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1

Augmented phrase structure grammars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Augmented phrase structure grammars consist of phrase structure rules with embedded conditions and structure-building actions written in a specially developed language. An attribute-value, record-oriented information structure is an integral part of the theory.

George E. Heidorn

1975-01-01

2

Phrase-Structure Grammars and Context-Sensitive  

E-print Network

Chapter 8 Phrase-Structure Grammars and Context-Sensitive Grammars 8.1 Phrase-Structure Grammars-sensitive languages also have a Turing-machine char- acterization. We begin with phrase-structure gammars. 489 #12;490 CHAPTER 8. PHRASE-STRUCTURE AND C.S. GRAMMARS Definition 8.1.1 A phrase-structure grammar is a quadruple G

Gallier, Jean

3

Parsing Head-Driven Phrase Structure Grammar  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Head-driven Phrase Structure Grammar project (HPSG) is an English language database query system under development at Hewlett-Packard Laboratories. Unlike other product-oriented efforts in the natural language understanding field, the HPSG system was designed and implemented by linguists on the basis of recent theoretical developments. But, unlike other implementations of linguistic theories, this system is not a toy, as it

Derek Proudian; Carl Pollard

1985-01-01

4

Finite-State Approximation of Phrase Structure Grammars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phrase-structure grammars are an effective representation for important syntactic and semantic aspects of natural languages, but are computationally too demanding for use as language models in real-time speech recognition. An algorithm is described that computes finite-state approximations for context-free grammars and equivalent augmented phrase-structure grammar formalisms. The approximation is exact for certain context-free grammars generating regular languages, including all left-linear

Fernando C. N. Pereira; Rebecca N. Wright

1991-01-01

5

Computational Structure of GPSG Models: Revised Generalized Phrase Structure Grammar  

E-print Network

The primary goal of this report is to demonstrate how considerations from computational complexity theory can inform grammatical theorizing. To this end, generalized phrase structure grammar (GPSG) linguistic theory ...

Ristad, Eric Sven

1989-09-01

6

Slavic in Head-Driven Phrase Structure Grammar.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The collection of essays on the properties of Slavic languages in the context of the theory of head-driven phrase structure grammar (HPSG) includes: "Typological Similarities in HPSG" (Tania Avgustinova, Wojciech Skut, Hans Uszkoreit); "Auxiliaries, Verbs and Complementizers in Polish" (Robert D. Borsley); "An Architecture for Phonology" (Tilman…

Borsley, Robert D., Ed.; Przepiorkowski, Adam, Ed.

7

Processing English with a Generalized Phrase Structure Grammar  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a natural language processing system implemented at Hewlett-Packard's Computer Research Center. The system's main components are: a Generalized Phrase Structure Grammar (GPSG); a top-down parser; a logic transducer that outputs a first-order logical representation; and a \\

Jean Mark Gawron; Jonathan King; John Lamping; Egon Loebner; E. Anne Paulson; Geoffrey K. Pullum; Ivan A. Sag; Thomas Wasow

1982-01-01

8

The Generative Power of Categorial Grammars and Head-Driven Phrase Structure Grammars with Lexical Rules  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, it is shown that the addition of simple and linguistically motivated forms of lexical rules to grammatical theories based on subcategorization lists, such as categorial grammars (CG) or head-driven phrase structure grammars (HPSG), results in a system that can generate all and only the recursively enumerable languages. The proof of this result is carried out by means

Bob Carpenter

1991-01-01

9

Head-driven Phrase Structure Grammar  

Microsoft Academic Search

e and typing tostate-of-the-art linguistic analyses. It also complements the more theoretically orientedworks of Carpenter (1992) and Keller (1993) on typed-feature structures and their logic.So, although its intended audience is clearly primarily linguists, this book is essentialreading for anybody interested in building an NLP system with a nontrivial syntacticcomponent. All the more so, since Pollard and Sag, in order to

Carl Pollard; Ivan A. Sag; John Nerbonne; Klaus Netter

1994-01-01

10

On the nonexistence of a phrase structure grammar for ALGOL 60  

Microsoft Academic Search

ALGOL 60 is defined partly by formal mechanisms of phrase structure grammar, partly by informally stated restrictions. It is shown that no formal mechanisms of the type used are sufficient to define ALGOL 60.

Robert W. Floyd

1962-01-01

11

PHRASE STRUCTURE COMPUTATIONAL MODEL  

E-print Network

PHRASE STRUCTURE IN A COMPUTATIONAL MODEL OF CHILD LANGUAGE ACQUISITION Helen Louise Gaylard a computational model of child language acquisition which acquires a recursive phrase-structure grammar, and thus triggers the acquisition of a phrase-structure grammar. The Lexical-Functional Grammar formalism

Yao, Xin

12

Head-Driven Phrase Structure Grammar Linguistic Approach, Formal Foundations, and Computational Realization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The theoretical richness, formal rigor and computational versatility of Head-driven Phrase Structure Grammar (HPSG) preclude any kind of in-depth coverage of its content within the confines of an encyclopedia article such as this. Our objectives are accordingly far more modest: we seek to provide a kind of aerial view of the linguistic approach (?2), summarize the formal foundations (?3), and

Robert D. Levine; W. Detmar Meurers

13

A Formal Look at Dependency Grammars and Phrase-Structure Grammars, with Special Consideration of Word-Order Phenomena  

Microsoft Academic Search

The central role of the lexicon in Meaning-Text Theory (MTT) and other dependency-based linguistic theories cannot be replicated in linguistic theories based on context-free grammars (CFGs). We describe Tree Adjoining Grammar (TAG) as a system that arises naturally in the process of lexicalizing CFGs. A TAG grammar can therefore be compared directly to an Meaning-Text Model (MTM). We illustrate this

Owen Rambow; Aravind Joshi

1994-01-01

14

A Grammar Based Approach to Style Specific Phrase Prediction Alok Parlikar and Alan W Black  

E-print Network

mod- els can be achieved by using phrase structure informaion. Al- though it has been pointed out that traditional syntactic phrase structure is not directly appropriate for prosodic phrasing[4], as prosodic part of the Festival suite of utilities. The prosodic phrase structure grammar is trained from

Black, Alan W

15

A New Normal-Form Theorem for Context-Free Phrase Structure Grammars  

Microsoft Academic Search

A context>free phrase structure general~or is in..~landard jb~'m if and only if alt of its rules are of the form: Z -, aY~, ... , Y,~ where Z and Yi are intermediate symbels and a is a l~erminM symbol, so that one input., symbol is processed at each s-tep. Standard form is eonvenien(~ for computer manipulation of eontext-free languages. A

Sheila A. Greibach

1965-01-01

16

Corpus-Oriented Grammar Development for Acquiring a Head-Driven Phrase Structure Grammar from the Penn Treebank  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a method of semi-automatically acquiring an En- glish HPSG grammar from the Penn Treebank. First, heuristic rules are employed to annotate the treebank with partially-specified derivation trees. Lexical entries are automatically extracted from the annotated corpus by inversely applying schemata to partially-specified derivation trees.

Yusuke Miyao; Takashi Ninomiya; Jun’ichi Tsujii

2004-01-01

17

An Expanded Logical Formalism for Head-Driven Phrase Structure Grammar  

Microsoft Academic Search

. Though [Pollard and Sag 1994] assumes that an unspecified variant of theformal logic of [Carpenter 1992] will provide a formalism for HPSG, a precise formulationof the envisaged formalism is not immediately obvious, primarily because a principaltenet of [Carpenter 1992], that feature structures represent partial information, seems toconflict with a principal tenet of [Pollard and Sag 1994], that feature structures

Paul John King

1994-01-01

18

Automatically acquiring phrase structure using distributional analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present evidence that the acquisition of the phrase structure of a natural language is possible without supervision and with a very small initial grammar. We describe a language learner that extracts distributional information from a corpus annotated with parts of speech and is able to use this extracted information to accurately parse short sentences. The phrase

Eric Brill; Mitchell Marcus

1992-01-01

19

Projection and Phrase Structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perfect Syntax dispenses with the idea of externally forced imperfections in syntax. This article presents a system of principles relating (L) LF representations and lexical items that aims to be compatible with this assumption. The core of this theory is that phrase structures are viewed as projection lines (lexical items and their projections) linked by an Insert relation. This explains

Michael Brody

1998-01-01

20

PROSODIC STRUCTURE, PERFORMANCE STRUCTURE AND PHRASE STRUCTURE  

E-print Network

PROSODIC STRUCTURE, PERFORMANCE STRUCTURE AND PHRASE STRUCTURE Steven Abney Bell Communications Research 445 South St., Morristown, NJ 07962-1910 ABSTRACT It is natural to expect phrase structure not correspond well to prosodic phrasing, and independent structures have been pro- posed to account for prosody

Abney, Steven P.

21

Distributional Phrase Structure Induction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unsupervised grammar induction systemscommonly judge potential constituents onthe basis of their effects on the likelihoodof the data. Linguistic justifications ofconstituency, on the other hand, rely onnotions such as substitutability and varyingexternal contexts. We describe twosystems for distributional grammar inductionwhich operate on such principles, usingpart-of-speech tags as the contextualfeatures. The advantages and disadvantagesof these systems are examined,...

2001-01-01

22

Definite Clause Grammars with Scoping Constructs  

E-print Network

phrase structured grammar. In the literature of logic grammars there have been several attempts in Generalized Phrase Structure Grammar (GPSG). The main features involved in this new formulation of DCGs motivated by the possibility of encoding phrase-structure grammars as Prolog programs. DCGs represent

Miller, Dale

23

Converting Dependency Structures to Phrase Structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: this paper, we address the relationshipbetween dependency structures and phrase structures from a practicalperspective; namely, the exploration of different algorithms thatconvert dependency structures to phrase structures and the evaluationof their performance against an existing Treebank. This worknot only provides ways to convert Treebanks from one type of representationto the other, but also clarifies the differences in representationalcoverage of the

Fei Xia; Martha Palmer

2001-01-01

24

Eyeblinks and ASL Phrase Structure.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Attempts to formulate an appropriate linguistic generalization for the occurrence of inhibited periodic eyeblinking by fluent American Sign Language (ASL) signers. It is shown that signers' eyeblinks are sensitive to syntactic structure, from which intonational phrases may be derived. (19 references) (MDM)

Wilbur, Ronnie

1994-01-01

25

Information Structure in English Nominal Phrases  

E-print Network

Information Structure in English Nominal Phrases Jim Feist University of Auckland, New Zealand 1. Introduction The purpose of this paper is to show that nominal phrases in English often have an information structure, in much the same... way as clauses do. The paper deals only with premodifiers and headwords, putting aside the role of determiners and of postmodifying words and phrases. It uses a distinction made by Halliday (2004), as follows. Information structure exists on two...

Feist, Jim

2008-01-01

26

Children's knowledge of hierarchical phrase structure: quantifier floating in Japanese.  

PubMed

The interpretation of floating quantifiers in Japanese requires knowledge of hierarchical phrase structure. However, the input to children is insufficient or even misleading, as our analysis indicates. This presents an intriguing question on learnability: do children interpret floating quantifiers based on a structure-dependent rule which is not obvious in the input or do they employ a sentence comprehension strategy based on the available input? Two experiments examined four- to six-year-old Japanese-speaking children for their interpretations of floating quantifiers in SOV and OSV sentences. The results revealed that no child employed a comprehension strategy in terms of the linear ordering of constituents, and most five- and six-year-olds correctly interpreted floating quantifiers when word-order difficulty was reduced. These facts indicate that children's interpretation of floating quantifiers is structurally dependent on hierarchical phrase structure, suggesting that this knowledge is a part of children's grammar despite the insufficient input available to them. PMID:22850618

Suzuki, Takaaki; Yoshinaga, Naoko

2013-06-01

27

Advanced English; Lessons in Grammar.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This grammar text was prepared especially for advanced students of English in the Somali Republic. The material consists for the most part of explanations and exercises in English generative--transformational grammar. Chapters treat the following aspects of English grammar: (1) the phrase structure of simple sentences; (2) the English noun phrase;…

Palmer, Joe Darwin

28

Categorial Grammars.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Written as an objective critical assessment, this book is the first linguistic theory guide to categorial grammars. Categorial grammars offer a radical alternative to the phrase-structure paradigm, with roots in the philosophy of language, logic, and algebra. Their historical evolution is outlined and their formal basis is discussed, beginning…

Wood, Mary McGee; Hudson, Richard, Ed.

29

Book Review Design Patterns in Fluid Construction Grammar  

E-print Network

. 1985), Lexical Functional Grammar (LFG) (Bresnan 2000), Head- Driven Phrase-Structure Grammar (HPSG-Gram for LFG (Butt et al. 2002) and the LinGO Grammar Matrix for HPSG (Bender, Flickinger, and Oepen 2002

30

Definite Clause Grammars with Scoping Constructs  

E-print Network

proved valuable to computational linguists since they can be used to specify phrase structured grammars-gap dependencies, are difficult to account for in a completely satisfactory way using simple phrase structured Clause Grammars (DCGs), which is directly motivated by the possibility of encoding phrase-structure

Miller, Dale

31

Gender and Heritage Spanish Bilingual Grammars: A Study of Code-Mixed Determiner Phrases and Copula Constructions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study examined heritage speaker grammars and to what extent they diverge with respect to grammatical gender from adult L2 learners. Results from a preference task involving code-mixed Determiner Phrases (DPs) and code-mixed copula constructions show a difference between these two types of operations. Heritage speakers patterned with the…

Valenzuela, Elena; Faure, Ana; Ramirez-Trujillo, Alma P.; Barski, Ewelina; Pangtay, Yolanda; Diez, Adriana

2012-01-01

32

Can intonational phrase structure be primed (like syntactic structure)?  

PubMed

In 3 experiments, we investigated whether intonational phrase structure can be primed. In all experiments, participants listened to sentences in which the presence and location of intonational phrase boundaries were manipulated such that the recording included either no intonational phrase boundaries, a boundary in a structurally dispreferred location, a boundary in a preferred location, or boundaries in both locations. In Experiment 1, participants repeated the sentences to test whether they would reproduce the prosodic structure they had just heard. Experiments 2 and 3 used a prime-target paradigm to evaluate whether the intonational phrase structure heard in the prime sentence might influence that of a novel target sentence. Experiment 1 showed that participants did repeat back sentences that they had just heard with the original intonational phrase structure, yet Experiments 2 and 3 found that exposure to intonational phrase boundaries on prime trials did not influence how a novel target sentence was prosodically phrased. These results suggest that speakers may retain the intonational phrasing of a sentence, but this effect is not long-lived and does not generalize across unrelated sentences. Furthermore, these findings provide no evidence that intonational phrase structure is formulated during a planning stage that is separate from other sources of linguistic information. PMID:24188467

Tooley, Kristen M; Konopka, Agnieszka E; Watson, Duane G

2014-03-01

33

Basque adjectives and the functional structure of the noun phrase  

E-print Network

Basque adjectives and the functional structure of the noun phrase July 2006 Xabier Artiagoitia = instrumental. 1 Longobardi's (2001) overview of the internal structure of noun-phrases also embraces the same Kayne's (1994) antisymmetric approach to phrase structure and, therefore, their implicit claim

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

34

On Transformational Grammar: An Introduction for Teachers. Monograph Number 11.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A review of the background of transformational grammar and a discussion of Chomsky's "Syntactic Structures" begin this introduction to the "new" grammar. Following discussions are on the components of a theoretically complete grammar, the main deep structure components (noun phrase, auxiliary, and verb phrase), grammatical relationships,…

Jacobs, Roderick A.

35

Dependency Structures Derived from Minimalist Grammars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper provides an interpretation of Minimalist Grammars [16],[17] in terms of dependency structures. Under this interpretation, merge operations derive projective dependency structures, and movement operations introduce both non-projectivity and illnestedness. This new characterization of the generative capacity of Minimalist Grammar makes it possible to discuss the linguistic relevance of non-projectivity and illnestedness. This in turn provides insight into grammars that derive structures with these properties.

Boston, Marisa Ferrara; Hale, John T.; Kuhlmann, Marco

36

Context-Free Grammars Introduction to Natural Language Processing  

E-print Network

-free grammar The most common way of modeling constituency. CFG = Context-Free Grammar = Phrase Structure structure and meaning We want to know how meaning is mapped onto what language structures. Commonly

Smith, David A.

37

Dependency Structures and Transformational Rules.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper the author shows that dependency grammars are not only equivalent to structure-free phrase-structure grammars (i.e., equally adequate), but are even more informative: they express both the "is a" relation which phrase-structure grammars express and the "governs" relation which phrase-structure grammars obscure. It is shown that…

Robinson, Jane J.

38

The Syntactic Structure of Chinese Nominal Phrases  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The DP Hypothesis proposes that nominal phrases can be analyzed as consisting of Determiner Phrase (DP) on top of Noun Phrase (NP); however, there is a debate on whether this hypothesis works for all languages. Given that previous studies on Chinese leave this question unresolved, this dissertation investigates new empirical evidence to test…

Wang, Honglei

2012-01-01

39

Toward an analysis of subjective phrase structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for ascertaining the subjective organization of English sentences is presented, discussed, and experimentally applied. It is argued that the a priori phrase markers that psycholinguists have been using in theory and research are in need of empirical determination, and that subjective phrasing departs from prescriptive phrasing. It is also shown that relative constituent compactness can be determined empirically.

Edwin Martin

1970-01-01

40

Categorial Grammars, Lexical Rules and the English Predicative  

E-print Network

, it is traditional to assume a universal collection of phrase­structure schemes. Not only are these phrase­structure to the analysis of English syntax, and in particular the structure of the verb phrase. We will develop a lexicon. The similarity between our system and the metarule system of generalized phrase­structure grammar (GPSG

Carpenter, Bob

41

Prepositional Phrase[[  

E-print Network

that the `progressive/durative' markers in Eastern Min come from a primary preposition phrase structure [ *tjok8+[*hy3 dialects are grammaticalized from a preposition phrase structure (Liu 1996). Furthermore, the locative/* / Prepositional Phrase[[

42

On the Grammar and Model-Theoretic Semantics of Children's Noun Phrases.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper shows informally how model-theoretical semantics may be used by a computer to give a straight-forward analysis of the meaning of children's language. This approach to semantics grows out of the main thrust of work in mathematical logic. It is discussed in the framework of generative grammar and is based on the application of the…

Suppes, Patrick

43

Creation Myths of Generative Grammar and the Mathematics of Syntactic Structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Syntactic Structures (Chomsky [6]) is widely believed to have laid the foundations of a cognitive revolution in linguistic science, and to have presented (i) the first use in linguistics of powerful new ideas regarding grammars as generative systems, (ii) a proof that English was not a regular language, (iii) decisive syntactic arguments against context-free phrase structure grammar description, and (iv) a demonstration of how transformational rules could provide a formal solution to those problems. None of these things are true. This paper offers a retrospective analysis and evaluation.

Pullum, Geoffrey K.

44

Phrase Structure Priming: A Short-Lived Effect.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated the effect of phrase structure priming on sentence production latencies. Demonstrated the priming effects to be short lived. This finding contrasts with more persistent effects recently demonstrated in off-line picture description tasks. (Author/VWL)

Wheeldon, Linda R.; Smith, Mark C.

2003-01-01

45

Grammar of CONEX Structure Model 1 Jingzhi Guo  

E-print Network

Grammar of CONEX Structure Model 1 Jingzhi Guo The previous subsection described the elements of the CONEX structure model. This subsection describes the grammar of the CONEX structure model to summarise the ideas of structure, concept, context and map that were discussed. The syntax of the CONEX grammar

Guo, Jingzhi

46

Mildly Non-Projective Dependency Grammar Marco Kuhlmann*  

E-print Network

dependency syntax and phrase-structure syntax. To do so, we introduce a formalism in which abstract of this hierarchy is restricted to projective analyses and equivalent to context- free phrase-structure grammar, such as phrase-structure or categorial syntax. This makes it hard to gauge the similarities and differences

Plotkin, Joshua B.

47

SLR(1) and LALR(1) Parsing for Unrestricted Grammars Lawrence A. Harris  

E-print Network

SLR(1) and LALR(1) Parsing for Unrestricted Grammars Lawrence A. Harris Abstract Simple LR(1-pushdown automata which parse all sentences are given. These grammars include a wide variety of grammars for non context-free languages. A given phrase structure grammar is one of these types if the parse table

Harris, Larry

48

Generating Typed Dependency Parses from Phrase Structure Parses Marie-Catherine de Marneffe,  

E-print Network

Generating Typed Dependency Parses from Phrase Structure Parses Marie-Catherine de Marneffe, Bill dependency parses of English sentences from phrase structure parses. In order to capture inherent relations parses of English sentences from phrase struc- ture parses. Typed dependencies and phrase structures

Manning, Christopher

49

The Feature Space in Parallel Grammar Writing Miriam Butt  

E-print Network

The Feature Space in Parallel Grammar Writing Miriam Butt Centre for Comp. Linguistics UMIST PO Box development with elements of Head-driven Phrase Structure Grammar (HPSG). 1 Introduction At the very minimum at producing broad-coverage compu- tational grammars for a variety of languages ((Butt et al., 1999; Butt et al

50

Generating Typed Dependency Parses from Phrase Structure Parses  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a system for extracting typed dependency parses of English sentences from phrase structure parses. In order to capture inherent relations occurring in corpus texts that can be critical in real-world applications, many NP relations are included in the set of grammatical relations used. We provide a comparison of our system with Minipar and the Link parser. The

Marie-Catherine de Marneffe; Bill MacCartney; Christopher D. Manning

2006-01-01

51

Unfolding and Event Structure Semantics for Graph Grammars  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose an unfolding semantics for graph transformation systems in the double-pushout (DPO) approach. Mimicking Winskel’s\\u000a construction for Petri nets, a graph grammar is unfolded into an acyclic branching structure, that is itself a (nondeterministic\\u000a occurrence) graph grammar describing all the possible computations of the original grammar. The unfolding can be abstracted\\u000a naturally to a prime algebraic domain and then

Paolo Baldan; Andrea Corradini; Ugo Montanari

1999-01-01

52

TEACHER'S MANUAL FOR PHRASE STRUCTURE RULES 13-18--LANGUAGE CURRICULUM I.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A GUIDE WAS PREPARED FOR TEACHING PHRASE STRUCTURE RULES IN A SEVENTH-GRADE LANGUAGE CURRICULUM. THE GUIDE INCORPORATED DISCOVERY TECHNIQUES TO TEACH PHRASE STRUCTURE RULES AND SYMBOLOGY IN ADDITION TO 12 PHRASE STRUCTURE RULES DISCUSSED EARLIER (ED 010 146). AN ACCOMPANYING GUIDE WAS PREPARED FOR STUDENT USE (ED 010 147). A REVIEW ON THE 18…

KITZHABER, ALBERT

53

Leopar: an Interaction Grammar Parser Guy Perrier and Bruno Guillaume  

E-print Network

-level grammar XMG-2 compact lexicon Sentence hypertag DAG anchoring template EPTD PTD DAG polarity filtering and dependency graphs: (E)PTD are tree descriptions which describes constraints on the phrase-structure tree

Boyer, Edmond

54

Development and Validation of a Diagnostic Grammar Test for Japanese Learners of English  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports on the development and validation of the English Diagnostic Test of Grammar (EDiT Grammar) for Japanese learners of English. From among the many aspects of grammar, this test focuses on the knowledge of basic English noun phrases (NPs), especially their internal structures, because previous research has indicated the…

Koizumi, Rie; Sakai, Hideki; Ido, Takahiro; Ota, Hiroshi; Hayama, Megumi; Sato, Masatoshi; Nemoto, Akiko

2011-01-01

55

TALN 2005, Dourdan, 610 juin 2005 Utilisation de la structure morpho-syntaxique des phrases  

E-print Network

TALN 2005, Dourdan, 6­10 juin 2005 Utilisation de la structure morpho-syntaxique des phrases dans le résumé automatique : compression de phrases narratives Mehdi Yousfi-Monod, Violaine Prince LIRMM, prince}@lirmm.fr Mots-clefs : résumé automatique, compression de phrases, analyse syntaxique Keywords

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

56

Property Grammars: A Fully Constraint-Based Theory Philippe Blache  

E-print Network

, to distinguish hierarchy from linear order whereas this information is merged in classical phrase-structure to be interpreted with respect to the en- tire system. In other words, a phrase-structure rule, which is the basic description. Property Grammars is then a non-generative theory in the sense that no structure has to be build

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

57

Unfolding and Event Structure Semantics for Graph Grammars  

E-print Network

Unfolding and Event Structure Semantics for Graph Grammars Paolo Baldan, Andrea Corradini, and Ugo that such event structure coincides both with the one defined by Corradini et al. [3] via a comma category

Baldan, Paolo

58

The use of phrases and structured queries in information retrieval  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both phrases and Boolean queries have a long history in information retrieval, particularly in commercial sys- tems. In previous work, Boolean queries have been used as a source of phrases for a statistical retrieval model, This work, like the majority of research on phrases, re- sulted in little improvement in retrieval effectiveness, In this paper, we describe an approach where

W. Bruce Croft; Howard R. Turtle; David D. Lewist

1991-01-01

59

Phrase Structure Trees Bear More Fruit than You Would Have Thought  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we will present several results concerning phrase structure trees. These results show that phrase structure trees, when viewed in certain ways, have much more descriptive power than one would have thought. We have given a brief account of local constraints on structural descriptions and an intuitive proof of a theorem about local constraints. We have compared the

Aravind K. Joshi; Leon S. Levy

1982-01-01

60

The influence of sentential position on noun phrase structure priming.  

PubMed

This article explores the interaction between global sentence context and local syntactic decision making. Specifically, four noun phrase (NP) structural priming experiments investigated whether the position of an NP within a sentence increased speakers' tendency to repeat primed structure. We crossed the position of the NP with the structure of the NP, such that NPs could be sentence initial or final in prime sentences. We further manipulated whether the to-be-modified target NP was sentence initial or final. Structural persistence effects were consistently observed, but there was no influence of parallel position. Rather, sentence-initial NP primes had a stronger influence on subsequent syntactic decisions than sentence-final primes, suggesting a primacy effect. Sentence-initial target NPs contributed to this primacy effect, while sentence-final target NPs did not. We argue that this primacy effect arises as the result of greater processing demands and resources for early than for late sentence constituents as well as deeper encoding and more focused attention when processing the beginnings of sentences. PMID:21736436

Melinger, Alissa; Cleland, Alexandra A

2011-11-01

61

Syllable and phrase structure effects on consonant sequence timing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Both syllable and phrasal structure are known to influence articulatory timing in consonant sequences. For example, onset clusters have been reported as less overlapped and more stable in their intergestural timing than coda clusters [e.g., Byrd, J. Phonetics (1996)]. Also, consonants spanning a phrasal boundary have been observed to be less overlapped than those spanning only a word boundary [Byrd et al., LabPhon (2003)]. However, interactions between these two types of structure are less well understood; for example, it is unclear whether the intergestural timing of word-onset clusters will be perturbed at phrase boundaries, though such perturbations have been predicted [Byrd and Saltzman (2003)]. An articulatory (EMA) investigation of /s/+stop sequences produced by three speakers in a variety of syllable and phrasal positions will present kinematic data on these structural influences. Preliminary data from one speaker indicate that word-onset consonant clusters are more sensitive to prosodic context than segmentally identical coda clusters, having less overlap at successively larger boundaries. Further, while coda and onset clusters do not show a mean difference in overlap for this speaker, onset clusters do exhibit more timing stability within each phrasal context compared to corresponding coda clusters. [Work supported by NIH.

Byrd, Dani; Choi, Susie

2005-09-01

62

Evolving stochastic context--free grammars for RNA secondary structure prediction  

PubMed Central

Background Stochastic Context–Free Grammars (SCFGs) were applied successfully to RNA secondary structure prediction in the early 90s, and used in combination with comparative methods in the late 90s. The set of SCFGs potentially useful for RNA secondary structure prediction is very large, but a few intuitively designed grammars have remained dominant. In this paper we investigate two automatic search techniques for effective grammars – exhaustive search for very compact grammars and an evolutionary algorithm to find larger grammars. We also examine whether grammar ambiguity is as problematic to structure prediction as has been previously suggested. Results These search techniques were applied to predict RNA secondary structure on a maximal data set and revealed new and interesting grammars, though none are dramatically better than classic grammars. In general, results showed that many grammars with quite different structure could have very similar predictive ability. Many ambiguous grammars were found which were at least as effective as the best current unambiguous grammars. Conclusions Overall the method of evolving SCFGs for RNA secondary structure prediction proved effective in finding many grammars that had strong predictive accuracy, as good or slightly better than those designed manually. Furthermore, several of the best grammars found were ambiguous, demonstrating that such grammars should not be disregarded. PMID:22559985

2012-01-01

63

Cross-structural priming: prepositional phrase attachment primes relative clause attachment.  

PubMed

In this paper we show that attachment height (high vs. low attachment) of a modifier to a complex noun phrase (CNP; e.g., "the servant of the actress"), can be primed between dissimilar syntactic structures. In a sentence completion experiment, we found that the attachment height of a prepositional phrase (PP) in the prime sentence primed the attachment height of a relative clause (RC) in the target sentence. This cross-structural priming effect cannot be explained in terms of the priming of specific phrase-structure rules or even sequences of specific phrase-structure rules (Scheepers, 2003), because the attachment of a PP to a CNP is generated by a different phrase-structure rule than the attachment of an RC. However, the present data suggest that the location at which the RC is attached to the CNP is mentally represented, independent of the specific phrase-structure rule that is attached, or by extension, that the abstract hierarchical configuration of the full CNP and the attached RC is represented (Desmet & Declercq, 2006). This is the first demonstration of a cross-structural priming effect that cannot be captured by phrase-structure rules. PMID:21106469

Loncke, Maaike; Van Laere, Sébastien M J; Desmet, Timothy

2011-01-01

64

Priming word order by thematic roles: No evidence for an additional involvement of phrase structure.  

PubMed

Three experiments are reported that studied the priming of word order in German. Experiment 1 demonstrated priming of the order of case-marked verb arguments. However, order of noun phrases and order of thematic roles were confounded. In Experiment 2, we therefore aimed at disentangling the impact of these two possible factors. By using primes that differed from targets in phrase structure but were parallel with regard to the order of thematic roles, we nevertheless found priming demonstrating the critical impact of thematic roles. Experiment 3 replicated the priming effects from Experiments 1 and 2 within participants and revealed no evidence for a modulation of priming by phrase structure. Consequently, our findings suggest that word order priming crucially depends on the structural outline of thematic roles rather than on the linearization of phrases. PMID:24766562

Pappert, Sandra; Pechmann, Thomas

2014-11-01

65

Implicit Acquisition of Grammars with Crossed and Nested Non-Adjacent Dependencies: Investigating the Push-Down Stack Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A recent hypothesis in empirical brain research on language is that the fundamental difference between animal and human communication systems is captured by the distinction between finite-state and more complex phrase-structure grammars, such as context-free and context-sensitive grammars. However, the relevance of this distinction for the study…

Udden, Julia; Ingvar, Martin; Hagoort, Peter; Petersson, Karl M.

2012-01-01

66

Children's Knowledge of Hierarchical Phrase Structure: Quantifier Floating in Japanese  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The interpretation of floating quantifiers in Japanese requires knowledge of hierarchical phrase structure. However, the input to children is insufficient or even misleading, as our analysis indicates. This presents an intriguing question on learnability: do children interpret floating quantifiers based on a structure-dependent rule which is not…

Suzuki, Takaaki; Yoshinaga, Naoko

2013-01-01

67

(In)Flexibility of Constituency in Japanese in Multi-Modal Categorial Grammar with Structured Phonology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This dissertation proposes a theory of categorial grammar called Multi-Modal Categorial Grammar with Structured Phonology. The central feature that distinguishes this theory from the majority of contemporary syntactic theories is that it decouples (without completely segregating) two aspects of syntax--hierarchical organization (reflecting…

Kubota, Yusuke

2010-01-01

68

Robust Sub-Sentential Alignment of Phrase-Structure Trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data-Oriented Translation (DOT), based on Data- Oriented Parsing (DOP), is a language-independent MT engine which exploits parsed, aligned bitexts to produce very high quality translations. How- ever, data acquisition constitutes a serious bottleneck as DOT requires parsed sentences aligned at both sentential and sub-structural levels. Manual sub- structural alignment is time-consuming, error-prone and requires considerable knowledge of both source and

Declan Groves; Mary Hearne

2004-01-01

69

COMPUTER-AIDED RESEARCH IN MACHINE TRANSLATION D199, A PARSING PROCEDURE FOR A VECTOR-SYMBOL PHRASE GRAMMAR OF RUSSIAN.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A COMPUTER PROCEDURE IS DESCRIBED FOR PARSING RUSSIAN SENTENCES WITH A CONTEXT-FREE RECOGNITION GRAMMAR. THIS IS THE FIRST PROJECT UNDER A PROGRAM FOR THE INVESTIGATION OF SEVERAL ASPECTS OF NATURAL LANGUAGE DATA PROCESSING BY FORMALIZED METHODS TO DETERMINE THE USEFULNESS OF FORMALIZED LINGUISTIC TECHNIQUES IN PRACTICAL LANGUAGE DATA PROCESSING…

MARTINS, GARY R.; SMITH, STEVEN B.

70

Entity grammar systems: a grammatical tool for studying the hierarchical structures of biological systems.  

PubMed

The hierarchical structures of biological systems are the typical complex hierarchical dynamical structures in the physical world, the effective investigations on which could not be performed with the existing formal grammar systems. To meet the needs of the investigation on these kinds of systems, especially the emerging field of system biology, a grammatical tool was proposed in the present article. Because the grammatical tool mainly deals with the systems composed of structured entities, they are called entity grammar systems (EGSs). The structure of entities in EGSs have the general form of the objects in the physical world, which means EGSs could be used as a tool to study the complex system composed of many objects with different structures, just like the biological systems. The article contains the formal definition of EGSs and the hierarchy of EGSs, which is congruent with the Chomsky hierarchy. The relationship between EGSs and array grammar systems, graph grammar systems, tree grammar systems, multi-set grammar systems are discussed to show the generative power of EGSs. At the end of the present article, the steps to define new grammar systems with the form of EGS are provided and the possible applicable fields of EGSs are discussed. PMID:15006443

Wang, Yun

2004-05-01

71

Auditory temporal structure processing in dyslexia: processing of prosodic phrase boundaries is not impaired in children with dyslexia.  

PubMed

Reading disability in children with dyslexia has been proposed to reflect impairment in auditory timing perception. We investigated one aspect of timing perception--temporal grouping--as present in prosodic phrase boundaries of natural speech, in age-matched groups of children, ages 6-8 years, with and without dyslexia. Prosodic phrase boundaries are characterized by temporal grouping of functionally related speech elements and can facilitate syntactic processing of speech. For example, temporary syntactic ambiguities, such as early-closure structures, are processed faster when prosodic phrase boundaries are present. We examined children's prosodic facilitation by measuring their efficiency of sentence processing for temporary syntactic ambiguities spoken with (facilitating) versus without (neutral) prosodic phrase boundaries. Both groups of children benefited similarly from prosodic facilitation, displaying faster reaction times in facilitating compared to neutral prosody. These findings indicate that the use of prosodic phrase boundaries for speech processing is not impaired in children with dyslexia. PMID:24338429

Geiser, Eveline; Kjelgaard, Margaret; Christodoulou, Joanna A; Cyr, Abigail; Gabrieli, John D E

2014-04-01

72

Syntactic Structure and Artificial Grammar Learning: The Learnability of Embedded Hierarchical Structures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Embedded hierarchical structures, such as "the rat the cat ate was brown", constitute a core generative property of a natural language theory. Several recent studies have reported learning of hierarchical embeddings in artificial grammar learning (AGL) tasks, and described the functional specificity of Broca's area for processing such structures.…

de Vries, Meinou H.; Monaghan, Padraic; Knecht, Stefan; Zwitserlood, Pienie

2008-01-01

73

SAGPAR: structural grammar-based automated pathway reconstruction.  

PubMed

In-silico metabolic engineering is a very useful branch of systems biology for modeling, analysis and prediction of various outcomes of metabolic pathways. It can also be used for detecting interactions and dynamics within a network. Various protocols have been proposed for modeling a pathway. But most of these protocols have various disadvantages and shortcomings with respect to automated pathway modeling and analysis. In the present article, we have proposed a novel algorithm for automated pathway reconstruction. We have also made a comparative study of our algorithm with other standard protocols and discussed its advantages over others. We present StructurAl Grammar-based automated PAthway Reconstruction (SAGPAR), a fast and robust algorithm that generates any metabolic pathway using some given structural representations of metabolites. Users can model any pathway based on some pre-required features that are asked as an input by the algorithm. The algorithm also takes into considerations various thermodynamic thresholds and structural properties while modeling a pathway. The given algorithm has been tested on the standard pathway datasets of 25 pathways of Mycoplasma pneumoniae M129 and 24 pathways of Homo sapiens. The dataset is taken from KEGG and PubChem Compound data repositories. SAGPAR performs much better than some already present metabolic pathway analysis tools like Copasi, PHT, Gepasi, Jarnac and Path-A. PMID:22843234

Tagore, Somnath; De, Rajat K

2012-06-01

74

On the structure of context-sensitive grammars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Consideration of the problem of explaining the use of context in generating noncontext-free languages. A number of existing results regarding the constraints placed on the form of the rules (i.e., on the context) of context-sensitive grammars are reviewed and interpreted. Three types of constraints are considered - namely, constraints which do not restrict the weak generative capacity of the class of grammars (i.e., all the context-sensitive languages are generated by grammars with these constraints), constraints which restrict the weak generative capacity to the extent that all context-sensitive languages are not generated but some noncontext-free languages are generated, and constraints which restrict the weak generative capacity to such an extent that only context-free languages are generated.

Book, R. V.

1973-01-01

75

Using Grammar Induction to Discover the Structure of Recurrent TV Programs  

E-print Network

Using Grammar Induction to Discover the Structure of Recurrent TV Programs Bingqing Qu University.gravier@irisa.fr Abstract--Video structuring, in particular applied to TV programs which have strong editing structures an unsupervised approach to recurrent TV program structuring, exploiting the repetitiveness of key structural

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

76

PP Extraction and Extraposition in Functional Discourse Grammar  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article inquires into the nature of "attributive" prepositional phrases from a Functional Discourse Grammar (FDG) perspective. On the basis of the observation that such prepositional phrases can easily be separated from their host noun phrases by extraposition or extraction, it is argued that they do not belong to the noun phrase

Van de Velde, Freek

2012-01-01

77

UZBEK STRUCTURAL GRAMMAR. URALIC AND ALTAIC SERIES, VOLUME 18.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THIS GRAMMAR OF THE UZBEK LANGUAGES, THE MOST IMPORTANT IN THE SOUTHEASTERN GROUP OF TURKIC LANGUAGES, IS BASED ON THE EDUCATED DIALECT OF TASHKENT IN UZBEKISTAN, USSR. UZBEK IS SPOKEN TODAY BY APPROXIMATELY SEVEN MILLION PEOPLE IN UZBEKISTAN AND ADJOINING REPUBLICS OF SOVIET CENTRAL ASIA, AND IN UZBEK COMMUNITIES SCATTERED THROUGHOUT THE MIDDLE…

SJOBERG, ANDREE F.

78

Automatic Grammar Induction and Parsing Free Text: A Transformation-Based Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we describe a new technique for parsing free text: a transformational grammar is automatically learned that is capable of accurately parsing text into binary-branching syntactic trees with nonterminals unlabelled. The algorithm works by beginning in a very naive state of knowledge about phrase structure. By repeatedly comparing the results of bracketing in the current state to proper

Eric Brill

1993-01-01

79

Noun Phrases in Chinese and English: A Study of English Structural Problems Encountered by Chinese ESL Students in Hong Kong  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper gives a contrastive analysis of noun phrases in English and Chinese. The syntactic features of the structures, the devices used to mark distinctions in number, case and gender, as well as the similarities and differences between English and Chinese relative clauses are discussed. Partly due to the documented differences between these…

Chan, Alice Y. W.

2004-01-01

80

Focus, phrase length, and the distribution of phrase-initial rises in French James German 1  

E-print Network

of the phrase. In this paper, we analyze the structure of these phrasal units within the autosegmental framework of [1] and [2]. In that framework, the structure of accentual phrases (APs) and their constituent earlyFocus, phrase length, and the distribution of phrase-initial rises in French James German 1

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

81

Scaling Phrase-Based Statistical Machine Translation to Larger Corpora and Longer Phrases  

E-print Network

In this paper we describe a novel data structure for phrase-based statistical ma- chine translation which allows for looking up phrase translations in our suf- fix array-based data structure. We show how sampling canScaling Phrase-Based Statistical Machine Translation to Larger Corpora and Longer Phrases Chris

Callison-Burch, Chris

82

Polynomial Pregroup Grammars parse Context Sensitive Languages  

E-print Network

Polynomial Pregroup Grammars parse Context Sensitive Languages Anne Preller Lirmm, 161, rue Ada Georgian. A polynomial recognition and parsing algo- rithm handles the various grammars uniformly. It also Georgian noun phrase, in- cremental dependency parsing algorithm. 1 Introduction The Pregroup Calculus

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

83

A Reference Grammar of Spoken Kannada.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This reference grammar is a description of the speech of educated people of the Bangalore/Mysore area of Karnataka State in South India. This particular dialect is used in films and, to some extent, on the radio. The four sections of the book deal with: (1) phonology, (2) the noun phrase, (3) the verb phrase, and (4) syntax. Each item that is…

Schiffman, Harold

84

Syntactic structure and artificial grammar learning: the learnability of embedded hierarchical structures.  

PubMed

Embedded hierarchical structures, such as "the rat the cat ate was brown", constitute a core generative property of a natural language theory. Several recent studies have reported learning of hierarchical embeddings in artificial grammar learning (AGL) tasks, and described the functional specificity of Broca's area for processing such structures. In two experiments, we investigated whether alternative strategies can explain the learning success in these studies. We trained participants on hierarchical sequences, and found no evidence for the learning of hierarchical embeddings in test situations identical to those from other studies in the literature. Instead, participants appeared to solve the task by exploiting surface distinctions between legal and illegal sequences, and applying strategies such as counting or repetition detection. We suggest alternative interpretations for the observed activation of Broca's area, in terms of the application of calculation rules or of a differential role of working memory. We claim that the learnability of hierarchical embeddings in AGL tasks remains to be demonstrated. PMID:17963740

de Vries, Meinou H; Monaghan, Padraic; Knecht, Stefan; Zwitserlood, Pienie

2008-05-01

85

The noun phrase in modern Vietnamese  

E-print Network

, which is the central part of the thesis, is primarily limited to an examination of the phrase structure of Vietnamese common nouns. It presents various noun phrase patterns, from simple to expanded structure. This study is intended to provide... insight into the order within and the linguistic structure of the Modern Vietnamese noun phrase, while applying trans- formational procedures and concepts in the teaching and/or understanding of the Vietnamese noun phrase. ACKNOWLEDGENEN TS I wish...

Cong, Phan Tan

2012-06-07

86

Determiner Phrase and Definiteness in Old High German  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates the status of nominal functional categories in the Old High German (OHG) "Isidor" and "Tatian" translations and Otfrid's "Evangelienbuch" and the structure of the extended nominal group, including the Noun Phrase (NP) and the functional phrases Determiner Phrase (DP), Case Phrase (KP) and Number Phrase (NumP), which govern…

Kraiss, Andrew M.

2011-01-01

87

Deriving a probabilistic syntacto-semantic grammar for biomedicine based on domain-specific terminologies.  

PubMed

Biomedical natural language processing (BioNLP) is a useful technique that unlocks valuable information stored in textual data for practice and/or research. Syntactic parsing is a critical component of BioNLP applications that rely on correctly determining the sentence and phrase structure of free text. In addition to dealing with the vast amount of domain-specific terms, a robust biomedical parser needs to model the semantic grammar to obtain viable syntactic structures. With either a rule-based or corpus-based approach, the grammar engineering process requires substantial time and knowledge from experts, and does not always yield a semantically transferable grammar. To reduce the human effort and to promote semantic transferability, we propose an automated method for deriving a probabilistic grammar based on a training corpus consisting of concept strings and semantic classes from the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS), a comprehensive terminology resource widely used by the community. The grammar is designed to specify noun phrases only due to the nominal nature of the majority of biomedical terminological concepts. Evaluated on manually parsed clinical notes, the derived grammar achieved a recall of 0.644, precision of 0.737, and average cross-bracketing of 0.61, which demonstrated better performance than a control grammar with the semantic information removed. Error analysis revealed shortcomings that could be addressed to improve performance. The results indicated the feasibility of an approach which automatically incorporates terminology semantics in the building of an operational grammar. Although the current performance of the unsupervised solution does not adequately replace manual engineering, we believe once the performance issues are addressed, it could serve as an aide in a semi-supervised solution. PMID:21549857

Fan, Jung-Wei; Friedman, Carol

2011-10-01

88

Talbanken05: A Swedish Treebank with Phrase Structure and Dependency Annotation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract We introduce Talbanken05, a Swedish treebank based on a syntactically annotated corpus from the 1970s, Talbanken76, converted to modern formats. The treebank is available in three different formats, besides the original one: two versions of phrase s tructure annotation and one dependency-based annotation, all of which are encoded in XML. In this paper, we describe the conversion process and

Joakim Nivre; Jens Nilsson

89

Gramatica generadora (Generative Grammar)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the difficulty of describing the linguistic approach to the study of language to a non-linguist. Points out certain differences between traditional grammar, structural analysis and contemporary language analysis and gives a short description of the notion of generative grammar. (Text is in Spanish.) (TL)

Cruset, Jose

1975-01-01

90

Extraposition Grammars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extraposition grammars are an extension of definite clause grammars, and are similarly defined in terms of logic clauses. The extended formalism makes it easy to describe left extraposition of constituents, an important feature of natural language syntax.

Fernando C. N. Pereira

1981-01-01

91

Grammar Games  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The mere mention of a grammar lesson can set students' eyes rolling. The fun activities described in this article can turn those blank looks into smiles. Here, the author presents grammar games namely: (1) noun tennis; (2) the minister's cat; (3) kids take action; (4) what's my adverb?; (5) and then I saw...; and (6) grammar sing-along.

Brown, Kim

2004-01-01

92

Learning and Inference in Phrase Recognition: A Filtering-Ranking  

E-print Network

to different parts of a given sentence to build a phrase structure for it. In a phrase recognition architecture structure. Finally, we describe discriminative learning strategies for training the components of a phraseLearning and Inference in Phrase Recognition: A Filtering-Ranking Architecture using Perceptron

Carreras, Xavier

93

Learning and Inference in Phrase Recognition: A FilteringRanking  

E-print Network

#erent parts of a given sentence to build a phrase structure for it. In a phrase recognition architecture, two structure. Finally, we describe discriminative learning strategies for training the components of a phraseLearning and Inference in Phrase Recognition: A Filtering­Ranking Architecture using Perceptron

Carreras, Xavier

94

When global structure "Explains Away" local grammar: a Bayesian account of rule-induction in tone sequences.  

PubMed

While many constraints on learning must be relatively experience-independent, past experience provides a rich source of guidance for subsequent learning. Discovering structure in some domain can inform a learner's future hypotheses about that domain. If a general property accounts for particular sub-patterns, a rational learner should not stipulate separate explanations for each detail without additional evidence, as the general structure has "explained away" the original evidence. In a grammar-learning experiment using tone sequences, manipulating learners' prior exposure to a tone environment affects their sensitivity to the grammar-defining feature, in this case consecutive repeated tones. Grammar-learning performance is worse if context melodies are "smooth" -- when small intervals occur more than large ones -- as Smoothness is a general property accounting for a high rate of repetition. We present an idealized Bayesian model as a "best case" benchmark for learning repetition grammars. When context melodies are Smooth, the model places greater weight on the small-interval constraint, and does not learn the repetition rule as well as when context melodies are not Smooth, paralleling the human learners. These findings support an account of abstract grammar-induction in which learners rationally assess the statistical evidence for underlying structure based on a generative model of the environment. PMID:21257161

Dawson, Colin; Gerken, Louann

2011-09-01

95

Modeling Structure-Function Relationships in Synthetic DNA Sequences using Attribute Grammars  

PubMed Central

Recognizing that certain biological functions can be associated with specific DNA sequences has led various fields of biology to adopt the notion of the genetic part. This concept provides a finer level of granularity than the traditional notion of the gene. However, a method of formally relating how a set of parts relates to a function has not yet emerged. Synthetic biology both demands such a formalism and provides an ideal setting for testing hypotheses about relationships between DNA sequences and phenotypes beyond the gene-centric methods used in genetics. Attribute grammars are used in computer science to translate the text of a program source code into the computational operations it represents. By associating attributes with parts, modifying the value of these attributes using rules that describe the structure of DNA sequences, and using a multi-pass compilation process, it is possible to translate DNA sequences into molecular interaction network models. These capabilities are illustrated by simple example grammars expressing how gene expression rates are dependent upon single or multiple parts. The translation process is validated by systematically generating, translating, and simulating the phenotype of all the sequences in the design space generated by a small library of genetic parts. Attribute grammars represent a flexible framework connecting parts with models of biological function. They will be instrumental for building mathematical models of libraries of genetic constructs synthesized to characterize the function of genetic parts. This formalism is also expected to provide a solid foundation for the development of computer assisted design applications for synthetic biology. PMID:19816554

Cai, Yizhi; Lux, Matthew W.; Adam, Laura; Peccoud, Jean

2009-01-01

96

Tokpisin Grammar Workbook for English Speakers. A Practical Approach to Learning the Sentence Structure of Melanesian Pidgin (or Tokpisin).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The workbook is designed for teaching Melanesian Pidgin English (Tokpisin) sentence structure to Peace Corps volunteers. It addresses sentence structures that are common to most languages, and uses listening, speaking, translation, and other grammar drills and exercises to reinforce learning. The approach used assumes that a native speaker is…

Bajao, Elpie; Thomas, Dicks

97

Comments on Skinner's grammar  

PubMed Central

The strong tradition of “school room” grammars may have had a negative influence on the reception given a functional analysis of verbal behavior, both within and without the field of behavior analysis. Some of the failings of those traditional grammars, and their largely prescriptive nature were outlined through reference to other critics, and conflicting views. Skinner's own treatment of grammatical issues was presented, emphasizing his view of a functional unit and his use of the autoclitic and intraverbal functions to describe alternatives to a formal or structural analysis. Finally, the relevance of stimulus control variables to some recurring questions about verbal behavior and, specifically grammar, were mentioned. PMID:22477082

Mabry, John H.

1993-01-01

98

Performance Grammars.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evidence is offered to support the view that linguistic competence cannot in principle be divorced from linguistic performance in order to abstract universal properties of grammars, that rules of grammar inevitably incorporate perceptual strategies and constraints, and that grammaticality and acceptability are related to predictability. A theory…

Robinson, Jane J.

99

Learning Recursive Phrase Structure: Combining the Strengths of PDP and X-Bar Syntax  

Microsoft Academic Search

this paper, we introduce the XERICParser, a connectionist syntactic analyzer with a fixed network architecture which places no prior limit on theextent of the structure of a sentence. In practice the limits reflect the actual structures of the training data andthe limitations of the network's training regimen and representation.2 Structure in Connectionist NLP

George Berg

1991-01-01

100

Online Learning via Global Feedback for Phrase Recognition  

E-print Network

, and a ranking layer, which discriminatively builds the optimal phrase structure. We provide a recognition of words--- the task is to predict a bracketing for the sentence representing a structure of phrases phrases are sequentially structured--- the approach is typically to perform a tagging. In this case, local

Carreras, Xavier

101

A circuit grammar for operational amplifier design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electrical circuit designers seldom create really new topologies or use old ones in a novel way. Most designs are known combinations of common configurations tailored for the particular problem at hand. In this thesis I show that much of the behavior of a designer engaged in such ordinary design can be modeled by a clearly defined computational mechanism executing a set of stylized rules. Each of my rules embodies a particular piece of the designer's knowledge. A circuit is represented as a hierarchy of abstract objects each of which is composed of other objects. The leaves of this tree represent the physical devices from which physical circuits are fabricated. By analogy with context-free languages, a class of circuits is generated by a phrase-structure grammar, of which each rule describes how one type of abstract object can be expanded into a combination of more concrete parts. Circuits are designed by first postulating an abstract object which meets the particular design requirements. This object is then expanded into a concrete circuit by successive refinement using rules of my grammar. There are in general many rules which can be used to expand a given abstract component. Analysis must be done at each level of the expansion to constrain the search to a reasonable set.

Ressler, A. L.

1984-01-01

102

Semantic Interpretation in Generative Grammar.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author finds Katz and Postal's 1964 generative semantic theories concerning the organization of grammar incorrect and proposes an interpretive approach to semantics in which syntactic structures are given interpretations by an autonomous semantic component. The research reported leads the author to describe a generative grammar consisting of…

Jackendoff, Ray S.

103

Drama Grammar: Towards a Performative Postmethod Pedagogy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents the original concept of drama grammar, the synthesis of grammar instruction and drama pedagogy, which integrates both structural and communicative paradigms through a dialectic combination of acting and linguistic analysis. Based on the principles of drama pedagogy, drama grammar makes use of techniques from the performing…

Even, Susanne

2011-01-01

104

Music summarization using key phrases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Systems to automatically provide a representative summary or `key phrase' of a piece of music are described. For a `rock' song with `verse' and `chorus' sections, we aim to return the chorus or in any case the most repeated and hence most memorable section. The techniques are less applicable to music with more complicated structure although possibly our general framework

Beth Logan; Stephen Chu

2000-01-01

105

Toward Plain Language: A Guide to Paraphrasing Complex Noun Phrases.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Claims that complex noun phrases in technical writing materials present major comprehension difficulties for a variety of readers. Establishes methods for paraphrasing complex noun phrases into shorter and simpler structures. Applies principles outlined to a short legal text. (HB)

Jordan, Michael P.

1994-01-01

106

Mapping of prosodic structure onto words and phrases in children's and adults' speech production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Direct recordings of lip and jaw movement were obtained to investigate how children and adults differentiate prosodic structure both within iambic and trochaic words and across word boundaries. It was hypothesised that children, especially those with less language skills, would be particularly likely to produce strong-weak (or trochaic) sequences. This experiment examined children's (both normally developing and specifically language impaired,

Lisa Goffman; Lori Heisler; Rahul Chakraborty

2006-01-01

107

The relationship between intonational phrasing and syntactic structure in language production  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we evaluate several theories of how syntactic\\/semantic structure influences the placement of intonational boundaries in language production (Cooper & Paccia-Cooper, 1980; Gee & Grosjean, 1983; Ferreira, 1988). Although the theories that we tested are shown to be quite successful, they are complex, and furthermore, they are incompatible with recent evidence for incrementality in sentence production. In light

Duane Watson; Edward Gibson

2004-01-01

108

Adaptation to aphasia: grammar, prosody and interaction.  

PubMed

This paper investigates recurrent use of the phrase very good by a speaker with non-fluent agrammatic aphasia. Informal observation of the speaker's interaction reveals that she appears to be an effective conversational partner despite very severe word retrieval difficulties that result in extensive reliance on variants of the phrase very good. The question that this paper addresses using an essentially conversation analytic framework is: What is the speaker achieving through these variants of very good and what are the linguistic and interactional resources that she draws on to achieve these communicative effects? Tokens of very good in the corpus were first analyzed in a bottom-up fashion, attending to sequential position, structure and participant orientation. This revealed distinct uses that were subsequently subjected to detailed acoustic analysis in order to investigate specific prosodic characteristics within and across the interactional variants. We identified specific clusters of prosodic cues that were exploited by the speaker to differentiate interactional uses of very good. The analysis thus shows how, in the adaptation to aphasia, the speaker exploits the rich interface between prosody, grammar and interaction both to manage the interactional demands of conversation and to communicate propositional content. PMID:23237417

Rhys, Catrin S; Ulbrich, Christiane; Ordin, Mikhail

2013-01-01

109

The English Noun Phrase in its Sentential Aspect  

E-print Network

, the structure of the noun phrase parallels that of the sentence, which is headed by In (ection), under-like structure than hitherto thought, namely, DP DP's D VPing]. (In non-gerundive noun phrases, \\VP" is replacedThe English Noun Phrase in its Sentential Aspect by Steven Paul Abney B.A., Indiana University

Abney, Steven P.

110

Conceptual Phrases and Deterministic English Parsing  

E-print Network

The grammar of many of the lower-level constituents of grammatical structures in English has not been a area of exciting new linguistic discovery, in contrast with study of clause-level constituents. The syntax of these ...

Dill, David

111

The Role of Grammar Teaching in Writing in Second Language Acquisition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Grammar is the sound, structure, and meaning system of language. All languages have grammar, and each language has its own grammar" (Beverly, 2007, p.1). People who speak the same language are able to communicate with each other because they all know the grammar system and structure of that language, that is, the meaningful rules of grammar.…

Lin, Li-Li

2008-01-01

112

Local Phrase Reordering Models for Statistical Machine Translation  

E-print Network

Shankar Kumar Local Phrase Reordering Models for SMT p. 5/15 #12;Model Structure Make Model parametersLocal Phrase Reordering Models for Statistical Machine Translation Shankar Kumar and Bill Byrne, Cambridge University Engineering Department Now at Google October 6, 2005 #12;Introduction Word & Phrase

Byrne, William

113

A Simple and Effective Hierarchical Phrase Reordering Model Michel Galley  

E-print Network

structure. Coming from the other direction, such observations about phrase reordering between differentA Simple and Effective Hierarchical Phrase Reordering Model Michel Galley Computer Science phrase-based statistical machine trans- lation systems currently deliver state-of-the- art performance

Pratt, Vaughan

114

(2012). In C. Chapelle (Ed.), Encyclopedia of applied linguistics. Wiley-Blackwell. Grammar and Electronic Communication  

E-print Network

the composition of words, phrases, and sentences in a language. Language purists worry, except insofar as it involves word formation processes that originated in CMC their effects as detrimental. To begin, grammar in electronic language must

Herring, Susan

115

[Acquisition of German morphosyntax in the context of constituent movement into the complementizer phrase position].  

PubMed

German is a genuine verb-second (V2) language. For V2 languages it is assumed that all sentence structures can be derived from the underlying subordinate clause structure via the movement of individual components. The acquisition of German V2 structures represents a critical step in German first language acquisition and is usually mastered at the age of 3 years. However, not all children succeed in filtering the necessary information from the spoken input in order to acquire this key component of German syntax. Use of canonical sentence structures alone is not a confirmation of a successful V2 acquisition. Moreover, this structure often represents some kind of interim grammar. Only the use of complementizer phrase (CP)-related structures, such as wh-questions or topicalizations of objects is a real indication of a successful V2 acquisition. PMID:24633377

Miller, S; Ptok, M

2014-04-01

116

An Amharic Reference Grammar.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This reference grammar presents a structural description of the orthography, phonology, morphology, and syntax of Amharic, the national language of Ethiopia. The Amharic material in this work, designed to prepare the student for speaking and reading the language, appears in both Amharic script and phonetic transcription. See ED 012 044-5 for the…

Leslau, Wolf

117

Generative Grammar  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses and illustrates three rule sets suitable for presenting generative grammar to beginners; and appendix to the author's article with the same title in the February 1970 (No. 13) issue, pp. 39-53; see TE 200 767. (Editor/SW)

Harwood, F. W.

1970-01-01

118

A Study of Quantifier Phrases in Thai  

E-print Network

The structures of quantifier phrases in Thai are studied in the X -Syntax framework (Jackendoff 1977). Syntactic and Semantic arguments are provided to prove that this model remedies the deficiency of traditional and early ...

Deephuengton, Phawadee

1992-01-01

119

Evolution of Universal Grammar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Universal grammar specifies the mechanism of language acquisition. It determines the range of grammatical hypothesis that children entertain during language learning and the procedure they use for evaluating input sentences. How universal grammar arose is a major challenge for evolutionary biology. We present a mathematical framework for the evolutionary dynamics of grammar learning. The central result is a coherence threshold, which specifies the condition for a universal grammar to induce coherent communication within a population. We study selection of grammars within the same universal grammar and competition between different universal grammars. We calculate the condition under which natural selection favors the emergence of rule-based, generative grammars that underlie complex language.

Nowak, Martin A.; Komarova, Natalia L.; Niyogi, Partha

2001-01-01

120

Is Grammar Really Dead?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Traditional, formal grammar instruction has, at best, a negligible affect on writing improvement, but transformational-generative grammar instruction can improve syntactic versatility in writing. (AN)

O'Donnell, Roy C.

1972-01-01

121

Processing Elided Verb Phrases with Flawed Antecedents: the Recycling Hypothesis  

PubMed Central

Traditional syntactic accounts of verb phrase ellipsis (e.g. “Jason laughed. Sam did [ ] too.”) categorize as ungrammatical many sentences that language users find acceptable (they “undergenerate”); semantic accounts overgenerate. We propose that a processing theory, together with a syntactic account, does a better job of describing and explaining the data on verb phrase-ellipsis. Five acceptability judgment experiments supported a “VP recycling hypothesis,” which claims that when a syntactically-matching antecedent is not available, the listener/reader creates one using the materials at hand. Experiments 1 and 2 used verb phrase ellipsis sentences with antecedents ranging from perfect (a verb phrase in matrix verb phrase position) to impossible (a verb phrase containing only a deverbal word). Experiments 3 and 4 contrasted antecedents in verbal versus nominal gerund subjects. Experiment 5 explored the possibility that speakers are particularly likely to go beyond the grammar and produce elided constituents without perfect matching antecedents when the antecedent needed is less marked than the antecedent actually produced. This experiment contrasted active (unmarked) and passive antecedents to show that readers seem to honor such a tendency. PMID:17710192

Arregui, Ana; Clifton, Charles; Frazier, Lyn; Moulton, Keir

2006-01-01

122

Searching the ASRS Database Using QUORUM Keyword Search, Phrase Search, Phrase Generation, and Phrase Discovery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To support Search Requests and Quick Responses at the Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS), four new QUORUM methods have been developed: keyword search, phrase search, phrase generation, and phrase discovery. These methods build upon the core QUORUM methods of text analysis, modeling, and relevance-ranking. QUORUM keyword search retrieves ASRS incident narratives that contain one or more user-specified keywords in typical or selected contexts, and ranks the narratives on their relevance to the keywords in context. QUORUM phrase search retrieves narratives that contain one or more user-specified phrases, and ranks the narratives on their relevance to the phrases. QUORUM phrase generation produces a list of phrases from the ASRS database that contain a user-specified word or phrase. QUORUM phrase discovery finds phrases that are related to topics of interest. Phrase generation and phrase discovery are particularly useful for finding query phrases for input to QUORUM phrase search. The presentation of the new QUORUM methods includes: a brief review of the underlying core QUORUM methods; an overview of the new methods; numerous, concrete examples of ASRS database searches using the new methods; discussion of related methods; and, in the appendices, detailed descriptions of the new methods.

McGreevy, Michael W.; Connors, Mary M. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

123

MaximumEntropy Word Alignment And PosteriorBased Phrase Extraction For Machine Translation  

E-print Network

phrase pairs that are available to the translation system are stored in a structure called the phraseMaximum­Entropy Word Alignment And Posterior­Based Phrase Extraction For Machine Translation Nadi the phrase table of an SMT system. Therefore, it is customary to estimate a probabilistic model

Yvon, François

124

(In press, 2011). In C. Chapelle (Ed.), Encyclopedia of applied linguistics. Wiley-Blackwell. Grammar and Electronic Communication  

E-print Network

the composition of words, phrases, and sentences in a language. Language purists worry, except insofar as it involves word formation processes that originated in CMC their effects as detrimental. To begin, grammar in electronic language must

Herring, Susan

125

Learning Relational Grammars from Sequences of Actions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many tasks can be described by sequences of actions that normally exhibit some form of structure and that can be represented by a grammar. This paper introduces FOSeq, an algorithm that learns grammars from sequences of actions. The sequences are given as low-level traces of readings from sensors that are transformed into a relational representation. Given a transformed sequence, FOSeq identifies frequent sub-sequences of n-items, or n-grams, to generate new grammar rules until no more frequent n-grams can be found. From m sequences of the same task, FOSeq generates m grammars and performs a generalization process over the best grammar to cover most of the sequences. The grammars induced by FOSeq can be used to perform a particular task and to classify new sequences. FOSeq was tested on robot navigation tasks and on gesture recognition with competitive performance against other approaches based on Hidden Markov Models.

Vargas-Govea, Blanca; Morales, Eduardo F.

126

TRAINING INTONATIONAL PHRASING RULES AUTOMATICALLY  

E-print Network

--- and that the reason for his abstinence is his unhappiness. 1 To characterize this phenomenon phonologically, we adopt accent types that do not affect the description of phrasing levels. While we assume phrase boundaries

Hirschberg, Julia

127

Parsing Reflective Grammars  

E-print Network

Existing technology can parse arbitrary context-free grammars, but only a single, static grammar per input. In order to support more powerful syntax-extension systems, we propose reflective grammars, which can modify their own syntax during parsing. We demonstrate and prove the correctness of an algorithm for parsing reflective grammars. The algorithm is based on Earley's algorithm, and we prove that it performs asymptotically no worse than Earley's algorithm on ordinary context-free grammars.

Stansifer, Paul

2011-01-01

128

Probabilistic Techniques for Phrase Extraction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study proposes a probabilistic model for automatically extracting English noun phrases for indexing or information retrieval. The technique is based on a Markov model, whose initial parameters are estimated by a phrase lookup program with a phrase dictionary, then optimized by a set of maximum entropy parameters. (Author/LRW)

Feng, Fangfang; Croft, W. Bruce

2001-01-01

129

Grammar as a Programming Language. Artificial Intelligence Memo 391.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Student projects that involve writing generative grammars in the computer language, "LOGO," are described in this paper, which presents a grammar-running control structure that allows students to modify and improve the grammar interpreter itself while learning how a simple kind of computer parser works. Included are procedures for programing a…

Rowe, Neil

130

Language Switching in the Production of Phrases  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The language switching task has provided a useful insight into how bilinguals produce language. So far, however, the studies using this method have been limited to lexical access. The present study provides empirical evidence on language switching in the production of simple grammar structures. In the reported experiment, Polish-English unbalanced…

Tarlowski, Andrzej; Wodniecka, Zofia; Marzecova, Anna

2013-01-01

131

Intonational Phrase Structure Processing at Different Stages of Syntax Acquisition: ERP Studies in 2-, 3-, and 6-Year-Old Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explored the electrophysiology underlying intonational phrase processing at different stages of syntax acquisition. Developmental studies suggest that children's syntactic skills advance significantly between 2 and 3 years of age. Here, children of three age groups were tested on phrase-level prosodic processing before and after this…

Mannel, Claudia; Friederici, Angela D.

2011-01-01

132

Learning PP attachment for filtering prosodic phrasing Olga van Herwijnen and Jacques Terken  

E-print Network

of information about syntactic structure being useful for placing phrase bound- aries is the attachment attach- ment), such as in the structure ¢£¢£¢ eats pizza with anchovies, a phrase boundary between pizza attachment), as in the structure ¢£¢£¢ eats pizza with a fork, an intervening phrase boundary be- tween

Tilburg, Universiteit van

133

Evolution of universal grammar.  

PubMed

Universal grammar specifies the mechanism of language acquisition. It determines the range of grammatical hypothesis that children entertain during language learning and the procedure they use for evaluating input sentences. How universal grammar arose is a major challenge for evolutionary biology. We present a mathematical framework for the evolutionary dynamics of grammar learning. The central result is a coherence threshold, which specifies the condition for a universal grammar to induce coherent communication within a population. We study selection of grammars within the same universal grammar and competition between different universal grammars. We calculate the condition under which natural selection favors the emergence of rule-based, generative grammars that underlie complex language. PMID:11141560

Nowak, M A; Komarova, N L; Niyogi, P

2001-01-01

134

Fun with Grammar!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Use these links to improve your grammar! Learn parts of speech and play fun games to test your knowledge! Grammar is an important part of writing. It involves identifying parts of speech and knowing the mechanics of writing are all important. Below are some links that will help make learning about and practicing grammar fun! First, learn terms. The link below is a glossary full of terminology. Grammar Glossary Once you have a ...

Duffus, Miss

2010-04-20

135

Non-Segmental Phonology: Noun-Phrase Tonicity in English  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study of tonic placement in various types of English noun phrases used as elements of clause structure. The notion of nominal compound is broadened; reflection of grammatical relationships by stress and tendencies concerning tonic placement in noun phrases as these are related to the Headword are noted. (AMH)

Andre, Edgar

1977-01-01

136

Statistical Phrase-Based Translation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a new phrase-based translation model and decoding algorithm that enables us to evaluate and compare several, previously proposed phrase-based translation models. Within our framework, we carry out a large number of experiments to understand better and explain why phrase-based models out-perform word-based models. Our empirical results, which hold for all examined language pairs, suggest that the highest levels

Philipp Koehn; Franz Josef Och; Daniel Marcu

2003-01-01

137

Spatio-Temporal Phrases for Activity Recognition  

E-print Network

- turing enough spatial and temporal information to distinguish different activity categories, while and intra-category invariance, the BoW model discards any structural spatial and temporal information amongSpatio-Temporal Phrases for Activity Recognition Yimeng Zhang , Xiaoming Liu , Ming-Ching Chang

138

Two Memory-Based Methods for Phrase Alignment Abstract--This document presents two bilingual phrase-based  

E-print Network

Two Memory-Based Methods for Phrase Alignment XXX xxx xxx@xxx.xx XXX xxx xxx@xxx.xx Abstract--This document presents two bilingual phrase-based alignment methods handling syntactic constituents (sub alignment. Another is that they align constituents of variable length and structure, thus providing

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

139

Using Percolated Dependencies for Phrase Extraction in SMT Ankit K. Srivastava and Andy Way  

E-print Network

-gram), not necessarily syntactic con- stituents. #12;rate phrase structure parsers than dependency struc- ture parsers dependencies from phrase structure parses, as shown on pages 129­131 of Nivre (2006). In this paper, weUsing Percolated Dependencies for Phrase Extraction in SMT Ankit K. Srivastava and Andy Way Centre

Way, Andy

140

Intonational phrase structure processing at different stages of syntax acquisition: ERP studies in 2-, 3-, and 6-year-old children.  

PubMed

This study explored the electrophysiology underlying intonational phrase processing at different stages of syntax acquisition. Developmental studies suggest that children's syntactic skills advance significantly between 2 and 3 years of age. Here, children of three age groups were tested on phrase-level prosodic processing before and after this developmental phase, while their brain activity was recorded. The Closure Positive Shift (CPS), which indexes the perception of intonational phrasing in adults, served as dependent variable. The event-related brain potentials of 3- and 6-year-olds, but not of 21-month-olds, showed a CPS. These results suggest that prosodic phrase processing, as indicated by the CPS, is established only later during children's development, pointing to a close interaction of prosody and syntax acquisition. PMID:21676098

Männel, Claudia; Friederici, Angela D

2011-07-01

141

The use of lexical and syntactic information in language production: Evidence from the priming of noun-phrase structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Theories of lexical representation in production provide sophisticated accounts of the way in which information is activated during lexical access (e.g., Levelt, Roelofs, & Meyer, 1999), but there has been little attempt to account for the way in which the structure of the lexical entry affects the formulation processes that underlie the production of complex expressions. This paper first outlines

Alexandra A. Cleland; Martin J. Pickering

2003-01-01

142

Area for grammar, Wernicke's Area for meaning) and stimulated a great deal of  

E-print Network

structure, small units coming together to form larger units that in turn form still larger units: an article (the) and a noun (girl) coming together to form a noun phrase; a verb (loves) and the noun phrase coming together to form a verb phrase (loves the girl); another noun phrase combining with the verb

Marcus, Gary F.

143

Parsing strategies with 'lexicalized' grammars: application to Tree Adjoining Grammars  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present a general parsing strategy that arose from the development of an Earley-type parsing algorithm for TAGs (Schabes and Joshi 1988) and from recent linguistic work in TAGs (Abeille 1988).In our approach elementary structures are associated with their lexical heads. These structures specify extended domains of locality (as compared to a context-free grammar) over which constraints

Yves Schabes; Anne Abeillé; Aravind K. Joshi

1988-01-01

144

Connectionist learning of regular graph grammars  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a new connectionist approach to grammatical inference. Usingonly positive examples, the algorithm learns regular graph grammars, representingtwo-dimensional iterative structures drawn on a discrete Cartesian grid. This workis intended as a case study in connectionist symbol processing and geometric conceptformation.A grammar is represented by a self-configuring connectionist network that isanalogous to a transition diagram except that it can

Peter Fletcher

2001-01-01

145

Rethinking Grammar and Communication.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines several recent views on grammar, then revisits some of the perpetual problem areas in teaching grammar, such as the deductive-inductive debate, the use of the first- or second-language for grammatical presentations, and the explicit-implicit controversy. (12 references) (VWL)

Mitchell, Jane Tucker; Redmond, Mary Lynn

1993-01-01

146

A New Grammar Checker.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evaluates CorrecText, Houghton-Mifflin's computer-based grammar checker that fully parses sentences and finds errors in grammar, style, and usage. Argues that, while CorrecText is an improvement over similar programs, it still cannot accommodate the syntactically ambiguous nature of English. Limits current design's usefulness to unedited prose.…

Dobrin, David N.

1990-01-01

147

Vocabulary and Grammar Knowledge in Second Language Reading Comprehension: A Structural Equation Modeling Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using structural equation modeling analysis, this study examined the contribution of vocabulary and grammatical knowledge to second language reading comprehension among 190 advanced Chinese English as a foreign language learners. Vocabulary knowledge was measured in both breadth (Vocabulary Levels Test) and depth (Word Associates Test);…

Zhang, Dongbo

2012-01-01

148

Creation myths of generative grammar, and the mathematics underlying Syntactic Structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Noam Chomsky's extraordinarily influential book Syntactic Structures (Chomsky 1957; henceforth SS) inaugurated a fifty-year period during which the great majority of theoretical syntactic inves- tigation done in the USA, and even worldwide, concentrated on a single underlying view of how syntax should be scientifically regarded. In the years after 1957, it was standard to take a sentence to be a

Geoffrey K. Pullum

149

The Grammar Gallimaufry: Teaching Students to Challenge the Grammar Gods  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

How a person teaches grammar depends on what he or she believes it does. Some see grammar as a set of rules, inherited from wise forefathers. For them, teaching grammar means making students aware of, and then holding them to, these rules. Others see grammar as an expression of style, an invitation to the writer to explore how to create a…

House, Jeff

2009-01-01

150

Extracting noun phrases for all of MEDLINE.  

PubMed Central

A natural language parser that could extract noun phrases for all medical texts would be of great utility in analyzing content for information retrieval. We discuss the extraction of noun phrases from MEDLINE, using a general parser not tuned specifically for any medical domain. The noun phrase extractor is made up of three modules: tokenization; part-of-speech tagging; noun phrase identification. Using our program, we extracted noun phrases from the entire MEDLINE collection, encompassing 9.3 million abstracts. Over 270 million noun phrases were generated, of which 45 million were unique. The quality of these phrases was evaluated by examining all phrases from a sample collection of abstracts. The precision and recall of the phrases from our general parser compared favorably with those from three other parsers we had previously evaluated. We are continuing to improve our parser and evaluate our claim that a generic parser can effectively extract all the different phrases across the entire medical literature. PMID:10566444

Bennett, N. A.; He, Q.; Powell, K.; Schatz, B. R.

1999-01-01

151

The minimalist grammar of action.  

PubMed

Language and action have been found to share a common neural basis and in particular a common 'syntax', an analogous hierarchical and compositional organization. While language structure analysis has led to the formulation of different grammatical formalisms and associated discriminative or generative computational models, the structure of action is still elusive and so are the related computational models. However, structuring action has important implications on action learning and generalization, in both human cognition research and computation. In this study, we present a biologically inspired generative grammar of action, which employs the structure-building operations and principles of Chomsky's Minimalist Programme as a reference model. In this grammar, action terminals combine hierarchically into temporal sequences of actions of increasing complexity; the actions are bound with the involved tools and affected objects and are governed by certain goals. We show, how the tool role and the affected-object role of an entity within an action drives the derivation of the action syntax in this grammar and controls recursion, merge and move, the latter being mechanisms that manifest themselves not only in human language, but in human action too. PMID:22106430

Pastra, Katerina; Aloimonos, Yiannis

2012-01-12

152

The minimalist grammar of action  

PubMed Central

Language and action have been found to share a common neural basis and in particular a common ‘syntax’, an analogous hierarchical and compositional organization. While language structure analysis has led to the formulation of different grammatical formalisms and associated discriminative or generative computational models, the structure of action is still elusive and so are the related computational models. However, structuring action has important implications on action learning and generalization, in both human cognition research and computation. In this study, we present a biologically inspired generative grammar of action, which employs the structure-building operations and principles of Chomsky's Minimalist Programme as a reference model. In this grammar, action terminals combine hierarchically into temporal sequences of actions of increasing complexity; the actions are bound with the involved tools and affected objects and are governed by certain goals. We show, how the tool role and the affected-object role of an entity within an action drives the derivation of the action syntax in this grammar and controls recursion, merge and move, the latter being mechanisms that manifest themselves not only in human language, but in human action too. PMID:22106430

Pastra, Katerina; Aloimonos, Yiannis

2012-01-01

153

Grammar Part 2. PEN 78.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses grammar and its place in elementary English teaching. The article's eight sections are as follows: (1) Some People Expect a Lot of Grammar; (2) Standard and Non-Standard; (3) How Do Children Learn Grammar? (4) What Can the Teacher Do? (5) What Should We Tell the Children? (6) Grammar and the Organization of Meaning in Text;…

Collerson, John

154

Prosodic complexity and phrase length as factors in pause duration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Research on pauses has mainly focused on predicting the likelihood of pause occurrence and on the effect of syntactic structure on pause duration within an utterance. Very little is known about what factors, apart from syntactic and discourse factors, influence the length of pauses between utterances or phrases. This experiment examines the effect of prosodic structure and phrase length on pause duration. Subjects read 24 English sentences varying along the following parameters: (a) the length in syllables of the intonational phrase preceding and following the pause and (b) the prosodic structure of the intonational phrase preceding and following the pause, specifically whether or not the intonational phrase branches into smaller phrases. In order to minimize variability due to speech rate and individual differences, speakers read sentences synchronously in dyads (Cummins, 2002; Zvonik and Cummins, 2002). The results show that length has a significant effect on pause duration both pre- and postboundary for all dyads, and that prosodic complexity has a significant postboundary effect for some dyads. The possible reasons for the observed pause duration effects and the implications of these results on the question of incrementality in speech production are discussed. [Work supported by NIH DC03172.

Krivokapic, Jelena

2001-05-01

155

Grammar for Writing Grammar Fliers. Grammar 1: From Word to Sentence [and] Grammar 2: From Sentence to Text [and] Grammar 3: From Grammar to Writing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This group of three leaflets summarizes the grammatical content of England's National Literacy Strategy course "Grammar for Writing." The leaflets are entitled: (1) "From Word to Text"; (2) "From Sentence to Text"; and (3) "From Grammar to Writing." The first leaflet notes that today teaching grammar is about how people put words together to make…

Department for Education and Skills, London (England).

156

Mathematical Formulae Recognition Using 2D Grammars  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a method for off-line mathematical formulae recognition based on the structural construction paradigm and two-dimensional grammars. In general, this approach can be successfully used in the analysis of images containing objects that exhibit rich structural relations. An important benefit of the structural construction is in treating the symbol segmentation in the image and its structural analysis as a

D. Prusa; V. Hlavac

2007-01-01

157

Structural competition in grammar  

E-print Network

This thesis makes the following three claims: (1) Competition exists in natural language: the grammaticality (and meaning) of using a linguistic object 0 can be affected by the grammaticality (and meaning) of a different ...

Katzir, Roni (Roni A.)

2008-01-01

158

Phrase versus Phase: Family Engagement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Parents and their roles in schools, public or private, often become the bed of heated discussions. "Parent involvement" is yesterday's buzz word; today, it is "family involvement." The phrase "parent involvement" connotes an image of parents being involved in their children's education. Family involvement is a more encompassing concept, embracing…

Ferrara, Margaret M.

2011-01-01

159

A Grammar of Northern Mao (Mawes Aas'e)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Northern Mao is an endangered Afroasiatic-Omotic language of western Ethiopia with fewer than 5,000 speakers. This study is a comprehensive grammar of the language, written from a functional/typological perspective which embraces historical change as an explanation for synchronic structure. The grammar introduces the Northern Mao people, aspects…

Ahland, Michael Bryan

2012-01-01

160

Artificial grammar learning by 1-year-olds leads to specific and abstract knowledge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four experiments used the head-turn preference procedure to assess whether infants could extract and remember information from auditory strings produced by a miniature artificial grammar. In all four experiments, infants generalized to new structure by discriminating new grammatical strings from ungrammatical ones after less than 2 min exposure to the grammar. Infants acquired specific information about the grammar as demonstrated

Rebecca L. Gomez; LouAnn Gerken

1999-01-01

161

Building Fluency through the Phrased Text Lesson  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Teaching Tip article explores the importance of phrasing while reading. It also presents an instructional intervention strategy for helping students develop greater proficiency in reading with phrases that reflect the meaning of the text.

Rasinski, Timothy; Yildirim, Kasim; Nageldinger, James

2012-01-01

162

Parsing English with a Link Grammar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract We develop a formal grammatical system called a link grammar, show how English grammar can be encoded in such a system, and give algorithms for efficiently parsing with a link grammar. Although the expressive power of link grammars is equivalent to that of context free grammars, encoding natural language grammars,appears to be much,easier with the new system. We have

Daniel Dominic Sleator; David Temperley

1995-01-01

163

Exploring story grammar structure in the book reading interactions of African American mothers and their preschool children: a pilot investigation  

PubMed Central

The aim of this investigation was to identify the book reading behaviors and book reading styles of middle class African American mothers engaged in a shared book reading activity with their preschool children. To this end, the mothers and their children were videotaped reading one of three books, Julius, Grandfather and I, or Somewhere in Africa. Both maternal and child behaviors were coded for the frequency of occurrence of story grammar elements contained in their stories and maternal behaviors were also coded for their use of narrative eliciting strategies. In addition, mothers were queried about the quality and quantity of book reading/story telling interactions in the home environment. The results suggest that there is a great deal of individual variation in how mothers use the story grammar elements and narrative eliciting strategies to engage their children in a shared book reading activity. Findings are discussed in terms of suggestions for additional research and practical applications are offered on ways to optimally engage African American preschool children and African American families from diverse socioeconomic backgrounds in shared book reading interactions. PMID:24926276

Harris, Yvette R.; Rothstein, Susan E.

2014-01-01

164

Unsupervised grammar induction of clinical report sublanguage  

PubMed Central

Background Clinical reports are written using a subset of natural language while employing many domain-specific terms; such a language is also known as a sublanguage for a scientific or a technical domain. Different genres of clinical reports use different sublaguages, and in addition, different medical facilities use different medical language conventions. This makes supervised training of a parser for clinical sentences very difficult as it would require expensive annotation effort to adapt to every type of clinical text. Methods In this paper, we present an unsupervised method which automatically induces a grammar and a parser for the sublanguage of a given genre of clinical reports from a corpus with no annotations. In order to capture sentence structures specific to clinical domains, the grammar is induced in terms of semantic classes of clinical terms in addition to part-of-speech tags. Our method induces grammar by minimizing the combined encoding cost of the grammar and the corresponding sentence derivations. The probabilities for the productions of the induced grammar are then learned from the unannotated corpus using an instance of the expectation-maximization algorithm. Results Our experiments show that the induced grammar is able to parse novel sentences. Using a dataset of discharge summary sentences with no annotations, our method obtains 60.5% F-measure for parse-bracketing on sentences of maximum length 10. By varying a parameter, the method can induce a range of grammars, from very specific to very general, and obtains the best performance in between the two extremes. PMID:23046834

2012-01-01

165

GrammarGrammar Programming in TXLProgramming in TXL  

E-print Network

Easier to modify Language dialects (microsoft C vsLanguage dialects (microsoft C vs gccgcc)) Sublanguages and sublanguages, why not change the grammar for an individualnot change the grammar for an individual toolOne Grammar All transforms have to conform to the globalAll transforms have to conform to the global

Dean, Thomas R.

166

Models of Grammar Evolution: Evolving English It would be interesting to describe how, for instance, English and French derived from a common ancestor;  

E-print Network

with phrase structure trees. An example phrase structure tree for the sentence Pierre Vinken, 61 years old with a phrase-structure tree. Extracting CFG rules from this tree is simple: just take all subtrees consisting the head of the phrase it is governing. For example, adding lexicalization to the tree above would add

Goldschmidt, Christina

167

Dependency Grammar: Classification and Exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Syntactic representations based on word-to-word dependencies have a long tradition in descriptive linguistics [29]. In recent years, they have also become increasingly used in computational tasks, such as information extraction [5], machine translation [43], and parsing [42]. Among the purported advantages of dependency over phrase structure representations are conciseness, intuitive appeal, and closeness to semantic representations such as predicate-argument structures. On the more practical side, dependency representations are attractive due to the increasing availability of large corpora of dependency analyses, such as the Prague Dependency Treebank [19].

Debusmann, Ralph; Kuhlmann, Marco

168

Teaching Grammar: What Really Works  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this book, the authors share procedures for teaching grammar effectively and dynamically, in ways that appeal to students and teachers alike. Ideal for teachers just beginning their work in grammar instruction, this book includes day-by-day units and reproducibles to help them embed grammar lessons into writing instruction. Using visuals,…

Benjamin, Amy; Berger, Joan

2010-01-01

169

Generalized augmented transition network grammars for generation from semantic networks  

SciTech Connect

The augmented transition network (ATN) is a formalism for writing parsing grammars which has been much used in artificial intelligence and computational linguistics. A few researchers have also used ATNs for writing grammars for generating sentences. Previously, however, either generation ATNs did not have the same semantics as parsing ATNs, or they required an auxiliary mechanism to determine the syntactic structure of the sentence to be generated. This paper reports a generalization of the ATN formalism which allows ATN grammars to be written to parse labelled directed graphs. Specifically, an ATN grammar can be written to parse a semantic network and generate a surface string as its analysis. An example is given of a combined parsing-generating grammar which parses surface sentences, builds and queries a semantic network knowledge representation, and generates surface sentences in response. 8 references.

Shapiro, S.C.

1982-01-01

170

QR in Child Grammar: Evidence from Antecedent-Contained Deletion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We show that 4-year-olds assign the correct interpretation to antecedent-contained deletion (ACD) sentences because they have the correct representation of these structures. This representation involves Quantifier Raising (QR) of a Quantificational Noun Phrase (QNP) that must move out of the site of the verb phrase in which it is contained to…

Syrett, Kristen; Lidz, Jeffrey

2009-01-01

171

Implicit Learning of Recursive Context-Free Grammars  

PubMed Central

Context-free grammars are fundamental for the description of linguistic syntax. However, most artificial grammar learning experiments have explored learning of simpler finite-state grammars, while studies exploring context-free grammars have not assessed awareness and implicitness. This paper explores the implicit learning of context-free grammars employing features of hierarchical organization, recursive embedding and long-distance dependencies. The grammars also featured the distinction between left- and right-branching structures, as well as between centre- and tail-embedding, both distinctions found in natural languages. People acquired unconscious knowledge of relations between grammatical classes even for dependencies over long distances, in ways that went beyond learning simpler relations (e.g. n-grams) between individual words. The structural distinctions drawn from linguistics also proved important as performance was greater for tail-embedding than centre-embedding structures. The results suggest the plausibility of implicit learning of complex context-free structures, which model some features of natural languages. They support the relevance of artificial grammar learning for probing mechanisms of language learning and challenge existing theories and computational models of implicit learning. PMID:23094021

Rohrmeier, Martin; Fu, Qiufang; Dienes, Zoltan

2012-01-01

172

Directed test generation using symbolic grammars  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present CESE, a tool that combines exhaustive enumer- ation of test inputs from a structured domain with symbolic execution driven test generation. We target programs whose valid inputs are determined by some context free grammar. We abstract the concrete input syntax with symbolic gram- mars, where some original tokens are replaced with symbolic constants. This reduces the set of

Rupak Majumdar; Ru-gang Xu

2007-01-01

173

Multiple Grammars and MOGUL  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Optionality is a central phenomenon in second language acquisition (SLA), for which any adequate theory must account. Amaral and Roeper (this issue; henceforth A&R) offer an appealing approach to it, using Roeper's Multiple Grammars Theory, which was created with first language in mind but which extends very naturally to SLA. They include…

Truscott, John

2014-01-01

174

A Grammar of Kurtop  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Kurtop is a Tibeto-Burman language spoken by approximately 15,000 people in Northeastern Bhutan. This dissertation is the first descriptive grammar of the language, based on extensive fieldwork and community-driven language documentation in Bhutan. When possible, analyses are presented in typological and historical/comparative perspectives and…

Hyslop, Gwendolyn

2011-01-01

175

GPS (Grammar Positioning System)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this Cross Talk, Mark Blaauw-Hara, the author of "Mapping the Frontier: A Survey of Twenty Years of Grammar Articles in 'TETYC,'" and one of the manuscript's reviewers, Andy Anderson, engage in a brief conversation about the essay, its content, and the processes of writing, reviewing, and revising. This article is presented in three sections:…

Blaauw-Hara, Mark; Anderson, Andy

2007-01-01

176

Reflections on Grammar's Demise  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Of the seven liberal arts, on which Western education was based, grammar has always been preeminent. Yet English teachers in recent years have belittled it to the point of an irrelevance. Not only has this higher illiteracy rendered Americans unable to extract ideas from sophisticated prose, David Mulroy worries, but also it leaves us with the…

Mulroy, David

2004-01-01

177

Systemic Generative Grammar  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article begins with a historical background of systemic generative grammar and continues with an analysis of it on a syntactic level. The topics examined are: grammatical output, functions and properties, form, embedding and discontinuity, coordinate constructions, immediate constituents, the lexicon, phonology and morphology, and semantics.…

Hudson, R. A.

1974-01-01

178

Teaching Grammar in Context.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues for an alternative to the conventional linear model of language acquisition in the learning of second-language grammar, proposing a more organic approach. The two approaches are contrasted, drawing on research in second-language learning and discourse analysis that supports the organic view. Some pedagogical implications of this approach…

Nunan, David

1998-01-01

179

Well-founded semantics for Boolean grammars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Boolean grammars [A. Okhotin, Boolean grammars, Information and Computation 194 (1) (2004) 19–48] are a promising extension of context-free grammars that supports conjunction and negation in rule bodies. In this paper, we give a novel semantics for Boolean grammars which applies to all such grammars, independently of their syntax. The key idea of our proposal comes from the area of

Vassilis Kountouriotis; Christos Nomikos; Panos Rondogiannis

2009-01-01

180

Phrase Units as Determinants of Visual Processing in Music Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Keyboard musicians sight-read passages of music in which the amount of information about the presence of phrase units was systematically varied. Results suggest a clear analogy between the cognition of music and language, in that knowledge of abstract structure is of importance in the organization of immediate visual processing of text. (Editor/RK)

Sloboda, John A.

1977-01-01

181

ARG-ST on Phrases: Evidence from Polish Adam Przepirkowski  

E-print Network

ARG-ST on Phrases: Evidence from Polish Adam Przepiórkowski Ohio State University and Polish. Some works assume that ARG-ST is present on words only; this is the claim of, e.g., Pollard and Sag their arguments on the basis of the argument structure of these arguments' heads (e.g., there seems

Kuhn, Jonas

182

Implicit acquisition of grammars with crossed and nested non-adjacent dependencies: investigating the push-down stack model.  

PubMed

A recent hypothesis in empirical brain research on language is that the fundamental difference between animal and human communication systems is captured by the distinction between finite-state and more complex phrase-structure grammars, such as context-free and context-sensitive grammars. However, the relevance of this distinction for the study of language as a neurobiological system has been questioned and it has been suggested that a more relevant and partly analogous distinction is that between non-adjacent and adjacent dependencies. Online memory resources are central to the processing of non-adjacent dependencies as information has to be maintained across intervening material. One proposal is that an external memory device in the form of a limited push-down stack is used to process non-adjacent dependencies. We tested this hypothesis in an artificial grammar learning paradigm where subjects acquired non-adjacent dependencies implicitly. Generally, we found no qualitative differences between the acquisition of non-adjacent dependencies and adjacent dependencies. This suggests that although the acquisition of non-adjacent dependencies requires more exposure to the acquisition material, it utilizes the same mechanisms used for acquiring adjacent dependencies. We challenge the push-down stack model further by testing its processing predictions for nested and crossed multiple non-adjacent dependencies. The push-down stack model is partly supported by the results, and we suggest that stack-like properties are some among many natural properties characterizing the underlying neurophysiological mechanisms that implement the online memory resources used in language and structured sequence processing. PMID:22452530

Uddén, Julia; Ingvar, Martin; Hagoort, Peter; Petersson, Karl M

2012-08-01

183

NEWCAT: Parsing natural language using left-associative grammar  

SciTech Connect

This book shows that constituent structure analysis induces an irregular order of linear composition which is the direct cause of extreme computational inefficiency. It proposes an alternative left-associative grammar which operates with a regular order of linear compositions. Left-associative grammar is based on building up and cancelling valencies. Left-associative parsers differ from all other systems in that the history of the parse doubles as the linguistic analysis. Left-associative grammar is illustrated with two left-associative natural language parsers: one for German and one for English.

Hausser, R.

1986-01-01

184

On the Generative Power of Multiple Context-Free Grammars and Macro Grammars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several grammars of which generative power is between context-free grammar and context-sensitive grammar were proposed. Among them are macro grammar and tree adjoining grammar. Multiple context-free grammar is also a natural extension of context-free grammars, and is known to be stronger in its generative power than tree adjoining grammar and yet to be recognizable in polynomial time. In this paper, the generative power of several subclasses of variable-linear macro grammars and that of multiple context-free grammars are compared in details.

Seki, Hiroyuki; Kato, Yuki

185

Story Parsing Grammar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Story understanding is one of the important branches of natural language understanding research in AI techniques. A new approach\\u000a to story understanding is proposed in this paper. The so-called Story Parsing Grammar (SPG) is used to represent the story\\u000a abstracting processes with different degrees in story understanding, and the story understanding process is converted to the\\u000a story recognizing process done

Songmao Zhang

1994-01-01

186

Grammar Dilemma: Teaching Grammar as a Resource for Making Meaning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adopting a functional perspective that views grammar as a rich resource for making contextualized meanings in a culture- and language-specific way, the article reconsiders the role of explicit grammar instruction in developing communicative abilities of second language learners. It draws on two distinct but complementary research frameworks,…

Liamkina, Olga; Ryshina-Pankova, Marianna

2012-01-01

187

Paperback Grammar for Handbook Haters.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students will respond better to grammar instruction if the traditional heavy handbooks are replaced with light-weight paperbacks, each full of practical suggestions and clear examples. Several inexpensive paperbacks are available for instruction in grammar and usage, spelling, vocabulary, reading comprehension, and writing. Unlike the conventional…

Lambert, Dorothy

1967-01-01

188

Re-Examining the Content Validation of a Grammar Test: The (Im)Possibility of Distinguishing Vocabulary and Structural Knowledge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Vocabulary and structural knowledge" (Grabe, 1991, p. 379) appears to be a key component of reading ability. However, is this component to be taken as a unitary one or is structural knowledge a separate factor that can therefore also be tested in isolation in, say, a test of syntax? If syntax can be singled out (e.g. in order to…

Alderson, J. Charles; Kremmel, Benjamin

2013-01-01

189

Verb Phrase Ellipsis in Children's Answers to Questions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The emergence of verb phrase ellipsis is investigated in two 2-year-old English-speaking children's speech by studying their answers to yes\\/no questions over the period of about a year. The investigation is framed using a generative linguistics model, the “PF-deletion model,” which assumes that there is syntactic structure in the ellipsis site that is simply not pronounced at the level of

Rosalind Thornton

2010-01-01

190

Guide to Grammar and Writing  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Charles Darling, Professor of English/Humanities at Capital Community-Technical College (Hartford, Connecticut), provides this site, a compendium of English grammar, usage, and writing information at the sentence, paragraph, and essay levels. Each section contains easily understood information about concepts related to the topic. Most sections contain answered quizzes. These 76 quizzes are also available in a separate section. An index to the 142 grammar and writing topics covered is also available separately. A bibliography and "Ask Grammar" site, among other features, are also provided.

Darling, Charles.

1998-01-01

191

It's not just the "heavy NP": relative phrase length modulates the production of heavy-NP shift.  

PubMed

Heavy-NP shift is the tendency for speakers to place long direct object phrases at the end of a clause rather than next to the verb. Though some analyses have focused on length of the direct object phrase alone, results from two experiments demonstrate that the length of the direct object relative to that of other phrases, and not the length of the direct object alone, predicts production of the shifted structure. These data support an accessibility-based interpretation of length effects in word order emerging from incremental production processes, in which longer phrases tend to be less easily planned and therefore are delayed during utterance planning. PMID:21113803

Stallings, Lynne M; MacDonald, Maryellen C

2011-06-01

192

A tropical grammar : an architectural grammar for hot humid climates  

E-print Network

This thesis considers the viability of an architectural grammar based on traditional Caribbean architecture as an aid to designing climatically responsive architecture in hot humid climates. It argues that since traditional ...

Beamish, Anne, 1954-

1993-01-01

193

A Machine Learning Approach to Coreference Resolution of Noun Phrases  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present a learning approach to coreference resolution of noun phrases in unrestricted text. The approach learns from a small, annotated corpus and the task includes resolving not just a certain type of noun phrase (e.g., pronouns) but rather general noun phrases. It also does not restrict the entity types of the noun phrases; that is, coreference

Wee Meng Soon; Hwee Tou Ng; Chung Yong Lim

2001-01-01

194

When Global Structure "Explains Away" Local Grammar: A Bayesian Account of Rule-Induction in Tone Sequences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While many constraints on learning must be relatively experience-independent, past experience provides a rich source of guidance for subsequent learning. Discovering structure in some domain can inform a learner's future hypotheses about that domain. If a general property accounts for particular sub-patterns, a rational learner should not…

Dawson, Colin; Gerken, LouAnn

2011-01-01

195

Musical phrase boundaries, wrap-up and the closure positive shift.  

PubMed

We investigated global integration (wrap-up) processes at the boundaries of musical phrases by comparing the effects of well and non-well formed phrases on event-related potentials time-locked to two boundary points: the onset and the offset of the boundary pause. The Closure Positive Shift, which is elicited at the boundary offset, was not modulated by the quality of phrase structure (well vs. non-well formed). In contrast, the boundary onset potentials showed different patterns for well and non-well formed phrases. Our results contribute to specify the functional meaning of the Closure Positive Shift in music, shed light on the large-scale structural integration of musical input, and raise new hypotheses concerning shared resources between music and language. PMID:25139422

Silva, Susana; Branco, Paulo; Barbosa, Fernando; Marques-Teixeira, João; Petersson, Karl Magnus; Castro, São Luís

2014-10-17

196

Building a Phrase-Based SMT System Building a Phrase-based SMT System  

E-print Network

[Resnik 03] [Image: Mainichi Shimbun] #12;Building a Phrase-Based SMT System Research Finding bilingual pages [Resnik 03] Sentence alignment [Moore 02] #12;Building a Phrase-Based SMT System Research Finding bilingual pages [Resnik 03] Sentence alignment [Moore 02] Crowd-sourcing data creation [Ambati

Duh, Kevin

197

Taking the G-r-r-r Out of Grammar.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a course for preservice English teachers on descriptive grammar. Discusses definitions and aims and what to do about traditional grammar; transformational-generative grammar; language acquisition; and applied grammar. Presents teaching strategies. (RS)

Tchudi, Stephen; Thomas, Lee

1996-01-01

198

Unsupervised Learning of Probabilistic Grammar-Markov Models for Object Categories  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce a Probabilistic Grammar-Markov Model (PGMM) which couples probabilistic context free grammars and Markov Random Fields. These PGMMs are generative models defined over attributed features and are used to detect and classify objects in natural images. PGMMs are designed so that they can perform rapid inference, parameter learning, and the more difficult task of structure induction. PGMMs can deal

Long Zhu; Yuanhao Chen; Alan L. Yuille

2009-01-01

199

Linking speech errors and phonological grammars: Insights from Harmonic Grammar networks  

PubMed Central

Phonological grammars characterize distinctions between relatively well-formed (unmarked) and relatively ill-formed (marked) phonological structures. We review evidence that markedness influences speech error probabilities. Specifically, although errors result in both unmarked as well as marked structures, there is a markedness asymmetry: errors are more likely to produce unmarked outcomes. We show that stochastic disruption to the computational mechanisms realizing a Harmonic Grammar (HG) can account for the broad empirical patterns of speech errors. We demonstrate that our proposal can account for the general markedness asymmetry. We also develop methods for linking particular HG proposals to speech error distributions, and illustrate these methods using a simple HG and a set of initial consonant errors in English. PMID:20046856

Goldrick, Matthew; Daland, Robert

2009-01-01

200

http://itdi.pro/blog/2014/01/31/grammar-issue-adam/ Grammar Issue Adam  

E-print Network

http://itdi.pro/blog/2014/01/31/grammar-issue-adam/ Grammar Issue ­ Adam By Adam Simpson ­ January 31, 2014 You're teaching EAP? Forget most of what you know about grammar (kind of!) ­ Adam Simpson overview: #12;http://itdi.pro/blog/2014/01/31/grammar-issue-adam/ Displaying familiarity with a concept So

Yanikoglu, Berrin

201

Generative Graph Grammar of Neo-Vai?e?ika Formal Ontology (NVFO)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NLP applications for Sanskrit so far work within computational paradigm of string grammars. However, to compute 'meanings', as in traditional ?? bdabodha prakriy?-s, there is a need to develop suitable graph grammars. Ontological structures are fundamentally graphs. We work within the formal framework of Neo-Vai?e?ika Formal Ontology (NVFO) to propose a generative graph grammar. The proposed formal grammar only produces well-formed graphs that can be readily interpreted in accordance with Vai?e? ika Ontology. We show that graphs not permitted by Vai?e? ika ontology are not generated by the proposed grammar. Further, we write Interpreter of these graphical structures. This creates computational environment which can be deployed for writing computational applications of Vai?e? ika ontology. We illustrate how this environment can be used to create applications like computing ?? bdabodha of sentences.

Tavva, Rajesh; Singh, Navjyoti

202

Parallel Contextual Hexagonal Array Grammars and Languages  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hexagonal patterns are known to occur in the literature on picture processing and image analysis. Siromoney et al. constructed hexagonal array grammars for generating hexagonal arrays and hexagonal patterns. On the other hand, Marcus introduced a class of grammars called contextual grammars in contrast to Chomskian grammars that generate words by starting with an initial word and adding iteratively pairs of words called contexts associated to a set of words called selector to the words already obtained.

Thomas, D. G.; Begam, M. H.; David, N. G.

203

Chemical Accelerators The phrase "chemical accelerators"  

E-print Network

Meetings Chemical Accelerators The phrase "chemical accelerators" is scarcely older than for one or two dozen people grew to include nearly a hundred. Chemical accelerators is a name sug- gested by one of us for devices that produce beams of chemically interesting species at relative kinetic

Zare, Richard N.

204

Hazard symbol Hazard Description Risk phrases  

E-print Network

and even death R23, R24, R25, R39, R48 / R26, R27, R28, R39 #12;Hazard Group Hazard Symbol Hazard letterHazard Group Hazard symbol Hazard letter Description Risk phrases associated with this group H1 E

Siddharthan, Advaith

205

Southern White English: The Changing Verb Phrase.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a sociolinguistic study of the verb phrase in Southern White English, a pattern of change in progress was observed. The 14 variables studied showed that certain variants were increasing, others decreasing, and yet others stable across time within the community, and that each variable's change was progressing in a wave sensitive to age, social…

Feagin, Louise Crawford

206

Without Specifiers: Phrase Structure and Events  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This dissertation attempts to unify two reductionist hypotheses: that there is no relational difference between specifiers and complements, and that verbs do not have thematic arguments. I argue that these two hypotheses actually bear on each other and that we get a better theory if we pursue both of them. The thesis is centered around the…

Lohndal, Terje

2012-01-01

207

Order in Phrase Structure and Movement  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article proposes the following mechanism of Merge, modifying and incorporating the effect of the head parameter: K = {?, ??, ?}, where ? ?? {?, ?} a. ? = ?: head-initial, left-headed b. ? = ?: head-final, right-headed It is argued that under the parameterized version of Merge, traditional adjunction operations (scrambling and heavy NP shift) are characterized as

Mamoru Saito; Naoki Fukui

1998-01-01

208

A Construction Grammar for the Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Construction grammars (Lakoff, Women, fire and dangerous things: What categories reveal about the Mind, University of Chicago Press, 1987; Langacker, Foundations of cognitive grammar: Theoretical pre-requisites, Stanford University Press, 1987; Croft, Radical construction grammar: Syntactic theory in typological perspective, Oxford University…

Holme, Randal

2010-01-01

209

Recursive descent parsing for Boolean grammars  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recursive descent parsing method for the context-free grammars is extended for their generalization, Boolean grammars, which include explicit set-theoretic operations in the formalism of rules and which are formally defined by language equations. The algorithm is applicable to a subset of Boolean grammars. The complexity of a direct implementation varies between linear and exponential, while memoization keeps it down

Alexander Okhotin

2007-01-01

210

The Philosophical Significance of Universal Grammar  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Throughout its long history, the project of a science of grammar has always been an inherently philosophical one, in which the study of grammar was taken to have special epistemological significance. I ask why 20th and 21st century inquiry into Universal Grammar (UG) has largely lost this dimension, a fact that I argue is partially responsible for…

Hinzen, Wolfram

2012-01-01

211

Teaching the Topography of Gretel Ehrlich's Grammar.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When writing, few students have any concept that word placement affects the content of their writing. They seldom rework their papers at the sentence level in order to assure that their grammar reflects and enhances their content. Recognizing the relationship of grammar to meaning, composition researchers are reasserting the place of grammar in…

Gessell, Donna A.

212

A Layered Grammar Model: Using Tree-Adjoining Grammars to Build a Common Syntactic Kernel for Related Dialects  

E-print Network

This article describes the design of a common syntactic description for the core grammar of a group of related dialects. The common description does not rely on an abstract sub-linguistic structure like a metagrammar: it consists in a single FS-LTAG where the actual specific language is included as one of the attributes in the set of attribute types defined for the features. When the lang attribute is instantiated, the selected subset of the grammar is equivalent to the grammar of one dialect. When it is not, we have a model of a hybrid multidialectal linguistic system. This principle is used for a group of creole languages of the West-Atlantic area, namely the French-based Creoles of Haiti, Guadeloupe, Martinique and French Guiana.

Vaillant, Pascal

2008-01-01

213

Noun-Phrase Indexing, Pronouns, and the "Definite Article."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Chomsky has suggested that certain lexical items, which he calls "referential items," should be given integer markers (or "indices") and that the noun-phrase deletion transformation which creates reflexive pronouns should be limited to cases where the noun-phrase to be deleted is fully identical to the antecedent noun-phrase, including identity of…

Sampson, Geoffrey

214

Parsing Protocols Using Problem Solving Grammars. AI Memo 385.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A theory of the planning and debugging of computer programs is formalized as a context free grammar, which is used to reveal the constituent structure of problem solving episodes by parsing protocols in which programs are written, tested, and debugged. This is illustrated by the detailed analysis of an actual session with a beginning student…

Miller, Mark L.; Goldstein, Ira P.

215

Upending the Grammar of the Conventional Religious School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article provides an overview and analysis of a relatively new phenomenon: congregational schools that have altered the conventional grammar of schooling, either through their structural arrangements or through their curricular approaches. Five pre-bar/bat mitzvah models are discussed: family schools, schools as communities,…

Aron, Isa

2014-01-01

216

Delta's Key to the Next Generation TOEFL[R] Test: Essential Grammar for the iBT  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although the TOEFL iBT does not have a discrete grammar section, knowledge of English sentence structure is important throughout the test. Essential Grammar for the iBT reviews the skills that are fundamental to success on tests. Content includes noun and verb forms, clauses, agreement, parallel structure, punctuation, and much more. The book may…

Gallagher, Nancy

2012-01-01

217

A Comparative Study on the Effectiveness of Two Song-Teaching Methods: Holistic vs. Phrase-by-Phrase  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of our study was to compare the effectiveness of two song-teaching methods: holistic and phrase-by-phrase. Thirty-two first-grade children (n = 32) from two music classes in an urban elementary school were taught two folksongs. The first class (n = 16) was taught one song through the phrase-by-phrase method and another song through the…

Persellin, Diane; Bateman, Laura

2009-01-01

218

Universal moral grammar: a critical  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new framework for the study of the human moral faculty is currently receiving much attention: the so- called 'universal moral grammar' framework. It is based on an intriguing analogy, first pointed out by Rawls, between the study of the human moral sense and Chomsky's research program into the human language faculty. To assess UMG, we ask: is moral competence

Emmanuel Dupoux; Pierre Jacob

219

Virtual World Grammar (Extended Abstract)  

E-print Network

is a process usually performed by graphic design- ers, which model the world depending on some specification properties. Upon the change of specification properties, the graphic designer has to rebuild the design specifications of both a MAS and a design visual style (i.e a shape grammar). We propose an extension of shape

Rodríguez, Inmaculada

220

A Lifetime of Grammar Teaching  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author has worked as a language teacher, teacher educator, and second language acquisition (SLA) researcher for over forty years. During this time grammar has figured largely in his thinking, in part because it has traditionally been so central to language pedagogy and in part because he became fascinated with how the human mind grapples with…

Ellis, Rod

2012-01-01

221

A Grammar of Inupiaq Morphosyntax  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This dissertation is a reference grammar of the Malimiut Coastal dialect of Inupiaq (ISO: ESI, ESK, IPK), an Eskimo-Aleut language of northwestern Alaska spoken by the Inupiat people. It complements existing descriptions of Inupiaq by filling gaps in documentation. With approximately 2000 speakers, mainly above 50 years of age, Inupiaq is…

Lanz, Linda A.

2010-01-01

222

Transformational Generative Grammar: A Bibliography.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is an attempt to compile, from public sources, as complete a bibliography as possible of works related to linguistics and having to do with transformational generative grammar. The arrangement is alphabetical by author and chronological by publication or delivery date of works of a given author. The majority of items are also indexed by…

Dingwall, William Orr

223

Toward a Generative Dependency Grammar  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An attempt is made to overcome the shortcomings in Robinson's model of generative grammar by modifying her dependency rules and adding semantic specifications to the dependents of V, taking into account some of the considerations that led Fillmore to make up his cases. (Author)

Vater, Heinz

1975-01-01

224

Transformational Grammar and Cognitive Psycholinguistics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An overview of Noam Chomsky's theories about transformational grammar and phonology is given. Since Chomsky was interested in characterizing what it is to know a language, the ways in which we demonstrate knowledge of our native language are discussed in detail. Particular emphasis is placed on describing how the transformational approach actually…

Lester, Mark

1973-01-01

225

Readings in Applied Transformational Grammar.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This volume contains nineteen essays, dealing with various aspects of transformational grammar, by scholars such as Noam Chomsky, Eric H. Lenneberg, and Leon Jakobovits. These essays have been reprinted from sources such as "College English" and "Language Learning" and are intended for the most part for a nontechnical audience. The anthology is…

Lester, Mark, Ed.

226

Teachers' theories in grammar teaching  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers how research into teachers' theories in English lan- guage teaching (ELT) can enhance our understanding of instruction, and provide the basis of effective teacher development (TD) work. The nature of teachers' theories is illustrated with examples from classroom research on grammar teaching. A TD strategy through which teachers examine the theories underlying their own work in teaching

Simon Borg

1999-01-01

227

Grammar Competency and Business Communications.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study sought to determine the relationship between grammar competency and success in a business communication course. Students completed a written English competency test consisting of 25 sentences, each with one of eight kinds of errors, including comma splice and incorrect pronoun reference. Students were then asked to choose the one…

Waltman, John L.

228

Deterministic parsing of ambiguous grammars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods of describing the syntax of programming languages in ways that are more flexible and natural than conventional BNF descriptions are considered. These methods involve the use of ambiguous context-free grammars together with rules to resolve syntactic ambiguities. It is shown how efficient LR and LL parsers can be constructed directly from certain classes of these specifications.

Alfred V. Aho; Stephen C. Johnson; Jeffrey D. Ullman

1975-01-01

229

Deterministic parsing of ambiguous grammars  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider methods of describing the syntax of programming languages in ways that are more flexible and natural than conventional BNF descriptions. These methods involve the use of ambiguous context-free grammars together with rules to resolve syntactic ambiguities. We show how efficient LL and LR parsers can be constructed directly from certain classes of these specifications.

Alfred V. Aho; Steven C. Johnson; Jeffrey D. Ullman

1973-01-01

230

Learnable Classes of Categorial Grammars.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Learnability theory is an attempt to illuminate the concept of learnability using a mathematical model of learning. Two models of learning of categorial grammars are examined here: the standard model, in which sentences presented to the learner are flat strings of words, and one in which sentences are presented in the form of functor-argument…

Kanazawa, Makoto

231

A Reference Grammar of Pashto.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This grammar of Pashto was designed to accompany a set of beginning- and intermediate-level instructional materials for teaching the Pashto language to English speakers, but can be used separately as a reference by readers who are not learning the language. Introductory sections in English and Pashto describe the content and organization. The…

Tegey, Habibullah; Robson, Barbara

232

A CHART PARSER TO ANALYZE LARGE MEDICAL CORPORA P.O. El Guedj1 and P. Nugues2  

E-print Network

syntax coverage can be obtained from Phrase-Structure rules. Large medical corpora show a strong. PHRASE-STRUCTURE GRAMMARS Many parsers rely on phrase-structure grammars to build syntactic structures such as the sentence (S) structure: S NP VP, which consists here of a noun phrase and a verb

Nugues, Pierre

233

A Layered Grammar Model: Using Tree-Adjoining Grammars to Build a Common Syntactic Kernel for Related Dialects  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes the design of a com- mon syntactic description for the core grammar of a group of related dialects. The common description does not rely on an abstract sub-linguistic structure like a metagrammar: it consists in a single FS- LTAG where the actual specific language is included as one of the attributes in the set of attribute types

Pascal Vaillant

2008-01-01

234

Phrase Frequency Effects in Language Production  

PubMed Central

A classic debate in the psychology of language concerns the question of the grain-size of the linguistic information that is stored in memory. One view is that only morphologically simple forms are stored (e.g., ‘car’, ‘red’), and that more complex forms of language such as multi-word phrases (e.g., ‘red car’) are generated on-line from the simple forms. In two experiments we tested this view. In Experiment 1, participants produced noun+adjective and noun+noun phrases that were elicited by experimental displays consisting of colored line drawings and two superimposed line drawings. In Experiment 2, participants produced noun+adjective and determiner+noun+adjective utterances elicited by colored line drawings. In both experiments, naming latencies decreased with increasing frequency of the multi-word phrase, and were unaffected by the frequency of the object name in the utterance. These results suggest that the language system is sensitive to the distribution of linguistic information at grain-sizes beyond individual words. PMID:22479370

Janssen, Niels; Barber, Horacio A.

2012-01-01

235

RNA Pseudoknot Modeling Using Intersections of Stochastic Context Free Grammars with Applications to Database Search  

E-print Network

beta sheets using Stochastic Ranked Node Rewriting Grammars [18]. This paper presents a model based with bases within the hairpin loop to create a second stem and loop structure [5]. See figure 1. Pseudoknots

California at Santa Cruz, University of

236

Computational Linguistics Richard Sproaty  

E-print Network

­like constituents, which are subsequently arranged into clauses and sentences. 1.1 Phrase Structure Grammars for computational purposes: context­free phrase structure grammars. We will assume familiarity with phrase structure determines what, if any, valid phrase structures it has. For example, the expression the kid has exactly one

Carpenter, Bob

237

Probabilistic Tree-Adjoining Grammar As A Framework For Statistical Natural Language Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, I argue for the use of a probabilistic form of tree-adjoining grammar (TAG) in statistical natural language processing. I first discuss two previous statistical approaches --- one that concentrates on the probabilities of structural operations, and another that emphasizes co-occurrence relationships between words. I argue that a purely structural apprach, exemplified by probabilistic context-free grammar, lacks sufficient

Philip Resnik

1992-01-01

238

Using Prosodic Structure to Improve Pitch Range Variation in Text to Speech Synthesis  

E-print Network

range variation is most appar- ent at a tone group level of prosodic structure, and how phrase ini- tial, consisting of phrases, consisting of tone groups. The terms used here for phrase structure units have been structure, as one high level of phrasing consists of exactly one phrase unit from the level below it

Edinburgh, University of

239

Using Prosodic Structure to Improve Pitch Range Variation in Text to Speech Synthesis  

E-print Network

range variation is most appar­ ent at a tone group level of prosodic structure, and how phrase ini­ tial, consisting of phrases, consisting of tone groups. The terms used here for phrase structure units have been structure, as one high level of phrasing consists of exactly one phrase unit from the level below it

Edinburgh, University of

240

Can Individuals with Down Syndrome Improve Their Grammar?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Morphosyntax constitutes one of the most complex areas of language. It takes into account the structure of the word and that of the sentence, and its development allows one to establish adequately agreements both within the nominal phrase and in the rest of the sentence. Morphosyntax is particularly impaired in individuals with Down syndrome. To…

Sepulveda, Esther Moraleda; Lopez-Villasenor, Miguel Lazaro; Heinze, Elena Garayzabal

2013-01-01

241

Proceedings of COLING 2012: Technical Papers, pages 23072324, COLING 2012, Mumbai, December 2012.  

E-print Network

We address the problem of unsupervised tagging of phrase structure trees with phrase categories phrase or a dependency structure, and thus represent the induced grammar through its behaviour phrase structures with syntactic categories. The two grammars that have been widely explored by the NLP

Rappoport, Ari

242

Traditional Grammar: An Interactive Book  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Is traditional grammar dead? Donald Hardy, a professor of English at Northern Illinois University, doesn't think so. He recently posted this "e-grammar" on the Web to help teach users how to distinguish their nouns from their verbs, their nominative cases from their subjunctives, and their present perfect from their past. The descriptions are clear and concise, while quizzes at the end of each chapter as well as five practice exams allow readers to test their retention and keep track electronically of their score. (We were not convinced, however, that the typical exemplifications of the rules that are the core of each chapter truly constitute an "interactive" aspect of the text as the introduction claims.)

243

Defense et illustration de la grammaire philologique (An Example and a Defense of Philological Grammar)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Author cites philological grammar" as one of three ways of treating language. The other two approaches to language are traditional grammar and linguistic grammar or transformational generative grammar. Philological grammar stresses the art of reading. (DS)

Dupont, Louis

1972-01-01

244

Longman Grammar of Spoken and Written English  

Microsoft Academic Search

IntroductionSince its publication in 1985, the outstanding 1,800-page Comprehensive Grammar of theEnglish Language, by Randolph Quirk, Sidney Greenbaum, Geoffrey Leech, and JanSvartvik, has been the definitive description of the grammar of English and an in-.dispensable reference for any research in the analysis or generation of English thatattempts serious coverage of the syntactic phenomena of the language. The new LongmanGrammar of

Douglas Biber; Stig Johansson; Geoffrey Leech; Susan Conrad; Edward Finegan

1999-01-01

245

Weak precedence story parsing grammar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Story understanding is one of the important branches of natural language understanding research in AI techniques. The story\\u000a understanding approach based on Story Parsing Grammar (SPG) involves that SPG is used to represent different abstracting processes\\u000a of stories with different levels in story understanding and that the story understanding process is converted to the recognition\\u000a process of stories using the

Songmao Zhang

1995-01-01

246

Interacting effects of syllable and phrase position on consonant articulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The complexities of how prosodic structure, both at the phrasal and syllable levels, shapes speech production have begun to be illuminated through studies of articulatory behavior. The present study contributes to an understanding of prosodic signatures on articulation by examining the joint effects of phrasal and syllable position on the production of consonants. Articulatory kinematic data were collected for five subjects using electromagnetic articulography (EMA) to record target consonants (labial, labiodental, and tongue tip), located in (1) either syllable final or initial position and (2) either at a phrase edge or phrase medially. Spatial and temporal characteristics of the consonantal constriction formation and release were determined based on kinematic landmarks in the articulator velocity profiles. The results indicate that syllable and phrasal position consistently affect the movement duration; however, effects on displacement were more variable. For most subjects, the boundary-adjacent portions of the movement (constriction release for a preboundary coda and constriction formation for a postboundary onset) are not differentially affected in terms of phrasal lengthening-both lengthen comparably.

Byrd, Dani; Lee, Sungbok; Riggs, Daylen; Adams, Jason

2005-12-01

247

The difficult mountain: enriched composition in adjective–noun phrases  

PubMed Central

When readers need to go beyond the straightforward compositional meaning of a sentence (i.e., when enriched composition is required), costly additional processing is the norm. However, this conclusion is based entirely on research that has looked at enriched composition between two phrases or within the verb phrase (e.g., the verb and its complement in … started the book …) where there is a discrepancy between the semantic expectations of the verb and the semantics of the noun. We carried out an eye-tracking experiment investigating enriched composition within a single noun phrase, as in the difficult mountain. As compared with adjective–noun phrases that allow a straightforward compositional interpretation (the difficult exercise), the coerced phrases were more difficult to process. These results indicate that coercion effects can be found in the absence of a typing violation and within a single noun phrase. PMID:21826403

Pickering, Martin J.; McElree, Brian

2012-01-01

248

Nigel: a systemic grammar for text generation  

SciTech Connect

Programming a computer to write text which meets a prior need is a challenging research task. As part of such research, Nigel, a large programmed grammar of English, has been created in the framework of systemic linguistics begun by Halliday. In addition to specifying function and structures of English, Nigel has a novel semantic stratum which specifies the situations in which each grammatical feature should be used. The report consists of three papers on Nigel: an introductory overview, the script of a demonstration of its use in generation, and an exposition of how Nigel relates to the systemic framework. Although the effort to develop Nigel is significant both as computer science research and as linguistic inquiry the outlook of the report is oriented to its linguistic significance.

Mann, W.C.; Matthiessen, C.M.

1983-02-01

249

Reading and Grammar Learning through Mobile Phones  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes an ongoing language-learning project, three years into its development. We examine both the feasibility and the limitations of developing English reading and grammar skills through the interface of mobile phones. Throughout the project, reading and grammar materials were regularly sent to students' mobile phones. Students…

Wang, Shudong; Smith, Simon

2013-01-01

250

Towards a Pedagogy of Grammar Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Grammar can be viewed both as knowledge and as ability. When viewed as knowledge, the focus is on rules for sentence formation. When viewed as ability, the focus is on how grammar is used as a resource in the creation of spoken and written texts. Twelve principles are proposed as the basis for a pedagogy that focusses on acquiring learning to use…

Richards, Jack C.; Reppen, Randi

2014-01-01

251

Well-Founded Semantics for Boolean Grammars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Boolean grammars (A. Okhotin, Information and Computa- tion 194 (2004) 19-48) are a promising extension of context-free gram- mars that supports conjunction and negation. In this paper we give a novel semantics for boolean grammars which applies to all such gram- mars, independently of their syntax. The key idea of our proposal comes from the area of negation in logic

Vassilis Kountouriotis; Christos Nomikos; Panos Rondogiannis

2006-01-01

252

Second Language Acquisition and Universal Grammar.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the motivation for Universal Grammar (UG), as assumed in the principles and parameters framework of generative grammar (Chomsky, 1981), focusing on the logical problem of first-language acquisition and the potential role of UG in second-language acquisition. Recent experimental research regarding the second-language status of the…

White, Lydia

1990-01-01

253

Romanian Grammar Workbook for Peace Corps Volunteers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed as a reference tool for continued language learning beyond the beginning level, this workbook provides explanations and sets of exercises for learning, practicing, and understanding the major points of Romanian grammar. The manual contains 11 units on certain grammar problems for use with a tutor or under self-guided learning…

Peace Corps (Moldova).

254

Polynomial Pregroup Grammars parse Context Sensitive Languages  

E-print Network

Polynomial Pregroup Grammars parse Context Sensitive Languages ANNE PRELLER LIRMM/CNRS, Montpellier recognition and parsing algorithm han- dles the various grammars uniformly. It also computes a planar graph, incremental dependency parsing algorithm. 1. Introduction The Pregroup Calculus was introduced by Lambek (1999

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

255

Modeling Piinian Grammar Peter M. Scharf  

E-print Network

the implementation of generative grammars and parsers of Sanskrit using various methodologies which have varying to implement a few aspects of Sanskrit grammar computationally, comments upon the degree to which they approach with in some detail: the question of levels and the role of semantics. I. Differences among the Sanskrit

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

256

Propelling Students into Active Grammar Participation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"O! this learning, what a thing it is." -W. Shakespeare, "The Taming of the Shrew." The aim of this action research was to find out if active grammar involvement amongst students might lead to better results. My approach was to activate my students during grammar instruction by using cooperative learning: that is a form of learning in which…

Jurhill, Dennis A.

2011-01-01

257

Metamodel-Driven Evolution with Grammar Inference  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Domain-specific modeling (DSM) has become one of the most popular techniques for incorporating model-driven engineering (MDE) into software engineering. In DSM, domain experts define metamodels to describe the essential problems in a domain. A model conforms to a schema definition represented by a metamodel in a similar manner to a programming language conforms to a grammar. Metamodel-driven evolution is when a metamodel undergoes evolutions to incorporate new concerns in the domain. However, this results in losing the ability to use existing model instances. Grammar inference is the problem of inferring a grammar from sample strings which the grammar should generate. This paper describes our work in solving the problem of metamodel-driven evolution with grammar inference, by inferring the metamodel from model instances.

Bryant, Barrett R.; Liu, Qichao; Mernik, Marjan

2010-10-01

258

A neurocomputational approach to prepositional phrase attachment ambiguity resolution.  

PubMed

A neurocomputational model based on emergent massively overlapping neural cell assemblies (CAs) for resolving prepositional phrase (PP) attachment ambiguity is described. PP attachment ambiguity is a well-studied task in natural language processing and is a case where semantics is used to determine the syntactic structure. A large network of biologically plausible fatiguing leaky integrate-and-fire neurons is trained with semantic hierarchies (obtained from WordNet) on sentences with PP attachment ambiguity extracted from the Penn Treebank corpus. During training, overlapping CAs representing semantic similarities between the component words of the ambiguous sentences emerge and then act as categorizers for novel input. The resulting average resolution accuracy of 84.56% is on par with known machine learning algorithms. PMID:22428590

Nadh, Kailash; Huyck, Christian

2012-07-01

259

You had me at hello: How phrasing affects memorability  

E-print Network

Understanding the ways in which information achieves widespread public awareness is a research question of significant interest. We consider whether, and how, the way in which the information is phrased --- the choice of words and sentence structure --- can affect this process. To this end, we develop an analysis framework and build a corpus of movie quotes, annotated with memorability information, in which we are able to control for both the speaker and the setting of the quotes. We find significant differences between memorable and non-memorable quotes in several key dimensions. One is lexical distinctiveness: in aggregate, memorable quotes use less common word choices, but at the same time are built upon a scaffolding of common syntactic patterns; another is that memorable quotes tend to be more general in ways that make them easy to apply in new contexts. We also show how the concept of "memorable language" can be extended across domains.

Danescu-Niculescu-Mizil, Cristian; Kleinberg, Jon; Lee, Lillian

2012-01-01

260

Metrical Presentation Boosts Implicit Learning of Artificial Grammar  

PubMed Central

The present study investigated whether a temporal hierarchical structure favors implicit learning. An artificial pitch grammar implemented with a set of tones was presented in two different temporal contexts, notably with either a strongly metrical structure or an isochronous structure. According to the Dynamic Attending Theory, external temporal regularities can entrain internal oscillators that guide attention over time, allowing for temporal expectations that influence perception of future events. Based on this framework, it was hypothesized that the metrical structure provides a benefit for artificial grammar learning in comparison to an isochronous presentation. Our study combined behavioral and event-related potential measurements. Behavioral results demonstrated similar learning in both participant groups. By contrast, analyses of event-related potentials showed a larger P300 component and an earlier N2 component for the strongly metrical group during the exposure phase and the test phase, respectively. These findings suggests that the temporal expectations in the strongly metrical condition helped listeners to better process the pitch dimension, leading to improved learning of the artificial grammar. PMID:25372147

Selchenkova, Tatiana; Francois, Clement; Schon, Daniele; Corneyllie, Alexandra; Perrin, Fabien; Tillmann, Barbara

2014-01-01

261

Agrammatism as evidence about grammar.  

PubMed

A variety of experimental paradigms has yielded surprisingly fine-grained evidence about the kinds of syntactic information to which agrammatic aphasics are sensitive. This paper contrasts three accounts of agrammatism which draw quite different conclusions about the implications of this disorder for normal function: the chain-disruption, trade-off, and mapping hypotheses. Counterarguments to the chain disruption and trade-off hypotheses are presented, and it is argued that agrammatism provides considerable support for the modularity of syntax but provides no evidence more specific than that regarding the psychological reality of government binding theory vis-à-vis other current theories of grammar. PMID:7552230

Linebarger, M C

1995-07-01

262

Search Phrases with Arrays and Macros:  

E-print Network

In recent years, real-time surveillance of data has become an important feature in public health preparedness and response. Surveillance systems for emergency room visits, over-the-counter drugs, and 911 calls have all been developed to detect potential acts of terrorism as well as every day outbreaks. Causes of death from death certificates provide important indicators of the health of a community. A typical death certificate will have the causes of death reported by physicians, entered by public health staff, and then coded to International Classification of Disease standards. The turnaround from the date of death to the date of coding can be weeks to months later. For real-time cause of death surveillance, the phrases written in the causes of death need to be analyzed. This paper provides a method that has been used by Maricopa County Department of Public Health for several years using SAS ® macros and arrays to conduct real-time surveillance of death certificates.

Public Health; Death Surveillance

263

Varieties of Crossing Dependencies: Structure Dependence and Mild Context Sensitivity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Four different kinds of grammars that can define crossing dependencies in human language are compared here: (1) "context sensitive rewrite" grammars with rules that depend on context; (2) "matching" grammars with constraints that filter the generative structure of the language; (3) "copying" grammars which can copy structures of unbounded size;…

Stabler, Edward P.

2004-01-01

264

Weakly Regular Quantum Grammars and Asynchronous Quantum Automata  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we define weakly regular quantum grammars (WRQG), regular quantum grammars (RQG), asynchronous quantum automata (AQA) and synchronous quantum automata (SQA). Moreover, we investigate the relationships between quantum languages generated by weakly quantum regular grammars and by asynchronous quantum automata. At the mean time, we discuss the relationships between regular quantum grammars and synchronous quantum automata.

Xi, Zhengjun; Li, Yongming; Wang, Xin

2009-02-01

265

Grammar based off line generation of disposable credit card numbers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Context free grammars present the desirable cryptographic property that it is easy to generate and validate strings from a given grammar, however it is hard to identify a grammar given only the strings generated by it. The algorithm used in the authentication protocol proposed in this paper makes use of context free grammars. This authentication protocol is a perfect candidate

Abhishek Singh; Andre L. M. dos Santos

2002-01-01

266

ANTLR Tree Grammar Generator and Extensions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A computer program implements two extensions of ANTLR (Another Tool for Language Recognition), which is a set of software tools for translating source codes between different computing languages. ANTLR supports predicated- LL(k) lexer and parser grammars, a notation for annotating parser grammars to direct tree construction, and predicated tree grammars. [ LL(k) signifies left-right, leftmost derivation with k tokens of look-ahead, referring to certain characteristics of a grammar.] One of the extensions is a syntax for tree transformations. The other extension is the generation of tree grammars from annotated parser or input tree grammars. These extensions can simplify the process of generating source-to-source language translators and they make possible an approach, called "polyphase parsing," to translation between computing languages. The typical approach to translator development is to identify high-level semantic constructs such as "expressions," "declarations," and "definitions" as fundamental building blocks in the grammar specification used for language recognition. The polyphase approach is to lump ambiguous syntactic constructs during parsing and then disambiguate the alternatives in subsequent tree transformation passes. Polyphase parsing is believed to be useful for generating efficient recognizers for C++ and other languages that, like C++, have significant ambiguities.

Craymer, Loring

2005-01-01

267

Modelling dynamics with context-free grammars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article presents a strategy to model the dynamics performed by vehicles in a freeway. The proposal consists on encode the movement as a set of finite states. A watershed-based segmentation is used to localize regions with high-probability of motion. Each state represents a proportion of a camera projection in a two-dimensional space, where each state is associated to a symbol, such that any combination of symbols is expressed as a language. Starting from a sequence of symbols through a linear algorithm a free-context grammar is inferred. This grammar represents a hierarchical view of common sequences observed into the scene. Most probable grammar rules express common rules associated to normal movement behavior. Less probable rules express themselves a way to quantify non-common behaviors and they might need more attention. Finally, all sequences of symbols that does not match with the grammar rules, may express itself uncommon behaviors (abnormal). The grammar inference is built with several sequences of images taken from a freeway. Testing process uses the sequence of symbols emitted by the scenario, matching the grammar rules with common freeway behaviors. The process of detect abnormal/normal behaviors is managed as the task of verify if any word generated by the scenario is recognized by the grammar.

García-Huerta, Juan-M.; Jiménez-Hernández, Hugo; Herrera-Navarro, Ana-M.; Hernández-Díaz, Teresa; Terol-Villalobos, Ivan

2014-03-01

268

Parsing Combinatory Categorial Grammar with Answer Set Programming: Preliminary Report  

E-print Network

Combinatory categorial grammar (CCG) is a grammar formalism used for natural language parsing. CCG assigns structured lexical categories to words and uses a small set of combinatory rules to combine these categories to parse a sentence. In this work we propose and implement a new approach to CCG parsing that relies on a prominent knowledge representation formalism, answer set programming (ASP) - a declarative programming paradigm. We formulate the task of CCG parsing as a planning problem and use an ASP computational tool to compute solutions that correspond to valid parses. Compared to other approaches, there is no need to implement a specific parsing algorithm using such a declarative method. Our approach aims at producing all semantically distinct parse trees for a given sentence. From this goal, normalization and efficiency issues arise, and we deal with them by combining and extending existing strategies. We have implemented a CCG parsing tool kit - AspCcgTk - that uses ASP as its main computational mean...

Lierler, Yuliya

2011-01-01

269

Expressive timing facilitates the neural processing of phrase boundaries in music: evidence from event-related potentials.  

PubMed

The organization of sound into meaningful units is fundamental to the processing of auditory information such as speech and music. In expressive music performance, structural units or phrases may become particularly distinguishable through subtle timing variations highlighting musical phrase boundaries. As such, expressive timing may support the successful parsing of otherwise continuous musical material. By means of the event-related potential technique (ERP), we investigated whether expressive timing modulates the neural processing of musical phrases. Musicians and laymen listened to short atonal scale-like melodies that were presented either isochronously (deadpan) or with expressive timing cues emphasizing the melodies' two-phrase structure. Melodies were presented in an active and a passive condition. Expressive timing facilitated the processing of phrase boundaries as indicated by decreased N2b amplitude and enhanced P3a amplitude for target phrase boundaries and larger P2 amplitude for non-target boundaries. When timing cues were lacking, task demands increased especially for laymen as reflected by reduced P3a amplitude. In line, the N2b occurred earlier for musicians in both conditions indicating general faster target detection compared to laymen. Importantly, the elicitation of a P3a-like response to phrase boundaries marked by a pitch leap during passive exposure suggests that expressive timing information is automatically encoded and may lead to an involuntary allocation of attention towards significant events within a melody. We conclude that subtle timing variations in music performance prepare the listener for musical key events by directing and guiding attention towards their occurrences. That is, expressive timing facilitates the structuring and parsing of continuous musical material even when the auditory input is unattended. PMID:23383088

Istók, Eva; Friberg, Anders; Huotilainen, Minna; Tervaniemi, Mari

2013-01-01

270

20 CFR 300.1 - Words and phrases.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT DEFINITIONS § 300.1 Words and phrases. For... (a) The term “act” means the Railroad Unemployment Insurance act. (b) The term...

2010-04-01

271

Neural network architectures for Prepositional Phrase attachment disambiguation  

E-print Network

This thesis addresses the problem of Prepositional Phrase (PP) attachment disambiguation, a key challenge in syntactic parsing. In natural language sentences, a PP may often be attached to several possible candidates. While ...

Belinkov, Yonatan

2014-01-01

272

Providing a unified account of definite noun phrases in discourse  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper focuses on particular phenomena of this sort-the use of various referring expressions such as def'mite noun phrases and pronouns-and examines their interaction with mechanisms used to maintain discourse coherence

Barbara J. Grosz; Aravind K. Joshi; Scott Weinstein

1983-01-01

273

Cyclicity and the scope of wh-phrases  

E-print Network

This thesis argues that in a constituent question with a universal quantifier, syntactic reconstruction of the wh-phrase below the quantifier is the source of scope ambiguities. In particular, I argue, based on the interaction ...

Aguero Bautista, Calixto

2001-01-01

274

A Rule-Based Approach to Prepositional Phrase Attachment Disambiguation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we describe a new corpus-based approach to prepositional phrase attachment disambiguation, and present results comparing performance of this algorithm with other corpus-based approaches to this problem.

Eric Brill; Philip Resnik

1994-01-01

275

Name: _________________________________________ 4. Aural analysis: phrases and cadences (25 points)  

E-print Network

of phrases. The first section modulates away from the tonic scale and the second returns to the tonic scale. Both sections contain sequences. You may find in the blanks in the following table. location key type m. 4 tonic

Pulfrey, David L.

276

Semantic change in English intensifiers that have developed from a prepositional phrase and a noun phrase.  

PubMed

In the advance of research in grammaticalization, there has been some inquiry into the development of English intensifiers. While most studies focus on the process of semantic shift from adverbs or adjectives that are the primary sources of intensifiers, little attention has been drawn to minor members of the category that have developed from a prepositional phrase or noun phrase. However, it is of great interest from the viewpoint of semantic change in general as well as that of grammaticalization and subjectification to examine what factors are engaged in the development of these intensifiers. This paper examines the development of indeed, a lot, a great/good deal, big time and all X wants/likes, and found that such mechanisms as metaphor, metonymy, conversational implicature, reanalysis, and the speaker's intention of producing illocutionary forces contribute to the semantic change of these intensifiers. Furthermore, as a theoretical implication of this study, it is observed that during the semantic shift that is regarded as a case of grammaticalization, most items have undergone subjectification, which gives support to the claim by E. C. Traugott, among others, that subjectification is found to take place concomitantly with PMID:18170960

Ohashi, Hiroshi

2007-12-01

277

Searching the Deep Web Using Proactive Phrase Queries  

E-print Network

This paper proposes Deep2Q, a novel search engine that proactively transforms query forms of Deep Web sources into phrase queries, constructs query evaluation plans, and caches results for popular queries offline. Then at query time, keyword queries are simply matched with phrase queries to retrieve results. Deep2Q embodies a novel dual-ranking framework for query answering and novel solutions for discovering frequent attributes and queries. Preliminary experiments show the great potentials of Deep2Q.

Wensheng Wu; Tingting Zhong

278

Application of Montague grammar to English-Japanese machine translation  

SciTech Connect

English-Japanese machine translation requires a large amount of structural transformation in both grammatical and conceptual level. In order to make the control structure clearer and more understandable, this paper proposes a model based on Montague grammar. The translation process is modelled as a data flow computation process. Formal description tools are developed and a prototype system is constructed. Various problems which arise in this modelling and their solutions are described. Results of experiments are shown and the extent to which initial goals are achieved is discussed. 14 references.

Nishida, T.; Doshita, S.

1983-01-01

279

Syntactic Expression as Morphological Exponence1 Farrell Ackerman  

E-print Network

such as LEXICAL FUNCTIONAL GRAMMAR, HEAD DRIVEN PHRASE STRUCTURE GRAMMAR and CONSTRUCTIONS GRAMMAR. In general by multiple independent elements in phrase structure ( = hereafter referred to as analytic exponence causatives (analytic exponence) often exhibit striking parallelisms with #12;respect to argument structure

280

A stochastic context free grammar based framework for analysis of protein sequences  

PubMed Central

Background In the last decade, there have been many applications of formal language theory in bioinformatics such as RNA structure prediction and detection of patterns in DNA. However, in the field of proteomics, the size of the protein alphabet and the complexity of relationship between amino acids have mainly limited the application of formal language theory to the production of grammars whose expressive power is not higher than stochastic regular grammars. However, these grammars, like other state of the art methods, cannot cover any higher-order dependencies such as nested and crossing relationships that are common in proteins. In order to overcome some of these limitations, we propose a Stochastic Context Free Grammar based framework for the analysis of protein sequences where grammars are induced using a genetic algorithm. Results This framework was implemented in a system aiming at the production of binding site descriptors. These descriptors not only allow detection of protein regions that are involved in these sites, but also provide insight in their structure. Grammars were induced using quantitative properties of amino acids to deal with the size of the protein alphabet. Moreover, we imposed some structural constraints on grammars to reduce the extent of the rule search space. Finally, grammars based on different properties were combined to convey as much information as possible. Evaluation was performed on sites of various sizes and complexity described either by PROSITE patterns, domain profiles or a set of patterns. Results show the produced binding site descriptors are human-readable and, hence, highlight biologically meaningful features. Moreover, they achieve good accuracy in both annotation and detection. In addition, findings suggest that, unlike current state-of-the-art methods, our system may be particularly suited to deal with patterns shared by non-homologous proteins. Conclusion A new Stochastic Context Free Grammar based framework has been introduced allowing the production of binding site descriptors for analysis of protein sequences. Experiments have shown that not only is this new approach valid, but produces human-readable descriptors for binding sites which have been beyond the capability of current machine learning techniques. PMID:19814800

Dyrka, Witold; Nebel, Jean-Christophe

2009-01-01

281

A grammar describing 'biological binding operators' to model gene regulation.  

PubMed

The study of the mechanisms involved in the regulation of protein synthesis has become sufficiently advanced that it is appropriate to think about a knowledge formalism. The objective of the syntactic grammar which we present in this article is a representation of these phenomena which take place in the context of the cell. The proposed model considers two types of objects: transcriptional units on DNA and regulatory or structural proteins which are synthesised, and which are, in the case of regulatory proteins, themselves destined to activate or repress other transcriptional units in a later phase. A transcriptional unit is described by the list of its active sites (operator, promoter, binding sites for transcription factors). A regulatory protein is described by the list of its active sites (binding domain, activation domain, binding domain for ligand). The DNA sites and the protein domains are the terminal symbols of the proposed grammar. The interaction of these proteins with the DNA, and in certain cases preliminary interactions between proteins, leads to one of two antagonistic actions: expression or repression of the transcriptional unit. These protein-protein and protein-DNA interactions are grouped into syntactic categories (induction, inhibition, initiation complex, repressor complex, activation complex) which are called biological binding operators. The expression/repression action are described by grammar rules which provide the chain of execution by biological binding operators for the four activable/repressible regulatory systems modulated by positive/negative co-factors. The object of this modelization is the observation of a cell in a given state for a given process which involves a cascade of genes. This grammar is implemented by a simulation program which allows the user to vary the initial state of the cell and also to change parameters related to time and quantity. This syntactic and generative grammar is independent of the specificity of each transcriptional unit. The simulation uses examples which may combine several regulatory systems: the lac operon, regulation of metallothionein, galactose catabolism in yeast, the tryptophan operon, and phage lysogenic/lytic cascades. PMID:8905153

Bentolila, S

1996-01-01

282

Boosting Unsupervised Grammar Induction by Splitting Complex Sentences on Function Words  

Microsoft Academic Search

The statistical-structural algorithm for unsupervised language acquisition, ADIOS (for Automatic DIstillation Of Structure), developed by Solan et al. (2005), has been shown capable of learning precise and productive grammars from realistic, raw and unannotated corpus data, including transcribed children-directed speech from the CHILDES corpora, in languages as diverse as English and Mandarin. This algorithm, however, does not deal well with

Jonathan Berant; Yaron Gross; Matan Mussel; Ben Sandbank; Eytan Ruppin; Shimon Edelman

283

Exploring Shape Grammar Optimization as a Tool for Automated Design  

E-print Network

requires tediously adjusting its many hard-coded parameters. This research serves to answer whether a sub-optimal shape grammar could instead be adjusted using grammar induction and optimization techniques. A general optimization framework for shape...

Cazamias, Jordan A

2013-09-24

284

Approximation algorithms for grammar-based data compression  

E-print Network

This thesis considers the smallest grammar problem: find the smallest context-free grammar that generates exactly one given string. We show that this problem is intractable, and so our objective is to find approximation ...

Lehman, Eric (Eric Allen), 1970-

2002-01-01

285

"Applied science": a phrase in search of a meaning.  

PubMed

The term "applied science," as it came to be popularly used in the 1870s, was a hybrid of three earlier concepts. The phrase "applied science" itself had been coined by Samuel Taylor Coleridge in 1817, translating the German Kantian term "angewandte Wissenschaft." It was popularized through the Encyclopaedia Metropolitana, which was structured on principles inherited from Coleridge and edited by men with sympathetic views. Their concept of empirical as opposed to a priori science was hybridized with an earlier English concept of "practical science" and with "science applied to the arts," adopted from the French. Charles Dupin had favored the latter concept and promoted it in the reconstruction of the Conservatoire Nationale des Arts et Métiers. The process of hybridization took place from the 1850s, in the wake of the Great Exhibition, as a new technocratic government favored scientific education. "Applied science" subsequently was used as the epistemic basis for technical education and the formation of new colleges in the 1870s. PMID:23286192

Bud, Robert

2012-09-01

286

Practical Issues in Compiling Typed Unification Grammars for Speech Recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current alternatives for language modeling are statistical techniques based on large amounts of training data, and hand-crafted context-free or finite-state grammars that are difficult to build and maintain. One way to address the problems of the grammar-based approach is to compile recognition grammars from grammars written in a more expressive formalism. While theoretically straight-forward, the compilation process can exceed memory

John Dowding; Beth Ann Hockey; Jean Mark Gawron; Christopher Culy

2001-01-01

287

A game-theoretic characterization of Boolean grammars  

Microsoft Academic Search

We obtain a simple, purely game-theoretic characterization of Boolean grammars [A. Okhotin, Boolean grammars, Information and Computation, 194(1) (2004) 19–48]. In particular, we propose a two-player infinite game of perfect information for Boolean grammars, which is equivalent to their well-founded semantics. The game is directly applicable to the simpler classes of conjunctive and context-free grammars, and offers a promising new connection between

Vassilis Kountouriotis; Christos Nomikos; Panos Rondogiannis

2011-01-01

288

Some Experimental Results with Tree Adjunct Grammar Guided Genetic Programming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tree-adjunct grammar guided genetic programming (TAG3P) (5) is a grammar guided genetic programming system that uses context-free grammars along with tree-adjunct grammars as means to set language bias for the genetic programming system. In this paper, we show the e xperimental results of TAG3P on two p roblems: symbolic regression and trigonometric identity discovery. The results show that TAG3P works

Nguyen Xuan Hoai; Robert I. Mckay; Daryl Essam

2002-01-01

289

XTAG System - A Wide Coverage Grammar for English  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper present the XTAG system, a grammar development tool based on the Tree Adjoining Grammar (TAG) formalism that includes a wide-coverage syntactic grammar for English. The various components of the system are discussed and preliminary evaluation results from the parsing of various corpora are given. Results from the comparison of XTAG against the IBM statistical parser and the Alvey

Christine Doran; Dania Egedi; Beth Ann Hockey; Bangalore Srinivas; Martin Zaidel

1994-01-01

290

Difficulties in Teaching and Learning Grammar in an EFL Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The role of grammar instruction in an ESL/EFL context has been for decades a major issue for students and teachers alike. Researchers have debated whether grammar should be taught in the classroom and students, for their part, have generally looked upon grammar instruction as a necessary evil at best, and an avoidable burden at worst. The paper…

Al-Mekhlafi, Abdu Mohammed; Nagaratnam, Ramani Perur

2011-01-01

291

Acquiring New Musical Grammars: a Statistical Learning Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study we examine the ability of humans to acquire knowledge via passive exposure to a new musical system. We designed two new musical grammars based on a non-Western tuning system, and created melodies as legal exemplars of each grammar. In two experiments each participant was exposed to a set of melodies from one grammar. Several tests were

Psyche Loui

292

Does intensive explicit grammar instruction make all the difference?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the effect of explicit grammar instruction on grammatical knowledge and writing proficiency in first-year students of French at a UK university. Previous research suggests that explicit grammar instruction results in gains in explicit knowledge and its application in specific grammar-related tasks, but there is less evidence that it results in gains in production tasks. A cohort of

Ernesto Macaro; Liz Masterman

2006-01-01

293

Pupils' word choices and the teaching of grammar  

Microsoft Academic Search

The idea that formal grammar teaching leads to improvements in school pupils' writing has been a popular one. However, the robust and extensive evidence base shows that this is not the case. Despite this, policy initiatives have continued to suggest that grammar teaching does improve pupils' writing: the Grammar for Writing resource is the most recent example in England. Educational

Dominic Wyse

2006-01-01

294

Learning Complex Grammar in the Virtual Classroom: A Comparison of Processing Instruction, Structured Input, Computerized Visual Input Enhancement, and Traditional Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the effects of processing instruction (PI) and structured input (SI) on the acquisition of the subjunctive in adjectival clauses by 92 second-semester distance learners of Spanish. Computerized visual input enhancement (VIE) was combined with PI and SI in an attempt to increase the salience of the targeted grammatical form…

Russell, Victoria

2012-01-01

295

Artificial Grammar Learning of Melody Is Constrained by Melodic Inconsistency: Narmour's Principles Affect Melodic Learning  

PubMed Central

Considerable evidence suggests that people acquire artificial grammars incidentally and implicitly, an indispensable capacity for the acquisition of music or language. However, less research has been devoted to exploring constraints affecting incidental learning. Within the domain of music, the extent to which Narmour's (1990) melodic principles affect implicit learning of melodic structure was experimentally explored. Extending previous research (Rohrmeier, Rebuschat & Cross, 2011), the identical finite-state grammar is employed having terminals (the alphabet) manipulated so that melodies generated systematically violated Narmour's principles. Results indicate that Narmour-inconsistent melodic materials impede implicit learning. This further constitutes a case in which artificial grammar learning is affected by prior knowledge or processing constraints. PMID:23874388

Rohrmeier, Martin; Cross, Ian

2013-01-01

296

The Processing and Interpretation of Verb Phrase Ellipsis Constructions by Children at Normal and Slowed Speech Rates  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To examine children's comprehension of verb phrase (VP) ellipsis constructions in light of their automatic, online structural processing abilities and conscious, metalinguistic reflective skill. Method: Forty-two children ages 5 through 12 years listened to VP ellipsis constructions involving the strict/sloppy ambiguity (e.g., "The…

Callahan, Sarah M.; Walenski, Matthew; Love, Tracy

2012-01-01

297

Parallel Communicating Grammar Systems with Regular Control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Parallel communicating grammar systems with regular control (RPCGS, for short) are introduced, which are obtained from returning regular parallel communicating grammar systems by restricting the derivations that are executed in parallel by the various components through a regular control language. For the class of languages that are generated by RPCGSs with constant communication complexity we derive a characterization in terms of a restricted type of freely rewriting restarting automaton. From this characterization we obtain that these languages are semi-linear, and that centralized RPCGSs with constant communication complexity are of the same generative power as non-centralized RPCGSs with constant communication complexity.

Pardubská, Dana; Plátek, Martin; Otto, Friedrich

298

System, Method and Apparatus for Discovering Phrases in a Database  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A phrase discovery is a method of identifying sequences of terms in a database. First, a selection of one or more relevant sequences of terms. such as relevant text, is provided. Next, several shorter sequences of terms, such as phrases, are extracted from the provided relevant sequences of terms. The extracted sequences of terms are then reduced through a culling process. A gathering process then emphasizes the more relevant of the extracted and culled sequences of terms and de-emphasizes the more generic of the extracted and culled sequences of terms. The gathering process can also include iteratively retrieving additional selections of relevant sequences (e.g.. text). extracting and culling additional sequences of terms (e.g.. phrases). emphasizing and de-emphasizing extracted and culled sequences of terms and accumulating all gathered sequences of terms. The resulting gathered sequences of terms are then output.

McGreevy, Michael W. (Inventor)

2004-01-01

299

System, method and apparatus for generating phrases from a database  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A phrase generation is a method of generating sequences of terms, such as phrases, that may occur within a database of subsets containing sequences of terms, such as text. A database is provided and a relational model of the database is created. A query is then input. The query includes a term or a sequence of terms or multiple individual terms or multiple sequences of terms or combinations thereof. Next, several sequences of terms that are contextually related to the query are assembled from contextual relations in the model of the database. The sequences of terms are then sorted and output. Phrase generation can also be an iterative process used to produce sequences of terms from a relational model of a database.

McGreevy, Michael W. (Inventor)

2004-01-01

300

An MEG Study of Temporal Characteristics of Semantic Integration in Japanese Noun Phrases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many studies of on-line comprehension of semantic violations have shown that the human sentence processor rapidly constructs a higher-order semantic interpretation of the sentence. What remains unclear, however, is the amount of time required to detect semantic anomalies while concatenating two words to form a phrase with very rapid stimuli presentation. We aimed to examine the time course of semantic integration in concatenating two words in phrase structure building, using magnetoencephalography (MEG). In the MEG experiment, subjects decided whether two words (a classifier and its corresponding noun), presented each for 66ms, form a semantically correct noun phrase. Half of the stimuli were matched pairs of classifiers and nouns. The other half were mismatched pairs of classifiers and nouns. In the analysis of MEG data, there were three primary peaks found at approximately 25ms (M1), 170ms (M2) and 250ms (M3) after the presentation of the target words. As a result, only the M3 latencies were significantly affected by the stimulus conditions. Thus, the present results indicate that the semantic integration in concatenating two words starts from approximately 250ms.

Kiguchi, Hirohisa; Asakura, Nobuhiko

301

LL Leftmost k-Linear Scattered Context Grammars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present paper introduces a new variant of a scattered context grammar, called an LL leftmost k-linear scattered context grammar. It is an ordinary scattered context grammar without erasing rules, where (1) every scattered context rule is composed of k-linear rules, (2) if we take the first components of every rule, the resulting context-free grammar is an LL grammar, and (3) every rule is applied in a leftmost way. We study the generative power of this variant and its parsing properties, including time and space complexity. In the conclusion, several remarks regarding the achieved results are made.

Meduna, Alexander; Vrábel, Lukáš; Zemek, Petr

2011-09-01

302

Artificial Grammar Learning by 1-Year-Olds Leads to Specific and Abstract Knowledge.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study utilized the head-turn preference procedure in four experiments to determine whether 1-year-old infants could extract and remember information from auditory strings produced by miniature artificial grammar. Findings indicated that subjects generalized to the new structure by discriminating new grammatical strings from ungrammatical ones…

Gomez, Rebecca L.; Gerken, LouAnn

1999-01-01

303

Quantum Automata and Quantum Grammars Cristopher Moore and James P. Crutchfield  

E-print Network

Quantum Automata and Quantum Grammars Cristopher Moore and James P. Crutchfield Santa Fe Institute, 1399 Hyde Park Road, Santa Fe NM 87501 USA fmoore,jpcg@santafe.edu Abstract. To study quantum computation, it might be helpful to generalize structures from language and automata theory to the quantum

California at Davis, University of

304

Discourse Analysis and Grammar Above the Sentence. Specialised Bibliography A4.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This bibliography is divided into three main sections. The first section cites one bibliography relevant to discourse analysis. The second section cites books pertaining to discourse analysis, language structure, and transformational generative grammar. The third section refers to articles in the same areas. Entries include both American and…

British Council, London (England). English-Teaching Information Centre.

305

Achieving Flexibility in Direct-Manipulation Programming Environments by Relaxing the Edit-Time Grammar  

E-print Network

Achieving Flexibility in Direct-Manipulation Programming Environments by Relaxing the Edit editing and flexibility, particularly in live development environments. JPie is a graphical programming structure and flexibility. As further illustration of the benefits of a relaxed edit-time grammar, we

Goldman, Kenneth J.

306

Human Parsing using Stochastic And-Or Grammars and Rich Appearances Brandon Rothrock  

E-print Network

Human Parsing using Stochastic And-Or Grammars and Rich Appearances Brandon Rothrock U.C. Los@stat.ucla.edu Abstract One of the key challenges to human parsing and pose re- covery is handling the variability still richly describe salient part structures. We describe a dynamic program- ming parsing algorithm

Zhu, Song Chun

307

What we look at when we read' J.MEHLER,MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY  

E-print Network

in reading? Transformational grammar specifies for each sen- tence several phrase structure hierarchies of phrase structure relations. The most obvious level of phrase structure is at the "surface structure stress and rhythm patterns associated with the different surface phrase structures in (a) and (b), and (c

Mehler, Jacques

308

Multiple Grammars: Old Wine in Old Bottles  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Amaral and Roeper (this issue; henceforth A&R) argue that all speakers -- regardless of whether monolingual or bilingual -- have multiple grammars in their mental language representations. They further claim that this simple assumption can explain many things: optionality in second language (L2) language behaviour, multilingualism, language…

Sorace, Antonella

2014-01-01

309

Following the Grammar Gary T. Leavens  

E-print Network

- sign, theory; D.2.4 [Software Engineering] Coding Tools and Techniques -- design, theory; D.3 defined by a grammar are fundamental, since they are the technique used to write compilers, Oz. 2001 CR Categories: D.1.1 [Programming Techniques] Applicative (Functional) Programming -- de

Leavens, Gary T.

310

Following the Grammar Gary T. Leavens  

E-print Network

] Coding Tools and Techniques -- design, theory; D.3.1 [Programming Languages] Formal Definitions by a grammar are fundamental, since they are the technique used to write compilers and interpreters. 1.1 [Programming Techniques] Applicative (Functional) Programming -- design, theory; D.2.4 [Software Engineering

Leavens, Gary T.

311

Following the Grammar Gary T. Leavens  

E-print Network

] Coding Tools and Techniques | design, theory; D.3.1 [Programming Languages ] Formal De#12;nitions by a grammar are fundamental, since they are the technique used to write compilers and interpreters. 1.1 [Programming Techniques ] Applicative (Functional) Programming | design, theory; D.2.4 [Software Engineering

Leavens, Gary T.

312

Following the Grammar Gary T. Leavens  

E-print Network

­ sign, theory; D.2.4 [Software Engineering] Coding Tools and Techniques --- design, theory; D.3 defined by a grammar are fundamental, since they are the technique used to write compilers, Oz. 2001 CR Categories: D.1.1 [Programming Techniques] Applicative (Functional) Programming --- de

Leavens, Gary T.

313

Unify and Merge in Fluid Construction Grammar  

E-print Network

Unify and Merge in Fluid Construction Grammar Luc Steels1,2 and Joachim De Beule2 1 SONY Computer. But the formal- ism needs to have some additional properties compared to those used in other linguistics research, production, and learning processes designed for language evolution research. The present paper focuses

Steels, Luc

314

A generative grammar definition language for music  

Microsoft Academic Search

A “generative grammar” is a system of explicit and formal rules which are formulated in such a way that they may generate a set of sentences (ie. a language). We discuss a computer software system for which the grammatical rules of a music language can be precisely defined. From these rules the computer system may generate automatically music compositions.

S. R. Holtzman

1980-01-01

315

Astronomy at Torquay Boys' Grammar School  

Microsoft Academic Search

TBGS Observatory is owned and run by Torquay Boys' Grammar School in South Devon. The school itself encompasses a wide curriculum from sports to academic studies, ranging from the arts to humanities and science. Due to a high interest from pupils and staff the school has a special focus upon Astronomy. Resulting from this TBGS owns one of the largest,

David Reid; Chris Lintott

1996-01-01

316

Grammar and the English National Curriculum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1998 the regulatory body for the National Curriculum, the Qualifications and Curriculum Authority, acknowledged that there was "widespread uncertainty" over the grammar requirements of the English Curriculum. In this paper I argue that the QCA still has not addressed this uncertainty. I analyse the 1999 and 2011 Primary English Curricula,…

Paterson, Laura Louise

2010-01-01

317

The Feature Space in Parallel Grammar Writing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the methodology and tools applied in the Parallel Gram- mar project (ParGram) to support con- sistency and parallelism of linguistic representations across multilingual Lex- ical Functional Grammar (LFG) gram- mars. A particular issue is that the gram- mars in the ParGram project are de- veloped at different international sites. The approach that was established over several years

Miriam Butt; Tracy Holloway King; Jonas Kuhn

2004-01-01

318

Multiple Grammars and Second Language Representation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents an extension of the Multiple Grammars Theory (Roeper, 1999) to provide a formal mechanism that can serve as a generative-based alternative to current descriptive models of interlanguage. The theory extends historical work by Kroch and Taylor (1997), and has been taken into a computational direction by Yang (2003). The proposal…

Amaral, Luiz; Roeper, Tom

2014-01-01

319

Practical Applications and Limitations of Generative Grammar  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews the development of generative theory, points out the limitations of present generative grammar for the teaching of English and expresses the view that it will be of greater value in the future when certain further theoretical developments have taken place. (FB)

Haddock, N.

1970-01-01

320

A Traditionalist Looks at Generative Grammar.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Strengths and weaknesses of generative grammar are examined by an apologist for the traditionalists. Criticism is directed toward difficulties encountered by the layman in comprehending texts on linguistic theories, linguists' use of jargon and pet formulas, and unwieldy amounts of terminology constantly being developed. Special attention is…

Long, Ralph B.

1964-01-01

321

The generative grammar of the immune system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Grammar is a science that is more than 2000 years old, whereas immunology has become a respectable part of biology only during the past hundred years. Though both sciences still face exasperating problems, this lecture attempts to establish an analogy between linguistics and immunology, between the descrip- tions of language and of the immune system. Let me first recall some

NIELS K. JERNE

1985-01-01

322

Epilogue: Dynamic Morphosyntax in Functional Discourse Grammar  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This epilogue addresses the most important topics and challenges for the Morphosyntactic Level in Functional Discourse Grammar that have been raised in the articles in this Special Issue. We begin by exploring the differences between the Morphosyntactic Level in FDG and the treatment of morphosyntactic phenomena in other linguistic frameworks. We…

Velasco, Daniel Garcia; Hengeveld, Kees; Mackenzie, J. Lachlan

2012-01-01

323

Using Technology for Teaching Arabic Language Grammar  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates the effect of using technology such as CD-ROM, computers, and internet to teach Arabic language grammar to students at Princess Alia University College at Al-Balqa University. The sample of the study consisted of 122 third year female students; (64) for the experimental group and (58) for the control group. The subjects of…

Arrabtah, Adel; Nusour, Tayseer

2012-01-01

324

Caught'Ya! Grammar with a Giggle.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Helping students in grades 3 through 11 to master the mechanics of language, this book describes the "Caught'ya" approach to teaching grammar, in which students correct error-filled sentences that form an ongoing humorous plot. The book notes that the sentences are presented 3 to 5 times a week at the start of class and take less than 10 minutes…

Kiester, Jane Bell

325

Terminator Detection by Support Vector Machine Utilizing aStochastic Context-Free Grammar  

SciTech Connect

A 2-stage detector was designed to find rho-independent transcription terminators in the Escherichia coli genome. The detector includes a Stochastic Context Free Grammar (SCFG) component and a Support Vector Machine (SVM) component. To find terminators, the SCFG searches the intergenic regions of nucleotide sequence for local matches to a terminator grammar that was designed and trained utilizing examples of known terminators. The grammar selects sequences that are the best candidates for terminators and assigns them a prefix, stem-loop, suffix structure using the Cocke-Younger-Kasaami (CYK) algorithm, modified to incorporate energy affects of base pairing. The parameters from this inferred structure are passed to the SVM classifier, which distinguishes terminators from non-terminators that score high according to the terminator grammar. The SVM was trained with negative examples drawn from intergenic sequences that include both featureless and RNA gene regions (which were assigned prefix, stem-loop, suffix structure by the SCFG), so that it successfully distinguishes terminators from either of these. The classifier was found to be 96.4% successful during testing.

Francis-Lyon, Patricia; Cristianini, Nello; Holbrook, Stephen

2006-12-30

326

Investigating the Usefulness of Lexical Phrases in Contemporary Coursebooks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Over the past decade, lexical theory, corpus statistics, and psycholinguistic research have pointed to the pedagogical value of lexical phrases. In response, commercial publishers have been quick to import these insights into their materials in a bid to accommodate consumers and to profit from the "lexical chunk" phenomenon. Contemporary British…

Koprowski, Mark

2005-01-01

327

QUANTITATIVE MODELING OF THE NEURAL REPRESENTATION OF NOUNS AND PHRASES  

E-print Network

in Computer Science #12;August, 2011 Carnegie Mellon University #12;ABSTRACT Recent advances in brain imaging and grounded by the patterns of brain activity while people comprehend words and phrases. In this dissertation of this research is that the distributed pattern of brain activity encodes the meanings of linguistic concepts

328

How Listeners Weight Acoustic Cues to Intonational Phrase Boundaries  

PubMed Central

The presence of an intonational phrase boundary is often marked by three major acoustic cues: pause, final lengthening, and pitch reset. The present study investigates how these three acoustic cues are weighted in the perception of intonational phrase boundaries in two experiments. Sentences that contained two intonational phrases with a critical boundary between them were used as the experimental stimuli. The roles of the three acoustic cues at the critical boundary were manipulated in five conditions. The first condition featured none of the acoustic cues. The following three conditions featured only one cue each: pause, final lengthening, and pitch reset, respectively. The fifth condition featured both pause duration and pre-final lengthening. A baseline condition was also included in which all three acoustic cues were preserved intact. Listeners were asked to detect the presence of the critical boundaries in Experiment 1 and judge the strength of the critical boundaries in Experiment 2. The results of both experiments showed that listeners used all three acoustic cues in the perception of prosodic boundaries. More importantly, these acoustic cues were weighted differently across the two experiments: Pause was a more powerful perceptual cue than both final lengthening and pitch reset, with the latter two cues perceptually equivalent; the effect of pause and the effects of the other two acoustic cues were not additive. These results suggest that the weighting of acoustic cues contributes significantly to the perceptual differences of intonational phrase boundary. PMID:25019156

Yang, Xiaohong; Shen, Xiangrong; Li, Weijun; Yang, Yufang

2014-01-01

329

Phrase Detectives: A Web-based Collaborative Annotation Jon Chamberlain  

E-print Network

Phrase Detectives: A Web-based Collaborative Annotation Game Jon Chamberlain (University of Essex, Colchester, UK jchamb@essex.ac.uk) Massimo Poesio (University of Essex, Colchester, UK and Universit`a di Trento, Trento, Italy poesio@essex.ac.uk) Udo Kruschwitz (University of Essex, Colchester, UK udo@essex

Kruschwitz, Udo

330

INTRODUCTION 1. The phrase `continuous cover forestry' has featured  

E-print Network

1 INTRODUCTION 1. The phrase `continuous cover forestry' has featured increasingly in discussions about the future management of British forests. For example, The UK forestry standard (Forestry cover forestry system and to build them into the forest design'. `Continuous cover' is defined

331

Latent Variable Models for Semantic Orientations of Phrases Hiroya Takamura  

E-print Network

% classification ac- curacy. 1 Introduction Technology for affect analysis of texts has recently gained attention the word "dirty" is negative. Many researchers have developed several methods for this purpose and obtained of phrases for affect analysis of higher linguistic units such as sentences and doc- uments. The semantic

Takamura, Hiroya

332

Bilingual Medical Phrase Book (In English and Laotian).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This phrase book offers Laotian refugees and immigrants with limited English proficiency a short-cut, word-for-word bilingual reference tool for dealing with medical problems and situations in English-language environments. Seven chapters deal with different issues of the medical encounter and five appendixes present specialized terms and…

Thuy, Vuong G.

333

Lexical Entrainment and Lexical Differentiation in Reference Phrase Choice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Speakers reuse prior references to objects when choosing reference phrases, a phenomenon known as lexical entrainment. One explanation is that speakers want to maintain a set of previously established referential precedents. Speakers may also contrast any new referents against this previously established set, thereby avoiding applying the same…

Van Der Wege, Mija M.

2009-01-01

334

J. Child Lang. 25 (1998), 443484. Printed in the United Kingdom # 1998 Cambridge University Press  

E-print Network

morphemes, free-standing content and function words, and complex phrase structures without terminal elements), head-driven phrase structure grammar (Pollard & Sag, 1994), and any other theory in which lexical

335

Combined Grammar for the Modeling of Building Interiors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As spatial grammars have proven successful and efficient to deliver LOD3 models, the next challenge is their extension to indoor applications, leading to LOD4 models. Therefore, a combined indoor grammar for the automatic generation of indoor models from erroneous and incomplete observation data is presented. In building interiors where inaccurate observation data is available, the grammar can be used to make the reconstruction process robust, and verify the reconstructed geometries. In unobserved building interiors, the grammar can generate hypotheses about possible indoor geometries matching the style of the rest of the building. The grammar combines concepts from L-systems and split grammars. It is designed in such way that it can be derived from observation data fully automatically. Thus, manual predefinitions of the grammar rules usually required to tune the grammar to a specific building style, become obsolete. The potential benefit of using our grammar as support for indoor modeling is evaluated based on an example where the grammar has been applied to automatically generate an indoor model from erroneous and incomplete traces gathered by foot-mounted MEMS/IMU positioning systems.

Becker, S.; Peter, M.; Fritsch, D.; Philipp, D.; Baier, P.; Dibak, C.

2013-11-01

336

Stochastic context-free grammars for tRNA modeling.  

PubMed Central

Stochastic context-free grammars (SCFGs) are applied to the problems of folding, aligning and modeling families of tRNA sequences. SCFGs capture the sequences' common primary and secondary structure and generalize the hidden Markov models (HMMs) used in related work on protein and DNA. Results show that after having been trained on as few as 20 tRNA sequences from only two tRNA subfamilies (mitochondrial and cytoplasmic), the model can discern general tRNA from similar-length RNA sequences of other kinds, can find secondary structure of new tRNA sequences, and can produce multiple alignments of large sets of tRNA sequences. Our results suggest potential improvements in the alignments of the D- and T-domains in some mitochondrial tRNAs that cannot be fit into the canonical secondary structure. PMID:7800507

Sakakibara, Y; Brown, M; Hughey, R; Mian, I S; Sjolander, K; Underwood, R C; Haussler, D

1994-01-01

337

Grammar Intervention: Content and Procedures for Facilitating Children's Language Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children with language impairment (LI) show an overall immaturity in grammatical structure. This includes difficulties with basic sentence constituents, pronouns, verb form elaboration, negative and interrogative sentences, noun phrase elaboration, and complex sentences. This article describes explicit instruction and scaffolding strategies, based…

Eisenberg, Sarita L.

2013-01-01

338

Asymptotic distribution of motifs in a stochastic context-free grammar model of RNA folding.  

PubMed

We analyze the distribution of RNA secondary structures given by the Knudsen-Hein stochastic context-free grammar used in the prediction program Pfold. Our main theorem gives relations between the expected number of these motifs-independent of the grammar probabilities. These relations are a consequence of proving that the distribution of base pairs, of helices, and of different types of loops is asymptotically Gaussian in this model of RNA folding. Proof techniques use singularity analysis of probability generating functions. We also demonstrate that these asymptotic results capture well the expected number of RNA base pairs in native ribosomal structures, and certain other aspects of their predicted secondary structures. In particular, we find that the predicted structures largely satisfy the expected relations, although the native structures do not. PMID:24384698

Poznanovi?, Svetlana; Heitsch, Christine E

2014-12-01

339

The Acquisition of Lexical Phrases in Academic Writing: A Longitudinal Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lexical phrases are both numerous and functionally important in written texts. Despite this, L2 learners often find their use problematic, typically overusing a limited number of well-known phrases, while at the same time lacking a diverse enough phrasal repertoire to employ lexical phrases in a native-like manner. While a number of studies have…

Li, Jie; Schmitt, Norbert

2009-01-01

340

COMBINATION OF CONFIDENCE MEASURES FOR PHRASES Bernd Souvignier and Andreas Wendemuth  

E-print Network

a time or location. In this paper we present different approaches to confi- dence measures for phrases into phrases as well as regular expressions in di- alogue turns such as the departure time information-operating- characteristics (ROC). For example, an accepted level of phrase recognition errors can be pre

Souvignier, Bernd

341

User-Chosen Phrases in Interactive Query Formulation for Information Retrieval  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of using phrases as content representation for documents and for queries has generally been accepted as a desirable feature in information retrieval systems because phrases are generally regarded as being more content-bearing than their constituent words. This has been borne by experiments in which the impact of phrases on retrieval performance has usually been found to be pos

Alan F. Smeaton; Fergus Kelledy

1998-01-01

342

Development of phrase translation systems for handheld computers: from concept to field  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe the development and conceptual evolution of handheld spoken phrase translation systems, beginning with an initial unidirectional system for translation of English phrases, and later extending to a limited bidirectional phrase translation system between English and Pashto, a major language of Afghanistan. We review the challenges posed by such projects, such as the constraints imposed by the computational platform,

Horacio Franco; Jing Zheng; Kristin Precoda; Federico Cesari; Victor Abrash; Dimitra Vergyri; Anand Venkataraman; Harry Bratt; Colleen Richey; Ace Sarich

2003-01-01

343

Recent Developments in Transformational Grammar.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the years following the appearance of Noam Chomsky's book, "Syntactic Structures," in 1957, transformational grammarians modified and improved his initial model of language. The notion of a deep structure of meaning underlying a sentence's surface structure was revised to embody elements representing negation, command, and interrogation, and to…

Jacobs, Roderick A.

1969-01-01

344

A Game-Theoretic Characterization of Boolean Grammars  

Microsoft Academic Search

We obtain a simple, purely game-theoretic characterization of Boolean grammars [A. Okhotin, Information and Computation, 194 (2004) 19-48]. In particular, we propose a two-player infinite game of perfect information for Boolean grammars, which is equivalent to\\u000a their well-founded semantics. The game is directly applicable to the simpler classes of conjunctive and context-free grammars,\\u000a and it offers a promising new connection

Vassilis Kountouriotis; Christos Nomikos; Panos Rondogiannis

2009-01-01

345

Lexical Rules in Constraint-based Grammar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lexical rules have been used to cover a very diverse range of phenomena in constraint-based grammars. Examination of the full range of rules proposed shows that Carpenter's (1991) postulated upper bound on the length of list-valued attributes such as SUBCAT in the lexicon cannot be maintained, leading to unrestricted generative capacity in constraint-based formalisms utilizing HPSG-style lexical rules. We argue

Ted Briscoe; Ann A. Copestake

1999-01-01

346

Simulating the Paninian System of Sanskrit Grammar  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a model for computer representation of the P??inian system of sanskrit grammar. Based on this model, we render\\u000a the grammatical data and simulate the rules of A???dhy?y? on computer. We then employ these rules for generation of morpho-syntactical\\u000a components of the language. These generated components we store in a p-subsequential transducer. This we use to develop a\\u000a lexicon

Anand Mishra

2008-01-01

347

Astronomy at Torquay Boys' Grammar School  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

TBGS Observatory is owned and run by Torquay Boys' Grammar School in South Devon. The school itself encompasses a wide curriculum from sports to academic studies, ranging from the arts to humanities and science. Due to a high interest from pupils and staff the school has a special focus upon Astronomy. Resulting from this TBGS owns one of the largest, best equipped school observatories in the UK. It is now a minor centre for research and studies at GCSE and higher levels.

Reid, David; Lintott, Chris

1996-10-01

348

Diego Collado's Grammar of the Japanese Language  

E-print Network

Grammaticae laponicae Linguae of 1632 is to make more readily available to the scholarly community an annotated version of this significant document in the history of both Japanese language study and grammatical de scription in general. Collado's work..., Collado's Grammar has much to recommend it as a document in the history of grammatical description. It is an orthodox description attempting to fit simple Japanese sentences into the framework established for Latin by the great Spanish humanist Antonio...

Spear, Richard L.

1975-05-01

349

Using attribute grammars for the genetic selection of back-propagation networks for character recognition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Determining exactly which neural network architecture, with which parameters, will provide the best solution to a classification task is often based upon the intuitions and experience of the implementers of neural network solutions. The research presented in this paper is centered on the development of automated methods for the selection of appropriate networks, as applied to character recognition. The Network Generating Attribute Grammar Encoding system is a compact and general method for the specification of commonly accepted network architectures that can be easily expanded to include novel architectures, or that can be easily restricted to a small subset of some known architecture. Within this system, the context-free component of the attribute grammar specifies a class of basic architectures by using the non-terminals to represent network, layers and component structures. The inherited and synthesized attributes indicate the connections necessary to develop a functioning network from any parse tree that is generated from the grammar. The attribute grammar encoding is particularly conducive to the use of genetic algorithms as a strategy for searching the space of possible networks. The resultant parse trees are used as the genetic code, permitting a variety of different genetic manipulations. We apply this approach in the generation of backpropagation networks for recognition of characters from a set consisting of 20,000 examples of 26 letters.

Browse, Roger A.; Hussain, Talib S.; Smillie, Matthew B.

1999-03-01

350

A cultural, customizable and prefabricated housing grammar for Casablanca  

E-print Network

Proposing an innovative design grammar linking prefabrication, customization and cultural adaptability, this thesis addresses the present day housing deficit and lack of architectural identity in Casablanca, Morocco. The ...

Akkar, Ghita

2011-01-01

351

Prosodic phrasing in a Polish text-to-speech system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This contribution presents the linguistic research underlying the implementation of prosodic phrasing in a Polish text-to-speech system 1. While in the past few years concatenative text-to - speech technology dramatically improved the acoustic quality of the synthesized voices, yet the naturalness and expressivity of present text-to-spe ech systems are still unsatisfactory. In particular , these systems usually read with a

Morena Danieli; Beata Dobrzy; Alberto Pacchiotti; Elena Cabrio

352

Ngram-based versus Phrase-based Statistical Machine Translation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work summarizes a comparison between two ap- proaches to Statistical Machine Translation (SMT), namely Ngram-based and Phrase-based SMT. In both approaches, the translation process is based on bilingual units related by word-to-word alignments (pairs of source and target words), while the main differences are based on the extraction process of these units and the sta- tistical modeling of the

Josep M. Crego; Marta R. Costa-juss; A. R. Fonollosa

353

A transformational-grammar approach to the study of the regulation of gene expression.  

PubMed

An important problem in biology is the lack of a set of common principles unifying biological knowledge. We propose generative grammar for constructing an integrative paradigm for the understanding of genome organization and the regulation of gene expression. Linguistic terms in molecular biology are defined. A genetic syntactic structure is defined as being equivalent to a sentence. The hypotheses for the grammar of genome structure are: (i) the "grammaticality" of the linguistic approach studies the "regulability" of genome structures; (ii) the "regulability" of genetic structures is independent from their specific biochemical meaning and (iii) the dynamics of regulation is implicit in the genome structure. A general structure is presented for the grammar; the application of phase-structure rules is justified by the existence of lexical categories. Transformational rules are utilized to represent loops of regulation. Negative inducible, positive repressible, positive inducible and negative repressible alternative mechanisms of regulation are represented, by four transformational rules, and the application of these rules is established by two principles. Finally, this approach is compared to other linguistic applications in molecular biology. PMID:2811400

Collado-Vides, J

1989-02-22

354

CORPUS-BASED LEARNING OF OT CONSTRAINT RANKINGS FOR LARGE-SCALE  

E-print Network

of Bergen Miriam Butt and Tracy Holloway King (Editors) 2005 CSLI Publications http Parallel Grammar (ParGram) project (Butt et al. 2002, 1997) and the Grammar Matrix approach (Bender et al. 2002) in the Head-driven Phrase Structure Grammar (HPSG) framework. The resulting grammars

Kuhn, Jonas

355

The Sentence-Composition Effect: Processing of Complex Sentences Depends on the Configuration of Common Noun Phrases Versus Unusual Noun Phrases  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2 experiments, the authors used an eye tracking while reading methodology to examine how different configurations of common noun phrases versus unusual noun phrases (NPs) influenced the difference in processing difficulty between sentences containing object- and subject-extracted relative clauses. Results showed that processing difficulty was reduced when the head NP was unusual relative to the embedded NP, as manipulated

Marcus L. Johnson; Matthew W. Lowder; Peter C. Gordon

2011-01-01

356

The Multiple Grammars Theory and the Nature of L2 Grammars  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article offers the author's commentary on the Multiple Grammar (MG) language acquisition theory proposed by Luiz Amaral and Tom Roeper in the present issue and touches on other second language acquisition research. Topics discussed include the concept of second language (L2) optionality, a hypothesis regarding the acquisition of the…

Liceras, Juana M.

2014-01-01

357

On the (Un)-Ambiguity of Adjectival Modification in Spanish Determiner Phrases: Informing Debates on the Mental Representations of L2 Syntax  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study contributes to a central debate within contemporary generative second language (L2) theorizing: the extent to which adult learners are (un)able to acquire new functional features that result in a L2 grammar that is mentally structured like the native target (see White, 2003). The adult acquisition of L2 nominal phi-features is explored,…

Rothman, Jason; Judy, Tiffany; Guijarro-Fuentes, Pedro; Pires, Acrisio

2010-01-01

358

Investigating Effects of Computer-Based Grammar Tutorials  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This dissertation study examined a broad question of whether computer-based grammar tutorials are effective and welcome tools to review grammar for language learners by investigating effects of three different modes of such tutorials on learners' knowledge and satisfaction. For this study, I developed experimental tutorials in three different…

Kolesnikova, Anna

2011-01-01

359

Learning Stochastic Categorial Grammars Miles Osborne and Ted Briscoe  

E-print Network

Learning Stochastic Categorial Grammars Miles Osborne and Ted Briscoe Computer Laboratory, CambridgeUniversity Cambridge CB2 3QG, UK {Miles.Osborne,Ted.Briscoe}@cl.cam.ac.uk Abstract Stochastic distribution Osborne 8~ Briscoe 80 Stochastic Categorial Grammars Miles Osborne and Ted Briscoe (1997) Learning

360

GRAMMAR--THE PROTEUS OF THE ENGLISH CURRICULUM.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THE ENGLISH CURRICULUM CAN BE MADE MORE EFFECTIVE BY CONSIDERING THE SIGNIFICANT PART PLAYED BY THE COMPONENT OF GRAMMAR. THE NATIVE SPEAKER OF ENGLISH POSSESSES AN INTUITIVE KNOWLEDGE OF THE RULES OF GRAMMAR AND YET CANNOT EXPLAIN WHAT HIS INTUITION KNOWS. THEREFORE, A PRECISE, ECONOMICAL DESCRIPTION OF THE LANGUAGE MECHANISM AND HOW IT FUNCTIONS…

ASTON, KATHARINE O.

361

EEG: Elements of English Grammar: Rules Explained Simply. Workbook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This workbook is a supplement to Harold Van Winkle's "Elements of English Grammar: Rules Explained Simply," a book intended for self-instruction which presents the basic rules of standard English grammar in an easy-to-understand manner. The workbook's six chapters correspond to those in the book and contain exercises on: (1) The Sentence; (2)…

Ratti, Marianne

362

Where Is She? Gender Occurrences in Online Grammar Guides  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines seven online grammar guides for instances of linguistic sexism. The grammar sentences from .edu Websites were analyzed based on NCTE's "Guidelines for Gender-Fair Use of Language" (2002) using the criteria of generic he and man; titles, labels, and names; gender stereotypes; order of mention (firstness); and ratio of male to…

Amare, Nicole

2007-01-01

363

Grammar for College Writing: A Sentence-Composing Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Across America, in thousands of classrooms, from elementary school to high school, the time-tested sentence-composing approach has given students tools to become better writers. Now the authors present a much anticipated sentence-composing grammar worktext for college writing. This book presents a new and easier way to understand grammar: (1) Noun…

Killgallon, Don; Killgallon, Jenny

2010-01-01

364

The Semantics of Grammar Formalisms Seen as Computer Languages  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design, implementation, and use of grammar formalisms for natural language have constituted a major branch of computational linguistics throughout its development. By viewing grammar formalisms as just a special case of computer languages, we can take advantage of the machinery of denotational semantics to provide a precise specification of their meaning. Using Dana Scott's domain theory, we elucidate the

Fernando C. N. Pereira; Stuart M. Shieber

1984-01-01

365

The Grammar and Processing of Order and Dependency  

E-print Network

first developed a passion for categorial grammar. Mark's enthusiasm and encouragement have helped meThe Grammar and Processing of Order and Dependency: a Categorial Approach Mark Hepple Ph and that the research reported herein has been conducted by me unless otherwise indicated. Mark Hepple Edinburgh, 19th

Hepple, Mark

366

Combining Supertagging and Lexicalized Tree-Adjoining Grammar Parsing  

E-print Network

Combining Supertagging and Lexicalized Tree-Adjoining Grammar Parsing Anoop Sarkar School-Adjoining Grammar (LTAG) parsing. Because of the highly lexicalized nature of the LTAG formalism, we ex- perimentally show that notions other than sentence length play a factor in observed parse times. In particular

Sarkar, Anoop

367

Island Grammar-based Parsing using GLL and Tom  

E-print Network

Island Grammar-based Parsing using GLL and Tom Ali Afroozeh1 , Jean-Christophe Bach2,3 , Mark van a language by embedding within it another lan- guage presents significant parsing challenges, especially- plex and difficult to maintain. In this paper, we describe how Tom can be parsed using island grammars

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

368

Simulating the Pan. inian System of Sanskrit Grammar Anand Mishra  

E-print Network

Simulating the P¯an. inian System of Sanskrit Grammar Anand Mishra Department of Computational Linguistics Ruprecht Karls University, Heidelberg http://sanskrit.sai.uni-heidelberg.de Abstract We propose a model for the computer representation of the P¯an.inian system of sanskrit grammar. Based on this model

Boyer, Edmond

369

Précis of Foundations of language: brain, meaning, grammar, evolution.  

PubMed

The goal of this study is to reintegrate the theory of generative grammar into the cognitive sciences. Generative grammar was right to focus on the child's acquisition of language as its central problem, leading to the hypothesis of an innate Universal Grammar. However, generative grammar was mistaken in assuming that the syntactic component is the sole course of combinatoriality, and that everything else is "interpretive." The proper approach is a parallel architecture, in which phonology, syntax, and semantics are autonomous generative systems linked by interface components. The parallel architecture leads to an integration within linguistics, and to a far better integration with the rest of cognitive neuroscience. It fits naturally into the larger architecture of the mind/brain and permits a properly mentalistic theory of semantics. It results in a view of linguistic performance in which the rules of grammar are directly involved in processing. Finally, it leads to a natural account of the incremental evolution of the language capacity. PMID:15377127

Jackendoff, Ray

2003-12-01

370

Formalized Epistemology, Logic, and Grammar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The task of a formal epistemology is defined. It appears that a formal epistemology must be a generalization of "logic" in the sense of Wittgenstein's Tractatus. The generalization is required because, whereas logic presupposes a strict relation between activity and language, this relation may be broken in some domains of experimental enquiry (e.g., in microscopic physics). However, a formal epistemology should also retain a major feature of Wittgenstein's "logic": It must not be a discourse about scientific knowledge, but rather a way of making manifest the structures usually implicit in knowledge-gaining activity. This strategy is applied to the formalism of quantum mechanics.

Bitbol, Michel

371

Experimental investigations of weak definite and weak indefinite noun phrases.  

PubMed

Definite noun phrases typically refer to entities that are uniquely identifiable in the speaker and addressee's common ground. Some definite noun phrases (e.g., the hospital in Mary had to go the hospital and John did too) seem to violate this uniqueness constraint. We report six experiments that were motivated by the hypothesis that these "weak definite" interpretations arise in "incorporated" constructions. Experiments 1-3 compared nouns that seem to allow for a weak definite interpretation (e.g., hospital, bank, bus, radio) with those that do not (e.g., farm, concert, car, book). Experiments 1 and 2 used an instruction-following task and picture-judgment task, respectively, to demonstrate that a weak definite need not uniquely refer. In Experiment 3 participants imagined scenarios described by sentences such as The Federal Express driver had to go to the hospital/farm. Scenarios following weak definite noun phrases were more likely to include conventional activities associated with the object, whereas following regular nouns, participants were more likely to imagine scenarios that included typical activities associated with the subject; similar effects were observed with weak indefinites. Experiment 4 found that object-related activities were reduced when the same subject and object were used with a verb that does not license weak definite interpretations. In Experiment 5, a science fiction story introduced an artificial lexicon for novel concepts. Novel nouns that shared conceptual properties with English weak definite nouns were more likely to allow weak reference in a judgment task. Experiment 6 demonstrated that familiarity for definite articles and anti-familiarity for indefinite articles applies to the activity associated with the noun, consistent with predictions made by the incorporation analysis. PMID:23685208

Klein, Natalie M; Gegg-Harrison, Whitney M; Carlson, Greg N; Tanenhaus, Michael K

2013-08-01

372

System, method and apparatus for conducting a phrase search  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A phrase search is a method of searching a database for subsets of the database that are relevant to an input query. First, a number of relational models of subsets of a database are provided. A query is then input. The query can include one or more sequences of terms. Next, a relational model of the query is created. The relational model of the query is then compared to each one of the relational models of subsets of the database. The identifiers of the relevant subsets are then output.

McGreevy, Michael W. (Inventor)

2004-01-01

373

Can individuals with Down syndrome improve their grammar?  

PubMed

Morphosyntax constitutes one of the most complex areas of language. It takes into account the structure of the word and that of the sentence, and its development allows one to establish adequately agreements both within the nominal phrase and in the rest of the sentence. Morphosyntax is particularly impaired in individuals with Down syndrome. To improve their morphosyntactic skills, an intervention programme was designed and carried out with a total of 20 Spanish-speaking children with Down syndrome; half of them composed the experimental group and the other half the control group. The results obtained show that the children in the experimental group improved more than the children in the control group in the areas of syntax, morphology and semantics, but not in pragmatics, where both groups improved to the same extent. Overall, the results obtained support the effectiveness of the programme implemented as a clinical and educational tool for intervention in individuals with Down syndrome. PMID:23650890

Sepúlveda, Esther Moraleda; López-Villaseñor, Miguel Lázaro; Heinze, Elena Garayzábal

2013-01-01

374

Story Diagrams: A new Graph Grammar Language based on the Unified Modelling Language and Java  

Microsoft Academic Search

Graph grammars and graph grammar based systems improved a lot towards practical usability during the last years. Nevertheless, there are still major problems to overcome in order to attract a broad number of soft- ware designers and developers to the usage of graph grammars. Two of the main problems are, (1) that current graph grammar notations are too propri- etary

Thorsten Fischer; Jörg Niere; Lars Torunski; Albert Zündorf

2000-01-01

375

The Effectiveness of Teaching Traditional Grammar on Writing Composition at the High School Level  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Traditional grammar instruction is a challenging element of the English curriculum; both students and teachers struggle with the rules and dull nature of grammar. However, understanding grammar is important because students need to understand the language they speak in order to be effective communicators, and teachers provide grammar instruction…

Jaeger, Gina

2011-01-01

376

Papers in Warlpiri Grammar: In Memory of Lothar Jagst. Work Papers of SIL-AAB, Series A, Volume 6.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Five papers on the grammar of Warlpiri, an Australian Aboriginal language, include: "A Tentative Description of Ngardilpa (Warlpiri) Verbs" (Lothar H. Jagst); "Syntactic Structure of Warlpiri Clauses" (Stephen M. Swartz); "A Preliminary Description of Propositional Particles in Warlpiri" (Mary Laughren); "Warlpiri Verb Roots and Preverbs" (David…

Swartz, Stephen M., Ed.

377

Interface Problems: Structural Constraints on Interpretation?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Five experiments investigated the interpretation of quantified noun phrases in relation to discourse structure. They demonstrated, using questionnaire and on-line reading techniques, that readers in English prefer to give a quantified noun phrase in (VP-external) subject position a presuppositional interpretation, in which the noun phrase limits…

Frazier, Lyn; Clifton, Charles; Rayner, Keith; Deevy, Patricia; Koh, Sungryong; Bader, Markus

2005-01-01

378

75 FR 793 - Damage Tolerance and Fatigue Evaluation of Composite Rotorcraft Structures  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...particular composite rotorcraft structure and: (1) Identify all...Part 27 by removing the phrase ``approved under Sec. 27.571'' and adding the phrase ``required for type certification...of Composite Rotorcraft Structures. (a) Each...

2010-01-06

379

76 FR 74655 - Damage Tolerance and Fatigue Evaluation of Composite Rotorcraft Structures  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...particular composite rotorcraft structure and: (1) Identify all...Part 27 by removing the phrase ``approved under Sec. 27.571'' and adding the phrase ``required for type certification...of Composite Rotorcraft Structures. (a) Each...

2011-12-01

380

Romanian Complex Adnominal Prepositional Phrases. The example of de-Phrases*  

E-print Network

) copilul de pe strad (type B) child-the of on street (the child from the street) Our purpose pe strada mea child-the of on street-the my (the child from my street). halshs-00985335,version1 uncountable nouns and, in this respect, they have the same form and function as in the verbal structure

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

381

A FORMAL THEORY OF INDUCTIVE INFERENCE, Part l y  

E-print Network

independent of these approximations. The third application, using phrase structure grammars, is least exact| prediction of the Bernoulli sequence, extrapolation of a certain kind of Markov chain, and the use of phrase structure grammars for induction. Though some approximations are used, the #12;rst of these problems

Solomonoff, Ray

382

Boys with Autism Show Certain Grammar Skills in Study  

MedlinePLUS

... on this page, please enable JavaScript. Boys With Autism Show Certain Grammar Skills in Study They were ... Preidt Thursday, September 25, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Page Autism Spectrum Disorder THURSDAY, Sept. 25, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- ...

383

Scalar implicatures and the grammar of plurality and disjunction  

E-print Network

This dissertation explores the role of scalar implicatures in the grammar of plurality and disjunction. I argue that scalar implicatures are relevant not only for the meaning of plurals and disjunctions, but also for their ...

Ivlieva, Natalia

2013-01-01

384

Object Detection with Grammar Models Ross B. Girshick  

E-print Network

the head and shoulders, the head and shoulders together with the upper body, or the whole standing person grammar model that allows more flexibility in describing the amount of the person that is visible

Felzenszwalb, Pedro Felipe

385

Variational Inference for Adaptor Grammars Shay B. Cohen  

E-print Network

probabilistic context-free grammars to define prior dis- tributions over trees with "rich get richer" dynamics the distribution of syntactic trees that underlie them. The model exhibits "rich get richer" dynamics: once a tree

Blei, David M.

386

Normal ordering problem and the extensions of the Stirling grammar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the connection between context-free grammars and normal ordered problem, and then to explore various extensions of the Stirling grammar. We present grammatical characterizations of several well known combinatorial sequences, including the generalized Stirling numbers of the second kind related to the normal ordered problem and the r-Dowling polynomials. Also, possible avenues for future research are described.

Ma, S.-M.; Mansour, T.; Schork, M.

2014-04-01

387

Fast Parsing for Boolean Grammars: A Generalization of Valiant's Algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The well-known parsing algorithm for the context-free grammars due to Valiant (”General context-free recognition in less than\\u000a cubic time”, Journal of Computer and System Sciences, 10:2 (1975), 308–314) is refactored and generalized to handle the more general Boolean grammars. The algorithm reduces construction\\u000a of the parsing table to computing multiple products of Boolean matrices of various size. Its time complexity

Alexander Okhotin

2010-01-01

388

Efficient Disambiguation by means of Stochastic Tree Substitution Grammars  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Stochastic Tree Substitution Grammars(STSGs), one parse(-tree) of an input sentencecan be generated by exponentially many derivations;the probability of a parse is defined as thesum of the probabilities of its derivations. As aresult, some methods of Stochastic Context-FreeGrammars (SCFGs), e.g. the Viterbi algorithmfor finding the most probable parse (MPP) ofan input sentence, are not applicable to STSGs.In this paper we

L. W. M. Bod; S. Krauwer; R. J. H. Scha; K. Sima'an

1994-01-01

389

Fuzzy Modeling and Natural Language Processing for Panini's Sanskrit Grammar  

E-print Network

Indian languages have long history in World Natural languages. Panini was the first to define Grammar for Sanskrit language with about 4000 rules in fifth century. These rules contain uncertainty information. It is not possible to Computer processing of Sanskrit language with uncertain information. In this paper, fuzzy logic and fuzzy reasoning are proposed to deal to eliminate uncertain information for reasoning with Sanskrit grammar. The Sanskrit language processing is also discussed in this paper.

Reddy, P Venkata Subba

2010-01-01

390

The Gender-Brand Effect of Key Phrases on User Clicks in Sponsored  

E-print Network

. The gender orientation of terms has male, female and neutral categories each with two groups: - branded and unbranded phrases. Using one way Analysis of Variance, we analyze the effect of gender orientation of bothThe Gender-Brand Effect of Key Phrases on User Clicks in Sponsored Search Abstract In this research

Jansen, James

391

Interlanguage Syntax of Arabic-Speaking Learners of English: The Noun Phrase.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the interlanguage syntax of Arabic speaking learners of English in the area of the noun phrase, focusing on the closed system elements that can occur before or after the noun head, the noun head and pronouns in line with Quirk and Greenbaum's (1977) treatment of the noun phrase. Participants were 25 Arabic speaking English…

Zughoul, Muhammad Raji

392

A Bidirectional Study on the Acquisition of Plural Noun Phrase Interpretation in English and Spanish  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper investigates how learners interpret definite plural noun phrases (e.g., "the tigers") and bare (article-less) plural noun phrases (e.g., "tigers") in their second language. Whereas Spanish allows definite plurals to have both generic and specific readings, English requires definite plurals to have specific, nongeneric readings. Generic…

Ionin, Tania; Montrul, Silvina; Crivos, Monica

2013-01-01

393

Phrase Length Matters: The Interplay between Implicit Prosody and Syntax in Korean "Garden Path" Sentences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In spoken language comprehension, syntactic parsing decisions interact with prosodic phrasing, which is directly affected by phrase length. Here we used ERPs to examine whether a similar effect holds for the on-line processing of written sentences during silent reading, as suggested by theories of "implicit prosody." Ambiguous Korean sentence…

Hwang, Hyekyung; Steinhauer, Karsten

2011-01-01

394

Community-Based Classification of Noun Phrases Freddy Chong Tat Chua  

E-print Network

- ally chosen NPs. But given the dynamic nature of Twitter, we often do not know what NPs shouldCommunity-Based Classification of Noun Phrases in Twitter Freddy Chong Tat Chua Living Analytics a method of automatically finding noun phrases (NPs) as keywords for event monitoring in Twitter. Finding

Cohen, William W.

395

Effects of Musical Expertise and Boundary Markers on Phrase Perception in Music  

Microsoft Academic Search

A neural correlate for phrase boundary perception in music has recently been identified in musicians. It is called music closure positive shift (''music CPS'') and has an equivalent in the perception of speech (''language CPS''). The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of musical expertise and different phrase boundary markers on the music CPS, using event-related

Christiane Neuhaus; Thomas R. Knösche; Angela D. Friederici

2006-01-01

396

Blue Car, Red Car: Developing Efficiency in Online Interpretation of Adjective-Noun Phrases  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two experiments investigated the development of fluency in interpreting adjective-noun phrases in 30- and 36-month-old English-learning children. Using online processing measures, children's gaze patterns were monitored as they heard the familiar adjective-noun phrases (e.g. "blue car") in visual contexts where the adjective was either informative…

Fernald, Anne; Thorpe, Kirsten; Marchman, Virginia A.

2010-01-01

397

Natural Language Processing in Support of Decision-Making: Phrases and Part-of-Speech Tagging.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Increasing information retrieval performance using phrases and part-of-speech (POS) information is one example of a type of decision-making performance that is improved when using this linguistic information. The relative effectiveness of using multi-term phrases as opposed to individual terms is shown, as well as the relative worth of POS tagged…

Losee, Robert M.

2001-01-01

398

Bayesian tree substitution grammars as a usage- based approach.  

PubMed

Tree substitution grammar (TSG) is a generalization of context-free grammar (CFG) that permits non-terminals to rewrite as fragments of arbitrary size, instead of just depth-one productions. We discuss connections between the TSG framework and the larger family of usage-based approaches to language, showing how TSG allows us to make some of the claims of these approaches sufficiently concrete for computational modeling. A fundamental difficulty in defining a TSG is to determine the set of fragments for the grammar, because the set of possible fragments is exponential in the size of the parse trees from which TSGs are typically learned. We describe a model-based approach that learns a TSG using Gibbs sampling with a non-parametric prior to control fragment size, yielding grammars that contain mostly small fragments but that include larger ones. as the data permits. We evaluate these grammars on two tasks (parsing accuracy and grammaticality classification), and find that these Bayesian TSGs achieve excellent performance on two tasks relative to a set of heuristically extracted TSGs spanning the spectrum of representations, from a standard depth-one context-free Treebank grammar to explicit approximations of the Data-Oriented Parsing model. PMID:24416958

Post, Matt; Gildea, Daniel

2013-09-01

399

Generalized queries on probabilistic context-free grammars  

SciTech Connect

Probabilistic context-free grammars (PCFGs) provide a simple way to represent a particular class of distributions over sentences in a context-free language. Efficient parsing algorithms for answering particular queries about a PCFG (i.e., calculating the probability of a given sentence, or finding the most likely parse) have been applied to a variety of pattern-recognition problems. We extend the class of queries that can be answered in several ways: (1) allowing missing tokens in a sentence or sentence fragment, (2) supporting queries about intermediate structure, such as the presence of particular nonterminals, and (3) flexible conditioning on a variety of types of evidence. Our method works by constructing a Bayesian network to represent the distribution of parse trees induced by a given PCFG. The network structure mirrors that of the chart in a standard parser, and is generated using a similar dynamic-programming approach. We present an algorithm for constructing Bayesian networks from PCFGs, and show how queries or patterns of queries on the network correspond to interesting queries on PCFGs.

Pynadath, D.V.; Wellman, M.P. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

1996-12-31

400

Priming prepositional phrase attachment: evidence from eye-tracking and event-related potentials.  

PubMed

Three syntactic-priming experiments investigated the effect of structurally similar or dissimilar prime sentences on the processing of target sentences, using eye tracking (Experiment 1) and event-related potentials (ERPs) (Experiments 2 and 3) All three experiments tested readers' response to sentences containing a temporary syntactic ambiguity. The ambiguity occurred because a prepositional phrase modifier (PP-modifier) could attach either to a preceding verb or to a preceding noun. Previous experiments have established that (a) noun-modifying expressions are harder to process than verb-modifying expressions (when test sentences are presented in isolation); and (b) for other kinds of sentences, processing a structurally similar prime sentence can facilitate processing a target sentence. The experiments reported here were designed to determine whether a structurally similar prime could facilitate processing of noun-attached modifiers and whether such facilitation reflected syntactic-structure-building or semantic processes. These findings have implications for accounts of structural priming during online comprehension and for accounts of syntactic representation and processing in comprehension. PMID:23859219

Boudewyn, Megan A; Zirnstein, Megan; Swaab, Tamara Y; Traxler, Matthew J

2014-01-01

401

Topological Parsing Gerald Penn  

E-print Network

of phrase structure, while at the same time providing a more efficient backbone for parsing based on word of configurational ones --- primitive relationships between nodes in phrase­ structure trees licensed by a grammar on our ability to predict the most likely phrase­ structure tree given a string of words

Toronto, University of

402

Pairing Model-Theoretic Syntax and Semantic Network for Writing Assistance  

E-print Network

- tage of the fine-grained information made available next to the phrase structure. To the best of our interact with the phrase structure to build a more detailed semantic representation than with the phrase that a (given) syntax structure is a model of the grammar G, seen as a set of independent logical state- ments

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

403

Topological Parsing Gerald Penn  

E-print Network

of phrase structure, while at the same time providing a more efficient backbone for parsing based on word of configurational ones -- primitive relationships between nodes in phrase- structure trees licensed by a grammar on our ability to predict the most likely phrase- structure tree given a string of words

Toronto, University of

404

It's Not Just the "Heavy NP": Relative Phrase Length Modulates the Production of Heavy-NP Shift  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Heavy-NP shift is the tendency for speakers to place long direct object phrases at the end of a clause rather than next to the verb. Though some analyses have focused on length of the direct object phrase alone, results from two experiments demonstrate that the length of the direct object relative to that of other phrases, and not the length of…

Stallings, Lynne M.; MacDonald, Maryellen C.

2011-01-01

405

The Prefix PO- and Aspect in Russian and Polish: A Cognitive Grammar Account  

E-print Network

This study examines the meanings of the prefix po- and verbal aspect in Russian and Polish in a Cognitive Grammar framework. The principles of Cognitive Grammar adopted in this study are based on Langacker (1991). This ...

Christensen, Jason Heath

2011-12-31

406

Generalized Augmented Transition Network Grammars For Generation From Semantic Networks 1  

E-print Network

to the grammar. This is useful for testing and debugging the grammar. Simmons 1973 uses a standard ATN and definiteness of nominals, and tense, aspect, mood, and voice of propositions. Copyright 1982 by the Association

Shapiro, Stuart C.

407

Probabilistic context-free grammars estimated from infinite distributions.  

PubMed

In this paper, we consider probabilistic context-free grammars, a class of generative devices that has been successfully exploited in several applications of syntactic pattern matching, especially in statistical natural language parsing. We investigate the problem of training probabilistic context-free grammars on the basis of distributions defined over an infinite set of trees or an infinite set of sentences by minimizing the cross-entropy. This problem has applications in cases of context-free approximation of distributions generated by more expressive statistical models. We show several interesting theoretical properties of probabilistic context-free grammars that are estimated in this way, including the previously unknown equivalence between the grammar cross-entropy with the input distribution and the so-called derivational entropy of the grammar itself. We discuss important consequences of these results involving the standard application of the maximum-likelihood estimator on finite tree and sentence samples, as well as other finite-state models such as Hidden Markov Models and probabilistic finite automata. PMID:17568142

Corazza, Anna; Satta, Giorgio

2007-08-01

408

An Open-Source Environment for Compiling Typed Unification Grammars into Speech Recognisers  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present REGULUS, an Open Source environment which compiles typed unification grammars into context free grammar language models compatible with the Nuance Toolkit. The environment includes a large general unification grammar of English and corpus-based tools for creating efficient domain-specific recognisers from it. We will demo applications built using the system, including a speech translator and a command and control

Manny Rayner; Beth Ann Hockey; John Dowding

2003-01-01

409

The category of typed graph grammars and its adjunctions with categories of derivations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motivated by the work which has been done for Petri-nets, the paper presents a categorical approach to graph grammars in the large. In the large means, that we define categories of graph grammars, graph transition systems, and graph derivation systems which embody the notion grammar, direct derivation, and derivation, respectively, as they are defined in the classical algebraic theory. For

A. Corradini; H. Ehrig; M. Loewe; U. Montanari; J. Padberg

410

Effects of Correcting Errors Made in English Grammar and Usage Exercises.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To test the effectiveness of using the error correction method of teaching grammar rules, a study compared two methods of teaching English grammar and usage. Average and above average sophomore English students in a Sioux Falls, South Dakota, public school examined English grammar and usage rules and worked accompanying exercises on subject-verb…

Reed, Victoria Sportelli

411

THE EFFECT OF A KNOWLEDGE OF GENERATIVE GRAMMAR UPON THE GROWTH OF LANGUAGE COMPLEXITY.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THE EFFECT OF KNOWLEDGE OF GENERATIVE GRAMMAR UPON COMPOSITION SKILLS WAS INVESTIGATED. GENERATIVE GRAMMAR DESCRIBES THE PSYCHOLOGICAL PROCESS OF PRODUCING SENTENCES. IN THIS STUDY, GENERATIVE GRAMMAR WAS TAUGHT TO NINTH- AND TENTH-GRADE STUDENTS. SEVERAL SPECIFIC QUESTIONS GUIDED THE STUDY--CAN HIGH SCHOOL PUPILS LEARN TO APPLY THE RULES OF A…

BATEMAN, DONALD R.; ZIDONIS, FRANK J.

412

The Nature of the Initial State Zulu L2 Grammar and Subsequent Interlanguage Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A notable feature of developing interlanguage grammars is the apparent optionality in those areas of grammar where optionality is not characteristic of stable state grammars. In the Valueless Features Hypothesis, it is proposed that the appearance of apparent optionality in the very early stages of interlanguage development is due to the partial…

Dube, Sibusisiwe

2000-01-01

413

Language Evolution Features of human language  

E-print Network

contain a subject-verb phrase · Verbs have argument structure ­ "John sleeps" ­ "John hit Mary" ­ "John" #12;Noun phrase structure #12;Words also form hierarchies #12;Consequences of grammar · All 6500?" · No more than two branches spring from the same node, but phrases can be stacked together like Chinese

Wilkinson, Gerald S.

414

Bottom-up/top-down image parsing with attribute grammar.  

PubMed

This paper presents a simple attribute graph grammar as a generative representation for made-made scenes, such as buildings, hallways, kitchens, and living rooms, and studies an effective top-down/bottom-up inference algorithm for parsing images in the process of maximizing a Bayesian posterior probability or equivalently minimizing a description length (MDL). Given an input image, the inference algorithm computes (or constructs) a parse graph, which includes a parse tree for the hierarchical decomposition and a number of spatial constraints. In the inference algorithm, the bottom-up step detects an excessive number of rectangles as weighted candidates, which are sorted in certain order and activate top-down predictions of occluded or missing components through the grammar rules. In the experiment, we show that the grammar and top-down inference can largely improve the performance of bottom-up detection. PMID:19029546

Han, Feng; Zhu, Song-Chun

2009-01-01

415

SYNTACTIC PHRASE-BASED STATISTICAL MACHINE TRANSLATION Hany Hassan, Mary Hearne, Andy Way  

E-print Network

'an ILLC, University of Amsterdam, 1018 TV Amsterdam, The Netherlands simaan@science.uva.nl ABSTRACT Phrase a better interaction between `good' (`normal' PBSMT) and `bad' (xRS) rules. The remainder of the paper

Way, Andy

416

`En Cha Hun UNBC's motto is a phrase from Carrier elders  

E-print Network

Guide `En Cha Hunà UNBC's motto is a phrase from Carrier elders and means that every person has to the location of alumni after graduation, UNBC has an important mandate to help drive the social, economic

Bolch, Tobias

417

Increases in Individualistic Words and Phrases in American Books, 1960-2008  

PubMed Central

Cultural products such as song lyrics, television shows, and books reveal cultural differences, including cultural change over time. Two studies examine changes in the use of individualistic words (Study 1) and phrases (Study 2) in the Google Books Ngram corpus of millions of books in American English. Current samples from the general population generated and rated lists of individualistic words and phrases (e.g., “unique,” “personalize,” “self,” “all about me,” “I am special,” “I’m the best”). Individualistic words and phrases increased in use between 1960 and 2008, even when controlling for changes in communal words and phrases. Language in American books has become increasingly focused on the self and uniqueness in the decades since 1960. PMID:22808113

Twenge, Jean M.; Campbell, W. Keith; Gentile, Brittany

2012-01-01

418

The Syntax of Programming Languages-A Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

The syntactic rules for many programming languages have been expressed by formal grammars, generally variants of phrase-structure grammars. The syntactic analysis essential to translation of programming languages can be done entirely mechanically for such languages. Major problems remain in rendering analyzers efficient in use of space and time and in finding fully satisfactory formal grammars for present and future programming

Robert W. Floyd

1964-01-01

419

Proceedings of a Conference--"The Future of Grammar in American Schools" (Winchester, VA, August 10-11, 1990).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Providing alternatives to the way grammar is taught, this proceedings includes every paper (or summary) except one delivered at a conference on the future of grammar in American schools. Papers in the proceedings are: "Keynote: The Future of Grammar in American Schools" (Martha Kolln); "Approaches to Grammar: Teaching & Otherwise" (Kathy…

National Council of Teachers of English, Urbana, IL. Assembly for the Teaching of English Grammar.

420

Morphological Variability in Interlanguage Grammars: New Evidence from the Acquisition of Gender and Number in Italian Determiner Phrases and Direct Object Pronouns  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper, I investigate the phenomenon of morphological variability in the production of Italian determiners, descriptive adjectives, and direct object pronouns by adult English learners of Italian to determine whether morphological errors are the result of computational or representational difficulties. Second language acquisitionists do…

Santoro, Maurizio

2012-01-01

421

Language Structure: Psychological and Social Constraints  

E-print Network

, they can be stated in more abstract terms making use of a hidden structure (like phrase structure trees in a more abstract way, making use of things like phrase structure (rules), transformations and constraintsLanguage Structure: Psychological and Social Constraints Gerhard J¨ager University of Bielefeld

van Rooij, Robert

422

Can Prosody Be Used to Discover Hierarchical Structure in Continuous Speech?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We tested whether adult listeners can simultaneously keep track of variations in pitch and syllable duration in order to segment continuous speech into phrases and group these phrases into sentences. The speech stream was constructed so that prosodic cues signaled hierarchical structures (i.e., phrases embedded within sentences) and non-adjacent…

Langus, Alan; Marchetto, Erika; Bion, Ricardo Augusto Hoffmann; Nespor, Marina

2012-01-01

423

Sentenced? Solving Common Sentence-Structure Problems 1. What's in a sentence?  

E-print Network

Sentenced? Solving Common Sentence-Structure Problems 1. What's in a sentence? Subject: A main words or phrases within a sentence. Predicate: A verb or verb phrase is the heart of your predicate ... She writes every day (this is an adverb phrase, not an object). Many verbs can be either transitive

424

The Effects of Deductive and Guided Inductive Instructional Approaches on the Learning of Grammar in the Elementary Foreign Language College Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates the effectiveness of deductive and guided inductive approaches for teaching grammar in college French classrooms. Forty-seven second-semester French students were taught eight grammatical structures: four with a deductive instructional approach and four with a guided inductive instructional approach. A quasi-experimental…

Haight, Carrie; Herron, Carol; Cole, Steven P.

2007-01-01

425

An Experience on Language Implementation Using Attribute Grammars.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report describes an implementation of a subset of the programming language Euclid. The implementation was carried out using the compiler writing system HLP whose semantic part is based on attribute grammars. The one-pass design principles of the attri...

K. Koskimies

1982-01-01

426

Fast Learning of Grammar Production Probabilities in Radar Electronic Support  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although stochastic context-free grammars (SCFG) appear promising for the recognition and threat assessment of complex radar emitters in radar electronic support (ES) systems, the computational requirements for learning their production rule probabilities can be onerous. The two most popular methods, the inside-outside (IO) algorithm and the Viterbi score (VS) algorithm, are both iterative. IO maximizes the likelihood of a training

Guillaume Latombe; Eric Granger; Fred A. Dilkes

2010-01-01

427

Computation of Infix Probabilities for Probabilistic Context-Free Grammars  

E-print Network

Computation of Infix Probabilities for Probabilistic Context-Free Grammars Mark-Jan Nederhof School. of Information Engineering University of Padua Italy satta@dei.unipd.it Abstract The notion of infix probability for the computation of infix probabilities have been presented in the literature, based on vari- ous simplifying

Nederhof, Mark-Jan

428

Behavior Modeling and Classification via Probabilistic Context Free Grammars  

E-print Network

recognition, Socio-cultural modeling Social networks analysis includes examining the actions of entities role (socio label), or vice versa (we call this metric "Which Roles Go Together"). In our previous work in Figure 1. Figure 1. A Sample Grammar for the Attacker Socio-Label (n-neutral, s-seeker, g

Varela, Carlos

429

Regional languages and tiling: a unifying approach to picture grammars  

E-print Network

with preliminary definitions, and in Sect. 3 with the definition of regional tile grammars and relevant examples to Simplot's [9] interesting closure operation on pictures. The presentation continues in Sect. 2. In Sect. 4 we present the parsing algorithm and prove its correctness and complexity. In Sect. 5 we

Pradella, Matteo

430

Language Development: Form and Function in Emerging Grammars.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The research reported is part of an investigation into the acquisition of grammar, using nonlinguistic information from situational and behavioral context to analyze the development of linguistic expression. Three children were seen for approximately 8 hours, every 6 weeks, in their homes, from the age of 19 months--soon after the earliest…

Bloom, Lois Masket

431

Talking About Grammar in the Foreign Language Classroom  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metatalk, defined here as explicittalkabout grammar, is a facetof foreignlanguage (FL) teaching which has not attracted much research interest over the years. Prompted by this gap in our understanding of FL instruction, I undertook a study of the role of meta talk in the classroom practice of two teachers of English as a foreign language. The research provided both descriptive

Simon Borg

1998-01-01

432

Statistical parsing and language modeling based on constraint dependency grammar  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis focuses on the development of effective and efficient language models (LMs) for speech recognition systems. We selected Constraint Dependency Grammar (CDG) as the underlying framework because CDG parses can be lexicalized at the word level with a rich set of lexical features for modeling subcategorization and wh-movement without a combinatorial explosion of the parameter space and because CDG

Wen Wang

2003-01-01

433

Discourse Function of Grammar Rules: Topic Construction in German.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

German offers a good example of how syntax meets the discursive needs of speakers/hearers and writers/readers. A pedagogic grammar should put the emphasis on the ways the foreign language conceptualizes reality and on the syntactic realization of those concepts for construction of discourse. (Author/MSE)

Kramsch, Claire J.

1983-01-01

434

On the Form of Bilingual Grammars: The Phonological Component.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research is based on the assumption that a Spanish/English bilingual is aware of the phonological and semantic relatedness of the many hundreds of pairs of transparently cognate items in the two languages. This awareness is linguistically significant in that it is reflected in the internalized grammar of the bilingual. The bilingual speaker…

Elerick, Charles

435

Efficiency of the Symmetry Bias in Grammar Acquisition  

E-print Network

bias, and acquire the compositional grammar from a reduced amount of learn- ing data. 1 Introduction are hardly fixed. Also, infants in these ages tend to misapply words to objects. On the other hand, infants over 18 months old can acquire new words very rapidly, e.g. 715 words a day, and such lexical misap

Nakamura, Makoto

436

Teaching Grammar in an ESL Classroom. Action Research Monograph.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study investigated the teaching of grammar in an advanced English as a Second Language (ESL) class in Lancaster, Pennsylvania. For a week, the instructor taught the students on the topic of comparatives, superlatives, and equatives. The instructor gave a written pretest, posttest, and a delayed posttest to the whole class of 15-25 immigrants and…

Shenk, Timothy

437

Grammatical Trigrams: A Probabilistic Model of Link Grammar \\Lambda  

E-print Network

University Pittsburgh, PA 15213 Abstract In this paper we present a new class of language models. This class derives from link grammar, a context­free formalism for the description of natural language. We describe an algorithm for determining maximum­likelihood estimates of the parameters of these models. The language

438

An Efficient Chart Generator for (Semi)Lexicalist Grammars  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a generator for rule-based grammars which are primarily lexicalist but may introduce some semantics via constructions. By combining chart generation with a treatment of modification by adjunc- tion, we obtain substantial performance improvements over standard lexically-driven chart-generation.

John Carroll; Ann Copestake; Dan Flickinger

1999-01-01

439

Phonological Memory and Children's Second Language Grammar Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the role of phonological memory in second language (L2) grammar learning in a group of native French-speaking children undergoing a 5-month intensive English program. Phonological memory (as referenced by Arabic [ANWR] and English [ENWR] nonword repetition tasks), L2 vocabulary (receptive and productive vocabulary knowledge),…

French, Leif M.; O'Brien, Irena

2008-01-01

440

Unsafe Grammars and Panic Automata Teodor Knapik1  

E-print Network

a suitable 2nd order pushdown system. Introduction Context-free tree grammars constitute the basic level. The model-checking prob- lem is then reduced to the problem of deciding the winner in a parity game over Games. hal-00335729,version1-30Oct2008 Author manuscript, published in "ICALP'05, Portugal (2005)" #12

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

441

Teachers' Grammar on the Electronic Highway: Design Criteria for "Telegram."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the rationale and criteria for developing "Telegram," an electronic grammar database for English-as-a- Second-Language teachers in Hong Kong. Describes the importance of explicit grammatical knowledge in effective language teaching, and describes the design criteria for "Telegram," which aims to provide a body of content knowledge and…

Wu, Kamyin; Tsui, Amy B. M.

1997-01-01

442

The Strategies Approach: Effective for Reviewing Grammar and Punctuation Concepts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article is based on results of a quasi-experimental study in which the efficacy of the strategies approach for reviewing grammar and punctuation concepts was assessed in a business communication course. The control group studied rules-based review materials; the treatment group studied strategies-based review materials. On the three sets of…

Quible, Zane K.

2008-01-01

443

Supporting Collaborative Grammar Learning via a Virtual Learning Environment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports the results of an investigation into the issues encountered by undergraduate language students while engaging in "the Grammar Project"--a collaborative assessment task for the module Academic and Professional Skills for Language Learning--and shows how encouraging students to take ownership of their learning process with the…

Orsini-Jones, Marina; Jones, David

2007-01-01

444

Caught'ya Again! More Grammar with a Giggle.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This teaching guide is built around a method (called the "Caught'ya" method) of teaching grammar and mechanics with humor. The guide contains story ideas and three sets of 100 Caught'ya sentences, as well as a chapter which discusses specific ways to use the Caught'ya at home. Following an introduction, the guide is divided into the following nine…

Kiester, Jane Bell

445

From Grammar to Lexicon: Unsupervised Learning of Lexical Syntax  

Microsoft Academic Search

Imagine a language that is completely unfamiliar; the only means of studying it are an ordinary grammar book and a very large corpus of text. No dictionary is available. How can easily recognized, surface grammatical facts be used to extract from a corpus as much syntactic information as possible about individual words? This paper describes an approach based on two

Michael R. Brent

1993-01-01

446

The Grammar of Catholic Schooling and Radically "Catholic" Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A "grammar of Catholic schooling" inhibits many elementary and secondary Catholic schools from reflecting on how they practice Catholic Social Teaching (CST). The values of human dignity, the common good, and a preferential option for the marginalized are central to CST. Schools can live these values by serving children who live in poverty, are…

Scanlan, Martin

2008-01-01

447

EEG: Elements of English Grammar: Rules Explained Simply.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intended to help interested people speak and write more correctly through self-instruction, this book presents the basic rules of standard English grammar in an easy-to-understand manner. The book's six chapters are as follows: (1) The Sentence; (2) Parts of Speech; (3) Case; (4) Modifiers; (5) Agreement; and (6) Building Better Sentences. The…

Van Winkle, Harold

448

Processing Complexity and Filler-Gap Dependencies Across Grammars.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines crosslinguistic variation in "filler-gap dependencies" (wh-questions and relative clauses) from a processing perspective, and integrates research findings from psycholinguistics, language typology, and generative grammar. Numerous implicational universals and hierarchies are proposed that receive a natural explanation in terms of…

Hawkins, John A.

1999-01-01

449

The Story of English Grammar in United States Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article assumes the value of a scientifically grounded, rhetorically focused, professionally supported, and publicly embraced grammar within the public schools and examines the past century of practices within the United States from that perspective. It describes a brief renaissance in the 50's and early 60's, inspired largely by the…

Kolln, Martha; Hancock, Craig

2005-01-01

450

Spoken Grammar and ELT Course Materials: A Missing Link?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Drawing on the evidence of a growing body of corpus research over the past two decades, this article investigates the phenomenon of spoken grammar in conversational English and the extent to which our current knowledge of the area is reflected in contemporary textbooks for English as a foreign language (EFL) learners. The article reports on a…

Cullen, Richard; Kuo, I-Chun

2007-01-01

451

A Practical Spanish Grammar for Border Patrol Officers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed to be used in the Spanish training program for probationary officers at the Border Patrol Academy in El Paso, Texas, this revised 21-lesson traditional grammar text includes special features that make it pertinent to the job of a patrol inspector in the Mexican border area. An extensive appendix is comprised of exercise translations,…

Border Patrol Academy, El Paso, TX.

452

Functions of Grammar in a Language Teaching Syllabus.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Past perceptions of the role of grammar in the second language syllabus have been limited by the attitude that grammatical content should be addressed directly in the language classroom and that it is limited to language items and rules with definable boundaries. However, language has properties crucial to its use for communication that are not…

Rutherford, William E.

453

Using an Annotated Corpus as a Stochastic Grammar  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Data Oriented Parsing (DOP), an annotated corpus is used as a stochastic grammar. An input string is parsed by combining subtrees from the corpus. As a consequence, one parse tree can usually be generated by several derivations that involve different subtrees. This leads to a statistics where the probability of a parse is equal to the sum of the

Rens Bod

1993-01-01

454

Using an Annotated Language Corpus as a Virtual Stochastic Grammar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract In Data Oriented Parsing (DOP), an annotated corpus is used as a stochastic grammar An input string is parsed by combining subtrees from the corpus As a consequence, one parse tree can usually be generated by several derivations that involve different subtrces This leads to a statistics where the probability of a parse is equal to the sum of

Rens Bod

1993-01-01

455

Functional Grammar in the ESL Classroom: Noticing, Exploring and Practicing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A set of easy to use techniques helps students discover for themselves how grammar works in real world contexts and how grammatical choices are not just about form but about meaning. Sample teaching ideas, covering a wide range of grammatical topics including verb tense, voice, reference and the organization of texts, accompanies each procedure.…

Lock, Graham; Jones, Rodney

2011-01-01

456

Parsing Directed Acyclic Graphs with Range Concatenation Grammars  

E-print Network

Parsing Directed Acyclic Graphs with Range Concatenation Grammars Pierre Boullier and Beno^it Sagot of efficiency since its sen- tences can always be parsed in polynomial time. If the input, instead of a string, is a Directed Acyclic Graph (DAG), only sim- ple RCGs can still be parsed in polyno- mial time. For non

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

457

Island Grammar-based Parsing using GLL and Tom  

E-print Network

Island Grammar-based Parsing using GLL and Tom Ali Afroozeh1 , Jean-Christophe Bach2,3,4 , Mark van a language by embedding within it another lan- guage presents significant parsing challenges, especially is complex and diffi- cult to maintain. In this paper, we describe how Tom can be parsed using island

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

458

Parsing Corpus-Induced Type-Logical Grammars Richard Moot  

E-print Network

Parsing Corpus-Induced Type-Logical Grammars Richard Moot LaBRI Domaine Universitaire 351, Cours de call for rethinking of the tradi- tional type-logical parsing strategies. We show how methods from that the size of the final lexicon, even after some reductions we propose, is still prohibitive to parsing even

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

459

Image Parsing via Stochastic Scene Grammar Yibiao Zhao  

E-print Network

Image Parsing via Stochastic Scene Grammar Yibiao Zhao Department of Statistics University This paper proposes a parsing algorithm for scene understanding which includes four aspects: computing 3D configuration (represented by a parse tree). In our exper- iment, we demonstrate the superiority of our

Zhu, Song Chun

460

Statistical Parsing with a Contextfree Grammar and Word Statistics \\Lambda  

E-print Network

Statistical Parsing with a Context­free Grammar and Word Statistics \\Lambda Eugene Charniak Department of Computer Science, Brown University ec@cs.brown.edu Abstract We describe a parsing system based parses for a sentence. This model is used in a parsing system by finding the parse for the sentence

Charniak, Eugene

461

Parsing with Context-Free Grammars and Word Statistics  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a language model in which the probability of a sentenceis the sum of the individual parse probabilities, and these are calculatedusing a probabilistic context-free grammar (PCFG) plus statistics on individualwords and how they fit into parses. We have used the modelto improve syntactic disambiguation. After training on Wall Street Journal(WSJ) text we tested on about 200 WSJ sentence

Eugene Charniak

1995-01-01

462

A Linear Grammar Approach to Mathematical Formula Recognition from PDF  

E-print Network

of the original method when applied to common mathematical expres- sions and show how they can be overcome first steps towards improved usability of scientific documents to scientists, engineers, teachersA Linear Grammar Approach to Mathematical Formula Recognition from PDF Josef B. Baker, Alan P

Sorge, Volker

463

A Practical Spanish Grammar for Border Patrol Officers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Written for probationary patrol inspectors at the Border Patrol Training School, El Paso, Texas, this text presents a concise, traditional analysis of Spanish grammar. Each of the 21 lessons focuses on an aspect of the language including sections on the parts of speech, special verbs, commands, numbers, passive voice, and the subjunctive mood. A…

Immigration and Naturalization Service (Dept. of Justice), Washington, DC.

464

An Organic Approach to the Teaching of Grammar.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the relationship between grammar and discourse and explores the implications of this relationship for language education. Suggests that the linear approach to language acquisition is problematic and does not reflect what is known about the process of acquisition. Argues for an "organic" approach. (Author/VWL)

Nunan, David

1996-01-01

465

Grammar-Based Testing using Realistic Domains in PHP  

E-print Network

Grammar-Based Testing using Realistic Domains in PHP Ivan Enderlin, Fr´ed´eric Dadeau, Alain-based testing in PHP. It relies on the notion of realistic domains, that make it possible to assign domains to data, by means of contract assertions written inside the source code of a PHP application. Then a test

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

466

Linguistic Grammar Learning and DRD2-TAQ-IA Polymorphism  

PubMed Central

As research into the neurobiology of language has focused primarily on the systems level, fewer studies have examined the link between molecular genetics and normal variations in language functions. Because the ability to learn a language varies in adults and our genetic codes also vary, research linking the two provides a unique window into the molecular neurobiology of language. We consider a candidate association between the dopamine receptor D2 gene (DRD2) and linguistic grammar learning. DRD2-TAQ-IA polymorphism (rs1800497) is associated with dopamine receptor D2 distribution and dopamine impact in the human striatum, such that A1 allele carriers show reduction in D2 receptor binding relative to carriers who are homozygous for the A2 allele. The individual differences in grammatical rule learning that are particularly prevalent in adulthood are also associated with striatal function and its role in domain-general procedural memory. Therefore, we reasoned that procedurally-based grammar learning could be associated with DRD2-TAQ-IA polymorphism. Here, English-speaking adults learned artificial concatenative and analogical grammars, which have been respectively associated with procedural and declarative memory. Language learning capabilities were tested while learners’ neural hemodynamic responses were simultaneously measured by fMRI. Behavioral learning and brain activation data were subsequently compared with the learners’ DRD2 (rs1800497) genotype. Learners who were homozygous for the A2 allele were better at concatenative (but not analogical) grammar learning and had higher striatal responses relative to those who have at least one A1 allele. These results provide preliminary evidence for the neurogenetic basis of normal variations in linguistic grammar learning and its link to domain-general functions. PMID:23741438

Wong, Patrick C. M.; Ettlinger, Marc; Zheng, Jing

2013-01-01

467

Brain embodiment of syntax and grammar: discrete combinatorial mechanisms spelt out in neuronal circuits.  

PubMed

Neuroscience has greatly improved our understanding of the brain basis of abstract lexical and semantic processes. The neuronal devices underlying words and concepts are distributed neuronal assemblies reaching into sensory and motor systems of the cortex and, at the cognitive level, information binding in such widely dispersed circuits is mirrored by the sensorimotor grounding of form and meaning of symbols. Recent years have seen the emergence of evidence for similar brain embodiment of syntax. Neurophysiological studies have accumulated support for the linguistic notion of abstract combinatorial rules manifest as functionally discrete neuronal assemblies. Concepts immanent to the theory of abstract automata could be grounded in observations from modern neuroscience, so that it became possible to model abstract pushdown storage - which is critical for building linguistic tree structure representations - as ordered dynamics of memory circuits in the brain. At the same time, neurocomputational research showed how sequence detectors already known from animal brains can be neuronally linked so that they merge into larger functionally discrete units, thereby underpinning abstract rule representations that syntactically bind lexicosemantic classes of morphemes and words into larger meaningful constituents. Specific predictions of brain-based grammar models could be confirmed by neurophysiological and brain imaging experiments using MEG, EEG and fMRI. Neuroscience and neurocomputational research offering perspectives on understanding abstract linguistic mechanisms in terms of neuronal circuits and their interactions therefore point programmatic new ways to future theory-guided experimental investigation of the brain basis of grammar. PMID:20132977

Pulvermüller, Friedemann

2010-03-01

468

CORECLUST: identification of the conserved CRM grammar together with prediction of gene regulation.  

PubMed

Identification of transcriptional regulatory regions and tracing their internal organization are important for understanding the eukaryotic cell machinery. Cis-regulatory modules (CRMs) of higher eukaryotes are believed to possess a regulatory 'grammar', or preferred arrangement of binding sites, that is crucial for proper regulation and thus tends to be evolutionarily conserved. Here, we present a method CORECLUST (COnservative REgulatory CLUster STructure) that predicts CRMs based on a set of positional weight matrices. Given regulatory regions of orthologous and/or co-regulated genes, CORECLUST constructs a CRM model by revealing the conserved rules that describe the relative location of binding sites. The constructed model may be consequently used for the genome-wide prediction of similar CRMs, and thus detection of co-regulated genes, and for the investigation of the regulatory grammar of the system. Compared with related methods, CORECLUST shows better performance at identification of CRMs conferring muscle-specific gene expression in vertebrates and early-developmental CRMs in Drosophila. PMID:22422836

Nikulova, Anna A; Favorov, Alexander V; Sutormin, Roman A; Makeev, Vsevolod J; Mironov, Andrey A

2012-07-01

469

CORECLUST: identification of the conserved CRM grammar together with prediction of gene regulation  

PubMed Central

Identification of transcriptional regulatory regions and tracing their internal organization are important for understanding the eukaryotic cell machinery. Cis-regulatory modules (CRMs) of higher eukaryotes are believed to possess a regulatory ‘grammar’, or preferred arrangement of binding sites, that is crucial for proper regulation and thus tends to be evolutionarily conserved. Here, we present a method CORECLUST (COnservative REgulatory CLUster STructure) that predicts CRMs based on a set of positional weight matrices. Given regulatory regions of orthologous and/or co-regulated genes, CORECLUST constructs a CRM model by revealing the conserved rules that describe the relative location of binding sites. The constructed model may be consequently used for the genome-wide prediction of similar CRMs, and thus detection of co-regulated genes, and for the investigation of the regulatory grammar of the system. Compared with related methods, CORECLUST shows better performance at identification of CRMs conferring muscle-specific gene expression in vertebrates and early-developmental CRMs in Drosophila. PMID:22422836

Nikulova, Anna A.; Favorov, Alexander V.; Sutormin, Roman A.; Makeev, Vsevolod J.; Mironov, Andrey A.

2012-01-01

470

Instruction effects in implicit artificial grammar learning: a preference for grammaticality.  

PubMed

Human implicit learning can be investigated with implicit artificial grammar learning, a paradigm that has been proposed as a simple model for aspects of natural language acquisition. In the present study we compared the typical yes-no grammaticality classification, with yes-no preference classification. In the case of preference instruction no reference to the underlying generative mechanism (i.e., grammar) is needed and the subjects are therefore completely uninformed about an underlying structure in the acquisition material. In experiment 1, subjects engaged in a short-term memory task using only grammatical strings without performance feedback for 5 days. As a result of the 5 acquisition days, classification performance was independent of instruction type and both the preference and the grammaticality group acquired relevant knowledge of the underlying generative mechanism to a similar degree. Changing the grammatical stings to random strings in the acquisition material (experiment 2) resulted in classification being driven by local substring familiarity. Contrasting repeated vs. non-repeated preference classification (experiment 3) showed that the effect of local substring familiarity decreases with repeated classification. This was not the case for repeated grammaticality classifications. We conclude that classification performance is largely independent of instruction type and that forced-choice preference classification is equivalent to the typical grammaticality classification. PMID:18561897

Forkstam, Christian; Elwér, Asa; Ingvar, Martin; Petersson, Karl Magnus

2008-07-24

471

Unsupervised learning of Probabilistic Grammar-Markov Models for object categories.  

PubMed

We introduce a Probabilistic Grammar-Markov Model (PGMM) which couples probabilistic context free grammars and Markov Random Fields. These PGMMs are generative models defined over attributed features and are used to detect and classify objects in natural images. PGMMs are designed so that they can perform rapid inference, parameter learning, and the more difficult task of structure induction. PGMMs can deal with unknown 2D pose (position, orientation, and scale) in both inference and learning, different appearances, or aspects, of the model. The PGMMs can be learnt in an unsupervised manner where the image can contain one of an unknown number of objects of different categories or even be pure background. We first study the weakly supervised case, where each image contains an example of the (single) object of interest, and then generalize to less supervised cases. The goal of this paper is theoretical but, to provide proof of concept, we demonstrate results from this approach on a subset of the Caltech dataset (learning on a training set and evaluating on a testing set). Our results are generally comparable with the current state of the art, and our inference is performed in less than five seconds. PMID:19029550

Zhu, Long; Chen, Yuanhao; Yuille, Alan

2009-01-01

472

One grammar or two? Sign Languages and the Nature of Human Language  

PubMed Central

Linguistic research has identified abstract properties that seem to be shared by all languages—such properties may be considered defining characteristics. In recent decades, the recognition that human language is found not only in the spoken modality but also in the form of sign languages has led to a reconsideration of some of these potential linguistic universals. In large part, the linguistic analysis of sign languages has led to the conclusion that universal characteristics of language can be stated at an abstract enough level to include languages in both spoken and signed modalities. For example, languages in both modalities display hierarchical structure at sub-lexical and phrasal level, and recursive rule application. However, this does not mean that modality-based differences between signed and spoken languages are trivial. In this article, we consider several candidate domains for modality effects, in light of the overarching question: are signed and spoken languages subject to the same abstract grammatical constraints, or is a substantially different conception of grammar needed for the sign language case? We look at differences between language types based on the use of space, iconicity, and the possibility for simultaneity in linguistic expression. The inclusion of sign languages does support some broadening of the conception of human language—in ways that are applicable for spoken languages as well. Still, the overall conclusion is that one grammar applies for human language, no matter the modality of expression. PMID:25013534

Lillo-Martin, Diane C; Gajewski, Jon

2014-01-01

473

Learning Cue Phrase Patterns from Radiology Reports Using a Genetic Algorithm  

SciTech Connect

Various computer-assisted technologies have been developed to assist radiologists in detecting cancer; however, the algorithms still lack high degrees of sensitivity and specificity, and must undergo machine learning against a training set with known pathologies in order to further refine the algorithms with higher validity of truth. This work describes an approach to learning cue phrase patterns in radiology reports that utilizes a genetic algorithm (GA) as the learning method. The approach described here successfully learned cue phrase patterns for two distinct classes of radiology reports. These patterns can then be used as a basis for automatically categorizing, clustering, or retrieving relevant data for the user.

Patton, Robert M [ORNL] [ORNL; Beckerman, Barbara G [ORNL] [ORNL; Potok, Thomas E [ORNL] [ORNL

2009-01-01

474

Chinese lexical networks: The structure, function and formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper Chinese phrases are modeled using complex networks theory. We analyze statistical properties of the networks and find that phrase networks display some important features: not only small world and the power-law distribution, but also hierarchical structure and disassortative mixing. These statistical traits display the global organization of Chinese phrases. The origin and formation of such traits are analyzed from a macroscopic Chinese culture and philosophy perspective. It is interesting to find that Chinese culture and philosophy may shape the formation and structure of Chinese phrases. To uncover the structural design principles of networks, network motif patterns are studied. It is shown that they serve as basic building blocks to form the whole phrase networks, especially triad 38 (feed forward loop) plays a more important role in forming most of the phrases and other motifs. The distinct structure may not only keep the networks stable and robust, but also be helpful for information processing. The results of the paper can give some insight into Chinese language learning and language acquisition. It strengthens the idea that learning the phrases helps to understand Chinese culture. On the other side, understanding Chinese culture and philosophy does help to learn Chinese phrases. The hub nodes in the networks show the close relationship with Chinese culture and philosophy. Learning or teaching the hub characters, hub-linking phrases and phrases which are meaning related based on motif feature should be very useful and important for Chinese learning and acquisition.

Li, Jianyu; Zhou, Jie; Luo, Xiaoyue; Yang, Zhanxin

2012-11-01

475

Pro-Forms in the Spanish Noun Phrase. Studies in Linguistics and Language Learning, Volume III.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The object of this study is to treat pronominalization in Spanish within the framework of generative grammar. (The non-hypenated word "pronoun" refers to the traditional class of words including alguien, algo, el, or ella. The hypenated form, "pro-noun," refers to the underlying lexical entries or feature complexes which share the features [+pro,…

Lackstrom, John Edwin

476

Regular languages, regular grammars and automata in splicing systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Splicing system is known as a mathematical model that initiates the connection between the study of DNA molecules and formal language theory. In splicing systems, languages called splicing languages refer to the set of double-stranded DNA molecules that may arise from an initial set of DNA molecules in the presence of restriction enzymes and ligase. In this paper, some splicing languages resulted from their respective splicing systems are shown. Since all splicing languages are regular, languages which result from the splicing systems can be further investigated using grammars and automata in the field of formal language theory. The splicing language can be written in the form of regular languages generated by grammar. Besides that, splicing systems can be accepted by automata. In this research, two restriction enzymes are used in splicing systems namely BfuCI and NcoI.

Mohamad Jan, Nurhidaya; Fong, Wan Heng; Sarmin, Nor Haniza

2013-04-01

477

A grammar of action generates predictions in skilled musicians.  

PubMed

The present study investigates shared representations of syntactic knowledge in music and action. We examined whether expectancy violations in musical harmonic sequences are also perceived as violations of the movement sequences necessary to produce them. Pianists imitated silent videos showing one hand playing chord sequences on a muted keyboard. Results indicate that, despite the absence of auditory feedback, imitation of a chord is fastest when it is congruent with the preceding harmonic context. This suggests that the harmonic rules implied by observed actions induce expectations that influence action execution. As evidence that these predictions are derived at a high representational level, imitation was more accurate for harmonically incongruent chords than for congruent chords executed with unconventional fingering. The magnitude of the effects of context and goal prioritization increased with musical training. Thus, musical training may lead to a domain-general representation of musical grammar, i.e., to a grammar of action. PMID:21458298

Novembre, Giacomo; Keller, Peter E

2011-12-01

478

Attributed programmed graph grammars and their application to schematic diagram interpretation.  

PubMed

Attributed programmed graph grammars are introduced in this paper and their application to the interpretation of schematic diagrams is proposed. In contrast with most of the approaches to syntactic pattern recognition, where the grammar controls a parser, the grammar in our system is used as a generative tool. Two classes of diagrams are studied, namely circuit diagrams and flowcharts. The task is in either case to extract a description from an input diagram. PMID:22499631

Bunke, H

1982-06-01

479

Three Generative, Lexicalised Models for Statistical Parsing Michael Collins \\Lambda  

E-print Network

. is derived from the analysis given in Generalized Phrase Structure Grammar (Gazdar et al. 95). The work makes applica­ tions will need this information to extract predicate­ argument structure from parse trees

Entekhabi, Dara

480

Seeing a Phrase "Time and Again" Matters: The Role of Phrasal Frequency in the Processing of Multiword Sequences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Are speakers sensitive to the frequency with which phrases occur in language? The authors report an eye-tracking study that investigates this by examining the processing of multiword sequences that differ in phrasal frequency by native and proficient nonnative English speakers. Participants read sentences containing 3-word binomial phrases ("bride…

Siyanova-Chanturia, Anna; Conklin, Kathy; van Heuven, Walter J. B.

2011-01-01

481

Early Acquisition of Gender Agreement in the Spanish Noun Phrase: Starting Small  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nativist and constructivist accounts differ in their characterization of children's knowledge of grammatical categories. In this paper we present research on the process of acquisition of a particular grammatical system, gender agreement in the Spanish noun phrase, in children under three years of age. The design of the longitudinal study employed…

Mariscal, Sonia

2009-01-01

482

Bayesian Learning of Non-compositional Phrases with Synchronous Parsing Computer Science Department  

E-print Network

of word alignments. A unified procedure may also improve the identification of non-compositional phrasalBayesian Learning of Non-compositional Phrases with Synchronous Parsing Hao Zhang Computer Science algorithms for pruning this space that lead to empirically effective results. Incorpo- rating a sparse prior

Gildea, Daniel

483

Phrases of the Kinetic: Dynamic Physicality as a Dimension of the Design Process  

E-print Network

1 Phrases of the Kinetic: Dynamic Physicality as a Dimension of the Design Process Amanda Jane of the body as an inherent part of the human side of a human-computer interaction, assuming that bodily construction and dynamics physics education with children; Kinetic Sketchup, a system for motion construction

Ishii, Hiroshi

484

The Acquisition of the Determiner Phrase in Bilingual and Second Language French.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Focuses on acquisition of functional categories in the French determiner phrase. Development of determiners and prenominal adjectives in three bilingual Swedish-French children is compared with that of Swedish second language learners of French. Argues that acquisition is crucially different in these two cases. Bilingual children initially have…

Granfeldt, Jonas

2000-01-01

485

The Effects of Multiple Presentations on the Ratings and Memorability of Novel Figurative Phrases  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

How the perceptions of novel figurative phrases change over the course of numerous presentations were addressed in three studies using rating tasks (Studies 1 and 3) and recall tasks (Study 2). The present set of studies replicated much of Schweigert et al.'s (J Psychol Res 32:455-475, 2003) findings of changes in correlations among figurative…

Schweigert, Wendy A.

2009-01-01

486

Web as Huge Information Source for Noun Phrases Integration in the Information Retrieval Process  

E-print Network

Language Processing (NLP) was well studied for IR, as mentioned during TREC "NLP tracks" [TREC]. NLP can) and at matching time (dynamic NLP integration). We work on textual content indexing, with the aim to use a smarter NLP than words truncation or stop-words remove. We propose to use noun phrases for documents

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

487

Acquisition of Generic Noun Phrases in Chinese: Learning about Lions without an '-S'  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

English-speaking children understand and produce generic expressions in the preschool years, but there are cross-linguistic differences in how generics are expressed. Three studies examined interpretation of generic noun phrases in three- to seven-year-old child (N=192) and adult speakers (N=163) of Mandarin Chinese. Contrary to suggestions by…

Tardif, Twila; Gelman, Susan A.; Fu, Xiaolan; Zhu, Liqi

2012-01-01

488

Word-Based Alignment, Phrase-Based Translation: What's the Link?  

Microsoft Academic Search

State-of-the-art statistical machine trans- lation is based on alignments between phrases - sequences of words in the source and target sentences. The learn- ing step in these systems often relies on alignments between words. It is often as- sumed that the quality of this word align- ment is critical for translation. However, recent results suggest that the relation- ship between

Adam Lopez; Philip Resnik

2006-01-01

489

Interpreting Conjoined Noun Phrases and Conjoined Clauses: Collective vs. Distributive Preferences  

PubMed Central

Two experiments are reported that show that introducing event participants in a conjoined noun phrase (NP) favors a single event (collective) interpretation while introducing them in separate clauses favors a separate events (distributive) interpretation. In Experiment 1, acceptability judgments were speeded when the bias of a predicate toward separate events vs. a single event matched the presumed bias of how the subjects’ referents were introduced (as conjoined noun phrases or in conjoined clauses). In Experiment 2, reading of a phrase containing an anaphor following conjoined noun phrases was facilitated when the anaphor was they, relative to when it was neither/each of them; the opposite pattern was found when the anaphor followed conjoined clauses. We argue that comprehension was facilitated when the form of an anaphor was appropriate for how its antecedents were introduced. These results address the very general problem of how we individuate entities and events when presented with a complex situation, and show that different linguistic forms can guide how we construe a situation.. The results also indicate that there is no general penalty for introducing the entities or events separately – in distinct clauses as ‘split’ antecedents. PMID:22512324

Clifton, Charles; Frazier, Lyn

2012-01-01

490

Sexually attractive phrases increase yolk androgens deposition in Canaries ( Serinus canaria)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The androgen concentration in birds’ eggs varies with laying order, breeding conditions, and mate attractiveness. In passerine birds, mate attractiveness depends upon song quality. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effect of one criterion used by females to assess male song quality that is to say the presence of sexually attractive phrases on yolk androgen deposition. Twenty-five

Aurélie Tanvez; Nathalie Béguin; Olivier Chastel; André Lacroix; Gérard Lebouchera

2004-01-01

491

Grammatical feature selection in noun phrase production: Evidence from German and Dutch  

E-print Network

condition where the determiner is identical for all genders. When different suffixes were to be selected phrase production in German and Dutch. More specifically, we studied the conditions under which different grammatical genders select either the same or dif- ferent determiners or suffixes. Pictures of one or two

Caramazza, Alfonso

492

Dvandvas, Blocking, and the Associative: The Bumpy Ride from Phrase to Word  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The oldest form of Sanskrit has a class of expressions that are in some respects like asyndetically coordinated syntactic phrases, in other respects like single compound words. I propose to resolve the conflicting evidence by drawing on prosodic phonology, stratal optimality theory, and the lexicalist approach to morphological blocking. I then…

Kiparsky, Paul

2010-01-01

493

Phonological Phrase Boundaries Constrain the Online Syntactic Analysis of Spoken Sentences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two experiments tested whether phonological phrase boundaries constrain online syntactic analysis in French. Pairs of homophones belonging to different syntactic categories (verb and adjective) were used to create sentences with a local syntactic ambiguity (e.g., [le petit chien "mort"], in English, the "dead" little dog, vs. [le petit chien]…

Millotte, Severine; Rene, Alice; Wales, Roger; Christophe, Anne

2008-01-01

494

The Language of Energy: A Glossary of Words and Phrases Used in the Energy Industry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provided is an alphabetical list or words and phrases commonly used in the energy industry. Entries range from such general terms as biomass, fossil fuels, and wetlands to such highly specific terms as Arab oil embargo of 1973-74 and Exxon Donor Solvent (EDS) Process. (JN)

American Petroleum Inst., Washington, DC.

495

Models for the Semantic Classification of Noun Phrases Dan Moldovan, Adriana Badulescu,  

E-print Network

: "Saturday's snowfall topped a one-day record in Hartford, Connecticut, with the total of 12.5 inches). There are several semantic relations at the noun phrase level: (1) Saturday's snowfall is a genitive encoding) total of 12.5 inches is an of-genitive that expresses MEASURE, (5) weather service is a noun compound

Moldovan, Dan I.

496

Extending the METEOR Machine Translation Evaluation Metric to the Phrase Level  

E-print Network

Extending the METEOR Machine Translation Evaluation Metric to the Phrase Level Michael Denkowski Pittsburgh, PA 15232, USA {mdenkows,alavie}@cs.cmu.edu Abstract This paper presents METEOR-NEXT, an ex- tended version of the METEOR metric de- signed to have high correlation with post- editing measures

Lavie, Alon

497

A General and Multi-lingual Phrase Chunking Model Based on Masking Method  

E-print Network

A General and Multi-lingual Phrase Chunking Model Based on Masking Method Yu-Chieh Wu1 , Chia@db.csie.ncu.edu.tw, chia@csie.ncu.edu.tw 2 Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering, Ming Chuan

Chang, Chia-Hui

498

Definite Clause Grammars for Language Analysis - A Survey of the Formalism and a Comparison with Augmented Transition Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

A clear andpowerfulformalism for describing languages, both natural and artificial, follows fiom a method for expressing grammars in logic due to Colmerauer and Kowalski. This formalism, which is a natural extension of context-free grammars, we call \\

Fernando C. N. Pereira; David H. D. Warren

1980-01-01

499

Faut-il Mettre "Un Bonnet Rouge" a la grammaire francaise (Must We Put a "Bonnet Rouge" on French Grammar?).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An experimental approach to French grammar instruction at the American School of Madrid, based on a restructuring of the grammar around the verb, provides a promising new perspective for language pedagogy. (MSE)

Jaussaud, Francoise

1989-01-01

500

More than words: Frequency effects for multi-word phrases  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is mounting evidence that language users are sensitive to distributional information at many grain-sizes. Much of this research has focused on the distributional properties of words, the units they consist of (morphemes, phonemes), and the syntactic structures they appear in (verb-categorization frames, syntactic constructions). In a series of studies we show that comprehenders are also sensitive to the frequencies

Inbal Arnon; Neal Snider

2010-01-01