Sample records for phrase structure grammar

  1. Studies in Generalized Phrase Structure Grammar. Working Papers in Linguistics #31.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geis, Michael L., Ed.

    A group of syntactic studies, primarily concerning English and German, within the framework of generalized phrase structure grammar include: "English Adverb Placement in Generalized Phrase Structure Grammar" (Belinda L. Brodie), concerning the placement of modal, evaluative, temporal, and verb phrase adverbs; "Syntactic Conditions on Two Types of…

  2. Interaction Grammar for the Persian Language: Noun and Adjectival Phrases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masood Ghayoomi; Bruno Guillaume

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we propose a modelization of the construction of Persian noun and adjec- tival phrases in a phrase structure grammar. This modelization uses the Interaction Grammar (IG) formalism by taking advan- tage of the polarities on features and tree descriptions for the various constructions that we studied. The proposed grammar was implemented with a Metagrammar compiler named XMG.

  3. A phrase-driven grammar system for interactive data visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sang Yun; Neumann, Ulrich

    2008-01-01

    A Phrase-Driven Grammar System (PDGS) is a novel GUI for facilitating the visualization of data. The PDGS integrates data source applications and external visualization tools into its framework and functions as a middle-layer application to coordinate their operations. It allows users to formulate data query and visualization descriptions by selecting graphical icons in a menu or on a map. To specify data query and visualization intuitively and efficiently, we designed Graphical User Interface and a natural-language-like grammar, Phrase-Driven Grammar (PDG). The formulation of PDG data query and visualization descriptions is a constrained natural-language phrase building process. PDG phrases produce graphical visualizations of the data query, allowing users to interactively explore meaningful data relationships, trends, and exceptions.

  4. Categorial Grammars.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Mary McGee; Hudson, Richard, Ed.

    Written as an objective critical assessment, this book is the first linguistic theory guide to categorial grammars. Categorial grammars offer a radical alternative to the phrase-structure paradigm, with roots in the philosophy of language, logic, and algebra. Their historical evolution is outlined and their formal basis is discussed, beginning…

  5. Information Structure in English Nominal Phrases

    E-print Network

    Feist, Jim

    2008-01-01

    Topic. Examples follow. (2) “He supported Hillary Clinton’s (still undeclared) bid for the presidency.” The parentheses separate “still undeclared” from the rest of the phrase, making it a distinct Comment on the Topic represented by “bid... for the presidency," So a Topic-Comment structure (‘Hillary Clinton's bid for the presidency is still undeclared’) is embedded inside the main Topic-Comment structure of the clause (‘He [Topic] supported Hillary Clinton's bid for the presidency [Comment]’). Just...

  6. The Syntactic Structure of Chinese Nominal Phrases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Honglei

    2012-01-01

    The DP Hypothesis proposes that nominal phrases can be analyzed as consisting of Determiner Phrase (DP) on top of Noun Phrase (NP); however, there is a debate on whether this hypothesis works for all languages. Given that previous studies on Chinese leave this question unresolved, this dissertation investigates new empirical evidence to test…

  7. Tree Unification Grammar

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kim Gerdes

    2004-01-01

    This work presents a lexicalized grammar formalism which can be seen as a variant of multi-component tree adjoining grammar (TAG). This formalism is well-suited for describing the syntax of German because it relates a syntactic dependency graph with a hierarchy of topological domains. The topological phrase structure encodes the placement of verbal and nominal elements in the (ordered) field structure,

  8. On the Grammar and Model-Theoretic Semantics of Children's Noun Phrases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suppes, Patrick

    The paper shows informally how model-theoretical semantics may be used by a computer to give a straight-forward analysis of the meaning of children's language. This approach to semantics grows out of the main thrust of work in mathematical logic. It is discussed in the framework of generative grammar and is based on the application of the…

  9. The Evolution Of Phrase Structure In Bayesian Iterated Artificial Language Learning: A Linguistic System’s Evolution After The Emergence Of An Unbounded Combinatorial Capacity 

    E-print Network

    Saldana, Carmen

    2013-08-15

    An elementary fact about language is that it is a system of discrete infinity whose source is recursion and reveals itself as Phrase Structure Grammar. This is the cause and effect of something that we might call unique to humans. We are the only...

  10. Phrase Dependency Machine Translation with Quasi-Synchronous

    E-print Network

    Phrase Dependency Machine Translation with Quasi-Synchronous Tree-to-Tree Features Kevin Gimpel and Eisner (2006) introduced quasi-synchronous grammar, a formalism that treats non-isomorphic structure-to-tree machine translation system inspired by quasi-synchronous grammar. The core of our approach is a new model

  11. The Structure of Jarai Clauses and Noun Phrases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Joshua Martin

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation provides a syntactic account for the Jarai noun phrase and for the three regions of the Jarai clause: the operator domain, the inflectional domain, and the theta domain. Within the noun phrase, I argue that demonstrative-final word order involves phrasal movement of the demonstrative's complement into Spec,D, where it…

  12. The Dependency Structure of Coordinate Phrases: A Corpus Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Temperley, David

    2005-01-01

    Hudson (1990) proposes that each conjunct in a coordinate phrase forms dependency relations with heads or dependents outside the coordinate phrase (the "multi-head" view). This proposal is tested through corpus analysis of Wall Street Journal text. For right-branching constituents (such as direct-object NPs), a short-long preference for conjunct…

  13. Syllable and phrase structure effects on consonant sequence timing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byrd, Dani; Choi, Susie

    2005-09-01

    Both syllable and phrasal structure are known to influence articulatory timing in consonant sequences. For example, onset clusters have been reported as less overlapped and more stable in their intergestural timing than coda clusters [e.g., Byrd, J. Phonetics (1996)]. Also, consonants spanning a phrasal boundary have been observed to be less overlapped than those spanning only a word boundary [Byrd et al., LabPhon (2003)]. However, interactions between these two types of structure are less well understood; for example, it is unclear whether the intergestural timing of word-onset clusters will be perturbed at phrase boundaries, though such perturbations have been predicted [Byrd and Saltzman (2003)]. An articulatory (EMA) investigation of /s/+stop sequences produced by three speakers in a variety of syllable and phrasal positions will present kinematic data on these structural influences. Preliminary data from one speaker indicate that word-onset consonant clusters are more sensitive to prosodic context than segmentally identical coda clusters, having less overlap at successively larger boundaries. Further, while coda and onset clusters do not show a mean difference in overlap for this speaker, onset clusters do exhibit more timing stability within each phrasal context compared to corresponding coda clusters. [Work supported by NIH.

  14. Image Grammar: Painting Images with Grammatical Structures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noden, Harry

    2001-01-01

    Argues that writers view grammar as a method of image construction. Describes image painting techniques from four grammatical perspectives: images of style, form, content, and convention. Describes how to teach these to eighth graders, offering numerous examples of class writing activities that use images as a doorway into the writer's art and…

  15. Priming word order by thematic roles: no evidence for an additional involvement of phrase structure.

    PubMed

    Pappert, Sandra; Pechmann, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Three experiments are reported that studied the priming of word order in German. Experiment 1 demonstrated priming of the order of case-marked verb arguments. However, order of noun phrases and order of thematic roles were confounded. In Experiment 2, we therefore aimed at disentangling the impact of these two possible factors. By using primes that differed from targets in phrase structure but were parallel with regard to the order of thematic roles, we nevertheless found priming demonstrating the critical impact of thematic roles. Experiment 3 replicated the priming effects from Experiments 1 and 2 within participants and revealed no evidence for a modulation of priming by phrase structure. Consequently, our findings suggest that word order priming crucially depends on the structural outline of thematic roles rather than on the linearization of phrases. PMID:24766562

  16. Graph Grammar Induction on Structural Data for Visual Programming Keven Ates1

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Kang

    Graph Grammar Induction on Structural Data for Visual Programming Keven Ates1 , Jacek Kukluk2. The underlying theories of visual programming languages involve graph grammars. As graph grammars are usually constructed manually, construction can be a time-consuming process that demands technical knowledge. Therefore

  17. A computational grammar for Persian based on GPSG

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohammad Bahrani; Hossein Sameti; Mehdi Hafezi Manshadi

    In this paper, we present our attempts to design and implement a large-coverage computational grammar for the Persian language\\u000a based on the Generalized Phrase Structured Grammar (GPSG) model. This grammatical model was developed for continuous speech\\u000a recognition (CSR) applications, but is suitable for other applications that need the syntactic analysis of Persian. In this\\u000a work, we investigate various syntactic structures

  18. Children's Knowledge of Hierarchical Phrase Structure: Quantifier Floating in Japanese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suzuki, Takaaki; Yoshinaga, Naoko

    2013-01-01

    The interpretation of floating quantifiers in Japanese requires knowledge of hierarchical phrase structure. However, the input to children is insufficient or even misleading, as our analysis indicates. This presents an intriguing question on learnability: do children interpret floating quantifiers based on a structure-dependent rule which is not…

  19. A new life for a dead parrot: Incentive structures in the Phrase Detectives game

    E-print Network

    Kruschwitz, Udo

    A new life for a dead parrot: Incentive structures in the Phrase Detectives game Jon Chamberlain! This parrot is no more! He has ceased to be! He's expired and gone to meet his maker! He's kicked the bucket! THIS IS AN EX-PARROT! 1 ABSTRACT In order for there to be significant improvements in certain areas of natural

  20. Multi-Dimensional Contributions to Garden Path Strength: Dissociating Phrase Structure from Case Marking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bornkessel, Ina; McElree, Brian; Schlesewsky, Matthias; Friederici, Angela D.

    2004-01-01

    Psycholinguistic investigations of reanalysis phenomena have typically focused on revisions of phrase structure. Here, we identify a further subcomponent of syntactic reanalysis, namely the revision of case marking. This aspect of reanalysis was isolated by examining German subject-object ambiguities that require a revision towards a…

  1. MAPping Phrase Markers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Susan M.

    An analysis of language acquisition in English and Dutch focuses on a theory of phrase structure. It is argued that the previously posited phrase structure operations of projection and adjunction can be dispensed with in favor of the single operation of "merge." One version of merge is shown to account for a range of data from child English and…

  2. PP Extraction and Extraposition in Functional Discourse Grammar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van de Velde, Freek

    2012-01-01

    This article inquires into the nature of "attributive" prepositional phrases from a Functional Discourse Grammar (FDG) perspective. On the basis of the observation that such prepositional phrases can easily be separated from their host noun phrases by extraposition or extraction, it is argued that they do not belong to the noun phrase

  3. Review Essay. Sensible Grammar.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schick, James, B. M.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews a computer software program entitled "Sensible Grammar." Explains that the function of the program is to check word processor files for punctuation errors and faulty phrases. Concludes that although the program has some problems it is a valuable asset. (BSR)

  4. DAGUR MONGOLIAN GRAMMAR, TEXTS, AND LEXICON. URALIC AND ALTAIC SERIES, VOLUME 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MARTIN, SAMUEL E.

    THIS DESCRIPTION OF DAGUR, A MONGOLIAN LANGUAGE, IS BASED ON THE DIALECT OF A SPEAKER BORN IN INNER MONGOLIA IN NORTHWEST MANCHURIA. SECTION I OF THIS MANUAL DESCRIBES OTHER WORKS PUBLISHED IN MONGOLIAN LINGUISTICS WHICH HAVE USED THE SAME INFORMANT, AND PRESENTS THE AUTHOR'S APPROACH, IN TERMS OF A PHRASE-STRUCTURE GRAMMAR. SECTION II PRESENTS…

  5. The grammar of visual narrative: Neural evidence for constituent structure in sequential image comprehension

    E-print Network

    Kuperberg, Gina

    September 2014 Keywords: Constituent structure Grammar Narrative Visual language Comics ERPs a b s t r a c narratives. We recorded neural responses as participants viewed sequences of visual images (comics strips stories using sequential images, whether on cave walls or paintings, or in contemporary society, in comics

  6. An ERP study of structural anomalies in native and semantic free artificial grammar: evidence for shared processing mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Tabullo, Ángel; Sevilla, Yamila; Segura, Enrique; Zanutto, Silvano; Wainselboim, Alejandro

    2013-08-21

    Artificial grammars have been widely applied to the study of sequential learning in language, but few studies have directly compared the neural correlates of artificial and native grammar processing. In this study, we examined Event Related Potentials (ERPs) elicited by structural anomalies in semantic-free artificial grammar sequences and sentences in the subjects' native language (Spanish). Although ERPs differed during early stages, we observed similar posterior negativities (N400) and P600 effects in a late stage. We interpret these results as evidence of at least partially shared neural mechanisms for processing of language and artificial grammars. We suggest that in both the natural and artificial grammars, the N400 and P600 components we observed can be explained as the result of unfulfilled predictions about incoming stimuli. PMID:23711889

  7. Determiner Phrase and Definiteness in Old High German

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraiss, Andrew M.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the status of nominal functional categories in the Old High German (OHG) "Isidor" and "Tatian" translations and Otfrid's "Evangelienbuch" and the structure of the extended nominal group, including the Noun Phrase (NP) and the functional phrases Determiner Phrase (DP), Case Phrase (KP) and Number Phrase (NumP), which govern…

  8. Multithreaded comparative RNA secondary structure prediction using stochastic context-free grammars

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zsuzsanna Sukosd; Bjarne Knudsen; Morten Vaerum; Jorgen Kjems; Ebbe Sloth Andersen

    2011-01-01

    Background  The prediction of the structure of large RNAs remains a particular challenge in bioinformatics, due to the computational complexity\\u000a and low levels of accuracy of state-of-the-art algorithms. The pfold model couples a stochastic context-free grammar to phylogenetic analysis for a high accuracy in predictions, but the time\\u000a complexity of the algorithm and underflow errors have prevented its use for long

  9. Deriving a probabilistic syntacto-semantic grammar for biomedicine based on domain-specific terminologies.

    PubMed

    Fan, Jung-Wei; Friedman, Carol

    2011-10-01

    Biomedical natural language processing (BioNLP) is a useful technique that unlocks valuable information stored in textual data for practice and/or research. Syntactic parsing is a critical component of BioNLP applications that rely on correctly determining the sentence and phrase structure of free text. In addition to dealing with the vast amount of domain-specific terms, a robust biomedical parser needs to model the semantic grammar to obtain viable syntactic structures. With either a rule-based or corpus-based approach, the grammar engineering process requires substantial time and knowledge from experts, and does not always yield a semantically transferable grammar. To reduce the human effort and to promote semantic transferability, we propose an automated method for deriving a probabilistic grammar based on a training corpus consisting of concept strings and semantic classes from the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS), a comprehensive terminology resource widely used by the community. The grammar is designed to specify noun phrases only due to the nominal nature of the majority of biomedical terminological concepts. Evaluated on manually parsed clinical notes, the derived grammar achieved a recall of 0.644, precision of 0.737, and average cross-bracketing of 0.61, which demonstrated better performance than a control grammar with the semantic information removed. Error analysis revealed shortcomings that could be addressed to improve performance. The results indicated the feasibility of an approach which automatically incorporates terminology semantics in the building of an operational grammar. Although the current performance of the unsupervised solution does not adequately replace manual engineering, we believe once the performance issues are addressed, it could serve as an aide in a semi-supervised solution. PMID:21549857

  10. Now let's talk about : identifying cue phrases intonationally

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julia Hirschberg; Diane Litman

    1987-01-01

    Cue phrases are words and phrases such as now and by the way which may be used to convey explicit information about the structure of a discourse. However, while cue phrases may convey discourse structure, each may also be used to different effect. The question of how speakers and hearers distinguish between such uses of cue phrases has not been

  11. Modeling Structure-Function Relationships in Synthetic DNA Sequences using Attribute Grammars

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Yizhi; Lux, Matthew W.; Adam, Laura; Peccoud, Jean

    2009-01-01

    Recognizing that certain biological functions can be associated with specific DNA sequences has led various fields of biology to adopt the notion of the genetic part. This concept provides a finer level of granularity than the traditional notion of the gene. However, a method of formally relating how a set of parts relates to a function has not yet emerged. Synthetic biology both demands such a formalism and provides an ideal setting for testing hypotheses about relationships between DNA sequences and phenotypes beyond the gene-centric methods used in genetics. Attribute grammars are used in computer science to translate the text of a program source code into the computational operations it represents. By associating attributes with parts, modifying the value of these attributes using rules that describe the structure of DNA sequences, and using a multi-pass compilation process, it is possible to translate DNA sequences into molecular interaction network models. These capabilities are illustrated by simple example grammars expressing how gene expression rates are dependent upon single or multiple parts. The translation process is validated by systematically generating, translating, and simulating the phenotype of all the sequences in the design space generated by a small library of genetic parts. Attribute grammars represent a flexible framework connecting parts with models of biological function. They will be instrumental for building mathematical models of libraries of genetic constructs synthesized to characterize the function of genetic parts. This formalism is also expected to provide a solid foundation for the development of computer assisted design applications for synthetic biology. PMID:19816554

  12. Grammar Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Kim

    2004-01-01

    The mere mention of a grammar lesson can set students' eyes rolling. The fun activities described in this article can turn those blank looks into smiles. Here, the author presents grammar games namely: (1) noun tennis; (2) the minister's cat; (3) kids take action; (4) what's my adverb?; (5) and then I saw...; and (6) grammar sing-along.

  13. Cue Phrase Classification Using Machine Learning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Diane J. Litman

    1996-01-01

    Cue phrases may be used in a discourse sense to explicitly signal discourse structure, but also in a sentential sense to convey semantic rather than structural information. Correctly classifying cue phrases as discourse or sentential is critical in natural language processing systems that exploit discourse structure, e.g., for performing tasks such as anaphora reso- lution and plan recognition. This paper

  14. Semantics-Based Machine Translation with Hyperedge Replacement Grammars

    E-print Network

    Knight, Kevin

    phrase-based systems rely on large volumes of parallel training data to learn translation prob- abilities hyperedge replacement grammars to translate into and from graph-shaped inter- mediate meaning representations, to our knowledge the first work in NLP to make use of syn- chronous context free graph grammars

  15. Multithreaded comparative RNA secondary structure prediction using stochastic context-free grammars

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The prediction of the structure of large RNAs remains a particular challenge in bioinformatics, due to the computational complexity and low levels of accuracy of state-of-the-art algorithms. The pfold model couples a stochastic context-free grammar to phylogenetic analysis for a high accuracy in predictions, but the time complexity of the algorithm and underflow errors have prevented its use for long alignments. Here we present PPfold, a multithreaded version of pfold, which is capable of predicting the structure of large RNA alignments accurately on practical timescales. Results We have distributed both the phylogenetic calculations and the inside-outside algorithm in PPfold, resulting in a significant reduction of runtime on multicore machines. We have addressed the floating-point underflow problems of pfold by implementing an extended-exponent datatype, enabling PPfold to be used for large-scale RNA structure predictions. We have also improved the user interface and portability: alongside standalone executable and Java source code of the program, PPfold is also available as a free plugin to the CLC Workbenches. We have evaluated the accuracy of PPfold using BRaliBase I tests, and demonstrated its practical use by predicting the secondary structure of an alignment of 24 complete HIV-1 genomes in 65 minutes on an 8-core machine and identifying several known structural elements in the prediction. Conclusions PPfold is the first parallelized comparative RNA structure prediction algorithm to date. Based on the pfold model, PPfold is capable of fast, high-quality predictions of large RNA secondary structures, such as the genomes of RNA viruses or long genomic transcripts. The techniques used in the parallelization of this algorithm may be of general applicability to other bioinformatics algorithms. PMID:21501497

  16. Is Computer-Based Grammar Instruction as Effective as Teacher Directed Grammar Instruction for Teaching L2 Structures?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joyce Nutta

    The study described here compared postsecondary English as a Second Language (ESL) students' acquisition of selected English structures based on the method of instruction—computer-based instruction versus teacher- directed instruction.1 The results showed that for all levels of English pro- ficiency, the computer-based students scored significantly higher on open- ended tests covering the structures in question than the teacher-directed students. No

  17. RNACompress: Grammar-based compression and informational complexity measurement of RNA secondary structure

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qi; Yang, Yu; Chen, Chun; Bu, Jiajun; Zhang, Yin; Ye, Xiuzi

    2008-01-01

    Background With the rapid emergence of RNA databases and newly identified non-coding RNAs, an efficient compression algorithm for RNA sequence and structural information is needed for the storage and analysis of such data. Although several algorithms for compressing DNA sequences have been proposed, none of them are suitable for the compression of RNA sequences with their secondary structures simultaneously. This kind of compression not only facilitates the maintenance of RNA data, but also supplies a novel way to measure the informational complexity of RNA structural data, raising the possibility of studying the relationship between the functional activities of RNA structures and their complexities, as well as various structural properties of RNA based on compression. Results RNACompress employs an efficient grammar-based model to compress RNA sequences and their secondary structures. The main goals of this algorithm are two fold: (1) present a robust and effective way for RNA structural data compression; (2) design a suitable model to represent RNA secondary structure as well as derive the informational complexity of the structural data based on compression. Our extensive tests have shown that RNACompress achieves a universally better compression ratio compared with other sequence-specific or common text-specific compression algorithms, such as Gencompress, winrar and gzip. Moreover, a test of the activities of distinct GTP-binding RNAs (aptamers) compared with their structural complexity shows that our defined informational complexity can be used to describe how complexity varies with activity. These results lead to an objective means of comparing the functional properties of heteropolymers from the information perspective. Conclusion A universal algorithm for the compression of RNA secondary structure as well as the evaluation of its informational complexity is discussed in this paper. We have developed RNACompress, as a useful tool for academic users. Extensive tests have shown that RNACompress is a universally efficient algorithm for the compression of RNA sequences with their secondary structures. RNACompress also serves as a good measurement of the informational complexity of RNA secondary structure, which can be used to study the functional activities of RNA molecules. PMID:18373878

  18. "Real" and Apparent Optionality in Second Language Grammars: Finiteness and Pronouns in Null Operator Structures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parodi, Teresa; Tsimpli, Ianthi-Maria

    2005-01-01

    The existence of optionality in acquisitional data presents a problem to the view that developing grammars do not include more than one grammatical system at any stage. In this article data from Greek and Spanish, on the one hand, and English, on the other, constitute the background for the discussion of the existence of "true" optionality in…

  19. Grammar Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sipe, Rebecca Bowers

    2006-01-01

    As a new faculty member, the author was invited by colleagues to help protect a resource they believed was essential to their instructional program. The importance of teaching grammar in a didactic fashion as a precursor to student writing constituted an unchallenged belief in the department. Faculty members were committed to the notion that…

  20. UCG GRAMMAR

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. BASCHUNG; G. G BES; A. CORLUY; T. GUILLOTIN

    French auxilliaries and clitics have been analysed in the flame of U.C.G. (Unification Categorial Grammar). Concatenation of a functor sign and an adjacent argument sign is the basic operation of the model ; unification allows (a) to verify ff constraints on concatenation are respected ; (b) to produce a flow of information between the functor sign and the argument sign.

  1. Holistic Grammar.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierstorff, Don K.

    1981-01-01

    Parodies holistic approaches to education. Explains an educational approach which simultaneously teaches grammar and arithmetic. Lauds the advantages of the approach as high student attrition, ease of grading, and focus on developing the reptilian portion of the brain. Points out common errors made by students. (AYC)

  2. Searching the ASRS Database Using QUORUM Keyword Search, Phrase Search, Phrase Generation, and Phrase Discovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGreevy, Michael W.; Connors, Mary M. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    To support Search Requests and Quick Responses at the Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS), four new QUORUM methods have been developed: keyword search, phrase search, phrase generation, and phrase discovery. These methods build upon the core QUORUM methods of text analysis, modeling, and relevance-ranking. QUORUM keyword search retrieves ASRS incident narratives that contain one or more user-specified keywords in typical or selected contexts, and ranks the narratives on their relevance to the keywords in context. QUORUM phrase search retrieves narratives that contain one or more user-specified phrases, and ranks the narratives on their relevance to the phrases. QUORUM phrase generation produces a list of phrases from the ASRS database that contain a user-specified word or phrase. QUORUM phrase discovery finds phrases that are related to topics of interest. Phrase generation and phrase discovery are particularly useful for finding query phrases for input to QUORUM phrase search. The presentation of the new QUORUM methods includes: a brief review of the underlying core QUORUM methods; an overview of the new methods; numerous, concrete examples of ASRS database searches using the new methods; discussion of related methods; and, in the appendices, detailed descriptions of the new methods.

  3. An Experiment in Teaching Grammar in Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smoot, W. Scott

    2001-01-01

    Describes how the author, in his seventh-grade English class, taught "little grammar" (sentence structure, parts of speech, and usage) and "big grammar" (such as essay structure, points of an argument, and rhetorical devices) through reading meaningful texts drawn from their history class. Discusses successes and difficulties with this approach,…

  4. Recursive Patterns in Phonological Phrases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maartje Schreuder; Dicky Gilbers

    In this paper we investigate an instance of phonological recursion, more specifically we investigate iterative rule application in phonological phrases. The question is whether or not edge-marking processes, such as early pitch accent placement, can be applied recursively to phonological phrases that are embedded in larger phonological phrases. 1. Overview

  5. Probabilistic Techniques for Phrase Extraction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feng, Fangfang; Croft, W. Bruce

    2001-01-01

    This study proposes a probabilistic model for automatically extracting English noun phrases for indexing or information retrieval. The technique is based on a Markov model, whose initial parameters are estimated by a phrase lookup program with a phrase dictionary, then optimized by a set of maximum entropy parameters. (Author/LRW)

  6. A Grammar Sketch of the Kaki Ae Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clifton, John M.

    Kaki Ae is a non-Austronesian language spoken by about 300 people on the south coast of Papua New Guinea, at best distantly related to any other language in that area. A brief grammar sketch of the language is presented, including discussion of the phonology, sentences, phrases, words, and morpheme categories. Kaki Ae phonemics include 11…

  7. Constraining Multiple Grammars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopp, Holger

    2014-01-01

    This article offers the author's commentary on the Multiple Grammars (MG) language acquisition theory proposed by Luiz Amaral and Tom Roeper in the present issue. Multiple Grammars advances the claim that optionality is a constitutive characteristic of any one grammar, with interlanguage grammars being perhaps the clearest examples of a…

  8. Extending ContextFree Grammars with Permutation Phrases \\Lambda

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Richard "Hao"

    of free­order constructs as found in programming languages and notations such as C, COBOL, BibT E X constructs in COBOL [ANS85], citation fields in BibT E X bibliographies [Lam86] and command­line parameters

  9. Adaptive Star Grammars and Their Languages Frank Drewes1

    E-print Network

    Drewes, Frank

    Adaptive Star Grammars and Their Languages Frank Drewes1 , Berthold Hoffmann2 , Dirk Janssens3 the structure of object-oriented programs, adaptive star grammars are in- troduced, and their fundamental properties are studied. In adaptive star grammars, rules are actually schemata which, via the cloning of so

  10. Empirical Studies on the Disambiguation of Cue Phrases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julia Hirschberg; Diane J. Litman

    1993-01-01

    Cue phrases are linguistic expressions such as now and well that function as explicit indicators of the structure of a discourse. For example, now may signal the beginning of a subtopic or a return to a previous topic, while well may mark subsequent material as a response to prior material, or as an explanatory comment. However, while cue phrases may

  11. Generic noun phrases in mother-child conversations.

    PubMed

    Pappas, A; Gelman, S A

    1998-02-01

    Generic noun phrases (e.g. Tigers are fierce) are of interest for their semantic properties: they capture 'essential' properties, are timeless, and are context-free. The present study examines use of generic noun phrases by preschool children and their mothers. Mother-child pairs were videotaped while looking through a book of animal pictures. Each page depicted either a single instance of a particular category (e.g. one crab) or multiple instances of a particular category (e.g. many crabs). The results indicated a striking difference in how generics vs. non-generics were distributed, both in the speech of mothers and in the speech of preschool children. Whereas the form of non-generic noun phrases was closely linked to the structure of the page (i.e. singular noun phrases were used more often when a single instance was presented; plural noun phrases were used more often when multiple instances were presented), the form of generic noun phrases was independent of the information depicted (e.g. plural noun phrases were as frequent when only one instance was presented as when multiple instances were presented). We interpret the data as providing evidence that generic noun phrases differ in their semantics and conceptual organization from non-generic noun phrases, both in the input to young children and in children's own speech. Thus, this simple linguistic device may provide input to, and a reflection of, children's early developing notion of 'kinds'. PMID:9604567

  12. English-Mongolian Phrase Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amraa, J.; Nadya, S.

    The phrase book is intended for use by Peace Corps workers in Mongolia, and reflects daily communication needs in that context. Phrases and vocabulary are presented first in English, then in Mongolian translation (in Cyrillic alphabet), on the following topics: greetings and introductions; discussing work; expressing thanks and congratulations;…

  13. A COMPARISON BETWEEN SYNTACTIC AND PROSODIC PHRASING Marcus L. Fach

    E-print Network

    Möbius, Bernd

    and prosodic phrasing. A parser is used to calculate the syntactic structures from the orthographic text]. The utterance is divided into sequences of simplex clauses, clauses consist of sequences of chunks, and chunks

  14. Efficient Grammar Induction Algorithm with Parse Forests from Real Corpora

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurihara, Kenichi; Kameya, Yoshitaka; Sato, Taisuke

    The task of inducing grammar structures has received a great deal of attention. The reasons why researchers have studied are different; to use grammar induction as the first stage in building large treebanks or to make up better language models. However, grammar induction has inherent computational complexity. To overcome it, some grammar induction algorithms add new production rules incrementally. They refine the grammar while keeping their computational complexity low. In this paper, we propose a new efficient grammar induction algorithm. Although our algorithm is similar to algorithms which learn a grammar incrementally, our algorithm uses the graphical EM algorithm instead of the Inside-Outside algorithm. We report results of learning experiments in terms of learning speeds. The results show that our algorithm learns a grammar in constant time regardless of the size of the grammar. Since our algorithm decreases syntactic ambiguities in each step, our algorithm reduces required time for learning. This constant-time learning considerably affects learning time for larger grammars. We also reports results of evaluation of criteria to choose nonterminals. Our algorithm refines a grammar based on a nonterminal in each step. Since there can be several criteria to decide which nonterminal is the best, we evaluate them by learning experiments.

  15. Pair stochastic tree adjoining grammars for aligning and predicting pseudoknot RNA structures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiroshi Matsui; Kengo Sato; Yasubumi Sakakibara

    2005-01-01

    Motivation: Since the whole genome sequences for many species are currently available, computational predictions of RNA secondary structures and computational identifi- cations of those non-coding RNA regions by comparative genomics become important, and require more advanced alignment methods. Recently, an approach of structural alignments for RNA sequences has been introduced to solve these problems. By structural alignments, we mean a

  16. Pair stochastic tree adjoining grammars for aligning and predicting pseudoknot RNA structures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiroshi Matsui; Kengo Sato; Yasubumi Sakakibara

    2004-01-01

    Since the whole genome sequences for many species are currently available, computational predictions of RNA secondary structures and computational identifications of those non-coding RNA regions by comparative genomics have become important, and require more advanced alignment methods. Recently, an approach of structural alignments for RNA sequences has been introduced to solve these problems. By structural alignments, we mean a pair-wise

  17. Exploiting Structural Classifications for Function Prediction: Towards a Domain Grammar for Protein Function

    PubMed Central

    Dessailly, Benoît H.; Redfern, Oliver C.; Cuff, Alison; Orengo, Christine A.

    2010-01-01

    The ability to assign function to proteins has become a major bottleneck for comprehensively understanding cellular mechanisms at the molecular level. Here we discuss the extent to which structural domain classifications can help in deciphering the complex relationship between the functions of proteins and their sequences and structures. Structural classifications are particularly helpful in understanding the mosaic manner in which new proteins and functions emerge through evolution. This is partly because they provide reliable and concrete domain definitions and enable the detection of very remote structural similarities and homologies. It is also because structural data can illuminate more clearly the mechanisms by which the functions of homologues can be modified during evolution and a broader functional repertoire emerge. PMID:19398323

  18. Tree-bank grammars

    SciTech Connect

    Charniak, E. [Brown Univ., Providence, RI (United States)

    1996-12-31

    By a {open_quotes}tree-bank grammar{close_quotes} we mean a context-free grammar created by reading the production rules directly from hand-parsed sentences in a tree bank. Common wisdom has it that such grammars do not perform well, though we know of no published data on the issue. The primary purpose of this paper is to show that the common wisdom is wrong. In particular, we present results on a tree-bank grammar based on the Penn Wall Street Journal tree bank. To the best of our knowledge, this grammar outperforms all other non-word-based statistical parsers/grammars on this corpus. That is, it outperforms parsers that consider the input as a string of tags and ignore the actual words of the corpus.

  19. Extracting noun phrases for all of MEDLINE.

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, N. A.; He, Q.; Powell, K.; Schatz, B. R.

    1999-01-01

    A natural language parser that could extract noun phrases for all medical texts would be of great utility in analyzing content for information retrieval. We discuss the extraction of noun phrases from MEDLINE, using a general parser not tuned specifically for any medical domain. The noun phrase extractor is made up of three modules: tokenization; part-of-speech tagging; noun phrase identification. Using our program, we extracted noun phrases from the entire MEDLINE collection, encompassing 9.3 million abstracts. Over 270 million noun phrases were generated, of which 45 million were unique. The quality of these phrases was evaluated by examining all phrases from a sample collection of abstracts. The precision and recall of the phrases from our general parser compared favorably with those from three other parsers we had previously evaluated. We are continuing to improve our parser and evaluate our claim that a generic parser can effectively extract all the different phrases across the entire medical literature. PMID:10566444

  20. Improving Phrase-Based Statistical Translation by modifying phrase extraction and including several features

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marta Ruiz Costa-juss; A. R. Fonollosa

    Nowadays, most of the statistical translation sys- tems are based on phrases (i.e. groups of words). In this paper we study dieren t improvements to the standard phrase-based translation system. We describe a modied method for the phrase extrac- tion which deals with larger phrases while keeping a reasonable number of phrases. We also propose additional features which lead to

  1. Vocabulary and Grammar Knowledge in Second Language Reading Comprehension: A Structural Equation Modeling Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Dongbo

    2012-01-01

    Using structural equation modeling analysis, this study examined the contribution of vocabulary and grammatical knowledge to second language reading comprehension among 190 advanced Chinese English as a foreign language learners. Vocabulary knowledge was measured in both breadth (Vocabulary Levels Test) and depth (Word Associates Test);…

  2. Two Proposals for Causal Grammars Thomas L. Griffiths

    E-print Network

    Tenenbaum, Josh

    Two Proposals for Causal Grammars Thomas L. Griffiths Department of Cognitive and Linguistic), we introduced a framework for thinking about the structure, function, and acquisition of intuitive a hypothesis space of causal network structures considered in causal induction. Both linguistic grammars

  3. Effect of Grammar on Security of Long Ashwini Rao Birendra Jha

    E-print Network

    authentication mechanism. Use of text-based passwords involves a trade-off between usability and security. System;Keywords: Password, Passphrase, Cracking, Grammar, Policy #12;Abstract Use of long sentence-like or phrase-of-the-art password crackers. #12;#12;1 Introduction Text-based password authentication is a widely deployed user

  4. xREI: a phylo-grammar visualization webserver.

    PubMed

    Barquist, Lars; Holmes, Ian

    2008-07-01

    Phylo-grammars, probabilistic models combining Markov chain substitution models with stochastic grammars, are powerful models for annotating structured features in multiple sequence alignments and analyzing the evolution of those features. In the past, these methods have been cumbersome to implement and modify. xrate provides means for the rapid development of phylo-grammars (using a simple file format) and automated parameterization of those grammars from training data (via the Expectation Maximization algorithm). xREI (pron. 'X-ray') is an intuitive, flexible AJAX (Asynchronous Javascript And XML) web interface to xrate providing grammar visualization tools as well as access to xrate's training and annotation functionality. It is hoped that this application will serve as a valuable tool to those developing phylo-grammars, and as a means for the exploration and dissemination of such models. xREI is available at http://harmony.biowiki.org/xrei/ PMID:18522975

  5. Grammar Instruction and Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lacina, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Much of the research literature from the past 25 years has supported the importance of teaching grammar in the context of writing instruction (Calkins, 1980; DiStefano & Killion, 1984; Weaver, 1996,1998). Unlike other content areas, practice does not make perfect when learning grammar. While isolated drill and practice of grammatical concepts may…

  6. Phrase versus Phase: Family Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrara, Margaret M.

    2011-01-01

    Parents and their roles in schools, public or private, often become the bed of heated discussions. "Parent involvement" is yesterday's buzz word; today, it is "family involvement." The phrase "parent involvement" connotes an image of parents being involved in their children's education. Family involvement is a more encompassing concept, embracing…

  7. Phrase versus Phase: Family Engagement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Margaret M. Ferrara

    2011-01-01

    A qualitative research design was developed to explore a simple question: Is “family engagement” simply a new phrase or is it a synonym for “family involvement?” This study explored to what degree school leaders gained an understanding of family engagement; more importantly, to what degree did the administrators and teachers implement” family engagement” by the end of the first year?

  8. Dictionary of Phrase and Fable

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Bartleby.com (see the March 24, 2000 Scout Report) has recently placed this new work online. It is E. Cobham Brewer's 1898 Dictionary of Phrase and Fable, a collection of more than 18,000 entries "that reveal the etymologies, trace the origins and otherwise catalog 'words with a tale to tell.'" The entries can be browsed alphabetically or searched by keyword.

  9. Will Corpus Linguistics Revolutionize Grammar Teaching in the 21st Century?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conrad, Susan

    2000-01-01

    Argues that corpus linguistics could radically change grammar teaching in the 21st century in three ways: register-specific grammatical description could replace the grammar of English, grammar and vocabulary teaching could become more integrated, and emphasis could shift from structural accuracy to appropriateness of grammatical choice.…

  10. Building Fluency through the Phrased Text Lesson

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasinski, Timothy; Yildirim, Kasim; Nageldinger, James

    2012-01-01

    This Teaching Tip article explores the importance of phrasing while reading. It also presents an instructional intervention strategy for helping students develop greater proficiency in reading with phrases that reflect the meaning of the text.

  11. Structural competition in grammar

    E-print Network

    Katzir, Roni (Roni A.)

    2008-01-01

    This thesis makes the following three claims: (1) Competition exists in natural language: the grammaticality (and meaning) of using a linguistic object 0 can be affected by the grammaticality (and meaning) of a different ...

  12. Missing Phrase Recovering by Combining Forward and Backward Phrase Translation Tables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porkaew, Peerachet; Supnithi, Thepchai

    We propose a method to recover missing phrases dropped in the phrase extraction algorithm. Those phrases, therefore, are not translated even though we tested the system with the training data. On the other hand, in native-to-foreign, or backward training, some missing phrases can be recovered. In this paper, we combined two phrase translation tables extracted by the source-to-target and target-to-source training for the sake of more complete phrase translation table. We re-estimated the lexical weights and phrase translation probabilities for each phrase pair. Additional combining weights were applied to both tables. We assessed our method on different combining weights by counting the missing phrases and calculating the BLEU scores and NIST scores. Approximately 7% of missing phrases are recovered and 1.3% of BLEU score is increased.

  13. Customizing Grammar Checking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spinks, Nelda H.; Wells, Barron W.; Meche, Melanie

    1997-01-01

    Analysis of the use of Gram.mat.ik IV grammar checker software in business communication classes found 114 errors the program did not identify in 67 student papers. Modifications of the software were recommended to increase its usefulness. (SK)

  14. Grammar Based Music

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L-Systems have traditionally been used as a popular method for the modelling of space- filling curves, biological systems and morphogenesis. In this paper, we adapt string re- writing grammars based on L-Systems into a system for music composition. Representation of pitch, duration and timbre are encoded as grammar symbols, upon which a series of re-writing rules are applied. Parametric extensions

  15. Exploring story grammar structure in the book reading interactions of African American mothers and their preschool children: a pilot investigation

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Yvette R.; Rothstein, Susan E.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to identify the book reading behaviors and book reading styles of middle class African American mothers engaged in a shared book reading activity with their preschool children. To this end, the mothers and their children were videotaped reading one of three books, Julius, Grandfather and I, or Somewhere in Africa. Both maternal and child behaviors were coded for the frequency of occurrence of story grammar elements contained in their stories and maternal behaviors were also coded for their use of narrative eliciting strategies. In addition, mothers were queried about the quality and quantity of book reading/story telling interactions in the home environment. The results suggest that there is a great deal of individual variation in how mothers use the story grammar elements and narrative eliciting strategies to engage their children in a shared book reading activity. Findings are discussed in terms of suggestions for additional research and practical applications are offered on ways to optimally engage African American preschool children and African American families from diverse socioeconomic backgrounds in shared book reading interactions. PMID:24926276

  16. Spatial graph grammars for graphical user interfaces

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jun Kong; Kang Zhang; Xiaoqin Zeng

    2006-01-01

    In a graphical user interface, physical layout and abstract structure are two important aspects of a graph. This article proposes a new graph grammar formalism which integrates both the spatial and structural specification mechanisms in a single framework. This formalism is equipped with a parser that performs in polynomial time with an improved parsing complexity over its nonspa- tial predecessor,

  17. Dependency Grammar: Classification and Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debusmann, Ralph; Kuhlmann, Marco

    Syntactic representations based on word-to-word dependencies have a long tradition in descriptive linguistics [29]. In recent years, they have also become increasingly used in computational tasks, such as information extraction [5], machine translation [43], and parsing [42]. Among the purported advantages of dependency over phrase structure representations are conciseness, intuitive appeal, and closeness to semantic representations such as predicate-argument structures. On the more practical side, dependency representations are attractive due to the increasing availability of large corpora of dependency analyses, such as the Prague Dependency Treebank [19].

  18. Teaching Grammar: What Really Works

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benjamin, Amy; Berger, Joan

    2010-01-01

    In this book, the authors share procedures for teaching grammar effectively and dynamically, in ways that appeal to students and teachers alike. Ideal for teachers just beginning their work in grammar instruction, this book includes day-by-day units and reproducibles to help them embed grammar lessons into writing instruction. Using visuals,…

  19. Source Sentence Reordering for Phrase-based Machine Translation Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chung-Chi Huang; Jason J. S. Chang

    2009-01-01

    We introduce a method for learning to reorder source sentences. In our approach, sentences are transformed into new sequences of words aimed at reducing non-local reorderings in phrase translation. The method involves automatically extracting instances of structural divergences from sentence pairs, and automatically learning lexicalized grammatical rules probabilistically encoded with bilingual word- order relations. At run-time, source sentences are reordered

  20. Online Learning via Global Feedback for Phrase Recognition

    E-print Network

    Carreras, Xavier

    the learning strategy from the binary classification setting to a general ranking context into which the global and an output prediction allow to effectively learn a desired label­ranking function. For structured outputsOnline Learning via Global Feedback for Phrase Recognition Xavier Carreras Lluâ??�s Mâ?? arquez TALP

  1. Nigel: A Systemic Grammar for Text Generation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mann, William C.; Matthiessen, Christian M. I. M.

    This three-paper report describes Nigel, a large, programmed grammar of English which has been created in the framework of systemic linguistics begun by Halliday, and which, in addition to specifying functions and structures of English, has a novel semantic stratum which specifies the situations for use of each grammatical feature. The…

  2. Yes, We Still Need Universal Grammar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lidz, Jeffrey; Gleitman, Lila R.

    2004-01-01

    In a recent paper [Lidz, J., Gleitman, H., & Gleitman, L. (2003). Understanding how input matters: Verb learning and the footprint of universal grammar. "Cognition," 87, 151-178], we provided cross-linguistic evidence in favor of the following linked assertions: (i) Verb argument structure is a correlate of verb meaning; (ii) However, argument…

  3. Applying Grammar Induction to Text Mining Andrew Salway

    E-print Network

    Salway, Andrew

    for text mining purposes. We modify the learning regime of the ADIOS algorithm (Solan et al., 2005) so structures from an unannotated corpus by modifying and applying the ADIOS grammar induction algorithm (Solan

  4. Hualapai Reference Grammar.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watahomigie, Lucille J.; And Others

    A first and modest beginning toward a grammar of the Hualapai language, a Pai branch of the Yuman language family, this reference book is intended for use by: the Hualapai people to reaffirm the vitality of their language; the Hualapai teachers in their preparation of language materials for teaching; younger Haulapais to find the regularity and…

  5. Teaching Grammar for Proficiency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgs, Theodore V.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses a foreign language pedagogy that facilitates teaching for communication and teaching grammar, which is defined as a system for converting meaning into language. The teacher is advised to do in the classroom only what cannot be done elsewhere. Four instructional tactics are described. (SED)

  6. Multiple Grammars and MOGUL

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Truscott, John

    2014-01-01

    Optionality is a central phenomenon in second language acquisition (SLA), for which any adequate theory must account. Amaral and Roeper (this issue; henceforth A&R) offer an appealing approach to it, using Roeper's Multiple Grammars Theory, which was created with first language in mind but which extends very naturally to SLA. They include…

  7. Grammar Gremlins Haunt Writers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Kay

    1999-01-01

    Argues that grammar instruction is important and should begin early. Lists rules for using the comma, colon, and semi-colon. Notes 10 tips for top-notch writing. Notes grammatical areas often troublesome to students. Includes a short quiz. (SR)

  8. Studies in Inuktitut Grammar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beach, Matthew David

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation addresses a number of issues about the grammar of Eastern Canadian Inuktitut. Inuktitut is a dialect within the Inuit dialect continuum which is a group of languages/dialects within the Eskimo-Aleut language family. (Eastern Canadian Inuktitut has an ISO 693-3 language code of "ike".) Typologically, it is an ergative language…

  9. SYNTACTIC PHRASE-BASED STATISTICAL MACHINE TRANSLATION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hany Hassan; Mary Hearne; K. Simaan

    2006-01-01

    Phrase-based statistical machine translation (PBSMT) systems represent the dominant approach in MT today. However, unlike systems in other paradigms, it has proven difficult to date to incorporate syntactic knowledge in order to improve translation quality. This paper improves on recent research which uses 'syntactified' target language phrases, by incorporating supertags as constraints to better resolve parse tree fragments. In addition,

  10. Useful Phrases in English: Korean. Language SOS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Los Angeles Unified School District, CA.

    This English-Korean phrase book is designed for the English speaking person learning Korean. The useful phrases and vocabulary words are divided into eleven sections: basic needs and safety; greetings and amenities; getting acquainted; directions and classroom articles; calendar, numbers, and time; subjects; shapes, sizes, and colors; body parts…

  11. A Grammar of Projections Steven Abney

    E-print Network

    Abney, Steven P.

    into Government-Binding Theory (GB), government has come to play a central role in Chomsky's work. (Some related notions had a prominent place in the theory much earlier, including headship and command--the latter being in this sense are fairly basic phrase-structural entities, though hardly of central importance in most accounts

  12. From exemplar to grammar: a probabilistic analogy-based model of language learning.

    PubMed

    Bod, Rens

    2009-07-01

    While rules and exemplars are usually viewed as opposites, this paper argues that they form end points of the same distribution. By representing both rules and exemplars as (partial) trees, we can take into account the fluid middle ground between the two extremes. This insight is the starting point for a new theory of language learning that is based on the following idea: If a language learner does not know which phrase-structure trees should be assigned to initial sentences, s/he allows (implicitly) for all possible trees and lets linguistic experience decide which is the "best" tree for each sentence. The best tree is obtained by maximizing "structural analogy" between a sentence and previous sentences, which is formalized by the most probable shortest combination of subtrees from all trees of previous sentences. Corpus-based experiments with this model on the Penn Treebank and the Childes database indicate that it can learn both exemplar-based and rule-based aspects of language, ranging from phrasal verbs to auxiliary fronting. By having learned the syntactic structures of sentences, we have also learned the grammar implicit in these structures, which can in turn be used to produce new sentences. We show that our model mimicks children's language development from item-based constructions to abstract constructions, and that the model can simulate some of the errors made by children in producing complex questions. PMID:21585486

  13. Ambiguity Detection for Programming Language Grammars

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. J. S. Basten

    2011-01-01

    Context-free grammars are the most suitable and most widely used method for describing the syntax of programming languages.\\u000aThey can be used to generate parsers, which transform a piece of source code into a tree-shaped representation of the code's syntactic structure.\\u000aThese parse trees can then be used for further processing or analysis of the source text.\\u000aIn this sense,

  14. What Are We Testing? Grammar.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alamelu, L. V.

    1978-01-01

    English grammar testing practices from the middle school level to the first two years of the bachelor's degree in India are examined, and suggestions for change are presented. Ten to thirty percent of the total marks allotted to question papers in English are set aside for the testing of grammar and usage. It is argued that syllabuses at present…

  15. Teachers' Perceptions about Grammar Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thu, Tran Hoang

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates English as a second language (ESL) teachers' beliefs in grammar teaching. A 32-item questionnaire was administered to 11 ESL teachers in a language school in California. The results show that the participants generally believe that the formal study of grammar is essential to the eventual mastery of a foreign or second…

  16. A Reference Grammar of Bena

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Michelle Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation is a grammar of Rena (ISO bez), a Bantu language spoken in southwestern Tanzania by approximately 600,000 people. Bena is largely undocumented, and though aspects of Bena grammar have been described, there is no usable, detailed treatment of the Bena language. Therefore the goal of this dissertation is provide the first detailed…

  17. A Machine Learning Approach to Coreference Resolution of Noun Phrases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wee Meng Soon; Hwee Tou Ng; Chung Yong Lim

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, we present a learning approach to coreference resolution of noun phrases in unrestricted text. The approach learns from a small, annotated corpus and the task includes resolving not just a certain type of noun phrase (e.g., pronouns) but rather general noun phrases. It also does not restrict the entity types of the noun phrases; that is, coreference

  18. Musical phrase boundaries, wrap-up and the closure positive shift.

    PubMed

    Silva, Susana; Branco, Paulo; Barbosa, Fernando; Marques-Teixeira, João; Petersson, Karl Magnus; Castro, São Luís

    2014-10-17

    We investigated global integration (wrap-up) processes at the boundaries of musical phrases by comparing the effects of well and non-well formed phrases on event-related potentials time-locked to two boundary points: the onset and the offset of the boundary pause. The Closure Positive Shift, which is elicited at the boundary offset, was not modulated by the quality of phrase structure (well vs. non-well formed). In contrast, the boundary onset potentials showed different patterns for well and non-well formed phrases. Our results contribute to specify the functional meaning of the Closure Positive Shift in music, shed light on the large-scale structural integration of musical input, and raise new hypotheses concerning shared resources between music and language. PMID:25139422

  19. Tree graph grammars for pattern recognition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alberto Sanfeliu; K. S. Fu

    1982-01-01

    This paper deals with a class of grammars which is called tree-graph grammar (TGG) and its attributed version (ATGG, attributed-tree-graph grammar). The features of this class of grammars include its power to generate useful graphs and its fast parser. Principally, the graphs that can be characterized by these grammars are a subset of hierarchical graphs, including planar graphs. Also these

  20. The Journalism Writing Course: Evaluation of Hybrid versus Online Grammar Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Jensen; Jones, Khristen

    2015-01-01

    This study examined introductory journalism writing courses and compared hybrid (part online/part classroom) versus online grammar instruction. The hybrid structure allowed for grammar topics to be taught online, with a pretest following, and then reviewing missed/difficult pretest concepts in class prior to a posttest. The quasi-experimental…

  1. The Acquisition of Tense and the Emergence of Lexical Subjects in Child Grammars of English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guilfoyle, Eithne

    The phenomena of null subjects in child grammars of English are examined in the context of Nina Moss Hyams' proposals about these structures within the framework of generative grammar. Some problems with these analyses are examined and an alternative analysis is proposed. It is noted that Hyams predicts that children learning a language requiring…

  2. When Global Structure "Explains Away" Local Grammar: A Bayesian Account of Rule-Induction in Tone Sequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, Colin; Gerken, LouAnn

    2011-01-01

    While many constraints on learning must be relatively experience-independent, past experience provides a rich source of guidance for subsequent learning. Discovering structure in some domain can inform a learner's future hypotheses about that domain. If a general property accounts for particular sub-patterns, a rational learner should not…

  3. A tropical grammar : an architectural grammar for hot humid climates

    E-print Network

    Beamish, Anne, 1954-

    1993-01-01

    This thesis considers the viability of an architectural grammar based on traditional Caribbean architecture as an aid to designing climatically responsive architecture in hot humid climates. It argues that since traditional ...

  4. Estimating Translation Probabilities Considering Semantic Recoverability of Phrase Retranslation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hyoung-Gyu; Kim, Min-Jeong; Quan, Yingxiu; Rim, Hae-Chang; Park, So-Young

    The general method for estimating phrase translation probabilities consists of sequential processes: word alignment, phrase pair extraction, and phrase translation probability calculation. However, during this sequential process, errors may propagate from the word alignment step through the translation probability calculation step. In this paper, we propose a new method for estimating phrase translation probabilities that reduce the effects of error propagation. By considering the semantic recoverability of phrase retranslation, our method identifies incorrect phrase pairs that have propagated from alignment errors. Furthermore, we define retranslation similarity which represents the semantic recoverability of phrase retranslation, and use this when computing translation probabilities. Experimental results show that the proposed phrase translation estimation method effectively prevents a PBSMT system from selecting incorrect phrase pairs, and consistently improves the translation quality in various language pairs.

  5. Shape grammar for medical injectors

    E-print Network

    Luciano, David (David A.)

    2014-01-01

    This thesis explores the applicability of algorithmic design for biomedical device design through the use of the shape grammar formalism. This method is expressed as an algorithm that describes the computational mechanism ...

  6. Grammar structures and deaf and hard of hearing students: a review of past performance and a report of new findings.

    PubMed

    Cannon, Joanna E; Kirby, Susannah

    2013-01-01

    Results of a study are presented that suggest the grammatical structures of English some deaf and hard of hearing students struggle to acquire. A review of the literature from the past 40 years is presented, exploring particular lexical and morphosyntactic areas in which deaf and hard of hearing children have traditionally exhibited difficulty. Twenty-six participants from an urban day school for the deaf used the LanguageLinks software, produced by Laureate Learning Systems, for 10 minutes daily for 9 weeks. The descriptive analysis of the results expands on findings reported by Cannon, Easterbrooks, Gagne, and Beal-Alvarez (2011). The results indicated that many participants struggled with regular noun singular/plural; accusative first- and second-person singular; noun/verb agreement copular "be"; accusative third-person number/ gender; locative pronominals; auxiliary "be"/regular past "-ed;" and prenominal determiners plural. PMID:24133956

  7. Primitive computations in phrase construction

    E-print Network

    Nguyen, Chieu V

    2009-01-01

    The Minimalist Program in current linguistic theory seeks to explain linguistic structure in terms of economy principles, under the assumption that the human language faculty is a perfect system that performs only enough ...

  8. Yup'ik Phrase and Conversational Lessons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Anna W.; Jacobson, Steven A., Ed.

    This guide to conversational language in Yup'ik Eskimo is designed to accompany audiotape recordings (not included here). It contains the phrases and sentences used in 30 lessons. A brief introduction comments on the format of the text. Lessons are on these topics: Yup'ik phonology and common brief expressions; exclamations; greetings and…

  9. CAD GRAMMARS: EXTENDING SHAPE AND GRAPH GRAMMARS FOR SPATIAL DESIGN MODELLING

    E-print Network

    Reed, Chris

    1 CAD GRAMMARS: EXTENDING SHAPE AND GRAPH GRAMMARS FOR SPATIAL DESIGN MODELLING PETER DEAK, CHRIS, but operating on graphs. This paper introduces CAD grammars, which combine qualities from shape and graph and manufacturing. Details about the integration of CAD grammars into automated spatial design systems and standard

  10. Assigning phrase breaks from part-of-speech sequences. 

    E-print Network

    Black, Alan W; Taylor, Paul A

    1997-01-01

    One of the important stages in the process of turning unmarked text into speech is the assignment of appropriate phrase break boundaries. Phrase break boundaries are important to later modules including accent ...

  11. Using statistical models to predict phrase boundaries for speech synthesis. 

    E-print Network

    Sanders, Eric; Taylor, Paul A

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes a variety of methods for inserting phrase boundaries in text. The methods work by examining the likelihood of a phrase break occurring in a sequence of three part-of-speech tags. The paper explains ...

  12. The CASIA phrase-based machine translation system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhendong Yang; Zhenbiao Chen; Wei Pang; Wei Wei; Bo Xu

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we propose a phrase-based translation system. In the system, we use phrase translation model instead of word-based model. An improved method to compute phrase translation probability is studied. A phrase-based decoder we developed employs a beam search algorithm, in which some target language words that have both high frequency of appearance and also fertility zero are introduced

  13. The Parallel Grammar Project Miriam Butt

    E-print Network

    The Parallel Grammar Project Miriam Butt Cent. for Computational Linguistics UMIST Manchester M60 1 range of purposes. In this paper, we report on the Parallel Grammar (ParGram) project (Butt et al., 1999

  14. Ágost Pável’s Prekmurje Slovene Grammar

    E-print Network

    Greenberg, Marc L.

    1989-01-01

    The author discusses the content of the unpublished standard grammar for the language of the Prekmurje (Mura River region). Completed in 1942, the grammar was written in Hungarian for use in regional schools. Today it is ...

  15. Rule-based Phrase Identification in College English Writing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shi-Li Ge; Rou Song

    2010-01-01

    In order to support automated essay scoring and feedback offering in college English writing, phrases used in compositions, including correct usage and wrong usage, should be identified accurately. With the help of composition analysis and teaching experience, more than 1300 phrases frequently used in college English writing were picked out. A rule base of relevant phrase identification rules were constructed,

  16. Delta's Key to the Next Generation TOEFL[R] Test: Essential Grammar for the iBT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    Although the TOEFL iBT does not have a discrete grammar section, knowledge of English sentence structure is important throughout the test. Essential Grammar for the iBT reviews the skills that are fundamental to success on tests. Content includes noun and verb forms, clauses, agreement, parallel structure, punctuation, and much more. The book may…

  17. Cognitive biases, linguistic universals, and constraint-based grammar learning.

    PubMed

    Culbertson, Jennifer; Smolensky, Paul; Wilson, Colin

    2013-07-01

    According to classical arguments, language learning is both facilitated and constrained by cognitive biases. These biases are reflected in linguistic typology-the distribution of linguistic patterns across the world's languages-and can be probed with artificial grammar experiments on child and adult learners. Beginning with a widely successful approach to typology (Optimality Theory), and adapting techniques from computational approaches to statistical learning, we develop a Bayesian model of cognitive biases and show that it accounts for the detailed pattern of results of artificial grammar experiments on noun-phrase word order (Culbertson, Smolensky, & Legendre, 2012). Our proposal has several novel properties that distinguish it from prior work in the domains of linguistic theory, computational cognitive science, and machine learning. This study illustrates how ideas from these domains can be synthesized into a model of language learning in which biases range in strength from hard (absolute) to soft (statistical), and in which language-specific and domain-general biases combine to account for data from the macro-level scale of typological distribution to the micro-level scale of learning by individuals. PMID:23703887

  18. AUXILIARIES AND CLITICS IN FRENCH UCG GRAMMAR

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    AUXILIARIES AND CLITICS IN FRENCH UCG GRAMMAR by K. BASCHUNG *', G.G BES **, A. CORLUY "*',T been analysed in the flame of U.C.G. (UnificationCategorial Grammar). Concatenation of a functor sign covered in a fairly simple way. The UCG Model U(nification). C(ategorial) G(rammar) is a new grammatical

  19. Teacher Grammar and Pupil Achievement in Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forney, Mary Ann; Smith, Lyle R.

    A total of 102 fourth grade students were assigned to one of six groups defined by the possible combinations of two pupil ability level conditions (above versus below average ability) and three teacher verbal fluency conditions (good grammar, moderately good grammar, poor grammar). Each group was presented a lesson concerning mathematical…

  20. Grammar Making a Comeback in Composition Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCleary, Bill

    1995-01-01

    This journal article focuses on the return of grammar in composition teaching. After about 2 decades of virtual banishment from the higher reaches of English teaching theory, grammar has returned as a subject of serious discussion. This is the result in part of a new assertiveness by a group of people who never lost interest in grammar as part of…

  1. The Philosophical Significance of Universal Grammar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinzen, Wolfram

    2012-01-01

    Throughout its long history, the project of a science of grammar has always been an inherently philosophical one, in which the study of grammar was taken to have special epistemological significance. I ask why 20th and 21st century inquiry into Universal Grammar (UG) has largely lost this dimension, a fact that I argue is partially responsible for…

  2. Exploiting Attribute Grammars to Achieve Automatic Tupling

    E-print Network

    Utrecht, Universiteit

    Exploiting Attribute Grammars to Achieve Automatic Tupling Jeroen Bransen Atze Dijkstra S. Doaitse Attribute Grammars to Achieve Automatic Tupling Jeroen Bransen, Atze Dijkstra, and S. Doaitse Swierstra is done automatically. In this paper we show how we can get tupling for free by using attribute grammars

  3. What to Do with the Grammar Boxes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Cam

    1995-01-01

    Examines grammar instruction as part of Montessori's language curriculum. Suggests that teaching grammar remains, without reason, a significant part of the curriculum. Grammar instruction offers children information about language, but that is not teaching language arts. Proposes the five language arts of listening, speaking, writing, reading, and…

  4. The Grammars of English and Curriculum Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Joe Darwin

    This study summarizes the kinds of English grammar currently taught in American secondary schools and describes the effects of curriculum proposals by scholars upon the teaching of language and composition. A survey of grammar from classical Greek and Roman times to the present precedes a description of specific types of grammar (e.g.,…

  5. A Construction Grammar for the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holme, Randal

    2010-01-01

    Construction grammars (Lakoff, Women, fire and dangerous things: What categories reveal about the Mind, University of Chicago Press, 1987; Langacker, Foundations of cognitive grammar: Theoretical pre-requisites, Stanford University Press, 1987; Croft, Radical construction grammar: Syntactic theory in typological perspective, Oxford University…

  6. Fluid Construction Grammar on Real Robots

    E-print Network

    Steels, Luc

    Chapter 10 Fluid Construction Grammar on Real Robots Luc Steels1,2, Joachim De Beule3, and Pieter and P. Wellens (2012). Fluid Construction Grammar on Real Robots. In Luc Steels and Manfred Hild (Eds game experiments reported in this book. This framework is called Fluid Construction Grammar (FCG

  7. Deterministic graph grammars Didier Caucal1

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Deterministic graph grammars Didier Caucal1 1 IGM­CNRS, university of Paris-Est 5 Bd Descartes of grammars generating graphs instead of words. In this case, grammar rules no longer express the replacement (or more generally hyperarc) by a finite graph (or hypergraph) possibly containing new non- terminals

  8. Upending the Grammar of the Conventional Religious School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aron, Isa

    2014-01-01

    This article provides an overview and analysis of a relatively new phenomenon: congregational schools that have altered the conventional grammar of schooling, either through their structural arrangements or through their curricular approaches. Five pre-bar/bat mitzvah models are discussed: family schools, schools as communities,…

  9. Improving DHH Students' Grammar through an Individualized Software Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cannon, Joanna E.; Easterbrooks, Susan R.; Gagne, Phill; Beal-Alvarez, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if the frequent use of a targeted, computer software grammar instruction program, used as an individualized classroom activity, would influence the comprehension of morphosyntax structures (determiners, tense, and complementizers) in deaf/hard-of-hearing (DHH) participants who use American Sign Language…

  10. Identifying well-formed biomedical phrases in MEDLINE® text

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Won; Yeganova, Lana; Comeau, Donald C.; Wilbur, W. John

    2012-01-01

    In the modern world people frequently interact with retrieval systems to satisfy their information needs. Humanly understandable well-formed phrases represent a crucial interface between humans and the web, and the ability to index and search with such phrases is beneficial for human-web interactions. In this paper we consider the problem of identifying humanly understandable, well formed, and high quality biomedical phrases in MEDLINE documents. The main approaches used previously for detecting such phrases are syntactic, statistical, and a hybrid approach combining these two. In this paper we propose a supervised learning approach for identifying high quality phrases. First we obtain a set of known well-formed useful phrases from an existing source and label these phrases as positive. We then extract from MEDLINE a large set of multiword strings that do not contain stop words or punctuation. We believe this unlabeled set contains many well-formed phrases. Our goal is to identify these additional high quality phrases. We examine various feature combinations and several machine learning strategies designed to solve this problem. A proper choice of machine learning methods and features identifies in the large collection strings that are likely to be high quality phrases. We evaluate our approach by making human judgments on multiword strings extracted from MEDLINE using our methods. We find that over 85% of such extracted phrase candidates are humanly judged to be of high quality. PMID:22683889

  11. Urdu and the Parallel Grammar Project Miriam Butt

    E-print Network

    Urdu and the Parallel Grammar Project Miriam Butt Cent. for Computational Linguistics UMIST PO Box grammar in the Parallel Grammar (ParGram) project (Butt et al., 1999; Butt et al., 2002).1 The Par of the Urdu grammar in the Parallel Grammar (ParGram) project (Butt et al., 1999; Butt et al., 2002). The Par

  12. Grammar on the Information Superhighway: Proceed with Caution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perrin, Robert

    2003-01-01

    Describes six categories of websites on grammar. Considers the advantages and disadvantages that Internet grammar provides. Presents an annotated list of 15 web sites on grammar. Suggests adopting a positive but cautious approach to grammar on the Internet. Concludes that grammar on the Internet is a potentially helpful resource to use in addition…

  13. Interacting effects of syllable and phrase position on consonant articulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byrd, Dani; Lee, Sungbok; Riggs, Daylen; Adams, Jason

    2005-12-01

    The complexities of how prosodic structure, both at the phrasal and syllable levels, shapes speech production have begun to be illuminated through studies of articulatory behavior. The present study contributes to an understanding of prosodic signatures on articulation by examining the joint effects of phrasal and syllable position on the production of consonants. Articulatory kinematic data were collected for five subjects using electromagnetic articulography (EMA) to record target consonants (labial, labiodental, and tongue tip), located in (1) either syllable final or initial position and (2) either at a phrase edge or phrase medially. Spatial and temporal characteristics of the consonantal constriction formation and release were determined based on kinematic landmarks in the articulator velocity profiles. The results indicate that syllable and phrasal position consistently affect the movement duration; however, effects on displacement were more variable. For most subjects, the boundary-adjacent portions of the movement (constriction release for a preboundary coda and constriction formation for a postboundary onset) are not differentially affected in terms of phrasal lengthening-both lengthen comparably.

  14. Essentials of Asheninka Perene Grammar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mihas, Elena

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this dissertation is to present a preliminary grammatical account of Asheninka Perene an endangered Arawak language of Southeastern Peru. The description and analysis of the language is based on the 29-week field research conducted in an area of the Southwest Amazonian high jungle. Interesting issues of Asheninka Perene grammar

  15. Complex Grammar in Williams Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perovic, Alexandra; Wexler, Ken

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated knowledge of binding and raising in two groups of children with Williams syndrome (WS), 6-12 and 12-16-years-old, compared to typically developing (TD) controls matched on non-verbal MA, verbal MA, and grammar. In typical development, difficulties interpreting pronouns, but not reflexives, persist until the age of around 6,…

  16. REFERENCE GRAMMAR OF LITERARY DHIMOTIKI.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HOUSEHOLDER, FRED W.; AND OTHERS

    BASED ON A TRADITIONAL APPROACH, THIS REFERENCE GRAMMAR OF LITERARY DHIMOTIKI IS DESIGNED TO BE MOST USEFUL TO ADVANCED UNDERGRADUATES OR BEGINNING GRADUATE STUDENTS OF GREEK. (DHIMOTIKI, OR DEMOTIC, IS THE POPULAR FORM OF MODERN GREEK.) IN PART I THERE IS AN EXTENSIVE DESCRIPTION OF THE PHONOLOGICAL SYSTEM FOLLOWED BY A DISCUSSION OF THE WRITING…

  17. A Reference Grammar of Pashto.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tegey, Habibullah; Robson, Barbara

    This grammar of Pashto was designed to accompany a set of beginning- and intermediate-level instructional materials for teaching the Pashto language to English speakers, but can be used separately as a reference by readers who are not learning the language. Introductory sections in English and Pashto describe the content and organization. The…

  18. A Grammar of Inupiaq Morphosyntax

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lanz, Linda A.

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation is a reference grammar of the Malimiut Coastal dialect of Inupiaq (ISO: ESI, ESK, IPK), an Eskimo-Aleut language of northwestern Alaska spoken by the Inupiat people. It complements existing descriptions of Inupiaq by filling gaps in documentation. With approximately 2000 speakers, mainly above 50 years of age, Inupiaq is…

  19. Q -grammars and wall polyominoes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philippe Duchon

    1999-01-01

    We use a variant of theq-grammar method to write functional equations for the generating functions of a subclass of vertically convex polyominoes and directed walks, according to specified parameters, which include the area. The form of these equations, and some simple singularity computations, are used to prove that the area of wall polyominoes of perimeter 2n has the Airy distribution

  20. Can Individuals with Down Syndrome Improve Their Grammar?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sepulveda, Esther Moraleda; Lopez-Villasenor, Miguel Lazaro; Heinze, Elena Garayzabal

    2013-01-01

    Morphosyntax constitutes one of the most complex areas of language. It takes into account the structure of the word and that of the sentence, and its development allows one to establish adequately agreements both within the nominal phrase and in the rest of the sentence. Morphosyntax is particularly impaired in individuals with Down syndrome. To…

  1. Adding and Subtracting Alternation: Resumption and Prepositional Phrase Chopping in Spanish Relative Clauses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cerron-Palomino Lopez, Alvaro

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation is a variationist account of two non-standard relative clause (RC) structures in Spanish: resumptive pronouns (RPs) and prepositional-phrase (PP) chopping. Previous typological studies considered RP explanations based on difficulty of processing (Hawkins, 1994), while Spanish-specific quantitative studies proposed a number of…

  2. Feature Checking, Chain Linking, and the Distribution of Noun Phrases in Spanish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ishikawa, Masataka

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the structure of Spanish noun phrases within the general framework of minimalist syntax. Proposes nominal functional category and feature checking via chain linking and suggests lexical specifications for common and proper nouns accounting for their distribution in the clause. (32 references) (Author/CK)

  3. Defense et illustration de la grammaire philologique (An Example and a Defense of Philological Grammar)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dupont, Louis

    1972-01-01

    Author cites philological grammar" as one of three ways of treating language. The other two approaches to language are traditional grammar and linguistic grammar or transformational generative grammar. Philological grammar stresses the art of reading. (DS)

  4. Corpus-based Statistical Screening for Phrase Identification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Won Kim; W John Wilbur

    2000-01-01

    PurposeThe authors study the extraction of useful phrases from a natural language database by statistical methods. The aim is to leverage human effort by providing preprocessed phrase lists with a high percentage of useful material.MethodThe approach is to develop six different scoring methods that are based on different aspects of phrase occurrence. The emphasis here is not on lexical information

  5. An Algorithm for finding Noun Phrase Correspondences in Bilingual Corpora

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julian Kupiec

    1993-01-01

    The paper describes an algorithm that employs English and French text taggers to associate noun phrases in an aligned bilingual corpus. The taggers provide part-of-speech categories which are used by finite-state recognizers to extract simple noun phrases for both languages. Noun phrases are then mapped to each other using an iterative re-estimation algorithm that bears similarities to the Baum-Welch algorithm

  6. Longman Grammar of Spoken and Written English

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Douglas Biber; Stig Johansson; Geoffrey Leech; Susan Conrad; Edward Finegan

    1999-01-01

    IntroductionSince its publication in 1985, the outstanding 1,800-page Comprehensive Grammar of theEnglish Language, by Randolph Quirk, Sidney Greenbaum, Geoffrey Leech, and JanSvartvik, has been the definitive description of the grammar of English and an in-.dispensable reference for any research in the analysis or generation of English thatattempts serious coverage of the syntactic phenomena of the language. The new LongmanGrammar of

  7. Kent Sakoda Discusses Pidgin Grammar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sakoda, Kent; Tamura, Eileen H.

    2008-01-01

    For a number of years, Kent Sakoda has been teaching at the University of Hawai'i at Manoa in the Department of Second Language Studies. His course, "Pidgin and Creole English in Hawai'i," is popular among students on campus. He has also taught at Hawai'i Pacific University. Because of his expertise on the grammar of Pidgin (Hawai'i Creole),…

  8. What exactly is Universal Grammar, and has anyone seen it?

    PubMed Central

    D?browska, Ewa

    2015-01-01

    Universal Grammar (UG) is a suspect concept. There is little agreement on what exactly is in it; and the empirical evidence for it is very weak. This paper critically examines a variety of arguments that have been put forward as evidence for UG, focussing on the three most powerful ones: universality (all human languages share a number of properties), convergence (all language learners converge on the same grammar in spite of the fact that they are exposed to different input), and poverty of the stimulus (children know things about language which they could not have learned from the input available to them). I argue that these arguments are based on premises which are either false or unsubstantiated. Languages differ from each other in profound ways, and there are very few true universals, so the fundamental crosslinguistic fact that needs explaining is diversity, not universality. A number of recent studies have demonstrated the existence of considerable differences in adult native speakers’ knowledge of the grammar of their language, including aspects of inflectional morphology, passives, quantifiers, and a variety of more complex constructions, so learners do not in fact converge on the same grammar. Finally, the poverty of the stimulus argument presupposes that children acquire linguistic representations of the kind postulated by generative grammarians; constructionist grammars such as those proposed by Tomasello, Goldberg and others can be learned from the input. We are the only species that has language, so there must be something unique about humans that makes language learning possible. The extent of crosslinguistic diversity and the considerable individual differences in the rate, style and outcome of acquisition suggest that it is more promising to think in terms of a language-making capacity, i.e., a set of domain-general abilities, rather than an innate body of knowledge about the structural properties of the target system.

  9. Proverbs, Maxims and Phrases of All Ages

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The lyrical poet Horace once said that "The road of death must be travelled by all." He said many other things, and some of his sayings may be found within this classic volume. Originally published in 1887, the volume "Proverbs, Maxims and Phrases of All Ages" was compiled by Robert Christy. The intent of this volume was to serve as a reference volume for libraries and personal use. The people at Bartleby.com have made it available here in its entirety, and it may serve as a source of inspiration to budding writers, philosophers, and orators. Visitors can search the work by categories like "Advice," "Fortune," and "Honor." Also, the formal Preface is quite an elaborate bit of writing, and sets an appropriate tone for the work.

  10. A maximum entropy method to recognize disease named phrase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaobai Cai; Xiaozhong Fan

    2009-01-01

    It is useful to recognize disease named phrases from medical literatures and clinic records for extracting medical information. Since manually annotated domain data is rarely available, it is restricted to apply machine learning approaches in the work. We propose a method based on maximum entropy model for recognizing the phrase, in which domain knowledge is integrated into the statistical method

  11. Empirical Studies on the Disambiguation of Cue Phrases Julia Hirschberg

    E-print Network

    Hirschberg, Julia

    initiates a digression. Although distinguishing discourse and sentential uses of cue phrases is critical of the prosodic analysis to the generation of appropriate intonational features for discourse and sentential uses, critical to the interpretation of discourse. Consider the cue phrase now. Roughly, the sentential

  12. Parallel phrase matching for cloud based security services

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jose Kolenchery

    2011-01-01

    Phrase matching is a technique used to detect virus patterns, data leakage, SPAM, and embedded URLs in messages. Depending on the length of the phrases, the complexity of detecting them increases. Presented is an algorithm that can be implemented efficiently using GPU by reducing the copy costs. The algorithm creates k-grams using collision resistant hashing techniques and matches the k-grams

  13. Phonetic pitch movements of accentual phrases in Korean read speech

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Phonetic pitch movements of accentual phrases in Korean read speech Hyongsil Cho & Stéphane Rauzy phonetic pitch movements and accentual phrase boundaries using a technique of pattern extraction of prosodic units needs to be revised. The aim of this study is to examine the role of phonetic pitch

  14. Prosodic Phrasing and Modifier Attachment in Standard Arabic Sentence Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdelghany, Hala

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation investigates the syntax-prosody interface in Standard Arabic, focusing on the ambiguity of a modifier (relative clause or adjective phrase) in relation to the two nouns in a complex noun phrase. Ambiguity resolution tendencies for this construction differ across languages, contrary to otherwise universal parsing tendencies. One…

  15. Two Memory-Based Methods for Phrase Alignment Abstract--This document presents two bilingual phrase-based

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    --This document presents two bilingual phrase-based alignment methods handling syntactic constituents (sub as a cornerstone in MT. Sub-sentential alignment needs parallel bilingual corpora. It aims at automatically is a learned set of segments. These segments can be seen as bilingual phrase couples presenting internal links

  16. What Is Grammar and Why Teach It?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenbaum, Sidney

    The word "grammar" can be used in many ways: a general theory of language description; a theory for describing one language; a description of a particular language, either in the form of a book (an "English grammar") or the contents of that book; an ideal as opposed to actual description of a language; the properties and processes of a language…

  17. Research into Practice: Grammar Learning and Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsen-Freeman, Diane

    2015-01-01

    This selective review of the second language acquisition and applied linguistics research literature on grammar learning and teaching falls into three categories: where research has had little impact (the non-interface position), modest impact (form-focused instruction), and where it potentially can have a large impact (reconceiving grammar).…

  18. Studies in French Grammar and Phonology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benguerel, Andre-Pierre; Grundstrom, Allan W.

    The monograph contains two papers. The first presents a generative grammar for verbal forms in French. It consists of an ordered set of rewrite rules and a set of tables. It generates all existing verbal forms without generating any non-existing ones. The departure from an ordinary generative grammar lies in the use of a tabular form for…

  19. Creativity, Grammar and the Language Teacher.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Di Pietro, Robert J.

    1971-01-01

    Aspects of language instruction which "derive from the nature of language itself" are discussed in this study. The notion that language teachers should teach grammar exclusively is disputed. This position is based on the following generalizations presented in an analysis of the nature of grammar and language: (1) language comprises more than what…

  20. Can the Grammar of Schooling Be Changed?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arbelaiz, Asuncion Martinez; Correa Gorospe, Jose Miguel

    2009-01-01

    In this article we propose that the grammar of schooling [Tyack, D., & Tobin, W. (1994). "The 'grammar' of schooling: Why has it been so hard to change?" "American Educational Research Journal, 31"(3), 453-479.] is responsible not only for the well-known and world-wide difficulties in integrating ICT into formal educational settings, but also for…

  1. Grammar checking for Swedish second language learners

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Johnny Bigert; Viggo Kann; Ola Knutsson; Jonas Sjöbergh

    2005-01-01

    Grammar errors and context-sensitive spelling errors in texts written by second language learners are hard to detect automatically. We have used three different approaches for grammar checking: manually constructed error detection rules, statistical differences between correct and incorrect texts, and machine learning of specific error types. The three approaches have been evaluated using a corpus of second language learner Swedish.

  2. Grammar and Usage: History and Myth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Ken

    2010-01-01

    The paper first traces the history of thinking about language from the Greek writers of the fifth century BC to the development of the first Greek grammar in about 100 BC. Since the glories of Ancient Greek literature predate the development of grammar, there is every reason to doubt the received wisdom that one must have an explicit knowledge of…

  3. Stochastic Process Semantics for Dynamical Grammar Syntax

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric Mjolsness

    We define a class of probabilistic models in terms of an operator algebra of stochastic processes, and a representation for this class in terms of stochastic parameterized grammars. A syntactic specification of a grammar is mapped to semantics given in terms of a ring of operators, so that grammatical composition corresponds to operator addition or multiplication. The operators are generators

  4. Modeling Piinian Grammar Peter M. Scharf

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    the implementation of generative grammars and parsers of Sanskrit using various methodologies which have varying to implement a few aspects of Sanskrit grammar computationally, comments upon the degree to which they approach with in some detail: the question of levels and the role of semantics. I. Differences among the Sanskrit

  5. Pourquoi les exercices de grammaire? (Why Grammar Exercises?)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bastuji, Jacqueline

    1977-01-01

    Recent theories and experiementation running the gamut from the absolute necessity of grammar to its uselessness in teaching a language form the basis of this article. Topics covered are: a typology of the grammar exercise; explicit grammar and linguistic competence; grammar exercises responding to real needs. (Text is in French.) (AMH)

  6. Ninth graders' attitudes toward different approaches to grammar instruction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jacqueline Ann Morelli

    2003-01-01

    A quantitative\\/qualitative study was conducted to determine which particular style of grammar instruction (traditional grammar instruction or the implementation of contextualized grammar instruction) ninth-grade English students perceived as contributing to their success in grammar acquisition. The researcher used the following materials and assessment instruments over a 6 week period: (a) Cooperative Entrance Examination (COOP); (b) Pizzo's (1981) Semantic Differential Scale

  7. Parsing Ill-Formed Text Using an Error Grammar

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer Foster; Carl Vogel

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a robust parsing approach which is designed to address the issue of syntactic errors in text. The approach is based on the concept of an error grammar which is a grammar of ungrammatical sentences. An error grammar is derived from a con- ventional grammar on the basis of an analysis of a corpus of ob- served ill-formed

  8. XRate: a fast prototyping, training and annotation tool for phylo-grammars

    PubMed Central

    Klosterman, Peter S; Uzilov, Andrew V; Bendaña, Yuri R; Bradley, Robert K; Chao, Sharon; Kosiol, Carolin; Goldman, Nick; Holmes, Ian

    2006-01-01

    Background Recent years have seen the emergence of genome annotation methods based on the phylo-grammar, a probabilistic model combining continuous-time Markov chains and stochastic grammars. Previously, phylo-grammars have required considerable effort to implement, limiting their adoption by computational biologists. Results We have developed an open source software tool, xrate, for working with reversible, irreversible or parametric substitution models combined with stochastic context-free grammars. xrate efficiently estimates maximum-likelihood parameters and phylogenetic trees using a novel "phylo-EM" algorithm that we describe. The grammar is specified in an external configuration file, allowing users to design new grammars, estimate rate parameters from training data and annotate multiple sequence alignments without the need to recompile code from source. We have used xrate to measure codon substitution rates and predict protein and RNA secondary structures. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that xrate estimates biologically meaningful rates and makes predictions whose accuracy is comparable to that of more specialized tools. PMID:17018148

  9. A Relationship: Word Alignment, Phrase Table, and Translation Quality

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Lidia S.

    2014-01-01

    In the last years, researchers conducted several studies to evaluate the machine translation quality based on the relationship between word alignments and phrase table. However, existing methods usually employ ad-hoc heuristics without theoretical support. So far, there is no discussion from the aspect of providing a formula to describe the relationship among word alignments, phrase table, and machine translation performance. In this paper, on one hand, we focus on formulating such a relationship for estimating the size of extracted phrase pairs given one or more word alignment points. On the other hand, a corpus-motivated pruning technique is proposed to prune the default large phrase table. Experiment proves that the deduced formula is feasible, which not only can be used to predict the size of the phrase table, but also can be a valuable reference for investigating the relationship between the translation performance and phrase tables based on different links of word alignment. The corpus-motivated pruning results show that nearly 98% of phrases can be reduced without any significant loss in translation quality. PMID:24883402

  10. A Rule-Based Approach to Prepositional Phrase Attachment Disambiguation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric Brill; Philip Resnik

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a new corpus-based approach to prepositional phrase attachment disambiguation, and present results comparing performance of this algorithm with other corpus-based approaches to this problem.

  11. Neural network architectures for Prepositional Phrase attachment disambiguation

    E-print Network

    Belinkov, Yonatan

    2014-01-01

    This thesis addresses the problem of Prepositional Phrase (PP) attachment disambiguation, a key challenge in syntactic parsing. In natural language sentences, a PP may often be attached to several possible candidates. While ...

  12. Affine Invariant Visual Phrases for Object Instance Recognition

    E-print Network

    Patraucean, Viorica; Ovsjanikov, Maks

    2015-05-28

    Affine Invariant Visual Phrases for Object Instance Recognition Viorica Pa?tra?ucean University of Cambridge, UK vp344@cam.ac.uk Maks Ovsjanikov LIX, E´cole Polytechnique, France maks@lix.polytechnique.fr Abstract Object instance recognition...

  13. Accent phrase segmentation using transition probabilities between pitch pattern templates. 

    E-print Network

    Shimodaira, Hiroshi; Nakai, Mitsuru

    1993-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel method for segmenting continuous speech into accent phrases by using a prosodic feature 'pitch pattern'. The pitch pattern extracted from input speech signals is divided into the accent segments ...

  14. Introducing a Translation Dictionary into Phrase-Based SMT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okuma, Hideo; Yamamoto, Hirofumi; Sumita, Eiichiro

    This paper presents a method to effectively introduce a translation dictionary into phrase-based SMT. Though SMT systems can be built with only a parallel corpus, translation dictionaries are more widely available and have many more entries than parallel corpora. A simple and low-cost method to introduce a translation dictionary is to attach a dictionary entry into a phrase table. This, however, does not work well. Target word order and even whole target sentences are often incorrect. To solve this problem, the proposed method uses high-frequency words in the training corpus. The high-frequency words may already be trained well; in other words, they may appear in the phrase table and therefore be translated with correct word order. Experimental results show the proposed method as far superior to simply attaching dictionary entries into phrase tables.

  15. The French Noun Phrase in Preschool Children with SLI: Morphosyntactic and Error Analyses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Royle, Phaedra; Stine, Isabelle

    2013-01-01

    We studied spontaneous speech noun-phrase production in eight French-speaking children with SLI (aged 5;0 to 5; 1) and controls matched on age (4;10 to 5;11) or MLU (aged 3;2 to 4;1). Results showed that children with SLI prefer simple DP structures to complex ones while producing more substitution and omission errors than controls. The three…

  16. Prepositional Phrase Attachment through a Backed-Off Model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Collins; James Brooks

    1995-01-01

    Recent work has considered corpus-based or statistical approaches to the problem of prepositional phrase attachment ambiguity. Typically, ambiguous verb phrases of the form v np1 p np2 are resolved through a model which considers values of the four head words (v, n1, p and n2). This paper shows that the problem is analogous to n-gram language models in speech recognition,

  17. Phonological phrase boundaries constrain lexical access II. Infant data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ariel Gout; Anne Christophe; James L. Morgan

    2004-01-01

    The location of phonological phrase boundaries was shown to affect lexical access by English-learning infants of 10 and 13 months of age. Experiments 1 and 2 used the head-turn preference procedure: infants were familiarized with two bisyllabic words, then presented with sentences that either contained the familiarized words or contained both their syllables separated by a phonological phrase boundary. Ten-month-olds

  18. Perception of glottalization and phrase-final creak.

    PubMed

    Garellek, Marc

    2015-02-01

    American English has several linguistic sources of creaky voice. Two common sources are /t/-glottalization (where /t/ is produced as a glottal stop and/or with creaky voice, as in "button") and phrase-final creak. Both /t/-glottalization and phrase-final creak have similar acoustic properties, but they can co-occur in English. The goal of this study is to determine whether /t/-glottalization and phrase-final creak are perceived distinctly. Sixteen English listeners were asked to identify words in a two-alternative forced choice task. The auditory targets were (near-) minimal pairs, in which one word could have /t/-glottalization (e.g., "button") but the other could not (e.g., "bun"). Stimuli were presented with and without phrase-final creak. Listeners made few identification errors overall, even when /t/-glottalization co-occurred with phrase-final creak, suggesting that /t/-glottalization and phrase-final creak remain perceptually distinct to English listeners. This supports the view that creaky voice is not a single category, but one comprised of distinct voice qualities. PMID:25698016

  19. Grammar and Style Checkers, Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schick, James B. M.

    1990-01-01

    Critiques current examples of computerized grammar and style checkers. Examines the relative strengths and weaknesses of each program. Concludes that programs are not an adequate substitute for knowing the applicable rule of English. (RW)

  20. A No-Grammar Approach to Sentence Power: John C. Mellon's Sentence-Combining Games.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Charles R.

    1971-01-01

    This study is concerned with increasing the rate at which children progress toward more highly differentiated sentence structure. The study recommends sentence-combining practices that will accelerate this progress. The two main purposes of grammar study have been to prevent errors in writing and to present the full range of sentence structures

  1. “Suppose a grammar uses invention”: Gertrude Stein's Theory of Rhetorical Grammar

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sharon J. Kirsch

    2008-01-01

    This article elucidates Gertrude Stein's theory of rhetorical grammar by locating it in her studies at Harvard University\\/Radcliffe College in the mid-1890s and by demonstrating how for Stein the study of grammar correlates with rhetoric's first canon, invention. In her experimental primer, How to Write (1931), a book about the craft of composition, Stein devotes chapters to vocabulary, sentences, paragraphs,

  2. Musical Phrase Representation and Recognition by Means of Neural Networks and Rough Sets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrzej Czyzewski; Marek Szczerba; Bozena Kostek

    2004-01-01

    \\u000a This paper discusses various musical phrase representations that can be used to classify musical phrases with a considerable\\u000a accuracy. Musical phrase analysis plays an important role in music information retrieval domain. In the paper various representations\\u000a of a musical phrase are described and analyzed. Also the experiments were designed to facilitate pitch prediction within a\\u000a musical phrase by means of

  3. The Processing and Interpretation of Verb Phrase Ellipsis Constructions by Children at Normal and Slowed Speech Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callahan, Sarah M.; Walenski, Matthew; Love, Tracy

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To examine children's comprehension of verb phrase (VP) ellipsis constructions in light of their automatic, online structural processing abilities and conscious, metalinguistic reflective skill. Method: Forty-two children ages 5 through 12 years listened to VP ellipsis constructions involving the strict/sloppy ambiguity (e.g., "The…

  4. Information processing system for compaction and replacement of phrases

    SciTech Connect

    Zamora, E.M.

    1988-09-20

    This patent describes an information processing system including an input unit connected to an input word stream of natural language text, a storage unit for storing natural language text, an execution unit for executing instructions to process natural language text and an output unit for displaying an output word stream of natural language text, a process for the replacement of natural language test, a process for the replacement of natural language source phrases contained in the input word stream with natural language replacement phrases which are inserted into the output word stream, comprising the steps of: storing phrase-pair expressions in the storage unit, each expression including a source phrase segment containing a variable source word element and a constant source word element and each expression including a replacement phrase segment containing a variable replacement word element and a constant replacement word element; storing a source table is the storage unit, having source word element values arranged into ranks having a grammatically significant sequence.

  5. Commitment-Based Learning of Hidden Linguistic Structures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akers, Crystal Gayle

    2012-01-01

    Learners must simultaneously learn a grammar and a lexicon from observed forms, yet some structures that the grammar and lexicon reference are unobservable in the acoustic signal. Moreover, these "hidden" structures interact: the grammar maps an underlying form to a particular interpretation. Learning one structure depends on learning…

  6. The Feature Space in Parallel Grammar Writing Miriam Butt

    E-print Network

    The Feature Space in Parallel Grammar Writing Miriam Butt Centre for Comp. Linguistics UMIST PO Box at producing broad-coverage compu- tational grammars for a variety of languages ((Butt et al., 1999; Butt et al

  7. Design by grammar : algorithmic design in an architectural context

    E-print Network

    Colakoglu, M. Birgul (Meryem Birgul), 1966-

    2001-01-01

    An experimental study was performed to explore the practical applicability of the rule based design method of shape grammars. The shape grammar method is used for the analysis and synthesis of the hayat house type in a ...

  8. System, method and apparatus for generating phrases from a database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGreevy, Michael W. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A phrase generation is a method of generating sequences of terms, such as phrases, that may occur within a database of subsets containing sequences of terms, such as text. A database is provided and a relational model of the database is created. A query is then input. The query includes a term or a sequence of terms or multiple individual terms or multiple sequences of terms or combinations thereof. Next, several sequences of terms that are contextually related to the query are assembled from contextual relations in the model of the database. The sequences of terms are then sorted and output. Phrase generation can also be an iterative process used to produce sequences of terms from a relational model of a database.

  9. Qualifying phrases as a measure of spontaneity in speech.

    PubMed

    Weintraub, W; Plaut, S M

    1985-11-01

    Although investigators have attempted to define the paralinguistic characteristics of spontaneous speech, there have been no systematic attempts to study its verbal reflections. An experiment comparing extemporaneous and impromptu speech samples of 10 freshman medical students showed that, of 10 verbal categories, only qualifying phrases significantly differentiated the two levels of spontaneity. A second study compared post-World War II presidential communications of different degrees of spontaneity. Speech samples were taken from inaugural addresses of seven presidents, and from both introductory remarks and responses to questions at their press conferences. The proportion of qualifying phrases significantly decreased as the amount of preparation increased, confirming the results of the student experiment. The use of qualifying phrases appears to represent, in part, an attempt by the speaker to avoid silence while retrieving and encoding memories from long-term storage. PMID:4056785

  10. Learning Complex Grammar in the Virtual Classroom: A Comparison of Processing Instruction, Structured Input, Computerized Visual Input Enhancement, and Traditional Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Victoria

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of processing instruction (PI) and structured input (SI) on the acquisition of the subjunctive in adjectival clauses by 92 second-semester distance learners of Spanish. Computerized visual input enhancement (VIE) was combined with PI and SI in an attempt to increase the salience of the targeted grammatical form…

  11. Does intensive explicit grammar instruction make all the difference?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ernesto Macaro; Liz Masterman

    2006-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of explicit grammar instruction on grammatical knowledge and writing proficiency in first-year students of French at a UK university. Previous research suggests that explicit grammar instruction results in gains in explicit knowledge and its application in specific grammar-related tasks, but there is less evidence that it results in gains in production tasks. A cohort of

  12. A Framework For Tree-Adjunct Grammar Guided Genetic Programming

    E-print Network

    McKay, Robert Ian

    A Framework For Tree-Adjunct Grammar Guided Genetic Programming N. X. Hoai* and R.I. Bob Mc@cs.adfa.edu.au Abstract In this paper we propose the framework for a grammar-guided genetic programming system called Tree-Adjunct Grammar Guided Genetic Programming (TAGGGP). Some intuitively promising aspects of the model compared

  13. GENETIC TRANSPOSITION IN TREE-ADJOINING GRAMMAR GUIDED GENETIC PROGRAMMING

    E-print Network

    McKay, Robert Ian

    GENETIC TRANSPOSITION IN TREE-ADJOINING GRAMMAR GUIDED GENETIC PROGRAMMING: THE DUPLICATION adjoining grammar guided genetic programming system (TAG3P). The results show that, on the problems tried genetic programming (TAG3P) [20] is a genetic programming system that uses tree-adjoining grammars (TAGs

  14. Program Behavior Discovery and Verification: A Graph Grammar Approach

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Kang

    Program Behavior Discovery and Verification: A Graph Grammar Approach Chunying Zhao, Jun Kong are not informative and expressive enough. To address this, we present a semi-automatic graph grammar approach as a graph grammar induction and parsing problem, i.e., automatically iteratively mining qualified patterns

  15. A Genetic Algorithm for Grammars James Anderson and Joe Staines

    E-print Network

    Goldschmidt, Christina

    A Genetic Algorithm for Grammars James Anderson and Joe Staines July 1, 2010 Background training data. 1 #12;A Genetic Algorithm for Grammars Of course, there are many more grammars than be able to search heuristically. Project Proposal We propose a project which uses a genetic algorithm

  16. Difficulties in Teaching and Learning Grammar in an EFL Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Mekhlafi, Abdu Mohammed; Nagaratnam, Ramani Perur

    2011-01-01

    The role of grammar instruction in an ESL/EFL context has been for decades a major issue for students and teachers alike. Researchers have debated whether grammar should be taught in the classroom and students, for their part, have generally looked upon grammar instruction as a necessary evil at best, and an avoidable burden at worst. The paper…

  17. Inference of Edge Replacement Graph Grammars Jacek P. Kukluk1

    E-print Network

    Holder, Lawrence B.

    a representation for such knowledge. In our method of graph grammar inference we search for overlap betweenInference of Edge Replacement Graph Grammars Jacek P. Kukluk1 , Lawrence B. Holder2 , and Diane J@eecs.wsu.edu Abstract We describe an algorithm and experiments for inference of edge replacement graph grammars

  18. Web Exclusive--The Case for Not Teaching Grammar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwagerman, Sean

    2012-01-01

    The value of grammar instruction in improving students' writing has been debated for at least 150 years, and is showing no signs of tiring. But would teaching grammar actually improve writing? In fact, study after study has shown that the study of grammar does not translate to improved student writing. Indeed, the basic skills of writing are not…

  19. Content Validation of the Comprehension of Written Grammar Assessment for Deaf and Hard of Hearing Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cannon, Joanna E.; Hubley, Anita M.

    2014-01-01

    Content validation is a crucial, but often neglected, component of good test development. In the present study, content validity evidence was collected to determine the degree to which elements (e.g., grammatical structures, items, picture responses, administration, and scoring instructions) of the Comprehension of Written Grammar (CWG) test are…

  20. The Effect of Formal Grammar Teaching on the Improvement of ESL Learners' Writing: An Experimental Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El-Banna, Adel Ibrahim

    A study investigated the effectiveness of teaching formal grammar and grammatical structures on development of writing skills of learners of English as a Second Language (ESL), and examined possible differences between males and females in this regard. Subjects were 97 university ESL students, 48 males and 49 females enrolled in a school of…

  1. From Exemplar to Grammar: Integrating Analogy and Probability in Language Learning

    E-print Network

    Amsterdam, University of

    1 From Exemplar to Grammar: Integrating Analogy and Probability in Language Learning Rens Bod for each sentence. The best tree is obtained by maximizing `structural analogy' between a sentence new sentences. We show that our model mimicks children's language development from item

  2. Improving data-driven dependency parsing using large-scale LFG grammars

    E-print Network

    Sahay, Sundeep

    dependency structure as well as various other, deep linguistic features derived from the respective grammars., 2007). Nivre and McDonald (2008) show how two differ- ent approaches to dependency parsing, the graph- based and transition-based approaches, may be combined and subsequently learn to complement each other

  3. Story Grammars: Some Cautions about the Translation of Research into Practice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maribeth Cassidy Schmitt; David G. OBrien

    1986-01-01

    Story grammar instruction is considered “state of the art” in promoting comprehension of narrative text. This article examines some of the intentions that guided the research into story structure, considers some of the validity problems inherent in the research, and outlines some flaws in instructional practices resulting from misinterpretations of it. The article concludes with some suggestions for using the

  4. Commentary to "Multiple Grammars and Second Language Representation," by Luiz Amaral and Tom Roeper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pérez-Leroux, Ana T.

    2014-01-01

    In this commentary, the author defends the Multiple Grammars (MG) theory proposed by Luiz Amaral and Tom Roepe (A&R) in the present issue. Topics discussed include second language acquisition, the concept of developmental optionality, and the idea that structural decisions involve the lexical dimension. The author states that A&R's…

  5. White matter integrity in the vicinity of Broca's area predicts grammar learning success

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Agnes Flöel; Meinou H. de Vries; Jan Scholz; Caterina Breitenstein; Heidi Johansen-Berg

    2009-01-01

    Humans differ substantially in their ability to implicitly extract structural regularities from experience, as required for learning the grammar of a language. The mechanisms underlying this fundamental inter-individual difference, which may determine initial success in language learning, are incompletely understood. Here, we use diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DTI) to determine white matter integrity around Broca's area, which is crucially

  6. XML-Based Representation Formats of Local Grammars for the NLP Javier M. Sastre Martnez

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    to the fast computer technology evolution; cooperative work groups must be able to easily exchange their data to create them. If a system for the massive storage and exchange of graphs amongst computer applications The construction of local grammars for the exact recognition of each valid structure of a natural language

  7. Phonological Phrase Boundaries Constrain Lexical Access I. Adult Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christophe, A.; Peperkamp, S.; Pallier, C.; Block, E.; Mehler, J.

    2004-01-01

    We tested the effect of local lexical ambiguities while manipulating the type of prosodic boundary at which the ambiguity occurred, using French sentences and participants. We observed delayed lexical access when a local lexical ambiguity occurred within a phonological phrase (consistent with previous research; e.g., '[un chat grincheux],'…

  8. Bilingual Medical Phrase Book (In English and Laotian).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thuy, Vuong G.

    This phrase book offers Laotian refugees and immigrants with limited English proficiency a short-cut, word-for-word bilingual reference tool for dealing with medical problems and situations in English-language environments. Seven chapters deal with different issues of the medical encounter and five appendixes present specialized terms and…

  9. Phonological Phrase Boundaries Constrain Lexical Access II. Infant Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gout, A.; Christophe, A.; Morgan, J. L.

    2004-01-01

    The location of phonological phrase boundaries was shown to affect lexical access by English-learning infants of 10 and 13 months of age. Experiments 1 and 2 used the head-turn preference procedure: infants were familiarized with two bisyllabic words, then presented with sentences that either contained the familiarized words or contained both…

  10. The RWTH Phrase-based Statistical Machine Translation System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard Zens; Oliver Bender; Sasa Hasan; Shahram Khadivi; Evgeny Matusov; Jia Xu; Yuqi Zhang; Hermann Ney

    We give an overview of the RWTH phrase-based statistical machine translation system that was used in the evaluation campaign of the International Workshop on Spoken Lan- guage Translation 2005. We use a two pass approach. In the first pass, we gen- erate a list of the N best translation candidates. The second pass consists of rescoring and reranking this N

  11. Automatic Generation of Bid Phrases for Online Advertising

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sujith Ravi; Andrei Broder; Evgeniy Gabrilovich; Vanja Josifovski; Sandeep Pandey; Bo Pang

    One of the most prevalent online advertising methods is tex- tual advertising. To produce a textual ad, an advertiser must craft a short creative (the text of the ad) linking to a landing page, which describes the product or service being promoted. Furthermore, the advertiser must associate the creative to a set of manually chosen bid phrases represent- ing those

  12. Automatic generation of bid phrases for online advertising

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sujith Ravi; Andrei Z. Broder; Evgeniy Gabrilovich; Vanja Josifovski; Sandeep Pandey; Bo Pang

    2010-01-01

    One of the most prevalent online advertising methods is tex- tual advertising. To produce a textual ad, an advertiser must craft a short creative (the text of the ad) linking to a landing page, which describes the product or service being promoted. Furthermore, the advertiser must associate the creative to a set of manually chosen bid phrases represent- ing those

  13. How Listeners Weight Acoustic Cues to Intonational Phrase Boundaries

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xiaohong; Shen, Xiangrong; Li, Weijun; Yang, Yufang

    2014-01-01

    The presence of an intonational phrase boundary is often marked by three major acoustic cues: pause, final lengthening, and pitch reset. The present study investigates how these three acoustic cues are weighted in the perception of intonational phrase boundaries in two experiments. Sentences that contained two intonational phrases with a critical boundary between them were used as the experimental stimuli. The roles of the three acoustic cues at the critical boundary were manipulated in five conditions. The first condition featured none of the acoustic cues. The following three conditions featured only one cue each: pause, final lengthening, and pitch reset, respectively. The fifth condition featured both pause duration and pre-final lengthening. A baseline condition was also included in which all three acoustic cues were preserved intact. Listeners were asked to detect the presence of the critical boundaries in Experiment 1 and judge the strength of the critical boundaries in Experiment 2. The results of both experiments showed that listeners used all three acoustic cues in the perception of prosodic boundaries. More importantly, these acoustic cues were weighted differently across the two experiments: Pause was a more powerful perceptual cue than both final lengthening and pitch reset, with the latter two cues perceptually equivalent; the effect of pause and the effects of the other two acoustic cues were not additive. These results suggest that the weighting of acoustic cues contributes significantly to the perceptual differences of intonational phrase boundary. PMID:25019156

  14. INTRODUCTION 1. The phrase `continuous cover forestry' has featured

    E-print Network

    1 INTRODUCTION 1. The phrase `continuous cover forestry' has featured increasingly in discussions about the future management of British forests. For example, The UK forestry standard (Forestry cover forestry system and to build them into the forest design'. `Continuous cover' is defined

  15. THE PHONETICS AND PHONOLOGY OF INTONATIONAL PHRASING IN ROMANCE*

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    THE PHONETICS AND PHONOLOGY OF INTONATIONAL PHRASING IN ROMANCE* SÓNIA FROTA1 , MARIAPAOLA D, 5 Universidade do Minho Abstract This paper examines the phonetics and phonology of intonational rise (H) and sustained pitch (!H). A detailed analysis of the phonetics of the H boundary tone, which

  16. Mining Search-Phrase Definitions from Item Descriptions

    E-print Network

    Davulcu, Hasan

    . For example, a shoe store may subscribe to advertise its "NIKE Airmax 180" related information, this vendor would like to list its "NIKE Airmax 180" product and agrees to pay 50 information, such as "Nike stable lightweight shoes ..." and two or three word long popular search phrases

  17. Incremental Constraint-based Parsing: An Efficient Approach for Head-final Languages 

    E-print Network

    Güngördü, Zelal

    In this dissertation, I provide a left-to-right incremental parsing approach for Headdriven Phrase Structure Grammar (HPSG; Pollard and Sag (1987, 1994)). HPSG is a lexicalized, constraint-based theory of grammar, which ...

  18. Learning grammar rules of building parts from precise models and noisy observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dehbi, Y.; Plümer, L.

    The automatic interpretation of dense three-dimensional (3D) point clouds is still an open research problem. The quality and usability of the derived models depend to a large degree on the availability of highly structured models which represent semantics explicitly and provide a priori knowledge to the interpretation process. The usage of formal grammars for modelling man-made objects has gained increasing interest in the last few years. In order to cope with the variety and complexity of buildings, a large number of fairly sophisticated grammar rules are needed. As yet, such rules mostly have to be designed by human experts. This article describes a novel approach to machine learning of attribute grammar rules based on the Inductive Logic Programming paradigm. Apart from syntactic differences, logic programs and attribute grammars are basically the same language. Attribute grammars extend context-free grammars by attributes and semantic rules and provide a much larger expressive power. Our approach to derive attribute grammars is able to deal with two kinds of input data. On the one hand, we show how attribute grammars can be derived from precise descriptions in the form of examples provided by a human user as the teacher. On the other hand, we present the acquisition of models from noisy observations such as 3D point clouds. This includes the learning of geometric and topological constraints by taking measurement errors into account. The feasibility of our approach is proven exemplarily by stairs, and a generic framework for learning other building parts is discussed. Stairs aggregate an arbitrary number of steps in a manner which is specified by topological and geometric constraints and can be modelled in a recursive way. Due to this recursion, they pose a special challenge to machine learning. In order to learn the concept of stairs, only a small number of examples were required. Our approach represents and addresses the quality of the given observations and the derived constraints explicitly, using concepts from uncertain projective geometry for learning geometric relations and the Wakeby distribution together with decision trees for topological relations.

  19. Adequacy of contract grammars for component certification

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Adequacy of contract grammars for component certification Alejandra Ruiz, Huascar Espinoza ICT.kelly@cs.york.ac.uk Abstract-- The use of contracts in component-based development is a well-established approach. However there exists a wide range of views as to the nature of the contracts that are necessary to support safety

  20. Towards grammar checker development for Persian language

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nava EHSAN; H. Faili

    2010-01-01

    With improvements in industry and information technology, large volumes of electronic texts such as newspapers, emails, weblogs, books and thesis are produced daily. Producing electrical documents has considerable benefits such as easy organizing and data management. Therefore, existence of automatic systems such as spell and grammar checker\\/corrector can help in reducing costs and increasing the electronic texts and it will

  1. Bag Context Tree Grammars # Sigrid Ewert

    E-print Network

    Drewes, Frank

    or string, but evolves on its own during a derivation. Motivation for investigating bag context tree an investigation into random context in tree gram­ mars and tree transducers. A random context tree grammar G, of course, is that in developing a path of a tree, one has to be aware of the whole of the evolving tree

  2. Generation and Synchronous TreeAdjoining Grammars

    E-print Network

    Shieber, Stuart

    Generation and Synchronous Tree­Adjoining Grammars Stuart M. Shieber Yves Schabes Aiken Computation) have been proposed as a formal­ ism for generation based on the intuition that the extended domain serving as an aid to generation from semantic representations. We demonstrate that this intuition can

  3. Astronomy at Torquay Boys' Grammar School

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Reid; Chris Lintott

    1996-01-01

    TBGS Observatory is owned and run by Torquay Boys' Grammar School in South Devon. The school itself encompasses a wide curriculum from sports to academic studies, ranging from the arts to humanities and science. Due to a high interest from pupils and staff the school has a special focus upon Astronomy. Resulting from this TBGS owns one of the largest,

  4. What Research Tells Us about Teaching Grammar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Michael W.; Wilhelm, Jeff

    2006-01-01

    The authors offer research studies and other documented evidence that teaching grammar without a meaningful context does not improve student writing, largely because that approach does not address the root causes of errors. Several resources that support this position and offer more productive strategies are summarized, including the authors'…

  5. Gram. vs. Inf. Grammar versus Inference

    E-print Network

    Briscoe, Ted

    Gram. vs. Inf. Grammar versus Inference Ted Briscoe Computer Laboratory Natural Language and Information Processing Group University of Cambridge ENS, Paris Mar 2014 #12;Gram. vs. Inf. Evolutionary/Drift = 4 Linguistic Evolution #12;Gram. vs. Inf. Evolutionary Linguistics Universal Darwinism 1 Linguistic

  6. GRASP: a grammar-based schematic parser

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cyrus Bamji; Jonathan Allen

    1989-01-01

    The process of verifying that a circuit's schematic netlist obeys a particular design methodology is formalized. Circuit correctness is tied to a rigorous set of context free grammar composition rules. These rules define how a small set of module symbols may be combined for circuits adhering to the design methodology. Schematic netlists are represented as graphs, and composition rules are

  7. Multiple Grammars: Old Wine in Old Bottles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorace, Antonella

    2014-01-01

    Amaral and Roeper (this issue; henceforth A&R) argue that all speakers -- regardless of whether monolingual or bilingual -- have multiple grammars in their mental language representations. They further claim that this simple assumption can explain many things: optionality in second language (L2) language behaviour, multilingualism, language…

  8. Priority Union and Generalization in Discourse Grammars

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Claire Grover; Chris Brew; Suresh Manandhar; Marc Moens

    1994-01-01

    We describe an implementation in Carpenter's typed feature formalism, ALE, of a discourse grammar of the kind proposed by Scha, Polanyi, . We describe an augmentation of the ALE system to encompass these operations and we show that an appropriate choice of definition for priority union gives the desired multiple output for examples of VP-ellipsis which exhibit a strict\\/sloppy ambiguity.

  9. Multiple Grammars and Second Language Representation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amaral, Luiz; Roeper, Tom

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an extension of the Multiple Grammars Theory (Roeper, 1999) to provide a formal mechanism that can serve as a generative-based alternative to current descriptive models of interlanguage. The theory extends historical work by Kroch and Taylor (1997), and has been taken into a computational direction by Yang (2003). The proposal…

  10. Simulated Action in an Embodied Construction Grammar

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Benjamin Bergen

    2004-01-01

    Various lines of research on language have converged on the premise that linguistic knowledge has as its basic unit pairings of form and meaning. The precise nature of the meanings involved, however, remains subject to the longstanding debate between proponents of arbitrary, abstract representations and those who argue for more detailed perceptuo-motor representations. We propose a model, Embodied Construction Grammar

  11. Epilogue: Dynamic Morphosyntax in Functional Discourse Grammar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Velasco, Daniel Garcia; Hengeveld, Kees; Mackenzie, J. Lachlan

    2012-01-01

    This epilogue addresses the most important topics and challenges for the Morphosyntactic Level in Functional Discourse Grammar that have been raised in the articles in this Special Issue. We begin by exploring the differences between the Morphosyntactic Level in FDG and the treatment of morphosyntactic phenomena in other linguistic frameworks. We…

  12. Grammar and Parsing and a Transition Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juffs, Alan

    2006-01-01

    The article by Clahsen and Felser (CF) on grammatical processing in language learning is a timely and much-needed synthesis of research on this topic. It correctly identifies both morphological processing and syntactic processing as key areas that require attention. This commentary raises two issues: the relationship between the grammar and the…

  13. Using Technology for Teaching Arabic Language Grammar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arrabtah, Adel; Nusour, Tayseer

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of using technology such as CD-ROM, computers, and internet to teach Arabic language grammar to students at Princess Alia University College at Al-Balqa University. The sample of the study consisted of 122 third year female students; (64) for the experimental group and (58) for the control group. The subjects of…

  14. Learning PP attachment for filtering prosodic phrasing Olga van Herwijnen and Jacques Terken

    E-print Network

    Tilburg, Universiteit van

    Learning PP attachment for filtering prosodic phrasing Olga van Herwijnen and Jacques Terken.nl Abstract We explore learning prepositional- phrase attachment in Dutch, to use it as a filter in prosodic phrasing. From a syntactic treebank of spoken Dutch we extract instances of the attachment of prepositional

  15. An Unsupervised Approach to Prepositional Phrase Attachment using Contextually Similar Words

    E-print Network

    Lin, Dekang

    An Unsupervised Approach to Prepositional Phrase Attachment using Contextually Similar Words of Manitoba. Abstract Prepositional phrase attachment is a common source of ambiguity in natural language processing. We present an unsupervised corpus-based approach to prepositional phrase attachment that achieves

  16. An Unsupervised Approach to Prepositional Phrase Attachment using Contextually Similar Words

    E-print Network

    Lin, Dekang

    An Unsupervised Approach to Prepositional Phrase Attachment using Contextually Similar Words of Manitoba. Abstract Prepositional phrase attachment is a common source of ambiguity in natural language processing. We present an unsupervised corpus­based approach to prepositional phrase attachment that achieves

  17. Development of phrase translation systems for handheld computers: from concept to field

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Horacio Franco; Jing Zheng; Kristin Precoda; Federico Cesari; Victor Abrash; Dimitra Vergyri; Anand Venkataraman; Harry Bratt; Colleen Richey; Ace Sarich

    2003-01-01

    We describe the development and conceptual evolution of handheld spoken phrase translation systems, beginning with an initial unidirectional system for translation of English phrases, and later extending to a limited bidirectional phrase translation system between English and Pashto, a major language of Afghanistan. We review the challenges posed by such projects, such as the constraints imposed by the computational platform,

  18. The Acquisition of Lexical Phrases in Academic Writing: A Longitudinal Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Jie; Schmitt, Norbert

    2009-01-01

    Lexical phrases are both numerous and functionally important in written texts. Despite this, L2 learners often find their use problematic, typically overusing a limited number of well-known phrases, while at the same time lacking a diverse enough phrasal repertoire to employ lexical phrases in a native-like manner. While a number of studies have…

  19. Grammar Intervention: Content and Procedures for Facilitating Children's Language Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenberg, Sarita L.

    2013-01-01

    Children with language impairment (LI) show an overall immaturity in grammatical structure. This includes difficulties with basic sentence constituents, pronouns, verb form elaboration, negative and interrogative sentences, noun phrase elaboration, and complex sentences. This article describes explicit instruction and scaffolding strategies, based…

  20. Phrase-based Statistical Machine Translation between English and Welsh

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dafydd Jones; Andreas Eisele

    This paper shows how a baseline phrase-based statistical machine translation (SMT) system can be set up for translation between English and Welsh, a UK language spoken by about 610,000 people, using well-documented and freely available tools and techniques. Our results indicate that the achievable performance for this language pair is among the better of those European languages reported in Koehn

  1. Reordering Constraints for Phrase-Based Statistical Machine Translation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard Zens; Hermann Ney; Taro Watanabe; Eiichiro Sumita

    2004-01-01

    In statistical machine translation, the gen- eration of a translation hypothesis is com- putationally expensive. If arbitrary re- orderings are permitted, the search prob- lem is NP-hard. On the other hand, if we restrict the possible reorderings in an appropriate way, we obtain a polynomial-time search algorithm. We in- vestigate dierent reordering constraints for phrase-based statistical machine trans- lation, namely

  2. Prosaic Suggestions Some Rules of Grammar

    E-print Network

    Wilson, Paul

    phrases that come before the body of the sentence usually should be set off by a comma. (1) In the forest there are dead leaves. In the forest, there are dead leaves. (2) If it is cold put on your coat. If it is cold items. Right: There is a difference between the sexes in body size. Wrong: The variance in body size

  3. Grammar of Binding in the languages of the world: Innate or learned?

    PubMed

    Cole, Peter; Hermon, Gabriella; Yanti

    2015-08-01

    Languages around the world often appear to manifest nearly identical grammatical properties, but, at the same time, the grammatical differences can also be great, sometimes even seeming to support Joos's (1958) claim that "languages can differ from each other without limit and in unpredictable way" (p. 96). This state of affairs provides a puzzle for both nativist approaches to language like Generative Grammar that posit a fixed "Universal Grammar", and for approaches that minimize the contribution of innate grammatical structure. We approach this puzzling state of affairs by looking at one area of grammar, "Binding", the system of local and long distance anaphoric elements in a language. This is an area of grammar that has long been central to the Generative approach to language structure. We compare the anaphoric systems found in "familiar" (European-like) languages that contain dedicated classes of bound and free anaphors (pronouns and reflexives) with the anaphoric systems in endangered Austronesian languages of Indonesia, languages in which there is overlap or no distinction between pronouns and reflexives (Peranakan Javanese and Jambi Malay). What is of special interest about Jambi anaphora is not only that conservative dialects of Jambi Malay do not distinguish between pronouns and reflexives, but that Jambi anaphora appear to constitute a live snapshot of a unitary class of anaphora in the process of grammaticalization as a distinct system of pronouns and reflexives. We argue that the facts of Jambi anaphora cannot be explained by theories positing a Universal Grammar of Binding. Thus, these facts provide evidence that complex grammatical systems like Binding cannot be innate. Our results from Austronesian languages are confirmed by data from signed and creole languages. Our conclusion is that the human language learning capacity must include the ability to model the full complexity found in the syntax of the world's languages. From the perspective of child language acquisition, these conclusions suggest that Universal Grammar does not provide a general solution to the problem of poverty of the stimulus, and the solution to that problem must reside at least in part in special properties of the grammar construction tools available to the language learner rather than simply in a fixed set of grammatical rules hard wired into the brains of speakers. PMID:25988914

  4. XML document-grammar comparison: related problems and applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joe Tekli; Richard Chbeir; Agma J. M. Traina; Caetano Traina

    2011-01-01

    XML document comparison is becoming an ever more popular research issue due to the increasingly abundant use of XML. Likewise,\\u000a a growing interest fosters the development of XML grammar matching and comparison, due to the proliferation of heterogeneous\\u000a XML data sources, particularly on the Web. Nonetheless, the process of comparing XML documents with XML grammars, i.e., XML\\u000a document and grammar

  5. A graph grammar programming style for recognition of music notation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hoda Fahmy; Dorothea Blostein

    1993-01-01

    Graph grammars are a promising tool for solving picture processing problems. However, the application of graph grammars to\\u000a diagram recognition has been limited to rather simple analysis of local symbol configurations. This paper introduces the Build-Weed-Incorporate\\u000a programming style for graph grammars and shows its application in determining the meaning of complex diagrams, where the interaction\\u000a among physically distant symbols is

  6. A cultural, customizable and prefabricated housing grammar for Casablanca

    E-print Network

    Akkar, Ghita

    2011-01-01

    Proposing an innovative design grammar linking prefabrication, customization and cultural adaptability, this thesis addresses the present day housing deficit and lack of architectural identity in Casablanca, Morocco. The ...

  7. Interface Problems: Structural Constraints on Interpretation?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lyn Frazier; Charles Clifton; Keith Rayner; Patricia Deevy; Sungryong Koh; Markus Bader

    2005-01-01

    Five experiments investigated the interpretation of quantified noun phrases in relation to discourse structure. They demonstrated, using questionnaire and on-line reading techniques, that readers in English prefer to give a quantified noun phrase in (VP-external) subject position a presuppositional interpretation, in which the noun phrase limits or restricts the interpretation of an already available set, rather than giving it a

  8. Interface Problems: Structural Constraints on Interpretation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frazier, Lyn; Clifton, Charles; Rayner, Keith; Deevy, Patricia; Koh, Sungryong; Bader, Markus

    2005-01-01

    Five experiments investigated the interpretation of quantified noun phrases in relation to discourse structure. They demonstrated, using questionnaire and on-line reading techniques, that readers in English prefer to give a quantified noun phrase in (VP-external) subject position a presuppositional interpretation, in which the noun phrase limits…

  9. Auxiliaries And Clitics In French UCG Grammar

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karine Baschung; Gabriel G. Bès; Annick Corluy; Thierry Guillotin

    1987-01-01

    French auxilliaries and clitics have been analysed in the frame of U.C.G. (Unification Categorial Grammar). Concatenation of a functor sign and an adjacent argument sign is the basic operation of the model; unification allows (a) to verify if constraints on concatenation are respected; (b) to produce a flow of information between the functor sign and the argument sign.The rules of

  10. Astronomy at Torquay Boys' Grammar School

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, David; Lintott, Chris

    1996-10-01

    TBGS Observatory is owned and run by Torquay Boys' Grammar School in South Devon. The school itself encompasses a wide curriculum from sports to academic studies, ranging from the arts to humanities and science. Due to a high interest from pupils and staff the school has a special focus upon Astronomy. Resulting from this TBGS owns one of the largest, best equipped school observatories in the UK. It is now a minor centre for research and studies at GCSE and higher levels.

  11. Simulating the Paninian System of Sanskrit Grammar

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anand Mishra

    2008-01-01

    We propose a model for computer representation of the P??inian system of sanskrit grammar. Based on this model, we render\\u000a the grammatical data and simulate the rules of A???dhy?y? on computer. We then employ these rules for generation of morpho-syntactical\\u000a components of the language. These generated components we store in a p-subsequential transducer. This we use to develop a\\u000a lexicon

  12. Exemplar variability facilitates rapid learning of an otherwise unlearnable grammar by individuals with language-based learning disability

    PubMed Central

    von Koss Torkildsen, Janne; Dailey, Natalie S.; Aguilar, Jessica M.; Gómez, Rebecca; Plante, Elena

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Even without explicit instruction, learners are able to extract information about the form of a language simply by attending to input that reflects the underlying grammar. Here we explore the role of variability in this learning by asking whether varying the number of unique exemplars heard by the learner affects learning of an artificial syntactic form. Method Learners with normal language (n=16) and language-based learning disability (LLD) (n=16) were exposed to strings of nonwords that represented an underlying grammar. Half heard 3 exemplars sixteen times each (low variability group) and half heard 24 exemplars twice each (high variability group). Learners were then tested for recognition of items heard and generalization of the grammar with new nonword strings. Results Only those learners with LLD who were in the high variability group were able to demonstrate generalization of the underlying grammar. For learners with normal language, both those in the high and the low variability groups showed generalization of the grammar, but relative effect sizes suggested a larger learning effect in the high variability group. Conclusion The results demonstrate that the structure of the learning context can determine the ability to generalize from specific training items to novel cases. PMID:22988285

  13. System, method and apparatus for conducting a phrase search

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGreevy, Michael W. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A phrase search is a method of searching a database for subsets of the database that are relevant to an input query. First, a number of relational models of subsets of a database are provided. A query is then input. The query can include one or more sequences of terms. Next, a relational model of the query is created. The relational model of the query is then compared to each one of the relational models of subsets of the database. The identifiers of the relevant subsets are then output.

  14. Two-Level Contextual Grammars: The Internal Case

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carlos Martín-vide; Joan Miquel-verges; Gheorghe Paun

    1997-01-01

    We consider generative mechanisms similar to contextual grammars with infinite sets of contexts, such that the contexts are also generated in a contextual way (by adjoining contexts, depending on given selectors). In this way one generalizes a proposal from [6], where grammars generating sets of contexts are suggested (here we also use the produced contexts in order to generate a

  15. 6. CURRENT DEVELOPMENTS IN RESEARCH ON THE TEACHING OF GRAMMAR

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hossein Nassaji; Sandra Fotos

    2004-01-01

    With the rise of communicative methodology in the late 1970s, the role of grammar instruction in second language learning was downplayed, and it was even suggested that teaching grammar was not only unhelpful but might actually be detrimental. However, recent research has demonstrated the need for formal instruction for learners to attain high levels of accuracy. This has led to

  16. The Effectiveness of Incidental Teaching of Grammar to Iranian Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghabanchi, Z.

    2010-01-01

    This article reports the results of a study and a pilot study. The "study" considers the effectiveness of incidental teaching of grammar in a learning class of English As A Second Language by Persian speaking students. The "pilot study" examines the students' attitudes toward the incidental learning of grammar from the perspective of field…

  17. Grammar for College Writing: A Sentence-Composing Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killgallon, Don; Killgallon, Jenny

    2010-01-01

    Across America, in thousands of classrooms, from elementary school to high school, the time-tested sentence-composing approach has given students tools to become better writers. Now the authors present a much anticipated sentence-composing grammar worktext for college writing. This book presents a new and easier way to understand grammar: (1) Noun…

  18. Customising Linguistics: Developing an Electronic Grammar Database for Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lock, Graham; Tsui, Amy B. M.

    2000-01-01

    Considers issues in customizing descriptions of English grammar in the context of creating an electronic database for secondary school teachers in Hong Kong. In developing the database, the aim was to incorporate insights from functional grammar and corpus linguistics while keeping information accessible and relevant to teachers only familiar with…

  19. SPECIFICATION AND UTILIZATION OF A TRANSFORMATIONAL GRAMMAR. FINAL REPORT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BLAIR, FRED; ROSENBAUM, PETER S.

    RESEARCH IN THREE AREAS OF COMPUTATIONAL LINGUISTICS IS DESCRIBED--(1) THE DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT OF A TRANSFORMATIONAL GRAMMAR FOR A SUBSET TO GRAMMATICAL SENTENCES IN ENGLISH, (2) THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THIS GRAMMAR IN TERMS OF A SENTENCE SYNTHESIZING PROGRAM WRITTEN IN LISP 1.5, AND (3) THE USE OF SENTENCE SYNTHESIZING PROGRAMS FOR…

  20. A Discourse-Oriented Grammar of Eastern Bontoc.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fukuda, Takashi

    1997-01-01

    The study presents a grammar of Eastern Bontoc, an Austronesian language of the northern Philippines that includes five village dialects and has about 8,000 speakers. Data are from transcribed recordings of primarily one dialect, gathered in 1977-80. The discourse-oriented grammar is outlined in six chapters: an introduction to the language, its…

  1. The Role of Grammar Knowledge for Identifying Language Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowley, Anne Toolan

    2010-01-01

    The focus of the study was an interest in discerning the relationship between grammar knowledge and its application for evaluating grammar development at different academic and professional stages. A 3-part questionnaire was completed by first and last semester Communication Sciences and Disorders (CSD) graduate students, and practicing…

  2. Formalising and Verifying Reference Attribute Grammars in Coq

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Max Schäfer; Torbjörn Ekman; Oege De Moor

    2009-01-01

    Reference attribute grammars are a powerful formalism for concisely specify- ing and implementing static analyses. While they have proven their merit in prac- tical applications, no attempt has so far been made to rigorously verify correctness properties of the resulting systems. We present a general method for formalising reference attribute grammars in the theorem prover Coq. The formalisation is sup-

  3. CHR Grammars with multiple constraint stores Henning Christiansen

    E-print Network

    Sarna-Starosta, Beata

    ­6]. A notable property is CHRG's inherent ability to handle abduction in a way that requires no meta- level an architecture aimed at efficient execution of abductive CHR Grammars. It is based on a multiple constraint store. 2 CHR Grammars and their implementation in CHR CHRG includes rules that reflect the full repertoire

  4. Self-Reconfiguration Using Graph Grammars for Modular Robotics

    E-print Network

    Egerstedt, Magnus

    Self-Reconfiguration Using Graph Grammars for Modular Robotics Daniel Pickem Magnus Egerstedt: In this paper, we apply graph grammars to self-reconfigurable modular robots and present a method to reconfigure of modules to formal assembly rules. We present an approach for centralized reconfiguration planning

  5. Grammar-Based Testing using Realistic Domains in PHP

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Grammar-Based Testing using Realistic Domains in PHP Ivan Enderlin, Fr´ed´eric Dadeau, Alain testing, contracts, realistic domains, PHP, random generation, rule coverage. I. INTRODUCTION Model-based,frederic.dadeau,alain.giorgetti,fabrice.bouquet}@femto-st.fr Abstract--This paper presents an integration of grammar- based testing in a framework for contract-based

  6. Grammar Based Security Testing of Network Protocols Thomas Dean

    E-print Network

    Dean, Thomas R.

    Grammar Based Security Testing of Network Protocols Ben Kam Thomas Dean School of Computing such as HTTP into security and robustness tests. The protocols are described using a grammar that is augmented and Robustness are increas- ingly important requirements for software systems. Our Syntax-based Security Test

  7. Simulating the Pan. inian System of Sanskrit Grammar Anand Mishra

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Simulating the P¯an. inian System of Sanskrit Grammar Anand Mishra Department of Computational Linguistics Ruprecht Karls University, Heidelberg http://sanskrit.sai.uni-heidelberg.de Abstract We propose a model for the computer representation of the P¯an.inian system of sanskrit grammar. Based on this model

  8. The Constituent Ordering Process in Functional Discourse Grammar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connolly, John H.

    2012-01-01

    An essential task for the morphosyntactic level within the grammatical component of Functional Discourse Grammar (FDG) is the handling of constituent ordering. This area of grammar, which is known as positional syntax, constitutes the subject of the present paper, in which the ordering of constituents is examined within the framework of a dynamic…

  9. Where Is She? Gender Occurrences in Online Grammar Guides

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amare, Nicole

    2007-01-01

    This article examines seven online grammar guides for instances of linguistic sexism. The grammar sentences from .edu Websites were analyzed based on NCTE's "Guidelines for Gender-Fair Use of Language" (2002) using the criteria of generic he and man; titles, labels, and names; gender stereotypes; order of mention (firstness); and ratio of male to…

  10. Grammar Works! 15 Reproducible Skills Lessons That Teach Essential Grammar Rules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halverson, Jim

    Drawing on a program used successfully in the classroom for 20 years, this book presents 15 reproducible skills lessons that teach students in grades 4 through 8 essential grammar rules in an engaging, meaningful way. The book uses games, puzzles, mazes, and model sentences that tell amusing stories while teaching rules. Units in the book cover…

  11. Dynamic Systems Theory and Universal Grammar: Holding up a Turbulent Mirror to Development in Grammars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plaza-Pust, Carolina

    2008-01-01

    Research over the last decades has shown that language development in its multiple forms is characterized by a succession of stable and unstable states. However, the variation observed is neither expected nor can it be accounted for on the basis of traditional learning concepts conceived of within the Universal Grammar (UG) paradigm. In this…

  12. Papers in Warlpiri Grammar: In Memory of Lothar Jagst. Work Papers of SIL-AAB, Series A, Volume 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swartz, Stephen M., Ed.

    Five papers on the grammar of Warlpiri, an Australian Aboriginal language, include: "A Tentative Description of Ngardilpa (Warlpiri) Verbs" (Lothar H. Jagst); "Syntactic Structure of Warlpiri Clauses" (Stephen M. Swartz); "A Preliminary Description of Propositional Particles in Warlpiri" (Mary Laughren); "Warlpiri Verb Roots and Preverbs" (David…

  13. Testing Grammars For Top-Down Parsers A.M. Paracha and F. Franek

    E-print Network

    Franek, Frantisek

    Testing Grammars For Top-Down Parsers A.M. Paracha and F. Franek Dept. of Computing and Software Mc processing tools, software modification tools, and software analysis tools. Testing a grammar to make sure's algorithm to produce test data automatically for testing the MACS 1 grammar ( an LL(1) grammar

  14. Grammar, Writing, and Technology: A Sample Technology-supported Approach to Teaching Grammar and Improving Writing for ESL Learners

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Volker Hegelheimer; David Fisher

    English language learners are frequently unable to benefit from the prevailing process-writing approaches due to a lack of grammar and vocabulary knowl- edge relevant to academic writing. This paper describes how the need for explicit grammar instruction as part of preparing students to write can be addressed by using a collection of learner texts and transforming that collection into an

  15. English compound versus non-compound noun phrases in discourse: an acoustic and perceptual study.

    PubMed

    Farnetani, E; Torsello, C T; Cosi, P

    1988-01-01

    The aim of the present paper is to describe, in acoustic and perceptual terms, the prosodic pattern distinguishing English compound and non-compound noun phrases, and to determine how information structure and position affect the production and perception of the two forms. The study is based on the performance of ten English-speaking subjects (five speakers and five listeners). The test utterances were three minimal-pair noun phrases of two constituents, excised from conversational readings. These were analyzed acoustically, and submitted to the listeners for semantic identification. The results indicate that the distinction, when effective, lies primarily in the different prominence pattern: a sequence of an accented constituent followed by an unaccented one in compounds, and of two accented constituents (the second heard as stronger than the first) in non-compounds. It is also based on a different degree of internal cohesion, stronger in compounds and weaker in non-compounds. F0, associated or trading with intensity, has proved to be the main cue to this distinction--more than duration, the major differentiating parameter in production. When an item is excised from the context, the perception of the intended category depends heavily on the communicative importance it had in the discourse. This means that information structure, through its effects on accentuation, becomes the determining factor in the perception of the distinction. The distinctive accentual pattern weakens or is completely neutralized when the test items convey old information. The degree of deaccentuation also seems to be affected by an immediately following focus, and, to a certain extent, by position. The data are viewed in the framework of speaker-listener interaction, and it is argued that deaccentuation, as well as accentuation, can have a communicative function. PMID:3256771

  16. Sensory grammars for sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Aloimonos, Yiannis

    2009-01-01

    One of the major goals of Ambient Intelligence and Smart Environments is to interpret human activity sensed by a variety of sensors. In order to develop useful technologies and a subsequent industry around smart environments, we need to proceed in a principled manner. This paper suggests that human activity can be expressed in a language. This is a special language with its own phonemes, its own morphemes (words) and its own syntax and it can be learned using machine learning techniques applied to gargantuan amounts of data collected by sensor networks. Developing such languages will create bridges between Ambient Intelligence and other disciplines. It will also provide a hierarchical structure that can lead to a successful industry. PMID:21897837

  17. MEDLINE Abstracts Classification Based on Noun Phrases Extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz-Rico, Fernando; Vicedo, José-Luis; Rubio-Sánchez, María-Consuelo

    Many algorithms have come up in the last years to tackle automated text categorization. They have been exhaustively studied, leading to several variants and combinations not only in the particular procedures but also in the treatment of the input data. A widely used approach is representing documents as Bag-Of-Words (BOW) and weighting tokens with the TFIDF schema. Many researchers have thrown into precision and recall improvements and classification time reduction enriching BOW with stemming, n-grams, feature selection, noun phrases, metadata, weight normalization, etc. We contribute to this field with a novel combination of these techniques. For evaluation purposes, we provide comparisons to previous works with SVM against the simple BOW. The well known OHSUMED corpus is exploited and different sets of categories are selected, as previously done in the literature. The conclusion is that the proposed method can be successfully applied to existing binary classifiers such as SVM outperforming the mixture of BOW and TFIDF approaches.

  18. Frases en ingles para defenderse (Phrases for Getting Along in English).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butovsky, Lillian; McHugh, John

    This book of Spanish-English phrases intended for Spanish-speaking immigrants is divided into two main sections. Part One contains the grammatical section, a pronunciation guide, and basic words and phrases a newly arrived Spanish-speaking person would need to get along in an English speaking environment. Grammatical notes in Part One indicate…

  19. Planning in Sentence Production: Evidence for the Phrase as a Default Planning Scope

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Randi C.; Crowther, Jason E.; Knight, Meredith; Tamborello, Franklin P., II; Yang, Chin-Lung

    2010-01-01

    Controversy remains as to the scope of advanced planning in language production. Smith and Wheeldon (1999) found significantly longer onset latencies when subjects described moving-picture displays by producing sentences beginning with a complex noun phrase than for matched sentences beginning with a simple noun phrase. While these findings are…

  20. Blue Car, Red Car: Developing Efficiency in Online Interpretation of Adjective-Noun Phrases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernald, Anne; Thorpe, Kirsten; Marchman, Virginia A.

    2010-01-01

    Two experiments investigated the development of fluency in interpreting adjective-noun phrases in 30- and 36-month-old English-learning children. Using online processing measures, children's gaze patterns were monitored as they heard the familiar adjective-noun phrases (e.g. "blue car") in visual contexts where the adjective was either informative…

  1. Phrase-Based Backoff Models for Machine Translation of Highly Inflected Department of Electrical Engineering

    E-print Network

    Kirchhoff, Katrin

    in foreign-language text by hierarchical morphological ab- stractions at the word and the phrase level-syntactic knowledge mainly at the low-level stages of a ma- chine translation system, i.e. for preprocessing. (NiessenPhrase-Based Backoff Models for Machine Translation of Highly Inflected Languages Mei Yang

  2. An Applied Study Using the Analytic Hierarchy Process to Translate Common Verbal Phrases to Numerical Probabilities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MADJID TAVANA; DENNIS T. KENNEDY; BARBARA MOHEBBI

    1997-01-01

    This is an applied study of how to develop a standardized set of useful verbal probability phrases for communication purposes within an expert community. The analysis extends the previous research in two ways. First, the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) is used to assess the relative weights associated with the verbal phrases employed by a group of thirty financial strategy experts

  3. Facilitating Lecture Recall: The Effects of Embedded Imagery-Evoking Phrases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thrailkill, Nancy J.; Ormrod, Jeanne Ellis

    Three experiments describe the effects of imagery on learning a large and integrated body of information from a college lecture. It was hypothesized that high-imagery phrases would be more easily recalled and would promote recall of abstract verbal phrases in close temporal proximity to them. In experiment 1, 22 undergraduates attended a lecture…

  4. Phrase Length Matters: The Interplay between Implicit Prosody and Syntax in Korean "Garden Path" Sentences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hwang, Hyekyung; Steinhauer, Karsten

    2011-01-01

    In spoken language comprehension, syntactic parsing decisions interact with prosodic phrasing, which is directly affected by phrase length. Here we used ERPs to examine whether a similar effect holds for the on-line processing of written sentences during silent reading, as suggested by theories of "implicit prosody." Ambiguous Korean sentence…

  5. Automatic Extraction of Verb Phrases from Annotated Corpora: A Linguistic Evaluation for Estonian

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gaël Dias; Heiki-Jaan Kaalep; Kadri Muischnek

    Statistically-based phrase extractors are fundamental tools for the improvement of Natural Language Processing applications designed for the new languages of the emerging countries. In this context, we will present a new architecture called SENTA (Software for the Extraction of N-ary Textual Associations) that identifies verbal phrases from lemmatized corpora. In particular, SENTA proposes a solution to the definition of ad

  6. Recognizing noun phrases in medical discharge summaries: an evaluation of two natural language parsers.

    PubMed Central

    Spackman, K. A.; Hersh, W. R.

    1996-01-01

    We evaluated the ability of two natural language parsers, CLARIT and the Xerox Tagger, to identify simple, noun phrases in medical discharge summaries. In twenty randomly selected discharge summaries, there were 1909 unique simple noun phrases. CLARIT and the Xerox Tagger exactly identified 77.0% and 68.7% of the phrases, respectively, and partially identified 85.7% and 80.8% of the phrases. Neither system had been specially modified or tuned to the medical domain. These results suggest that it is possible to apply existing natural language processing (NLP) techniques to large bodies of medical text, in order to empirically identify the terminology used in medicine. Virtually all the noun phrases could be regarded as having special medical connotation and would be candidates for entry into a controlled medical vocabulary. PMID:8947647

  7. Priming prepositional phrase attachment: evidence from eye-tracking and event-related potentials.

    PubMed

    Boudewyn, Megan A; Zirnstein, Megan; Swaab, Tamara Y; Traxler, Matthew J

    2014-01-01

    Three syntactic-priming experiments investigated the effect of structurally similar or dissimilar prime sentences on the processing of target sentences, using eye tracking (Experiment 1) and event-related potentials (ERPs) (Experiments 2 and 3) All three experiments tested readers' response to sentences containing a temporary syntactic ambiguity. The ambiguity occurred because a prepositional phrase modifier (PP-modifier) could attach either to a preceding verb or to a preceding noun. Previous experiments have established that (a) noun-modifying expressions are harder to process than verb-modifying expressions (when test sentences are presented in isolation); and (b) for other kinds of sentences, processing a structurally similar prime sentence can facilitate processing a target sentence. The experiments reported here were designed to determine whether a structurally similar prime could facilitate processing of noun-attached modifiers and whether such facilitation reflected syntactic-structure-building or semantic processes. These findings have implications for accounts of structural priming during online comprehension and for accounts of syntactic representation and processing in comprehension. PMID:23859219

  8. The construction of semantic memory: grammar-based representations learned from relational episodic information.

    PubMed

    Battaglia, Francesco P; Pennartz, Cyriel M A

    2011-01-01

    After acquisition, memories underlie a process of consolidation, making them more resistant to interference and brain injury. Memory consolidation involves systems-level interactions, most importantly between the hippocampus and associated structures, which takes part in the initial encoding of memory, and the neocortex, which supports long-term storage. This dichotomy parallels the contrast between episodic memory (tied to the hippocampal formation), collecting an autobiographical stream of experiences, and semantic memory, a repertoire of facts and statistical regularities about the world, involving the neocortex at large. Experimental evidence points to a gradual transformation of memories, following encoding, from an episodic to a semantic character. This may require an exchange of information between different memory modules during inactive periods. We propose a theory for such interactions and for the formation of semantic memory, in which episodic memory is encoded as relational data. Semantic memory is modeled as a modified stochastic grammar, which learns to parse episodic configurations expressed as an association matrix. The grammar produces tree-like representations of episodes, describing the relationships between its main constituents at multiple levels of categorization, based on its current knowledge of world regularities. These regularities are learned by the grammar from episodic memory information, through an expectation-maximization procedure, analogous to the inside-outside algorithm for stochastic context-free grammars. We propose that a Monte-Carlo sampling version of this algorithm can be mapped on the dynamics of "sleep replay" of previously acquired information in the hippocampus and neocortex. We propose that the model can reproduce several properties of semantic memory such as decontextualization, top-down processing, and creation of schemata. PMID:21887143

  9. SGML : a meta-language for shape grammar

    E-print Network

    Liew, Haldane

    2004-01-01

    A shape grammar develops a drawing through a series of transformations by repeatedly applying if-then rules. Although the rules can be designed, in principle, to construct any type of drawing, the drawings they construct ...

  10. Stochastic Attribute-Value Grammars Steven P. Abney

    E-print Network

    Abney, Steven P.

    and context-free cases to grammars with constraints.1 (Brew, 1995) sketches a probabilis- tic version of Head proof trees: for example, the derivation 1 I confine my discussion here to Brew and Eisele because

  11. A unifying approach to picture grammars6 Matteo Pradellaa,

    E-print Network

    Pradella, Matteo

    , Italy Abstract Several old and recent classes of picture grammars, that variously extend context polynomial-time recognition of pictures by an approach extending the classical Cocke-Kasami-Younger (CKY

  12. Post's Correspondence Problem PCP is about context-free grammars

    E-print Network

    Hesselink, Wim H.

    to the condition that the concatenation wi1 wi2 . . . wim #yim y1m-1 . . . yi1 is a palindrome over the alphabet is whether the language generated by grammar G contains a palindrome, or more precisely a palindrome

  13. Data and Models for Statistical Parsing with Combinatory Categorial Grammar 

    E-print Network

    Hockenmaier, Julia

    This dissertation is concerned with the creation of training data and the development of probability models for statistical parsing of English with Combinatory Categorial Grammar (CCG). Parsing, or syntactic analysis, ...

  14. Search-Based Inference of Dialect Grammars Massimiliano Di Penta

    E-print Network

    Di Penta, Massimiliano

    and COBOL languages: although standard grammars exist, they are almost useless since a large part of the existing COBOL or C code is written using dialects that are not 100% compliant to the standard. For example

  15. An Entropy Model for Artificial Grammar Learning

    PubMed Central

    Pothos, Emmanuel M.

    2010-01-01

    A model is proposed to characterize the type of knowledge acquired in artificial grammar learning (AGL). In particular, Shannon entropy is employed to compute the complexity of different test items in an AGL task, relative to the training items. According to this model, the more predictable a test item is from the training items, the more likely it is that this item should be selected as compatible with the training items. The predictions of the entropy model are explored in relation to the results from several previous AGL datasets and compared to other AGL measures. This particular approach in AGL resonates well with similar models in categorization and reasoning which also postulate that cognitive processing is geared towards the reduction of entropy. PMID:21607072

  16. Towards Automatical Migration of Transformation Rules after Grammar Extension

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wolfgang Lohmann; Günter Riedewald

    2003-01-01

    Abstract The paper addresses two problems in software mainte- nance. Firstly, some maintenance tasks require modifica- tions of the grammar. A change in a grammar,can make abstract syntax and transformation rules outdated, which then themselves become,subject to a maintenance,process. Secondly, it is essential that after a repair programs look as much as possible as they looked before. Especially com- ments

  17. Normal ordering problem and the extensions of the Stirling grammar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, S.-M.; Mansour, T.; Schork, M.

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the connection between context-free grammars and normal ordered problem, and then to explore various extensions of the Stirling grammar. We present grammatical characterizations of several well known combinatorial sequences, including the generalized Stirling numbers of the second kind related to the normal ordered problem and the r-Dowling polynomials. Also, possible avenues for future research are described.

  18. Fuzzy Modeling and Natural Language Processing for Panini's Sanskrit Grammar

    E-print Network

    Reddy, P Venkata Subba

    2010-01-01

    Indian languages have long history in World Natural languages. Panini was the first to define Grammar for Sanskrit language with about 4000 rules in fifth century. These rules contain uncertainty information. It is not possible to Computer processing of Sanskrit language with uncertain information. In this paper, fuzzy logic and fuzzy reasoning are proposed to deal to eliminate uncertain information for reasoning with Sanskrit grammar. The Sanskrit language processing is also discussed in this paper.

  19. Correcting Syntactic Annotation Errors Using a Synchronous Tree Substitution Grammar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Yoshihide; Matsubara, Shigeki

    This paper proposes a method of correcting annotation errors in a treebank. By using a synchronous grammar, the method transforms parse trees containing annotation errors into the ones whose errors are corrected. The synchronous grammar is automatically induced from the treebank. We report an experimental result of applying our method to the Penn Treebank. The result demonstrates that our method corrects syntactic annotation errors with high precision.

  20. Artificial grammar learning meets formal language theory: an overview

    PubMed Central

    Fitch, W. Tecumseh; Friederici, Angela D.

    2012-01-01

    Formal language theory (FLT), part of the broader mathematical theory of computation, provides a systematic terminology and set of conventions for describing rules and the structures they generate, along with a rich body of discoveries and theorems concerning generative rule systems. Despite its name, FLT is not limited to human language, but is equally applicable to computer programs, music, visual patterns, animal vocalizations, RNA structure and even dance. In the last decade, this theory has been profitably used to frame hypotheses and to design brain imaging and animal-learning experiments, mostly using the ‘artificial grammar-learning’ paradigm. We offer a brief, non-technical introduction to FLT and then a more detailed analysis of empirical research based on this theory. We suggest that progress has been hampered by a pervasive conflation of distinct issues, including hierarchy, dependency, complexity and recursion. We offer clarifications of several relevant hypotheses and the experimental designs necessary to test them. We finally review the recent brain imaging literature, using formal languages, identifying areas of convergence and outstanding debates. We conclude that FLT has much to offer scientists who are interested in rigorous empirical investigations of human cognition from a neuroscientific and comparative perspective. PMID:22688631

  1. Spelling-Error Tolerant, Order-Independent Pass-Phrases via the Damerau-Levenshtein String-Edit Distance Metric

    E-print Network

    -based authentication or key-exchange scheme. In particular, the pass-phrase will consist of about 4 to 7 words chosenSpelling-Error Tolerant, Order-Independent Pass-Phrases via the Damerau-Levenshtein String Turing Tests (human-only solvable puzzles) are options, but an- other option is to use pass-phrases

  2. Cross-cultural music phrase processing: an fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Nan, Yun; Knösche, Thomas R; Zysset, Stefan; Friederici, Angela D

    2008-03-01

    The current study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate the neural basis of musical phrase boundary processing during the perception of music from native and non-native cultures. German musicians performed a cultural categorization task while listening to phrased Western (native) and Chinese (non-native) musical excerpts as well as modified versions of these, where the impression of phrasing has been reduced by removing the phrase boundary marking pause (henceforth called "unphrased"). Bilateral planum temporale was found to be associated with an increased difficulty of identifying phrase boundaries in unphrased Western melodies. A network involving frontal and parietal regions showed increased activation for the phrased condition with the orbital part of left inferior frontal gyrus presumably reflecting working memory aspects of the temporal integration between phrases, and the middle frontal gyrus and intraparietal sulcus probably reflecting attention processes. Areas more active in the culturally familiar, native (Western) condition included, in addition to the left planum temporale and right ventro-medial prefrontal cortex, mainly the bilateral motor regions. These latter results are interpreted in light of sensorimotor integration. Regions with increased signal for the unfamiliar, non-native music style (Chinese) included a right lateralized network of angular gyrus and the middle frontal gyrus, possibly reflecting higher demands on attention systems, and the right posterior insula suggesting higher loads on basic auditory processing. PMID:17497646

  3. Dynamic time warping and sparse representation classification for birdsong phrase classification using limited training data.

    PubMed

    Tan, Lee N; Alwan, Abeer; Kossan, George; Cody, Martin L; Taylor, Charles E

    2015-03-01

    Annotation of phrases in birdsongs can be helpful to behavioral and population studies. To reduce the need for manual annotation, an automated birdsong phrase classification algorithm for limited data is developed. Limited data occur because of limited recordings or the existence of rare phrases. In this paper, classification of up to 81 phrase classes of Cassin's Vireo is performed using one to five training samples per class. The algorithm involves dynamic time warping (DTW) and two passes of sparse representation (SR) classification. DTW improves the similarity between training and test phrases from the same class in the presence of individual bird differences and phrase segmentation inconsistencies. The SR classifier works by finding a sparse linear combination of training feature vectors from all classes that best approximates the test feature vector. When the class decisions from DTW and the first pass SR classification are different, SR classification is repeated using training samples from these two conflicting classes. Compared to DTW, support vector machines, and an SR classifier without DTW, the proposed classifier achieves the highest classification accuracies of 94% and 89% on manually segmented and automatically segmented phrases, respectively, from unseen Cassin's Vireo individuals, using five training samples per class. PMID:25786922

  4. Can Prosody Be Used to Discover Hierarchical Structure in Continuous Speech?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langus, Alan; Marchetto, Erika; Bion, Ricardo Augusto Hoffmann; Nespor, Marina

    2012-01-01

    We tested whether adult listeners can simultaneously keep track of variations in pitch and syllable duration in order to segment continuous speech into phrases and group these phrases into sentences. The speech stream was constructed so that prosodic cues signaled hierarchical structures (i.e., phrases embedded within sentences) and non-adjacent…

  5. Increases in Individualistic Words and Phrases in American Books, 1960–2008

    PubMed Central

    Twenge, Jean M.; Campbell, W. Keith; Gentile, Brittany

    2012-01-01

    Cultural products such as song lyrics, television shows, and books reveal cultural differences, including cultural change over time. Two studies examine changes in the use of individualistic words (Study 1) and phrases (Study 2) in the Google Books Ngram corpus of millions of books in American English. Current samples from the general population generated and rated lists of individualistic words and phrases (e.g., “unique,” “personalize,” “self,” “all about me,” “I am special,” “I’m the best”). Individualistic words and phrases increased in use between 1960 and 2008, even when controlling for changes in communal words and phrases. Language in American books has become increasingly focused on the self and uniqueness in the decades since 1960. PMID:22808113

  6. The Role of Chunks, Phrases, and Body Language in Understanding Coordinated Academic Lectures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khuwaileh, A. A.

    1999-01-01

    A crucial component of academic lectures is the use of chunks, phrases, and body language, and their role in facilitating understanding. This article examines the function and context of this component in the discourse of academic lectures. (Author/VWL)

  7. Assigning intonation elements and prosodic phrasing for English speech synthesis from high level linguistic input 

    E-print Network

    Black, Alan W; Taylor, Paul A

    This paper describes a method for generating intonation events and prosodic phrasing from a high level linguistic description. Specifically, the input consists of information normally available from linguistic processing: ...

  8. Accent Phrase Segmentation by Finding N-Best Sequences of Pitch Pattern Templates 

    E-print Network

    Nakai, Mitsuru; Shimodaira, Hiroshi

    This paper describes a prosodic method for segmenting continuous speech into accent phrases. Optimum sequences are obtained on the basis of least squared error criterion by using dynamic time warping between F0 contours ...

  9. The Prefix PO- and Aspect in Russian and Polish: A Cognitive Grammar Account

    E-print Network

    Christensen, Jason Heath

    2011-12-31

    This study examines the meanings of the prefix po- and verbal aspect in Russian and Polish in a Cognitive Grammar framework. The principles of Cognitive Grammar adopted in this study are based on Langacker (1991). This ...

  10. Introduction NE Grammars Medical IE Terminology Conclusions Ekstrakcja informacji zloonych z tekstw

    E-print Network

    Introduction NE Grammars Medical IE Terminology Conclusions Ekstrakcja informacji zloonych z roku #12;Introduction NE Grammars Medical IE Terminology Conclusions Project Motivations and Goals domain (medical texts), testing methods of terminology extraction on Polish data. #12;Introduction NE

  11. Unsupervised Syntax-Based Machine Translation: The Contribution of Discontiguous Phrases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rens Bod

    2007-01-01

    We present a new unsupervised syntax-based MT system, termed U-DOT, which uses the unsupervised U-DOP model for learning paired trees, and which computes the most probable target sentence from the relative frequencies of paired subtrees. We test U-DOT on the German-English Europarl corpus, showing that it outperforms the state-of-the-art phrase-based Pharaoh system. We demonstrate that the inclusion of noncontiguous phrases

  12. The ParaPhrase Project: Parallel Patterns for Adaptive Heterogeneous Multicore Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kevin Hammond; Marco Aldinucci; Chris Brown; Francesco Cesarini; Marco Danelutto; Horacio Gonz'alez-V'elez; Peter Kilpatrick; Rainer Keller; Michael Rossbory; Gilad Shainer

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the ParaPhrase project, a new 3-year targeted research project funded under EU Framework 7 Objective 3.4 (Computer Systems), starting in October 2011. ParaPhrase aims to follow a new approach to introducing parallelism using advanced refactoring techniques coupled with high-level parallel design patterns. The refactoring approach will use these design patterns to restructure pro- grams defined as networks

  13. Finite state grammars for dialects of the advertising song of the savannah sparrow (Passerculus Sandwichensis ).

    PubMed

    Chew, L

    1983-03-01

    Right-linear finite state grammars were extracted for song sequences of Savannah Sparrows (Passerculus sandwichensis) from Ontario and Nova Scotia. The Nova Scotia grammar was found to be longer than the Ontario grammar (possess more rewrite statements) and allow for the production of sequences containing consecutive trills. These differences are discussed with respect to genetic and environmental factors shaping song behaviour in the two regions. Limitations of a nonstochastic finite state grammar procedure are also addressed. PMID:24923612

  14. Quasi-Synchronous Grammars: Alignment by Soft Projection of Syntactic Dependencies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David A. Smith; Jason Eisner

    2005-01-01

    Many syntactic models in machine trans-lation are channels that transform one tree into another, or synchronous gram-mars that generate trees in parallel. We present a new model of the translation pro-cess: quasi-synchronous grammar (QG). Given a source-language parse tree T1, a QG defines a monolingual grammar that generates translations of T1.The trees T2 allowed by this monolingual gram-mar are inspired

  15. Influencing feelings of cancer risk: direct and moderator effects of affectively laden phrases in risk communication.

    PubMed

    Janssen, Eva; van Osch, Liesbeth; Lechner, Lilian; de Vries, Hein

    2015-01-01

    Evidence is accumulating for the importance of feelings of risk in explaining cancer preventive behaviors, but best practices for influencing these feelings are limited. This study investigated the direct and moderational influence of affectively laden phrases in cancer risk messages. Two experimental studies were conducted in relation to different cancer-related behaviors--sunbed use (n = 112) and red meat consumption (n = 447)--among student and nonstudent samples. Participants were randomly assigned to one of two conditions: (a) a cognitive message using cognitively laden phrases or (b) an affective message using affectively laden phrases. The results revealed that affective phrases did not directly influence feelings of risk in both studies. Evidence for a moderational influence was found in Study 2, suggesting that affective information strengthened the relation between feelings of risk and intention (i.e., participants relied more on their feelings in the decision-making process after exposure to affective information). These findings suggest that solely using affective phrases in risk communication may not be sufficient to directly influence feelings of risk and other methods need to be explored in future research. Moreover, research is needed to replicate our preliminary indications for a moderational influence of affective phrases to advance theory and practice. PMID:25569710

  16. Probabilistic context-free grammars estimated from infinite distributions.

    PubMed

    Corazza, Anna; Satta, Giorgio

    2007-08-01

    In this paper, we consider probabilistic context-free grammars, a class of generative devices that has been successfully exploited in several applications of syntactic pattern matching, especially in statistical natural language parsing. We investigate the problem of training probabilistic context-free grammars on the basis of distributions defined over an infinite set of trees or an infinite set of sentences by minimizing the cross-entropy. This problem has applications in cases of context-free approximation of distributions generated by more expressive statistical models. We show several interesting theoretical properties of probabilistic context-free grammars that are estimated in this way, including the previously unknown equivalence between the grammar cross-entropy with the input distribution and the so-called derivational entropy of the grammar itself. We discuss important consequences of these results involving the standard application of the maximum-likelihood estimator on finite tree and sentence samples, as well as other finite-state models such as Hidden Markov Models and probabilistic finite automata. PMID:17568142

  17. Shared Logistic Normal Distributions for Soft Parameter Tying in Unsupervised Grammar Induction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shay B. Cohen; Noah A. Smith

    2009-01-01

    We present a family of priors over probabilis- tic grammar weights, called the shared logistic normal distribution. This family extends the partitioned logistic normal distribution, en- abling factored covariance between the prob- abilities of different derivation events in the probabilistic grammar, providing a new way to encode prior knowledge about an unknown grammar. We describe a variational EM al- gorithm

  18. A SHORT SYNOPSIS OF THE MOST ESSENTIAL POINTS IN HAWAIIAN GRAMMAR.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ALEXANDER, W.D.

    THIS IS A REPRINT OF A BOOK PUBLISHED IN 1864. IT IS INTENDED AS A REFERENCE GRAMMAR FOR STUDENTS OF HAWAIIAN AND FOR THOSE INTERESTED IN THE COMPARATIVE GRAMMAR OF THE POLYNESIAN LANGUAGES. IT FOLLOWS THE PATTERN OF THE TRADITIONAL GRAMMARS OF THE TIME, BUT THE AUTHOR WAS AWARE OF THE DANGER OF IMPOSING ON HAWAIIAN THE CATEGORIES OF EUROPEAN…

  19. From object grammars to ECO systems. Enrica Duchi # JeanMarc Fedou + Simone Rinaldi #

    E-print Network

    Fondements et Applications, Université Paris 7

    From object grammars to ECO systems. Enrica Duchi # Jean­Marc Fedou + Simone Rinaldi # Abstract the ECO method and object grammars, both based on a recursive description for the examined class of objects. In particular, we study the problem of passing from an object grammar to an ``equivalent'' ECO

  20. Inference of Node and Edge Replacement Graph Grammars Jacek P. Kukluk

    E-print Network

    Holder, Lawrence B.

    graph grammars will generalize the knowledge from the examples into a concise form and generalizeInference of Node and Edge Replacement Graph Grammars Jacek P. Kukluk Dept. of Computer Science@eecs.wsu.edu Abstract In this paper we study the inference of node and edge replacement graph grammars. We search

  1. Inference of Node Replacement Graph Grammars Jacek P. Kukluk, Lawrence B. Holder, and Diane J. Cook

    E-print Network

    Holder, Lawrence B.

    and generalize knowledge in graph domains. They have been applied as analytical tools in physics, biology1 Inference of Node Replacement Graph Grammars Jacek P. Kukluk, Lawrence B. Holder, and Diane J) 272-3784 Running Title: Inference of Node Replacement Graph Grammars Abstract Graph grammars combine

  2. Automatic Adjacency Grammar Generation from User Drawn Sketches Joan Mas Romeu1

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    of adjacency productions is also note- worthy in an on-line input mode where different people tend to drawAutomatic Adjacency Grammar Generation from User Drawn Sketches Joan Mas Romeu1 , Bart Lamiroy to auto- matically generate adjacency grammars describing graphi- cal symbols. A grammar production

  3. Grammars and machines What makes a language a language rather than an arbitrary sequence of

    E-print Network

    Cockshott, W. Paul

    Grammars and machines What makes a language a language rather than an arbitrary sequence of symbols is its grammar. A grammar specifies the order in which the symbols of a language may be combined to make, S, P) where: T stands for what are called the terminal symbols of the language. In a human language

  4. Electrical Stimulation of Broca's Area Enhances Implicit Learning of an Artificial Grammar

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Meinou H. de Vries; Andre C. R. Barth; Sandra Maiworm; Stefan Knecht; Pienie Zwitserlood; Agnes Flöel

    2010-01-01

    Artificial grammar learning constitutes a well-established model for the acquisition of grammatical knowledge in a natural setting. Previous neuroimaging studies demonstrated that Broca's area (left BA 44\\/45) is similarly activated by natural syntactic processing and artificial grammar learning. The current study was conducted to investigate the causal relationship between Broca's area and learning of an artificial grammar by means of

  5. The Association between Expressive Grammar Intervention and Social and Emergent Literacy Outcomes for Preschoolers with SLI

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington, Karla N.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether (a) expressive grammar intervention facilitated social and emergent literacy outcomes better than no intervention and (b) expressive grammar gains and/or initial expressive grammar level predicted social and emergent literacy outcomes. Method: This investigation was a follow-up to a recently published study exploring…

  6. A Note on Hack's Conjecture, Parikh Images of Matrix Languages and Multiset Grammars

    E-print Network

    Hamburg.Universität

    A Note on Hack's Conjecture, Parikh Images of Matrix Languages and Multiset Grammars Georg Zetzsche It is shown that Hack's Conjecture on Petri nets implies that for every language generated by a matrix grammar by arbitrary and monotone multiset grammars coincide. Zusammenfassung Es wird gezeigt, dass die Hack

  7. The Effect of a Study of Grammar on the Writing of Eighth-Grade Students. Report from the Individually Guided Instruction in English Language, Composition, and Literature Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blount, Nathan S.; And Others

    This study proposed (1) to verify that students of normal ability could learn structural and transformational grammar concepts presented in the format of linear programing, and (2) to test whether the students would apply the concepts in compositions so that their writing showed progress toward maturity. Participating in the experiment were 207…

  8. Proceedings of a Conference--"The Future of Grammar in American Schools" (Winchester, VA, August 10-11, 1990).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council of Teachers of English, Urbana, IL. Assembly for the Teaching of English Grammar.

    Providing alternatives to the way grammar is taught, this proceedings includes every paper (or summary) except one delivered at a conference on the future of grammar in American schools. Papers in the proceedings are: "Keynote: The Future of Grammar in American Schools" (Martha Kolln); "Approaches to Grammar: Teaching & Otherwise" (Kathy…

  9. Morphological Variability in Interlanguage Grammars: New Evidence from the Acquisition of Gender and Number in Italian Determiner Phrases and Direct Object Pronouns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santoro, Maurizio

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, I investigate the phenomenon of morphological variability in the production of Italian determiners, descriptive adjectives, and direct object pronouns by adult English learners of Italian to determine whether morphological errors are the result of computational or representational difficulties. Second language acquisitionists do…

  10. Chinese lexical networks: The structure, function and formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jianyu; Zhou, Jie; Luo, Xiaoyue; Yang, Zhanxin

    2012-11-01

    In this paper Chinese phrases are modeled using complex networks theory. We analyze statistical properties of the networks and find that phrase networks display some important features: not only small world and the power-law distribution, but also hierarchical structure and disassortative mixing. These statistical traits display the global organization of Chinese phrases. The origin and formation of such traits are analyzed from a macroscopic Chinese culture and philosophy perspective. It is interesting to find that Chinese culture and philosophy may shape the formation and structure of Chinese phrases. To uncover the structural design principles of networks, network motif patterns are studied. It is shown that they serve as basic building blocks to form the whole phrase networks, especially triad 38 (feed forward loop) plays a more important role in forming most of the phrases and other motifs. The distinct structure may not only keep the networks stable and robust, but also be helpful for information processing. The results of the paper can give some insight into Chinese language learning and language acquisition. It strengthens the idea that learning the phrases helps to understand Chinese culture. On the other side, understanding Chinese culture and philosophy does help to learn Chinese phrases. The hub nodes in the networks show the close relationship with Chinese culture and philosophy. Learning or teaching the hub characters, hub-linking phrases and phrases which are meaning related based on motif feature should be very useful and important for Chinese learning and acquisition.

  11. THE ACQUISITION OF SPANISH GRAMMAR BY MEXICAN CHILDREN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BLOUNT, B.G.; KERNAN, KEITH T.

    USING THE METHODOLOGY DEVISED BY JEAN BERKO (1958) TO TEST AMERICAN CHILDREN ON THEIR INTERNALIZATION OF ENGLISH GRAMMATICAL RULES, 92 MEXICAN CHILDREN OF CIUDAD GUZMAN, JALISCO, WERE TESTED TO DETERMINE THEIR INTERNALIZATION OF SPANISH GRAMMAR. THE CHILDREN WERE FROM THE LOWER SOCIO-ECONOMIC CLASS, AS WERE THE 18 ADULTS WHO TOOK THE SAME TEST TO…

  12. Efficiency of the Symmetry Bias in Grammar Acquisition

    E-print Network

    Nakamura, Makoto

    to limit possibilities in a situation using constraints called cognitive biases [2,3]D A simple expression been reported that various kinds of cognitive biases work for infants to limit the possible wordEfficiency of the Symmetry Bias in Grammar Acquisition Ryuichi Matoba, Makoto Nakamura, and Satoshi

  13. Time Series Prediction Using Grammar-directed Genetic Programming Methods

    E-print Network

    Fernandez, Thomas

    Time Series Prediction Using Grammar-directed Genetic Programming Methods Santi Garcia Carbajal Abstract-- We use a modified Genetic Programming System to predict the values of the reduced set proposed as benchmark for the '07 Neural Forecasting Contest. Genetic Programming is a well known method used

  14. MICA: A Probabilistic Dependency Parser Based on Tree Insertion Grammars

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    MICA: A Probabilistic Dependency Parser Based on Tree Insertion Grammars Application Note Srinivas.nasr@lif.univ-mrs.fr rambow@ccls.columbia.edu benoit.sagot@inria.fr Abstract MICA is a dependency parser which returns deep This application note presents a freely avail- able parser, MICA (Marseille-INRIA-Columbia- AT&T).1 MICA has

  15. Deductive versus Inductive Teaching of Grammar: An Experimental Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El-Banna, Adel Ibrahim

    An experiment investigated the effectiveness of teaching grammar by deductive versus inductive methods in an intensive course in English as a second language. Additional student variables considered were general intelligence, verbal ability, cognitive ability, and sex. The subjects were 259 students in the Faculty of Education at Egypt's Tanta…

  16. The Grammar of Catholic Schooling and Radically "Catholic" Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scanlan, Martin

    2008-01-01

    A "grammar of Catholic schooling" inhibits many elementary and secondary Catholic schools from reflecting on how they practice Catholic Social Teaching (CST). The values of human dignity, the common good, and a preferential option for the marginalized are central to CST. Schools can live these values by serving children who live in poverty, are…

  17. Universal moral grammar: a critical Emmanuel Dupoux1,2

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    attention: the so- called `universal moral grammar' framework. It is based on an intriguing analogy, first by Rawls [4], it relies on an intriguing analogy between the study of moral cognition and Chomsky [6,7]. Third, all human children manage to acquire knowledge of their language from a finite

  18. What Does Frequency Have To Do with Grammar Teaching?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biber, Douglas; Reppen, Randi

    2002-01-01

    Using frequency findings from corpus linguistics, explores the relationship between the information presented in English-as-a-Second/Foreign-Language (ESL/EFL) materials and what is known about actual language use based on empirical studies. Three aspects of materials development for grammar instruction are discussed. (Author/VWL)

  19. The Story of English Grammar in United States Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolln, Martha; Hancock, Craig

    2005-01-01

    This article assumes the value of a scientifically grounded, rhetorically focused, professionally supported, and publicly embraced grammar within the public schools and examines the past century of practices within the United States from that perspective. It describes a brief renaissance in the 50's and early 60's, inspired largely by the…

  20. A Computer Program for Testing Grammars On-Line.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Louis N.

    This paper describes a computer system which is intended to aid the linguist in building a transformational grammar. The program operates as a rule tester, performing three services for the user through sets of functions which allow the user to--specify, change, and print base trees (to which transformations would apply); define transformations…

  1. Interpreting the Human Genome Sequence, Using Stochastic Grammars

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard Durbin

    2001-01-01

    The 3 billion base pair sequence of the human genome is now available, and attention is focusing on annotating it to extract biological meaning. I will discuss what we have obtained, and the methods that are being used to analyse biological sequences. In particular I will discuss approaches using stochastic grammars analogous to those used in computational linguistics, both for

  2. Attribute Grammars for Scalable Query Processing on XML Streams

    E-print Network

    Kemper, Alfons

    , in these works, memory buffers are required that can grow arbitrarily large, depending on the amount of data of the Austrian Research Fund (FWF). #12;2 Query languages that require unbounded memory buffers constitute a scal, there are various forms of au- tomata/transducers and certain attribute grammars. The former are, however

  3. The Theoretical Significance of Universal Grammar in Second Language Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Roger

    2001-01-01

    Evidence that native language acquisition is possible because children are born with an innate language faculty--universal grammar (UG)--is considerable. In second language acquisition by older learners, this notion is less clear. Discusses the poverty of stimulus phenomena (POS) in relation to this, and argues that while POS phenomena are…

  4. Grammar-Based Testing Using Realistic Domains in PHP

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ivan Enderlin; Frederic Dadeau; Alain Giorgetti; Fabrice Bouquet

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an integration of grammar-based testing in a framework for contract-based testing in PHP. It relies on the notion of \\\\gtypes, that make it possible to assign domains to data, by means of contract assertions written inside the source code of a PHP application. Then a test generation tool uses the contracts to generate relevant test data for

  5. Second-Language Acquisition and Its Relationship to Universal Grammar.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schachter, Jacquelyn

    1988-01-01

    Explores four major areas of differences between first- and second-language acquisition (completeness, equipotentiality, previous knowledge, and fossilization) and argues that the theory of Universal Grammar plays a much smaller role in explaining the second-language acquisition process than current research claims. (Author/CB)

  6. Supporting Collaborative Grammar Learning via a Virtual Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orsini-Jones, Marina; Jones, David

    2007-01-01

    This article reports the results of an investigation into the issues encountered by undergraduate language students while engaging in "the Grammar Project"--a collaborative assessment task for the module Academic and Professional Skills for Language Learning--and shows how encouraging students to take ownership of their learning process with the…

  7. Learning Stochastic Categorial Grammars Miles Osborne and Ted Briscoe

    E-print Network

    Principle, which assumes an indifferent prior probability dis- tribution. When there is sufficient training show, in terms of crossing rates and in coverage, that when training material is limited, SCG an indifferent prior. 1 Introduction Stochastic context free grammars (SCFGs), which are standard context free

  8. Inferring Chemical Reaction Patterns Using Rule Composition in Graph Grammars

    E-print Network

    Flamm, Christoph

    Inferring Chemical Reaction Patterns Using Rule Composition in Graph Grammars Jakob Lykke Andersen1:studla@bioinf.uni-leipzig.de; Corresponding author Abstract Background: Modeling molecules as undirected graphs and chemical reactions, to summarize several subsequent reactions into a single composite chemical reaction. Results: We introduce

  9. Functional Grammar in the ESL Classroom: Noticing, Exploring and Practicing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lock, Graham; Jones, Rodney

    2011-01-01

    A set of easy to use techniques helps students discover for themselves how grammar works in real world contexts and how grammatical choices are not just about form but about meaning. Sample teaching ideas, covering a wide range of grammatical topics including verb tense, voice, reference and the organization of texts, accompanies each procedure.…

  10. Learning Bilingual Categories in Unsupervised Inversion Transduction Grammar Induction

    E-print Network

    Wu, Dekai

    Learning Bilingual Categories in Unsupervised Inversion Transduction Grammar Induction Markus SAERS- rating unsupervised bilingual nonterminal cat- egory learning within end-to-end fully unsu- pervised bilingual cat- egory induction. Surface-based and hierarchical mod- els only use output language n

  11. Cognitive Adequacy in a Dialogic Functional Discourse Grammar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackenzie, J. Lachlan

    2012-01-01

    Functional Discourse Grammar (FDG), as a theory of the organization of natural languages, seeks to attain pragmatic, typological and cognitive adequacy. The attempt to achieve cognitive adequacy has been fraught with problems stemming from the vagueness of the concept and the difficulty of adapting to trends in psycholinguistics. Specifically,…

  12. Language Dictionaries and Grammars of Guam and Micronesia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goetzfridt, Nicholas J.; Goniwiecha, Mark C.

    The study of language reference materials, particularly dictionaries and grammar works, for languages of Guam and Micronesia includes a brief history of their evolution and an annotated bibliography. An introductory section describes the geographic situation of Micronesia and chronicles numerous periods of foreign influence: Spanish Colonization…

  13. Offline grammar-based recognition of handwritten sentences.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Matthias; Chappelier, Jean-Cédric; Bunke, Horst

    2006-05-01

    This paper proposes a sequential coupling of a Hidden Markov Model (HMM) recognizer for offline handwritten English sentences with a probabilistic bottom-up chart parser using Stochastic Context-Free Grammars (SCFG) extracted from a text corpus. Based on extensive experiments, we conclude that syntax analysis helps to improve recognition rates significantly. PMID:16640266

  14. An Efficient Chart Generator for (Semi)Lexicalist Grammars

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Carroll; Ann Copestake; Dan Flickinger

    1999-01-01

    We describe a generator for rule-based grammars which are primarily lexicalist but may introduce some semantics via constructions. By combining chart generation with a treatment of modification by adjunc- tion, we obtain substantial performance improvements over standard lexically-driven chart-generation.

  15. Estimating Grammar Parameters using Bounded and Brent Heeringa2

    E-print Network

    Southern California, University of

    . We present a novel algorithm, called HOLA, for estimating the parameters of SCFGs that computes by HOLA is bounded by the size of the grammar, not by the amount of training data. Empirical results show that HOLA performs as well as the Inside-Outside algorithm on a variety of standard prob- lems, despite

  16. Fluency Does Not Express Implicit Knowledge of Artificial Grammars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Ryan B.; Dienes, Zoltan

    2010-01-01

    It is commonly held that implicit knowledge expresses itself as fluency. A perceptual clarification task was used to examine the relationship between perceptual processing fluency, subjective familiarity, and grammaticality judgments in a task frequently used to produce implicit knowledge, artificial grammar learning (AGL). Four experiments…

  17. Linguistic Grammar Learning and DRD2-TAQ-IA Polymorphism

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Patrick C. M.; Ettlinger, Marc; Zheng, Jing

    2013-01-01

    As research into the neurobiology of language has focused primarily on the systems level, fewer studies have examined the link between molecular genetics and normal variations in language functions. Because the ability to learn a language varies in adults and our genetic codes also vary, research linking the two provides a unique window into the molecular neurobiology of language. We consider a candidate association between the dopamine receptor D2 gene (DRD2) and linguistic grammar learning. DRD2-TAQ-IA polymorphism (rs1800497) is associated with dopamine receptor D2 distribution and dopamine impact in the human striatum, such that A1 allele carriers show reduction in D2 receptor binding relative to carriers who are homozygous for the A2 allele. The individual differences in grammatical rule learning that are particularly prevalent in adulthood are also associated with striatal function and its role in domain-general procedural memory. Therefore, we reasoned that procedurally-based grammar learning could be associated with DRD2-TAQ-IA polymorphism. Here, English-speaking adults learned artificial concatenative and analogical grammars, which have been respectively associated with procedural and declarative memory. Language learning capabilities were tested while learners’ neural hemodynamic responses were simultaneously measured by fMRI. Behavioral learning and brain activation data were subsequently compared with the learners’ DRD2 (rs1800497) genotype. Learners who were homozygous for the A2 allele were better at concatenative (but not analogical) grammar learning and had higher striatal responses relative to those who have at least one A1 allele. These results provide preliminary evidence for the neurogenetic basis of normal variations in linguistic grammar learning and its link to domain-general functions. PMID:23741438

  18. Pro-Forms in the Spanish Noun Phrase. Studies in Linguistics and Language Learning, Volume III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lackstrom, John Edwin

    The object of this study is to treat pronominalization in Spanish within the framework of generative grammar. (The non-hypenated word "pronoun" refers to the traditional class of words including alguien, algo, el, or ella. The hypenated form, "pro-noun," refers to the underlying lexical entries or feature complexes which share the features [+pro,…

  19. An Instrument for Assessing Comprehension through the Ability to Recognize Verbatim Phrases from Previously Read Expository Prose.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Petey

    Designed to be used along with a multiple-choice instrument for further assessment of the immediate and delayed comprehension of a 1,300 word expository passage on the Kalahari Desert, the instrument is a 35-item posttest, divided into five clusters, each composed of six to eight lettered phrases. Twenty verbatim phrases from the passage are…

  20. Simple Semi-Supervised Learning for Prepositional Phrase Attachment Gregory F. Coppola, Alexandra Birch, Tejaswini Deoskar and Mark Steedman

    E-print Network

    Edinburgh, University of

    Simple Semi-Supervised Learning for Prepositional Phrase Attachment Gregory F. Coppola, Alexandra phrase attachment is an im- portant subproblem of parsing, performance on which suffers from limited from unlabelled data can be combined in a product model to yield a PP-attachment model which is bet

  1. Processing Coordinated Verb Phrases: The Relevance of Lexical-Semantic, Conceptual, and Contextual Information towards Establishing Verbal Parallelism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tutunjian, Damon A.

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation examines the influence of lexical-semantic representations, conceptual similarity, and contextual fit on the processing of coordinated verb phrases. The study integrates information gleaned from current linguistic theory with current psycholinguistic approaches to examining the processing of coordinated verb phrases. It has…

  2. Improving Oral Reading Fluency through Response Opportunities: A Comparison of Phrase Drill Error Correction with Repeated Readings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Begeny, John C.; Daly, Edward J., III; Valleley, Rachel J.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare two oral reading fluency treatments (repeated readings and phrase drill error correction) which differ in the way they prompt student responding. Repeated readings (RR) and phrase drill (PD) error correction were alternated with a baseline and a reward condition within an alternating treatments design with…

  3. Disambiguating Prepositional Phrase Attachments by Using On-Line Dictionary Definitions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karen Jensen; Jean-Louis Binot

    1987-01-01

    Standard on-line dictionaries offer a wealth of knowledge expressed in natural language form. We claim that such knowledge can and should be accessed by natural language processing systems to solve difficult ambiguity problems. This paper sustains that claim by describing a set of computational tools and techniques used to disambiguate prepositional phrase attachments in English sentences, by accessing on-line dictionary

  4. Interpreting Conjoined Noun Phrases and Conjoined Clauses: Collective vs. Distributive Preferences

    PubMed Central

    Clifton, Charles; Frazier, Lyn

    2012-01-01

    Two experiments are reported that show that introducing event participants in a conjoined noun phrase (NP) favors a single event (collective) interpretation while introducing them in separate clauses favors a separate events (distributive) interpretation. In Experiment 1, acceptability judgments were speeded when the bias of a predicate toward separate events vs. a single event matched the presumed bias of how the subjects’ referents were introduced (as conjoined noun phrases or in conjoined clauses). In Experiment 2, reading of a phrase containing an anaphor following conjoined noun phrases was facilitated when the anaphor was they, relative to when it was neither/each of them; the opposite pattern was found when the anaphor followed conjoined clauses. We argue that comprehension was facilitated when the form of an anaphor was appropriate for how its antecedents were introduced. These results address the very general problem of how we individuate entities and events when presented with a complex situation, and show that different linguistic forms can guide how we construe a situation.. The results also indicate that there is no general penalty for introducing the entities or events separately – in distinct clauses as ‘split’ antecedents. PMID:22512324

  5. You Say Probable and I Say Likely: Improving Interpersonal Communication With Verbal Probability Phrases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tzur M. Karelitz; David V. Budescu

    2004-01-01

    When forecasters and decision makers describe uncertain events using verbal probability terms, there is a risk of miscommunication because people use different probability phrases and interpret them in different ways. In an effort to facilitate the communication process, the authors investigated various ways of converting the forecasters' verbal probabilities to the decision maker's terms. The authors present 3 studies in

  6. Phrase-Based Pattern Matching in Compressed Text J. Shane Culpepper and Alistair Moffat

    E-print Network

    Culpepper, J. Shane

    be searched quickly using a modified Boyer-Moore-Horspool mechanism. Indeed, compression accelerates patternPhrase-Based Pattern Matching in Compressed Text J. Shane Culpepper and Alistair Moffat NICTA-oriented compression approaches when large alphabets are being used, and trade away a small amount of compression

  7. Compound Nominal Phrases in Scientific-Technical Literature: Proportion and Rationale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salager, Francoise

    The frequency of occurrence of compound nominal phrases (CNP) in medical English literature was compared to the frequency of occurrence in general English. Ten medical English and 10 general English sample texts of 2,000 words each were selected to record and analyze the CNPs. CNPs were defined as those items made up of at least two individual…

  8. Automatic Tagging of Arabic Text: From Raw Text to Base Phrase Chunks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mona Diab; Kadri Hacioglu; Daniel Jurafsky

    2004-01-01

    To date, there are no fully automated systems addressing the community's need for funda- mental language processing tools for Arabic text. In this paper, we present a Support Vector Machine (SVM) based approach to automati- cally tokenize (segmenting off clitics), part-of- speech (POS) tag and annotate base phrases (BPs) in Arabic text. We adapt highly accu- rate tools that have

  9. Developmental Relationships between Speech and Writing: Is Verb-Phrase Anaphora Production a Special Case?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donaldson, Morag L.; Cooper, Lynn S. M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Young children's speech is typically more linguistically sophisticated than their writing. However, there are grounds for asking whether production of cohesive devices, such as verb-phrase anaphora (VPA), might represent an exception to this developmental pattern, as cohesive devices are generally more important in writing than in…

  10. INDEX: The Statistical Basis for an Automatic Conceptual Phrase-Indexing System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Leslie P.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Describes two computer programs--INDEX and INDEXD--that use statistical information about repeated phrases in documents to automatically index documents at the conceptual level. Sample output of the programs is provided, and plans to combine this method with linguistic and artificial intelligence techniques to provide a general conceptual…

  11. An Individualized Problem-Solving Approach for Teaching Choral Phrase Shaping: An Experimental Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broomhead, Paul

    2009-01-01

    This experiment tested a treatment designed to improve choral students' expressiveness regarding keyword emphasis and phrase shaping. The treatment was founded upon the constructivist belief that students actively construct conceptual knowledge through problem solving. Participants were 46 university students randomly selected from a nonauditioned…

  12. Phrase-based statistical machine translation with weighted finite state transducers

    E-print Network

    Byrne, Bill

    Phrase-based statistical machine translation with weighted finite state transducers Bill Byrne translation aim to mimic human translations in well-defined domains Religious texts Governmental proceedings, Canterbury, Mid-Twelfth Century ...Three Latin versions of the Psalms laid in parallel columns are integrated

  13. Interes'ng-Phrase Mining for Ad-Hoc Text Analy'cs

    E-print Network

    'on barack obama) Gaining insights is tedious and a task mostly leW to users (e.g., iden'fy characteris'c quota'ons by barack obama) 2 / 27 #12;Interes'ng-Phrase Mining-hoc document set D' D (e.g., all documents that contain barack obama) Output: k most

  14. Using Cue Phrases to Determine a Set of Rhetorical Relations Alistair Knott

    E-print Network

    Knott, Alistair

    Using Cue Phrases to Determine a Set of Rhetorical Relations Alistair Knott Department.Knott@aisb.ed.ac.uk `Relation based' approaches to discourse analysis and text generation suffer from a com­ mon problem: there is considerable disagreement between researchers over the set of relations which is proposed. Few researchers use

  15. The role of chunks, phrases and body language in understanding co-ordinated academic lectures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. A Khuwaileh

    1999-01-01

    A crucial component of academic lectures is the use of chunks, phrases and body language, and their role in facilitating understanding. This paper seeks to examine the functions and contexts of this component in the discourse of academic lectures. As we all know, giving a lecture may not always entail the good understanding of learners. The following study gives teachers

  16. Dvandvas, Blocking, and the Associative: The Bumpy Ride from Phrase to Word

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiparsky, Paul

    2010-01-01

    The oldest form of Sanskrit has a class of expressions that are in some respects like asyndetically coordinated syntactic phrases, in other respects like single compound words. I propose to resolve the conflicting evidence by drawing on prosodic phonology, stratal optimality theory, and the lexicalist approach to morphological blocking. I then…

  17. Frequency effects in noun phrase production: Implications for models of lexical access

    E-print Network

    Caramazza, Alfonso

    Frequency effects in noun phrase production: Implications for models of lexical access F and about the locus of the classic frequency effect to derive predictions about possible frequency effects orthogonally the frequencies of the adjective and of the noun that composed the NPs. We consistently found

  18. Acquisition of Generic Noun Phrases in Chinese: Learning about Lions without an '-S'

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tardif, Twila; Gelman, Susan A.; Fu, Xiaolan; Zhu, Liqi

    2012-01-01

    English-speaking children understand and produce generic expressions in the preschool years, but there are cross-linguistic differences in how generics are expressed. Three studies examined interpretation of generic noun phrases in three- to seven-year-old child (N=192) and adult speakers (N=163) of Mandarin Chinese. Contrary to suggestions by…

  19. A Phrase-Based, Joint Probability Model for Statistical Machine Translation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel Marcu; William Wong

    2002-01-01

    We present a joint probability model for statistical machine translation, which au- tomatically learns word and phrase equiv- alents from bilingual corpora. Transla- tions produced with parameters estimated using the joint model are more accu- rate than translations produced using IBM Model 4.

  20. A Content-Addressable Pointer Mechanism Underlies Comprehension of Verb-Phrase Ellipsis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Andrea E.; McElree, Brian

    2008-01-01

    Interpreting a verb-phrase ellipsis (VP ellipsis) requires accessing an antecedent in memory, and then integrating a representation of this antecedent into the local context. We investigated the online interpretation of VP ellipsis in an eye-tracking experiment and four speed-accuracy tradeoff experiments. To investigate whether the antecedent for…

  1. Memory Operations that Support Language Comprehension: Evidence from Verb-Phrase Ellipsis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Andrea E.; McElree, Brian

    2009-01-01

    Comprehension of verb-phrase ellipsis (VPE) requires reevaluation of recently processed constituents, which often necessitates retrieval of information about the elided constituent from memory. A. E. Martin and B. McElree (2008) argued that representations formed during comprehension are content addressable and that VPE antecedents are retrieved…

  2. Phrase length matters: the interplay between implicit prosody and syntax in Korean "garden path" sentences.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Hyekyung; Steinhauer, Karsten

    2011-11-01

    In spoken language comprehension, syntactic parsing decisions interact with prosodic phrasing, which is directly affected by phrase length. Here we used ERPs to examine whether a similar effect holds for the on-line processing of written sentences during silent reading, as suggested by theories of "implicit prosody." Ambiguous Korean sentence beginnings with two distinct interpretations were manipulated by increasing the length of sentence-initial subject noun phrases (NPs). As expected, only long NPs triggered an additional prosodic boundary reflected by a closure positive shift (CPS) in ERPs. When sentence materials further downstream disambiguated the initially dispreferred interpretation, the resulting P600 component reflecting processing difficulties ("garden path" effects) was smaller in amplitude for sentences with long NPs. Interestingly, additional prosodic revisions required only for the short subject disambiguated condition-the delayed insertion of an implicit prosodic boundary after the subject NP-were reflected by a frontal P600-like positivity, which may be interpreted in terms of a delayed CPS brain response. These data suggest that the subvocally generated prosodic boundary after the long subject NP facilitated the recovery from a garden path, thus primarily supporting one of two competing theoretical frameworks on implicit prosody. Our results underline the prosodic nature of the cognitive processes underlying phrase length effects and contribute cross-linguistic evidence regarding the on-line use of implicit prosody for parsing decisions in silent reading. PMID:21391765

  3. Differences in the Timing of Implausibility Detection for Recipient and Instrument Prepositional Phrases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blodgett, Allison; Boland, Julie E.

    2004-01-01

    We conducted two word-by-word reading experiments to investigate the timing of implausibility detection for recipient and instrument prepositional phrases (PPs). These PPs differ in thematic role, relative frequency, and possibly in argument status. The results showed a difference in the timing of garden path effects such that the detection of…

  4. Interesting-Phrase Mining for Ad-Hoc Text Analytics Srikanta Bedathur

    E-print Network

    Interesting-Phrase Mining for Ad-Hoc Text Analytics Srikanta Bedathur , Klaus Berberich , Jens.dittrich@cs.uni-saarland.de ABSTRACT Large text corpora with news, customer mail and reports, or Web 2.0 contributions offer a great potential for enhancing business-intelligence applications. We propose a framework for performing text ana

  5. The Influence of Cognitive Factors on Guesses About the Meaning of English Word Groups and Phrases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qi, Rong-jun; Li, Feng-zhi

    2008-01-01

    During the English language learning, it is common for Chinese students to have to guess the meaning of new word groups or phrases. The guessing ability may be related to the cognitive sameness and differences between Chinese and English people. In order to validate this hypothesis, the author carried out a research by having students doing test…

  6. Combining Grammar-Based and Memory-Based Models of Perception of Time Signature and Phase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Neta Spiro

    2002-01-01

    The present study investigates the modeling of the perception of time signature and phase using grammar-based and memorybased\\u000a approaches. It explores how far note-length can be used as the sole input to a model of perception of heard music. Two models\\u000a are developed: one uses a rule-based grammar and the other uses a combination of a rule-based grammar and a

  7. English Grammar Learning System Based on Knowledge Network of Fill-in-the-Blank Exercises

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takuya Goto; Tomoko Kojiri; Toyohide Watanabe; Takeshi Yamada; Tomoharu Iwata

    2008-01-01

    To understand English grammar is essential to write\\/speak\\/ read English appropriately. Fill-in-the-blank exercise of English\\u000a grammar is one of the popular types of exercises, which is introduced to check acquired\\/in-acquired grammatical knowledge\\u000a by evaluating the word selected by a learner for each sentence. Since such exercise-based learning is effective to acquire\\u000a practical knowledge, our objective is to construct English grammar

  8. A grammar of action generates predictions in skilled musicians.

    PubMed

    Novembre, Giacomo; Keller, Peter E

    2011-12-01

    The present study investigates shared representations of syntactic knowledge in music and action. We examined whether expectancy violations in musical harmonic sequences are also perceived as violations of the movement sequences necessary to produce them. Pianists imitated silent videos showing one hand playing chord sequences on a muted keyboard. Results indicate that, despite the absence of auditory feedback, imitation of a chord is fastest when it is congruent with the preceding harmonic context. This suggests that the harmonic rules implied by observed actions induce expectations that influence action execution. As evidence that these predictions are derived at a high representational level, imitation was more accurate for harmonically incongruent chords than for congruent chords executed with unconventional fingering. The magnitude of the effects of context and goal prioritization increased with musical training. Thus, musical training may lead to a domain-general representation of musical grammar, i.e., to a grammar of action. PMID:21458298

  9. Conscious and unconscious thought in artificial grammar learning.

    PubMed

    Mealor, Andy David; Dienes, Zoltan

    2012-06-01

    Unconscious Thought Theory posits that a period of distraction after information acquisition leads to unconscious processing which enhances decision making relative to conscious deliberation or immediate choice (Dijksterhuis, 2004). Support thus far has been mixed. In the present study, artificial grammar learning was used in order to produce measurable amounts of conscious and unconscious knowledge. Intermediate phases were introduced between training and testing. Participants engaged in conscious deliberation of grammar rules, were distracted for the same period of time, or progressed immediately from training to testing. No differences in accuracy were found between intermediate phase groups acting on decisions made with meta-cognitive awareness (either feeling-based intuitive responding or conscious rule- or recollection-based responding). However, the accuracy of guess responses was significantly higher after distraction relative to immediate progression or conscious deliberation. The results suggest any beneficial effects of 'unconscious thought' may not always transfer to conscious awareness. PMID:22472202

  10. Recursion and Grammars for CS2 Viera K. Proulx

    E-print Network

    Proulx, Viera K.

    distance while lifting the pen symbol f · turn (left or right) by a fixed angle symbols + and ­ Partial. For example, the Koch snowflake is described by the following grammar: angle = 60° S -> F­­F­­F the starting string F -> F+F­­F+F rewriting rule for symbol F at recursion levels > 0 The snowflakes at the first

  11. Sublinear-space evaluation algorithms for attribute grammars

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas W. Reps; Alan J. Demers

    1987-01-01

    A major drawback of attribute-grammar-based systems is that they are profligate consumers of storage. This paper concerns new storage-management techniques that reduce the number of attribute values retained at any stage of attribute evaluation; it presents an algorithm for evaluating an n-attribute tree that never retains more than O(log n) attribute values. This method is optimal, although it may require

  12. Automated Grammar Checking of Tenses for ESL Writing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nazlia Omar; Nur Asma Mohd. Razali; Saadiyah Darus

    2009-01-01

    Various word-processing system have been developed to identify grammatical errors and mark learners’ essays. However, they\\u000a are not specifically developed for Malaysian ESL (English as a second language) learners. A marking tool which is capable\\u000a to identify errors in ESL writing for these learners is very much needed. Though there are numerous techniques adopted in\\u000a grammar checking and automated essay

  13. Porting a lexicalized-grammar parser to the biomedical domain.

    PubMed

    Rimell, Laura; Clark, Stephen

    2009-10-01

    This paper introduces a state-of-the-art, linguistically motivated statistical parser to the biomedical text mining community, and proposes a method of adapting it to the biomedical domain requiring only limited resources for data annotation. The parser was originally developed using the Penn Treebank and is therefore tuned to newspaper text. Our approach takes advantage of a lexicalized grammar formalism, Combinatory Categorial Grammar (ccg), to train the parser at a lower level of representation than full syntactic derivations. The ccg parser uses three levels of representation: a first level consisting of part-of-speech (pos) tags; a second level consisting of more fine-grained ccg lexical categories; and a third, hierarchical level consisting of ccg derivations. We find that simply retraining the pos tagger on biomedical data leads to a large improvement in parsing performance, and that using annotated data at the intermediate lexical category level of representation improves parsing accuracy further. We describe the procedure involved in evaluating the parser, and obtain accuracies for biomedical data in the same range as those reported for newspaper text, and higher than those previously reported for the biomedical resource on which we evaluate. Our conclusion is that porting newspaper parsers to the biomedical domain, at least for parsers which use lexicalized grammars, may not be as difficult as first thought. PMID:19141332

  14. Recognition of chemical entities: combining dictionary-based and grammar-based approaches

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background The past decade has seen an upsurge in the number of publications in chemistry. The ever-swelling volume of available documents makes it increasingly hard to extract relevant new information from such unstructured texts. The BioCreative CHEMDNER challenge invites the development of systems for the automatic recognition of chemicals in text (CEM task) and for ranking the recognized compounds at the document level (CDI task). We investigated an ensemble approach where dictionary-based named entity recognition is used along with grammar-based recognizers to extract compounds from text. We assessed the performance of ten different commercial and publicly available lexical resources using an open source indexing system (Peregrine), in combination with three different chemical compound recognizers and a set of regular expressions to recognize chemical database identifiers. The effect of different stop-word lists, case-sensitivity matching, and use of chunking information was also investigated. We focused on lexical resources that provide chemical structure information. To rank the different compounds found in a text, we used a term confidence score based on the normalized ratio of the term frequencies in chemical and non-chemical journals. Results The use of stop-word lists greatly improved the performance of the dictionary-based recognition, but there was no additional benefit from using chunking information. A combination of ChEBI and HMDB as lexical resources, the LeadMine tool for grammar-based recognition, and the regular expressions, outperformed any of the individual systems. On the test set, the F-scores were 77.8% (recall 71.2%, precision 85.8%) for the CEM task and 77.6% (recall 71.7%, precision 84.6%) for the CDI task. Missed terms were mainly due to tokenization issues, poor recognition of formulas, and term conjunctions. Conclusions We developed an ensemble system that combines dictionary-based and grammar-based approaches for chemical named entity recognition, outperforming any of the individual systems that we considered. The system is able to provide structure information for most of the compounds that are found. Improved tokenization and better recognition of specific entity types is likely to further improve system performance. PMID:25810767

  15. Definite Clause Grammars for Language Analysis - A Survey of the Formalism and a Comparison with Augmented Transition Networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fernando C. N. Pereira; David H. D. Warren

    1980-01-01

    A clear andpowerfulformalism for describing languages, both natural and artificial, follows fiom a method for expressing grammars in logic due to Colmerauer and Kowalski. This formalism, which is a natural extension of context-free grammars, we call \\

  16. A grammar-based semantic similarity algorithm for natural language sentences.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ming Che; Chang, Jia Wei; Hsieh, Tung Cheng

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a grammar and semantic corpus based similarity algorithm for natural language sentences. Natural language, in opposition to "artificial language", such as computer programming languages, is the language used by the general public for daily communication. Traditional information retrieval approaches, such as vector models, LSA, HAL, or even the ontology-based approaches that extend to include concept similarity comparison instead of cooccurrence terms/words, may not always determine the perfect matching while there is no obvious relation or concept overlap between two natural language sentences. This paper proposes a sentence similarity algorithm that takes advantage of corpus-based ontology and grammatical rules to overcome the addressed problems. Experiments on two famous benchmarks demonstrate that the proposed algorithm has a significant performance improvement in sentences/short-texts with arbitrary syntax and structure. PMID:24982952

  17. Grammar-Supported 3d Indoor Reconstruction from Point Clouds for As-Built Bim

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, S.; Peter, M.; Fritsch, D.

    2015-03-01

    The paper presents a grammar-based approach for the robust automatic reconstruction of 3D interiors from raw point clouds. The core of the approach is a 3D indoor grammar which is an extension of our previously published grammar concept for the modeling of 2D floor plans. The grammar allows for the modeling of buildings whose horizontal, continuous floors are traversed by hallways providing access to the rooms as it is the case for most office buildings or public buildings like schools, hospitals or hotels. The grammar is designed in such way that it can be embedded in an iterative automatic learning process providing a seamless transition from LOD3 to LOD4 building models. Starting from an initial low-level grammar, automatically derived from the window representations of an available LOD3 building model, hypotheses about indoor geometries can be generated. The hypothesized indoor geometries are checked against observation data - here 3D point clouds - collected in the interior of the building. The verified and accepted geometries form the basis for an automatic update of the initial grammar. By this, the knowledge content of the initial grammar is enriched, leading to a grammar with increased quality. This higher-level grammar can then be applied to predict realistic geometries to building parts where only sparse observation data are available. Thus, our approach allows for the robust generation of complete 3D indoor models whose quality can be improved continuously as soon as new observation data are fed into the grammar-based reconstruction process. The feasibility of our approach is demonstrated based on a real-world example.

  18. Competing iconicities in the structure of languages

    PubMed Central

    Meir, Irit; Padden, Carol; Aronoff, Mark; Sandler, Wendy

    2013-01-01

    The paper examines the role that iconicity plays in the structuring of grammars. Two main points are argued for: (a) Grammar does not necessarily suppress iconicity; rather, iconicity and grammar can enjoy a congenial relation in that iconicity can play an active role in the structuring of grammars. (b) Iconicity is not monolithic. There are different types of iconicity and languages take advantage of the possibilities afforded by them. We examine the interaction between iconicity and grammar by focusing on the ways in which sign languages employ the physical body of the signer as a rich iconic resource for encoding a variety of grammatical notions. We show that the body can play three different roles in iconic forms in sign languages: it can be used as a naming device where body parts represent body parts; it can represent the subject argument of verbal signs, and it can stand for first person. These strategies interact and sometimes compete in the languages under study. Each language resolves these competitions differently, which results in different grammars and grammatical structures. The investigation of the ways in which grammar and iconicity interact in these languages provides insight into the nature of both systems. PMID:24415850

  19. Can Tree Adjunct Grammar Guided Genetic Programming be Good at Finding a Needle In a Haystack? A Case Study

    E-print Network

    McKay, Robert Ian

    Can Tree Adjunct Grammar Guided Genetic Programming be Good at Finding a Needle In a Haystack the robustness of tree-adjunct grammar guided genetic programming [3] (TAG3P) on the problems classified as "finding a needle in a haystack" [9]. We compare the result with grammar guided genetic programming [15

  20. Title: MARS: A Metamodel Recovery System Using Grammar Inference Author 1 (corresponding author): Faizan Javed, Department of Computer & Information Sciences,

    E-print Network

    Gray, Jeffrey G.

    1 Title Page Title: MARS: A Metamodel Recovery System Using Grammar Inference Author 1. In this paper we describe MARS, a semi-automatic grammar-centric system that leverages grammar inference is a sequence of intermediate metamodel versions that represent the evolving definition of a specific modeling

  1. Phonological phrase boundaries constrain the online syntactic analysis of spoken sentences.

    PubMed

    Millotte, Séverine; René, Alice; Wales, Roger; Christophe, Anne

    2008-07-01

    Two experiments tested whether phonological phrase boundaries constrain online syntactic analysis in French. Pairs of homophones belonging to different syntactic categories (verb and adjective) were used to create sentences with a local syntactic ambiguity (e.g., [le petit chien mort], in English, the dead little dog, vs. [le petit chien] [mord], in English, the little dog bites, where brackets indicate phonological phrase boundaries). An expert speaker recorded the sentences with either a maximally informative prosody or a minimally informative one. Participants correctly assigned the appropriate syntactic category to the target word, even without any access to the lexical disambiguating information, in both a completion task (Experiment 1) and an abstract word detection task (Experiment 2). The size of the experimental effect was modulated by the prosodic manipulation (maximally vs. minimally informative), guaranteeing that prosody played a crucial role in disambiguation. The authors discuss the implications of these results for models of online speech perception and language acquisition. PMID:18605875

  2. Evolution of the most common English words and phrases over the centuries

    PubMed Central

    Perc, Matjaž

    2012-01-01

    By determining the most common English words and phrases since the beginning of the sixteenth century, we obtain a unique large-scale view of the evolution of written text. We find that the most common words and phrases in any given year had a much shorter popularity lifespan in the sixteenth century than they had in the twentieth century. By measuring how their usage propagated across the years, we show that for the past two centuries, the process has been governed by linear preferential attachment. Along with the steady growth of the English lexicon, this provides an empirical explanation for the ubiquity of Zipf's law in language statistics and confirms that writing, although undoubtedly an expression of art and skill, is not immune to the same influences of self-organization that are known to regulate processes as diverse as the making of new friends and World Wide Web growth. PMID:22832364

  3. D-LTAG: Extending Lexicalized Tag to Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webber, Bonnie

    2004-01-01

    This paper surveys work on applying the insights of lexicalized grammars to low-level discourse, to show the value of positing an autonomous grammar for low-level discourse in which words (or idiomatic phrases) are associated with discourse-level predicate-argument structures or modification structures that convey their syntactic-semantic meaning…

  4. The XMU Phrase-Based Statistical Machine Translation System for IWSLT 2006

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yidong Chen; Xiaodong Shi; Changle Zhou

    In this paper, an overview of the XMU phrase-based statistical machine translation system for the 2006 IWSLT Speech Translation Evaluation was given. In this year's evaluation, we participated in the open data track for ASR lattice and Cleaned Transcripts for the Chinese-English translation direction. The system ranked 7th among the 12 participating systems in the Chinese-English spontaneous speech ASR output

  5. Importance of retrieving noun phrases and named entities from digital library content

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ratna Sanyal; Kushal Keshri; Vidya Nand

    2010-01-01

    We present a novel approach for extracting noun phrases in general and named entities in particular from a digital repository\\u000a of text documents. The problem of coreference resolution has been divided into two subproblems: pronoun resolution and non-pronominal\\u000a resolution. A rule based-technique was used for pronoun resolution while a learning approach for nonpronominal resolution.\\u000a For named entity resolution, disambiguation arises

  6. Progress in Biolinguistics - Geneses of Language - A View from Generative Grammar

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Koji Fujita

    2003-01-01

    (Abstract) Generative grammar constitutes one major branch of theoretical linguistics, but its more important role as biolinguistics can be found in the interdisciplinary field of human biology. By exploring one particular instance of the cognitive faculties of our species, i.e, the Language Faculty (or the Language Organ), researchers in generative grammar\\/biolinguistics aim to elucidate the fundamental properties of human intelligence,

  7. Solving the Symbolic Regression Problem with Tree-Adjunct Grammar Guided Genetic Programming: The Comparative Results

    E-print Network

    McKay, Robert Ian

    Solving the Symbolic Regression Problem with Tree-Adjunct Grammar Guided Genetic Programming programming [6] (TAG3P) on the symbolic regression problem, a benchmark problem in genetic programming. We compare the results with genetic programming [9] (GP) and grammar guided genetic programming [14] (GGGP

  8. Reviving the Dead Butler? Towards a Review of Aspects of National Literacy Strategy Grammar Advice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wales, Lynn

    2009-01-01

    In his 2004 article "How was a dead butler killed: The way English national strategies maim grammatical parts" published in "Language and Education" 18, no. 1, Wasyl Cajkler calls for a review of grammar advice to teachers in the UK National Literacy Strategy (NLS) materials. His evidence demonstrates clearly that NLS grammar advice is "a…

  9. Evolving Stochastic Context-Free Grammars from Examples Using a Minimum Description Length Principle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bill Keller; Rüdi Lutz

    This paper describes an evolutionary approach to the problem of inferring stochastic context-free grammars from finite language samples. The approach employs a genetic algorithm, with a fitness function derived from a minimum description length principle. Solutions to the inference problem are evolved by optimizing the parameters of a covering grammar for a given language sample. We provide details of our

  10. GENETIC TRANPOSITION IN TREE-ADJOINING GRAMMAR GUIDED GENTIC PROGRAMMING: THE RELOCATION OPERATOR

    E-print Network

    Fernandez, Thomas

    GENETIC TRANPOSITION IN TREE-ADJOINING GRAMMAR GUIDED GENTIC PROGRAMMING: THE RELOCATION OPERATOR, in combination with genetic search, in a Tree Adjoining Grammar Guided Genetic Programming system (TAG3P genetic programming (GP). Moreover, it manages to solve problems with very small population sizes. 1

  11. A new approach for TV program identification based on video grammar

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tarek Zlitni; Walid Mahdi; Hanêne Ben-Abdallah

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a new approach to identify programs in TV streams. In the first step of our approach, we construct a reference catalogue for video grammars of visual jingles. In the second step, we identify programs in TV streams by examining the similarity of the video signal to the visual grammars in the catalogue. After presenting our

  12. Phonological Memory and the Acquisition of Grammar in Child L2 Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verhagen, Josje; Leseman, Paul; Messer, Marielle

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies show that second language (L2) learners with large phonological memory spans outperform learners with smaller memory spans on tests of L2 grammar. The current study investigated the relationship between phonological memory and L2 grammar in more detail than has been done earlier. Specifically, we asked how phonological memory…

  13. COMPASS III: Teaching L2 grammar graphically on a tablet computer Karin Harbusch1

    E-print Network

    Harbusch, Karin

    COMPASS III: Teaching L2 grammar graphically on a tablet computer Karin Harbusch1 , Johannes Härtel2 grammar teaching system COMPASS III. COMPASS stands for COMbina- torial and Paraphrastic Assembly]. COMPASS invites the student to construct sentences by composing syntactic trees out of lexically anchored

  14. On the Need to Bootstrap Ontology Learning with Extraction Grammar Learning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Georgios Paliouras

    2005-01-01

    The main claim of this paper is that machine learning can help integrate the construction of ontologies and extraction grammars and lead us closer to the Semantic Web vision. The proposed approach is a bootstrapping process that combines ontology and grammar learn- ing, in order to semi-automate the knowledge acquisition process. After providing a survey of the most relevant work

  15. Electrical Stimulation of Broca's Area Enhances Implicit Learning of an Artificial Grammar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Vries, Meinou H.; Barth, Andre C. R.; Maiworm, Sandra; Knecht, Stefan; Zwitserlood, Pienie; Floel, Agnes

    2010-01-01

    Artificial grammar learning constitutes a well-established model for the acquisition of grammatical knowledge in a natural setting. Previous neuroimaging studies demonstrated that Broca's area (left BA 44/45) is similarly activated by natural syntactic processing and artificial grammar learning. The current study was conducted to investigate the…

  16. Evolution of neural net architectures by a hierarchical grammar-based genetic system

    E-print Network

    Jacob, Christian

    bit-string codings applied in most of the genetic algorithm systems. With these ideas in mind we wantEvolution of neural net architectures by a hierarchical grammar-based genetic system Christian are based on context-free grammars which are used to characterize signal ow from input to output neurons

  17. Speeding up q-gram mining on grammar based compressed text

    E-print Network

    Lonardi, Stefano

    Speeding up q-gram mining on grammar based compressed text 1 #12;Background: Processing large scale+ '09] q-gram Frequencies [Goto+ '11]; [Goto+ '12] Grammar-Based Compressed String Processing #12 '07, '08]; [Hermelin + '09, '11] Pattern Discovery [Inenaga+ '09]; [Matsubara+ '09] q-gram Frequencies

  18. FROM FIRST WORDS TO GRAMMAR IN CHILDREN WITH FOCAL BRAIN INJURY

    E-print Network

    to grammar. Parent report and/or free speech data are reported for 53 infants and preschool children betweenFROM FIRST WORDS TO GRAMMAR IN CHILDREN WITH FOCAL BRAIN INJURY Elizabeth Bates University Judi Fenson Children's Hospital & Research Center, San Diego Dorothy Aram Emerson College Julie Eisele

  19. The English Definite Article: What ESL/EFL Grammars Say and What Corpus Findings Show

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WonHo Yoo, Isaiah

    2009-01-01

    To ascertain whether what ESL/EFL grammars say is informed by what scholars discuss in the literature and supported by what corpus findings actually show, this paper first presents a brief overview of the literature on the English definite article and then compares popular ESL/EFL grammars' coverage of "the" and corpus findings on definite article…

  20. My New Teaching Partner? Using the Grammar Checker in Writing Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potter, Reva; Fuller, Dorothy

    2008-01-01

    Grammar checkers do not claim to teach grammar; they are tools to bring potential problems to the writer's attention. They also offer only formal and Standard English preferences, limiting the freer expression of some literary forms. Without guidance, students may misuse the checker, become frustrated, and feel discouraged. Users must be…

  1. Re-Evaluating and Exploring the Contributions of Constituency Grammar to Semantic Role Labeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Li

    2009-01-01

    Since the seminal work of Gildea and Jurafsky (2000), semantic role labeling (SRL) researchers have been trying to determine the appropriate syntactic/semantic knowledge and statistical algorithms to tackle the challenges in SRL. In search of the appropriate knowledge, SRL researchers shifted from constituency grammar to dependency grammar around…

  2. Some Aspects of Social Grammar Features of One Type of Question in English and Yoruba

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grayshon, M. C.

    1975-01-01

    As an example leading toward a social grammar of language, three emotions are analyzed in English and Yoruba. Certain communication features in English that lie in intonation and stress require a change of grammar in Yoruba and that these changes are subject to further categorization through status and solidarity. (Author/RM)

  3. J. LOGIC PROGRAMMING 1994:19, 20:1--679 1 CHARACTERIZING LOGIC GRAMMARS: A

    E-print Network

    Andrews, Jamie

    J. LOGIC PROGRAMMING 1994:19, 20:1--679 1 CHARACTERIZING LOGIC GRAMMARS: A SUBSTRUCTURAL LOGIC Grammars (SDGs), a logic gram­ mar formalism due to Dahl, is given in this paper. A substructural logic, Canada V5A 1S6. THE JOURNAL OF LOGIC PROGRAMMING c fl Elsevier Science Inc., 1994 655 Avenue

  4. Garfield Latin Grammar Magnet Elementary Schools: 1990-1991. Formative Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson-Lewis, G.

    The second year of implementation of the Garfield Latin Grammar Magnet Elementary School in Kansas City, Missouri, is reported. The Latin grammar program operates in a traditional setting that includes strong emphasis on discipline and behavior, systemative and rigorous homework policies, and the strong commitment of staff, students, and parents.…

  5. Tree-Adjoining Grammars Aravind K. Joshi1 and Yves Schabes2

    E-print Network

    Plotkin, Joshua B.

    Tree-Adjoining Grammars Aravind K. Joshi1 and Yves Schabes2 1 Department of Computer, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA email: schabes@merl.com 1. Introduction In this paper, we will describe a tree generating system called tree-adjoining grammar TAG and state some of the recent results about TAGs. The work

  6. Teaching Conceptual Model-Based Word Problem Story Grammar to Enhance Mathematics Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xin, Yan Ping; Wiles, Ben; Lin, Yu-Ying

    2008-01-01

    Borrowing the concept of story grammar from reading comprehension literature, the purpose of this study was to examine the effect of teaching "word problem (WP) story grammar" on arithmetic WP solving that emphasizes the algebraic expression of mathematical relations in conceptual models. Participants were five students in Grades 4 and 5 with or…

  7. Effective Intervention for Expressive Grammar in Children with Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith-Lock, Karen M.; Leitao, Suze; Lambert, Lara; Nickels, Lyndsey

    2013-01-01

    Background: Children with specific language impairment are known to struggle with expressive grammar. While some studies have shown successful intervention under laboratory conditions, there is a paucity of evidence for the effectiveness of grammar treatment in young children in community settings. Aim: To evaluate the effectiveness of a…

  8. Blue Car, Red Car: Developing Efficiency in Online Interpretation of Adjective-Noun Phrases

    PubMed Central

    Fernald, Anne; Thorpe, Kirsten; Marchman, Virginia A.

    2010-01-01

    Two experiments investigated the development of fluency in interpreting adjective-noun phrases in 30- and 36-month-old English-learning children. Using online processing measures, children’s gaze patterns were monitored as they heard the familiar adjective/noun phrases (e.g. blue car) in visual contexts where the adjective was either informative (e.g. blue car paired with red car or red house) or uninformative (e.g. blue car paired with blue house). Thirty-six-month-olds processed adjective-noun phrases incrementally as adults do, orienting more quickly to the target picture on informative-adjective trials than on control trials. Thirty-month-olds did not make incremental use of informative adjectives, and experienced disruption on trials when the two potential referents were identical in kind. In the younger children, difficulty in integrating prenominal adjectives with the subsequent noun was associated with slower processing speed across conditions. These findings provide evidence that skill in putting color word knowledge to use in real-time language processing emerges gradually over the third year. PMID:20189552

  9. Prosodic boundaries, comma rules, and brain responses: the closure positive shift in ERPs as a universal marker for prosodic phrasing in listeners and readers.

    PubMed

    Steinhauer, K; Friederici, A D

    2001-05-01

    Just as the false comma in this sentence, shows punctuation can influence sentence processing considerably. Pauses and other prosodic cues in spoken language serve the same function of structuring the sentence in smaller phrases. However, surprisingly little effort has been spent on the question as to whether both phenomena rest on the same mechanism and whether they are equally efficient in guiding parsing decisions. In a recent study, we showed that auditory speech boundaries evoke a specific positive shift in the listeners' event-related brain potentials (ERPs) that indicates the sentence segmentation and resulting changes in the understanding of the utterance (Steinhauer et al., 1999a). Here, we present three ERP reading experiments demonstrating that the human brain processes commas in a similar manner and that comma perception depends crucially on the reader's individual punctuation habits. Main results of the study are: (1) Commas can determine initial parsing as efficiently as speech boundaries because they trigger the same prosodic phrasing covertly, although phonological representations seem to be activated to a lesser extent. (2) Independent of the input modality, this phrasing is reflected online by the same ERP component, namely the Closure Positive Shift (CPS). (3) Both behavioral and ERP data suggest that comma processing varies with the readers' idiosyncratic punctuation habits. (4) A combined auditory and visual ERP experiment shows that the CPS is also elicited both by delexicalized prosody and while subjects replicate prosodic boundaries during silent reading. (5) A comma-induced reversed garden path turned out to be much more difficult than the classical garden path. Implications for psycholinguistic models and future ERP research are discussed. PMID:11523275

  10. Guide to Grammar and Writing: Sentence Variety

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Capital Community College and Dr. Charles Darling

    2012-04-02

    This guide explains how to vary sentence length and structure to add interest and expression to writing. It includes several online quizzes covering variety in modifier placement, variety in subject placement, and identifying sentence types. Quizzes include the correct answers with explanations. The resource also provides links to definitions, examples, and online quizzes for run-on sentences and sentence fragments.

  11. Aspectual Effects on Interpretation in Early Grammar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyams, Nina

    2007-01-01

    This paper focuses on the temporal and modal meanings associated with root infinitives (RIs) and other non-finite clauses in several typologically diverse languages--English, Russian, Greek and Dutch. I discuss the role that event structure, aspect, and modality play in the interpretation of these clauses. The basic hypothesis is that in the…

  12. Translation of Untranslatable Words — Integration of Lexical Approximation and Phrase-Table Extension Techniques into Statistical Machine Translation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, Michael; Arora, Karunesh; Sumita, Eiichiro

    This paper proposes a method for handling out-of-vocabulary (OOV) words that cannot be translated using conventional phrase-based statistical machine translation (SMT) systems. For a given OOV word, lexical approximation techniques are utilized to identify spelling and inflectional word variants that occur in the training data. All OOV words in the source sentence are then replaced with appropriate word variants found in the training corpus, thus reducing the number of OOV words in the input. Moreover, in order to increase the coverage of such word translations, the SMT translation model is extended by adding new phrase translations for all source language words that do not have a single-word entry in the original phrase-table but only appear in the context of larger phrases. The effectiveness of the proposed methods is investigated for the translation of Hindi to English, Chinese, and Japanese.

  13. To appear in WVLC3, Third Annual Workshop on Very Large Corpora (at ACL95), Cambridge, MA: Jun. 95. Trainable Coarse Bilingual Grammars

    E-print Network

    Wu, Dekai

    . 95. Trainable Coarse Bilingual Grammars for Parallel Text Bracketing Dekai Wu HKUST Department to languages where prior grammar resources are scarce: (1) coarse bilingual grammars, and (2) unsupervised monolingual grammar into our bilingual formalism, in order to transfer knowledge of one language's constraints

  14. The interpretation of disjunction in universal grammar.

    PubMed

    Crain, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    Child and adult speakers of English have different ideas of what 'or' means in ordinary statements of the form 'A or B'. Even more far-reaching differences between children and adults are found in other languages. This tells us that young children do not learn what 'or' means by watching how adults use 'or'. An alternative is to suppose that children draw upon a priori knowledge of the meaning of 'or'. This conclusion is reinforced by the observation that all languages adopt the same meaning of 'or' in certain structures. For example, statements of the form 'not S[A or B]' have the same meanings in all languages, and disjunctive statements receive a uniform interpretation in sentences that contain certain focus expressions, such as English 'only'. These observations are relevant for the long-standing "nature versus nurture" controversy. A linguistic property that (a) emerges in child language without decisive evidence from experience, and (b) is common to all human languages, is a likely candidate for innate specification. Experience matters, of course. As child speakers grow up, they eventually learn to use 'or' in the same way as adults do. But, based on findings from child language and cross-linguistic research, it looks like certain aspects of language, including the interpretation of disjunction, are part of the human genome. PMID:18561548

  15. A Genetic Algorithm for Learning Significant Phrase Patterns in Radiology Reports

    SciTech Connect

    Patton, Robert M [ORNL; Potok, Thomas E [ORNL; Beckerman, Barbara G [ORNL; Treadwell, Jim N [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    Radiologists disagree with each other over the characteristics and features of what constitutes a normal mammogram and the terminology to use in the associated radiology report. Recently, the focus has been on classifying abnormal or suspicious reports, but even this process needs further layers of clustering and gradation, so that individual lesions can be more effectively classified. Using a genetic algorithm, the approach described here successfully learns phrase patterns for two distinct classes of radiology reports (normal and abnormal). These patterns can then be used as a basis for automatically analyzing, categorizing, clustering, or retrieving relevant radiology reports for the user.

  16. Active shapes : introducing guidelines for designing kinetic architectural structures

    E-print Network

    El-Zanfaly, Dina E

    2011-01-01

    This thesis proposes guidelines for designing kinetic architectural structures, in which rules based on shape grammars, are used for motion capturing and design. There is an increasing demand for adaptive architecture that ...

  17. Effects of Animacy and Noun-Phrase Relatedness on the Processing of Complex Sentences

    PubMed Central

    Lowder, Matthew W.; Gordon, Peter C.

    2014-01-01

    Previous work has suggested that syntactically complex object-extracted relative clauses are easier to process when the head noun phrase (NP1) is inanimate and the embedded noun phrase (NP2) is animate compared to the reverse animacy configuration, with differences in processing difficulty beginning as early as NP2 (e.g., The article that the senator… versus The senator that the article…). Two eye-tracking-while-reading experiments were conducted to better understand the source of this effect. Experiment 1 showed that having an inanimate NP1 facilitated processing even when NP2 was held constant. Experiment 2 manipulated both animacy of NP1 and the degree of semantic relatedness between the critical NPs. When NP1 and NP2 were paired arbitrarily, the early animacy effect emerged at NP2. When NP1 and NP2 were semantically related, this effect disappeared, with effects of NP1 animacy emerging in later processing stages for both the Related and Arbitrary conditions. The results indicate that differences in the animacy of NP1 influence early processing of complex sentences only when the critical NPs share no meaningful relationship. PMID:24452417

  18. A shape grammar for teaching the architectural style of the Yingzao fashi

    E-print Network

    Li, Andrew I-kang

    2001-01-01

    The Yingzaofashi [Building standards] is a Chinese building manual written by Li Jie (d. 1110) and published in 1103. I present a shape grammar for teaching the architectural style - the language of designs - described in ...

  19. Grammar Model-based Program Evolution Abstract--In Evolutionary Computation, genetic operators,

    E-print Network

    McKay, Robert Ian

    research Because of the complexity of Genetic Programming (GP) tree representation, little workGrammar Model-based Program Evolution Abstract-- In Evolutionary Computation, genetic operators. However, these fixed, problem independent genetic operators may destroy the sub- solution, usually called

  20. KCDC: Word Sense Induction by Using Grammatical Dependencies and Sentence Phrase Structure

    E-print Network

    Hammerton, James

    Word sense induction and discrimination (WSID) identifies the senses of an am- biguous word and assigns and discrimination task, see Manandhar et al. (2010), is to identify the senses of ambiguous nouns and verbs , but misguided people filed out of the theater , and immediately lit up a smoke . 2.1.1 Grammatical Dependency

  1. Event structure and the encoding of arguments : the syntax of the Mandarin and English verb phrase

    E-print Network

    Lin, Jimmy J. (Jimmy Jr-Pin), 1979-

    2004-01-01

    (cont.) to variations in the way functional elements interact with verbal roots. Overall, my work not only contributes to our understanding of how events are syntactically represented, but also explicates interactions at ...

  2. Entangled Parametric Hierarchies: Problems for an Overspecified Universal Grammar

    PubMed Central

    Boeckx, Cedric; Leivada, Evelina

    2013-01-01

    This study addresses the feasibility of the classical notion of parameter in linguistic theory from the perspective of parametric hierarchies. A novel program-based analysis is implemented in order to show certain empirical problems related to these hierarchies. The program was developed on the basis of an enriched data base spanning 23 contemporary and 5 ancient languages. The empirical issues uncovered cast doubt on classical parametric models of language acquisition as well as on the conceptualization of an overspecified Universal Grammar that has parameters among its primitives. Pinpointing these issues leads to the proposal that (i) the (bio)logical problem of language acquisition does not amount to a process of triggering innately pre-wired values of parameters and (ii) it paves the way for viewing language, epigenetic (‘parametric’) variation as an externalization-related epiphenomenon, whose learning component may be more important than what sometimes is assumed. PMID:24019867

  3. Synthesizing Context Free Grammars from Sample Strings Based on Inductive CYK Algorithm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katsuhiko Nakamura; Takashi Ishiwata

    2000-01-01

    \\u000a This paper describes a method of synthesizing context free grammars from positive and negative sample strings, which is implemented\\u000a in a grammatical inference system called Synapse. The method is based on incremental learning for positive samples and a rule generation method by “inductive CYK algorithm,”\\u000a which generates minimal production rules required for parsing positive samples. Synapse can generate unambiguous grammars

  4. A Grammar Inference Approach for Predicting Kinase Specific Phosphorylation Sites

    PubMed Central

    Datta, Sutapa; Mukhopadhyay, Subhasis

    2015-01-01

    Kinase mediated phosphorylation site detection is the key mechanism of post translational mechanism that plays an important role in regulating various cellular processes and phenotypes. Many diseases, like cancer are related with the signaling defects which are associated with protein phosphorylation. Characterizing the protein kinases and their substrates enhances our ability to understand the mechanism of protein phosphorylation and extends our knowledge of signaling network; thereby helping us to treat such diseases. Experimental methods for predicting phosphorylation sites are labour intensive and expensive. Also, manifold increase of protein sequences in the databanks over the years necessitates the improvement of high speed and accurate computational methods for predicting phosphorylation sites in protein sequences. Till date, a number of computational methods have been proposed by various researchers in predicting phosphorylation sites, but there remains much scope of improvement. In this communication, we present a simple and novel method based on Grammatical Inference (GI) approach to automate the prediction of kinase specific phosphorylation sites. In this regard, we have used a popular GI algorithm Alergia to infer Deterministic Stochastic Finite State Automata (DSFA) which equally represents the regular grammar corresponding to the phosphorylation sites. Extensive experiments on several datasets generated by us reveal that, our inferred grammar successfully predicts phosphorylation sites in a kinase specific manner. It performs significantly better when compared with the other existing phosphorylation site prediction methods. We have also compared our inferred DSFA with two other GI inference algorithms. The DSFA generated by our method performs superior which indicates that our method is robust and has a potential for predicting the phosphorylation sites in a kinase specific manner. PMID:25886273

  5. Does complexity matter? Meta-analysis of learner performance in artificial grammar tasks

    PubMed Central

    Schiff, Rachel; Katan, Pesia

    2014-01-01

    Complexity has been shown to affect performance on artificial grammar learning (AGL) tasks (categorization of test items as grammatical/ungrammatical according to the implicitly trained grammar rules). However, previously published AGL experiments did not utilize consistent measures to investigate the comprehensive effect of grammar complexity on task performance. The present study focused on computerizing Bollt and Jones's (2000) technique of calculating topological entropy (TE), a quantitative measure of AGL charts' complexity, with the aim of examining associations between grammar systems' TE and learners' AGL task performance. We surveyed the literature and identified 56 previous AGL experiments based on 10 different grammars that met the sampling criteria. Using the automated matrix-lift-action method, we assigned a TE value for each of these 10 previously used AGL systems and examined its correlation with learners' task performance. The meta-regression analysis showed a significant correlation, demonstrating that the complexity effect transcended the different settings and conditions in which the categorization task was performed. The results reinforced the importance of using this new automated tool to uniformly measure grammar systems' complexity when experimenting with and evaluating the findings of AGL studies. PMID:25309495

  6. Effects of grammar instruction and fluency training on the learning of the and a by native speakers of japanese

    PubMed Central

    Shimamune, Satoru; Jitsumori, Masako

    1999-01-01

    In a computer-assisted sentence completion task, the effects of grammar instruction and fluency training on learning the use of the definite and indefinite articles of English were examined. Forty-eight native Japanese-speaking students were assigned to four groups: with grammar/accuracy (G/A), without grammar/accuracy (N/A), with grammar/fluency (G/F), and without grammar/fluency (N/F). In the G/A and N/A groups, training continued until performance reached 100% accuracy (accuracy criterion). In the G/F and N/F groups, training continued until 100% accuracy was reached and the correct responses were made at a high speed (fluency criterion). Grammar instruction was given to participants in the G/A and G/F groups but not to those in the N/A and N/F groups. Generalization to new sentences was tested immediately after reaching the required criterion. High levels of generalization occurred, regardless of the type of mastery criterion and whether the grammar instruction was given. Retention tests were conducted 4, 6, and 8 weeks after training. Fluency training effectively improved retention of the performance attained without the grammar instruction. This effect was diminished when grammar instruction was given during training. Learning grammatical rules was not necessary for the generalized use of appropriate definite and indefinite articles or for the maintenance of the performance attained through fluency training. PMID:22477154

  7. Testing the Stem Dominance Hypothesis: Meaning Analysis of Inflected Words and Prepositional Phrases

    PubMed Central

    Lehtonen, Minna; Harrer, Gabor; Wande, Erling; Laine, Matti

    2014-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that lexical-semantic access of inflected words is governed by the word stem. Object drawings overlaid with a dot/arrow marking position/movement were matched with corresponding linguistic expressions like “from the house”. To test whether the stem dominates lexical-semantic access irrespective of its position, we used Swedish prepositional phrases (locative information via preposition immediately preceding the stem) or Finnish case-inflected words (locative information via suffix immediately following the stem). Both in monolingual Swedish and in bilingual Finnish-Swedish speakers, correct stems with incorrect prepositions/case-endings were hardest to reject. This finding supports the view that the stem is indeed the dominant unit in meaning access of inflected words. PMID:24676218

  8. (2012). In C. Chapelle (Ed.), Encyclopedia of applied linguistics. Wiley-Blackwell. Grammar and Electronic Communication

    E-print Network

    Herring, Susan

    2012-01-01

    technologies are affecting language and language change has excited considerable speculation and inspired a growing body of scholarship. At the heart the composition of words, phrases, and sentences in a language. Language purists worry

  9. Using dual-task methodology to dissociate automatic from nonautomatic processes involved in artificial grammar learning.

    PubMed

    Hendricks, Michelle A; Conway, Christopher M; Kellogg, Ronald T

    2013-09-01

    Previous studies have suggested that both automatic and intentional processes contribute to the learning of grammar and fragment knowledge in artificial grammar learning (AGL) tasks. To explore the relative contribution of automatic and intentional processes to knowledge gained in AGL, we utilized dual-task methodology to dissociate automatic and intentional grammar- and fragment-based knowledge in AGL at both acquisition and at test. Both experiments used a balanced chunk strength grammar to assure an equal proportion of fragment cues (i.e., chunks) in grammatical and nongrammatical test items. In Experiment 1, participants engaged in a working memory dual-task either during acquisition, test, or both acquisition and test. The results showed that participants performing the dual-task during acquisition learned the artificial grammar as well as the single-task group, presumably by relying on automatic learning mechanisms. A working memory dual-task at test resulted in attenuated grammar performance, suggesting a role for intentional processes for the expression of grammatical learning at test. Experiment 2 explored the importance of perceptual cues by changing letters between the acquisition and test phase; unlike Experiment 1, there was no significant learning of grammatical information for participants under dual-task conditions in Experiment 2, suggesting that intentional processing is necessary for successful acquisition and expression of grammar-based knowledge under transfer conditions. In sum, it appears that some aspects of learning in AGL are indeed relatively automatic, although the expression of grammatical information and the learning of grammatical patterns when perceptual similarity is eliminated both appear to require explicit resources. PMID:23627281

  10. Mining "Hidden Phrase" Definitions from the Web Hung. V. Nguyen, P. Velamuru, D. Kolippakkam, H. Davulcu, H. Liu

    E-print Network

    Liu, Huan

    page contains the META tag "luxury bedding" and the search engine knows that only "silk, satin or designer beddings" are considered to be "luxury" then it can determine the relevance of a page that has the "luxury bedding" as a hidden phrase. In this paper we present an algorithm that mines the definitions

  11. IllustrationsbyPeterStemler TRANSLATION of the phrase "sign language in the brain" into American Sign Language is

    E-print Network

    Bellugi, Ursula

    complexity of spoken languages. Just as English and Italian have elaborate rules for forming words#12;47 IllustrationsbyPeterStemler TRANSLATION of the phrase "sign language in the brain" into American Sign Language is shown in these artist's renderings, which are based on photographs of a deaf

  12. Intentional Control and Operational Constraints in Prosodic Phrasing: A Study of Picture-Elicited Narrations by French Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vion, Monique; Colas, Annie

    2009-01-01

    This study deals with the determinants of prosodic phrasing in French schoolchildren's narratives. Children (aged 7 to 11) told picture stories to a silent same-age peer. The establishment of temporal and/or causal relations between the events was more or less guided by the drawings (ordered vs. arbitrary sequences). The comprehension of the…

  13. Question # Complete Wording Short Phrase Dimension 1 Overall, I am a satisfied UCSD employee. Satisfied Employee Employee Effectiveness/Satisfaction

    E-print Network

    Jun, Suckjoon

    . Satisfied Employee Employee Effectiveness/Satisfaction 2 I understand my department's mission. UnderstandQuestion # Complete Wording Short Phrase Dimension 1 Overall, I am a satisfied UCSD employee Department Effectiveness 15 My department routinely measures customer satisfaction with services and products

  14. Does the Noun Phrase Accessibility Hierarchy Predict the Difficulty Order in the Acquisition of Japanese Relative Clauses?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozeki, Hiromi; Shirai, Yasuhiro

    2007-01-01

    Although Keenan and Comrie's (1977) noun phrase accessibility hierarchy (NPAH) has been shown to predict the difficulty order of relative clauses (RCs) in SLA, most studies of the NPAH have been on European languages. This paper tests the prediction for Japanese. Study 1 analyzes RCs in an oral interview corpus from 90 learners of Japanese at four…

  15. Human behavior recognition using a context-free grammar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosani, Andrea; Conci, Nicola; De Natale, Francesco G. B.

    2014-05-01

    Automatic recognition of human activities and behaviors is still a challenging problem for many reasons, including limited accuracy of the data acquired by sensing devices, high variability of human behaviors, and gap between visual appearance and scene semantics. Symbolic approaches can significantly simplify the analysis and turn raw data into chains of meaningful patterns. This allows getting rid of most of the clutter produced by low-level processing operations, embedding significant contextual information into the data, as well as using simple syntactic approaches to perform the matching between incoming sequences and models. We propose a symbolic approach to learn and detect complex activities through the sequences of atomic actions. Compared to previous methods based on context-free grammars, we introduce several important novelties, such as the capability to learn actions based on both positive and negative samples, the possibility of efficiently retraining the system in the presence of misclassified or unrecognized events, and the use of a parsing procedure that allows correct detection of the activities also when they are concatenated and/or nested one with each other. An experimental validation on three datasets with different characteristics demonstrates the robustness of the approach in classifying complex human behaviors.

  16. A Comparison of the Effectiveness of Programed, Handbook, and Non-Formalized Grammar Instruction in Remedial College Freshman English Composition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slay, Alan Lee

    To compare the results of three different methods of grammar instruction in remedial freshman English, three groups of 16 students each--matched on SCAT total raw score, age, and sex--were used as subjects. The approaches used were (1) formal instruction based on a traditional grammar textbook--control group; (2) discussion of the class' writing…

  17. Computational Shape Grammars and Non-Standardization: a Case Study on the City of Music of Rio de Janeiro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Júnior, Félix A. Silva; Silva, Neander Furtado

    This paper shows how shape grammars can be applied in the analyze of new types of architecture through the case study of the project of the City of Music of Rio de Janeiro by Christian Portzamparc. It aims to indicate how shape grammars can still be constructed from designs which were created with the purpose of avoiding standardization.

  18. Voices from the Classroom: Intermediate-Level French Students Favor Extensive Reading Over Grammar and Give Their Reasons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dupuy, Beatrice C.

    1997-01-01

    Surveyed 49 intermediate-level French-as-a-Foreign-Language college students to determine whether they preferred extensive reading or grammar instruction for language acquisition and practice, and why. Students overwhelmingly preferred reading as more pleasurable and more beneficial for language acquisition. They considered grammar instruction…

  19. Applying semantic-based probabilistic context-free grammar to medical language processing – A preliminary study on parsing medication sentences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hua Xu; Samir AbdelRahman; Yanxin Lu; Joshua C. Denny; Son Doan

    Semantic-based sublanguage grammars have been shown to be an efficient method for medical language processing. However, given the complexity of the medical domain, parsers using such grammars inevitably encounter ambiguous sentences, which could be interpreted by different groups of production rules and consequently result in two or more parse trees. One possible solution, which has not been extensively explored previously,

  20. The Incidental Grammar Acquisition in Focus on Form and Focus on Forms Instruction for Young Beginner Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shintani, Natsuko

    2015-01-01

    Incidental grammar acquisition involves learners "picking up" a grammatical feature while their primary focus is on some other aspect of language--either message content or another language feature that is taught directly. This article reports a study of children's incidental grammar acquisition of two grammatical features--plural…

  1. Formal Grammar Instruction: Theoretical Aspects to Contemplate Its Teaching (Instrucción formal de la gramática: aspectos teóricos para considerar su enseñanza)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cruz Corzo, Carolina

    2013-01-01

    With the rise of new tendencies and methodologies in the English as a foreign language field, formal grammar instruction has become unnecessary during the last few years. Institutions and educators have made serious decisions in order to promote a language production which is fluent and coherent. Thus, grammar instruction has been partially…

  2. On-Line Recognition of Handwritten Mathematical Expressions Based on Stroke-Based Stochastic Context-Free Grammar

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ryo Yamamoto; Shinji Sako; Takuya Nishimoto; Shigeki Sagayama

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a new framework for on- line handwritten mathematical expression recognition. In this approach, we consider handwritten mathematical ex- pressions as the output of stroke generation processes based on a stochastic context-free grammar which gen- erates handwritten expressions stochastically. We esti- mate the most likely expression candidate derived from the grammar, rather than solving one by

  3. Exploring the Outcomes of a Novel Computer-Assisted Treatment Program Targeting Expressive-Grammar Deficits in Preschoolers with SLI

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington, Karla N.; Warr-Leeper, Genese; Thomas-Stonell, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The impact of a newly designed computer-assisted treatment ("C-AT") program, "My Sentence Builder", for the remediation of expressive-grammar deficits in children with specific language impairment (SLI) was explored. This program was specifically designed with features to directly address expressive-grammar difficulties, thought to be…

  4. The Emergence of Grammar in Very-Low-Birth-Weight Finnish Children at Two Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stolt, Suvi; Matomaki, Jaakko; Haataja, Leena; Lapinleimu, Helena; Lehtonen, Liisa

    2013-01-01

    It is not well understood how grammar emerges in very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) children. The main aim of the present study was to gain information on the emergence of grammar in this group at 2; 0. The Finnish version of the Communicative Development Inventory was used to collect data from VLBW children ("N" = 156) and full-term controls…

  5. The Case for a Realistic Beginning-Level Grammar Syllabus: The Round Peg in the Round Hole

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heining-Boynton, Audrey L.

    2010-01-01

    The time has come to create a realistic grammar syllabus in the beginning language courses. Yet why do some in the profession insist that all grammar must be taught in the first year of language learning? Abundant data from decades of research on topics such as human memory, chunking, and second language acquisition exist that overwhelmingly…

  6. The Neural Basis of Lexicon and Grammar in First and Second Language: The Declarative/Procedural Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ullman, Michael T.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses theoretical and empirical aspects of the neural bases of the mental lexicon and the mental grammar in the first and second language (L1 and L2). Argues that in the first language, the learning, representation, and processing of lexicon and grammar depend on two well-studies brain memory systems. (Author/VWL)

  7. The Grammar of Information: Challenges for Older Students With Language Impairments

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Cheryl M.; Balthazar, Catherine H.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this article is to describe the nature of informational (expository) language in terms of unique grammatical characteristics and discuss applications for assessment and intervention for older school-age children and adolescents with language impairments. Methods Information presented is based on a selected literature review of topics including the nature of academic texts, expository text processing of older children and adolescents with language impairments and/or learning disabilities, and language intervention studies that target higher level language in the same populations. Results We summarize key grammatical strategies found in informational text: (1) complex nominal (noun phrase) groups, (2) clausal subordination, and (3) theme and information mechanisms. Although facility with these structures is not routinely or systematically tested by language clinicians, we highlight assessment procedures useful this purpose. Promising intervention evidence suggests that grammatical features characteristic of informational text can be targeted with positive results for students who struggle with this aspect of higher level language. Conclusions Success comprehending and producing informational text requires unique grammatical knowledge. A qualitative literature review is used to derive best practices in assessment and intervention with school-age children who are particularly challenged by these types of texts. PMID:23596344

  8. Exploring aphasic grammar. 2: Do language testing and conversation tell a similar story?

    PubMed

    Beeke, Suzanne; Wilkinson, Ray; Maxim, Jane

    2003-03-01

    This paper investigates the grammatical difficulties of an English-speaking person with non-fluent aphasia using clinical assessments based on picture description and story telling. The same individual's conversation grammar, which was investigated in detail in a linked article is reviewed here, and the notion that interactional grammatical phenomena may not necessarily be visible in elicited language data is explored. Data analysis shows that the aphasic speaker's grammar looks considerably different in the context of clinical assessment than it does in conversation. Analysis of elicited grammar reveals that the majority of utterances produced are subject-verb-object (SVO) type sentences, whereas prior analysis of conversation data indicated patterns of interactional grammatical phenomena that differ from such sentence types. It is suggested that language tests and conversation provide complementary but essentially different information about grammatical abilities. The clinical implications of this finding are discussed. PMID:12762207

  9. Didactique des langues etrangeres: De quoi parle-t-on quand on parle de grammaire? (Didactic of Foreign Languages: What Are We Talking About When We Talk About Grammar?).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berche, Merce Pujol

    1998-01-01

    A discussion of the term "grammar" in the context of second-language teaching and learning looks at various approaches to/definitions of grammar, including linguistic, psychological, sociological, and pedagogical grammars. Pedagogical grammars are viewed as learning tools for the second-language classroom, and their properties and components are…

  10. Amplitude modulation of sexy phrases is salient for song attractiveness in female canaries (Serinus canaria).

    PubMed

    Pasteau, Magali; Ung, Davy; Kreutzer, Michel; Aubin, Thierry

    2012-07-01

    Song discrimination and recognition in songbird species have usually been studied by measuring responses to song playbacks. In female canaries, Serinus canaria, copulation solicitation displays (CSDs) are used as an index of female preferences, which are related to song recognition. Despite the fact that many studies underline the role of song syntax in this species, we observed that short segments of songs (a few seconds long) are enough for females to discriminate between conspecific and heterospecific songs, whereas such a short duration is not sufficient to identify the syntax rules. This suggests that other cues are salient for song recognition. In this experiment, we investigated the influence of amplitude modulation (AM) on the responses (CSDs) of female canaries to song playbacks. We used two groups of females: (1) raised in acoustic isolation and (2) raised in normal conditions. When adult, we tested their preferences for sexy phrases with different AMs. We broadcast three types of stimuli: (1) songs with natural canary AM, (2) songs with AM removed, or (3) song with wren Troglodytes troglodytes AM. Results indicate that female canaries prefer and have predispositions for a song type with the natural canary AM. Thus, this acoustic parameter is a salient cue for song attractiveness. PMID:22476242

  11. Linguistic analysis: terms and phrases used by patients in e-mail messages to nurses.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Yichuan; Hardardottir, Gudrun Audur; Brennan, Patricia Flatley

    2004-01-01

    While some researchers are focusing on mapping free-text within health care fields into controlled vocabularies and classifications, many researchers are focusing on consumers' vocabularies. Using natural language processing (NLP) tools, such as MetaMap, to extract and map into terms in a controlled vocabulary is one way of understanding the pattern of terms used by lay people. Before an NLP tool can be effectively and efficiently used to extract concepts and create machine-understandable interpretations of the data, the appropriateness of the tool needs to be determined. This study aims were to determine the appropriateness of linguistic meaning captured for terms and phrases used by patients in electronic mail messages to nurses, using nursing-specific MetaMap output. Twenty messages were randomly selected from the 241 messages data set. Results indicated that four out of six nursing classification systems captured more than 50 % of the parsed word's linguistic meaning. This study demonstrates that it is possible to automatically extract and capture the linguistic meaning of the terms patients use in their electronic mail messages. PMID:15360865

  12. Nonschematic drawing recognition: a new approach based on attributed graph grammar with flexible embedding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kyu J.; Kunii, T. L.; Noma, T.

    1993-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a syntactic pattern recognition method for non-schematic drawings, based on a new attributed graph grammar with flexible embedding. In our graph grammar, the embedding rule permits the nodes of a guest graph to be arbitrarily connected with the nodes of a host graph. The ambiguity caused by this flexible embedding is controlled with the evaluation of synthesized attributes and the check of context sensitivity. To integrate parsing with the synthesized attribute evaluation and the context sensitivity check, we also develop a bottom up parsing algorithm.

  13. Structural Design Principles of Complex Bird Songs: A Network-Based Approach

    PubMed Central

    Sasahara, Kazutoshi; Cody, Martin L.; Cohen, David; Taylor, Charles E.

    2012-01-01

    Bird songs are acoustic communication signals primarily used in male-male aggression and in male-female attraction. These are often monotonous patterns composed of a few phrases, yet some birds have extremely complex songs with a large phrase repertoire, organized in non-random fashion with discernible patterns. Since structure is typically associated with function, the structures of complex bird songs provide important clues to the evolution of animal communication systems. Here we propose an efficient network-based approach to explore structural design principles of complex bird songs, in which the song networks–transition relationships among different phrases and the related structural measures–are employed. We demonstrate how this approach works with an example using California Thrasher songs, which are sequences of highly varied phrases delivered in succession over several minutes. These songs display two distinct features: a large phrase repertoire with a ‘small-world’ architecture, in which subsets of phrases are highly grouped and linked with a short average path length; and a balanced transition diversity amongst phrases, in which deterministic and non-deterministic transition patterns are moderately mixed. We explore the robustness of this approach with variations in sample size and the amount of noise. Our approach enables a more quantitative study of global and local structural properties of complex bird songs than has been possible to date. PMID:23028539

  14. Comprehension of Elided Phrases in Korean and English: VP-Ellipsis, Null Object Constructions, and One-Substitution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Jinsook

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to experimentally investigate the comprehension of elided phrases in Korean and English, focusing on the patterns exemplified below. (1) Korean a. VP-ellipsis: Sungki-ka phalan kabang-ul sa-ss-e-yo. Sunhuy-to-yey-yo Sungki-NOM blue bag-ACC buy-PST-DECL-POL Sunhuy-also-be-POL "Sungki bought a blue bag. Sunhuy did…

  15. 20 CFR 645.210 - What is meant by the terms “entity” and “project” in the statutory phrase “an entity that...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...phrase “an entity that operates a project”, means: (a) For WtW substate formula funds: (1) “Entity” means the PIC, local board (or the alternate administering agency designated by the Governor and approved by the Secretary pursuant...

  16. 20 CFR 645.210 - What is meant by the terms “entity” and “project” in the statutory phrase “an entity that...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...phrase “an entity that operates a project”, means: (a) For WtW substate formula funds: (1) “Entity” means the PIC, local board (or the alternate administering agency designated by the Governor and approved by the Secretary pursuant...

  17. Story Grammar and Learning Disabled Students' Comprehension and Production of Narrative Prose.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montague, Marjorie

    A study investigated both quantitative and qualitative differences between learning disabled (LD) and nonlearning disabled (NLD) subjects across three grade levels on two tasks requiring active processing of story grammar. Twelve LD and 12 NLD subjects were randomly selected from grades 4-5, 7-8, and 10-11 in a southwestern Florida school…

  18. Training to Teach Physical Education in a Grammar School for Boys: Female Narratives and Mentor Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stidder, Gary

    2014-01-01

    This research examines the school-based training experiences of a female trainee teacher of physical education (Emily) at a grammar school for boys. The purpose of this research is to consider whether the sex of the trainee teacher either inhibits or advances the professional development of trainee teachers in an opposite-sex school. Emily…

  19. ON THE INSEPARABILITY OF GRAMMAR AND THE LEXICON: EVIDENCE FROM ACQUISITION, APHASIA AND

    E-print Network

    ON THE INSEPARABILITY OF GRAMMAR AND THE LEXICON: EVIDENCE FROM ACQUISITION, APHASIA AND REAL ("Cross-linguistic studies in aphasia"), NIH-NIDCD P50 DC1289-9351 ("Origins of communication disorders"), and by a grant from the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation Research Network on Early Childhood

  20. An Annotated Bibliography of Texts on Writing Skills: Grammar and Usage, Composition, Rhetoric, and Technical Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Shannon; And Others

    Designed as a research tool for teachers of writing, this annotated bibliography describes texts and readers which pertain to college level English courses (with indications of those suitable for use in high schools). Each entry has been placed in one or more of the following categories: grammar and basic usage, composition, advanced composition…

  1. A Graph-Grammar Approach to Represent Context Knowledge in Oncological Patient Records

    E-print Network

    Pommerening, Klaus - Institute of Medical Biostatistics, Epidemiology, and Informatics & Fachbereich 08

    MPO (Therapy Management in Pediatric Oncology), which supports therapy and monitoring in pediatric oncology-based system TheMPO (Therapy Management in Pediatric Oncology) [5,6], which supports long-term treatmentA Graph-Grammar Approach to Represent Context Knowledge in Oncological Patient Records R. Müllera

  2. Can Grammar Win Elections?pops_802 1..12 Caitlin M. Fausey

    E-print Network

    Kallmann, Marcelo

    thought in the political realm. KEY WORDS: Political communication, Framing, Psycholinguistics, Grammar University of California, Merced The wording of political messages is known to affect voting behavior behavior can be influenced by fine-grained grammatical details of political messages. In this paper, two

  3. Revisiting the syntactic abilities of non-human animals: natural vocalizations and artificial grammar learning

    PubMed Central

    ten Cate, Carel; Okanoya, Kazuo

    2012-01-01

    The domain of syntax is seen as the core of the language faculty and as the most critical difference between animal vocalizations and language. We review evidence from spontaneously produced vocalizations as well as from perceptual experiments using artificial grammars to analyse animal syntactic abilities, i.e. abilities to produce and perceive patterns following abstract rules. Animal vocalizations consist of vocal units (elements) that are combined in a species-specific way to create higher order strings that in turn can be produced in different patterns. While these patterns differ between species, they have in common that they are no more complex than a probabilistic finite-state grammar. Experiments on the perception of artificial grammars confirm that animals can generalize and categorize vocal strings based on phonetic features. They also demonstrate that animals can learn about the co-occurrence of elements or learn simple ‘rules’ like attending to reduplications of units. However, these experiments do not provide strong evidence for an ability to detect abstract rules or rules beyond finite-state grammars. Nevertheless, considering the rather limited number of experiments and the difficulty to design experiments that unequivocally demonstrate more complex rule learning, the question of what animals are able to do remains open. PMID:22688634

  4. Visual Input Enhancement and Grammar Learning: A Meta-Analytic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Sang-Ki; Huang, Hung-Tzu

    2008-01-01

    Effects of pedagogical interventions with visual input enhancement on grammar learning have been investigated by a number of researchers during the past decade and a half. The present review delineates this research domain via a systematic synthesis of 16 primary studies (comprising 20 unique study samples) retrieved through an exhaustive…

  5. The Roots of a Dynasty: The Rise of Warriner's "Grammar and Composition."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johannessen, Larry R.

    Noting the popularity and wide use of John Warriner's series of English grammar and composition textbooks and workbooks for high school students (first published in 1948), this paper argues that rhetorical theory informs the series, despite Warriner's claims that his approach was based on axioms of writing instruction. The paper also speculates on…

  6. The Logic Grammars based Genetic Programming System Man Leung Wong Kwong Sak Leung

    E-print Network

    Fernandez, Thomas

    The Logic Grammars based Genetic Programming System Man Leung Wong Kwong Sak Leung Department@cse.cuhk.edu.hk ABSTRACT Inductive Logic Programming (ILP) and Genetic Programming (GP) are two approaches in program Genetic Programming (GGP) is a novel, powerful, and general approach that combines ILP and GP. Using GGP

  7. Essentials of English Grammar: A Practical Guide to the Mastery of English. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baugh, L. Sue

    Intended to be a guide, this book can serve as a handy reference to grammar, usage, and style for the person who needs an easy-to-use, reliable source to answer specific questions about the English language. In clear, concise terms, with lively examples, the new edition of the book provides general usage rules for parts of speech, punctuation,…

  8. Extended defense systems :I. adversary-defender modeling grammar for vulnerability analysis and threat assessment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Merkle; Peter Benedict

    2006-01-01

    Vulnerability analysis and threat assessment require systematic treatments of adversary and defender characteristics. This work addresses the need for a formal grammar for the modeling and analysis of adversary and defender engagements of interest to the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA). Analytical methods treating both linguistic and numerical information should ensure that neither aspect has disproportionate influence on assessment outcomes.

  9. THE EFFECT OF A STUDY OF TRANSFORMATIONAL GRAMMAR ON THE WRITING OF NINTH AND TENTH GRADERS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BATEMAN, DONALD R.; ZIDONIS, FRANK J.

    AN EXPERIMENT WAS CONDUCTED, OVER A 2-YEAR PERIOD, AT THE OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY SCHOOL TO TEST THE POSSIBLE EFFECTS OF A STUDY OF A GENERATIVE GRAMMAR ON STUDENT COMPOSITIONS. IN ADDITION TO THE REGULAR CURRICULUM, AN EXPERIMENTAL CLASS OF 50 NINTH-GRADERS (AND 10TH-GRADERS THE FOLLOWING YEAR) WAS REQUIRED TO LEARN TRANSFORMATIONAL-GENERATIVE…

  10. Genetic Encoding of Neural Networks using Attribute Grammars Talib S. Hussain and Roger A. Browse

    E-print Network

    Browse, Roger A.

    Genetic Encoding of Neural Networks using Attribute Grammars Talib S. Hussain and Roger A. Browse through the use of evolutionary computation techniques, such as genetic algorithms or genetic programming information about a neural network will be encoded in the genetic description that will be manipulated

  11. North Slope Inupiaq Grammar, First Year. Third Edition, Revised, with Supplement: North Slope Inupiaq Dialogues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacLean, Edna Ahgeak

    The text covers the phonology and grammar of the variety of Inupiaq, an Eskimo language, spoken in northwestern Alaska. A introductory section explains and maps the geographic distribution of Inupiaq dialects. Subsequent chapters address these topics: pronunciation; phonological processes in Inupiaq; Inupiaq morphology; intransitive verbs;…

  12. Tuvan Manual: Area Handbook, Grammar, Reader, Glossary, Bibliography. Indiana University Uralic and Altaic Series, Vol. 126.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krueger, John R.

    This manual on Tuva consists of the following: (1) an area handbook; (2) a grammar; (3) a reader; (4) a Tuvan-English glossary; and (5) an annotated bibliography. Part one contains the following articles: (1) "Tuva," by M. Underdown; (2) "The Tuvinian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic," translated by W. Dougherty; (3) "The Tuvans," by L. P.…

  13. Student Teachers' Collaborative Construction of Grammar Awareness: The Case of a Highly Competent Learner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svalberg, Agneta M.-L.; Askham, Jim

    2014-01-01

    The paper investigates how a student on a master's-level teacher education course for English language teachers goes about constructing her grammar knowledge. The learner is a novice teacher with English as a foreign language. Learner diary, interview, and group interaction data were analysed thematically, revealing that she made relatively…

  14. Lateen EM: Unsupervised Training with Multiple Objectives, Applied to Dependency Grammar Induction

    E-print Network

    Tomkins, Andrew

    Lateen EM: Unsupervised Training with Multiple Objectives, Applied to Dependency Grammar Induction in unsupervised training by using additional im- perfect objectives. In its simplest form, lateen EM alternates between the two objectives of ordinary "soft" and "hard" expectation max- imization (EM) algorithms

  15. Systematic Pattern Selection Using Pattern Language Grammars and Design Space Analysis

    E-print Network

    Zdun, Uwe

    Systematic Pattern Selection Using Pattern Language Grammars and Design Space Analysis Uwe Zdun. The software architect or designer must find the relevant patterns and pattern languages that need to be consid and pattern languages are written by multiple pattern authors, it might be necessary to identify

  16. An Enriching Methodology. Bakhtin's "Dialogic Origin and Dialogic Pedagogy of Grammar" and the Teaching of Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halasek, Kay

    2005-01-01

    In "Dialogic Origin," Mikhail Bakhtin -- as teacher-researcher and theorist -- presents readers with a remarkable essay on teaching grammar and style to 7th-year students (roughly equivalent to 10th graders in the U.S. educational system). In doing so, Bakhtin employs some of his most notable concepts (among them dialogism and "hero") as informing…

  17. procedural rocks through grammars and evolution Isaac M. Dart, Gabriele De Rossi and Julian Togelius

    E-print Network

    Togelius, Julian

    SpeedRock: procedural rocks through grammars and evolution Isaac M. Dart, Gabriele De Rossi}@itu.dk ABSTRACT We present an approach to procedurally generating diverse and believable rocks for usage in games-alone tool for rock generation capable of exporting assets to mainstream modelling pro- grams. 1

  18. Statistical Sentence Condensation using Ambiguity Packing and Stochastic Disambiguation Methods for Lexical-Functional Grammar

    E-print Network

    Riezler, Stefan

    for Lexical-Functional Grammar Stefan Riezler and Tracy H. King and Richard Crouch and Annie Zaenen Palo Alto-entropy model for stochastic output selection. Furthermore, we propose the use of standard parser evaluation-words models and n-grams. Such models may well produce summaries that are indicative of the original's content

  19. Sociolinguistic Priming and the Perception of Agreement Variation: Testing Predictions of Exemplar-Theoretic Grammar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Squires, Lauren M.

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation investigates the sociolinguistic perception of morphosyntactic variation and is motivated by exemplar-based approaches to grammar. The study uses syntactic priming experiments to test the effects of participants' exposure to subject-verb agreement variants. Experiments also manipulate the gender, social status, and individual…

  20. Automatic Induction of N-Gram Language Models from a Natural Language Grammar1

    E-print Network

    Automatic Induction of N-Gram Language Models from a Natural Language Grammar1 Stephanie Seneff work in developing a technique which can automatically generate class n-gram language models from the standard class n-gram framework for compu- tational efficiency. Moreover, both the n-gram classes and train