. Learners who were homozygous for the A2 allele were better at concatenative (but not analogical) grammar learning and had higher striatal responses relative to those who have at least one A1 allele. These results provide preliminary evidence for the neurogenetic basis of normal variations in linguistic grammar learning and its link to domain-general functions.

Wong, Patrick C. M.; Ettlinger, Marc; Zheng, Jing

2013-01-01

336

German Grammar in the Students' Words: The "Essentialization" of German Grammar by American College-Level Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study of 134 college-level learners of German, enrolled in four years of instruction, showed them to "essentialize" German grammar when asked to describe it to a hypothetical friend. Kubota defined the term essentialization to capture learners' views of the target culture. Its main characteristic is the presupposition of "essential, stable,…

Chavez, Monika

2011-01-01

337

Regular languages, regular grammars and automata in splicing systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Splicing system is known as a mathematical model that initiates the connection between the study of DNA molecules and formal language theory. In splicing systems, languages called splicing languages refer to the set of double-stranded DNA molecules that may arise from an initial set of DNA molecules in the presence of restriction enzymes and ligase. In this paper, some splicing languages resulted from their respective splicing systems are shown. Since all splicing languages are regular, languages which result from the splicing systems can be further investigated using grammars and automata in the field of formal language theory. The splicing language can be written in the form of regular languages generated by grammar. Besides that, splicing systems can be accepted by automata. In this research, two restriction enzymes are used in splicing systems namely BfuCI and NcoI.

Mohamad Jan, Nurhidaya; Fong, Wan Heng; Sarmin, Nor Haniza

2013-04-01

338

A grammar of action generates predictions in skilled musicians.  

PubMed

The present study investigates shared representations of syntactic knowledge in music and action. We examined whether expectancy violations in musical harmonic sequences are also perceived as violations of the movement sequences necessary to produce them. Pianists imitated silent videos showing one hand playing chord sequences on a muted keyboard. Results indicate that, despite the absence of auditory feedback, imitation of a chord is fastest when it is congruent with the preceding harmonic context. This suggests that the harmonic rules implied by observed actions induce expectations that influence action execution. As evidence that these predictions are derived at a high representational level, imitation was more accurate for harmonically incongruent chords than for congruent chords executed with unconventional fingering. The magnitude of the effects of context and goal prioritization increased with musical training. Thus, musical training may lead to a domain-general representation of musical grammar, i.e., to a grammar of action. PMID:21458298

Novembre, Giacomo; Keller, Peter E

2011-12-01

339

Learning Cue Phrase Patterns from Radiology Reports Using a Genetic Algorithm  

SciTech Connect

Various computer-assisted technologies have been developed to assist radiologists in detecting cancer; however, the algorithms still lack high degrees of sensitivity and specificity, and must undergo machine learning against a training set with known pathologies in order to further refine the algorithms with higher validity of truth. This work describes an approach to learning cue phrase patterns in radiology reports that utilizes a genetic algorithm (GA) as the learning method. The approach described here successfully learned cue phrase patterns for two distinct classes of radiology reports. These patterns can then be used as a basis for automatically categorizing, clustering, or retrieving relevant data for the user.

Patton, Robert M [ORNL; Beckerman, Barbara G [ORNL; Potok, Thomas E [ORNL

2009-01-01

340

Automatic grammar correction for second-language learners  

Microsoft Academic Search

A computer conversational system can potentially help a foreign- language student improve his\\/her fluency through practice dia- logues. One of its potential roles could be to correct ungrammat- ical sentences. This paper1 describes our research on a sentence- level, generation-based approach to grammar correction: first, a word lattice of candidate corrections is generated from an ill- formed input. A traditional

John Lee; Stephanie Seneff

2006-01-01

341

Teaching tools for logic-based grammar development  

Microsoft Academic Search

A well-known slogan in language technology is 'parsing-as-deduction': syntax and meaning analysis of a text takes the form of a mathematical proof. Developers of language technology (and students of computational linguistics) want to visualize these mathematical objects, and their dy- namic unfolding, in a variety of formats. We discuss a language engineering environment for type-logical com- putational grammars. The kernel

Michael Moortgat; Richard Moot; Dick Oehrle

2002-01-01

342

Porting a lexicalized-grammar parser to the biomedical domain.  

PubMed

This paper introduces a state-of-the-art, linguistically motivated statistical parser to the biomedical text mining community, and proposes a method of adapting it to the biomedical domain requiring only limited resources for data annotation. The parser was originally developed using the Penn Treebank and is therefore tuned to newspaper text. Our approach takes advantage of a lexicalized grammar formalism, Combinatory Categorial Grammar (ccg), to train the parser at a lower level of representation than full syntactic derivations. The ccg parser uses three levels of representation: a first level consisting of part-of-speech (pos) tags; a second level consisting of more fine-grained ccg lexical categories; and a third, hierarchical level consisting of ccg derivations. We find that simply retraining the pos tagger on biomedical data leads to a large improvement in parsing performance, and that using annotated data at the intermediate lexical category level of representation improves parsing accuracy further. We describe the procedure involved in evaluating the parser, and obtain accuracies for biomedical data in the same range as those reported for newspaper text, and higher than those previously reported for the biomedical resource on which we evaluate. Our conclusion is that porting newspaper parsers to the biomedical domain, at least for parsers which use lexicalized grammars, may not be as difficult as first thought. PMID:19141332

Rimell, Laura; Clark, Stephen

2009-10-01

343

Modelling unsupervised online-learning of artificial grammars: Linking implicit and statistical learning.  

PubMed

Humans rapidly learn complex structures in various domains. Findings of above-chance performance of some untrained control groups in artificial grammar learning studies raise questions about the extent to which learning can occur in an untrained, unsupervised testing situation with both correct and incorrect structures. The plausibility of unsupervised online-learning effects was modelled with n-gram, chunking and simple recurrent network models. A novel evaluation framework was applied, which alternates forced binary grammaticality judgments and subsequent learning of the same stimulus. Our results indicate a strong online learning effect for n-gram and chunking models and a weaker effect for simple recurrent network models. Such findings suggest that online learning is a plausible effect of statistical chunk learning that is possible when ungrammatical sequences contain a large proportion of grammatical chunks. Such common effects of continuous statistical learning may underlie statistical and implicit learning paradigms and raise implications for study design and testing methodologies. PMID:24905545

Rohrmeier, Martin A; Cross, Ian

2014-07-01

344

Pro-Forms in the Spanish Noun Phrase. Studies in Linguistics and Language Learning, Volume III.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The object of this study is to treat pronominalization in Spanish within the framework of generative grammar. (The non-hypenated word "pronoun" refers to the traditional class of words including alguien, algo, el, or ella. The hypenated form, "pro-noun," refers to the underlying lexical entries or feature complexes which share the features [+pro,…

Lackstrom, John Edwin

345

Seeing a Phrase "Time and Again" Matters: The Role of Phrasal Frequency in the Processing of Multiword Sequences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Are speakers sensitive to the frequency with which phrases occur in language? The authors report an eye-tracking study that investigates this by examining the processing of multiword sequences that differ in phrasal frequency by native and proficient nonnative English speakers. Participants read sentences containing 3-word binomial phrases ("bride…

Siyanova-Chanturia, Anna; Conklin, Kathy; van Heuven, Walter J. B.

2011-01-01

346

Processing Coordinated Verb Phrases: The Relevance of Lexical-Semantic, Conceptual, and Contextual Information towards Establishing Verbal Parallelism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This dissertation examines the influence of lexical-semantic representations, conceptual similarity, and contextual fit on the processing of coordinated verb phrases. The study integrates information gleaned from current linguistic theory with current psycholinguistic approaches to examining the processing of coordinated verb phrases. It has…

Tutunjian, Damon A.

2010-01-01

347

The Language of Energy: A Glossary of Words and Phrases Used in the Energy Industry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provided is an alphabetical list or words and phrases commonly used in the energy industry. Entries range from such general terms as biomass, fossil fuels, and wetlands to such highly specific terms as Arab oil embargo of 1973-74 and Exxon Donor Solvent (EDS) Process. (JN)

American Petroleum Inst., Washington, DC.

348

Differences in the Timing of Implausibility Detection for Recipient and Instrument Prepositional Phrases  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We conducted two word-by-word reading experiments to investigate the timing of implausibility detection for recipient and instrument prepositional phrases (PPs). These PPs differ in thematic role, relative frequency, and possibly in argument status. The results showed a difference in the timing of garden path effects such that the detection of…

Blodgett, Allison; Boland, Julie E.

2004-01-01

349

An Individualized Problem-Solving Approach for Teaching Choral Phrase Shaping: An Experimental Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This experiment tested a treatment designed to improve choral students' expressiveness regarding keyword emphasis and phrase shaping. The treatment was founded upon the constructivist belief that students actively construct conceptual knowledge through problem solving. Participants were 46 university students randomly selected from a nonauditioned…

Broomhead, Paul

2009-01-01

350

Learning cue phrase patterns from radiology reports using a genetic algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various computer-assisted technologies have been developed to assist radiologists in detecting cancer; however, the algorithms still lack high degrees of sensitivity and specificity, and must undergo machine learning against a training set with known pathologies in order to further refine the algorithms with higher validity of truth. This work describes an approach to learning cue phrase patterns in radiology reports

Robert M. Patton; Barbara G. Beckerman; Thomas E. Potok

2009-01-01

351

The Effects of Multiple Presentations on the Ratings and Memorability of Novel Figurative Phrases  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

How the perceptions of novel figurative phrases change over the course of numerous presentations were addressed in three studies using rating tasks (Studies 1 and 3) and recall tasks (Study 2). The present set of studies replicated much of Schweigert et al.'s (J Psychol Res 32:455-475, 2003) findings of changes in correlations among figurative…

Schweigert, Wendy A.

2009-01-01

352

Feature-Based and Model-Based Semantics for English, French, and German Verb Phrases.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the relative merits of feature versus model based semantics for the interpretation of verb phrases in English, French, and German. The article concludes that the simplicity afforded by features is offset by the depth of analysis achieved with event models that are additionally able to support a sophisticated approach to machine…

Kent, Stuart; Pitt, Jeremy

1996-01-01

353

You Say Probable and I Say Likely: Improving Interpersonal Communication With Verbal Probability Phrases  

Microsoft Academic Search

When forecasters and decision makers describe uncertain events using verbal probability terms, there is a risk of miscommunication because people use different probability phrases and interpret them in different ways. In an effort to facilitate the communication process, the authors investigated various ways of converting the forecasters' verbal probabilities to the decision maker's terms. The authors present 3 studies in

Tzur M. Karelitz; David V. Budescu

2004-01-01

354

Problematic Phrases in the Conclusions of Published Outcome Studies: Implications for Evidence-Based Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: This study examined the extent to which conclusions of published outcome studies contain phrases that could be misconstrued as implying more empirical support than is warranted. Methods: All articles (N = 138) reporting outcome studies from 2000 to 2005 in two social work research journals and two topical database searches were assessed…

Rubin, Allen; Parrish, Danielle

2007-01-01

355

Automatic Tagging of Arabic Text: From Raw Text to Base Phrase Chunks  

Microsoft Academic Search

To date, there are no fully automated systems addressing the community's need for funda- mental language processing tools for Arabic text. In this paper, we present a Support Vector Machine (SVM) based approach to automati- cally tokenize (segmenting off clitics), part-of- speech (POS) tag and annotate base phrases (BPs) in Arabic text. We adapt highly accu- rate tools that have

Mona Diab; Kadri Hacioglu; Daniel Jurafsky

2004-01-01

356

The Interplay between Semantic and Referential Aspects of Anaphoric Noun Phrase Resolution: Evidence from ERPs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this event-related brain potential (ERP) study, we examined how semantic and referential aspects of anaphoric noun phrase resolution interact during discourse comprehension. We used a full factorial design that crossed referential ambiguity with semantic incoherence. Ambiguous anaphors elicited a sustained negative shift (Nref effect), and…

Nieuwland, Mante S.; Van Berkum, Jos J. A.

2008-01-01

357

Ontology based Algorithms for Indexing and Search of semantically close Natural Language phrases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Free text constitutes a overwhelming fraction of information available on the World Wide Web. Specifically, consider small chunks of natural lan- guage phrases frequently used by Web users to de- scribe stuff relevant to them. For example, consider the following two posts on a classifieds site (which serves a small locality, say, a university campus) - \\

Srikanth Kamath U

358

On the Law of Zipf-Mandelbrot for Multi-Word Phrases.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Zipf's law states that if words in a text are arranged in decreasing order of occurrence, then the product of the rank of a word and the number of times it occurs is a constant of that text. Examination of the probabilities of occurrence of multi-word phrases in information retrieval in relation to the probabilities of occurrence of single words…

Egghe, L.

1999-01-01

359

Phonological Phrase Boundaries Constrain the Online Syntactic Analysis of Spoken Sentences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two experiments tested whether phonological phrase boundaries constrain online syntactic analysis in French. Pairs of homophones belonging to different syntactic categories (verb and adjective) were used to create sentences with a local syntactic ambiguity (e.g., [le petit chien "mort"], in English, the "dead" little dog, vs. [le petit chien]…

Millotte, Severine; Rene, Alice; Wales, Roger; Christophe, Anne

2008-01-01

360

The Historical Development of the Phrase there's: An Analysis of the Oxford English Dictionary Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is well pointed out in literature that the existential sentence, i.e. the there + be construction, was established by the beginning of Modern English. In Present-day English, the phrase there's is often observed to exhibit number disagreement. There is a consensus view that such a phenomenon is attributed to the grammaticalised status as a single unit of the item

Michiko Yaguchi

2010-01-01

361

Rule learning by zebra finches in an artificial grammar learning task: which rule?  

PubMed

A hallmark of the human language faculty is the use of syntactic rules. The natural vocalizations of animals are syntactically simple, but several studies indicate that animals can detect and discriminate more complex structures in acoustic stimuli. However, how they discriminate such structures is often not clear. Using an artificial grammar learning paradigm, zebra finches were tested in a Go/No-go experiment for their ability to distinguish structurally different three-element sound sequences. In Experiment 1, zebra finches learned to discriminate ABA and BAB from ABB, AAB, BBA, and ABB sequences. Tests with probe sounds consisting of four elements suggested that the discrimination was based on attending to the presence or absence of repeated A- and B-elements. One bird generalized the discrimination to a new element type. In Experiment 2, we continued the training by adding four-element songs following a 'first and last identical versus different' rule that could not be solved by attending to repetitions. Only two out of five birds learned the overall discrimination. Testing with novel probes demonstrated that discrimination was not based on using the 'first and last identical' rule, but on attending to the presence or absence of the individual training stimuli. The two birds differed in the strategies used. Our results thus demonstrate only a limited degree of abstract rule learning but highlight the need for extensive and critical probe testing to examine the rules that animals (and humans) use to solve artificial grammar learning tasks. They also underline that rule learning strategies may differ between individuals. PMID:22971840

van Heijningen, Caroline A A; Chen, Jiani; van Laatum, Irene; van der Hulst, Bonnie; ten Cate, Carel

2013-03-01

362

ggbio: an R package for extending the grammar of graphics for genomic data  

PubMed Central

We introduce ggbio, a new methodology to visualize and explore genomics annotations and high-throughput data. The plots provide detailed views of genomic regions, summary views of sequence alignments and splicing patterns, and genome-wide overviews with karyogram, circular and grand linear layouts. The methods leverage the statistical functionality available in R, the grammar of graphics and the data handling capabilities of the Bioconductor project. The plots are specified within a modular framework that enables users to construct plots in a systematic way, and are generated directly from Bioconductor data structures. The ggbio R package is available at http://www.bioconductor.org/packages/2.11/bioc/html/ggbio.html.

2012-01-01

363

A Grammar-Based Semantic Similarity Algorithm for Natural Language Sentences  

PubMed Central

This paper presents a grammar and semantic corpus based similarity algorithm for natural language sentences. Natural language, in opposition to “artificial language”, such as computer programming languages, is the language used by the general public for daily communication. Traditional information retrieval approaches, such as vector models, LSA, HAL, or even the ontology-based approaches that extend to include concept similarity comparison instead of cooccurrence terms/words, may not always determine the perfect matching while there is no obvious relation or concept overlap between two natural language sentences. This paper proposes a sentence similarity algorithm that takes advantage of corpus-based ontology and grammatical rules to overcome the addressed problems. Experiments on two famous benchmarks demonstrate that the proposed algorithm has a significant performance improvement in sentences/short-texts with arbitrary syntax and structure.

Chang, Jia Wei; Hsieh, Tung Cheng

2014-01-01

364

"I'll Take Commas for $200": An Instructional Intervention Using Games to Help Students Master Grammar Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Effective writing requires mastering grammar. For journalists, this mastery is critical because research shows poor grammar erodes media credibility. College writing instructors say students do not understand basic grammar concepts, and greater numbers of students are enrolling in remedial writing classes. This quasi-experimental mixed methods…

Bullard, Sue Burzynski; Anderson, Nancy

2014-01-01

365

Meaningful Grammar Teaching. Acts of the Colloquium of the Swiss Interuniversity Commission for Applied Linguistics. CILA Bulletin, No. 31.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two aspects of the problem of native language grammar instruction, in this case English, are addressed. First, it is argued that a combination of linguistic and pedagogical factors contribute to the explanation for the apparent decline in English grammar instruction in the schools. Secondly, it is argued that effective grammar teaching should…

Hirtle, Walter H.

366

Computation-Friendly Shape Grammars with Application to Determining the Interior Layout of Buildings from Image Data  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A shape grammar is a formalism that has been widely applied, in many different fields, to analyzing designs. Computer implementation of a shape grammar interpreter is vital to both research and application. However, implementing a shape grammar interpreter is hard, especially for parametric shapes defined by open terms. This dissertation…

Yue, Kui

2009-01-01

367

Teaching Conceptual Model-Based Word Problem Story Grammar to Enhance Mathematics Problem Solving  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Borrowing the concept of story grammar from reading comprehension literature, the purpose of this study was to examine the effect of teaching "word problem (WP) story grammar" on arithmetic WP solving that emphasizes the algebraic expression of mathematical relations in conceptual models. Participants were five students in Grades 4 and 5 with or…

Xin, Yan Ping; Wiles, Ben; Lin, Yu-Ying

2008-01-01

368

Ueber die Schwierigkeiten, eine Grammatik zu schreiben (On the Difficulties of Writing a Grammar)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the form of a review article, the "English Minimum Grammar" developed by Hans G. Hoffmann (Max Hueber Verlag, Munich, 1973) is discussed, and the problems that beset the writer of a modern teaching grammar are pointed out. (Text is in German.) (IFS/WGA)

Gutschow, Harald

1975-01-01

369

New Studies in the Teaching of English Grammar. ERIC Topical Bibliography and Commentary.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Contemporary syntactic theory rejects the idea that prescriptive grammar can provide students with any insights into how language works. For generative grammar, a term for the aggregate of methodologies which currently dominates modern linguistics, rules determining the grammaticality of a sentence do not relate in any way to the rules which make…

Smith, Carl B., Ed.

370

Electrical Stimulation of Broca's Area Enhances Implicit Learning of an Artificial Grammar  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Artificial grammar learning constitutes a well-established model for the acquisition of grammatical knowledge in a natural setting. Previous neuroimaging studies demonstrated that Broca's area (left BA 44/45) is similarly activated by natural syntactic processing and artificial grammar learning. The current study was conducted to investigate the…

de Vries, Meinou H.; Barth, Andre C. R.; Maiworm, Sandra; Knecht, Stefan; Zwitserlood, Pienie; Floel, Agnes

2010-01-01

371

Comparison of Grammar of Children with Functionally Deviant and Normal Speech.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A generative model of grammar was used to compare the grammar of 10 children diagnosed as using infantile speech with that of 10 matched children using normal speech to attempt to formalize the description of language simply characterized as infantile. Th...

P. Menyuk

1964-01-01

372

Educational Implications of a Study on Grammar and Basic Writing Skills in a Developmental English Course.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study examined the growth in basic writing and grammar skills of 14 developmental English students. The study determined whether a traditional rule-based, form-centered mode of instruction, combined with a limited writing-process approach, had any significant impact on overall writing quality and grammar skills. It used a quantitative,…

Davis, Wesley K.

373

Re-Evaluating and Exploring the Contributions of Constituency Grammar to Semantic Role Labeling  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since the seminal work of Gildea and Jurafsky (2000), semantic role labeling (SRL) researchers have been trying to determine the appropriate syntactic/semantic knowledge and statistical algorithms to tackle the challenges in SRL. In search of the appropriate knowledge, SRL researchers shifted from constituency grammar to dependency grammar around…

Yang, Li

2009-01-01

374

My New Teaching Partner? Using the Grammar Checker in Writing Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Grammar checkers do not claim to teach grammar; they are tools to bring potential problems to the writer's attention. They also offer only formal and Standard English preferences, limiting the freer expression of some literary forms. Without guidance, students may misuse the checker, become frustrated, and feel discouraged. Users must be…

Potter, Reva; Fuller, Dorothy

2008-01-01

375

A Social History of English Grammar in the Early United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

This essay recovers the power of English grammar for ordinary Americans in the early nineteenth century, when hundreds of grammars were composed and printed. Between their cheap covers, these books contained the arresting possibilities of what Raymond Williams called the “third revolution,” a cultural transformation that was intimately tied to profound political and economic changes in the eighteenth and nineteenth

Beth Barton Schweiger

2010-01-01

376

A Social History of English Grammar in the Early United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

: This essay recovers the power of English grammar for ordinary Americans in the early nineteenth century, when hundreds of grammars were composed and printed. Between their cheap covers, these books contained the arresting possibilities of what Raymond Williams called the “third revolution,” a cultural transformation that was intimately tied to profound political and economic changes in the eighteenth and

Beth Barton Schweiger

2010-01-01

377

Associations between Lexicon and Grammar at the End of the Second Year in Finnish Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The emergence of grammar in relation to lexical growth was analyzed in a sample of Finnish children (N=181) at 2 ; 0. The Finnish version of the Communicative Development Inventory was used to gather information on both language domains. The onset of grammar occurred in close association with vocabulary growth. The acquisition of the nominal and…

Stolt, Suvi; Haataja, Leena; Lapinleimu, Helena; Lehtonen, Liisa

2009-01-01

378

Students' Uses of Grammars of English--Can We Avoid Teaching.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an analysis of the responses German college students of English gave on a questionnaire regarding their attitudes toward and use of English grammars. Results found that several factors affected students' attitudes, and suggestions were made on how to improve the design of future grammars and on how to instruct students in the use of…

Leitner, Gerhard

1990-01-01

379

Grammar Charts Analysis: A Tool to Promote Students' Visual Literacy and Autonomous Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This reflection paper attempts to show how we foreign language (FL) teachers can help our students develop their visual literacy concerning the use of grammar charts to help them to make better sense of the grammar information presented in their textbooks. In the first part, this reflection overviews the concept of visual literacy (VL), its…

Nausa T., Ricardo A.

2007-01-01

380

Problematizing the Teaching and Learning of Grammar in the Intermediate German Classroom: A Sociocultural Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A framework is presented for grammar instruction based on sociocultural theory and critical pedagogy. It is argued that restricting students' learning to the standard German of the monolingual, educated native speaker is both insufficient and inappropriate. It is proposed that grammar teaching and learning should support learners as developing…

Levine, Glenn S.

2006-01-01

381

The Place of Grammar in the ESL/EFL Classroom: An Annotated Bibliography.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This annotated bibliography includes citations of journal articles and book chapters that focus on current theories related to teaching grammar in English-as-a-Second-Language and English-as-a-Foreign-Language classrooms. Citations include: (1) "Field Independence-Dependence and the Teaching of Grammar" (R. G. Abraham); (2) "Making Informed…

Kotapish, Carl E.

382

Contradictory Information in the Input as the Cause of Multiple Grammars: Predictions for Bilingual Acquisition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The central claim in Amaral and Roeper's (this issue; henceforth A&R) keynote article is that everyone is multilingual, whether they speak one or more languages. In a nutshell, the idea is that each speaker has multiple grammars or "sub-sets of rules (or sub-grammars) that co-exist". Thus, rather than positing complex rules to…

Unsworth, Sharon

2014-01-01

383

Reading versus Grammar: What Students Think Is Pleasurable and Beneficial for Language Acquisition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the attitudes of 49 second-language students toward 2 language acquisition activities: grammar exercises and extensive reading of popular literature. Results showed, by a significant margin, student favored reading over grammar in both respects. (includes references) (JL)

McQuillan, Jeff

1994-01-01

384

Peer Interaction, Cognitive Conflict, and Anxiety on a Grammar Awareness Course for Language Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explored some MA students' perceptions of a Grammar Awareness course for language teachers. The aim was to understand how group tasks might help students build Grammar Awareness. Two cohorts of students were surveyed and interviewed. In this paper, the survey responses are discussed in some depth. While the first cohort was left to…

Svalberg, Agneta Marie-Louise

2012-01-01

385

On the Relationship between Lexical Semantics and Syntax for the Inference of Context-Free Grammars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Context-free grammars cannot be identified in the limit from positive examples (Gold 1967), yet natural language gram- mars are more powerful than context-free grammars and hu- mans learn them with remarkable ease from positive exam- ples (Marcus 1993). Identifiability results for formal lan- guages ignore a potentially powerful source of information available to learners of natural languages, namely, meanings. This

Tim Oates; Tom Armstrong; Justin Harris; Mark Nejman

2004-01-01

386

20 CFR 645.210 - What is meant by the terms âentityâ and âprojectâ in the statutory phrase âan entity that...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...âentityâ and âprojectâ in the statutory phrase âan entity that operates a projectâ with...and âprojectâ in the statutory phrase âan entity that operates a project...and âprojectâ, in the statutory phrase âan entity that operates a...

2009-04-01

387

20 CFR 645.210 - What is meant by the terms âentityâ and âprojectâ in the statutory phrase âan entity that...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...âentityâ and âprojectâ in the statutory phrase âan entity that operates a projectâ with...and âprojectâ in the statutory phrase âan entity that operates a project...and âprojectâ, in the statutory phrase âan entity that operates a...

2010-04-01

388

Aspectual Effects on Interpretation in Early Grammar  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper focuses on the temporal and modal meanings associated with root infinitives (RIs) and other non-finite clauses in several typologically diverse languages--English, Russian, Greek and Dutch. I discuss the role that event structure, aspect, and modality play in the interpretation of these clauses. The basic hypothesis is that in the…

Hyams, Nina

2007-01-01

389

Guide to Grammar and Writing: Sentence Variety  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This guide explains how to vary sentence length and structure to add interest and expression to writing. It includes several online quizzes covering variety in modifier placement, variety in subject placement, and identifying sentence types. Quizzes include the correct answers with explanations. The resource also provides links to definitions, examples, and online quizzes for run-on sentences and sentence fragments.

Darling, Capital C.

2012-04-02

390

Phase structure rewrite systems in information retrieval  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Operational level automatic indexing requires an efficient means of normalizing natural language phrases. Subject switching requires an efficient means of translating one set of authorized terms to another. A phrase structure rewrite system called a Lexical Dictionary is explained that performs these functions. Background, operational use, other applications and ongoing research are explained.

Klingbiel, P. H.

1985-01-01

391

More than Words: Frequency Effects for Multi-Word Phrases  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is mounting evidence that language users are sensitive to distributional information at many grain-sizes. Much of this research has focused on the distributional properties of words, the units they consist of (morphemes, phonemes), and the syntactic structures they appear in (verb-categorization frames, syntactic constructions). In a series…

Arnon, Inbal; Snider, Neal

2010-01-01

392

Partial Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Assembly for the Teaching of English Grammar (5th, Normal, IL, August 12-13, 1994).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This partial proceedings contains papers presented at the fifth annual conference of the Assembly for the Teaching of English Grammar on the topic of learning, teaching, and researching grammar. Papers in the proceedings are: "Using Grammatical Information to Make Rhetorical Points (Wanda Van Goor); "Grammar with a Purpose: Using Grammar to Teach…

National Council of Teachers of English, Urbana, IL. Assembly for the Teaching of English Grammar.

393

Optical imaging for the new grammar of drug discovery.  

PubMed

Optical technologies used in biomedical research have undergone tremendous development in the last decade and enabled important insight into biochemical, cellular and physiological phenomena at the microscopic and macroscopic level. Historically in drug discovery, to increase throughput in screening, or increase efficiency through automation of image acquisition and analysis in pathology, efforts in imaging were focused on the reengineering of established microscopy solutions. However, with the emergence of the new grammar for drug discovery, other requirements and expectations have created unique opportunities for optical imaging. The new grammar of drug discovery provides rules for translating the wealth of genomic and proteomic information into targeted medicines with a focus on complex interactions of proteins. This paradigm shift requires highly specific and quantitative imaging at the molecular level with tools that can be used in cellular assays, animals and finally translated into patients. The development of fluorescent targeted and activatable 'smart' probes, fluorescent proteins and new reporter gene systems as functional and dynamic markers of molecular events in vitro and in vivo is therefore playing a pivotal role. An enabling optical imaging platform will combine optical hardware refinement with a strong emphasis on creating and validating highly specific chemical and biological tools. PMID:22006912

Krucker, Thomas; Sandanaraj, Britto S

2011-11-28

394

Grammar-based distance in progressive multiple sequence alignment  

PubMed Central

Background We propose a multiple sequence alignment (MSA) algorithm and compare the alignment-quality and execution-time of the proposed algorithm with that of existing algorithms. The proposed progressive alignment algorithm uses a grammar-based distance metric to determine the order in which biological sequences are to be pairwise aligned. The progressive alignment occurs via pairwise aligning new sequences with an ensemble of the sequences previously aligned. Results The performance of the proposed algorithm is validated via comparison to popular progressive multiple alignment approaches, ClustalW and T-Coffee, and to the more recently developed algorithms MAFFT, MUSCLE, Kalign, and PSAlign using the BAliBASE 3.0 database of amino acid alignment files and a set of longer sequences generated by Rose software. The proposed algorithm has successfully built multiple alignments comparable to other programs with significant improvements in running time. The results are especially striking for large datasets. Conclusion We introduce a computationally efficient progressive alignment algorithm using a grammar based sequence distance particularly useful in aligning large datasets.

Russell, David J; Otu, Hasan H; Sayood, Khalid

2008-01-01

395

Training intonational phrasing rules automatically for English and Spanish text-to-speech  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a procedure for acquiring intonational phrasing rules for text-to-speech synthesis automatically, from annotated text, and some evaluation of this procedure for English and Spanish. The procedure employs decision trees generated automatically, using Classification and Regression Tree techniques, from text corpora which have been hand-labeled by native speakers with likely locations of intonational boundaries, in conjunction with information available

Julia Hirschberg; Pilar Prieto

1996-01-01

396

Genetic-based approach for cue phrase selection in dialogue act recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Automatic cue phrase selection is a crucial step for designing a dialogue act recognition model using machine learning techniques.\\u000a The approaches, currently used, are based on specific type of feature selection approaches, called ranking approaches. Despite\\u000a their computational efficiency for high dimensional domains, they are not optimal with respect to relevance and redundancy.\\u000a In this paper we propose a genetic-based

Anwar Ali Yahya; Abd Rahman Ramli

2009-01-01

397

A content-addressable pointer mechanism underlies comprehension of verb-phrase ellipsis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interpreting a verb-phrase ellipsis (VP ellipsis) requires accessing an antecedent in memory, and then integrating a representation of this antecedent into the local context. We investigated the online interpretation of VP ellipsis in an eye-tracking experiment and four speed–accuracy tradeoff experiments. To investigate whether the antecedent for a VP ellipsis is accessed with a search or direct-access retrieval process, Experiments

Andrea E. Martin; Brian McElree

2008-01-01

398

The origin of the phrases persona grata and persona non grata  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phrases persona grata and persona non grata are widely used in English and other modern European languages, but their origin and development have never been fully investigated.\\u000a They do not belong to classical or patristic Latin: rather, persona grata originates in the language of late medieval ecclesiastical diplomacy. After sporadic use from the 15th century to the end\\u000a of

John Considine

2007-01-01

399

Pitch and temporal contributions to musical phrase perception: Effects of harmony, performance timing, and familiarity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four experiments assessed pitch and temporal contributions to phrase judgments made on excerpts from classical music. In Experiment\\u000a 1, pitch-condition trials retained the original pitch pattern but were equitemporal, temporal-condition trials retained the\\u000a original temporal pattern but were equitonal, and combined-condition trials contained both patterns. In Experiment 2, one\\u000a pattern was shifted in phase and recombined with the other pattern

Caroline Palmer; Carol L. Krumhansl

1987-01-01

400

Empirical data for the semantic interpretation of prepositional phrases in medical documents.  

PubMed Central

We report on the results from an empirical study deal-ing with the semantic interpretation of prepositional phrases in medical free texts. We use a small number of semantic interpretation schemata only, which operate on well-defined configurations in dependency graphs. We provide a quantitative analysis of the performance of the semantic interpreter in terms of recall/precision data, and consider, in qualitative terms, the impact semantic interpretation patterns have on the construction of the underlying medical ontology.

Romacker, M.; Hahn, U.

2001-01-01

401

Teaching Photovoltaics: From Grammar School to Graduate School  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photovoltaics (PV) has certainly become the topic of the times in economic and political circles. I have had the opportunity to teach some aspect of the subject at a wide range of educational levels. I taught a graduate course, as an Adjunct Professor at the Colorado School of Mines (CSM), over the time period from 1990 to 2000. As a consequence of various outreach programs, like those sponsored by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, I have given presentations to audiences ranging from grammar school to high school. I have given another type of presentation to the service clubs like Rotary International and Kiwanis Clubs. Finally, in recent years and the rapid growth of the photovoltaic industry, I have been asked to give a basic presentation to business people with modest technical backgrounds. Each audience presents a different set of challenges and each requires a different type of presentation.

Ahrenkiel, Richard

2009-05-01

402

ASN.1: defining a grammar for the UMLS knowledge sources.  

PubMed Central

The unified Medical Language System (UMLS) project provides resources on an experimental basis to the research community. In 1995 the four UMLS Knowledge Sources have been provided in an additional data format, Abstract Syntax Notation One (ASN.1). The benefits of ASN.1 are that it provides a standard, formal grammar for complex data and allows exchange of that data in a way which is independent of the particular software and hardware environment in which the data are created and stored. The paper begins with an introduction to the ASN.1 standard itself. It continues with a discussion of the ASN.1 implementation of the UMLS Knowledge Sources and some of the consequences for the newly released UMLS Knowledge Source Server. It concludes with a discussion of some of the benefits of using ASN.1 encoded data.

McCray, A. T.; Divita, G.

1995-01-01

403

The complex interplay between semantics and grammar in impression formation.  

PubMed

We sought to bridge findings showing that (a) describing a person's behavior with the perfective verb aspect (did), compared to the imperfective aspect (was doing), increases processing of semantic knowledge unrelated to the target's action such as stereotypes and (b) an increased recognition of stereotypical thoughts often promotes a judgment correction for the stereotypes. We hypothesized an interplay between grammar (verb conjugation) and semantic information (gender) in impression-formation. Participants read a resume, attributed to a male or female, for a traditionally masculine job. When the resume was written in the imperfective, people rated a male (vs. female) more positively. When the resume was in the perfective, this pattern reversed. Only these latter effects of gender were influenced by cognitive load. Further, people more quickly indicated the applicant's gender in the perfective condition, suggesting an enhanced focus on gender during processing. PMID:24950389

Shreves, Wyley B; Hart, William; Adams, John M; Guadagno, Rosanna E; Eno, Cassie A

2014-09-01

404

Speeded processing of grammar and tool knowledge in Tourette's syndrome  

PubMed Central

Tourette’s syndrome (TS) is a developmental disorder characterized by motor and verbal tics. The tics, which are fast and involuntary, result from frontal/basal-ganglia abnormalities that lead to unsuppressed behaviors. Language has not been carefully examined in TS. We tested the processing of two basic aspects of language: idiosyncratic and rule-governed linguistic knowledge. Evidence suggests that idiosyncratic knowledge (e.g., in irregular past-tense formation; bring-brought) is stored in a mental lexicon that depends on the temporal-lobe-based declarative memory system that also underlies conceptual knowledge. In contrast, evidence suggests that rule-governed combination (e.g., in regular past-tenses; walk + -ed) takes place in a mental grammar that relies on the frontal/basal-ganglia based procedural memory system, which also underlies motor skills such as how to use a hammer. We found that TS children were significantly faster than typically-developing control children at producing rule-governed past-tenses (slip-slipped, plim-plimmed, bring-bringed) but not irregular and other unpredictable past-tenses (bring-brought, splim-splam). They were also faster than controls at naming pictures of manipulated (hammer) but not non-manipulated (elephant) items. These data were not explained by a wide range of potentially confounding subject- and item-level factors. The results suggest that the processing of procedurally-based knowledge, both of grammar and of manipulated objects, is particularly speeded in TS. The frontal/basal-ganglia abnormalities may thus lead not only to tics, but to a wider range of rapid behaviors, including in the cognitive processing of rule-governed forms in language and other types of procedural knowledge.

Walenski, Matthew; Mostofsky, Stewart H.; Ullman, Michael T.

2007-01-01

405

A CG & PSG hybrid approach to automatic corpus annotation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes and evaluates a hybrid non-probabilistic parsing method for the grammatical annotation of large corpora and the live analysis of teaching sentences, employing a layered scheme of lexicon- and context- based Constraint Grammars on the one hand, and Phrase Structure Grammars or syntactic bracketing algorithms on the other. The method has been fully implemented by the author for

Eckhard Bick

406

Competing iconicities in the structure of languages  

PubMed Central

The paper examines the role that iconicity plays in the structuring of grammars. Two main points are argued for: (a) Grammar does not necessarily suppress iconicity; rather, iconicity and grammar can enjoy a congenial relation in that iconicity can play an active role in the structuring of grammars. (b) Iconicity is not monolithic. There are different types of iconicity and languages take advantage of the possibilities afforded by them. We examine the interaction between iconicity and grammar by focusing on the ways in which sign languages employ the physical body of the signer as a rich iconic resource for encoding a variety of grammatical notions. We show that the body can play three different roles in iconic forms in sign languages: it can be used as a naming device where body parts represent body parts; it can represent the subject argument of verbal signs, and it can stand for first person. These strategies interact and sometimes compete in the languages under study. Each language resolves these competitions differently, which results in different grammars and grammatical structures. The investigation of the ways in which grammar and iconicity interact in these languages provides insight into the nature of both systems.

Meir, Irit; Padden, Carol; Aronoff, Mark; Sandler, Wendy

2013-01-01

407

Unsupervised grammar induction and similarity retrieval in medical language processing using the Deterministic Dynamic Associative Memory (DDAM) model.  

PubMed

This paper is an overview of unsupervised grammar induction and similarity retrieval, two fundamental information processing functions of importance to medical language processing applications and to the construction of intelligent medical information systems. Existing literature with a focus on text segmentation tasks is reviewed. The review includes a comparison of existing approaches and reveals the longstanding interest in these traditionally distinct topics despite the significant computational challenges that characterizes them. Further, a unifying approach to unsupervised representation and processing of sequential data, the Deterministic Dynamic Associative Memory (DDAM) model, is introduced and described theoretically from both structural and functional perspectives. The theoretical descriptions of the model are complemented by a selection and discussion of interesting experimental results in the tasks of unsupervised grammar induction and similarity retrieval with applications to medical language processing. Notwithstanding the challenges associated with the evaluation of unsupervised information-processing models, it is concluded that the DDAM model demonstrates interesting properties that encourage further investigations in both theoretical and applied contexts. PMID:20637898

Pantazi, Stefan V

2010-10-01

408

A technique for solving constraint satisfaction problems using Prolog's definite clause grammars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new technique for solving constraint satisfaction problems using Prolog's definite clause grammars is presented. It exploits the fact that the grammar rule notation can be viewed as a state exchange notation. The novel feature of the technique is that it can perform informed as well as blind search. It provides the Prolog programmer with a new technique for application to a wide range of design, scheduling, and planning problems.

Nachtsheim, Philip R.

1988-01-01

409

Do Humans Really Learn A[superscript n] B[superscript n] Artificial Grammars from Exemplars?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An important topic in the evolution of language is the kinds of grammars that can be computed by humans and other animals. Fitch and Hauser (F&H; 2004) approached this question by assessing the ability of different species to learn 2 grammars, (AB)[superscript n] and A[superscript n] B[superscript n]. A[superscript n] B[superscript n] was taken to…

Hochmann, Jean-Remy; Azadpour, Mahan; Mehler, Jacques

2008-01-01

410

Context-dependent vs. context-free: performance comparison of grammar-based codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we compare the performance of two types of universal data compression algorithms: context-dependent grammar-based (CDG-based) codes and context-free grammar-based (CFG-based) codes. The theoretical comparison of two algorithm is complicated by the following two facts observed: 1) Both CDG-based codes and CFG-based codes are universal for the class of stationary, ergodic sources with a finite alphabet; and 2)

En-Hui Yang; Da-ke He

2003-01-01

411

Early neuronal responses in right limbic structures mediate harmony incongruity processing in musical experts.  

PubMed

In western tonal music, musical phrases end with an explicit harmonic consequent which is highly expected. As such expectation is a consequence of musical background, cerebral processing of incongruities of musical grammar might be a function of expertise. We hypothesized that a subtle incongruity of standard closure should evoke a profound and rapid reaction in an expert's brain. If such a reaction is due to neuroplasticity as a consequence of musical training, it should be correlated with distinctive activations in sensory, motor and/or cognitive function related brain areas in response to the incongruent closure. Using event related potential (ERP) source imaging, we determined the temporal dynamics of neuronal activity in highly trained pianists and musical laymen in response to syntactic harmonic incongruities in expressive music, which were easily detected by the experts but not by the laymen. Our results revealed that closure incongruity evokes a selective early response in musical experts, characterized by a strong, right lateralized negative ERP component. Statistical source analysis could demonstrate putative contribution to the generation of this component in right temporal-limbic areas, encompassing hippocampal complex and amygdala, and in right insula. Its early onset (approximately 200 ms) preceded responses in frontal areas that may reflect more conscious processing. These results go beyond previous work demonstrating that musical training can change activity of sensory and motor areas during musical or audio-motor tasks, and suggest that functional plasticity in right medial-temporal structures and insula also modulates processing of subtle harmonic incongruities. PMID:18640279

James, Clara E; Britz, Juliane; Vuilleumier, Patrik; Hauert, Claude-Alain; Michel, Christoph M

2008-10-01

412

Phrase-level speech simulation with an airway modulation model of speech production  

PubMed Central

Artificial talkers and speech synthesis systems have long been used as a means of understanding both speech production and speech perception. The development of an airway modulation model is described that simulates the time-varying changes of the glottis and vocal tract, as well as acoustic wave propagation, during speech production. The result is a type of artificial talker that can be used to study various aspects of how sound is generated by humans and how that sound is perceived by a listener. The primary components of the model are introduced and simulation of words and phrases are demonstrated.

Story, Brad H.

2012-01-01

413

Effects of grammar instruction and fluency training on the learning of the and a by native speakers of japanese  

PubMed Central

In a computer-assisted sentence completion task, the effects of grammar instruction and fluency training on learning the use of the definite and indefinite articles of English were examined. Forty-eight native Japanese-speaking students were assigned to four groups: with grammar/accuracy (G/A), without grammar/accuracy (N/A), with grammar/fluency (G/F), and without grammar/fluency (N/F). In the G/A and N/A groups, training continued until performance reached 100% accuracy (accuracy criterion). In the G/F and N/F groups, training continued until 100% accuracy was reached and the correct responses were made at a high speed (fluency criterion). Grammar instruction was given to participants in the G/A and G/F groups but not to those in the N/A and N/F groups. Generalization to new sentences was tested immediately after reaching the required criterion. High levels of generalization occurred, regardless of the type of mastery criterion and whether the grammar instruction was given. Retention tests were conducted 4, 6, and 8 weeks after training. Fluency training effectively improved retention of the performance attained without the grammar instruction. This effect was diminished when grammar instruction was given during training. Learning grammatical rules was not necessary for the generalized use of appropriate definite and indefinite articles or for the maintenance of the performance attained through fluency training.

Shimamune, Satoru; Jitsumori, Masako

1999-01-01

414

Interpretation of verb phrase telicity: sensitivity to verb type and determiner type.  

PubMed

PURPOSE The authors examine how adults use linguistic information from verbs, direct objects, and particles to interpret an event description as encoding a logical endpoint to the event described (in which case, it is telic) or not (in which case, it is atelic). Current models of aspectual composition predict that quantity-sensitive verbs combined with quantized objects produce telic predicates. Behavioral results from previous experiments have not unequivocally confirmed this prediction. The study presents a more fine-grained analysis that examines the influence of partitive verbs, resultative particles, and different determiner types on listeners' evaluations of verb phrases as telic or atelic. METHOD Forty-eight English-speaking adults participated in a truth-value judgment task to determine whether they interpreted verb phrases with different types of verbs and direct objects as telic or atelic. Participants viewed short videos and responded to a yes/no question after each one. RESULTS The presence of partitive quantity-sensitive verbs and the presence of a definite determiner versus a cardinal number in quantized direct objects had a differential impact on listeners' interpretations of sentences as telic. CONCLUSION The results indicate that actual behavioral interpretations of telicity are meaningfully influenced by the presence of partitive verbs, resultative particles, and different types of determiners. PMID:24129006

Ogiela, Diane A; Schmitt, Cristina; Casby, Michael W

2014-06-01

415

Effects of animacy and noun-phrase relatedness on the processing of complex sentences.  

PubMed

Previous work has suggested that syntactically complex object-extracted relative clauses are easier to process when the head noun phrase (NP1) is inanimate and the embedded noun phrase (NP2) is animate, as compared with the reverse animacy configuration, with differences in processing difficulty beginning as early as NP2 (e.g., The article that the senator . . . vs. The senator that the article . . .). Two eye-tracking-while-reading experiments were conducted to better understand the source of this effect. Experiment 1 showed that having an inanimate NP1 facilitated processing even when NP2 was held constant. Experiment 2 manipulated both animacy of NP1 and the degree of semantic relatedness between the critical NPs. When NP1 and NP2 were paired arbitrarily, the early animacy effect emerged at NP2. When NP1 and NP2 were semantically related, this effect disappeared, with effects of NP1 animacy emerging in later processing stages for both the related and arbitrary conditions. The results indicate that differences in the animacy of NP1 influence early processing of complex sentences only when the critical NPs share no meaningful relationship. PMID:24452417

Lowder, Matthew W; Gordon, Peter C

2014-07-01

416

Gene structure prediction by linguistic methods  

SciTech Connect

The higher-order structure of genes and other features of biological sequences can be described by means of formal grammars. These grammars can then be used by general-purpose parsers to detect and to assemble such structures by means of syntactic pattern recognition. We describe a grammar and parser for eukaryotic protein-encoding genes, which by some measures is as effective as current connectionist and combinatorial algorithms in predicting gene structures for sequence database entries. Parameters of the grammar rules are optimized for several different species, and mixing experiments are performed to determine the degree of species specificity and the relative importance of compositional, signal-based, and syntactic components in gene prediction. 24 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

Dong, S.; Searls, D.B. [Univ. of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA (United States)] [Univ. of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

1994-10-01

417

Grammar learning in older adults is linked to white matter microstructure and functional connectivity.  

PubMed

Age-related decline in cognitive function has been linked to alterations of white matter and functional brain connectivity. With regard to language, aging has been shown to be associated with impaired syntax processing, but the underlying structural and functional correlates are poorly understood. In the present study, we used an artificial grammar learning (AGL) task to determine the ability to extract grammatical rules from new material in healthy older adults. White matter microstructure and resting-state functional connectivity (FC) of task-relevant brain regions were assessed using multimodal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). AGL performance correlated positively with fractional anisotropy (FA) underlying left and right Brodmann areas (BA) 44/45 and in tracts originating from left BA 44/45. An inverse relationship was found between task performance and FC of left and right BA 44/45, linking lower performance to stronger inter-hemispheric functional coupling. Our results suggest that white matter microstructure underlying specific prefrontal regions and their functional coupling affect acquisition of syntactic knowledge in the aging brain, offering further insight into mechanisms of functional decline in older adults. PMID:22659480

Antonenko, Daria; Meinzer, Marcus; Lindenberg, Robert; Witte, A Veronica; Flöel, Agnes

2012-09-01

418

Automated diagnosis of otitis media: vocabulary and grammar.  

PubMed

WE PROPOSE A NOVEL AUTOMATED ALGORITHM FOR CLASSIFYING DIAGNOSTIC CATEGORIES OF OTITIS MEDIA: acute otitis media, otitis media with effusion, and no effusion. Acute otitis media represents a bacterial superinfection of the middle ear fluid, while otitis media with effusion represents a sterile effusion that tends to subside spontaneously. Diagnosing children with acute otitis media is difficult, often leading to overprescription of antibiotics as they are beneficial only for children with acute otitis media. This underscores the need for an accurate and automated diagnostic algorithm. To that end, we design a feature set understood by both otoscopists and engineers based on the actual visual cues used by otoscopists; we term this the otitis media vocabulary. We also design a process to combine the vocabulary terms based on the decision process used by otoscopists; we term this the otitis media grammar. The algorithm achieves 89.9% classification accuracy, outperforming both clinicians who did not receive special training and state-of-the-art classifiers. PMID:23997759

Kuruvilla, Anupama; Shaikh, Nader; Hoberman, Alejandro; Kova?evi?, Jelena

2013-01-01

419

Evaluation of Structure Recognition Using Labelled Facade Images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 3d city modelling the request for details is permanently growing. Because of that automatic facade reconstruction methods are needed. Structure information plays an important role in facade reconstruction since facade elements like windows are arranged in structural patterns. In this paper we present a facade grammar which models these structures. This grammar is used in an rjMCMC based facade reconstruction method. We evaluate the reconstruction method using the eTRIMS [1] image database.

Ripperda, Nora; Brenner, Claus

420

Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Association of Teachers of English Grammar (3rd, Williamsport, PA, June 18-19, 1992).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This proceedings contains half of the papers presented at the third annual conference of the Association of Teachers of English Grammar. Papers in the proceedings are: "Grammar as a Method, Not as a Subject" (Marilyn N. Silva); "Using Humor to Teach Grammar, or the Grammarian as Stand-up Comic" (Frank Peters); "Grammatical Competence and the…

National Council of Teachers of English, Urbana, IL. Assembly for the Teaching of English Grammar.

421

Applying Conceptual Grammar to Advanced-Level Language Teaching: The Case of Two Completive Constructions in Korean  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article introduces conceptual grammar as an approach to the analysis and teaching of grammar in foreign and second language contexts through a combination of paradigms: corpus, discourse analysis, and cognitive linguistics. Although the approach is applicable to virtually any language and any construction within that language at various…

Strauss, Susan; Lee, Jihye; Ahn, Kyungja

2006-01-01

422

Characteristics of Early Vocabulary and Grammar Development in Slovenian-Speaking Infants and Toddlers: A CDI-Adaptation Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A large body of research shows that vocabulary does not develop independently of grammar, representing a better predictor of the grammatical complexity of toddlers' utterances than age. This study examines for the first time the characteristics of vocabulary and grammar development in Slovenian-speaking infants and toddlers using the…

Marjanovic-Umek, Ljubica; Fekonja-Peklaj, Urska; Podlesek, Anja

2013-01-01

423

The Emergence of Grammar in Very-Low-Birth-Weight Finnish Children at Two Years of Age  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is not well understood how grammar emerges in very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) children. The main aim of the present study was to gain information on the emergence of grammar in this group at 2; 0. The Finnish version of the Communicative Development Inventory was used to collect data from VLBW children ("N" = 156) and full-term controls…

Stolt, Suvi; Matomaki, Jaakko; Haataja, Leena; Lapinleimu, Helena; Lehtonen, Liisa

2013-01-01

424

The Case for a Realistic Beginning-Level Grammar Syllabus: The Round Peg in the Round Hole  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The time has come to create a realistic grammar syllabus in the beginning language courses. Yet why do some in the profession insist that all grammar must be taught in the first year of language learning? Abundant data from decades of research on topics such as human memory, chunking, and second language acquisition exist that overwhelmingly…

Heining-Boynton, Audrey L.

2010-01-01

425

The Neural Basis of Lexicon and Grammar in First and Second Language: The Declarative/Procedural Model.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses theoretical and empirical aspects of the neural bases of the mental lexicon and the mental grammar in the first and second language (L1 and L2). Argues that in the first language, the learning, representation, and processing of lexicon and grammar depend on two well-studies brain memory systems. (Author/VWL)

Ullman, Michael T.

2001-01-01

426

Relating the Parts to the Whole in Novel Reading: Using Story Grammars to Teach Plot Development in Novels.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A three-stage lesson sequence that used story grammars to teach plot development has been proved successful with a group of eight above average third grade students reading Deborah and James Howe's "Bunnicula." The first stage was a training unit designed to familiarize children with a typical story grammar's parts: a theme and plot consisting of…

Kinney, Martha A.; Schmidt, John

427

The Impact of Adjacent-Dependencies and Staged-Input on the Learnability of Center-Embedded Hierarchical Structures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A theoretical debate in artificial grammar learning (AGL) regards the learnability of hierarchical structures. Recent studies using an A[superscript n]B[superscript n] grammar draw conflicting conclusions ([Bahlmann and Friederici, 2006] and [De Vries et al., 2008]). We argue that 2 conditions crucially affect learning A[superscript…

Lai, Jun; Poletiek, Fenna H.

2011-01-01

428

Automatic feature template generation for maximum entropy based intonational phrase break prediction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The prediction of intonational phrase (IP) breaks is important for both the naturalness and intelligibility of Text-to- Speech (TTS) systems. In this paper, we propose a maximum entropy (ME) model to predict IP breaks from unrestricted text, and evaluate various keyword selection approaches in different domains. Furthermore, we design a hierarchical clustering algorithm for automatic generation of feature templates, which minimizes the need for human supervision during ME model training. Results of comparative experiments show that, for the task of IP break prediction, ME model obviously outperforms classification and regression tree (CART), log-likelihood ratio is the best scoring measure of keyword selection, compared with manual templates, templates automatically generated by our approach greatly improves the F-score of ME based IP break prediction, and significantly reduces the size of ME model.

Zhou, You

2013-03-01

429

CMAP LINKING PHRASE CONSTRAINT FOR THE STRUCTURAL NARROWING OF CONSTRUCTIVIST SECOND LANGUAGE TASKS  

Microsoft Academic Search

In constructivist second language (L2) learning environments 1 , particularly in relatively teacher-remote situations such as those involving Learning Management Systems (LMS), task performance freedom can be an obstacle to the achievement of specific educational objectives. This paper presents an example of task narrowing achieved by Cmap 2 interface related task design. The relations represented by Cmap links are defined

Lawrie Hunter

430

Exploring aphasic grammar. 2: Do language testing and conversation tell a similar story?  

PubMed

This paper investigates the grammatical difficulties of an English-speaking person with non-fluent aphasia using clinical assessments based on picture description and story telling. The same individual's conversation grammar, which was investigated in detail in a linked article is reviewed here, and the notion that interactional grammatical phenomena may not necessarily be visible in elicited language data is explored. Data analysis shows that the aphasic speaker's grammar looks considerably different in the context of clinical assessment than it does in conversation. Analysis of elicited grammar reveals that the majority of utterances produced are subject-verb-object (SVO) type sentences, whereas prior analysis of conversation data indicated patterns of interactional grammatical phenomena that differ from such sentence types. It is suggested that language tests and conversation provide complementary but essentially different information about grammatical abilities. The clinical implications of this finding are discussed. PMID:12762207

Beeke, Suzanne; Wilkinson, Ray; Maxim, Jane

2003-03-01

431

The Pronoun Attraction Effect for D(iscourse)-Linked Phrases: Evidence from Speakers of a Null Subject Language  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Frazier and Clifton (2002) argue that a d(iscourse)-linked wh-phrase such as which boy attracts the reference of a pronoun in a subordinate clause. We translated Frazier and Clifton's materials from English into Romanian. Romanian is a pro-drop language in which null subjects are licensed by person and number agreement on the verb. We found that…

Diaconescu, Rodica Constanta; Goodluck, Helen

2004-01-01

432

Intentional Control and Operational Constraints in Prosodic Phrasing: A Study of Picture-Elicited Narrations by French Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study deals with the determinants of prosodic phrasing in French schoolchildren's narratives. Children (aged 7 to 11) told picture stories to a silent same-age peer. The establishment of temporal and/or causal relations between the events was more or less guided by the drawings (ordered vs. arbitrary sequences). The comprehension of the…

Vion, Monique; Colas, Annie

2009-01-01

433

Does the Noun Phrase Accessibility Hierarchy Predict the Difficulty Order in the Acquisition of Japanese Relative Clauses?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although Keenan and Comrie's (1977) noun phrase accessibility hierarchy (NPAH) has been shown to predict the difficulty order of relative clauses (RCs) in SLA, most studies of the NPAH have been on European languages. This paper tests the prediction for Japanese. Study 1 analyzes RCs in an oral interview corpus from 90 learners of Japanese at four…

Ozeki, Hiromi; Shirai, Yasuhiro

2007-01-01

434

Aphorisms and Short Phrases as Pieces of Knowledge in the Pedagogical Framework of the Andalusian School of Public Health  

PubMed Central

Background: Bearing in mind the philosophical pedagogical significance of short phrases for the training of researchers in the health care ambit, we hence have studied the aphorisms and striking phrases expressed during the epidemiology course at the Andalusian School of Public Health. Methods: Belonging to the qualitative type and applied through the establishment of a multidisciplinary focus group made up of ten post-graduated students, where one of them acted as a moderator. The collection of information lasted four months. Information was classified in two ways: Firstly, aphorisms and short phrases with a pedagogical impact; and secondly, data with statistical, epidemiological, epistemological, pragmatic, or heuristic component, and for scientific diffusion. It was decided to perform a triangulation that included a descriptive presentation and a basic categorical analysis. The two teachers with a highest interpretative load have been identified . Results: A total of 127 elements, regarded as of interest by the focus group, were collected. Forty-four of them (34.6%) were aphorisms, and 83 were short phrases with a pedagogical load (65.3%). Most of all them were classified as statistical elements (35.4%) followed by epistemological (21.3%) and epidemiological (15.7%) elements. There was no tendency towards aphorisms or short phrases (P > 0.05) among the teachers with more informative representation. Conclusion: There has been a tilt in the contents towards the statistical area to the detriment of the epidemiological one. Concept maps have visualized classifications. This sort of qualitative analysis helps the researcher review contents acquired during his/her training process.

Gonzalez-Garcia, Lorena; Chemello, Clarice; Garcia-Sanchez, Filomena; Serpa-Anaya, Delia C.; Gomez-Gonzalez, Carmen; Soriano-Carrascosa, Leticia; Munoz-de Rueda, Paloma; Moya-Molina, Miguel; Sanchez-Garcia, Fernando; Ortega-Calvo, Manuel

2012-01-01

435

Enhanced PIELG: A Protein Interaction Extraction System using a Link Grammar Parser from biomedical abstracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the ever growing amount of publications about protein-protein interactions, information extraction from text is increasingly recognized as one of crucial technologies in bioinformatics. This paper investigates the effect of adding a new module - Complex Sentence Processor (CSP) - to the PIELG system. PIELG is a Protein Interaction Extraction System using a Link Grammar Parser from biomedical abstracts

R. A. Abul Seoud; Y. M. Kadah

2008-01-01

436

Languaging and Visualisation Method for Grammar Teaching: A Conceptual Change Theory Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Conceptual grammatical knowledge is an area which causes problems at different levels of education. This article examines the ideas of conceptual change theory as a basis for establishing a new grammar teaching method. The research strategy which I use is educational design research and the research data have been collected from teacher students…

Rattya, Kaisu

2013-01-01

437

Revisiting the syntactic abilities of non-human animals: natural vocalizations and artificial grammar learning  

PubMed Central

The domain of syntax is seen as the core of the language faculty and as the most critical difference between animal vocalizations and language. We review evidence from spontaneously produced vocalizations as well as from perceptual experiments using artificial grammars to analyse animal syntactic abilities, i.e. abilities to produce and perceive patterns following abstract rules. Animal vocalizations consist of vocal units (elements) that are combined in a species-specific way to create higher order strings that in turn can be produced in different patterns. While these patterns differ between species, they have in common that they are no more complex than a probabilistic finite-state grammar. Experiments on the perception of artificial grammars confirm that animals can generalize and categorize vocal strings based on phonetic features. They also demonstrate that animals can learn about the co-occurrence of elements or learn simple ‘rules’ like attending to reduplications of units. However, these experiments do not provide strong evidence for an ability to detect abstract rules or rules beyond finite-state grammars. Nevertheless, considering the rather limited number of experiments and the difficulty to design experiments that unequivocally demonstrate more complex rule learning, the question of what animals are able to do remains open.

ten Cate, Carel; Okanoya, Kazuo

2012-01-01

438

Generation of Components for Software Renovation Factories from Context-Free Grammars  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an approach for the generation of components for a software renovation factory. These components are generated from a context-free grammar definitionthat recognizes the code that has to be renovated. We generate analy- sis and transformation components that can be instantiated with a specifictransformation or analysis task. We apply our approach to COBOL and we discuss the construction of

Mark Van Den Brand; M. P. A. Sellink; Chris Verhoef

1997-01-01

439

Making ALGOL 68 + Texts Conform to an Operator-Priority Grammar.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A superlanguage of ALGOL 68, ALGOL 68+, which is powerful enough to describe the standard prelude is discussed. An operator precedence grammar can, through a simple right-to-left transduction scheme, be made to be of type LL(1). If, in addition, the gramm...

L. G. L. T. Meertens J. C. Vanvliet

1981-01-01

440

King Latin Grammar Magnet Middle School: 1990-1991. Formative Evaluation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An evaluation of the first year of the Martin Luther King, Jr., Latin Grammar Magnet Middle School in Kansas City, Missouri, is reported. The program is evaluated in terms of enrollment and program capacity, implementation, perceptions and achievement. Findings indicate that certain instructional goals (i.e., computer application, public speaking,…

Robinson-Lewis, G.

441

Generalized Probabilistic LR Parsing of Natural Language (Corpora) with Unification-Based Grammars  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe work toward the construction of a very wide-coverage probabilistic parsing system for natural language (NL), based on LR parsing techniques. The system is intended to rank the large number of syntactic analyses produced by NL grammars according to the frequency of occurrence of the individual rules deployed in each analysis. We discuss a fully automatic procedure for constructing

Ted Briscoe; John Carroll

1993-01-01

442

Reduction of Uncertainty in Human Sequential Learning: Evidence from Artificial Grammar Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on statistical learning in adults and infants has shown that humans are particularly sensitive to statistical properties of the input. Early experiments in artificial grammar learning, for instance, show a sensitivity for transitional n-gram probabilities. It has been argued, however, that this source of information may not help in detecting nonadjacent dependencies, in the presence of substantial variability of

Luca Onnis

443

Using conceptual metaphor and functional grammar to explore how language used in physics affects student learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces a theory about the role of language in learning physics. The theory is developed in the context of physics students and physicists talking and writing about the subject of quantum mechanics. We found that physicists' language encodes different varieties of analogical models through the use of grammar and conceptual metaphor. We hypothesize that students categorize concepts into

David T. Brookes; Eugenia Etkina

2007-01-01

444

Mapping the Frontier: A Survey of Twenty Years of Grammar Articles in TETYC  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this essay, the author "maps" a town that has grown in what was formerly frontier: he looked at twenty-four essays focusing on grammar instruction from "Teaching English in the Two-Year College (TETYC)," published between 1987 and 2006, with a goal of identifying key areas of focus--town squares. While he found several trends and foci, most…

Blaauw-Hara, Mark

2007-01-01

445

Using L1 to Enhance the Grammar Learning and Having Only English Policy in EFL Classes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study is to determine the differences of grammar learning, if any, between the EFL classes in which native language (L1) is sometimes used and only target language (L2) is used. Participants were 42 prep year students from one of the universities in Turkey. They have been studying English for 9 months, and now they are in level…

Uyar, Yusuf

2012-01-01

446

Validity of a Parent-Report Measure of Vocabulary and Grammar for Spanish-Speaking Toddlers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The validity of the Fundacion MacArthur Inventaria de Habilidades Communicativas: Palabras y Enuciados was examined with twenty 20- and nineteen 28-month-old, typically developing, monolingual, Spanish-speaking children in Mexico. Results indicated validity for assessing expressive vocabulary in 20-month-olds and expressive vocabulary and grammar

Thal, Donna; Jackson-Maldonado, Donna; Acosta, Dora

2000-01-01

447

Effect of Instruction in Story Grammar on the Narrative Writing of EFL Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study investigated the effects of explicit versus implicit instruction in story grammar on the narrative writing skills of English-as-a-Foreign-Language (EFL) students at the university level. Subjects were 83 freshmen enrolled in English at the Faculty of Education at Suez Canal University (Egypt). The subjects were randomly assigned to…

El-Koumy, Abdel Salam A.

448

The Links between Grammar and Spelling: A Cognitive Hurdle in Deep Orthographies?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A cross-sectional study tested Danish students' mastery of links between grammar and spelling (cf. the English link between past tense verbs and the "-ed" spelling for a word final /t/, e.g., "miss" ed vs. "mis" t). One hundred and forty-two students aged 10-17 spelled pseudo-word items with ambiguous phonemes, where the choice between a…

Juul, Holger; Elbro, Carsten

2004-01-01

449

Teaching Pragmatics in the Foreign Language Classroom: Grammar as a Communicative Resource  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article focuses on the teaching of pragmatics in the Spanish as a Foreign Language classroom and examines the role of grammar as a communicative resource. It also aims to highlight the importance of teaching pragmatics from beginning levels of language instruction, with the spotlight on speech acts at the discourse level. After the concept of…

Felix-Brasdefer, J. Cesar; Cohen, Andrew D.

2012-01-01

450

Implicit and Explicit Learning of L2 Grammar: A Pilot Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An exploratory study of six undergraduates under laboratory conditions aimed to clarify the role of explicit teaching of different kinds of second-language grammar rules. In this look at methodology, one hypothesis was supported: that explicit and deductive learning is better than implicit for simple categorical rules. (Contains 24 references.)…

DeKeyser, Robert

1994-01-01

451

An Annotated Bibliography of Texts on Writing Skills: Grammar and Usage, Composition, Rhetoric, and Technical Writing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed as a research tool for teachers of writing, this annotated bibliography describes texts and readers which pertain to college level English courses (with indications of those suitable for use in high schools). Each entry has been placed in one or more of the following categories: grammar and basic usage, composition, advanced composition…

Burns, Shannon; And Others

452

Somewhere over the Border: Grammar in a Class of Its Own  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Grammar Gang blog has now passed its fourth anniversary as a borderless, non-proprietary language and learning online classroom. It gives wing to the aspirations of academic staff from four universities to explore language and learning across hemispheres. The Blog's recent birthday provides a timely opportunity to explore how this…

Duff, Andrea; Miller, Julia; Johnston, Helen; Bergmann, Linda S.

2012-01-01

453

Grammatical Error Diagnosis in Fluid Construction Grammar: A Case Study in L2 Spanish Verb Morphology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Construction grammar (CG) has been proposed as an adequate grammatical formalism for building intelligent language tutoring systems because it is highly compatible with the learning strategies observed in second language learning. Unfortunately, the lack of computational CG implementations has made it impossible in the past to corroborate these…

Beuls, Katrien

2014-01-01

454

Form-Focused Instruction in Communicative Language Teaching: Implications for Grammar Textbooks.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines a number of adult English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) grammar textbooks via an author-designed checklist to analyze how well they incorporate the findings from research in communicative language teaching (CLT) and in form-focused instruction (FFI). Concludes that although a few textbooks incorporate some of the research findings of CLT and…

Millard, Derrick J.

2000-01-01

455

A Design Study of a Multimedia Instructional Grammar Program with Embedded Tracking  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is a design study meant to demonstrate the feasibility of integrating three rather different theoretical perspectives for future efforts in multimedia instructional design. A multimedia instructional grammar program contextualized within the teaching of English as a Second Language (ESL) was developed and evaluated. The program design was…

Koehler, Natalya A.; Thompson, Ann D.; Phye, Gary D.

2011-01-01

456

Comparison of Grammar-Based and Statistical Language Models Trained on the Same Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents a methodologically sound comparison of the performance of grammar-based (GLM) and statistical-based (SLM) recognizer architectures using data from the Clarissa procedure navigator domain. The Regulus open source packages make this possible with a method for constructing a grammar-based language model by training on a corpus. We construct grammar-based and statistical language models from the same corpus for comparison, and find that the grammar-based language models provide better performance in this domain. The best SLM version has a semantic error rate of 9.6%, while the best GLM version has an error rate of 6.0%. Part of this advantage is accounted for by the superior WER and Sentence Error Rate (SER) of the GLM (WER 7.42% versus 6.27%, and SER 12.41% versus 9.79%). The rest is most likely accounted for by the fact that the GLM architecture is able to use logical-form-based features, which permit tighter integration of recognition and semantic interpretation.

Hockey, Beth Ann; Rfayner, Manny

2005-01-01

457

The Evolution of a Grammar-Checking Program: "LINGER" to "ISCA."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the experience, results, and prognoses for the development and implemenation of grammar-checking programs that can advise effectively on language produced by learners of English-as-a-Foreign-Language. Particular focus is on work that has been carried out at University of Exeter over the last 10 years, specifically on two programs,…

Bolt, Philip; Yazdani, Masoud

1998-01-01

458

Straight on through to Universal Grammar: Spatial Modifiers in Second Language Acquisition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There has been considerable progress in second language (L2) research at the syntax-semantics interface addressing how syntax can inform phrasal semantics, in terms of interpretive correlates of word order (Slabakova, 2008). This article provides evidence of a flow of information ostensibly in the opposite direction, from meaning to grammar, at…

Stringer, David; Burghardt, Beatrix; Seo, Hyun-Kyoung; Wang, Yi-Ting

2011-01-01

459

A Novel Format for Teaching Spanish Grammar: Lessons from the Lecture Hall  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes a third-year Spanish grammar course that is taught in lecture/discussion format. The course, which enrolls over 150 students each semester, provides explicit instruction during a weekly lecture and opportunities for students to engage in meaningful output and interaction during small group discussion sessions. The goal is to…

Zyzik, Eve

2008-01-01

460

Strategic Use of Pedagogic Grammar Rules in Micro-Level Editing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study in college-level English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) instruction investigated (1) whether or not there is any relationship between the strategic use of explicit grammar knowledge, including metalinguistic concepts, in an attempt to recognize error, and the actual correction of error and success in academic ESL; (2) whether or not certain…

O'Riordan, Mary

461

Teaching Story Grammar Components to Increase Oral Narrative Ability: A Group Intervention Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This pilot study investigated the impact of an oral narrative intervention program implemented with 24 children who attended a College of Education on campus laboratory school for children with specific language learning difficulties. Oral narratives were elicited before and after treatment and underwent T-unit and story grammar component…

Green, Laura B.; Klecan-Aker, Joni S.

2012-01-01

462

Gender Inclusivity or "Grammar Rules OK"? Linguistic Prescriptivism vs Linguistic Discrimination in the Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper explores the potential conflict classroom teachers face in their dual roles as "guardians of grammar" and as "agents of social language reform" with reference to third person singular generic pronouns in English. We investigate to what extent teachers (primary, secondary and tertiary) experience tensions between these roles in relation…

Pauwels, Anne; Winter, Joanne

2006-01-01

463

Knowing English Grammar--An Important Aid in Second Language Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses a small-scale study that explored students', teachers', and university lecturers' beliefs about the value of studying English grammar in foreign and second language learning. A major debate in second language acquisition literature has been concerned with experiential (implicit) learning as opposed to analytical (explicit)…

Cleary, Colin

2004-01-01

464

s2400, A Computer Assisted Instructional Review of Basic Spanish Grammar  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

s2400 is intended to help students learn, review, and reinforce their knowledge of basic Spanish grammar. The computer contains the entire body of knowledge to be taught, presenting it to the student in a manner predetermined by an instructor. The language lab program at West Chester State College is described. (POP)

Smith, Philip D., Jr.

1976-01-01

465

The Aptitude-Treatment Interaction Effects on the Learning of Grammar Rules  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study investigates the interaction between two types of explicit instructional approaches, deduction and explicit-induction, and the level of foreign language aptitude in the learning of grammar rules. Results indicate that on the whole the two equally explicit instructional approaches did not differentially affect learning…

Hwu, Fenfang; Sun, Shuyan

2012-01-01

466

Cross-language Similarity Modulates Effectiveness of Second Language Grammar Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We investigated the effects of instruction method and cross-language similarity during second language (L2) grammar learning. English speakers learned a subset of Swedish using contrast and color highlighting (Salience Group), contrast and highlighting with grammatical explanations (Rule & Salience Group), or neither (Control Group with…

Tolentino, Leida C.; Tokowicz, Natasha

2014-01-01

467

Grammar Intertwined throughout the Writing Process: An "Inch Wide and a Mile Deep"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Drawing on theory and practice, the authors argue that, rather than trying to "cover" all grammatical skills, something traditionally done in many classrooms, and with limited results, teachers can more successfully teach less grammar with better results by focusing on key grammatical options and skills in the context of actual writing, throughout…

Weaver, Constance; Bush, Jonathan; Anderson, Jeff; Bills, Patricia

2006-01-01

468

Typological Asymmetries in Round Vowel Harmony: Support from Artificial Grammar Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Providing evidence for the universal tendencies of patterns in the world's languages can be difficult, as it is impossible to sample all possible languages, and linguistic samples are subject to interpretation. However, experimental techniques, such as artificial grammar learning paradigms, make it possible to uncover the psychological reality of…

Finley, Sara

2012-01-01

469

Optimizing speech recognition grammars using a measure of similarity between hidden Markov models  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we discuss a method of optimizing weights in a stochastic finite state grammar using a measure of similarity between hidden Markov models. We compute the similarity using an edit distance and weights that are derived from the Bhattacharyya error between pairs of Gaussian mixture models. Forward-backward procedures are used to carry out the similarity computation, and to

Binit Mohanty; John R. Hershey; Peder A. Olsen; Suleyman Kozat; Vaibhava Goel

2008-01-01

470

Using Rasch Measurement Theory to Examine Two Instructional Approaches for Teaching and Learning of French Grammar  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors describe a quantitative approach based on Rasch measurement theory for evaluating classroom assessments within the context of foreign language classes. A secondary purpose was to examine the effects of two instructional approaches to teach grammar, a guided inductive and a deductive approach, through the lens of Rasch measurement…

Vogel, Severine P.; Engelhard, George, Jr.

2011-01-01

471

Phase One of a Project to Produce a Reference Grammar of Tamil. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This final report is a brief outline of Phase One in the preparation of a comprehensive reference grammar of Tamil, based on the results of recent linguistic theory and analytic techniques, and designed to be "accessible" to any student of Tamil. The studies which have resulted from Phase One are "strictly preliminary" to a larger study of the…

Ramanujan, A.K.

472

Evaluating the Grammars of Children Who Speak Nonmainstream Dialects of English  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, we review three responses to the study and evaluation of grammar in children who speak nonmainstream dialects of English. Then we introduce a fourth, system-based response that views nonmainstream dialects of English, such as African American English (AAE) and Southern White English (SWE) as made up of "dialect-specific"…

Oetting, Janna B.; Lee, Ryan; Porter, Karmen L.

2013-01-01

473

Discovery Learning and Teaching with Electronic Corpora in an Advanced German Grammar Course  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study describes the design and implementation of a usage-based and corpus-based advanced German grammar course. Teaching materials for the course included DWDS, or "Digitales Worterbuch der deutschen Sprache": a large, representative, free and publicly available corpus of contemporary German texts. The article outlines specific theoretically…

Vyatkina, Nina

2013-01-01

474

Student Views on Learning Grammar with Web- and Book-Based Materials  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports on a study which examined students' attitudes to learning grammar in autonomous contexts and their preferences for the learning materials with which to do so. In all, 38 students were surveyed and 13 of these then spent some time working in a language resource centre (LRC) with web- and paper-based materials. Students then…

Jarvis, Huw; Szymczyk, Marta

2010-01-01

475

Acquisition of Generic Noun Phrases in Chinese: Learning about lions without an '-s'  

PubMed Central

English-speaking children understand and produce generic expressions in the preschool years, but there are cross-linguistic differences in how generics are expressed. Three studies examined interpretation of generic noun phrases in 3- to 7-year-old child (N = 192) and adult speakers (N = 163) of Mandarin Chinese. Contrary to suggestions by A. Bloom (1981), Chinese-speaking adults honor a clear distinction between generics (expressed as bare NPs) and other quantified expressions (‘all’/suo3you3 and ‘some’/you3de). Furthermore, Mandarin-speaking children begin to distinguish generics from ‘all’ or ‘some’ as early as 5 years, as shown in both confirmation (Study 2) and property-generation (Study 3) tasks. Nonetheless, the developmental trajectory for Chinese appears prolonged relative to English and this seems to reflect difficulty with ‘all’ and ‘some’ rather than difficulty with generics. Altogether these results suggest that generics are primary, and that the consistency of markings affects the rate at which non-generic NPs are distinguished from generics.

Tardif, Twila; Gelman, Susan A.; Fu, Xiaolan; Zhu, Liqi

2013-01-01

476

The source ambiguity problem: Distinguishing the effects of grammar and processing on acceptability judgments.  

PubMed

Judgments of linguistic unacceptability may theoretically arise from either grammatical deviance or significant processing difficulty. Acceptability data are thus naturally ambiguous in theories that explicitly distinguish formal and functional constraints. Here, we consider this source ambiguity problem in the context of Superiority effects: the dispreference for ordering a wh-phrase in front of a syntactically "superior" wh-phrase in multiple wh-questions, e.g. What did who buy? More specifically, we consider the acceptability contrast between such examples and so-called D-linked examples, e.g. Which toys did which parents buy? Evidence from acceptability and self-paced reading experiments demonstrates that (i) judgments and processing times for Superiority violations vary in parallel, as determined by the kind of wh-phrases they contain, (ii) judgments increase with exposure while processing times decrease, (iii) reading times are highly predictive of acceptability judgments for the same items, and (iv) the effects of the complexity of the wh-phrases combine in both acceptability judgments and reading times. This evidence supports the conclusion that D-linking effects are likely reducible to independently motivated cognitive mechanisms whose effects emerge in a wide range of sentence contexts. This in turn suggests that Superiority effects, in general, may owe their character to differential processing difficulty. PMID:23539204

Hofmeister, Philip; Jaeger, T Florian; Arnon, Inbal; Sag, Ivan A; Snider, Neal

2013-01-01

477

The source ambiguity problem: Distinguishing the effects of grammar and processing on acceptability judgments  

PubMed Central

Judgments of linguistic unacceptability may theoretically arise from either grammatical deviance or significant processing difficulty. Acceptability data are thus naturally ambiguous in theories that explicitly distinguish formal and functional constraints. Here, we consider this source ambiguity problem in the context of Superiority effects: the dispreference for ordering a wh-phrase in front of a syntactically “superior” wh-phrase in multiple wh-questions, e.g. What did who buy? More specifically, we consider the acceptability contrast between such examples and so-called D-linked examples, e.g. Which toys did which parents buy? Evidence from acceptability and self-paced reading experiments demonstrates that (i) judgments and processing times for Superiority violations vary in parallel, as determined by the kind of wh-phrases they contain, (ii) judgments increase with exposure while processing times decrease, (iii) reading times are highly predictive of acceptability judgments for the same items, and (iv) the effects of the complexity of the wh-phrases combine in both acceptability judgments and reading times. This evidence supports the conclusion that D-linking effects are likely reducible to independently motivated cognitive mechanisms whose effects emerge in a wide range of sentence contexts. This in turn suggests that Superiority effects, in general, may owe their character to differential processing difficulty.*

Hofmeister, Philip; Jaeger, T. Florian; Arnon, Inbal; Sag, Ivan A.; Snider, Neal

2012-01-01

478

Parsing Social Network Survey Data from Hidden Populations Using Stochastic Context-Free Grammars  

PubMed Central

Background Human populations are structured by social networks, in which individuals tend to form relationships based on shared attributes. Certain attributes that are ambiguous, stigmatized or illegal can create a ÔhiddenŐ population, so-called because its members are difficult to identify. Many hidden populations are also at an elevated risk of exposure to infectious diseases. Consequently, public health agencies are presently adopting modern survey techniques that traverse social networks in hidden populations by soliciting individuals to recruit their peers, e.g., respondent-driven sampling (RDS). The concomitant accumulation of network-based epidemiological data, however, is rapidly outpacing the development of computational methods for analysis. Moreover, current analytical models rely on unrealistic assumptions, e.g., that the traversal of social networks can be modeled by a Markov chain rather than a branching process. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, we develop a new methodology based on stochastic context-free grammars (SCFGs), which are well-suited to modeling tree-like structure of the RDS recruitment process. We apply this methodology to an RDS case study of injection drug users (IDUs) in Tijuana, México, a hidden population at high risk of blood-borne and sexually-transmitted infections (i.e., HIV, hepatitis C virus, syphilis). Survey data were encoded as text strings that were parsed using our custom implementation of the inside-outside algorithm in a publicly-available software package (HyPhy), which uses either expectation maximization or direct optimization methods and permits constraints on model parameters for hypothesis testing. We identified significant latent variability in the recruitment process that violates assumptions of Markov chain-based methods for RDS analysis: firstly, IDUs tended to emulate the recruitment behavior of their own recruiter; and secondly, the recruitment of like peers (homophily) was dependent on the number of recruits. Conclusions SCFGs provide a rich probabilistic language that can articulate complex latent structure in survey data derived from the traversal of social networks. Such structure that has no representation in Markov chain-based models can interfere with the estimation of the composition of hidden populations if left unaccounted for, raising critical implications for the prevention and control of infectious disease epidemics.

Poon, Art F. Y.; Brouwer, Kimberly C.; Strathdee, Steffanie A.; Firestone-Cruz, Michelle; Lozada, Remedios M.; Kosakovsky Pond, Sergei L.; Heckathorn, Douglas D.; Frost, Simon D. W.

2009-01-01

479

Exploiting Morphology and Local Word Reordering in English-to-Turkish Phrase-Based Statistical Machine Translation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present the results of our work on the development of a phrase-based statistical machine translation prototype from English to Turkish-an agglutinative language with very productive inflectional and derivational morphology. We experiment with different morpheme-level representations for English-Turkish parallel texts. Additionally, to help with word alignment, we experiment with local word reordering on the English side, to

Ilknur Durgar El-Kahlout; Kemal Oflazer

2010-01-01

480

Development and evaluation of RapTAT: A machine learning system for concept mapping of phrases from medical narratives.  

PubMed

Rapid, automated determination of the mapping of free text phrases to pre-defined concepts could assist in the annotation of clinical notes and increase the speed of natural language processing systems. The aim of this study was to design and evaluate a token-order-specific naďve Bayes-based machine learning system (RapTAT) to predict associations between phrases and concepts. Performance was assessed using a reference standard generated from 2860 VA discharge summaries containing 567,520 phrases that had been mapped to 12,056 distinct Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine - Clinical Terms (SNOMED CT) concepts by the MCVS natural language processing system. It was also assessed on the manually annotated, 2010 i2b2 challenge data. Performance was established with regard to precision, recall, and F-measure for each of the concepts within the VA documents using bootstrapping. Within that corpus, concepts identified by MCVS were broadly distributed throughout SNOMED CT, and the token-order-specific language model achieved better performance based on precision, recall, and F-measure (0.95±0.15, 0.96±0.16, and 0.95±0.16, respectively; mean±SD) than the bag-of-words based, naďve Bayes model (0.64±0.45, 0.61±0.46, and 0.60±0.45, respectively) that has previously been used for concept mapping. Precision, recall, and F-measure on the i2b2 test set were 92.9%, 85.9%, and 89.2% respectively, using the token-order-specific model. RapTAT required just 7.2ms to map all phrases within a single discharge summary, and mapping rate did not decrease as the number of processed documents increased. The high performance attained by the tool in terms of both accuracy and speed was encouraging, and the mapping rate should be sufficient to support near-real-time, interactive annotation of medical narratives. These results demonstrate the feasibility of rapidly and accurately mapping phrases to a wide range of medical concepts based on a token-order-specific naďve Bayes model and machine learning. PMID:24316051

Gobbel, Glenn T; Reeves, Ruth; Jayaramaraja, Shrimalini; Giuse, Dario; Speroff, Theodore; Brown, Steven H; Elkin, Peter L; Matheny, Michael E

2014-04-01

481

Grammar based statistical MT on Hadoop An end-to-end toolkit for large scale PSCFG based MT  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the open-source Syntax Augmented Machine Translation (SAMT) 1on Hadoop toolkit—an end-to-end grammar based machine statistical machine translation framework running on the Hadoop implementation of the MapReduce programming model. We present the underlying method- ology of the SAMT approach with detailed instructions that describe how to use the toolkit to build grammar based systems for large scale translation

Ashish Venugopal; Andreas Zollmann

2009-01-01

482

Abstract and concrete phrases processing differentially modulates cortico-spinal excitability.  

PubMed

An important challenge of embodied theories is to explain the comprehension of abstract sentences. The aim of the present study was to scrutinize the role of the motor cortex in this process. We developed a new paradigm to study the abstract-concrete dimension by combining concrete (i.e., action-related) and abstract (i.e., non-action-related) verbs with nouns of graspable and non-graspable objects. Using these verb-noun combinations we performed a Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) on the left primary motor cortex while participants performed a sentence sensibility task. Single-TMS pulses were delivered 250ms after verb or noun presentation in each of four combinations of abstract and concrete verbs and nouns. To evaluate cortico-spinal excitability we registered the electromyographic activity of the right first dorsal interosseous muscle. As to verb-noun integration, analysis of motor evoked potentials (MEPs) after TMS pulse during noun presentation revealed greater peak-to-peak amplitude in phrases containing abstract rather than concrete verbs. Response times were also collected and showed that compatible (Concrete-Concrete and Abstract-Abstract) combinations were processed faster than mixed ones; moreover in combinations containing concrete verbs, participants were faster when the pulse was delivered on the first word (verb) than on the second one (noun). Results support previous findings showing early activation of hand-related areas after concrete verbs processing. The prolonged or delayed activation of the same areas by abstract verbs will be discussed in the framework of recent embodied theories based on multiple types of representation, particularly theories emphasizing the role of different acquisition mechanisms for concrete and abstract words (Borghi and Cimatti, 2009,2012). PMID:23044471

Scorolli, Claudia; Jacquet, Pierre O; Binkofski, Ferdinand; Nicoletti, Roberto; Tessari, Alessia; Borghi, Anna M

2012-12-01

483

Structural and semantic constraints on the resolution of pronouns and reflexives.  

PubMed

We present four experiments on the interpretation of pronouns and reflexives in picture noun phrases with and without possessors (e.g. Andrew's picture of him/himself, the picture of him/himself). The experiments (two off-line studies and two visual-world eye-tracking experiments) investigate how syntactic and semantic factors guide the interpretation of pronouns and reflexives and how different kinds of information are integrated during real-time reference resolution. The results show that the interpretation of pronouns and reflexives in picture NP constructions is sensitive not only to purely structural information, as is commonly assumed in syntactically-oriented theories of anaphor resolution, but also to semantic information (see Kuno, S. (1987). Functional syntax: Anaphora, discourse and empathy. Chicago: University of Chicago Press; Tenny, C. (2003). Short distance pronouns in representational noun phrases and a grammar of sentience. Ms.). Moreover, the results show that pronouns and reflexives differ in the degree of sensitivity they exhibit to different kinds of information. This finding indicates that the form-specific multiple-constraints approach (see Brown-Schmidt, S., Byron, D. K., & Tanenhaus, M. K. (2005). Beyond salience: Interpretation of personal and demonstrative pronouns. Journal of Memory and Language, 53, 292-313; Kaiser, E. (2003). The quest for a referent: A crosslinguistic look at reference resolution. Ph.D. dissertation. University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA; Kaiser, E. (2005). When salience is not enough: Pronouns, demonstratives and the quest for an antecedent. In: Laury, R. (Ed.), Minimal reference in Finnic: The use and interpretation of pronouns and zero in Finnish and Estonian discourse (pp. 135-162). Helsinki, Finland: Suomalaisen Kirjallisuuden Seura; Kaiser, E., & Trueswell, J. (2008). Interpreting pronouns and demonstratives in Finnish: Evidence for a form-specific approach to reference resolution. Language and Cognitive Processes, 23(5), 709-748), which states that referential forms can exhibit asymmetrical sensitivities to the different constraints guiding reference resolution, also applies in the within-sentence domain. PMID:19426968

Kaiser, Elsi; Runner, Jeffrey T; Sussman, Rachel S; Tanenhaus, Michael K

2009-07-01

484

Hybrid grammar-based approach to nonlinear dynamical system identification from biological time series.  

PubMed

We introduce a grammar-based hybrid approach to reverse engineering nonlinear ordinary differential equation models from observed time series. This hybrid approach combines a genetic algorithm to search the space of model architectures with a Kalman filter to estimate the model parameters. Domain-specific knowledge is used in a context-free grammar to restrict the search space for the functional form of the target model. We find that the hybrid approach outperforms a pure evolutionary algorithm method, and we observe features in the evolution of the dynamical models that correspond with the emergence of favorable model components. We apply the hybrid method to both artificially generated time series and experimentally observed protein levels from subjects who received the smallpox vaccine. From the observed data, we infer a cytokine protein interaction network for an individual's response to the smallpox vaccine. PMID:16605367

McKinney, B A; Crowe, J E; Voss, H U; Crooke, P S; Barney, N; Moore, J H

2006-02-01

485

A Procedure for Quantitatively Comparing the Syntactic Coverage of English Grammars  

Microsoft Academic Search

sentences. For instance, the grammars of Steve Abney (Bellcore), Ezra Black (IBM), Dan Flickinger (IIewlett Packard), Claudia Gdaniec (Logos), Ralph Grishman and Tomek Strzalkowski (NYU), Phil Harrison (Boe-ing), Don tfindle (AT&T), Bob Ingria (BBN), and Mitch Marcus (U. of Pennsylvania) recognize in com-mon only the following constituents, when each gram-marian provides the single parse which he\\/she would ideally want his\\/her

Ezra Black; Steven P. Abney; D. Flickenger; Claudia Gdaniec; Ralph Grishman; P. Harrison; Donald Hindle; Robert Ingria; Frederick Jelinek; Judith L. Klavans; Mark Liberman; Mitchell P. Marcus; Salim Roukos; Beatrice Santorini; Tomek Strzalkowski

1991-01-01

486

A design study of a multimedia instructional grammar program with embedded tracking  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is a design study meant to demonstrate the feasibility of integrating three rather different theoretical perspectives\\u000a for future efforts in multimedia instructional design. A multimedia instructional grammar program contextualized within the\\u000a teaching of English as a Second Language (ESL) was developed and evaluated. The program design was grounded in Mayer’s multimedia\\u000a learning theory (2001), Sweller’s cognitive load theory (CLT,

Natalya A. Koehler; Ann D. Thompson; Gary D. Phye

487

A SEMANTIC VALIDATION SCHEME FOR GRAPH-BASED ENGINEERING DESIGN GRAMMARS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Grammars have been used for the generation of various product designs (e.g. coffeemakers, transmission towers, etc.). Like\\u000a any other formal language in computer science, the correctness of the designs generated during the translation process possesses\\u000a the three distinct aspects of syntax, semantic and pragmatic. While compilers can check the syntax and can guarantee the pragmatic correctness by constraint processing, the

STEPHAN RUDOLPH

488

The effects of age on second language grammar and speech production.  

PubMed

The current study examined the age of learning effect on second language (L2) acquisition. The research goals of the study were twofold: to test whether there is an independent age effect controlling for other potentially confounding variables, and to clarify the age effect across L2 grammar and speech production domains. The study included 118 Mandarin-speaking immigrants and 24 native English speakers. Grammar knowledge was assessed by a grammaticality judgment task, and speech production was measured by native English speaking raters' ratings of participants' foreign accents. Results from the study revealed that the age of learning effect was robust for both L2 domains even after controlling for the influences of other variables, such as length of residence and years of education in the United States. However, the age of learning variable had a stronger impact on speech production than on grammar. The current results support the framework of multiple critical/sensitive periods (Long in Int Rev Appl Linguist 43(4):287-317, 2005; Newport et al. in Language, brain and cognitive development: Essays in honor of Jacques Mehler. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 2001; Werker and Tees in Dev Psychobiol 46(3):233-251, 2005). PMID:23975257

Huang, Becky H

2014-08-01

489

Human behavior understanding for assisted living by means of hierarchical context free grammars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Human behavior understanding has attracted the attention of researchers in various fields over the last years. Recognizing behaviors with sufficient accuracy from sensors analysis is still an unsolved problem, because of many reasons, including the low accuracy of the data, differences in the human behaviors as well as the gap between low-level sensors data and high-level scene semantics. In this context, an application that is attracting the interest of both public and industrial entities is the possibility to allow elderly or physically impaired people conducting a normal life at home. Ambient intelligence (AmI) technologies, intended as the possibility of automatically detecting and reacting to the status of the environment and of the persons, is probably the major enabling factor for the achievement of such an ambitious objective. AmI technologies require suitable networks of sensors and actuators, as well as adequate processing and communication technologies. In this paper we propose a solution based on context free grammars for human behavior understanding with an application to assisted living. First, the grammars of the different actions performed by a person in his/her daily life are discovered. Then, a longterm analysis of the behavior is used to generate a control grammar, taking care of the context when an action is performed, and adding semantics. The proposed framework is tested on a dataset acquired in a real environment and compared with state of the art methods already available for the problem considered.

Rosani, A.; Conci, N.; De Natale, F. G. B.

2014-03-01

490

Word Order and Thematic Structure in Mandarin.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent proposals concerning the relationship between thematic structure and syntactic structure, including the idea of thematic hierarchy, when used with certain language-specific properties, offer insight into some problems concerning the Mandarin Chinese phrase structure condition (PSC). The PSC is such that the internal structure of XP contains…

Yoon, James H.

491

Fingers Phrase Music Differently: Trial-to-Trial Variability in Piano Scale Playing and Auditory Perception Reveal Motor Chunking.  

PubMed

We investigated how musical phrasing and motor sequencing interact to yield timing patterns in the conservatory students' playing piano scales. We propose a novel analysis method that compared the measured note onsets to an objectively regular scale fitted to the data. Subsequently, we segment the timing variability into (i) systematic deviations from objective evenness that are perhaps residuals of expressive timing or of perceptual biases and (ii) non-systematic deviations that can be interpreted as motor execution errors, perhaps due to noise in the nervous system. The former, systematic deviations reveal that the two-octave scales are played as a single musical phrase. The latter, trial-to-trial variabilities reveal that pianists' timing was less consistent at the boundaries between the octaves, providing evidence that the octave is represented as a single motor sequence. These effects cannot be explained by low-level properties of the motor task such as the thumb passage and also did not show up in simulated scales with temporal jitter. Intriguingly, this instability in motor production around the octave boundary is mirrored by an impairment in the detection of timing deviations at those positions, suggesting that chunks overlap between perception and action. We conclude that the octave boundary instability in the scale playing motor program provides behavioral evidence that our brain chunks musical sequences into octave units that do not coincide with musical phrases. Our results indicate that trial-to-trial variability is a novel and meaningful indicator of this chunking. The procedure can readily be extended to a variety of tasks to help understand how movements are divided into units and what processing occurs at their boundaries. PMID:23181040

van Vugt, Floris Tijmen; Jabusch, Hans-Christian; Altenmüller, Eckart

2012-01-01

492

Fingers Phrase Music Differently: Trial-to-Trial Variability in Piano Scale Playing and Auditory Perception Reveal Motor Chunking  

PubMed Central

We investigated how musical phrasing and motor sequencing interact to yield timing patterns in the conservatory students’ playing piano scales. We propose a novel analysis method that compared the measured note onsets to an objectively regular scale fitted to the data. Subsequently, we segment the timing variability into (i) systematic deviations from objective evenness that are perhaps residuals of expressive timing or of perceptual biases and (ii) non-systematic deviations that can be interpreted as motor execution errors, perhaps due to noise in the nervous system. The former, systematic deviations reveal that the two-octave scales are played as a single musical phrase. The latter, trial-to-trial variabilities reveal that pianists’ timing was less consistent at the boundaries between the octaves, providing evidence that the octave is represented as a single motor sequence. These effects cannot be explained by low-level properties of the motor task such as the thumb passage and also did not show up in simulated scales with temporal jitter. Intriguingly, this instability in motor production around the octave boundary is mirrored by an impairment in the detection of timing deviations at those positions, suggesting that chunks overlap between perception and action. We conclude that the octave boundary instability in the scale playing motor program provides behavioral evidence that our brain chunks musical sequences into octave units that do not coincide with musical phrases. Our results indicate that trial-to-trial variability is a novel and meaningful indicator of this chunking. The procedure can readily be extended to a variety of tasks to help understand how movements are divided into units and what processing occurs at their boundaries.

van Vugt, Floris Tijmen; Jabusch, Hans-Christian; Altenmuller, Eckart

2012-01-01

493

Legacy System Integration using a Grammar-Based Transformation System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enterprise information system management is the operation of different corporate databases, appli- cations, and more and more often of integration and in- teroperability of legacy systems, acquired through merg- ers and acquisitions. These legacy systems produce structured or semi-structured data that add to the vast amounts of data that a company generates every day. This data needs to be communicated

Guido Menkhaus; Urs Frei

2004-01-01

494

Protein linguistics - a grammar for modular protein assembly?  

PubMed

The correspondence between biology and linguistics at the level of sequence and lexical inventories, and of structure and syntax, has fuelled attempts to describe genome structure by the rules of formal linguistics. But how can we define protein linguistic rules? And how could compositional semantics improve our understanding of protein organization and functional plasticity? PMID:16493414

Gimona, Mario

2006-01-01

495

Protein linguistics — a grammar for modular protein assembly?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The correspondence between biology and linguistics at the level of sequence and lexical inventories, and of structure and syntax, has fuelled attempts to describe genome structure by the rules of formal linguistics. But how can we define protein linguistic rules? And how could compositional semantics improve our understanding of protein organization and functional plasticity?

Mario Gimona

2006-01-01

496

An event-related fMRI study of artificial grammar learning in a balanced chunk strength design.  

PubMed

Artificial grammar learning (Reber, 1967) is a form of implicit learning in which cognitive, rather than motor, implicit learning has been found. After viewing a series of letter strings formed according to a finite state rule system, people are able to classify new letter strings as to whether or not they are formed according to these grammatical rules despite little conscious insight into the rule structure. Previous research has shown that these classification judgments are based on knowledge of abstract rules as well as superficial similarity ("chunk strength") to training strings. Here we used event-related fMRI to identify neural regions involved in using both sources of information as test stimuli were designed to unconfound chunk strength from rule use. Using functional connectivity analyses, the extent to which the sources of information are complementary or competitive was also assessed. Activation in the right caudate was associated with rule adherence, whereas medial temporal lobe activations were associated with chunk strength. Additionally, functional connectivity analyses revealed caudate and medial temporal lobe activations to be strongly negatively correlated (r= -.88) with one another during the performance of this task. PMID:15072678

Lieberman, Matthew D; Chang, Grace Y; Chiao, Joan; Bookheimer, Susan Y; Knowlton, Barbara J

2004-04-01

497

Using Systemic Functional Grammar as a Vehicle for the Integrated Teaching of Language and Literature in a First-year University English Course  

Microsoft Academic Search

Systemic Functional Grammar (SFG) is a grammar developed largely in Australia by Michael Halliday and others, and is not widely taught or utilised in South Africa. This article describes a first-year university course, English Language and Literature, which utilises SFG as a means of teaching aspects of functional and critical literacy in relation to literary and non-literary texts. Focusing on

Theresa Dovey

1998-01-01

498

Marrying Form and Function: A Place for Grammar and Total Target Language in the Secondary Modern Foreign Languages Classroom. Occasional Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the possible role of grammar throughout Key Stages 3 and 4 in the modern language curriculum where communication is the central tenet. It also discusses how total or virtually total use of target language (German) in the classroom can help deal with the dichotomy of grammar versus communication and bring about an integrated…

Hogg, Ivy

499

Constraint Grammar As A Framework For Parsing Running Text  

Microsoft Academic Search

idea is to maximizethe use of morphological information for parsingpurposes. All relevant structure is assigned directlyvia lexicon, morphology, and simple mappings frommorphology to syntax. The task of the constraints isbasically to discard as many alternatives aspossible, the optimum being a fully disambiguatedsentence with one syntactic reading only.The second central idea is to treat morphologicaldisambiguation and syntactic labelling by the samemechanism

Fred Karlsson

1990-01-01

500

Semantics Boosts Syntax in Artificial Grammar Learning Tasks with Recursion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Center-embedded recursion (CER) in natural language is exemplified by sentences such as "The malt that the rat ate lay in the house." Parsing center-embedded structures is in the focus of attention because this could be one of the cognitive capacities that make humans distinct from all other animals. The ability to parse CER is usually tested by…

Fedor, Anna; Varga, Mate; Szathmary, Eors

2012-01-01