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1

Revised Generalized Phrase Structure Grammar  

E-print Network

In this paper, I revise generalized phrase structure grammar (GPSG) linguistic theory so that it is more tractable and linguis- tically constrained. Revised GPSG is also easier to understand, use, and implement. I provide an account of topicalization, explicative pronouns, and parasitic gaps in the revised system and conclude with suggestions for efficient parser design.

Eric Sven Ristad

1987-01-01

2

Slavic in Head-Driven Phrase Structure Grammar.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The collection of essays on the properties of Slavic languages in the context of the theory of head-driven phrase structure grammar (HPSG) includes: "Typological Similarities in HPSG" (Tania Avgustinova, Wojciech Skut, Hans Uszkoreit); "Auxiliaries, Verbs and Complementizers in Polish" (Robert D. Borsley); "An Architecture for Phonology" (Tilman…

Borsley, Robert D., Ed.; Przepiorkowski, Adam, Ed.

3

Head-driven Phrase Structure Grammar  

Microsoft Academic Search

e and typing tostate-of-the-art linguistic analyses. It also complements the more theoretically orientedworks of Carpenter (1992) and Keller (1993) on typed-feature structures and their logic.So, although its intended audience is clearly primarily linguists, this book is essentialreading for anybody interested in building an NLP system with a nontrivial syntacticcomponent. All the more so, since Pollard and Sag, in order to

Carl Pollard; Ivan A. Sag; John Nerbonne; Klaus Netter

1994-01-01

4

On directionality of phrase structure building.  

PubMed

Minimalism in grammatical theorizing (Chomsky in The minimalist program. MIT Press, Cambridge, 1995) led to simpler linguistic devices and a better focalization of the core properties of the structure building engine: a lexicon and a free (recursive) phrase formation operation, dubbed Merge, are the basic components that serve in building syntactic structures. Here I suggest that by looking at the elementary restrictions that apply to Merge (i.e., selection and licensing of functional features), we could conclude that a re-orientation of the syntactic derivation (from bottom-up/right-left to top-down/left-right) is necessary to make the theory simpler, especially for long-distance (filler-gap) dependencies, and is also empirically more adequate. If the structure building operations would assemble lexical items in the order they are pronounced (Phillips in Order and structure. PhD thesis, MIT, 1996; Chesi in Phases and cartography in linguistic computation: Toward a cognitively motivated computational model of linguistic competence. PhD thesis, Universitŕ di Siena, 2004; Chesi in Competence and computation: Toward a processing friendly minimalist grammar. Unipress, Padova, 2012), on-line performance data could better fit the grammatical model, without resorting to external "performance factors." The phase-based, top-down (and, as a consequence, left-right) Minimalist Grammar here discussed goes in this direction, ultimately showing how strong Islands (Huang in Logical relations in Chinese and the theory of grammar. PhD thesis, MIT, 1982) and intervention effects (Gordon et al. in J Exp Psychol Learn Mem Cogn 27:1411-1423, 2001, Gordon et al. in J Mem Lang 51:97-114, 2004) could be better explained in structural terms assuming this unconventional derivational direction. PMID:25408515

Chesi, Cristiano

2015-02-01

5

Structures and Grammars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the last three chapters, we have developed an algebraic framework for dependency structures. We now put this framework to use and classify several lexicalized grammar formalisms with respect to the classes of dependency structures that are induced by derivations in these formalisms.

Kuhlmann, Marco

6

On Directionality of Phrase Structure Building  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Minimalism in grammatical theorizing (Chomsky in "The minimalist program." MIT Press, Cambridge, 1995) led to simpler linguistic devices and a better focalization of the core properties of the structure building engine: a lexicon and a free (recursive) phrase formation operation, dubbed Merge, are the basic components that serve in…

Chesi, Cristiano

2015-01-01

7

Can Intonational Phrase Structure be Primed (like Syntactic Structure)?  

PubMed Central

In three experiments, we investigated whether intonational phrase structure can be primed. In all experiments, participants listened to sentences in which the presence and location of intonational phrase boundaries was manipulated such that the recording either included no intonational phrase boundaries, a boundary in a structurally dispreferred location, in a preferred location, or in both locations. In Experiment 1, participants repeated the sentences to test whether they would reproduce the prosodic structure they had just heard. Experiments 2 and 3 used a prime-target paradigm to evaluate whether the intonational phrase structure heard in the prime sentence might influence that of a novel target sentence. Experiment 1 showed that participants did repeat back sentences that they just heard with the original intonational phrase structure, yet Experiments 2 and 3 found that exposure to intonational phrase boundaries on prime trials did not influence how a novel target sentence was prosodically phrased. These results suggest that speakers may retain the intonational phrasing of a sentence, but this effect is not long-lived and does not generalize across unrelated sentences. Furthermore, these findings provide no evidence that intonational phrase structure is formulated during a planning stage that is separate from other sources of linguistic information. PMID:24188467

Tooley, Kristen M.; Konopka, Agnieszka E.; Watson, Duane G.

2013-01-01

8

The Syntactic Structure of Chinese Nominal Phrases  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The DP Hypothesis proposes that nominal phrases can be analyzed as consisting of Determiner Phrase (DP) on top of Noun Phrase (NP); however, there is a debate on whether this hypothesis works for all languages. Given that previous studies on Chinese leave this question unresolved, this dissertation investigates new empirical evidence to test…

Wang, Honglei

2012-01-01

9

Dependency Structures Derived from Minimalist Grammars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper provides an interpretation of Minimalist Grammars [16],[17] in terms of dependency structures. Under this interpretation, merge operations derive projective dependency structures, and movement operations introduce both non-projectivity and illnestedness. This new characterization of the generative capacity of Minimalist Grammar makes it possible to discuss the linguistic relevance of non-projectivity and illnestedness. This in turn provides insight into grammars that derive structures with these properties.

Boston, Marisa Ferrara; Hale, John T.; Kuhlmann, Marco

10

A General Comparison on Sentences Analysis and Its Teaching Significance between Traditional and Structural Grammars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Grammar is familiar to all of us. We have learned grammar for many years. But now we come to a new field in which grammar is not exactly the same as before. Here we mainly talk about two kinds of them, traditional grammar and structural grammar. Traditional grammar, also called school grammar, is a type of grammar first developed in

Jiaying Yu

2010-01-01

11

Creation Myths of Generative Grammar and the Mathematics of Syntactic Structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Syntactic Structures (Chomsky [6]) is widely believed to have laid the foundations of a cognitive revolution in linguistic science, and to have presented (i) the first use in linguistics of powerful new ideas regarding grammars as generative systems, (ii) a proof that English was not a regular language, (iii) decisive syntactic arguments against context-free phrase structure grammar description, and (iv) a demonstration of how transformational rules could provide a formal solution to those problems. None of these things are true. This paper offers a retrospective analysis and evaluation.

Pullum, Geoffrey K.

12

The influence of sentential position on noun phrase structure priming  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores the interaction between global sentence context and local syntactic decision making. Specifically, four noun phrase (NP) structural priming experiments investigated whether the position of an NP within a sentence increased speakers' tendency to repeat primed structure. We crossed the position of the NP with the structure of the NP, such that NPs could be sentence initial or

Alissa Melinger; Alexandra A. Cleland

2011-01-01

13

A Primer of Transformational Grammar for Rank Beginners.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet is intended to enable the beginner in the field of transformational grammar to read and gain information about much of the contemporary scholarly literature on grammar (of foreign languages as well as of English). Sections in the book discuss phrase structure grammar; transformational rules--movement rules, insertion rules,…

Elgin, Suzette Haden

14

Information Structure in English Nominal Phrases  

E-print Network

are two Comments on one Topic.) 2.2.2. How the structure is marked Often, hearers must construe the discourse structure pragmatically--by inference from the context. But it is sometimes signalled syntactically. In “the flashy, controversial Carly... of the two levels of information structure to be discussed. Lambrecht (1994) distinguishes three types of focus-structure in sentences: (a) whole-sentence focus, as in "My car broke down", answering the real or implicit question, "What happened?"; (b...

Feist, Jim

2008-01-01

15

The use of phrases and structured queries in information retrieval  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both phrases and Boolean queries have a long history in information retrieval, particularly in commercial sys- tems. In previous work, Boolean queries have been used as a source of phrases for a statistical retrieval model, This work, like the majority of research on phrases, re- sulted in little improvement in retrieval effectiveness, In this paper, we describe an approach where

W. Bruce Croft; Howard R. Turtle; David D. Lewist

1991-01-01

16

Development and Validation of a Diagnostic Grammar Test for Japanese Learners of English  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports on the development and validation of the English Diagnostic Test of Grammar (EDiT Grammar) for Japanese learners of English. From among the many aspects of grammar, this test focuses on the knowledge of basic English noun phrases (NPs), especially their internal structures, because previous research has indicated the…

Koizumi, Rie; Sakai, Hideki; Ido, Takahiro; Ota, Hiroshi; Hayama, Megumi; Sato, Masatoshi; Nemoto, Akiko

2011-01-01

17

Outline of Bengali Grammar.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This outline of Bengali grammar is presented in five major sections: (1) noun, (2) verb, (3) noun phrase, (4) verb phrase, and (5) the sentence. Linguistic examples frequently are provided in order to illustrate grammatical generalizations. (RL)

Jasanoff, Sheila

18

The Rate of Phrase Structure Change in the History of Yiddish.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the rate of phrase structure change in Yiddish, using quantitative methods to estimate the rate of change of structurally ambiguous verb clauses. Four subcases of phrase structure change are distinguished, three of which provide strong evidence for the Constant Rate Hypothesis of linguistic change. (MDM)

Santorini, Beatrice

1993-01-01

19

The Structure of Jarai Clauses and Noun Phrases  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This dissertation provides a syntactic account for the Jarai noun phrase and for the three regions of the Jarai clause: the operator domain, the inflectional domain, and the theta domain. Within the noun phrase, I argue that demonstrative-final word order involves phrasal movement of the demonstrative's complement into Spec,D, where it…

Jensen, Joshua Martin

2013-01-01

20

Grammar-guided writing for AAC users.  

PubMed

A method of grammar-guided writing has been devised to guide graphic sign users through the construction of text messages for use in e-mail and other applications with a remote receiver. The purpose is to promote morphologically and syntactically correct sentences. The available grammatical structures in grammar-guided writing are the highest frequency phrase and sentence types in a database of tagged and parsed e-mail messages. A companion learning path allows users to begin with simple grammatical structures, advancing in steps to more complex structures as their language skills develop. In order to give further support during e-mail composition, grammar-guided writing has been augmented with two complementary text input methods. One is a quick and easy method of choosing preprogrammed messages and e-mail phrases. The other is a more traditional method of selecting graphic signs freely without grammar guidance. PMID:17937055

Hunnicutt, Sheri; Magnuson, Tina

2007-01-01

21

Children's Knowledge of Hierarchical Phrase Structure: Quantifier Floating in Japanese  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The interpretation of floating quantifiers in Japanese requires knowledge of hierarchical phrase structure. However, the input to children is insufficient or even misleading, as our analysis indicates. This presents an intriguing question on learnability: do children interpret floating quantifiers based on a structure-dependent rule which is not…

Suzuki, Takaaki; Yoshinaga, Naoko

2013-01-01

22

The Internet Grammar of English  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Written and designed for undergraduate students, the Internet Grammar of English (IGE) explains the functions and relations of word classes in English sentences, in order to teach readers the principles and rules governing grammatical structure. The IGE consists of an introduction and five chapters: Word Classes, Introducing Phrases, Clauses and Sentences, Form and Function, and Functions in Phrases. A series of three dozen interactive exercises correspond to the lessons in the grammar. The IGE is extremely easy to navigate and may be used as a reference source as well as an instructional tool. It includes a detailed table of contents, a glossary of terms, and a complete index. Moreover, the entire site is searchable by keyword. The IGE was produced by the Survey of English Usage, a research team within the English Department of the University College London.

23

Implicit Acquisition of Grammars with Crossed and Nested Non-Adjacent Dependencies: Investigating the Push-Down Stack Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A recent hypothesis in empirical brain research on language is that the fundamental difference between animal and human communication systems is captured by the distinction between finite-state and more complex phrase-structure grammars, such as context-free and context-sensitive grammars. However, the relevance of this distinction for the study…

Udden, Julia; Ingvar, Martin; Hagoort, Peter; Petersson, Karl M.

2012-01-01

24

Modeling hierarchical structure of images with stochastic grammars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We construct a hierarchical image grammar model based on stochastic grammars and apply it to document images. An efficient maximum a posteriori probability estimation algorithm for this model produces accurate segmentations of document images and classifications of image parts.

Wang, Wiley; Wong, Tak-Shing; Pollak, Ilya; Bouman, Charles A.; Harper, Mary P.

2006-02-01

25

Referential Properties of Spanish Noun Phrases  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two aspects of definite and indefinite noun phrases in Spanish grammar are discussed here: specificity, marked by the mood of restrictive relative clauses, and existential import, deriving from the linguistic environment. Differences between referential and attributive descriptions are explained. (CK)

Rivero, Maria-Luisa

1975-01-01

26

Automatic RNA secondary structure determination stochastic context-free grammars  

SciTech Connect

We have developed a method for predicting the common secondary structure of large RNA multiple alignments using only the information in the alignment. It uses a series of progressively more sensitive searches of the data in an iterative manner to discover regions of base pairing; the first pass examines the entire multiple alignment. The searching uses two methods to find base pairings. Mutual information is used to measure covariation between pairs of columns in the multiple alignment and a minimum length encoding method is used to detect column pairs with high potential to base pair. Dynamic programming is used to recover the optimal tree made up of the best potential base pairs and to create a stochastic context-free grammar. The information in the tree guides the next iteration of searching. The method is similar to the traditional comparative sequence analysis technique. The method correctly identifies most of the common secondary structure in 16S and 23S rRNA.

Grate, L. [Univ. of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States)

1995-12-31

27

Deriving Structure From Semi-Structured Data on the Web Using Functional Grammar  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the most important problems faced by users of the web is fin ding information that is relevant. Search engines were created to address this problem. In order for search engines to operate effectively, however, they must be able to unde rstand the structure and semantics of words and phrases embedded in web pages. Most web-based information is, at

Maria Chondrogianni; Simon Courtenage

28

Daily Grammar  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Authored by Bill Johanson, a veteran English teacher of junior high and high school students, this Website offers students the opportunity to take their daily dose of grammar electronically. On the site, visitors can sign up for a free email service that sends five grammar lessons a week -- one for each day -- and a sixth one that offers a quiz on the week's lessons. The next scheduled run of the 300 lessons on the standard topics of traditional grammar -- parts of speech, tense, sentence structure, adjectives and adverbs, complex sentence structure, etc. -- begins September 1. Students can sign up now for this cycle (another cycle will begin on January 1, 2001), or they can simply go at their own pace using the complete archive of the lessons posted on-site. Daily Grammar is offered by Word Place, Inc., a purveyor of word processing software and supplemental aids to electronic written communication.

29

On the structure of context-sensitive grammars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Consideration of the problem of explaining the use of context in generating noncontext-free languages. A number of existing results regarding the constraints placed on the form of the rules (i.e., on the context) of context-sensitive grammars are reviewed and interpreted. Three types of constraints are considered - namely, constraints which do not restrict the weak generative capacity of the class of grammars (i.e., all the context-sensitive languages are generated by grammars with these constraints), constraints which restrict the weak generative capacity to the extent that all context-sensitive languages are not generated but some noncontext-free languages are generated, and constraints which restrict the weak generative capacity to such an extent that only context-free languages are generated.

Book, R. V.

1973-01-01

30

Perceptron Training for a Wide-Coverage Lexicalized-Grammar Parser Stephen Clark  

E-print Network

Perceptron Training for a Wide-Coverage Lexicalized-Grammar Parser Stephen Clark Oxford University@it.usyd.edu.au Abstract This paper investigates perceptron training for a wide-coverage CCG parser and com- pares the perceptron with a log-linear model. The CCG parser uses a phrase-structure pars- ing model and dynamic

Koehn, Philipp

31

DAGUR MONGOLIAN GRAMMAR, TEXTS, AND LEXICON. URALIC AND ALTAIC SERIES, VOLUME 4.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THIS DESCRIPTION OF DAGUR, A MONGOLIAN LANGUAGE, IS BASED ON THE DIALECT OF A SPEAKER BORN IN INNER MONGOLIA IN NORTHWEST MANCHURIA. SECTION I OF THIS MANUAL DESCRIBES OTHER WORKS PUBLISHED IN MONGOLIAN LINGUISTICS WHICH HAVE USED THE SAME INFORMANT, AND PRESENTS THE AUTHOR'S APPROACH, IN TERMS OF A PHRASE-STRUCTURE GRAMMAR. SECTION II PRESENTS…

MARTIN, SAMUEL E.

32

Discussion. How Far Does a Construction Grammar Approach to Argument Structure Take Us in Understanding Children's Language Development?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents the responses of 12 authors to Michael Tomasello's essay, which comments on Adele Goldberg's recent book, "Constructions: A Construction Grammar Approach to Argument Structure." Goldberg's book develops the theory of construction grammar for a set of problems associated with verb-argument structure. (SM)

Journal of Child Language, 1998

1998-01-01

33

La Grammaire: Lectures (Grammar: Readings).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A historical perspective of French grammar is developed in this chronologically arranged reader. Part One includes material on French grammar from the 16th to the 19th century: (1) the "Premiere Epoque": 1530-1660, (2) the general grammar of Port-Royal, and (3) the "philosophical grammars" treating syntax, sentence structure, and discourse…

Arrive, Michel; Chevalier, Jean-Claude

34

Deriving a probabilistic syntacto-semantic grammar for biomedicine based on domain-specific terminologies  

PubMed Central

Biomedical natural language processing (BioNLP) is a useful technique that unlocks valuable information stored in textual data for practice and/or research. Syntactic parsing is a critical component of BioNLP applications that rely on correctly determining the sentence and phrase structure of free text. In addition to dealing with the vast amount of domain-specific terms, a robust biomedical parser needs to model the semantic grammar to obtain viable syntactic structures. With either a rule-based or corpus-based approach, the grammar engineering process requires substantial time and knowledge from experts, and does not always yield a semantically transferable grammar. To reduce the human effort and to promote semantic transferability, we propose an automated method for deriving a probabilistic grammar based on a training corpus consisting of concept strings and semantic classes from the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS), a comprehensive terminology resource widely used by the community. The grammar is designed to specify noun phrases only due to the nominal nature of the majority of biomedical terminological concepts. Evaluated on manually parsed clinical notes, the derived grammar achieved a recall of 0.644, precision of 0.737, and average cross-bracketing of 0.61, which demonstrated better performance than a control grammar with the semantic information removed. Error analysis revealed shortcomings that could be addressed to improve performance. The results indicated the feasibility of an approach which automatically incorporates terminology semantics in the building of an operational grammar. Although the current performance of the unsupervised solution does not adequately replace manual engineering, we believe once the performance issues are addressed, it could serve as an aide in a semi-supervised solution. PMID:21549857

Fan, Jung-Wei; Friedman, Carol

2011-01-01

35

Teaching Grammar  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Grammar is a component in all language skills: reading, writing, speaking, and listening. Teachers need to know rules of grammar (teacher knowledge) as well as techniques that help students use grammar effectively and effortlessly (teaching knowledge). Using reflective practice to help teachers become comfortable with teaching grammar, this…

Crawford, William J.

2013-01-01

36

An approach to the teaching of Korean particles based on case grammar  

E-print Network

. In this view, the verb is the central element of a sentence. The meaning of the verb determines the roles of the noun phrases which appear with it in a sentence. These roles are called "cases" -- deep structure cases. This theory of case grammar... classical verbal statement. Robin lakoff also remarked that the verbal 10 statement "To form the passive& exchange the subject and direct-object noun phrases of a transitive verb, insert the verb to be after the auxiliary if there is one, and put any...

Kang, Joo Ok

1975-01-01

37

Perceptron Training for a WideCoverage LexicalizedGrammar Parser Stephen Clark  

E-print Network

Perceptron Training for a Wide­Coverage Lexicalized­Grammar Parser Stephen Clark Oxford University@it.usyd.edu.au Abstract This paper investigates perceptron training for a wide­coverage CCG parser and com­ pares the perceptron with a log­linear model. The CCG parser uses a phrase­structure pars­ ing model and dynamic

Curran, James R.

38

Querying Semi-Structured Data with Graph Grammars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent research has investigated the problem of querying semi-structured data and data which can be represented by means of graphs (e.g. object-oriented data, XML data, etc.). Typically queries on graph-like data, called path queries, are expressed by means of regular expressions denoting paths in the graph. The result of a path query is the set of nodes reachable by means

Filippo Furfaro

2002-01-01

39

The grammar of visual narrative: Neural evidence for constituent structure in sequential image comprehension.  

PubMed

Constituent structure has long been established as a central feature of human language. Analogous to how syntax organizes words in sentences, a narrative grammar organizes sequential images into hierarchic constituents. Here we show that the brain draws upon this constituent structure to comprehend wordless visual narratives. We recorded neural responses as participants viewed sequences of visual images (comics strips) in which blank images either disrupted individual narrative constituents or fell at natural constituent boundaries. A disruption of either the first or the second narrative constituent produced a left-lateralized anterior negativity effect between 500 and 700ms. Disruption of the second constituent also elicited a posteriorly-distributed positivity (P600) effect. These neural responses are similar to those associated with structural violations in language and music. These findings provide evidence that comprehenders use a narrative structure to comprehend visual sequences and that the brain engages similar neurocognitive mechanisms to build structure across multiple domains. PMID:25241329

Cohn, Neil; Jackendoff, Ray; Holcomb, Phillip J; Kuperberg, Gina R

2014-09-18

40

Grammar Games  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The mere mention of a grammar lesson can set students' eyes rolling. The fun activities described in this article can turn those blank looks into smiles. Here, the author presents grammar games namely: (1) noun tennis; (2) the minister's cat; (3) kids take action; (4) what's my adverb?; (5) and then I saw...; and (6) grammar sing-along.

Brown, Kim

2004-01-01

41

Music summarization using key phrases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Systems to automatically provide a representative summary or `key phrase' of a piece of music are described. For a `rock' song with `verse' and `chorus' sections, we aim to return the chorus or in any case the most repeated and hence most memorable section. The techniques are less applicable to music with more complicated structure although possibly our general framework

Beth Logan; Stephen Chu

2000-01-01

42

Sortal Equivalence of Bare Grammars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We discuss a concept of structural equivalence between grammars in the framework of Keenan and Stabler's bare grammars. The definition of syntactic sorts for a grammar L permits the introduction of a sort structure group Aut ? (L). The automorphism group Aut(L) of L is found to be a group extension by Aut ? (L). We develop then a concept of equivalence of grammars based on isomorphisms between the syntactic sort algebras. We study the implications of this equivalence with techniques from category theory: we invert the class of grammar homomorphisms that induce isomorphisms of sort algebras. The resulting category of fractions is found to be equivalent to a category of sortally reduced grammars.

Holder, Thomas

43

Evaluation of several lightweight stochastic context-free grammars for RNA secondary structure prediction  

PubMed Central

Background RNA secondary structure prediction methods based on probabilistic modeling can be developed using stochastic context-free grammars (SCFGs). Such methods can readily combine different sources of information that can be expressed probabilistically, such as an evolutionary model of comparative RNA sequence analysis and a biophysical model of structure plausibility. However, the number of free parameters in an integrated model for consensus RNA structure prediction can become untenable if the underlying SCFG design is too complex. Thus a key question is, what small, simple SCFG designs perform best for RNA secondary structure prediction? Results Nine different small SCFGs were implemented to explore the tradeoffs between model complexity and prediction accuracy. Each model was tested for single sequence structure prediction accuracy on a benchmark set of RNA secondary structures. Conclusions Four SCFG designs had prediction accuracies near the performance of current energy minimization programs. One of these designs, introduced by Knudsen and Hein in their PFOLD algorithm, has only 21 free parameters and is significantly simpler than the others. PMID:15180907

Dowell, Robin D; Eddy, Sean R

2004-01-01

44

Mild context-sensitivity and tuple-based generalizations of context-free grammar  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper classifies a family of grammar formalisms that extend context-free grammar by talking about tuples of terminal strings, rather than independently combining single terminal words into larger single phrases. These include a number of well-known formalisms, such as head grammar and linear context-free rewriting systems, but also a new formalism, (simple) literal movement grammar, which strictly extends the previously

A. V. Groenink

1998-01-01

45

Mild context-sensitivity and tuple-based generalizations of context-free grammar  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper classifies a family of grammar formalisms that extend context-free grammar by talking about tuples of terminal strings, rather than independently combining single terminal words into larger single phrases. These include a number of well-known formalisms, such as head grammar and linear context-free rewriting systems, but also a new formalism, (simple) literal movement grammar, which strictly extends the previously

A. V. Groenink

1996-01-01

46

Conceptual Phrases and Deterministic English Parsing  

E-print Network

The grammar of many of the lower-level constituents of grammatical structures in English has not been a area of exciting new linguistic discovery, in contrast with study of clause-level constituents. The syntax of these ...

Dill, David

47

Drama Grammar: Towards a Performative Postmethod Pedagogy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents the original concept of drama grammar, the synthesis of grammar instruction and drama pedagogy, which integrates both structural and communicative paradigms through a dialectic combination of acting and linguistic analysis. Based on the principles of drama pedagogy, drama grammar makes use of techniques from the performing…

Even, Susanne

2011-01-01

48

Creative Grammar and Art Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The grammar of creative practices is described by George Steiner as the "articulate organisation of perception, reflection and experience, the nerve structure of consciousness when it communicates with itself and with others." Steiner's description of creative grammar is consistent with Lev Vygotsky's comment that "art is the social within us, and…

Cunliffe, Leslie

2011-01-01

49

Phrase-Level Parallelism Effect on Noun Phrase Number Agreement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the role of phrase-level parallelism on noun phrase number agreement and demonstrates Puerto Rican Spanish and Brazilian Portuguese exhibit more similarities than differences with regard to this constraint. Claims the phrase-level parallelism effect on noun phrase number agreement is embedded in a universal principle of linguistic use:…

Scherre, Maria Mata Pereira

2001-01-01

50

The Role of Grammar Teaching in Writing in Second Language Acquisition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Grammar is the sound, structure, and meaning system of language. All languages have grammar, and each language has its own grammar" (Beverly, 2007, p.1). People who speak the same language are able to communicate with each other because they all know the grammar system and structure of that language, that is, the meaningful rules of grammar.…

Lin, Li-Li

2008-01-01

51

Searching the ASRS Database Using QUORUM Keyword Search, Phrase Search, Phrase Generation, and Phrase Discovery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To support Search Requests and Quick Responses at the Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS), four new QUORUM methods have been developed: keyword search, phrase search, phrase generation, and phrase discovery. These methods build upon the core QUORUM methods of text analysis, modeling, and relevance-ranking. QUORUM keyword search retrieves ASRS incident narratives that contain one or more user-specified keywords in typical or selected contexts, and ranks the narratives on their relevance to the keywords in context. QUORUM phrase search retrieves narratives that contain one or more user-specified phrases, and ranks the narratives on their relevance to the phrases. QUORUM phrase generation produces a list of phrases from the ASRS database that contain a user-specified word or phrase. QUORUM phrase discovery finds phrases that are related to topics of interest. Phrase generation and phrase discovery are particularly useful for finding query phrases for input to QUORUM phrase search. The presentation of the new QUORUM methods includes: a brief review of the underlying core QUORUM methods; an overview of the new methods; numerous, concrete examples of ASRS database searches using the new methods; discussion of related methods; and, in the appendices, detailed descriptions of the new methods.

McGreevy, Michael W.; Connors, Mary M. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

52

"Real" and Apparent Optionality in Second Language Grammars: Finiteness and Pronouns in Null Operator Structures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The existence of optionality in acquisitional data presents a problem to the view that developing grammars do not include more than one grammatical system at any stage. In this article data from Greek and Spanish, on the one hand, and English, on the other, constitute the background for the discussion of the existence of "true" optionality in…

Parodi, Teresa; Tsimpli, Ianthi-Maria

2005-01-01

53

Grammar Myths  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper looks at the continued survival of "myths" about English grammar, for example, the statement that in negative and interrogative sentences "any" should be used instead of "some". It is based on a survey of 195 Hong Kong students majoring in English, in five different cohorts, which found that such myths are…

Berry, Roger

2015-01-01

54

Grammar Matters  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As a new faculty member, the author was invited by colleagues to help protect a resource they believed was essential to their instructional program. The importance of teaching grammar in a didactic fashion as a precursor to student writing constituted an unchallenged belief in the department. Faculty members were committed to the notion that…

Sipe, Rebecca Bowers

2006-01-01

55

When Conceptual Model Meets Grammar: A Formal Approach to Semi-structured Data Modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Currently, XML is a standard for information exchange. An important task in XML management is designing particular XML formats\\u000a suitable for particular kinds of information exchange. There exist two kinds of approaches to this problem. Firstly, there\\u000a exist XML schema languages and their formalization – regular tree grammars. Secondly, there are approaches based on conceptual\\u000a modeling and automatic derivation of

Martin Necaský

2010-01-01

56

Evolution of Universal Grammar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Universal grammar specifies the mechanism of language acquisition. It determines the range of grammatical hypothesis that children entertain during language learning and the procedure they use for evaluating input sentences. How universal grammar arose is a major challenge for evolutionary biology. We present a mathematical framework for the evolutionary dynamics of grammar learning. The central result is a coherence threshold, which specifies the condition for a universal grammar to induce coherent communication within a population. We study selection of grammars within the same universal grammar and competition between different universal grammars. We calculate the condition under which natural selection favors the emergence of rule-based, generative grammars that underlie complex language.

Nowak, Martin A.; Komarova, Natalia L.; Niyogi, Partha

2001-01-01

57

A finite state automata of the Arabic grammar  

Microsoft Academic Search

A framework is presented showing that the study of the computational modeling of Arabic faces many problems. The need for a phrase structure of Arabic is indicated by showing how it is completely different from English. The phrase structures of Arabic sentences and their noun phrases are given. Some of the specific structures like the interrogative are also given. All

A. El-Naggar

1989-01-01

58

An Experiment in Teaching Grammar in Context.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes how the author, in his seventh-grade English class, taught "little grammar" (sentence structure, parts of speech, and usage) and "big grammar" (such as essay structure, points of an argument, and rhetorical devices) through reading meaningful texts drawn from their history class. Discusses successes and difficulties with this approach,…

Smoot, W. Scott

2001-01-01

59

Transition network grammars for natural language analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of augmented transition network grammars for the analysis of natural language sentences is described. Structure-building actions associated with the arcs of the grammar network allow for the reordering, restructuring, and copying of constituents necessary to produce deep-structure representations of the type normally obtained from a transformational analysis, and conditions on the arcs allow for a powerful selectivity which

William A. Woods

1970-01-01

60

Language Switching in the Production of Phrases  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The language switching task has provided a useful insight into how bilinguals produce language. So far, however, the studies using this method have been limited to lexical access. The present study provides empirical evidence on language switching in the production of simple grammar structures. In the reported experiment, Polish-English unbalanced…

Tarlowski, Andrzej; Wodniecka, Zofia; Marzecova, Anna

2013-01-01

61

Learning Relational Grammars from Sequences of Actions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many tasks can be described by sequences of actions that normally exhibit some form of structure and that can be represented by a grammar. This paper introduces FOSeq, an algorithm that learns grammars from sequences of actions. The sequences are given as low-level traces of readings from sensors that are transformed into a relational representation. Given a transformed sequence, FOSeq identifies frequent sub-sequences of n-items, or n-grams, to generate new grammar rules until no more frequent n-grams can be found. From m sequences of the same task, FOSeq generates m grammars and performs a generalization process over the best grammar to cover most of the sequences. The grammars induced by FOSeq can be used to perform a particular task and to classify new sequences. FOSeq was tested on robot navigation tasks and on gesture recognition with competitive performance against other approaches based on Hidden Markov Models.

Vargas-Govea, Blanca; Morales, Eduardo F.

62

Constraining Multiple Grammars  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article offers the author's commentary on the Multiple Grammars (MG) language acquisition theory proposed by Luiz Amaral and Tom Roeper in the present issue. Multiple Grammars advances the claim that optionality is a constitutive characteristic of any one grammar, with interlanguage grammars being perhaps the clearest examples of a…

Hopp, Holger

2014-01-01

63

Grammar! A Conference Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Papers from a conference on the teaching of grammar, particularly in second language instruction, include: "Grammar: Acquisition and Use" (Richard Johnstone); "Grammar and Communication" (Brian Page); "Linguistic Progression and Increasing Independence" (Bernardette Holmes); "La grammaire? C'est du bricolage!" ("Grammar? That's Hardware!") (Barry…

King, Lid, Ed.; Boaks, Peter, Ed.

64

Acquisition of the noun category: Exploring syntactic priming of noun phrase structure in young children and adults using novel and familiar noun prime stimuli.   

E-print Network

Objectives. The purpose of this study was to further investigate the nature of young children’s syntactic representations. More specifically, this study was interested in examining syntactic priming for noun phrase ...

Dalgleish, Gwen

2008-06-27

65

Grammar as a Programming Language. Artificial Intelligence Memo 391.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Student projects that involve writing generative grammars in the computer language, "LOGO," are described in this paper, which presents a grammar-running control structure that allows students to modify and improve the grammar interpreter itself while learning how a simple kind of computer parser works. Included are procedures for programing a…

Rowe, Neil

66

Towards a Polish LTAG Grammar Katarzyna Krasnowska  

E-print Network

of 23 570 elementary trees anchored by 11 515 lexemes. Running the grammar on the sentences from Grammar for Polish, obtained automatically from the Polish constituency treebank Skladnica [4]. Tree identical labels. Adjunction allows for insertion of auxiliary trees into the structure derived so far

67

Grammar-Guided Writing for AAC Users  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A method of grammar-guided writing has been devised to guide graphic sign users through the construction of text messages for use in e-mail and other applications with a remote receiver. The purpose is to promote morphologically and syntactically correct sentences. The available grammatical structures in grammar-guided writing are the highest…

Hunnicutt, Sheri; Magnuson, Tina

2007-01-01

68

Greek Grammar  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

While some may view ancient Greek as a "dead language", this informative and edifying website proves that the language is far from dead, and that there much to be gained through close consideration of this magisterial language. Created and maintained by Professor Marc Huys, a faculty member of the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven in Belgium, the site serves as a clearinghouse of available online resources for studying ancient Greek. Throughout the site's various areas, Professor Huys has reviewed each individual resource and provided a brief description of its contents and also assigned a rating to each distinct resource. Some of these topical areas include reviews of sites on Greek fonts, systematic grammar, history of the Greek language, and dictionaries. The site is rounded out by a "What's New?" area which contains information about the latest additions to the site.

69

English-Mongolian Phrase Book.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The phrase book is intended for use by Peace Corps workers in Mongolia, and reflects daily communication needs in that context. Phrases and vocabulary are presented first in English, then in Mongolian translation (in Cyrillic alphabet), on the following topics: greetings and introductions; discussing work; expressing thanks and congratulations;…

Amraa, J.; Nadya, S.

70

Fun with Grammar!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Use these links to improve your grammar! Learn parts of speech and play fun games to test your knowledge! Grammar is an important part of writing. It involves identifying parts of speech and knowing the mechanics of writing are all important. Below are some links that will help make learning about and practicing grammar fun! First, learn terms. The link below is a glossary full of terminology. Grammar Glossary Once you have a ...

Miss Duffus

2010-04-20

71

Ms. Marsh's Grammar Links  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Select the link below to complete your assignment. Grammar Bytes Words to watch for BBC - Skillswise - Sentence Grammar BBC-Skillwise- Spelling BBC - Skillswise - Varieties of English BBC Skillswise - verb tense BBC - Skillswise - Word Grammar Quotation Marks Quiz on Using Quotation Marks Grammar Final - Wadsworth National Geographic - Witchcraft Hysteria Ms. Chambers Web Page - This page has the links to the Crucilble project. English Zone Confusing Words ...

Ms. Schultz

2008-09-30

72

Van Wijngaarden grammars, metamorphism and K-ary malwares  

E-print Network

Grammars are used to describe sentences structure, thanks to some sets of rules, which depends on the grammar type. A classification of grammars has been made by Noam Chomsky, which led to four well-known types. Yet, there are other types of grammars, which do not exactly fit in Chomsky's classification, such as the two-level grammars. As their name suggests it, the main idea behind these grammars is that they are composed of two grammars. Van Wijngaarden grammars, particularly, are such grammars. They are interesting by their power (expressiveness), which can be the same, under some hypotheses, as the most powerful grammars of Chomsky's classification, i.e. Type 0 grammars. Another point of interest is their relative conciseness and readability. Van Wijngaarden grammars can describe static and dynamic semantic of a language. So, by using them as a generative engine, it is possible to generate a possibly infinite set of words, while assuring us that they all have the same semantic. Moreover, they can describe...

Gueguen, Geoffroy

2010-01-01

73

Area for grammar, Wernicke's Area for meaning) and stimulated a great deal of  

E-print Network

structure, small units coming together to form larger units that in turn form still larger units: an article (the) and a noun (girl) coming together to form a noun phrase; a verb (loves) and the noun phrase coming together to form a verb phrase (loves the girl); another noun phrase combining with the verb

Marcus, Gary F.

74

Combining Stochastic Grammars Stochastic Grammars have become a tool of wide use in Bioinformatics and Computational  

E-print Network

Combining Stochastic Grammars Stochastic Grammars have become a tool of wide use in Bioinformatics (Bioinformatics vol 15.5 15.6.446-454) Pedersen, J.S. and J.J. Hein (2003) "Gene finding with as hidden Markov model of genome structure and evolution" Bioinformatics 19.2.219-227. Pedersen, JS, IM Meyer, R Forsberg

Goldschmidt, Christina

75

The English Noun Phrase in its Sentential Aspect  

Microsoft Academic Search

This dissertation is a defense of the hypothesis that the noun phrase is headed by a functional element (i.e., "non-lexical" category) D, identified with the determiner. In this way, the structure of the noun phrase parallels that of the sentence, which is headed by Infl(ection), under assumptions now standard within the Government-Binding (GB) framework. The central empirical problem addressed is

Steven Paul Abney

1987-01-01

76

Efficient Grammar Induction Algorithm with Parse Forests from Real Corpora  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The task of inducing grammar structures has received a great deal of attention. The reasons why researchers have studied are different; to use grammar induction as the first stage in building large treebanks or to make up better language models. However, grammar induction has inherent computational complexity. To overcome it, some grammar induction algorithms add new production rules incrementally. They refine the grammar while keeping their computational complexity low. In this paper, we propose a new efficient grammar induction algorithm. Although our algorithm is similar to algorithms which learn a grammar incrementally, our algorithm uses the graphical EM algorithm instead of the Inside-Outside algorithm. We report results of learning experiments in terms of learning speeds. The results show that our algorithm learns a grammar in constant time regardless of the size of the grammar. Since our algorithm decreases syntactic ambiguities in each step, our algorithm reduces required time for learning. This constant-time learning considerably affects learning time for larger grammars. We also reports results of evaluation of criteria to choose nonterminals. Our algorithm refines a grammar based on a nonterminal in each step. Since there can be several criteria to decide which nonterminal is the best, we evaluate them by learning experiments.

Kurihara, Kenichi; Kameya, Yoshitaka; Sato, Taisuke

77

Tree-bank grammars  

SciTech Connect

By a {open_quotes}tree-bank grammar{close_quotes} we mean a context-free grammar created by reading the production rules directly from hand-parsed sentences in a tree bank. Common wisdom has it that such grammars do not perform well, though we know of no published data on the issue. The primary purpose of this paper is to show that the common wisdom is wrong. In particular, we present results on a tree-bank grammar based on the Penn Wall Street Journal tree bank. To the best of our knowledge, this grammar outperforms all other non-word-based statistical parsers/grammars on this corpus. That is, it outperforms parsers that consider the input as a string of tags and ignore the actual words of the corpus.

Charniak, E. [Brown Univ., Providence, RI (United States)

1996-12-31

78

Connectionist learning of regular graph grammars  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a new connectionist approach to grammatical inference. Usingonly positive examples, the algorithm learns regular graph grammars, representingtwo-dimensional iterative structures drawn on a discrete Cartesian grid. This workis intended as a case study in connectionist symbol processing and geometric conceptformation.A grammar is represented by a self-configuring connectionist network that isanalogous to a transition diagram except that it can

Peter Fletcher

2001-01-01

79

Grammar as a Programming Language  

E-print Network

This paper discusses some student projects involving generative grammars. While grammars are usually associated with linguisitics, their usefuleness goes far beyond just "language" to make different domains. Their ...

Rowe, Neil

1976-10-01

80

Parallel parsing of tree adjoining grammars on the connection machine  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes a parsing algorithm for Tree Adjoining Grammar (TAG) and its parallel implementation on the Connection Machine. TAG is a formalism for natural language that employs trees as the basic grammar structures. Parsing involves the application of two operations, called adjunction and substitution, to produce derived tree structures. Sequential parsing algorithms for TAGs run in time quadratic in the grammer size, which is impractical for the very large grammars currently being developed for natural language. This paper presents two parallel algorithms, one running in time nearly linear in the grammar size, and the other running in time logarithmic in the grammar size. Both parallel algorithms were implemented on a Connection Machine CM-2 and performance measurements were obtained for varying grammar sizes.

Palis, M.A. (Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)); Wei, D.S.L. (Radford Univ., VI (United States))

1992-02-01

81

Dictionary of Phrase and Fable  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Bartleby.com (see the March 24, 2000 Scout Report) has recently placed this new work online. It is E. Cobham Brewer's 1898 Dictionary of Phrase and Fable, a collection of more than 18,000 entries "that reveal the etymologies, trace the origins and otherwise catalog 'words with a tale to tell.'" The entries can be browsed alphabetically or searched by keyword.

82

Phrase versus Phase: Family Engagement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Parents and their roles in schools, public or private, often become the bed of heated discussions. "Parent involvement" is yesterday's buzz word; today, it is "family involvement." The phrase "parent involvement" connotes an image of parents being involved in their children's education. Family involvement is a more encompassing concept, embracing…

Ferrara, Margaret M.

2011-01-01

83

Lexical, conceptual and motor information in memory for action phrases: a multi-system account.  

PubMed

According to the multi-system account [J. Engelkamp, H.D. Zimmer, The Human Memory: A Multi-Modal Approach, Hogrefe & Huber, Seattle, 1994], the enactment effect in free recall of action phrases (e.g. break the stick) is independent of inter- and intra-phrase associations because it emerges from the nonverbal encoding processes under enactment. Two experiments have been reported which tested these and further assumptions of the multi-system account of the enactment effect. In both experiments, inter- and intra-phrase (verb-object) associations were varied simultaneously in addition to enactment. In Experiment 1, the memory test was free recall, and in Experiment 2, it was cued recall. Independent effects of all three factors were observed in free recall. Enacted phrases were recalled better than phrases learned only verbally. Phrases with high-associated objects and verbs were better recalled than phrases with low-associated objects and verbs, and categorically related phrases were better recalled than unrelated phrases. In cued recall, there was no effect of categorical list structure. The effects of intra-phrase structure and enactment corresponded to those in free recall. All interactions were nonsignificant. The findings were interpreted as support for the multi-system account. PMID:12750046

Engelkamp, Johannes; Jahn, Petra

2003-06-01

84

The minimalist grammar of action  

PubMed Central

Language and action have been found to share a common neural basis and in particular a common ‘syntax’, an analogous hierarchical and compositional organization. While language structure analysis has led to the formulation of different grammatical formalisms and associated discriminative or generative computational models, the structure of action is still elusive and so are the related computational models. However, structuring action has important implications on action learning and generalization, in both human cognition research and computation. In this study, we present a biologically inspired generative grammar of action, which employs the structure-building operations and principles of Chomsky's Minimalist Programme as a reference model. In this grammar, action terminals combine hierarchically into temporal sequences of actions of increasing complexity; the actions are bound with the involved tools and affected objects and are governed by certain goals. We show, how the tool role and the affected-object role of an entity within an action drives the derivation of the action syntax in this grammar and controls recursion, merge and move, the latter being mechanisms that manifest themselves not only in human language, but in human action too. PMID:22106430

Pastra, Katerina; Aloimonos, Yiannis

2012-01-01

85

New aspects of using the structural graph-grammar based techniques for recognition of selected medical images.  

PubMed

This report will describe the application of syntactic pattern recognition methods for analysis of morphology and recognition of pathologic symptoms of chronic diseases such as upper urinary tract disorders. Detection of these lesions will be assisted by the special graph-grammar developed in our institute for efficient analysis and recognition of such lesions. We present key points of methodology and practical results of its application. PMID:11442109

Ogiela, M R; Tadeusiewicz, R

2001-06-01

86

Efficient phrase querying with an auxiliary index  

Microsoft Academic Search

Search engines need to evaluate queries extremely fast, a challenging task given the vast quantities of data being indexed. A significant proportion of the queries posed to search engines involve phrases. In this paper we consider how phrase queries can be efficiently supported with low disk overheads. Previous research has shown that phrase queries can be rapidly evaluated using nextword

Dirk Bahle; Hugh E. Williams; Justin Zobel

2002-01-01

87

Fast phrase querying with combined indexes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Search engines need to evaluate queries extremely fast, a challenging task given the quantities of data being indexed. A significant proportion of the queries posed to search engines involve phrases. In this article we consider how phrase queries can be efficiently supported with low disk overheads. Our previous research has shown that phrase queries can be rapidly evaluated using nextword

Hugh E. Williams; Justin Zobel; Dirk Bahle

2004-01-01

88

Structural competition in grammar  

E-print Network

This thesis makes the following three claims: (1) Competition exists in natural language: the grammaticality (and meaning) of using a linguistic object 0 can be affected by the grammaticality (and meaning) of a different ...

Katzir, Roni (Roni A.)

2008-01-01

89

FUN WITH GRAMMAR!!!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page will allow you to improve your grammar by helping you assess your current level of ability and then by helping you attain more skills to improve your grammar. ASSIGNMENT #1 Go to the following link and click on the arrow below the title \\"Word and Sentence Level.\\" Online Grammar Quizzes Click on \\"Quizzes\\" and then take quizzes number 1 and 2. Print your results and bring them into class tomorrow. We will be able to assess where each of us stands grammatically speaking. ASSIGNMENT #2 Go to ...

Ms. Bushman

2007-11-29

90

Category: Genetic Programming] Genetic Programming for Grammar Induction  

E-print Network

Category: Genetic Programming] Genetic Programming for Grammar Induction Emin Erkan Korkmaz approach is pre- sented where the aim is to formalize a control module for the genetic search which can use. Thus, it is possible to represent context-free grammars as structured trees and transfer the problem

Ucoluk, Gokturk

91

[Category: Genetic Programming] Genetic Programming for Grammar Induction  

E-print Network

[Category: Genetic Programming] Genetic Programming for Grammar Induction Emin Erkan Korkmaz. In this paper a new approach is pre­ sented where the aim is to formalize a control module for the genetic as structured trees and transfer the problem of inducing a context­free grammar to a search prob­ lem among

Fernandez, Thomas

92

A Grammar of Northern Mao (Mawes Aas'e)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Northern Mao is an endangered Afroasiatic-Omotic language of western Ethiopia with fewer than 5,000 speakers. This study is a comprehensive grammar of the language, written from a functional/typological perspective which embraces historical change as an explanation for synchronic structure. The grammar introduces the Northern Mao people, aspects…

Ahland, Michael Bryan

2012-01-01

93

The story of English grammar in United States schools  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article assumes the value of a scientifically grounded, rhetorically focused, professionally supported, and publicly embraced grammar within the public schools and examines the past century of practices within the United States from that perspective. It describes a brief renaissance in the 50's and early 60's, inspired largely by the structural grammar of C. C Fries, and examines the confluence

MARTHA KOLLN; CRAIG HANCOCK

2005-01-01

94

CSG-Tag: Constraint based Synchronous Grammar Tree Annotation System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The construction of grammars and the acquisition of syntactic structures from corpora are always considered as a time consuming task. Moreover, according to the purpose of the application, different standards have to be defined. In Machine Translation (MT), the situation is even more complicated since it covers two languages. In this paper, CSG-Tag, a Constraint based Synchronous Grammar (CSG) Tree

Fai Wong; Francisco Oliveira; Sam Chao; Fan Sun

2011-01-01

95

Logic of English grammar  

Microsoft Academic Search

The logic of English grammar is being investigated by a process of approximative logical synthesis. Beginning with a kernel language which is an alphabetically spelled form of symbolic logic with English-like vocabulary, English-like extensions are constructed simulating selected features of English grammar. For each extended language, an algorithm is given which would permit a computer to make a left-to-right, word-by-word

Herbert G. Bohnert

1962-01-01

96

Exploring story grammar structure in the book reading interactions of African American mothers and their preschool children: a pilot investigation  

PubMed Central

The aim of this investigation was to identify the book reading behaviors and book reading styles of middle class African American mothers engaged in a shared book reading activity with their preschool children. To this end, the mothers and their children were videotaped reading one of three books, Julius, Grandfather and I, or Somewhere in Africa. Both maternal and child behaviors were coded for the frequency of occurrence of story grammar elements contained in their stories and maternal behaviors were also coded for their use of narrative eliciting strategies. In addition, mothers were queried about the quality and quantity of book reading/story telling interactions in the home environment. The results suggest that there is a great deal of individual variation in how mothers use the story grammar elements and narrative eliciting strategies to engage their children in a shared book reading activity. Findings are discussed in terms of suggestions for additional research and practical applications are offered on ways to optimally engage African American preschool children and African American families from diverse socioeconomic backgrounds in shared book reading interactions. PMID:24926276

Harris, Yvette R.; Rothstein, Susan E.

2014-01-01

97

Exploring story grammar structure in the book reading interactions of African American mothers and their preschool children: a pilot investigation.  

PubMed

The aim of this investigation was to identify the book reading behaviors and book reading styles of middle class African American mothers engaged in a shared book reading activity with their preschool children. To this end, the mothers and their children were videotaped reading one of three books, Julius, Grandfather and I, or Somewhere in Africa. Both maternal and child behaviors were coded for the frequency of occurrence of story grammar elements contained in their stories and maternal behaviors were also coded for their use of narrative eliciting strategies. In addition, mothers were queried about the quality and quantity of book reading/story telling interactions in the home environment. The results suggest that there is a great deal of individual variation in how mothers use the story grammar elements and narrative eliciting strategies to engage their children in a shared book reading activity. Findings are discussed in terms of suggestions for additional research and practical applications are offered on ways to optimally engage African American preschool children and African American families from diverse socioeconomic backgrounds in shared book reading interactions. PMID:24926276

Harris, Yvette R; Rothstein, Susan E

2014-01-01

98

Unsupervised grammar induction of clinical report sublanguage  

PubMed Central

Background Clinical reports are written using a subset of natural language while employing many domain-specific terms; such a language is also known as a sublanguage for a scientific or a technical domain. Different genres of clinical reports use different sublaguages, and in addition, different medical facilities use different medical language conventions. This makes supervised training of a parser for clinical sentences very difficult as it would require expensive annotation effort to adapt to every type of clinical text. Methods In this paper, we present an unsupervised method which automatically induces a grammar and a parser for the sublanguage of a given genre of clinical reports from a corpus with no annotations. In order to capture sentence structures specific to clinical domains, the grammar is induced in terms of semantic classes of clinical terms in addition to part-of-speech tags. Our method induces grammar by minimizing the combined encoding cost of the grammar and the corresponding sentence derivations. The probabilities for the productions of the induced grammar are then learned from the unannotated corpus using an instance of the expectation-maximization algorithm. Results Our experiments show that the induced grammar is able to parse novel sentences. Using a dataset of discharge summary sentences with no annotations, our method obtains 60.5% F-measure for parse-bracketing on sentences of maximum length 10. By varying a parameter, the method can induce a range of grammars, from very specific to very general, and obtains the best performance in between the two extremes. PMID:23046834

2012-01-01

99

Parsing English with a Link Grammar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract We develop a formal grammatical system called a link grammar, show how English grammar can be encoded in such a system, and give algorithms for efficiently parsing with a link grammar. Although the expressive power of link grammars is equivalent to that of context free grammars, encoding natural language grammars,appears to be much,easier with the new system. We have

Daniel Dominic Sleator; David Temperley

1995-01-01

100

Dependency Grammar: Classification and Exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Syntactic representations based on word-to-word dependencies have a long tradition in descriptive linguistics [29]. In recent years, they have also become increasingly used in computational tasks, such as information extraction [5], machine translation [43], and parsing [42]. Among the purported advantages of dependency over phrase structure representations are conciseness, intuitive appeal, and closeness to semantic representations such as predicate-argument structures. On the more practical side, dependency representations are attractive due to the increasing availability of large corpora of dependency analyses, such as the Prague Dependency Treebank [19].

Debusmann, Ralph; Kuhlmann, Marco

101

Effective Grammar Teaching: Lessons from Confident Grammar Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Learning the grammar of a language is an integral part of learning a second or foreign language. Studies on teacher beliefs, teacher language awareness (TLA) and grammar teaching have reported that the majority of English language teachers recognise the importance of teaching grammar (Borg, 2001; Borg & Burns, 2008). At the same time, many…

Petraki, Eleni; Hill, Deborah

2011-01-01

102

Generalized augmented transition network grammars for generation from semantic networks  

SciTech Connect

The augmented transition network (ATN) is a formalism for writing parsing grammars which has been much used in artificial intelligence and computational linguistics. A few researchers have also used ATNs for writing grammars for generating sentences. Previously, however, either generation ATNs did not have the same semantics as parsing ATNs, or they required an auxiliary mechanism to determine the syntactic structure of the sentence to be generated. This paper reports a generalization of the ATN formalism which allows ATN grammars to be written to parse labelled directed graphs. Specifically, an ATN grammar can be written to parse a semantic network and generate a surface string as its analysis. An example is given of a combined parsing-generating grammar which parses surface sentences, builds and queries a semantic network knowledge representation, and generates surface sentences in response. 8 references.

Shapiro, S.C.

1982-01-01

103

Machine Learning of Jazz Grammars  

E-print Network

Machine Learning of Jazz Grammars Jon Gillick, Kevin Tang, and Robert M. Keller Annkissam One novel jazz solos using a probabilistic grammar (Keller 2007), this article describes the automated into the grammar. This article first defines the basic building blocks for contours of typical jazz solos, which we

Li, Fei-Fei

104

Phrase Recognition by Filtering and Ranking with Perceptrons  

E-print Network

Phrase Recognition by Filtering and Ranking with Perceptrons Xavier Carreras and Llu´is M with Perceptrons 1 #12;Introduction Phrase Recognition A very general definition of phrase: A sequence, etc.) Phrase Recognition by Filtering and Ranking with Perceptrons 2 #12;Introduction Phrase

Carreras, Xavier

105

Clues from Information Theory Indicating a Phased Emergence of Grammar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this chapter we present evidence that there is an underlying local sequential structure in present day language, and suggest that the components of such a structure could have been the basis of a more highly evolved hierarchical grammar. The primary local sequential structure is shown to have its own benefits, which indicate that there could be an intermediate stage in the evolution of grammar, before the advantages of a fully developed syntax were realised.

Lyon, Caroline; Nehaniv, Chrystopher L.; Dickerson, Bob

106

Useful Phrases in English: Korean. Language SOS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This English-Korean phrase book is designed for the English speaking person learning Korean. The useful phrases and vocabulary words are divided into eleven sections: basic needs and safety; greetings and amenities; getting acquainted; directions and classroom articles; calendar, numbers, and time; subjects; shapes, sizes, and colors; body parts…

Los Angeles Unified School District, CA.

107

Yes, We Still Need Universal Grammar  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a recent paper [Lidz, J., Gleitman, H., & Gleitman, L. (2003). Understanding how input matters: Verb learning and the footprint of universal grammar. "Cognition," 87, 151-178], we provided cross-linguistic evidence in favor of the following linked assertions: (i) Verb argument structure is a correlate of verb meaning; (ii) However, argument…

Lidz, Jeffrey; Gleitman, Lila R.

2004-01-01

108

Framework for Interpreting Handwritten Strokes using Grammars  

E-print Network

Framework for Interpreting Handwritten Strokes using Grammars Buntarou Shizuki1 , Kazuhisa Iizuka1 handwritten strokes and other objects, which can be used to interpret ambiguous results of pattern matching using a stylus. The system would then interpret the handwritten strokes to recognize the structure

Tanaka, Jiro

109

GPS (Grammar Positioning System)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this Cross Talk, Mark Blaauw-Hara, the author of "Mapping the Frontier: A Survey of Twenty Years of Grammar Articles in 'TETYC,'" and one of the manuscript's reviewers, Andy Anderson, engage in a brief conversation about the essay, its content, and the processes of writing, reviewing, and revising. This article is presented in three sections:…

Blaauw-Hara, Mark; Anderson, Andy

2007-01-01

110

Studies in Inuktitut Grammar  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This dissertation addresses a number of issues about the grammar of Eastern Canadian Inuktitut. Inuktitut is a dialect within the Inuit dialect continuum which is a group of languages/dialects within the Eskimo-Aleut language family. (Eastern Canadian Inuktitut has an ISO 693-3 language code of "ike".) Typologically, it is an ergative language…

Beach, Matthew David

2012-01-01

111

An Introductory Transformational Grammar.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present volume is directed toward the reader wanting to begin a study of linguistics but who is "overwhelmed by the amount of material available, much of it too technical for him to understand." The author has attempted to provide both theory and applications and has limited the scope to English transformational grammar. Exercises at the end…

Liles, Bruce L.

112

Multiple Grammars and MOGUL  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Optionality is a central phenomenon in second language acquisition (SLA), for which any adequate theory must account. Amaral and Roeper (this issue; henceforth A&R) offer an appealing approach to it, using Roeper's Multiple Grammars Theory, which was created with first language in mind but which extends very naturally to SLA. They include…

Truscott, John

2014-01-01

113

A Grammar of Bih  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Bih is a Chamic (Austronesian) language spoken by approximately 500 people in the Southern highlands of Vietnam. This dissertation is the first descriptive grammar of the language, based on extensive fieldwork and community-based language documentation in Vietnam and written from a functional/typological perspective. The analysis in this work is…

Nguyen, Tam Thi Minh

2013-01-01

114

A Grammar of Kurtop  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Kurtop is a Tibeto-Burman language spoken by approximately 15,000 people in Northeastern Bhutan. This dissertation is the first descriptive grammar of the language, based on extensive fieldwork and community-driven language documentation in Bhutan. When possible, analyses are presented in typological and historical/comparative perspectives and…

Hyslop, Gwendolyn

2011-01-01

115

A GUJARATI REFERENCE GRAMMAR.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THIS REFERENCE GRAMMAR WAS WRITTEN TO FILL THE NEED FOR AN UP-TO-DATE ANALYSIS OF THE MODERN LANGUAGE SUITABLE FOR LANGUAGE LEARNERS AS WELL AS LINGUISTS. THE AUTHOR LISTS IN THE INTRODUCTION THOSE STUDIES PREVIOUS TO THIS ONE WHICH MAY BE OF INTEREST TO THE READER. INCLUDED IN HIS ANALYSIS OF THE LANGUAGE ARE MAJOR CHAPTERS ON--(1) PHONOLOGY, (2)…

CARDONA, GEORGE

116

NEWCAT: Parsing natural language using left-associative grammar  

SciTech Connect

This book shows that constituent structure analysis induces an irregular order of linear composition which is the direct cause of extreme computational inefficiency. It proposes an alternative left-associative grammar which operates with a regular order of linear compositions. Left-associative grammar is based on building up and cancelling valencies. Left-associative parsers differ from all other systems in that the history of the parse doubles as the linguistic analysis. Left-associative grammar is illustrated with two left-associative natural language parsers: one for German and one for English.

Hausser, R.

1986-01-01

117

Graph grammars as an analytical tool in physics and biology.  

PubMed

The usual mathematics which is commonly applied to physics will scarcely be helpful when structures or patterns are to be handled, which is relevant both in biology and in physics. Here graph grammars are proposed as an additional mathematical technique, which supports characteristic operations including the generation, transfer, recognition, interpretation and application of patterns; in any case parallel processes can be described by parallel graph grammars. Under these aspects the properties of graph grammars are discussed in detail, and it will be shown that a homomorphic reduction to other representations (based on a vector space or on cellular automata) is possible. PMID:9305548

Gernert, D

1997-01-01

118

Prosodic phrase segmentation by pitch pattern clustering   

E-print Network

This paper proposes a novel method for detecting the optimal sequence of prosodic phrases from continuous speech based on data-driven approach. The pitch pattern of input speech is divided into prosodic segments which ...

Shimodaira, Hiroshi; Nakai, Mitsuru

119

The Grammar of Trademarks  

Microsoft Academic Search

How do people talk when they talk about trademarks? If trademarks havebecome, as linguist Geoffrey Nunberg suggests, our “new global tongue,”perhaps we should pay greater attention to the grammar we use when wetalk about them. We use “Coke” to refer to the Coca-Cola beverage in theNorth, and “coke” to refer to any kind of soda in the South, yet we

Laura A. Heymann

2010-01-01

120

ENGLISH GRAMMAR WORKSHOP SERIES English Grammar Review for Chinese  

E-print Network

ENGLISH GRAMMAR WORKSHOP SERIES English Grammar Review for Chinese Speakers Tuesday, March 4, 2014 confronted by graduate student writers whose first language is not English. Taught in tandem with native speakers who excel in English writing, these workshops target the unique needs of first language speakers

Rose, Michael R.

121

Abstract Expression Grammar Symbolic Regression  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This chapter examines the use of Abstract Expression Grammars to perform the entire Symbolic Regression process without the use of Genetic Programming per se. The techniques explored produce a symbolic regression engine which has absolutely no bloat, which allows total user control of the search space and output formulas, which is faster, and more accurate than the engines produced in our previous papers using Genetic Programming. The genome is an all vector structure with four chromosomes plus additional epigenetic and constraint vectors, allowing total user control of the search space and the final output formulas. A combination of specialized compiler techniques, genetic algorithms, particle swarm, aged layered populations, plus discrete and continuous differential evolution are used to produce an improved symbolic regression sytem. Nine base test cases, from the literature, are used to test the improvement in speed and accuracy. The improved results indicate that these techniques move us a big step closer toward future industrial strength symbolic regression systems.

Korns, Michael F.

122

Arabic Parsing Using Grammar Transforms  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate Arabic Context Free Grammar parsing with dependency annotation comparing lexicalised and unlexicalised parsers. We study how morphosyntactic as well as function tag information percolation in the form of grammar transforms (Johnson, 1998, Kulick et al., 2006) affects the performance of a parser and helps dependency assignment. We focus on the three most frequent functional tags in the Arabic

Lamia Tounsi; Josef van Genabith

2010-01-01

123

Bisimulation Equivalences for Graph Grammars ?  

E-print Network

- ing the equivalence of #12;nite causal automata. 1 Introduction Graph grammars have been shownBisimulation Equivalences for Graph Grammars ? Paolo Baldan, Andrea Corradini, Ugo Montanari Dipartimento di Informatica Universit#18;a di Pisa Abstract. Along the years the concurrent behaviour of graph

Baldan, Paolo

124

A Reference Grammar of Bena  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This dissertation is a grammar of Rena (ISO bez), a Bantu language spoken in southwestern Tanzania by approximately 600,000 people. Bena is largely undocumented, and though aspects of Bena grammar have been described, there is no usable, detailed treatment of the Bena language. Therefore the goal of this dissertation is provide the first detailed…

Morrison, Michelle Elizabeth

2011-01-01

125

The measurement of achievement in English grammar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Discusses the preparation of scales for the measurement of the usage of English grammar and of the knowledge of technical grammar, with a view to assess achievement in English Grammar. Three scales, to assess the correctness of grammar - Grammatical Scales A, B, and C and one to assess punctuation - Punctuation Scale A, were described along with their scorings,

Daniel Starch

1915-01-01

126

Inference process of programmed attributed regular grammars for character recognition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper presents the grammar inference engine of a pattern recognition system for character recognition. The input characters are identified, thinned to a one pixel width pattern and a feature-based description is provided. Using the syntactic recognition paradigm, the features are the set of terminals (or terminal symbols) for the application. The feature-based description includes a set of three attributes (i.e. A, B, C) for each feature. The combined feature and attribute description for each input pattern preserves in a more accurate way the structure of the original pattern. The grammar inference engine uses the feature-based description of each input pattern from the training set to build a grammar for each class of patterns. For each input pattern from the training set, the productions (rewriting rules) are derived together with all the necessary elements such as: the nonterminals, branch and testing conditions. Since the grammars are regular, the process of deriving the production rules is simple. All the productions are collected together providing the tags to be consecutive, without gaps. The size of the class grammars is reduced at an acceptable level for further processing using a set of Evans heuristic rules. These algorithms identifies the redundant productions, eliminating those productions and the correspondent nonterminal symbols. The stop criteria for the Evans thinning algorithm makes sure that no further reductions are possible. The last step of the grammar inference process enables the grammar to identify class members which were not in the training set: a cycling production rule. The above built grammars are used by the syntactic (character) classifier to identify the input patterns as being members of a-priori known classes.

Prundaru, Mihail; Prundaru, Ioana

2000-12-01

127

Amino acid distribution rules predict protein fold: protein grammar for beta-strand sandwich-like structures.  

PubMed

We present an alternative approach to protein 3D folding prediction based on determination of rules that specify distribution of "favorable" residues, that are mainly responsible for a given fold formation, and "unfavorable" residues, that are incompatible with that fold, in polypeptide sequences. The process of determining favorable and unfavorable residues is iterative. The starting assumptions are based on the general principles of protein structure formation as well as structural features peculiar to a protein fold under investigation. The initial assumptions are tested one-by-one for a set of all known proteins with a given structure. The assumption is accepted as a "rule of amino acid distribution" for the protein fold if it holds true for all, or near all, structures. If the assumption is not accepted as a rule, it can be modified to better fit the data and then tested again in the next step of the iterative search algorithm, or rejected. We determined the set of amino acid distribution rules for a large group of beta sandwich-like proteins characterized by a specific arrangement of strands in two beta sheets. It was shown that this set of rules is highly sensitive (~90%) and very specific (~99%) for identifying sequences of proteins with specified beta sandwich fold structure. The advantage of the proposed approach is that it does not require that query proteins have a high degree of homology to proteins with known structure. So long as the query protein satisfies residue distribution rules, it can be confidently assigned to its respective protein fold. Another advantage of our approach is that it allows for a better understanding of which residues play an essential role in protein fold formation. It may, therefore, facilitate rational protein engineering design. PMID:25625198

Kister, Alexander

2015-01-01

128

Latin Phrases and Words Used in English  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site is for anyone who wants a quick reference to those oft used, but not always understood Latin words and phrases. The definitions from over fifty commonly used terms are taken from the Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary - Tenth Edition. The site is part of a Brooklyn College Latin course homepage.

129

Chemical Accelerators The phrase "chemical accelerators"  

E-print Network

that there is a wealth of important chemistry occurring only at higher energies (of the order of the strength of chemicalMeetings Chemical Accelerators The phrase "chemical accelerators" is scarcely older than for one or two dozen people grew to include nearly a hundred. Chemical accelerators is a name sug- gested

Zare, Richard N.

130

Priming Prepositional-Phrase Attachment During Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Strong evidence suggests that prior syntactic context affects language production (e.g., J. K. Bock, 1986). The authors report 4 experiments that used an expression-picture matching task to investigate whether it also affects ambiguity resolution in comprehension. All experiments examined the interpretation of prepositional phrases that were…

Branigan, Holly P.; Pickering, Martin J.; McLean, Janet F.

2005-01-01

131

Phrasing Effects in Comprehending PP Constructions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The role of prosodic phrasing in sentence comprehension was investigated by means of three different tasks, namely auditory word monitoring (Experiment 1), self-paced reading (Experiment 2) and cross-modal comparison (Experiment 3). In all three experiments a critical prosodic unit or frame comprising a determiner, a noun and a Prepositional…

Pynte, Joel

2006-01-01

132

Guide to Grammar and Writing  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Charles Darling, Professor of English/Humanities at Capital Community-Technical College (Hartford, Connecticut), provides this site, a compendium of English grammar, usage, and writing information at the sentence, paragraph, and essay levels. Each section contains easily understood information about concepts related to the topic. Most sections contain answered quizzes. These 76 quizzes are also available in a separate section. An index to the 142 grammar and writing topics covered is also available separately. A bibliography and "Ask Grammar" site, among other features, are also provided.

Darling, Charles.

133

A tropical grammar : an architectural grammar for hot humid climates  

E-print Network

This thesis considers the viability of an architectural grammar based on traditional Caribbean architecture as an aid to designing climatically responsive architecture in hot humid climates. It argues that since traditional ...

Beamish, Anne, 1954-

1993-01-01

134

Grammars and Parsing Bill Wilson, 2009 Grammars and Parsing  

E-print Network

... (S (NP (NAME John)) (VP (V fed) (NP (DET the)) (N numbat) ))) and in a Prolog notation ... s(np(name(john: Context-Free Grammars (CFGs) 1. S NP VP 2. VP V NP Grammar 3. NP NAME Rules 4. NP DET N 5. NAME John 6. V NP, NP NAME, NP DET N, NAME John V fed, DET the, N numbat} . A = N T N = {S, NP, VP, N, V, NAME, DET

Wilson, Bill

135

ORIGINAL PAPER Rule learning by zebra finches in an artificial grammar learning  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL PAPER Rule learning by zebra finches in an artificial grammar learning task: which rule they discriminate such structures is often not clear. Using an artificial grammar learning paradigm, zebra finches-element sound sequences. In Experiment 1, zebra finches learned to discriminate ABA and BAB from ABB, AAB, BBA

Indiana University

136

Unsupervised Learning of Probabilistic Grammar-Markov Models for Object Categories  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce a Probabilistic Grammar-Markov Model (PGMM) which couples probabilistic context free grammars and Markov Random Fields. These PGMMs are generative models defined over attributed features and are used to detect and classify objects in natural images. PGMMs are designed so that they can perform rapid inference, parameter learning, and the more difficult task of structure induction. PGMMs can deal

Long Zhu; Yuanhao Chen; Alan L. Yuille

2009-01-01

137

A Deeper Look at the Grammar and Some Implications of "Ser" and "Estar" + Locative in Spanish.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues that the explanation of the use of "ser" and "estar" with locatives presented in the March 1984 issue of "Hispania" derives so directly from a theory of universal grammar because it is indicative of the explanatory adequacy of Case Grammar or of other, comparable theories of the deeper levels of linguistic structure. (SED)

Franco, Fabiola; Steinmetz, Donald

1985-01-01

138

Using statistical models to predict phrase boundaries for speech synthesis.   

E-print Network

This paper describes a variety of methods for inserting phrase boundaries in text. The methods work by examining the likelihood of a phrase break occurring in a sequence of three part-of-speech tags. The paper explains ...

Sanders, Eric; Taylor, Paul A

1995-01-01

139

Technology Helps Students Learn Grammar.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes several recent approaches on college campuses that use technology (including both Web sites and CD-ROM virtual environments) to help journalism students learn grammar. Notes successes and problems. (SR)

Bowen, Candace Perkins

1999-01-01

140

Noun-Phrase Indexing, Pronouns, and the "Definite Article."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Chomsky has suggested that certain lexical items, which he calls "referential items," should be given integer markers (or "indices") and that the noun-phrase deletion transformation which creates reflexive pronouns should be limited to cases where the noun-phrase to be deleted is fully identical to the antecedent noun-phrase, including identity of…

Sampson, Geoffrey

141

Generative Graph Grammar of Neo-Vai?e?ika Formal Ontology (NVFO)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NLP applications for Sanskrit so far work within computational paradigm of string grammars. However, to compute 'meanings', as in traditional ?? bdabodha prakriy?-s, there is a need to develop suitable graph grammars. Ontological structures are fundamentally graphs. We work within the formal framework of Neo-Vai?e?ika Formal Ontology (NVFO) to propose a generative graph grammar. The proposed formal grammar only produces well-formed graphs that can be readily interpreted in accordance with Vai?e? ika Ontology. We show that graphs not permitted by Vai?e? ika ontology are not generated by the proposed grammar. Further, we write Interpreter of these graphical structures. This creates computational environment which can be deployed for writing computational applications of Vai?e? ika ontology. We illustrate how this environment can be used to create applications like computing ?? bdabodha of sentences.

Tavva, Rajesh; Singh, Navjyoti

142

Linguistically-Motivated Grammar Extraction, Generalization and Adaptation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to obtain a high precision and high coverage grammar, we proposed a model to measure grammar coverage and designed a PCFG parser to measure efficiency of the grammar. To generalize grammars, a grammar binari- zation method was proposed to increase the coverage of a probabilistic context- free grammar. In the mean time linguistically-motivated feature constraints were added into

Yu-ming Hsieh; Duen-chi Yang; Keh-jiann Chen

2005-01-01

143

Phrase Frequency Effects in Language Production  

PubMed Central

A classic debate in the psychology of language concerns the question of the grain-size of the linguistic information that is stored in memory. One view is that only morphologically simple forms are stored (e.g., ‘car’, ‘red’), and that more complex forms of language such as multi-word phrases (e.g., ‘red car’) are generated on-line from the simple forms. In two experiments we tested this view. In Experiment 1, participants produced noun+adjective and noun+noun phrases that were elicited by experimental displays consisting of colored line drawings and two superimposed line drawings. In Experiment 2, participants produced noun+adjective and determiner+noun+adjective utterances elicited by colored line drawings. In both experiments, naming latencies decreased with increasing frequency of the multi-word phrase, and were unaffected by the frequency of the object name in the utterance. These results suggest that the language system is sensitive to the distribution of linguistic information at grain-sizes beyond individual words. PMID:22479370

Janssen, Niels; Barber, Horacio A.

2012-01-01

144

CAD GRAMMARS: EXTENDING SHAPE AND GRAPH GRAMMARS FOR SPATIAL DESIGN MODELLING  

E-print Network

1 CAD GRAMMARS: EXTENDING SHAPE AND GRAPH GRAMMARS FOR SPATIAL DESIGN MODELLING PETER DEAK, CHRIS, but operating on graphs. This paper introduces CAD grammars, which combine qualities from shape and graph and manufacturing. Details about the integration of CAD grammars into automated spatial design systems and standard

Reed, Chris

145

Identifying well-formed biomedical phrases in MEDLINE® text  

PubMed Central

In the modern world people frequently interact with retrieval systems to satisfy their information needs. Humanly understandable well-formed phrases represent a crucial interface between humans and the web, and the ability to index and search with such phrases is beneficial for human-web interactions. In this paper we consider the problem of identifying humanly understandable, well formed, and high quality biomedical phrases in MEDLINE documents. The main approaches used previously for detecting such phrases are syntactic, statistical, and a hybrid approach combining these two. In this paper we propose a supervised learning approach for identifying high quality phrases. First we obtain a set of known well-formed useful phrases from an existing source and label these phrases as positive. We then extract from MEDLINE a large set of multiword strings that do not contain stop words or punctuation. We believe this unlabeled set contains many well-formed phrases. Our goal is to identify these additional high quality phrases. We examine various feature combinations and several machine learning strategies designed to solve this problem. A proper choice of machine learning methods and features identifies in the large collection strings that are likely to be high quality phrases. We evaluate our approach by making human judgments on multiword strings extracted from MEDLINE using our methods. We find that over 85% of such extracted phrase candidates are humanly judged to be of high quality. PMID:22683889

Kim, Won; Yeganova, Lana; Comeau, Donald C.; Wilbur, W. John

2012-01-01

146

Evaluation of attributes in attribute grammars  

SciTech Connect

The problem of evaluating attributes on a derivation tree for attribute grammars is considered. The suggested algorithms do not impose any restrictions on a grammar and can be carried out in arbitrary derivation tree traversal.

Kurochkin, V.M. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

1995-05-01

147

Compiling circular attribute grammars into Prolog  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes an algorithm for compiling attribute grammars into Prolog. The attribute grammars may include inherited and synthesized attributes and contain recursive (circular) definitions. The semantics of the recursive definitions is defined in terms of a fixed-point finding function. The generated Prolog code stands in direct relation to its attribute grammar, where logical variables play the role of synthesized or inherited attributes. Thus an effective method for the execution of recursive attribute grammars has been defined and applied.

Arbab, B.

1986-05-01

148

A Note on the Complexity of Abstract Categorial Grammars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a precise and detailed study of the complexities of the membership and the universal membership problems for Abstract Categorial Grammars (ACG). ACGs have been introduced by Philippe de Groote in [2] as a simplification over categorial grammars which reduces the number of necessary primitives involved in the definition of the formalism. Thus in ACGs, every structure is represented with the help of the linear ?-calculus and the languages defined by means of ACGs are sets of linear ?-terms. The problem under investigation has already been studied in [7], but we give here some more precise results with some arguably simpler proofs. We use the same classification of the grammars in terms of the order of the lexicon and of the order of abstract language.

Salvati, Sylvain

149

On Anaphora and the Binding Principles in Categorial Grammar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In type logical categorial grammar the analysis of an expression is a resource-conscious proof. Anaphora represents a particular challenge to this approach in that the antecedent resource is multiplied in the semantics. This duplication, which corresponds logically to the structural rule of contraction, may be treated lexically or syntactically. Furthermore, anaphora is subject to constraints, which Chomsky (1981) formulated as Binding Principles A, B, and C. In this paper we consider English anaphora in categorial grammar including reference to the binding principles. We invoke displacement calculus, modal categorial calculus, categorial calculus with limited contraction, and entertain addition of negation as failure.

Morrill, Glyn; Valentín, Oriol

150

Visual Software Development Environment Based on Graph Grammars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In software design and development, program diagrams are often used for good visualization. Many kinds of program diagrams have been proposed and used. To process such diagrams automatically and efficiently, the program diagram structure needs to be formalized. We aim to construct a diagram processing system with an efficient parser for our program diagram Hichart. In this paper, we give a precedence graph grammar for Hichart that can parse in linear time. We also describe a parsing method and processing system incorporating the Hichart graphical editor that is based on the precedence graph grammar.

Goto, Takaaki; Ruise, Kenji; Yaku, Takeo; Tsuchida, Kensei

151

Intrinsic Constraints on Language: Grammar and Hermeneutics  

E-print Network

Intrinsic Constraints on Language: Grammar and Hermeneutics Mark H. Bickhard Mark H. Bickhard on Language: Grammar and Hermeneutics Mark H. Bickhard Abstract Functional and pragmatic approaches to grammar to its nature. I also show how phenomena of implicature, the hermeneutic circle, and forms of creative

Bickhard, Mark H.

152

Generating the XTAG English Grammar Using Metarules  

Microsoft Academic Search

We discuss a grammar development process used to generate the trees of the wide-coverage Lexicalized Tree Adjoining Grammar (LTAG) for English of the XTAG Project. Result of the coupling of Becker's metarules and a simple yet principled hierarchy of rule application, the approach has been successful to generate the large set of verb trees in the grammar, from a very

Carlos A. Prolo

2002-01-01

153

Delta's Key to the Next Generation TOEFL[R] Test: Essential Grammar for the iBT  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although the TOEFL iBT does not have a discrete grammar section, knowledge of English sentence structure is important throughout the test. Essential Grammar for the iBT reviews the skills that are fundamental to success on tests. Content includes noun and verb forms, clauses, agreement, parallel structure, punctuation, and much more. The book may…

Gallagher, Nancy

2012-01-01

154

Interacting effects of syllable and phrase position on consonant articulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The complexities of how prosodic structure, both at the phrasal and syllable levels, shapes speech production have begun to be illuminated through studies of articulatory behavior. The present study contributes to an understanding of prosodic signatures on articulation by examining the joint effects of phrasal and syllable position on the production of consonants. Articulatory kinematic data were collected for five subjects using electromagnetic articulography (EMA) to record target consonants (labial, labiodental, and tongue tip), located in (1) either syllable final or initial position and (2) either at a phrase edge or phrase medially. Spatial and temporal characteristics of the consonantal constriction formation and release were determined based on kinematic landmarks in the articulator velocity profiles. The results indicate that syllable and phrasal position consistently affect the movement duration; however, effects on displacement were more variable. For most subjects, the boundary-adjacent portions of the movement (constriction release for a preboundary coda and constriction formation for a postboundary onset) are not differentially affected in terms of phrasal lengthening-both lengthen comparably.

Byrd, Dani; Lee, Sungbok; Riggs, Daylen; Adams, Jason

2005-12-01

155

Normative Topographic ERP Analyses of Speed of Speech Processing and Grammar Before and After Grammatical Treatment  

PubMed Central

Typically developing (TD) preschoolers and age-matched preschoolers with specific language impairment (SLI) received event-related potentials (ERPs) to four monosyllabic speech sounds prior to treatment and, in the SLI group, after 6 months of grammatical treatment. Before treatment, the TD group processed speech sounds faster than the SLI group. The SLI group increased the speed of their speech processing after treatment. Post-treatment speed of speech processing predicted later impairment in comprehending phrase elaboration in the SLI group. During the treatment phase, change in speed of speech processing predicted growth rate of grammar in the SLI group. PMID:24219693

Yoder, Paul J.; Molfese, Dennis; Murray, Micah M.; Key, Alexandra P. F.

2013-01-01

156

SWAHILI GRAMMAR AND SYNTAX. DUQUESNE STUDIES, AFRICAN SERIES 1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THIS COMPREHENSIVE STUDY OF SWAHILI, ONE OF THE BANTU LANGUAGES IN THE NIGER-CONGO GROUP, IS BASED ON THE AUTHOR'S 37 YEARS OF WRITING AND TEACHING EXPERIENCE IN EAST AFRICA. THE STUDY IS INTENDED TO PRESENT THE SWAHILI LANGUAGE IN TERMS OF ITS OWN STRUCTURE, RATHER THAN IN TERMS OF LATIN OR ENGLISH GRAMMARS. A PRELIMINARY SECTION IN PART ONE…

LOOGMAN, ALFONS

157

What Artificial Grammar Learning Reveals about the Neurobiology of Syntax  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper we examine the neurobiological correlates of syntax, the processing of structured sequences, by comparing FMRI results on artificial and natural language syntax. We discuss these and similar findings in the context of formal language and computability theory. We used a simple right-linear unification grammar in an implicit artificial…

Petersson, Karl-Magnus; Folia, Vasiliki; Hagoort, Peter

2012-01-01

158

Upending the Grammar of the Conventional Religious School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article provides an overview and analysis of a relatively new phenomenon: congregational schools that have altered the conventional grammar of schooling, either through their structural arrangements or through their curricular approaches. Five pre-bar/bat mitzvah models are discussed: family schools, schools as communities,…

Aron, Isa

2014-01-01

159

The difficult mountain: enriched composition in adjective–noun phrases  

PubMed Central

When readers need to go beyond the straightforward compositional meaning of a sentence (i.e., when enriched composition is required), costly additional processing is the norm. However, this conclusion is based entirely on research that has looked at enriched composition between two phrases or within the verb phrase (e.g., the verb and its complement in … started the book …) where there is a discrepancy between the semantic expectations of the verb and the semantics of the noun. We carried out an eye-tracking experiment investigating enriched composition within a single noun phrase, as in the difficult mountain. As compared with adjective–noun phrases that allow a straightforward compositional interpretation (the difficult exercise), the coerced phrases were more difficult to process. These results indicate that coercion effects can be found in the absence of a typing violation and within a single noun phrase. PMID:21826403

Pickering, Martin J.; McElree, Brian

2012-01-01

160

Adding and Subtracting Alternation: Resumption and Prepositional Phrase Chopping in Spanish Relative Clauses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This dissertation is a variationist account of two non-standard relative clause (RC) structures in Spanish: resumptive pronouns (RPs) and prepositional-phrase (PP) chopping. Previous typological studies considered RP explanations based on difficulty of processing (Hawkins, 1994), while Spanish-specific quantitative studies proposed a number of…

Cerron-Palomino Lopez, Alvaro

2010-01-01

161

Can Individuals with Down Syndrome Improve Their Grammar?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Morphosyntax constitutes one of the most complex areas of language. It takes into account the structure of the word and that of the sentence, and its development allows one to establish adequately agreements both within the nominal phrase and in the rest of the sentence. Morphosyntax is particularly impaired in individuals with Down syndrome. To…

Sepulveda, Esther Moraleda; Lopez-Villasenor, Miguel Lazaro; Heinze, Elena Garayzabal

2013-01-01

162

Learnable Classes of Categorial Grammars.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Learnability theory is an attempt to illuminate the concept of learnability using a mathematical model of learning. Two models of learning of categorial grammars are examined here: the standard model, in which sentences presented to the learner are flat strings of words, and one in which sentences are presented in the form of functor-argument…

Kanazawa, Makoto

163

Micmac Teaching Grammar. Preliminary Version.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This teaching grammar is designed primarily for university-level students, but may also be used for adult courses, high school classes, and in junior colleges. The text takes the transformational-generative approach to language, in which the notions of system, derivation, and relation are emphasized rather than categorization and classification.…

Delisle, Gilles L.; Metallic, Manny L.

164

A REFERENCE GRAMMAR OF BENGALI.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A REFERENCE GRAMMAR WAS PRODUCED FOR THE BENGALI LANGUAGE. THE WORK CONTAINS CHAPTERS ON--(1) SOCIAL AND HISTORICAL BACKGROUND, (2) HISTORY OF THE LANGUAGE, (3) SOURCES OF LEXICAL ITEMS, (4) ORTHOGRAPHY, (5) PHONOLOGY, (6) NOUN INFLECTIONS, (7) VERBS, (8) POSTPOSITIONS, (9) ENCLITICS, (10) NUMERALS, (11) NEGATION, (12) FORMATIVE AFFIXES IN…

RAY, PUNYA SLOKA; AND OTHERS

165

A Lifetime of Grammar Teaching  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author has worked as a language teacher, teacher educator, and second language acquisition (SLA) researcher for over forty years. During this time grammar has figured largely in his thinking, in part because it has traditionally been so central to language pedagogy and in part because he became fascinated with how the human mind grapples with…

Ellis, Rod

2012-01-01

166

A Grammar of Inupiaq Morphosyntax  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This dissertation is a reference grammar of the Malimiut Coastal dialect of Inupiaq (ISO: ESI, ESK, IPK), an Eskimo-Aleut language of northwestern Alaska spoken by the Inupiat people. It complements existing descriptions of Inupiaq by filling gaps in documentation. With approximately 2000 speakers, mainly above 50 years of age, Inupiaq is…

Lanz, Linda A.

2010-01-01

167

Readings in Applied Transformational Grammar.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This volume contains nineteen essays, dealing with various aspects of transformational grammar, by scholars such as Noam Chomsky, Eric H. Lenneberg, and Leon Jakobovits. These essays have been reprinted from sources such as "College English" and "Language Learning" and are intended for the most part for a nontechnical audience. The anthology is…

Lester, Mark, Ed.

168

Transformational Grammar and Cognitive Psycholinguistics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An overview of Noam Chomsky's theories about transformational grammar and phonology is given. Since Chomsky was interested in characterizing what it is to know a language, the ways in which we demonstrate knowledge of our native language are discussed in detail. Particular emphasis is placed on describing how the transformational approach actually…

Lester, Mark

1973-01-01

169

Essentials of Asheninka Perene Grammar  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The objective of this dissertation is to present a preliminary grammatical account of Asheninka Perene an endangered Arawak language of Southeastern Peru. The description and analysis of the language is based on the 29-week field research conducted in an area of the Southwest Amazonian high jungle. Interesting issues of Asheninka Perene grammar

Mihas, Elena

2010-01-01

170

Grammar Teaching Revisited: EFL Teachers between Grammar Abstinence and Formal Grammar Teaching  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study of English language teachers' cognitions and its relationship to teachers' classroom practices have recently been the focus of language teaching and teacher education (Borg, 2006 & 2010). However, rarely have the studies delved into teachers' knowledge about grammar (reviewed by Borg, 2001) or investigated the relationships between…

Nazari, Ahmad; Allahyar, Negah

2012-01-01

171

Prosodic Phrasing and Modifier Attachment in Standard Arabic Sentence Processing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This dissertation investigates the syntax-prosody interface in Standard Arabic, focusing on the ambiguity of a modifier (relative clause or adjective phrase) in relation to the two nouns in a complex noun phrase. Ambiguity resolution tendencies for this construction differ across languages, contrary to otherwise universal parsing tendencies. One…

Abdelghany, Hala

2010-01-01

172

Phonetic pitch movements of accentual phrases in Korean read speech  

E-print Network

Phonetic pitch movements of accentual phrases in Korean read speech Hyongsil Cho & Stéphane Rauzy phonetic pitch movements and accentual phrase boundaries using a technique of pattern extraction of prosodic units needs to be revised. The aim of this study is to examine the role of phonetic pitch

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

173

An open source grammar development environment and broad-coverage English grammar using HPSG  

Microsoft Academic Search

The LinGO (Linguistic Grammars Online) project's English Resource Grammar and the LKB grammar development environment are language resources which are freely available for download for any purpose, including commercial use (see http:\\/\\/lingo.stanford.edu). Executable programs and source code are both included. In this paper, we give an outline of the LinGO English grammar and LKB system, and discuss the ways in

Ann Copestake; Dan Flickinger

2000-01-01

174

Grammar-Based Systems: Definition and Examples  

Microsoft Academic Search

Formal language theory is an important part of theoretical computer science and also has been applied in many practical applications. The importance of context-free grammars and attribute grammars for compiler construction and automatic generation for compilers\\/interpreters is already well known. However, grammars can be found in many other applications which are not so related to their original application-language description and

Marjan Mernik; Matej Crepin Sek; Toma Z Kosar; Damijan Rebernak

175

Longman Grammar of Spoken and Written English  

Microsoft Academic Search

IntroductionSince its publication in 1985, the outstanding 1,800-page Comprehensive Grammar of theEnglish Language, by Randolph Quirk, Sidney Greenbaum, Geoffrey Leech, and JanSvartvik, has been the definitive description of the grammar of English and an in-.dispensable reference for any research in the analysis or generation of English thatattempts serious coverage of the syntactic phenomena of the language. The new LongmanGrammar of

Douglas Biber; Stig Johansson; Geoffrey Leech; Susan Conrad; Edward Finegan

1999-01-01

176

Traditional Grammar: An Interactive Book  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Is traditional grammar dead? Donald Hardy, a professor of English at Northern Illinois University, doesn't think so. He recently posted this "e-grammar" on the Web to help teach users how to distinguish their nouns from their verbs, their nominative cases from their subjunctives, and their present perfect from their past. The descriptions are clear and concise, while quizzes at the end of each chapter as well as five practice exams allow readers to test their retention and keep track electronically of their score. (We were not convinced, however, that the typical exemplifications of the rules that are the core of each chapter truly constitute an "interactive" aspect of the text as the introduction claims.)

177

Kent Sakoda Discusses Pidgin Grammar  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For a number of years, Kent Sakoda has been teaching at the University of Hawai'i at Manoa in the Department of Second Language Studies. His course, "Pidgin and Creole English in Hawai'i," is popular among students on campus. He has also taught at Hawai'i Pacific University. Because of his expertise on the grammar of Pidgin (Hawai'i Creole),…

Sakoda, Kent; Tamura, Eileen H.

2008-01-01

178

RNA modeling using Gibbs sampling and stochastic context free grammars  

SciTech Connect

A new method of discovering the common secondary structure of a family of homologous RNA sequences using Gibbs sampling and stochastic context-free grammars is proposed. Given an unaligned set of sequences, a Gibbs sampling step simultaneously estimates the secondary structure of each sequence and a set of statistical parameters describing the common secondary structure of the set as a whole. These parameters describe a statistical model of the family. After the Gibbs sampling has produced a crude statistical model for the family, this model is translated into a stochastic context-free grammar, which is then refined by an Expectation Maximization (EM) procedure to produce a more complete model. A prototype implementation of the method is tested on tRNA, pieces of 16S rRNA and on U5 snRNA with good results.

Grate, L.; Herbster, M.; Rughey, R.; Haussler, D. [Univ. of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States)] [and others

1994-12-31

179

A relationship: word alignment, phrase table, and translation quality.  

PubMed

In the last years, researchers conducted several studies to evaluate the machine translation quality based on the relationship between word alignments and phrase table. However, existing methods usually employ ad-hoc heuristics without theoretical support. So far, there is no discussion from the aspect of providing a formula to describe the relationship among word alignments, phrase table, and machine translation performance. In this paper, on one hand, we focus on formulating such a relationship for estimating the size of extracted phrase pairs given one or more word alignment points. On the other hand, a corpus-motivated pruning technique is proposed to prune the default large phrase table. Experiment proves that the deduced formula is feasible, which not only can be used to predict the size of the phrase table, but also can be a valuable reference for investigating the relationship between the translation performance and phrase tables based on different links of word alignment. The corpus-motivated pruning results show that nearly 98% of phrases can be reduced without any significant loss in translation quality. PMID:24883402

Tian, Liang; Wong, Derek F; Chao, Lidia S; Oliveira, Francisco

2014-01-01

180

Nigel: a systemic grammar for text generation  

SciTech Connect

Programming a computer to write text which meets a prior need is a challenging research task. As part of such research, Nigel, a large programmed grammar of English, has been created in the framework of systemic linguistics begun by Halliday. In addition to specifying function and structures of English, Nigel has a novel semantic stratum which specifies the situations in which each grammatical feature should be used. The report consists of three papers on Nigel: an introductory overview, the script of a demonstration of its use in generation, and an exposition of how Nigel relates to the systemic framework. Although the effort to develop Nigel is significant both as computer science research and as linguistic inquiry the outlook of the report is oriented to its linguistic significance.

Mann, W.C.; Matthiessen, C.M.

1983-02-01

181

Phrase-programmable digital speech system  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a phrase speaking computer system having a programmable digital computer and a speech processor, the speech processor comprising: a voice synthesizer; a read/write speech data segment memory; a read/write command memory; control processor means including processor control programs and logic connecting to the memories and to the voice synthesizer. It is arranged to scan the command memory and to respond to command data entries stored therein by transferring corresponding speech data segments from the speech data segment memory to the voice synthesizer; data conveyance means, connecting the computer to the command memory and the speech data segment memory, for transferring the command data entries supplied by the computer into the command memory and for transferring the speech data segments supplied by the computer into the speech data segment memory; and an enable signal line connecting the computer to the speech processor and arranged to initiate the operation of the processor control programs and logic when the enable signal line is enabled by the computer; the programmable computer including speech control programs controlling the operation of the computer including data conveyance command sequences that cause the computer to supply command data entries to the data conveyance means and speech processor enabling command sequences that cause computer to energize the enable signal line.

Raymond, W.J.; Morgan, R.L.; Miller, R.L.

1987-01-27

182

Metrical presentation boosts implicit learning of artificial grammar.  

PubMed

The present study investigated whether a temporal hierarchical structure favors implicit learning. An artificial pitch grammar implemented with a set of tones was presented in two different temporal contexts, notably with either a strongly metrical structure or an isochronous structure. According to the Dynamic Attending Theory, external temporal regularities can entrain internal oscillators that guide attention over time, allowing for temporal expectations that influence perception of future events. Based on this framework, it was hypothesized that the metrical structure provides a benefit for artificial grammar learning in comparison to an isochronous presentation. Our study combined behavioral and event-related potential measurements. Behavioral results demonstrated similar learning in both participant groups. By contrast, analyses of event-related potentials showed a larger P300 component and an earlier N2 component for the strongly metrical group during the exposure phase and the test phase, respectively. These findings suggests that the temporal expectations in the strongly metrical condition helped listeners to better process the pitch dimension, leading to improved learning of the artificial grammar. PMID:25372147

Selchenkova, Tatiana; François, Clément; Schön, Daniele; Corneyllie, Alexandra; Perrin, Fabien; Tillmann, Barbara

2014-01-01

183

Learning Probabilistic Tree Grammars for Genetic Programming  

E-print Network

Learning Probabilistic Tree Grammars for Genetic Programming Peter A.N. Bosman Edwin D. de Jong.cs.uu.nl #12;Learning Probabilistic Tree Grammars for Genetic Programming Peter A.N. Bosman and Edwin D. de Utrecht, The Netherlands {Peter.Bosman, dejong}@cs.uu.nl Abstract. Genetic Programming (GP) provides

Utrecht, Universiteit

184

A Grammar for Undergraduate Old French.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Seeking to determine the necessary elements of a grammar for undergraduate students with a strong interest in Old French, the author discusses: (1) sounds, (2) forms, (3) syntax, and (4) poetics. It is felt that the treatment accorded phonology should be different from the traditional approach used in graduate level grammars, since the course is…

Kelly, Douglas

185

Modeling Piinian Grammar Peter M. Scharf  

E-print Network

the implementation of generative grammars and parsers of Sanskrit using various methodologies which have varying to implement a few aspects of Sanskrit grammar computationally, comments upon the degree to which they approach with in some detail: the question of levels and the role of semantics. I. Differences among the Sanskrit

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

186

Grammar and Usage: History and Myth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper first traces the history of thinking about language from the Greek writers of the fifth century BC to the development of the first Greek grammar in about 100 BC. Since the glories of Ancient Greek literature predate the development of grammar, there is every reason to doubt the received wisdom that one must have an explicit knowledge of…

Watson, Ken

2010-01-01

187

Studies in French Grammar and Phonology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The monograph contains two papers. The first presents a generative grammar for verbal forms in French. It consists of an ordered set of rewrite rules and a set of tables. It generates all existing verbal forms without generating any non-existing ones. The departure from an ordinary generative grammar lies in the use of a tabular form for…

Benguerel, Andre-Pierre; Grundstrom, Allan W.

188

Synchronization of grammars Didier Caucal Stephane Hassen  

E-print Network

the transition graphs of pushdown automata. We define the notion of synchronization by grammars, generalizing the synchronization at a graph level. The transition graphs of the pushdown automata are generated hal-00620185@univ-mlv.fr shassen@univ-reunion.fr Abstract. Deterministic graph grammars are finite devices which gen- erate

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

189

Towards a Pedagogy of Grammar Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Grammar can be viewed both as knowledge and as ability. When viewed as knowledge, the focus is on rules for sentence formation. When viewed as ability, the focus is on how grammar is used as a resource in the creation of spoken and written texts. Twelve principles are proposed as the basis for a pedagogy that focusses on acquiring learning to use…

Richards, Jack C.; Reppen, Randi

2014-01-01

190

Studying Grammar in the Technological Age  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When being a student in grade school as well as in high school (1934-1946), grammar was heavily emphasized in English/language arts classes, particularly in grades four through the senior year in high school. Evidently, teachers and school administrators then saw a theoretical way to assist pupils in writing achievement. Grammar and writing were…

Ediger, Marlow

2012-01-01

191

Flexible Processing and the Design of Grammar  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We explore the consequences of letting the incremental and integrative nature of language processing inform the design of competence grammar. What emerges is a view of grammar as a system of local monotonic constraints that provide a direct characterization of the signs (the form-meaning correspondences) of a given language. This…

Sag, Ivan A.; Wasow, Thomas

2015-01-01

192

Reading and Grammar Learning through Mobile Phones  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes an ongoing language-learning project, three years into its development. We examine both the feasibility and the limitations of developing English reading and grammar skills through the interface of mobile phones. Throughout the project, reading and grammar materials were regularly sent to students' mobile phones. Students…

Wang, Shudong; Smith, Simon

2013-01-01

193

Can the Grammar of Schooling Be Changed?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article we propose that the grammar of schooling [Tyack, D., & Tobin, W. (1994). "The 'grammar' of schooling: Why has it been so hard to change?" "American Educational Research Journal, 31"(3), 453-479.] is responsible not only for the well-known and world-wide difficulties in integrating ICT into formal educational settings, but also for…

Arbelaiz, Asuncion Martinez; Correa Gorospe, Jose Miguel

2009-01-01

194

Romanian Grammar Workbook for Peace Corps Volunteers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed as a reference tool for continued language learning beyond the beginning level, this workbook provides explanations and sets of exercises for learning, practicing, and understanding the major points of Romanian grammar. The manual contains 11 units on certain grammar problems for use with a tutor or under self-guided learning…

Peace Corps (Moldova).

195

NLML - a Markup Language to Describe the Unlimited English Grammar  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present NLML (Natural Language Markup Language), a markup\\u000alanguage to describe the syntactic and semantic structure of any grammatically\\u000acorrect English expression. At first the related works are analyzed to\\u000ademonstrate the necessity of the NLML: simple form, easy management and direct\\u000astorage. Then the description of the English grammar with NLML is introduced in\\u000adetails

Jiyou Jia

2004-01-01

196

Attribute grammars and data-flow languages  

SciTech Connect

The author examines the similarity between attribute grammars and data-flow languages. For any attribute grammar there is a data-flow program that is an evaluator for it, and the author describes how to build this data-flow program. The design of semantic functions for an attribute grammar is seen to be a problem of programming in a data-flow language. Reinterpreting experience writing attribute grammars, he suggests some techniques to use in data-flow programming and proposes language features that will support them. He also proposes using data-flow notation to specify the semantic functions of attribute grammars and implementing attribute evaluators in a data-flow language. 37 references.

Farrow, R.

1983-06-01

197

Cyclicity and the scope of wh-phrases  

E-print Network

This thesis argues that in a constituent question with a universal quantifier, syntactic reconstruction of the wh-phrase below the quantifier is the source of scope ambiguities. In particular, I argue, based on the interaction ...

Aguero Bautista, Calixto

2001-01-01

198

MINING MEDLINE: ABSTRACTS, SENTENCES, OR PHRASES? , D. BERLEANTa,d  

E-print Network

deep, fully automated literature analysis via natural language understanding (NLU) is an intriguing, sentences, or phrases. The most basic way to "mine" MEDLINE is simply to use the PUBMED Web interface.8

Wurtele, Eve Syrkin

199

Neural network architectures for Prepositional Phrase attachment disambiguation  

E-print Network

This thesis addresses the problem of Prepositional Phrase (PP) attachment disambiguation, a key challenge in syntactic parsing. In natural language sentences, a PP may often be attached to several possible candidates. While ...

Belinkov, Yonatan

2014-01-01

200

Providing a unified account of definite noun phrases in discourse  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper focuses on particular phenomena of this sort-the use of various referring expressions such as def'mite noun phrases and pronouns-and examines their interaction with mechanisms used to maintain discourse coherence

Barbara J. Grosz; Aravind K. Joshi; Scott Weinstein

1983-01-01

201

Nicht-referentielle Nominalphrasen (Non-Referential Noun Phrases)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Appeared as Working Report No. 21 of the Linguistic Institute of the University of Cologne; critical observations on S. Kuno's Some Properties of Non-Refential Noun Phrases,'' in Studies in General and Oriental Linguistics, 1970. (RS)

Leys, Odo

1973-01-01

202

Accent phrase segmentation using transition probabilities between pitch pattern templates.   

E-print Network

This paper proposes a novel method for segmenting continuous speech into accent phrases by using a prosodic feature 'pitch pattern'. The pitch pattern extracted from input speech signals is divided into the accent segments ...

Shimodaira, Hiroshi; Nakai, Mitsuru

1993-01-01

203

"Survival of the Fittest" - How the Phrase Has Survived.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the origin and intended meaning of the phrase "survival of the fittest." Traces the concept of "fitness" in a neo-Darwinian sense and outlines the use of the term in other contexts. (Author/MA)

Roberts, Boyd

1979-01-01

204

Developing rich and quickly accessed knowledge of an artificial grammar.  

PubMed

In contrast to prior research, our results demonstrate that it is possible to acquire rich, highly accurate, and quickly accessed knowledge of an artificial grammar. Across two experiments, we trained participants by using a string-edit task and highlighting relatively low-level (letters), medium-level (chunks), or high-level (structural; i.e., grammar diagram) information to increase the efficiency of grammar acquisition. In both experiments, participants who had structural information available during training generated more highly accurate strings during a cued generation test than did those in other conditions, with equivalent speed. Experiment 2 revealed that structural information enhanced acquisition only when relevant features were highlighted during the task using animation. We suggest that two critical components for producing enhanced performance from provided model-based knowledge involve (1) using the model to acquire experience-based knowledge, rather than using a representation of the model to generate responses, and (2) receiving that knowledge precisely when it is needed during training. PMID:18265626

Sallas, Bill; Mathews, Robert C; Lane, Sean M; Sun, Ron

2007-12-01

205

An Analysis of Spoken Grammar: The Case for Production  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Corpus-based grammars, notably "Cambridge Grammar of English," give explicit information on the forms and use of native-speaker grammar, including spoken grammar. Native-speaker norms as a necessary goal in language teaching are contested by supporters of English as a Lingua Franca (ELF); however, this article argues for the inclusion of selected…

Mumford, Simon

2009-01-01

206

Shape grammars and grammatical evolution for evolutionary design  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe the first steps in the adoption of Shape Grammars with Grammatical Evolution for application in Evolutionary Design. Combining the concepts of Shape Grammars and Genetic Programming opens up the exciting possibility of truly generative design assist tools. In this initial study we provide some background on the adoption of grammar-based Genetic Programming for Evolutionary Design, describe Shape Grammars,

Michael O'neill; John Mark Swafford; James Mcdermott; Jonathan Byrne; Anthony Brabazon; Elizabeth Shotton; Ciaran Mcnally; Martin Hemberg

2009-01-01

207

What English Teachers Need to Know about Grammar.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggests that English teachers need to know that grammar is a difficult subject; know what children know about grammar; know that grammatical error is complex; and know more about language than just grammar. Concludes with the advice of Noam Chomsky--that grammar should be taught for its own intrinsic interest. (RS)

Murdick, William

1996-01-01

208

A new method of cardiographic image segmentation based on grammar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The measurement of the most common ultrasound parameters, such as aortic area, mitral area and left ventricle (LV) volume, requires the delineation of the organ in order to estimate the area. In terms of medical image processing this translates into the need to segment the image and define the contours as accurately as possible. The aim of this work is to segment an image and make an automated area estimation based on grammar. The entity "language" will be projected to the entity "image" to perform structural analysis and parsing of the image. We will show how the idea of segmentation and grammar-based area estimation is applied to real problems of cardio-graphic image processing.

Hamdi, Salah; Ben Abdallah, Asma; Bedoui, Mohamed H.; Alimi, Adel M.

2011-10-01

209

Modelling dynamics with context-free grammars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article presents a strategy to model the dynamics performed by vehicles in a freeway. The proposal consists on encode the movement as a set of finite states. A watershed-based segmentation is used to localize regions with high-probability of motion. Each state represents a proportion of a camera projection in a two-dimensional space, where each state is associated to a symbol, such that any combination of symbols is expressed as a language. Starting from a sequence of symbols through a linear algorithm a free-context grammar is inferred. This grammar represents a hierarchical view of common sequences observed into the scene. Most probable grammar rules express common rules associated to normal movement behavior. Less probable rules express themselves a way to quantify non-common behaviors and they might need more attention. Finally, all sequences of symbols that does not match with the grammar rules, may express itself uncommon behaviors (abnormal). The grammar inference is built with several sequences of images taken from a freeway. Testing process uses the sequence of symbols emitted by the scenario, matching the grammar rules with common freeway behaviors. The process of detect abnormal/normal behaviors is managed as the task of verify if any word generated by the scenario is recognized by the grammar.

García-Huerta, Juan-M.; Jiménez-Hernández, Hugo; Herrera-Navarro, Ana-M.; Hernández-Díaz, Teresa; Terol-Villalobos, Ivan

2014-03-01

210

ANTLR Tree Grammar Generator and Extensions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A computer program implements two extensions of ANTLR (Another Tool for Language Recognition), which is a set of software tools for translating source codes between different computing languages. ANTLR supports predicated- LL(k) lexer and parser grammars, a notation for annotating parser grammars to direct tree construction, and predicated tree grammars. [ LL(k) signifies left-right, leftmost derivation with k tokens of look-ahead, referring to certain characteristics of a grammar.] One of the extensions is a syntax for tree transformations. The other extension is the generation of tree grammars from annotated parser or input tree grammars. These extensions can simplify the process of generating source-to-source language translators and they make possible an approach, called "polyphase parsing," to translation between computing languages. The typical approach to translator development is to identify high-level semantic constructs such as "expressions," "declarations," and "definitions" as fundamental building blocks in the grammar specification used for language recognition. The polyphase approach is to lump ambiguous syntactic constructs during parsing and then disambiguate the alternatives in subsequent tree transformation passes. Polyphase parsing is believed to be useful for generating efficient recognizers for C++ and other languages that, like C++, have significant ambiguities.

Craymer, Loring

2005-01-01

211

Overview of the Nigel text generation grammar  

SciTech Connect

Research on the text generation task has led to creation of a large systemic grammar of English, Nigel, which is embedded in a computer program. The grammar and the systemic framework have been extended by addition of a semantic stratum. The grammar generates sentences and other units under several kinds of experimental control. This paper describes augmentations of various precedents in the systematic framework. The emphasis is on developments which control the text to fulfill a purpose, and on characteristics which make Nigel relatively easy to embed in a larger experimental program.

Mann, W.C.

1983-04-01

212

Terminal context in context-sensitive grammars.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Investigation of the conditions whereunder context-sensitive grammars generate context-free languages. The obtained results indicate that, if every noncontext-free rewriting rule of a context-sensitive grammar has as left context a string of terminal symbols and the left context is at least as long as the right context, then the language generated is context-free. Likewise, if every noncontext-free rewriting rule of a context-sensitive grammar has strings of terminal symbols as left and right contexts, then the language generated is also context-free.

Book, R. V.

1972-01-01

213

Lexical noun phrases in texts written by deaf children and adults with different proficiency levels in sign language  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report an analysis of lexical noun phrases (NPs) in narrative and expository texts written by Dutch deaf individuals from a bimodal bilingual perspective. Texts written by Dutch deaf children and adults who are either proficient in Sign Language of the Netherlands (SLN) or low-proficient in SLN were compared on structures that either overlap in Dutch and SLN (presence of

Liesbeth Maria van Beijsterveldt; Janet van Hell

2010-01-01

214

Lexical Noun Phrases in Texts Written by Deaf Children and Adults with Different Proficiency Levels in Sign Language  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We report an analysis of lexical noun phrases (NPs) in narrative and expository texts written by Dutch deaf individuals from a bimodal bilingual perspective. Texts written by Dutch deaf children and adults who are either proficient in Sign Language of the Netherlands (SLN) or low-proficient in SLN were compared on structures that either overlap in…

van Beijsterveldt, Liesbeth Maria; van Hell, Janet

2010-01-01

215

The Processing and Interpretation of Verb Phrase Ellipsis Constructions by Children at Normal and Slowed Speech Rates  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To examine children's comprehension of verb phrase (VP) ellipsis constructions in light of their automatic, online structural processing abilities and conscious, metalinguistic reflective skill. Method: Forty-two children ages 5 through 12 years listened to VP ellipsis constructions involving the strict/sloppy ambiguity (e.g., "The…

Callahan, Sarah M.; Walenski, Matthew; Love, Tracy

2012-01-01

216

The grammar of transcriptional regulation.  

PubMed

Eukaryotes employ combinatorial strategies to generate a variety of expression patterns from a relatively small set of regulatory DNA elements. As in any other language, deciphering the mapping between DNA and expression requires an understanding of the set of rules that govern basic principles in transcriptional regulation, the functional elements involved, and the ways in which they combine to orchestrate a transcriptional output. Here, we review the current understanding of various grammatical rules, including the effect on expression of the number of transcription factor binding sites, their location, orientation, affinity and activity; co-association with different factors; and intrinsic nucleosome organization. We review different methods that are used to study the grammar of transcription regulation, highlight gaps in current understanding, and discuss how recent technological advances may be utilized to bridge them. PMID:24390306

Weingarten-Gabbay, Shira; Segal, Eran

2014-06-01

217

Flexible processing and the design of grammar.  

PubMed

We explore the consequences of letting the incremental and integrative nature of language processing inform the design of competence grammar. What emerges is a view of grammar as a system of local monotonic constraints that provide a direct characterization of the signs (the form-meaning correspondences) of a given language. This "sign-based" conception of grammar has provided precise solutions to the key problems long thought to motivate movement-based analyses, has supported three decades of computational research developing large-scale grammar implementations, and is now beginning to play a role in computational psycholinguistics research that explores the use of underspecification in the incremental computation of partial meanings. PMID:25385276

Sag, Ivan A; Wasow, Thomas

2015-02-01

218

Probabilistic geometric grammars for object recognition  

E-print Network

This thesis presents a generative three-dimensional (3D) representation and recognition framework for classes of objects. The framework uses probabilistic grammars to represent object classes recursively in terms of their ...

Aycinena, Margaret Aida

2005-01-01

219

Grammar Inference, Automata Induction, and Language Acquisition  

E-print Network

Grammar Inference, Automata Induction, and Language Acquisition Rajesh Parekh Allstate Research and Planning Center 321 Middlefield Road, Menlo Park CA 94025 e­mail: rpare@allstate.com Vasant Honavar \\Lambda

Honavar, Vasant

220

Learning simple and complex artificial grammars in the presence of a semantic reference field: effects on performance and awareness.  

PubMed

This study investigated whether the negative effect of complexity on artificial grammar learning could be compensated by adding semantics. Participants were exposed to exemplars from a simple or a complex finite state grammar presented with or without a semantic reference field. As expected, performance on a grammaticality judgment test was higher for the simple grammar than for the complex grammar. For the simple grammar, the results also showed that participants presented with a reference field and instructed to decode the meaning of each exemplar (decoding condition) did better than participants who memorized the exemplars without semantic referents (memorize condition). Contrary to expectations, however, there was no significant difference between the decoding condition and the memorize condition for the complex grammar. These findings indicated that the negative effect of complexity remained, despite the addition of semantics. To clarify how the presence of a reference field influenced the learning process, its effects on the acquisition of two types of knowledge (first- and second-order dependencies) and on participants' awareness of their knowledge were examined. The results tentatively suggested that the reference field enhanced the learning of second-order dependencies. In addition, participants in the decoding condition realized when they had knowledge relevant to making a grammaticality judgment, whereas participants in the memorize condition demonstrated some knowledge of which they were unaware. These results are in line with the view that the reference field enhanced structure learning by making certain dependencies more salient. Moreover, our findings stress the influence of complexity on artificial grammar learning. PMID:25745408

Van den Bos, Esther; Poletiek, Fenna H

2015-01-01

221

Learning simple and complex artificial grammars in the presence of a semantic reference field: effects on performance and awareness  

PubMed Central

This study investigated whether the negative effect of complexity on artificial grammar learning could be compensated by adding semantics. Participants were exposed to exemplars from a simple or a complex finite state grammar presented with or without a semantic reference field. As expected, performance on a grammaticality judgment test was higher for the simple grammar than for the complex grammar. For the simple grammar, the results also showed that participants presented with a reference field and instructed to decode the meaning of each exemplar (decoding condition) did better than participants who memorized the exemplars without semantic referents (memorize condition). Contrary to expectations, however, there was no significant difference between the decoding condition and the memorize condition for the complex grammar. These findings indicated that the negative effect of complexity remained, despite the addition of semantics. To clarify how the presence of a reference field influenced the learning process, its effects on the acquisition of two types of knowledge (first- and second-order dependencies) and on participants' awareness of their knowledge were examined. The results tentatively suggested that the reference field enhanced the learning of second-order dependencies. In addition, participants in the decoding condition realized when they had knowledge relevant to making a grammaticality judgment, whereas participants in the memorize condition demonstrated some knowledge of which they were unaware. These results are in line with the view that the reference field enhanced structure learning by making certain dependencies more salient. Moreover, our findings stress the influence of complexity on artificial grammar learning. PMID:25745408

Van den Bos, Esther; Poletiek, Fenna H.

2015-01-01

222

Grammar Alive! A Guide for Teachers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed to be a resource for the myriad K-12 teachers who wonder what to do about grammar--how to teach it, how to apply it, how to learn what they themselves were never taught---this book offers an informal, hands-on approach to grammar in the classroom. The book presents teachers with ways to negotiate the often conflicting goals of testing,…

Haussamen, Brock

223

The Cambridge Grammar of the English Language  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: king these assumptions explicit, perhaps by using the book asthe basis for a large-scale computational grammar, very likely one in the tradition ofPullum's earlier work (Gazdar et al. 1985). Such a project, although very worthwhile,would probably be too long-term for most of us, so we now turn to other ways inwhich the availability of the grammar may enhance the

Rodney Huddleston; Geoffrey K. Pullum

2002-01-01

224

Silver: an Extensible Attribute Grammar System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attribute grammar specification languages, like many domain-specific languages, oer significant advantages to their users, such as high-level declarative constructs and domain-specific analyses. Despite these advantages, attribute grammars are of- ten not adopted to the degree that their proponents envision. One practical obstacle to their adoption is a perceived lack of both domain-specific and general purpose language features needed to address

Eric Van Wyk; Derek Bodin; Jimin Gao; Lijesh Krishnan

2008-01-01

225

System, method and apparatus for generating phrases from a database  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A phrase generation is a method of generating sequences of terms, such as phrases, that may occur within a database of subsets containing sequences of terms, such as text. A database is provided and a relational model of the database is created. A query is then input. The query includes a term or a sequence of terms or multiple individual terms or multiple sequences of terms or combinations thereof. Next, several sequences of terms that are contextually related to the query are assembled from contextual relations in the model of the database. The sequences of terms are then sorted and output. Phrase generation can also be an iterative process used to produce sequences of terms from a relational model of a database.

McGreevy, Michael W. (Inventor)

2004-01-01

226

Application of Montague grammar to English-Japanese machine translation  

SciTech Connect

English-Japanese machine translation requires a large amount of structural transformation in both grammatical and conceptual level. In order to make the control structure clearer and more understandable, this paper proposes a model based on Montague grammar. The translation process is modelled as a data flow computation process. Formal description tools are developed and a prototype system is constructed. Various problems which arise in this modelling and their solutions are described. Results of experiments are shown and the extent to which initial goals are achieved is discussed. 14 references.

Nishida, T.; Doshita, S.

1983-01-01

227

A stochastic context free grammar based framework for analysis of protein sequences  

PubMed Central

Background In the last decade, there have been many applications of formal language theory in bioinformatics such as RNA structure prediction and detection of patterns in DNA. However, in the field of proteomics, the size of the protein alphabet and the complexity of relationship between amino acids have mainly limited the application of formal language theory to the production of grammars whose expressive power is not higher than stochastic regular grammars. However, these grammars, like other state of the art methods, cannot cover any higher-order dependencies such as nested and crossing relationships that are common in proteins. In order to overcome some of these limitations, we propose a Stochastic Context Free Grammar based framework for the analysis of protein sequences where grammars are induced using a genetic algorithm. Results This framework was implemented in a system aiming at the production of binding site descriptors. These descriptors not only allow detection of protein regions that are involved in these sites, but also provide insight in their structure. Grammars were induced using quantitative properties of amino acids to deal with the size of the protein alphabet. Moreover, we imposed some structural constraints on grammars to reduce the extent of the rule search space. Finally, grammars based on different properties were combined to convey as much information as possible. Evaluation was performed on sites of various sizes and complexity described either by PROSITE patterns, domain profiles or a set of patterns. Results show the produced binding site descriptors are human-readable and, hence, highlight biologically meaningful features. Moreover, they achieve good accuracy in both annotation and detection. In addition, findings suggest that, unlike current state-of-the-art methods, our system may be particularly suited to deal with patterns shared by non-homologous proteins. Conclusion A new Stochastic Context Free Grammar based framework has been introduced allowing the production of binding site descriptors for analysis of protein sequences. Experiments have shown that not only is this new approach valid, but produces human-readable descriptors for binding sites which have been beyond the capability of current machine learning techniques. PMID:19814800

Dyrka, Witold; Nebel, Jean-Christophe

2009-01-01

228

Learning English Grammar with a Corpus: Experimenting with Concordancing in a University Grammar Course  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Corpora have been used for pedagogical purposes for more than two decades but empirical studies are relatively rare, particularly in the context of grammar teaching. The present study focuses on students' attitudes towards grammar and how these attitudes are affected by the introduction of concordancing. The principal aims of the project were to…

Vannestal, Maria Estling; Lindquist, Hans

2007-01-01

229

Conceptualisations of "Grammar Teaching": L1 English Teachers' Beliefs about Teaching Grammar for Writing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports on an investigation of L1 English teachers' conceptual and evaluative beliefs about teaching grammar, one strand of a larger Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC)-funded investigation into the impact of contextualised grammar teaching [RES-062-23-0775]. Thirty-one teachers in English secondary schools were interviewed…

Watson, Annabel Mary

2015-01-01

230

A SPARSE REPRESENTATION-BASED CLASSIFIER FOR IN-SET BIRD PHRASE VERIFICATION AND CLASSIFICATION WITH LIMITED TRAINING DATA  

E-print Network

A SPARSE REPRESENTATION-BASED CLASSIFIER FOR IN-SET BIRD PHRASE VERIFICATION AND CLASSIFICATION-set bird phrase verification and classification is studied. The database contains phrases segmented from, for in-set bird phrase verification using a limited number of training tokens (3 - 7) per phrase class

Alwan, Abeer

231

Phonological Phrase Boundaries Constrain Lexical Access II. Infant Data  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The location of phonological phrase boundaries was shown to affect lexical access by English-learning infants of 10 and 13 months of age. Experiments 1 and 2 used the head-turn preference procedure: infants were familiarized with two bisyllabic words, then presented with sentences that either contained the familiarized words or contained both…

Gout, A.; Christophe, A.; Morgan, J. L.

2004-01-01

232

Phonological Phrase Boundaries Constrain Lexical Access I. Adult Data  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We tested the effect of local lexical ambiguities while manipulating the type of prosodic boundary at which the ambiguity occurred, using French sentences and participants. We observed delayed lexical access when a local lexical ambiguity occurred within a phonological phrase (consistent with previous research; e.g., '[un chat grincheux],'…

Christophe, A.; Peperkamp, S.; Pallier, C.; Block, E.; Mehler, J.

2004-01-01

233

Hyphens for Disambiguating Phrases: Effectiveness for Young and Older Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to investigate whether hyphens that disambiguate phrasing in ambiguous sentences influence reading rate and reading comprehension for younger and older adults. Moreover, as working memory (WM) has been implicated in age-related changes in sentence comprehension for both auditory and written materials, we asked if it…

Anema, Inge; Obler, Loraine K.

2012-01-01

234

Mining Search-Phrase Definitions from Item Descriptions  

E-print Network

. For example, a shoe store may subscribe to advertise its "NIKE Airmax 180" product as "running shoes" by specifying the triplet . This triplet indicates that whenever a web search phrase mentions "run- ning shoes" or a web site contains "running shoes

Davulcu, Hasan

235

THE PHONETICS AND PHONOLOGY OF INTONATIONAL PHRASING IN ROMANCE*  

E-print Network

THE PHONETICS AND PHONOLOGY OF INTONATIONAL PHRASING IN ROMANCE* SĂ?NIA FROTA1 , MARIAPAOLA D, 5 Universidade do Minho Abstract This paper examines the phonetics and phonology of intonational rise (H) and sustained pitch (!H). A detailed analysis of the phonetics of the H boundary tone, which

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

236

How Listeners Weight Acoustic Cues to Intonational Phrase Boundaries  

PubMed Central

The presence of an intonational phrase boundary is often marked by three major acoustic cues: pause, final lengthening, and pitch reset. The present study investigates how these three acoustic cues are weighted in the perception of intonational phrase boundaries in two experiments. Sentences that contained two intonational phrases with a critical boundary between them were used as the experimental stimuli. The roles of the three acoustic cues at the critical boundary were manipulated in five conditions. The first condition featured none of the acoustic cues. The following three conditions featured only one cue each: pause, final lengthening, and pitch reset, respectively. The fifth condition featured both pause duration and pre-final lengthening. A baseline condition was also included in which all three acoustic cues were preserved intact. Listeners were asked to detect the presence of the critical boundaries in Experiment 1 and judge the strength of the critical boundaries in Experiment 2. The results of both experiments showed that listeners used all three acoustic cues in the perception of prosodic boundaries. More importantly, these acoustic cues were weighted differently across the two experiments: Pause was a more powerful perceptual cue than both final lengthening and pitch reset, with the latter two cues perceptually equivalent; the effect of pause and the effects of the other two acoustic cues were not additive. These results suggest that the weighting of acoustic cues contributes significantly to the perceptual differences of intonational phrase boundary. PMID:25019156

Yang, Xiaohong; Shen, Xiangrong; Li, Weijun; Yang, Yufang

2014-01-01

237

Lexical Entrainment and Lexical Differentiation in Reference Phrase Choice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Speakers reuse prior references to objects when choosing reference phrases, a phenomenon known as lexical entrainment. One explanation is that speakers want to maintain a set of previously established referential precedents. Speakers may also contrast any new referents against this previously established set, thereby avoiding applying the same…

Van Der Wege, Mija M.

2009-01-01

238

Lexical Access during the Production of Idiomatic Phrases  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In three experiments we test the assumption that idioms have their own lexical entry, which is linked to its constituent lemmas (Cutting & Bock, 1997). Speakers produced idioms or literal phrases (Experiment 1), completed idioms (Experiment 2), or switched between idiom completion and naming (Experiment 3). The results of Experiment 1 show that…

Sprenger, Simone A.; Levelt, Willem J. M.; Kempen, Gerard

2006-01-01

239

Interactive Visual Editing of Grammars for Procedural Architecture Markus Lipp  

E-print Network

Interactive Visual Editing of Grammars for Procedural Architecture Markus Lipp Peter Wonka Michael Wimmer Vienna University of Technology Arizona State University Figure 1: Screenshots from our real: Procedural Modeling, Architectural Modeling, Us- ability, Shape Grammars 1 Introduction {lipp|wimmer

240

An Incremental Interactive Algorithm for Regular Grammar Inference \\Lambda  

E-print Network

, and directions for future research. 1.1 Regular Grammars and Finite State Automata 0 Q a b b Q 1 Figure 1: Finite by the grammar can contain only terminals. Finite State Automata (FSA) are recognizers for regular grammars State Automaton a b 3 b S 0 S 1 S 2 S Figure 2: Canonical Automaton ­ M 0 A grammar is a finite set

Honavar, Vasant

241

Constructing VEGGIE: Machine Learning for Context-Sensitive Graph Grammars  

E-print Network

. As databases can be modeled as graphs, a graph parsing and induction system can infer a grammar from the givenConstructing VEGGIE: Machine Learning for Context-Sensitive Graph Grammars Keven Ates, Kang Zhang University of Texas at Dallas atescomp@utd.edu, kzhang@utd.edu Abstract Context-sensitive graph grammar

Zhang, Kang

242

Pupils' Word Choices and the Teaching of Grammar  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The idea that formal grammar teaching leads to improvements in school pupils' writing has been a popular one. However, the robust and extensive evidence base shows that this is not the case. Despite this, policy initiatives have continued to suggest that grammar teaching does improve pupils' writing: the "Grammar for Writing" resource is the most…

Wyse, Dominic

2006-01-01

243

XTAG - A Graphical Workbench for Developing Tree-Adjoining Grammars  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a workbench (XTAG) for the development of tree-adjoining grammars and their parsers, and dis- cuss some issues that arise in the design of the graphical interface. Contrary to string rewriting grammars generating trees, the elementary objects manipulated by a tree- adjoining grammar are extended trees (i.e. trees of depth one or more) which capture syntactic information of lex-

Patrick Paroubek; Yves Schabes; Aravind K. Joshi

1992-01-01

244

Development of an Industrial Strength Grammar for VDM  

E-print Network

PURe Program Understanding and Re-engineering: Calculi and Applications (Project POSI/ICHS/44304 grammar engineering and includes the application of techniques such as grammar metrication, unit testingDevelopment of an Industrial Strength Grammar for VDM Tiago Alves and Joost Visser {tiago

Visser, Joost

245

Spoken Grammar and Its Role in the English Language Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article addresses key issues and considerations for teachers wanting to incorporate spoken grammar activities into their own teaching and also focuses on six common features of spoken grammar, with practical activities and suggestions for teaching them in the language classroom. The hope is that this discussion of spoken grammar and its place…

Hilliard, Amanda

2014-01-01

246

Difficulties in Teaching and Learning Grammar in an EFL Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The role of grammar instruction in an ESL/EFL context has been for decades a major issue for students and teachers alike. Researchers have debated whether grammar should be taught in the classroom and students, for their part, have generally looked upon grammar instruction as a necessary evil at best, and an avoidable burden at worst. The paper…

Al-Mekhlafi, Abdu Mohammed; Nagaratnam, Ramani Perur

2011-01-01

247

Commitment-Based Learning of Hidden Linguistic Structures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Learners must simultaneously learn a grammar and a lexicon from observed forms, yet some structures that the grammar and lexicon reference are unobservable in the acoustic signal. Moreover, these "hidden" structures interact: the grammar maps an underlying form to a particular interpretation. Learning one structure depends on learning…

Akers, Crystal Gayle

2012-01-01

248

Commentary to "Multiple Grammars and Second Language Representation," by Luiz Amaral and Tom Roeper  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this commentary, the author defends the Multiple Grammars (MG) theory proposed by Luiz Amaral and Tom Roepe (A&R) in the present issue. Topics discussed include second language acquisition, the concept of developmental optionality, and the idea that structural decisions involve the lexical dimension. The author states that A&R's…

Pérez-Leroux, Ana T.

2014-01-01

249

Evolution of neural net architectures by a hierarchical grammar-based genetic system  

E-print Network

Evolution of neural net architectures by a hierarchical grammar-based genetic system Christian structured system for the evolution of connectionist systems. Our approach is exempli ed by evolution. Evolution of a simple control task gives a rst impression about the capa- bilities of this approach. 1

Jacob, Christian

250

Quantum Automata and Quantum Grammars Cristopher Moore and James P. Crutchfield  

E-print Network

Quantum Automata and Quantum Grammars Cristopher Moore and James P. Crutchfield Santa Fe Institute, 1399 Hyde Park Road, Santa Fe NM 87501 USA fmoore,jpcg@santafe.edu Abstract. To study quantum computation, it might be helpful to generalize structures from language and automata theory to the quantum

California at Davis, University of

251

Pre-Service English as a Foreign Language Teachers' Belief Development about Grammar Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study aims to investigate pre-service English as Foreign Language (EFL) teachers' beliefs about grammar instruction in a foreign language (FL) context through their initial teaching practices. Analyses of semi-structured interviews and classroom observations apart from pre-and post-test results of participants' responses to a belief…

Çapan, Seyit Ahmet

2014-01-01

252

SPADE: A Grammar Based Editor for Planning and Debugging Programs. AI Memo 386.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Structured Planning and Debugging Editor (SPADE) is a new kind of interactive programming environment in which computer programs are generated by explicitly articulating planning decisions. The design of SPADE is based upon the development of a grammar of plans from a taxonomy of basic planning techniques. The utility of this approach to…

Miller, Mark L.; Goldstein, Ira P.

253

Figures and Grammars: Meta-GUI Tool for Future Human-Computer Interaction  

E-print Network

Figures and Grammars: Meta-GUI Tool for Future Human-Computer Interaction Jiro Tanaka and Hiroaki (PC) will over in near future and the Personal Digital Assistant (PDA) and the cellular phone between characters appearing in TV dramas. Visual languages have structures like textual languages. We can

Tanaka, Jiro

254

Grammar in the Service of Interaction: Exploring Turn Organization in Swedish  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article is a contribution to the discussion of linguistic aspects of turn organiza- tion, especially from the point of view of Swedish grammar and conversational lan- guage. I propose a general model for interactionally sensitive turn organization and relate it to topological syntactic descriptions of the Swedish clausal structure. The re- sults of this comparative examination suggest that there

Jan Lindstrom

2006-01-01

255

Content Validation of the Comprehension of Written Grammar Assessment for Deaf and Hard of Hearing Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Content validation is a crucial, but often neglected, component of good test development. In the present study, content validity evidence was collected to determine the degree to which elements (e.g., grammatical structures, items, picture responses, administration, and scoring instructions) of the Comprehension of Written Grammar (CWG) test are…

Cannon, Joanna E.; Hubley, Anita M.

2014-01-01

256

LL Leftmost k-Linear Scattered Context Grammars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present paper introduces a new variant of a scattered context grammar, called an LL leftmost k-linear scattered context grammar. It is an ordinary scattered context grammar without erasing rules, where (1) every scattered context rule is composed of k-linear rules, (2) if we take the first components of every rule, the resulting context-free grammar is an LL grammar, and (3) every rule is applied in a leftmost way. We study the generative power of this variant and its parsing properties, including time and space complexity. In the conclusion, several remarks regarding the achieved results are made.

Meduna, Alexander; Vrábel, Lukáš; Zemek, Petr

2011-09-01

257

Terminator Detection by Support Vector Machine Utilizing aStochastic Context-Free Grammar  

SciTech Connect

A 2-stage detector was designed to find rho-independent transcription terminators in the Escherichia coli genome. The detector includes a Stochastic Context Free Grammar (SCFG) component and a Support Vector Machine (SVM) component. To find terminators, the SCFG searches the intergenic regions of nucleotide sequence for local matches to a terminator grammar that was designed and trained utilizing examples of known terminators. The grammar selects sequences that are the best candidates for terminators and assigns them a prefix, stem-loop, suffix structure using the Cocke-Younger-Kasaami (CYK) algorithm, modified to incorporate energy affects of base pairing. The parameters from this inferred structure are passed to the SVM classifier, which distinguishes terminators from non-terminators that score high according to the terminator grammar. The SVM was trained with negative examples drawn from intergenic sequences that include both featureless and RNA gene regions (which were assigned prefix, stem-loop, suffix structure by the SCFG), so that it successfully distinguishes terminators from either of these. The classifier was found to be 96.4% successful during testing.

Francis-Lyon, Patricia; Cristianini, Nello; Holbrook, Stephen

2006-12-30

258

Semantics for coordinated substitution grammars as implemented in Prolog  

SciTech Connect

A solution is provided by the coordinate substitution grammars (CSubGs), a form of two-level grammar in which indices and their corresponding rules comprise a meta-level grammar used to instantiate rules in the base grammatical form. Through the use of these indices, all syntactic coordination can be concisely and descriptively represented in the grammar. It is demonstrate that the CSubGs can generate the recursively enumerable sets, although they can be constrained to generate only the context-free or indexed languages. A program was developed to translate the grammar rules into Prolog clauses, as is done with definite clause grammars. The remainder of the problem, determining how CSubGs and their indices can affect the natural-language semantics in a Prolog implementation, is investigated by studying grammars for various English-language constructs.

Larson, T.J.

1987-01-01

259

Evaluation of Negation Phrases in Narrative Clinical Reports  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Automatically identifying findings or diseases described in clinical textual reports requires determining whether clinical observations are present or absent. We evaluate the use of negation phrases and the frequency of negation in free-text clinical reports. Methods:. A simple negation algorithm was applied to ten types of clinical reports (n=42,160) dictated during July2000. We counted how often each of 66

Wendy W. Chapman; Will Bridewell BS; Paul Hanbury BS; Gregory F. Cooper; Bruce G. Buchanan

2002-01-01

260

What Research Tells Us about Teaching Grammar  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors offer research studies and other documented evidence that teaching grammar without a meaningful context does not improve student writing, largely because that approach does not address the root causes of errors. Several resources that support this position and offer more productive strategies are summarized, including the authors'…

Smith, Michael W.; Wilhelm, Jeff

2006-01-01

261

IN GRAMMAR'S FALL, WE SINNED ALL.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THROUGH THEIR LOSS OF FAITH IN TRADITIONAL GRAMMAR, MEN HAVE "SINNED" AND CONTRIBUTED SLIGHTLY BUT IMPORTANTLY TO THE CREATION OF AN AMORAL AND RELATIVISTIC SOCIETY. PROMPTED BY THE SIN OF INTELLECTUAL PRIDE, SOME LINGUISTS SEEM TO ASSUME THAT GRAMMATICAL PROBLEMS CAN BE SOLVED BY RATIOCINATION ALONE. IGNORANCE OF THE PAST--ANOTHER SIN--AND…

TIBBETTS, A.M.

262

The Restoration and the Grammar Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues that grammar and secondary schools did not suffer greatly during the period immediately after the restoration of the English monarchy in 1660. The author provides figures to show that, contrary to popular opinion, few dissenting teachers were dismissed during that period. (JF)

d'l. Oakeshott, A. M.

1973-01-01

263

Learning Probabilistic Tree Grammars for Genetic Programming  

E-print Network

for problems with tree representations. A recent development in Genetic Algorithms (GAs) has led to principledLearning Probabilistic Tree Grammars for Genetic Programming Peter A.N. Bosman and Edwin D. de Jong, The Netherlands {Peter.Bosman, dejong}@cs.uu.nl Abstract. Genetic Programming (GP) provides evolutionary methods

Utrecht, Universiteit

264

KENT JOHNSON TACIT BELIEF, SEMANTICS AND GRAMMAR  

E-print Network

KENT JOHNSON TACIT BELIEF, SEMANTICS AND GRAMMAR ABSTRACT. This paper explores speakers' epistemic access to the semantic and syn- tactic features of sentences of their language. I argue that there is evidence that ceteris paribus, the actual semantic features of sentences of a language are accessible

Barrett, Jeffrey A.

265

The information acquired during artificial grammar learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an artificial grammar learning task, amnesic patients classified test items as well as normal subjects did. Item similarity did not affect grammaticality judgments when similar and nonsimilar test items were balanced for the frequency with which bigrams and trigrams (chunks) that appeared in the training set also appeared in the test items. Amnesic patients performed like normal subjects. The

Barbara J. Knowlton; Larry R. Squire

1994-01-01

266

Kusaiean Reference Grammar. PALI Language Texts: Micronesia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This reference grammar is the first substantial work on Kusaiean. It is intended as a comprehensive, although not definitive, description of Kusaiean. It is primarily intended for use by high school teachers of Kusaiean who are native speakers but who may not be trained linguists. Therefore, the text has been prepared with a minimum of technical…

Lee, Kee-dong

267

BILEXICAL GRAMMARS AND THEIR CUBICTIME PARSING ALGORITHMS  

E-print Network

Chapter 1 BILEXICAL GRAMMARS AND THEIR CUBIC­TIME PARSING ALGORITHMS Jason Eisner Dept. of Computer Science, University of Rochester P.O. Box 270226 Rochester, NY 14627­0226 U.S.A. # jason these lines includes (Charniak, 1995; Collins, 1996; Eisner, 1996a; Charniak, 1997; Collins, 1997; Goodman

Eisner, Jason

268

Using Technology for Teaching Arabic Language Grammar  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates the effect of using technology such as CD-ROM, computers, and internet to teach Arabic language grammar to students at Princess Alia University College at Al-Balqa University. The sample of the study consisted of 122 third year female students; (64) for the experimental group and (58) for the control group. The subjects of…

Arrabtah, Adel; Nusour, Tayseer

2012-01-01

269

Graphic Score Grammars for End-Users  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a system that allows non-programmers to specify the grammar for a novel graphic score notation of their own design, defining performance notations suitable for drawing in live situations on a surface such as a whiteboard. Thescore can be interpreted via the camera of a smartphone,interactively scanned over the whiteboard to control the parameters of synthesisers implemented in Overtone.

Alistair G. Stead; Alan F. Blackwell; Samual Aaron

2012-01-01

270

Universal Grammar in World Englishes Brief Summary  

E-print Network

Universal Grammar in World Englishes Brief Summary: Approximately 400 million people (Crystal, 2006) acquire L2 English in postcolonial societies primarily to communicate intranationally rather than of projects attempts to narrow the gap between research traditions in World Englishes and SLA. In consonance

Indiana University

271

Generation and Synchronous TreeAdjoining Grammars  

E-print Network

Generation and Synchronous Tree­Adjoining Grammars Stuart M. Shieber Yves Schabes Aiken Computation) have been proposed as a formal­ ism for generation based on the intuition that the extended domain serving as an aid to generation from semantic representations. We demonstrate that this intuition can

Shieber, Stuart

272

Multiple Grammars and Second Language Representation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents an extension of the Multiple Grammars Theory (Roeper, 1999) to provide a formal mechanism that can serve as a generative-based alternative to current descriptive models of interlanguage. The theory extends historical work by Kroch and Taylor (1997), and has been taken into a computational direction by Yang (2003). The proposal…

Amaral, Luiz; Roeper, Tom

2014-01-01

273

A Grammar of Spoken Brazilian Portuguese.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is a first-year text of Portuguese grammar based on the Portuguese of moderately educated Brazilians from the area around Rio de Janeiro. Spoken idiomatic usage is emphasized. An important innovation is found in the presentation of verb tenses; they are presented in the order in which the native speaker learns them. The text is intended to…

Thomas, Earl W.

274

Grammar and Unity in Language Awareness.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues against the use of an alternative model of Language Awareness (LAw), which rejects Transformational Grammar-based applications of language study in favor of a semiotics-based approach, and presents examples of teaching English to native Bengali speakers to support the use of the more traditional LAw. (CB)

Parke, Tim

1989-01-01

275

A SHORT SKETCH OF TAJIK GRAMMAR.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

PART OF A SERIES OF FOUR RUSSIAN-ENGLISH TRANSLATIONS OF GRAMMARS OF IRANIAN LANGUAGES, THIS BOOKLET DESCRIBES THE TAJIK LANGUAGE OF THE INHABITANTS OF TAJIK SSR, AND IS THE FIRST TO APPEAR IN ENGLISH. (THE ORIGINAL TEXT WAS A SUPPLEMENT TO THE RAHIMI-USPENSKAYA "TAJIK-RUSSIAN DICTIONARY," MOSCOW, 1954.) ALL TAJIK FORMS ARE GIVEN IN CYRILLIC…

RASTORGUEVA, V.S.

276

Towards Teaching a "Grammar of Culture."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is proposed that for second language learners to develop communicative competence, their instruction must address the sociolinguistic, discourse, and strategic aspects of target language use. These three aspects of communicative competence are termed the "grammar of culture," and they are essential to understanding what is appropriate in…

Marsh, David

277

Multiple Grammars: Old Wine in Old Bottles  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Amaral and Roeper (this issue; henceforth A&R) argue that all speakers -- regardless of whether monolingual or bilingual -- have multiple grammars in their mental language representations. They further claim that this simple assumption can explain many things: optionality in second language (L2) language behaviour, multilingualism, language…

Sorace, Antonella

2014-01-01

278

Learning grammar rules of building parts from precise models and noisy observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The automatic interpretation of dense three-dimensional (3D) point clouds is still an open research problem. The quality and usability of the derived models depend to a large degree on the availability of highly structured models which represent semantics explicitly and provide a priori knowledge to the interpretation process. The usage of formal grammars for modelling man-made objects has gained increasing interest in the last few years. In order to cope with the variety and complexity of buildings, a large number of fairly sophisticated grammar rules are needed. As yet, such rules mostly have to be designed by human experts. This article describes a novel approach to machine learning of attribute grammar rules based on the Inductive Logic Programming paradigm. Apart from syntactic differences, logic programs and attribute grammars are basically the same language. Attribute grammars extend context-free grammars by attributes and semantic rules and provide a much larger expressive power. Our approach to derive attribute grammars is able to deal with two kinds of input data. On the one hand, we show how attribute grammars can be derived from precise descriptions in the form of examples provided by a human user as the teacher. On the other hand, we present the acquisition of models from noisy observations such as 3D point clouds. This includes the learning of geometric and topological constraints by taking measurement errors into account. The feasibility of our approach is proven exemplarily by stairs, and a generic framework for learning other building parts is discussed. Stairs aggregate an arbitrary number of steps in a manner which is specified by topological and geometric constraints and can be modelled in a recursive way. Due to this recursion, they pose a special challenge to machine learning. In order to learn the concept of stairs, only a small number of examples were required. Our approach represents and addresses the quality of the given observations and the derived constraints explicitly, using concepts from uncertain projective geometry for learning geometric relations and the Wakeby distribution together with decision trees for topological relations.

Dehbi, Y.; Plümer, L.

279

Learning a generative probabilistic grammar of experience: a process-level model of language acquisition.  

PubMed

We introduce a set of biologically and computationally motivated design choices for modeling the learning of language, or of other types of sequential, hierarchically structured experience and behavior, and describe an implemented system that conforms to these choices and is capable of unsupervised learning from raw natural-language corpora. Given a stream of linguistic input, our model incrementally learns a grammar that captures its statistical patterns, which can then be used to parse or generate new data. The grammar constructed in this manner takes the form of a directed weighted graph, whose nodes are recursively (hierarchically) defined patterns over the elements of the input stream. We evaluated the model in seventeen experiments, grouped into five studies, which examined, respectively, (a) the generative ability of grammar learned from a corpus of natural language, (b) the characteristics of the learned representation, (c) sequence segmentation and chunking, (d) artificial grammar learning, and (e) certain types of structure dependence. The model's performance largely vindicates our design choices, suggesting that progress in modeling language acquisition can be made on a broad front-ranging from issues of generativity to the replication of human experimental findings-by bringing biological and computational considerations, as well as lessons from prior efforts, to bear on the modeling approach. PMID:24977647

Kolodny, Oren; Lotem, Arnon; Edelman, Shimon

2015-03-01

280

Terms for 'Word' in Roman Grammar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Let me start with an observation: there are numerous studies of the terminology for the minimal units in ancient linguistic theory — ????????, ????????, elementa, litterae. Similarly, ancient conceptions of — and terms for — larger entities such as phrase, clause, and sentence have received considerable attention. Yet a systematic study of the terms Roman grammarians employ for word remains

Malcolm D. Hyman

281

Asymptotic distribution of motifs in a stochastic context-free grammar model of RNA folding.  

PubMed

We analyze the distribution of RNA secondary structures given by the Knudsen-Hein stochastic context-free grammar used in the prediction program Pfold. Our main theorem gives relations between the expected number of these motifs--independent of the grammar probabilities. These relations are a consequence of proving that the distribution of base pairs, of helices, and of different types of loops is asymptotically Gaussian in this model of RNA folding. Proof techniques use singularity analysis of probability generating functions. We also demonstrate that these asymptotic results capture well the expected number of RNA base pairs in native ribosomal structures, and certain other aspects of their predicted secondary structures. In particular, we find that the predicted structures largely satisfy the expected relations, although the native structures do not. PMID:24384698

Poznanovi?, Svetlana; Heitsch, Christine E

2014-12-01

282

Attribute grammar inversion and source-to-source translation  

SciTech Connect

This thesis investigates the idea of attribute grammar inversion and how this technique can be used to build source-to-source translators. An attribute grammar is a declarative formalism for specifying the translation from one language to another. The basis of an attribute grammar is a context-free grammar. This grammar specifies the source language. An attribute grammar augments the context-free grammar with attributes and semantic functions in order to define a translation from a source language to a target language. This thesis shows that given an attribute grammar specifying the translation T from language L1 to language L2, one can automatically construct the attribute grammar specifying the inverse translation T/sup -1/ from language L2 back to language L1. The INVERT system implements the inversion algorithm, employing several special techniques to help create efficient inverse specification. After discussing the theoretical and practical issues of attribute grammar inversion, it is demonstrated how the technique can be used to build source-to0source translators. To prove the feasibility of the inversion approach to source-to-source translation, it has been used to generate translators between the programming languages Pascal and C.

Yellin, D.M.

1987-01-01

283

Combined Grammar for the Modeling of Building Interiors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As spatial grammars have proven successful and efficient to deliver LOD3 models, the next challenge is their extension to indoor applications, leading to LOD4 models. Therefore, a combined indoor grammar for the automatic generation of indoor models from erroneous and incomplete observation data is presented. In building interiors where inaccurate observation data is available, the grammar can be used to make the reconstruction process robust, and verify the reconstructed geometries. In unobserved building interiors, the grammar can generate hypotheses about possible indoor geometries matching the style of the rest of the building. The grammar combines concepts from L-systems and split grammars. It is designed in such way that it can be derived from observation data fully automatically. Thus, manual predefinitions of the grammar rules usually required to tune the grammar to a specific building style, become obsolete. The potential benefit of using our grammar as support for indoor modeling is evaluated based on an example where the grammar has been applied to automatically generate an indoor model from erroneous and incomplete traces gathered by foot-mounted MEMS/IMU positioning systems.

Becker, S.; Peter, M.; Fritsch, D.; Philipp, D.; Baier, P.; Dibak, C.

2013-11-01

284

On the (Un)-Ambiguity of Adjectival Modification in Spanish Determiner Phrases: Informing Debates on the Mental Representations of L2 Syntax  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study contributes to a central debate within contemporary generative second language (L2) theorizing: the extent to which adult learners are (un)able to acquire new functional features that result in a L2 grammar that is mentally structured like the native target (see White, 2003). The adult acquisition of L2 nominal phi-features is explored,…

Rothman, Jason; Judy, Tiffany; Guijarro-Fuentes, Pedro; Pires, Acrisio

2010-01-01

285

Experimental investigations of weak definite and weak indefinite noun phrases.  

PubMed

Definite noun phrases typically refer to entities that are uniquely identifiable in the speaker and addressee's common ground. Some definite noun phrases (e.g., the hospital in Mary had to go the hospital and John did too) seem to violate this uniqueness constraint. We report six experiments that were motivated by the hypothesis that these "weak definite" interpretations arise in "incorporated" constructions. Experiments 1-3 compared nouns that seem to allow for a weak definite interpretation (e.g., hospital, bank, bus, radio) with those that do not (e.g., farm, concert, car, book). Experiments 1 and 2 used an instruction-following task and picture-judgment task, respectively, to demonstrate that a weak definite need not uniquely refer. In Experiment 3 participants imagined scenarios described by sentences such as The Federal Express driver had to go to the hospital/farm. Scenarios following weak definite noun phrases were more likely to include conventional activities associated with the object, whereas following regular nouns, participants were more likely to imagine scenarios that included typical activities associated with the subject; similar effects were observed with weak indefinites. Experiment 4 found that object-related activities were reduced when the same subject and object were used with a verb that does not license weak definite interpretations. In Experiment 5, a science fiction story introduced an artificial lexicon for novel concepts. Novel nouns that shared conceptual properties with English weak definite nouns were more likely to allow weak reference in a judgment task. Experiment 6 demonstrated that familiarity for definite articles and anti-familiarity for indefinite articles applies to the activity associated with the noun, consistent with predictions made by the incorporation analysis. PMID:23685208

Klein, Natalie M; Gegg-Harrison, Whitney M; Carlson, Greg N; Tanenhaus, Michael K

2013-08-01

286

Experimental investigations of weak definite and weak indefinite noun phrases  

PubMed Central

Definite noun phrases typically refer to entities that are uniquely identifiable in the speaker and addressee’s common ground. Some definite noun phrases (e.g. the hospital in Mary had to go the hospital and John did too) seem to violate this uniqueness constraint. We report six experiments that were motivated by the hypothesis that these “weak definite” interpretations arise in “incorporated” constructions. Experiments 1-3 compared nouns that seem to allow for a weak definite interpretation (e.g. hospital, bank, bus, radio) with those that do not (e.g. farm, concert, car, book). Experiments 1 and 2 used an instruction-following task and picture-judgment task, respectively, to demonstrate that a weak definite need not uniquely refer. In Experiment 3 participants imagined scenarios described by sentences such as The Federal Express driver had to go to the hospital/farm. The imagined scenarios following weak definite noun phrases were more likely to include conventional activities associated with the object, whereas following regular nouns, participants were more likely to imagine scenarios that included typical activities associated with the subject; similar effects were observed with weak indefinites. Experiment 4 found that object-related activities were reduced when the same subject and object were used with a verb that does not license weak definite interpretations. In Experiment 5, a science fiction story introduced an artificial lexicon for novel concepts. Novel nouns that shared conceptual properties with English weak definite nouns were more likely to allow weak reference in a judgment task. Experiment 6 demonstrated that familiarity for definite articles and anti- familiarity for indefinite articles applies to the activity associated with the noun, consistent with predictions made by the incorporation analysis. PMID:23685208

Klein, Natalie M.; Gegg-Harrison, Whitney M.; Carlson, Greg N.; Tanenhaus, Michael K.

2013-01-01

287

Grammar-based Automatic 3D Model Reconstruction from Terrestrial Laser Scanning Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The automatic reconstruction of 3D buildings has been an important research topic during the last years. In this paper, a novel method is proposed to automatically reconstruct the 3D building models from segmented data based on pre-defined formal grammar and rules. Such segmented data can be extracted e.g. from terrestrial or mobile laser scanning devices. Two steps are considered in detail. The first step is to transform the segmented data into 3D shapes, for instance using the DXF (Drawing Exchange Format) format which is a CAD data file format used for data interchange between AutoCAD and other program. Second, we develop a formal grammar to describe the building model structure and integrate the pre-defined grammars into the reconstruction process. Depending on the different segmented data, the selected grammar and rules are applied to drive the reconstruction process in an automatic manner. Compared with other existing approaches, our proposed method allows the model reconstruction directly from 3D shapes and takes the whole building into account.

Yu, Q.; Helmholz, P.; Belton, D.; West, G.

2014-04-01

288

Recent Developments in Transformational Grammar.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the years following the appearance of Noam Chomsky's book, "Syntactic Structures," in 1957, transformational grammarians modified and improved his initial model of language. The notion of a deep structure of meaning underlying a sentence's surface structure was revised to embody elements representing negation, command, and interrogation, and to…

Jacobs, Roderick A.

1969-01-01

289

System, method and apparatus for conducting a phrase search  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A phrase search is a method of searching a database for subsets of the database that are relevant to an input query. First, a number of relational models of subsets of a database are provided. A query is then input. The query can include one or more sequences of terms. Next, a relational model of the query is created. The relational model of the query is then compared to each one of the relational models of subsets of the database. The identifiers of the relevant subsets are then output.

McGreevy, Michael W. (Inventor)

2004-01-01

290

An Artificial Immune System Based Approach for English Grammar Checking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Grammar checking and correction comprise of the primary problems in the area of Natural Language Processing (NLP). Traditional\\u000a approaches fall into two major categories: Rule based and Corpus based. While the former relies heavily on grammar rules the\\u000a latter approach is statistical in nature. We provide a novel corpus based approach for grammar checking that uses the principles\\u000a of an

Akshat Kumar; Shivashankar B. Nair

2007-01-01

291

Simulating the Paninian System of Sanskrit Grammar  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a model for computer representation of the P??inian system of sanskrit grammar. Based on this model, we render\\u000a the grammatical data and simulate the rules of A???dhy?y? on computer. We then employ these rules for generation of morpho-syntactical\\u000a components of the language. These generated components we store in a p-subsequential transducer. This we use to develop a\\u000a lexicon

Anand Mishra

2008-01-01

292

Feature Models, Grammars, and Propositional Formulas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Feature models are used to specify members of a product-line. Despite years of progress, contemporary tools provide limited support for fea- ture constraints and offer little or no support for debugging feature models. We integrate prior results to connect feature models, grammars, and propositional formulas. This connection allows arbitrary propositional constraints to be defined among features and enables off-the-shelf satisfiability

Don S. Batory

2005-01-01

293

A cultural, customizable and prefabricated housing grammar for Casablanca  

E-print Network

Proposing an innovative design grammar linking prefabrication, customization and cultural adaptability, this thesis addresses the present day housing deficit and lack of architectural identity in Casablanca, Morocco. The ...

Akkar, Ghita

2011-01-01

294

An incremental interactive algorithm for regular grammar inference  

SciTech Connect

Grammar inference, a problem with many applications in pattern recognition and language learning, is defined as follows: For an unknown grammar G, given a finite set of positive examples S{sup +} that belong to L(G), and possibly a finite set of negative examples S{sup -}, infer a grammar G* equivalent to G. Different restrictions on S{sup +} and S{sup -} and the interaction of the learner with the teacher or the environment give rise to different variants of this task. We present an interactive incremental algorithm for inference of a finite state automaton (FSA) corresponding to an unknown regular grammar.

Parekh, R.; Honavar, V. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

1996-12-31

295

LeadMine: a grammar and dictionary driven approach to entity recognition  

PubMed Central

Background Chemical entity recognition has traditionally been performed by machine learning approaches. Here we describe an approach using grammars and dictionaries. This approach has the advantage that the entities found can be directly related to a given grammar or dictionary, which allows the type of an entity to be known and, if an entity is misannotated, indicates which resource should be corrected. As recognition is driven by what is expected, if spelling errors occur, they can be corrected. Correcting such errors is highly useful when attempting to lookup an entity in a database or, in the case of chemical names, converting them to structures. Results Our system uses a mixture of expertly curated grammars and dictionaries, as well as dictionaries automatically derived from public resources. We show that the heuristics developed to filter our dictionary of trivial chemical names (from PubChem) yields a better performing dictionary than the previously published Jochem dictionary. Our final system performs post-processing steps to modify the boundaries of entities and to detect abbreviations. These steps are shown to significantly improve performance (2.6% and 4.0% F1-score respectively). Our complete system, with incremental post-BioCreative workshop improvements, achieves 89.9% precision and 85.4% recall (87.6% F1-score) on the CHEMDNER test set. Conclusions Grammar and dictionary approaches can produce results at least as good as the current state of the art in machine learning approaches. While machine learning approaches are commonly thought of as "black box" systems, our approach directly links the output entities to the input dictionaries and grammars. Our approach also allows correction of errors in detected entities, which can assist with entity resolution.

2015-01-01

296

Early neuronal responses in right limbic structures mediate harmony incongruity processing in musical experts  

Microsoft Academic Search

In western tonal music, musical phrases end with an explicit harmonic consequent which is highly expected. As such expectation is a consequence of musical background, cerebral processing of incongruities of musical grammar might be a function of expertise. We hypothesized that a subtle incongruity of standard closure should evoke a profound and rapid reaction in an expert's brain. If such

Clara E. James; Juliane Britz; Patrik Vuilleumier; Claude-Alain Hauert; Christoph M. Michel

2008-01-01

297

The effectiveness of grammar instruction for individuals who use augmentative and alternative communication systems: a preliminary study.  

PubMed

This study examined the effectiveness of an instructional program designed to teach grammar skills to individuals who communicated via augmentative and alternative communication (AAC). A single-subject, multiple probe across behaviors design was used to measure the effect of the instructional program on the acquisition and maintenance of the skills learned. Two adults with cerebral palsy participated in the study. The instructional program was used to teach 2 grammatical forms to each participant. Word order in adjective phrases and inversion of the auxiliary do in wh- questions was targeted for 1 participant; use of possessive pronouns and inclusion of to when using infinitives as modal verbs was targeted for the second participant. The instructional program was shown to be effective. Both participants learned to produce the grammatical forms taught. One participant maintained these skills for at least 2 months after the completion of instruction; the other participant required additional instruction in order to maintain the skills learned. Although based on a small sample, the results suggest that intervention can help individuals who use AAC improve their grammar skills. Limitations of the study are discussed, along with directions for future research. PMID:14575346

Lund, Shelley K; Light, Janice

2003-10-01

298

Grammar Transformations in an EDA for Genetic Programming  

E-print Network

Grammar Transformations in an EDA for Genetic Programming Peter A.N. Bosman Edwin D. de Jong.cs.uu.nl #12;Grammar Transformations in an EDA for Genetic Programming Peter A.N. Bosman and Edwin D. de Jong­of­Distribution Algorithm (EDA) for Genetic Programming (GP). We propose a proba- bility distribution for the space of trees

Fernandez, Thomas

299

Grammar Transformations in an EDA for Genetic Programming  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present a new Estimation-of-Distribution Algorithm (EDA) for Genetic Programming (GP). We propose a proba- bility distribution for the space of trees, based on a grammar. To intro- duce dependencies into the distribution, grammar transformations are performed that facilitate the description of specific subfunctions. We present some results from experiments on two benchmark problems and show some

Peter A. N. Bosman; Edwin D. de Jong

2004-01-01

300

GENETIC TRANSPOSITION IN TREE-ADJOINING GRAMMAR GUIDED GENETIC PROGRAMMING  

E-print Network

GENETIC TRANSPOSITION IN TREE-ADJOINING GRAMMAR GUIDED GENETIC PROGRAMMING: THE DUPLICATION as mutation operators and as generic local search operators, in combination with genetic search, in a tree adjoining grammar guided genetic programming system (TAG3P). The results show that, on the problems tried

McKay, Robert Ian

301

GRAMMAR--THE PROTEUS OF THE ENGLISH CURRICULUM.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THE ENGLISH CURRICULUM CAN BE MADE MORE EFFECTIVE BY CONSIDERING THE SIGNIFICANT PART PLAYED BY THE COMPONENT OF GRAMMAR. THE NATIVE SPEAKER OF ENGLISH POSSESSES AN INTUITIVE KNOWLEDGE OF THE RULES OF GRAMMAR AND YET CANNOT EXPLAIN WHAT HIS INTUITION KNOWS. THEREFORE, A PRECISE, ECONOMICAL DESCRIPTION OF THE LANGUAGE MECHANISM AND HOW IT FUNCTIONS…

ASTON, KATHARINE O.

302

Simulating the Pan. inian System of Sanskrit Grammar Anand Mishra  

E-print Network

Simulating the PÂŻan. inian System of Sanskrit Grammar Anand Mishra Department of Computational Linguistics Ruprecht Karls University, Heidelberg http://sanskrit.sai.uni-heidelberg.de Abstract We propose a model for the computer representation of the PÂŻan.inian system of sanskrit grammar. Based on this model

Boyer, Edmond

303

Where Is She? Gender Occurrences in Online Grammar Guides  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines seven online grammar guides for instances of linguistic sexism. The grammar sentences from .edu Websites were analyzed based on NCTE's "Guidelines for Gender-Fair Use of Language" (2002) using the criteria of generic he and man; titles, labels, and names; gender stereotypes; order of mention (firstness); and ratio of male to…

Amare, Nicole

2007-01-01

304

Grammar Teaching and Learning in L2: Necessary, but Boring?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This descriptive inquiry-based study targeted second language (L2) high school students' (n = 2321) and teachers' (n = 45) beliefs and perceptions about grammar instruction, specifically about grammatical accuracy, corrective feedback, and diverse forms of grammar teaching and learning. Results showed only slight discrepancies between students'…

Jean, Gladys; Simard, Daphnee

2011-01-01

305

Maurice Gross' grammar lexicon and Natural Language Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maurice Gross' grammar lexicon contains an extremly rich and exhaustive information about the morphosyntactic and semantic proper- ties of French syntactic functors (verbs, adjectives, nouns). Yet its use within natural language processing systems is still restricted. In this paper, we first argue that the information contained in the grammar lexicon is potentially useful for Natural Language Processing (NLP). We then

Claire Gardent; Bruno Guillaume; Guy Perrier; Ingrid Falk

306

Environmental Peace Education in Foreign Language Learners' English Grammar Lessons  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

English language teachers create contexts to teach grammar so that meaningful learning occurs. In this study, English grammar is contextualized through environmental peace education activities to raise students' awareness of global issues. Two sources provided data to evaluate the success of this instructional process. Fourth-year pre-service…

Arikan, Arda

2009-01-01

307

Grammar for College Writing: A Sentence-Composing Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Across America, in thousands of classrooms, from elementary school to high school, the time-tested sentence-composing approach has given students tools to become better writers. Now the authors present a much anticipated sentence-composing grammar worktext for college writing. This book presents a new and easier way to understand grammar: (1) Noun…

Killgallon, Don; Killgallon, Jenny

2010-01-01

308

From Cogram To Alcogram: Toward A Controlled English Grammar Checker  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we describe the roots of Controlled English (CE), the analysis of several existing CE grammars, the development of a well-founded 150-rule CE grammar (COGRAM), the elaboration of an algorithmic variant (ALCOGRAM) as a basis for NLP applications, the use of ALCOGRAM in a CAI program teaching writers how to use it effectively, and the preparatory study into

Geert Adriaens; Dirk Schreurs

1992-01-01

309

Environmental peace education in foreign language learners’ English grammar lessons  

Microsoft Academic Search

English language teachers create contexts to teach grammar so that meaningful learning occurs. In this study, English grammar is contextualized through environmental peace education activities to raise students’ awareness of global issues. Two sources provided data to evaluate the success of this instructional process. Fourth?year pre?service English language teachers (n = 50) learned about relevant classroom activities and evaluated their

Arda Arikan

2009-01-01

310

Investigating Effects of Computer-Based Grammar Tutorials  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This dissertation study examined a broad question of whether computer-based grammar tutorials are effective and welcome tools to review grammar for language learners by investigating effects of three different modes of such tutorials on learners' knowledge and satisfaction. For this study, I developed experimental tutorials in three different…

Kolesnikova, Anna

2011-01-01

311

Adaptive Mobile Interfaces Through Grammar Induction North Dakota State University  

E-print Network

Adaptive Mobile Interfaces Through Grammar Induction Jun Kong North Dakota State University jun.kong@ndsu.edu Keven L. Ates Kang Zhang University of Texas at Dallas {atescomp, kzhang}@utdallas.edu Yan Gu North Dakota State University yan.gu@ndsu.edu Abstract This paper presents a grammar-induction based ap- proach

Zhang, Kang

312

Towards a Rationale for Research into Grammar Teaching in Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article hopes to bring new insights to the debate about the effect of grammar knowledge on language use, especially writing. It raises the question of the need to look more closely at the following three questions: (1) What is the aim of grammar teaching?; (2) How capable are students of conceptualising about language and how is their…

Fontich, Xavier; Camps, Anna

2014-01-01

313

Grammar-Based Testing using Realistic Domains in PHP  

E-print Network

Grammar-Based Testing using Realistic Domains in PHP Ivan Enderlin, Fr´ed´eric Dadeau, Alain testing, contracts, realistic domains, PHP, random generation, rule coverage. I. INTRODUCTION Model-based,frederic.dadeau,alain.giorgetti,fabrice.bouquet}@femto-st.fr Abstract--This paper presents an integration of grammar- based testing in a framework for contract-based

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

314

A VHDL compiler based on attribute grammar methodology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents aspects of a compiler for a new hardware description language (VHDL) written using attribute grammar techniques. VHDL is introduced, along with the new compiler challenges brought by a language that extends an Ada subset for the purpose of describing hardware. Attribute grammar programming solutions are presented for some of the language challenges.The organization of the compiler and

Rodney Farrow; Alec G Stanculescu

1989-01-01

315

The Role of Grammar Knowledge for Identifying Language Needs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The focus of the study was an interest in discerning the relationship between grammar knowledge and its application for evaluating grammar development at different academic and professional stages. A 3-part questionnaire was completed by first and last semester Communication Sciences and Disorders (CSD) graduate students, and practicing…

Rowley, Anne Toolan

2010-01-01

316

The Multiple Grammars Theory and the Nature of L2 Grammars  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article offers the author's commentary on the Multiple Grammar (MG) language acquisition theory proposed by Luiz Amaral and Tom Roeper in the present issue and touches on other second language acquisition research. Topics discussed include the concept of second language (L2) optionality, a hypothesis regarding the acquisition of the…

Liceras, Juana M.

2014-01-01

317

Rhetorical Grammar and the Grammar of Schooling: Teaching Powerful Verbs in the English National Literacy Strategy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article traces the trajectory of educational ideas through policy, curricular materials and enactment in the classroom. Specifically, I examine current English policy regarding the teaching of grammar in primary schools, and its enactment in a Year 3 (8-year olds) literacy lesson. While the policy advances a broadly rhetorical approach to…

Lefstein, Adam

2009-01-01

318

A Stochastic Context-Free Grammar Model for Time Series Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a stochastic context-free grammar model whose structure can alternatively be viewed as a graphical model, and use it to model time series. We use the inside-outside algorithm to estimate the model parameters. We assume that the time series is a finite-order Markov process generated by our model, and develop an algorithm to forecast the conditional variance of the

W. Wang; V. Portnoy; I. Pollak

2007-01-01

319

A Model of Poplar ( Populus sp.) Physiology and Morphology Based on Relational Growth Grammars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Functional-structural plant models (FSPMs), combining the physiological function of a plant with its architecture, require\\u000a precise and transparent specifications. This can be seen as a new challenge to the design of programming languages. Here we\\u000a introduce, exemplarily for a model of young poplar trees, our new formalism of relational growth grammars (RGGs), which extend\\u000a the well-known Lindenmayer (L-)systems to a

Gerhard Buck-Sorlin; Ole Kniemeyer; Winfried Kurth

2007-01-01

320

Cueing the Virtual Storyteller Analysis of cue phrase usage in classical fairy tales  

E-print Network

Cueing the Virtual Storyteller Analysis of cue phrase usage in classical fairy tales M.P.J. Penning for classical fairy tales. This is accomplished by counting occurrences of cue phrases from the taxonomy as well as other cue prases that are used in classical fairy tales. The counts lead to some adaptations

Theune, Mariët

321

A Bidirectional Study on the Acquisition of Plural Noun Phrase Interpretation in English and Spanish  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper investigates how learners interpret definite plural noun phrases (e.g., "the tigers") and bare (article-less) plural noun phrases (e.g., "tigers") in their second language. Whereas Spanish allows definite plurals to have both generic and specific readings, English requires definite plurals to have specific, nongeneric readings. Generic…

Ionin, Tania; Montrul, Silvina; Crivos, Monica

2013-01-01

322

Utilizing Phrase-Similarity Measures for Detecting and Clustering Informative RSS News Articles  

E-print Network

Utilizing Phrase-Similarity Measures for Detecting and Clustering Informative RSS News Articles.S.A. Email: ng@cs.byu.edu , mpera@cs.byu.edu Abstract As the number of RSS news feeds continue to increase (FCC) model. CPM can detect RSS news articles containing phrases that are the same as well

Ng, Yiu-Kai Dennis

323

Blue Car, Red Car: Developing Efficiency in Online Interpretation of Adjective-Noun Phrases  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two experiments investigated the development of fluency in interpreting adjective-noun phrases in 30- and 36-month-old English-learning children. Using online processing measures, children's gaze patterns were monitored as they heard the familiar adjective-noun phrases (e.g. "blue car") in visual contexts where the adjective was either informative…

Fernald, Anne; Thorpe, Kirsten; Marchman, Virginia A.

2010-01-01

324

Grammar, Writing, and Technology: A Sample Technology-Supported Approach to Teaching Grammar and Improving Writing for ESL Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

English language learners are frequently unable to benefit from the prevailing process-writing approaches due to a lack of grammar and vocabulary knowledge relevant to academic writing. This paper describes how the need for explicit grammar instruction as part of preparing students to write can be addressed by using a collection of learner texts…

Hegelheimer, Volker; Fisher, David

2006-01-01

325

An Exploration of the Relationship between Vietnamese Students' Knowledge of L1 Grammar and Their English Grammar Proficiency  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The problem. This research study explores an important issue in the field of TESOL (Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages) and second language acquisition (SLA). Its purpose is to examine the relationship between Vietnamese students' L1 grammar knowledge and their English grammar proficiency. Furthermore, it investigates the extent to…

Tran, Tammie M.

2010-01-01

326

Making Grammar Instruction More Empowering: An Exploratory Case Study of Corpus Use in the Learning/Teaching of Grammar  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite a long debate and the accompanying call for changes in the past few decades, grammar instruction in college English classes, according to some scholars, has remained largely "disempowering,""decontextualized," and "remedial" (Micciche, 2004, p. 718). To search for more effective and empowering grammar teaching, this study explores the use…

Liu, Dilin

2011-01-01

327

Formalized Epistemology, Logic, and Grammar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The task of a formal epistemology is defined. It appears that a formal epistemology must be a generalization of "logic" in the sense of Wittgenstein's Tractatus. The generalization is required because, whereas logic presupposes a strict relation between activity and language, this relation may be broken in some domains of experimental enquiry (e.g., in microscopic physics). However, a formal epistemology should also retain a major feature of Wittgenstein's "logic": It must not be a discourse about scientific knowledge, but rather a way of making manifest the structures usually implicit in knowledge-gaining activity. This strategy is applied to the formalism of quantum mechanics.

Bitbol, Michel

328

The Effectiveness of Teaching Traditional Grammar on Writing Composition at the High School Level  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Traditional grammar instruction is a challenging element of the English curriculum; both students and teachers struggle with the rules and dull nature of grammar. However, understanding grammar is important because students need to understand the language they speak in order to be effective communicators, and teachers provide grammar instruction…

Jaeger, Gina

2011-01-01

329

Auditory Artificial Grammar Learning in Macaque and Marmoset Monkeys  

PubMed Central

Artificial grammars (AG) are designed to emulate aspects of the structure of language, and AG learning (AGL) paradigms can be used to study the extent of nonhuman animals' structure-learning capabilities. However, different AG structures have been used with nonhuman animals and are difficult to compare across studies and species. We developed a simple quantitative parameter space, which we used to summarize previous nonhuman animal AGL results. This was used to highlight an under-studied AG with a forward-branching structure, designed to model certain aspects of the nondeterministic nature of word transitions in natural language and animal song. We tested whether two monkey species could learn aspects of this auditory AG. After habituating the monkeys to the AG, analysis of video recordings showed that common marmosets (New World monkeys) differentiated between well formed, correct testing sequences and those violating the AG structure based primarily on simple learning strategies. By comparison, Rhesus macaques (Old World monkeys) showed evidence for deeper levels of AGL. A novel eye-tracking approach confirmed this result in the macaques and demonstrated evidence for more complex AGL. This study provides evidence for a previously unknown level of AGL complexity in Old World monkeys that seems less evident in New World monkeys, which are more distant evolutionary relatives to humans. The findings allow for the development of both marmosets and macaques as neurobiological model systems to study different aspects of AGL at the neuronal level. PMID:24285889

Wilson, Benjamin; Slater, Heather; Kikuchi, Yukiko; Milne, Alice E.; Marslen-Wilson, William D.; Smith, Kenny

2013-01-01

330

Grammar, Punctuation, and Capitalization: a Handbook for Technical Writers and Editors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Writing problems are addressed which are often encountered in technical documents and preferences are indicated (Langley's) when authorities do not agree. It is directed toward professional writers, editors, and proofreaders. Those whose profession lies in other areas (for example, research or management), but who have occasion to write or review others' writing will also find this information useful. A functional attitude toward grammar and punctuation is presented. Chapter 1 on grammar presents grammatical problems related to each part of speech. Chapter 2 on sentence structure concerns syntax, that is, effective arrangement of words, with emphasis on methods of revision to improve writing effectiveness. Chapter 3 addresses punctuation marks, presenting their function, situations when they are required or incorrect, and situations when they are appropriate but optional. Chapter 4 presents capitalization, which is mostly a matter of editorial style and preference rather than a matter of generally accepted rules. An index and glossary are included.

Mccaskill, Mary K.

1990-01-01

331

Stories: The Function of Structure.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The differences between story grammar and story schema are outlined and discussed based on research on story understanding by children and adults. The contention of all story grammars is that stories have a relatively invariant structure despite great differences in story content. The importance of structure within folk tales, and the ways in…

Mandler, Jean M.

332

It's Not Just the "Heavy NP": Relative Phrase Length Modulates the Production of Heavy-NP Shift  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Heavy-NP shift is the tendency for speakers to place long direct object phrases at the end of a clause rather than next to the verb. Though some analyses have focused on length of the direct object phrase alone, results from two experiments demonstrate that the length of the direct object relative to that of other phrases, and not the length of…

Stallings, Lynne M.; MacDonald, Maryellen C.

2011-01-01

333

The Construction of Semantic Memory: Grammar-Based Representations Learned from Relational Episodic Information  

PubMed Central

After acquisition, memories underlie a process of consolidation, making them more resistant to interference and brain injury. Memory consolidation involves systems-level interactions, most importantly between the hippocampus and associated structures, which takes part in the initial encoding of memory, and the neocortex, which supports long-term storage. This dichotomy parallels the contrast between episodic memory (tied to the hippocampal formation), collecting an autobiographical stream of experiences, and semantic memory, a repertoire of facts and statistical regularities about the world, involving the neocortex at large. Experimental evidence points to a gradual transformation of memories, following encoding, from an episodic to a semantic character. This may require an exchange of information between different memory modules during inactive periods. We propose a theory for such interactions and for the formation of semantic memory, in which episodic memory is encoded as relational data. Semantic memory is modeled as a modified stochastic grammar, which learns to parse episodic configurations expressed as an association matrix. The grammar produces tree-like representations of episodes, describing the relationships between its main constituents at multiple levels of categorization, based on its current knowledge of world regularities. These regularities are learned by the grammar from episodic memory information, through an expectation-maximization procedure, analogous to the inside–outside algorithm for stochastic context-free grammars. We propose that a Monte-Carlo sampling version of this algorithm can be mapped on the dynamics of “sleep replay” of previously acquired information in the hippocampus and neocortex. We propose that the model can reproduce several properties of semantic memory such as decontextualization, top-down processing, and creation of schemata. PMID:21887143

Battaglia, Francesco P.; Pennartz, Cyriel M. A.

2011-01-01

334

Scalar implicatures and the grammar of plurality and disjunction  

E-print Network

This dissertation explores the role of scalar implicatures in the grammar of plurality and disjunction. I argue that scalar implicatures are relevant not only for the meaning of plurals and disjunctions, but also for their ...

Ivlieva, Natalia

2013-01-01

335

Grammar and Model Extraction for Security Applications using  

E-print Network

Grammar and Model Extraction for Security Applications using Dynamic Program Binary Analysis of California, Berkeley Prof. David Andersen . . . . . . . . . . . . Carnegie Mellon University Prof. Vern-time behavior of the program, without the approximations that static analysis requires. In particular, we

Caballero, Juan

336

Data and Models for Statistical Parsing with Combinatory Categorial Grammar   

E-print Network

This dissertation is concerned with the creation of training data and the development of probability models for statistical parsing of English with Combinatory Categorial Grammar (CCG). Parsing, or syntactic analysis, ...

Hockenmaier, Julia

337

Lexically Specified Derivational Control in Combinatory Categorial Grammar   

E-print Network

This dissertation elaborates several refinements to the Combinatory Categorial Grammar (CCG) framework which are motivated by phenomena in parametrically diverse languages such as English, Dutch, Tagalog, Toba Batak and Turkish. I present Multi...

Baldridge, Jason

338

Teaching English Grammar in Initial Teacher Training: A Course Evaluation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An English grammar course for preservice teachers in Britain, focusing on speech, morphology, and syntax was analyzed using pre/posttest data. All students improved knowledge and expressed satisfaction, but one-third failed to reach the required standard. (SK)

Jeffcoate, Robert

2000-01-01

339

ENGLISH GRAMMAR AND ENGLISH USAGE 1. Relationship to Information Theory  

E-print Network

in relationship of natural languages to AI) The Language Instinct by Steven Pinker (Penguin) #12;- 2 - Background-Collins) Mother Tongue by Bill Bryson (Penguin) NOTE: A person who specializes in linguistic analysis and grammars

Qu, Rong

340

Surface Structure and the Centrality of Syntax.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the status of surface structure in transformational grammar, and the way that surface structure mediates the contacts between the phonological and semantic components of the grammar. Surface structure refers not to a single but to at least four distinct notions that do not necessarily define a homogeneous level of…

Rivero, Maria-Luisa; Walker, Douglas C.

341

Decorated Attribute Grammars: Attribute Evaluation Meets Strategic Programming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attribute grammars are a powerful specification formalism for tree-based computation, particularly for software language processing.\\u000a Various extensions have been proposed to abstract over common patterns in attribute grammar specifications. These include\\u000a various forms of copy rules to support non-local dependencies, collection attributes, and expressing dependencies that are\\u000a evaluated to a fixed point. Rather than implementing extensions natively in an attribute

Lennart C. L. Kats; Anthony M. Sloane; Eelco Visser

2009-01-01

342

Fuzzy Modeling and Natural Language Processing for Panini's Sanskrit Grammar  

E-print Network

Indian languages have long history in World Natural languages. Panini was the first to define Grammar for Sanskrit language with about 4000 rules in fifth century. These rules contain uncertainty information. It is not possible to Computer processing of Sanskrit language with uncertain information. In this paper, fuzzy logic and fuzzy reasoning are proposed to deal to eliminate uncertain information for reasoning with Sanskrit grammar. The Sanskrit language processing is also discussed in this paper.

Reddy, P Venkata Subba

2010-01-01

343

Grammar-Based Integer Programming Models for Multiactivity Shift Scheduling  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a new implicit formulation for shift scheduling problems, using context-free grammars to model the rules for the composition of shifts. From the grammar, we generate an integer programming (IP) model having a linear programming relaxation equivalent to that of the classical set covering model. When solved by a state-of-the-art IP solver on problem instances with a small

Marie-Claude Côté; Bernard Gendron; Louis-Martin Rousseau

2011-01-01

344

Normal ordering problem and the extensions of the Stirling grammar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the connection between context-free grammars and normal ordered problem, and then to explore various extensions of the Stirling grammar. We present grammatical characterizations of several well known combinatorial sequences, including the generalized Stirling numbers of the second kind related to the normal ordered problem and the r-Dowling polynomials. Also, possible avenues for future research are described.

Ma, S.-M.; Mansour, T.; Schork, M.

2014-04-01

345

Artificial grammar learning meets formal language theory: an overview.  

PubMed

Formal language theory (FLT), part of the broader mathematical theory of computation, provides a systematic terminology and set of conventions for describing rules and the structures they generate, along with a rich body of discoveries and theorems concerning generative rule systems. Despite its name, FLT is not limited to human language, but is equally applicable to computer programs, music, visual patterns, animal vocalizations, RNA structure and even dance. In the last decade, this theory has been profitably used to frame hypotheses and to design brain imaging and animal-learning experiments, mostly using the 'artificial grammar-learning' paradigm. We offer a brief, non-technical introduction to FLT and then a more detailed analysis of empirical research based on this theory. We suggest that progress has been hampered by a pervasive conflation of distinct issues, including hierarchy, dependency, complexity and recursion. We offer clarifications of several relevant hypotheses and the experimental designs necessary to test them. We finally review the recent brain imaging literature, using formal languages, identifying areas of convergence and outstanding debates. We conclude that FLT has much to offer scientists who are interested in rigorous empirical investigations of human cognition from a neuroscientific and comparative perspective. PMID:22688631

Fitch, W Tecumseh; Friederici, Angela D

2012-07-19

346

Artificial grammar learning meets formal language theory: an overview  

PubMed Central

Formal language theory (FLT), part of the broader mathematical theory of computation, provides a systematic terminology and set of conventions for describing rules and the structures they generate, along with a rich body of discoveries and theorems concerning generative rule systems. Despite its name, FLT is not limited to human language, but is equally applicable to computer programs, music, visual patterns, animal vocalizations, RNA structure and even dance. In the last decade, this theory has been profitably used to frame hypotheses and to design brain imaging and animal-learning experiments, mostly using the ‘artificial grammar-learning’ paradigm. We offer a brief, non-technical introduction to FLT and then a more detailed analysis of empirical research based on this theory. We suggest that progress has been hampered by a pervasive conflation of distinct issues, including hierarchy, dependency, complexity and recursion. We offer clarifications of several relevant hypotheses and the experimental designs necessary to test them. We finally review the recent brain imaging literature, using formal languages, identifying areas of convergence and outstanding debates. We conclude that FLT has much to offer scientists who are interested in rigorous empirical investigations of human cognition from a neuroscientific and comparative perspective. PMID:22688631

Fitch, W. Tecumseh; Friederici, Angela D.

2012-01-01

347

Generalized queries on probabilistic context-free grammars  

SciTech Connect

Probabilistic context-free grammars (PCFGs) provide a simple way to represent a particular class of distributions over sentences in a context-free language. Efficient parsing algorithms for answering particular queries about a PCFG (i.e., calculating the probability of a given sentence, or finding the most likely parse) have been applied to a variety of pattern-recognition problems. We extend the class of queries that can be answered in several ways: (1) allowing missing tokens in a sentence or sentence fragment, (2) supporting queries about intermediate structure, such as the presence of particular nonterminals, and (3) flexible conditioning on a variety of types of evidence. Our method works by constructing a Bayesian network to represent the distribution of parse trees induced by a given PCFG. The network structure mirrors that of the chart in a standard parser, and is generated using a similar dynamic-programming approach. We present an algorithm for constructing Bayesian networks from PCFGs, and show how queries or patterns of queries on the network correspond to interesting queries on PCFGs.

Pynadath, D.V.; Wellman, M.P. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

1996-12-31

348

Feature-Rich Statistical Translation of Noun Phrases Philipp Koehn and Kevin Knight  

E-print Network

Feature-Rich Statistical Translation of Noun Phrases Philipp Koehn and Kevin Knight Information for these methods and contributes additional knowl- edge sources useful for finding correct translations. We present

Koehn, Philipp

349

Endungen der deutschen Nominalphrase im Unterricht (Teaching the Endings in the German Noun Phrase).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a scheme for formulating correct sentences involving article and adjective endings, with specific suggestions for teaching noun phrases. Recommends also that the basic rules governing the choice of endings be taught, parallel with the students' progress. (IFS/WGA)

Austin, Gerhard

1977-01-01

350

The Interpretation of Phrases Used to Describe Uncertainty in Pathology Reports  

PubMed Central

Histopathological reports frequently contain phrases describing the degree of uncertainty of the diagnosis. We examined the interpretations of such terms by cellular pathologists, other doctors, and medical students. 203 respondents estimated the degree of certainty they would associate with the following phrases in a cellular pathology report: the features are indicative of; raise the possibility of; are compatible with; are probably those of; are diagnostic of; are in keeping with; and are suggestive of. For all phrases assessed other than “diagnostic of”, all groups showed a wide spread in the interpreted probability. For example, the probability associated with the term “in keeping with” by individual consultant pathologists ranged from 25 to 100%. This study demonstrates that pathologists vary widely in how they interpret the meaning of phrases describing probability that are commonly used in pathology reports. We suggest that this potential risk is highlighted during pathology training. PMID:21876845

Galloway, Malcolm; Taiyeb, Taj

2011-01-01

351

The Role of Chunks, Phrases, and Body Language in Understanding Coordinated Academic Lectures.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A crucial component of academic lectures is the use of chunks, phrases, and body language, and their role in facilitating understanding. This article examines the function and context of this component in the discourse of academic lectures. (Author/VWL)

Khuwaileh, A. A.

1999-01-01

352

Accent Phrase Segmentation by Finding N-Best Sequences of Pitch Pattern Templates   

E-print Network

This paper describes a prosodic method for segmenting continuous speech into accent phrases. Optimum sequences are obtained on the basis of least squared error criterion by using dynamic time warping between F0 contours ...

Nakai, Mitsuru; Shimodaira, Hiroshi

353

Assigning intonation elements and prosodic phrasing for English speech synthesis from high level linguistic input   

E-print Network

This paper describes a method for generating intonation events and prosodic phrasing from a high level linguistic description. Specifically, the input consists of information normally available from linguistic processing: ...

Black, Alan W; Taylor, Paul A

354

Influencing feelings of cancer risk: direct and moderator effects of affectively laden phrases in risk communication.  

PubMed

Evidence is accumulating for the importance of feelings of risk in explaining cancer preventive behaviors, but best practices for influencing these feelings are limited. This study investigated the direct and moderational influence of affectively laden phrases in cancer risk messages. Two experimental studies were conducted in relation to different cancer-related behaviors-sunbed use (n = 112) and red meat consumption (n = 447)-among student and nonstudent samples. Participants were randomly assigned to one of two conditions: (a) a cognitive message using cognitively laden phrases or (b) an affective message using affectively laden phrases. The results revealed that affective phrases did not directly influence feelings of risk in both studies. Evidence for a moderational influence was found in Study 2, suggesting that affective information strengthened the relation between feelings of risk and intention (i.e., participants relied more on their feelings in the decision-making process after exposure to affective information). These findings suggest that solely using affective phrases in risk communication may not be sufficient to directly influence feelings of risk and other methods need to be explored in future research. Moreover, research is needed to replicate our preliminary indications for a moderational influence of affective phrases to advance theory and practice. PMID:25569710

Janssen, Eva; van Osch, Liesbeth; Lechner, Lilian; de Vries, Hein

2015-03-01

355

The Syntax of Programming Languages-A Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

The syntactic rules for many programming languages have been expressed by formal grammars, generally variants of phrase-structure grammars. The syntactic analysis essential to translation of programming languages can be done entirely mechanically for such languages. Major problems remain in rendering analyzers efficient in use of space and time and in finding fully satisfactory formal grammars for present and future programming

Robert W. Floyd

1964-01-01

356

Including control architecture in attribute grammar specifications of feedforward neural networks  

E-print Network

Including control architecture in attribute grammar specifications of feedforward neural networks of genetic representations of neural networks that permit optimization of topology and learning characteristics. One promising approach for genetic representation of neural networks is the use of grammars

Browse, Roger A.

357

The Prefix PO- and Aspect in Russian and Polish: A Cognitive Grammar Account  

E-print Network

This study examines the meanings of the prefix po- and verbal aspect in Russian and Polish in a Cognitive Grammar framework. The principles of Cognitive Grammar adopted in this study are based on Langacker (1991). This study follows Dickey's (2000...

Christensen, Jason Heath

2011-12-31

358

A Stochastic Grammar of Images Song-Chun Zhu and David Mumford  

E-print Network

A Stochastic Grammar of Images Song-Chun Zhu and David Mumford Abstract This exploratory paper literature. Finally the paper presents three case studies to illustrate the proposed grammar. Song-Chun Zhu

Zhu, Song Chun

359

Finite state grammars for dialects of the advertising song of the savannah sparrow (Passerculus Sandwichensis ).  

PubMed

Right-linear finite state grammars were extracted for song sequences of Savannah Sparrows (Passerculus sandwichensis) from Ontario and Nova Scotia. The Nova Scotia grammar was found to be longer than the Ontario grammar (possess more rewrite statements) and allow for the production of sequences containing consecutive trills. These differences are discussed with respect to genetic and environmental factors shaping song behaviour in the two regions. Limitations of a nonstochastic finite state grammar procedure are also addressed. PMID:24923612

Chew, L

1983-03-01

360

Probabilistic context-free grammars estimated from infinite distributions.  

PubMed

In this paper, we consider probabilistic context-free grammars, a class of generative devices that has been successfully exploited in several applications of syntactic pattern matching, especially in statistical natural language parsing. We investigate the problem of training probabilistic context-free grammars on the basis of distributions defined over an infinite set of trees or an infinite set of sentences by minimizing the cross-entropy. This problem has applications in cases of context-free approximation of distributions generated by more expressive statistical models. We show several interesting theoretical properties of probabilistic context-free grammars that are estimated in this way, including the previously unknown equivalence between the grammar cross-entropy with the input distribution and the so-called derivational entropy of the grammar itself. We discuss important consequences of these results involving the standard application of the maximum-likelihood estimator on finite tree and sentence samples, as well as other finite-state models such as Hidden Markov Models and probabilistic finite automata. PMID:17568142

Corazza, Anna; Satta, Giorgio

2007-08-01

361

Using conceptual metaphor and functional grammar to explore how language used in physics affects student learning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper introduces a theory about the role of language in learning physics. The theory is developed in the context of physics students and physicists talking and writing about the subject of quantum mechanics. We found that physicists’ language encodes different varieties of analogical models through the use of grammar and conceptual metaphor. We hypothesize that students categorize concepts into ontological categories based on the grammatical structure of physicists’ language. We also hypothesize that students overextend and misapply conceptual metaphors in physicists’ speech and writing. Using our theory, we will show how, in some cases, we can explain student difficulties in quantum mechanics as difficulties with language.

Brookes, David T.; Etkina, Eugenia

2007-06-01

362

Concurrent grammar inference machines for 2-D pattern recognition: a comparison with the level set approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Parallel processing promises scalable and effective computing power which can handle the complex data structures of knowledge representation languages efficiently. Past and present sequential architectures, despite the rapid advances in computing technology, have yet to provide such processing power and to offer a holistic solution to the problem. This paper presents a fresh attempt in formulating alternative techniques for grammar learning, based upon the parallel and distributed model of connectionism, to facilitate the more cognitively demanding task of pattern understanding. The proposed method has been compared with the contemporary approach of shape modelling based on level sets, and demonstrated its potential as a prototype for constructing robust networks on high performance parallel platforms.

Lam, K. P.; Fletcher, P.

2009-02-01

363

A Proposal For A Regular Grammar To Parse Jazz Chords Notation  

E-print Network

A piece of improvised Jazz is identified by its harmonic structure of changes, placed in the harmonic grid. For each chord, or change, a particular notation is used which is well known by Jazz musicians, and appears also in other contexts, such as guitar charts. While there are minor differences and inconsistencies in this notation, the meaning is always clear to practitioner of the art. Purpose of this work is to propose a simple grammar, or standard, which, while formalizing the notation, does not impose constraints, allows extension and easy recognition of unknown symbols, new symbol combinations and definitions.

Denis L. Baggi

2002-01-01

364

Bolivian Indian Grammars: I and II. Summer Institute of Linguistics Publications in Linguistics and Related Fields.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ten grammars of indigenous Bolivian languages are presented in these two volumes of Bolivian Indian Grammars. The data were gathered and analyzed by members of the Bolivian Branch of the Summer Institute of Linguistics, which has carried on linguistic investigations in Bolivia since 1955. The grammars are presented in the tagmemic model of Pike…

Matteson, Esther, Ed.

365

A Note on Hack's Conjecture, Parikh Images of Matrix Languages and Multiset Grammars  

E-print Network

A Note on Hack's Conjecture, Parikh Images of Matrix Languages and Multiset Grammars Georg Zetzsche It is shown that Hack's Conjecture on Petri nets implies that for every language generated by a matrix grammar by arbitrary and monotone multiset grammars coincide. Zusammenfassung Es wird gezeigt, dass die Hack

Hamburg.Universit�¤t

366

Language Practice with Multimedia Supported Web-Based Grammar Revision Material  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study was to investigate the perceptions of elementary-level English language learners towards web-based, multimedia-annotated grammar learning. WEBGRAM, a system designed to provide supplementary web-based grammar revision material, uses audio-visual aids to enrich the contextual presentation of grammar and allows learners to…

Baturay, Meltem Huri; Daloglu, Aysegul; Yildirim, Soner

2010-01-01

367

The Role of Grammar in the Writing Curriculum: A Review of the Literature  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For most Anglophone countries, the history of grammar teaching over the past 50 years is one of contestation, debate and dissent: and 50 years on we are no closer to reaching a consensus about the role of grammar in the English/Language Arts curriculum. The debate has been described through the metaphor of battle and grammar wars (Kamler, 1995;…

Myhill, Debra; Watson, Annabel

2014-01-01

368

The Problem with Grammar: What Kind Can the Language Learner Use?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article (1) discusses the relationship between grammatical and communicative competence; (2) examines aspects of grammar theory; (3) discusses pedagogical problems inherent in traditional notions of grammar; and (4) summarizes the pedagogical and research implications of a new perspective on the role of grammar in foreign language…

Garrett, Nina

1986-01-01

369

Individual and combined effects of enactment and testing on memory for action phrases.  

PubMed

We investigated the individual and combined effects of enactment and testing on memory for action phrases to address whether both study techniques commonly promote item-specific processing. Participants (N = 112) were divided into four groups (n = 28). They either exclusively studied 36 action phrases (e.g., "lift the glass") or both studied and cued-recalled them in four trials. During study trials participants encoded the action phrases either by motorically performing them, or by reading them aloud, and they took final verb-cued recall tests over 18-min and 1-week retention intervals. A testing effect was demonstrated for action phrases, however, only when they were verbally encoded, and not when they were enacted. Similarly, enactive (relative to verbal) encoding reduced the rate of forgetting, but only when the action phrases were exclusively studied, and not when they were also tested. These less-than-additive effects of enactment and testing on the rate of forgetting, as well as on long-term retention, support the notion that both study techniques effectively promote item-specific processing that can only be marginally increased further by combining them. PMID:24503878

Kubik, Veit; Söderlund, Hedvig; Nilsson, Lars-Göran; Jönsson, Fredrik U

2014-01-01

370

Planning in sentence production: Evidence for the phrase as a default planning scope  

PubMed Central

Controversy remains as to the scope of advanced planning in language production. Smith and Wheeldon (1999) found significantly longer onset latencies when subjects described moving picture displays by producing sentences beginning with a complex noun phrase than for matched sentences beginning with a simple noun phrase. While these findings are consistent with a phrasal scope of planning, they might also be explained on the basis of: 1) greater retrieval fluency for the second content word in the simple initial noun phrase sentences and 2) visual grouping factors. In Experiments 1 and 2, retrieval fluency for the second content word was equated for the complex and simple initial noun phrase conditions. Experiments 3 and 4 addressed the visual grouping hypothesis by using stationary displays and by comparing onset latencies for the same display for sentence and list productions. Longer onset latencies for the sentences beginning with a complex noun phrase were obtained in all experiments, supporting the phrasal scope of planning hypothesis. The results indicate that in speech, as in other motor production domains, planning occurs beyond the minimal production unit. PMID:20501338

Martin, Randi C.; Crowther, Jason E.; Knight, Meredith; Tamborello, Franklin P.; Yang, Chin-Lung

2010-01-01

371

Chinese lexical networks: The structure, function and formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper Chinese phrases are modeled using complex networks theory. We analyze statistical properties of the networks and find that phrase networks display some important features: not only small world and the power-law distribution, but also hierarchical structure and disassortative mixing. These statistical traits display the global organization of Chinese phrases. The origin and formation of such traits are analyzed from a macroscopic Chinese culture and philosophy perspective. It is interesting to find that Chinese culture and philosophy may shape the formation and structure of Chinese phrases. To uncover the structural design principles of networks, network motif patterns are studied. It is shown that they serve as basic building blocks to form the whole phrase networks, especially triad 38 (feed forward loop) plays a more important role in forming most of the phrases and other motifs. The distinct structure may not only keep the networks stable and robust, but also be helpful for information processing. The results of the paper can give some insight into Chinese language learning and language acquisition. It strengthens the idea that learning the phrases helps to understand Chinese culture. On the other side, understanding Chinese culture and philosophy does help to learn Chinese phrases. The hub nodes in the networks show the close relationship with Chinese culture and philosophy. Learning or teaching the hub characters, hub-linking phrases and phrases which are meaning related based on motif feature should be very useful and important for Chinese learning and acquisition.

Li, Jianyu; Zhou, Jie; Luo, Xiaoyue; Yang, Zhanxin

2012-11-01

372

The Effect of a Study of Grammar on the Writing of Eighth-Grade Students. Report from the Individually Guided Instruction in English Language, Composition, and Literature Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study proposed (1) to verify that students of normal ability could learn structural and transformational grammar concepts presented in the format of linear programing, and (2) to test whether the students would apply the concepts in compositions so that their writing showed progress toward maturity. Participating in the experiment were 207…

Blount, Nathan S.; And Others

373

Release from Perceptual Masking for Children and Adults: Benefit of a Carrier Phrase  

PubMed Central

Objectives The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that a carrier phrase can improve word recognition performance for both children and adults by providing an auditory grouping cue. It was hypothesized that the carrier phrase would benefit listeners under conditions where they have difficulty perceptually separating the target word from the competing background. To test this hypothesis, word recognition was examined for maskers that were believed to vary in their ability to create perceptual masking. In addition to determining the conditions under which a carrier-phrase benefit is obtained, age-related differences in both susceptibility to masking and carrier-phrase benefit were examined. Design Two experiments were conducted to characterize developmental effects in the ability to benefit from a carrier phrase (i.e., “say the word”) prior to the target word. Using an open-set task, word recognition performance was measured for three listener age groups: 5- to 7-year-old children, 8- to 10-year-old children, and adults (18 to 30 years). For all experiments, target words were presented in each of two carrier-phrase conditions: (1) carrier-present and (2) carrier-absent. Across experiments, word recognition performance was assessed in the presence of multi-talker babble (Experiment 1), two-talker speech (Experiment 2), or speech-shaped noise (Experiment 2). Results Children’s word recognition performance was generally poorer than adults’ for all three masker conditions. Differences between the two age groups of children were seen for both speech-shaped noise and multi-talker babble, with 5- to 7-year-olds performing more poorly than 8- to 10-year-olds. However, 5- to 7-year-olds and 8- to 10-year-olds performed similarly for the two-talker masker. Despite developmental effects in susceptibility to masking, both groups of children and adults showed a carrier-phrase benefit in multi-talker babble (Experiment 1) and in the two-talker masker (Experiment 2). The magnitude of the carrier-phrase benefit was similar for a given masker type across age groups, but the carrier-phrase benefit was greater in the presence of the two-talker masker than in multi-talker babble. Specifically, children’s average carrier-phrase benefit was 7.1% for multi-talker and 16.8% for the two-talker masker condition. No carrier-phrase benefit was observed for any age group in the presence of speech-shaped noise. Conclusions Effects of auditory masking on word recognition performance were greater for children than for adults. The time course of development for susceptibility to masking appears to be more prolonged for a two-talker speech masker than for multi-talker babble or speech-shaped noise. Unique to the current study, this work suggests that a carrier phrase can provide an effective auditory grouping cue for both children and adults under conditions expected to produce substantial perceptual masking. PMID:22836239

Bonino, Angela Yarnell; Leibold, Lori J.; Buss, Emily

2012-01-01

374

Inter-subject variability modulates phonological advance planning in the production of adjective-noun phrases  

PubMed Central

The literature on advance phonological planning in adjective-noun phrases (NPs) presents diverging results: while many experimental studies suggest that the entire NP is encoded before articulation, other results favor a span of encoding limited to the first word. Although cross-linguistic differences in the structure of adjective-NPs may account for some of these contrasting results, divergences have been reported even among similar languages and syntactic structures. Here we examined whether inter-individual differences account for variability in the span of phonological planning in the production of French NPs, where previous results indicated encoding limited to the first word. The span of phonological encoding is tested with the picture-word interference (PWI) paradigm using phonological distractors related to the noun or to the adjective of the NPs. In Experiment 1, phonological priming effects were limited to the first word in adjective NPs whichever the position of the adjective (pre-nominal or post-nominal). Crucially, phonological priming effects on the second word interacted with speakers' production speed suggesting different encoding strategies for participants. In Experiment 2, we tested this hypothesis further with a larger group of participants. Results clearly showed that slow and fast initializing participants presented different phonological priming patterns on the last element of adjective-NPs: while the first word was primed by a distractor for all speakers, only the slow speaker group presented a priming effect on the second element of the NP. These results show that the span of phonological encoding is modulated by inter-individual strategies: in experimental paradigms some speakers plan word by word whereas others encode beyond the initial word. We suggest that the diverging results reported in the literature on advance phonological planning may partly be reconciled in light of the present results. PMID:24550866

Michel Lange, Violaine; Laganaro, Marina

2014-01-01

375

Learning Cue Phrase Patterns from Radiology Reports Using a Genetic Algorithm  

SciTech Connect

Various computer-assisted technologies have been developed to assist radiologists in detecting cancer; however, the algorithms still lack high degrees of sensitivity and specificity, and must undergo machine learning against a training set with known pathologies in order to further refine the algorithms with higher validity of truth. This work describes an approach to learning cue phrase patterns in radiology reports that utilizes a genetic algorithm (GA) as the learning method. The approach described here successfully learned cue phrase patterns for two distinct classes of radiology reports. These patterns can then be used as a basis for automatically categorizing, clustering, or retrieving relevant data for the user.

Patton, Robert M [ORNL] [ORNL; Beckerman, Barbara G [ORNL] [ORNL; Potok, Thomas E [ORNL] [ORNL

2009-01-01

376

Improving scene detection by using gradual shot transitions as cues from film grammar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The types of shot transitions used by film editors in video are not randomly chosen. Cuts, dissolves, fades, and wipes are devices in film grammar used to structure video. In this work knowledge of film grammar is used to improve scene detection algorithms. Three improvements to known scene detection algorithms are proposed: (1) The selection of key-frames for shot similarity measurement should take the position of gradual shot transitions into account. (2) Gradual shot transitions have a separating effect. It is shown how this local cue can be used to improve the global structuring into logical units. (3) Gradual shot transitions also have a merging effect upon shots in their temporal proximity. It is shown how coherence values and shot similarity values used during scene detection have to be modified to exploit this fact. The proposed improvements can be used together with a variety of scene detection approaches. Experimental results with time adaptive grouping indicate that considerable improvements in terms of precision and recall are achieved.

Petersohn, Christian

2008-01-01

377

Pro-Forms in the Spanish Noun Phrase. Studies in Linguistics and Language Learning, Volume III.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The object of this study is to treat pronominalization in Spanish within the framework of generative grammar. (The non-hypenated word "pronoun" refers to the traditional class of words including alguien, algo, el, or ella. The hypenated form, "pro-noun," refers to the underlying lexical entries or feature complexes which share the features [+pro,…

Lackstrom, John Edwin

378

Grammar Transformations in an EDA for Genetic Programming  

E-print Network

Grammar Transformations in an EDA for Genetic Programming Peter A.N. Bosman and Edwin D. de Jong­of­Distribution Algorithm (EDA) for Genetic Programming (GP). We propose a proba- bility distribution for the space of trees within the tree. However, basic GP does not make informed choices as to which partial solutions

Fernandez, Thomas

379

Grammar Transformations in an EDA for Genetic Programming  

E-print Network

Grammar Transformations in an EDA for Genetic Programming Peter A.N. Bosman and Edwin D. de Jong--of--Distribution Algorithm (EDA) for Genetic Programming (GP). We propose a proba­ bility distribution for the space of trees within the tree. However, basic GP does not make informed choices as to which partial solutions

Utrecht, Universiteit

380

The relationship between generative grammar and (relevance-theoretic) pragmatics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The generative grammar approach to language seeks a fully explicit account of the modular system of knowledge (competence) that underlies the human language capacity. Similarly, the relevance-theoretic approach to pragmatics attempts an explicit characterisation of the subpersonal systems involved in utterance interpretation. As an on-line performance system, however, it is subject to certain additional constraints; this is demonstrated by the

Robyn Carston

2000-01-01

381

The Strategies Approach: Effective for Reviewing Grammar and Punctuation Concepts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article is based on results of a quasi-experimental study in which the efficacy of the strategies approach for reviewing grammar and punctuation concepts was assessed in a business communication course. The control group studied rules-based review materials; the treatment group studied strategies-based review materials. On the three sets of…

Quible, Zane K.

2008-01-01

382

The Pedagogic Effectiveness of Developmental Readiness in ESL Grammar Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The project reported in this paper aims to test the concept of "learner developmental readiness" and its pedagogic effectiveness in the teaching of foreign language grammar. It focuses on the teaching of English as a second language (ESL) in a formal classroom context. The aim is to ascertain whether a specific teaching order based on the concept…

Mansouri, Fethi; Duffy, Loretta

2005-01-01

383

On the Form of Bilingual Grammars: The Phonological Component.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research is based on the assumption that a Spanish/English bilingual is aware of the phonological and semantic relatedness of the many hundreds of pairs of transparently cognate items in the two languages. This awareness is linguistically significant in that it is reflected in the internalized grammar of the bilingual. The bilingual speaker…

Elerick, Charles

384

Functions of Grammar in a Language Teaching Syllabus.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Past perceptions of the role of grammar in the second language syllabus have been limited by the attitude that grammatical content should be addressed directly in the language classroom and that it is limited to language items and rules with definable boundaries. However, language has properties crucial to its use for communication that are not…

Rutherford, William E.

385

Hermes: Grammar and Lexicon Carlos B. Rivera and Nick Cercone  

E-print Network

, MC91, VPC93]. The lexicon has been further improved and expanded, and is used to access, CANADA S4S 0A2 ISSN 0828­3494 ISBN 0­7731­0360­0 #12; Contents 1 Introduction 3 2 Healthcare domain 3 2 (NL) access to med­ ical databases. The grammar and lexicon, associated semantic extractor and control

Regina, University of

386

Hermes: Grammar and Lexicon Carlos B. Rivera and Nick Cercone  

E-print Network

, VPC93]. The lexicon has been further improved and expanded, and is used to access the healthcare S4S 0A2 ISSN 0828-3494 ISBN 0-7731-0360-0 #12;Contents 1 Introduction 3 2 Healthcare domain 3 2 (NL) access to med- ical databases. The grammar and lexicon, associated semantic extractor and control

Regina, University of

387

BILEXICAL GRAMMARS AND THEIR CUBIC-TIME PARSING ALGORITHMS  

E-print Network

Chapter 1 BILEXICAL GRAMMARS AND THEIR CUBIC-TIME PARSING ALGORITHMS Jason Eisner Dept. of Computer Science, University of Rochester P.O. Box 270226 Rochester, NY 14627-0226 U.S.A. jason (Charniak, 1995; Collins, 1996; Eisner, 1996a; Charniak, 1997; Collins, 1997; Goodman, 1997), who reported

Eisner, Jason

388

A Grammar of Southern Pomo: An Indigenous Language of California  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Southern Pomo is a moribund indigenous language, one of seven closely related Pomoan languages once spoken in Northern California in the vicinity of the Russian River drainage, Clear Lake, and the adjacent Pacific coast. This work is the first full-length grammar of the language. It is divided into three parts. Part I introduces the sociocultural…

Walker, Neil Alexander

2013-01-01

389

Functional Grammar in the ESL Classroom: Noticing, Exploring and Practicing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A set of easy to use techniques helps students discover for themselves how grammar works in real world contexts and how grammatical choices are not just about form but about meaning. Sample teaching ideas, covering a wide range of grammatical topics including verb tense, voice, reference and the organization of texts, accompanies each procedure.…

Lock, Graham; Jones, Rodney

2011-01-01

390

REA's Handbook of English: Grammar, Style, and Writing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using straightforward, easy-to-understand language, this handbook of English provides hundreds of examples to illustrate in specific detail what is proper in all areas of English grammar, style, and writing. The handbook provides learning exercises at the end of every chapter for a thorough review of the concepts covered in the chapter. The first…

Research and Education Association, Piscataway, NJ.

391

LEARNING JAZZ GRAMMARS Jon Gillick Kevin Tang Robert M. Keller  

E-print Network

LEARNING JAZZ GRAMMARS Jon Gillick Kevin Tang Robert M. Keller Wesleyan University jrgillick in educational software tools that can generate novel jazz solos in a style representative of a body of performed for contours of typical jazz solos, which we call "slopes", then show how these slopes may be incorporated

Chen, Tsuhan

392

Text Parsing for Sign Language Generation with Combinatory Categorial Grammar  

Microsoft Academic Search

paper, we propose a method to convert a written sentence in spoken language into a suitable representation in sign language within the framework of Combinatory Categorial Grammar (CCG). The representation reflects the multi-channel nature of sign language performance, including manual and non-manual linguistic signals of multiple channels and information about their coordination. We show that most information needed to address

Jin-Woo Chung; Jong C. Park

2011-01-01

393

E-Learning Turkish Language and Grammar: Analyzing Learners' Behavior  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study analyses the behavior and the preferences of the Greek learners of Turkish language, who use a particular e-learning website in parallel with their studies, namely: http://turkish.pgeorgalas.gr. The website offers free online material in Greek and English language for learning the Turkish language and grammar. The traffic of several…

Georgalas, Panagiotis

2012-01-01

394

Exception Handling for Error Reporting in Parsing Expression Grammars  

E-print Network

@dcc.ufrj.br Abstract. Parsing Expression Grammars (PEGs) are a new formalism to describe a top-down parser of a language. However, error handling techniques that are often applied to top-down parsers are not directly, the parser is adapted to not abort on the first error, but to try processing the rest of the input, informing

Ierusalimschy, Roberto

395

Constructive learning: Inducing grammars and neural networks Rajesh Girish Parekh  

E-print Network

.3 Deterministic Finite State Automata . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 3.3.1 Canonical DFA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 4.2 Lattice of Finite State Automata Specified by S + . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 4 DETERMINISTIC FINITE AUTOMATA 7 2 INTRODUCTION TO REGULAR GRAMMAR INFERENCE . . . . . 8 2.1 Representation

Honavar, Vasant

396

Markedness in Universal Grammar and Second Language Acquisition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper focuses on the study of markedness theory in Universal Grammar (UG) and its implications in Second Language Acquisition (SLA), showing that the language learners should consciously compare and contrast the similarities and differences between his native language and target language, which will facilitate their learning. (Contains 2…

Jiang, Zhao-zi; Shao, Chang-zhong

2006-01-01

397

DEVELOPMENT OF AN ENGLISH GRAMMAR CHECKER A PROGRESS REPORT  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to leave more time for EFL teachers to work on higher-level re- writing tasks, we decided to develop a computer grammar checker. The first stage of development was devoted to error analysis of 125 writing samples collected from our students. We found 1659 errors and classified them into 14 main types and 93 subtypes. The analysis served as

Hsien-Chin Liou

398

Making Meaning with Grammar: A Repertoire of Possibilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The place of grammar in an English or literacy curriculum has long been a source of debate, one in which professionals, politicians and the public have often engaged with unbridled enthusiasm. As such, the debate has sometimes been characterised more by ideology or polemic, than by intellectual engagement with the core ideas. In part, this is…

Myhill, Debra; Lines, Helen; Watson, Annabel

2012-01-01

399

The Story of English Grammar in United States Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article assumes the value of a scientifically grounded, rhetorically focused, professionally supported, and publicly embraced grammar within the public schools and examines the past century of practices within the United States from that perspective. It describes a brief renaissance in the 50's and early 60's, inspired largely by the…

Kolln, Martha; Hancock, Craig

2005-01-01

400

Spoken Grammar and ELT Course Materials: A Missing Link?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Drawing on the evidence of a growing body of corpus research over the past two decades, this article investigates the phenomenon of spoken grammar in conversational English and the extent to which our current knowledge of the area is reflected in contemporary textbooks for English as a foreign language (EFL) learners. The article reports on a…

Cullen, Richard; Kuo, I-Chun

2007-01-01

401

EEG: Elements of English Grammar: Rules Explained Simply.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intended to help interested people speak and write more correctly through self-instruction, this book presents the basic rules of standard English grammar in an easy-to-understand manner. The book's six chapters are as follows: (1) The Sentence; (2) Parts of Speech; (3) Case; (4) Modifiers; (5) Agreement; and (6) Building Better Sentences. The…

Van Winkle, Harold

402

Phonological Memory and Children's Second Language Grammar Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the role of phonological memory in second language (L2) grammar learning in a group of native French-speaking children undergoing a 5-month intensive English program. Phonological memory (as referenced by Arabic [ANWR] and English [ENWR] nonword repetition tasks), L2 vocabulary (receptive and productive vocabulary knowledge),…

French, Leif M.; O'Brien, Irena

2008-01-01

403

On the Relation of Graph Grammars and Graph Automata  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is shown that a strong relationship exists between sets of graphs defined by graph (walking) automata with markers available and sets defined by graph grammars. Polynomial recognition algorithms are presented for certain classes of sets and it is argued that the existence of polynomial algorithms for other classes is doubtful. Other properties of the classes of sets defined by

John Mylopoulos

1972-01-01

404

The Emergence of Grammar: Early Verbs and beyond  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper examines the first twenty verb-forms recorded for six Hebrew-speaking children aged between 1;2 and 2;1, and how they evolve into fully inflected verbs for three of these children. Discussion focuses first on what word-forms children initially select for the verbs they produce, what role these forms play in children's emergent grammar,…

Armon-Lotem, Sharon; Berman, Ruth A.

2003-01-01

405

Non-context-free grammars generating context-free languages  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

If G is a grammar such that in each non-context-free rule of G, the right side contains a string of terminals longer than any terminal string appearing between two nonterminals in the left side, then the language generated by G is context free. Six previous results follow as corollaries of this theorem.

Baker, B. S.

1974-01-01

406

Geometrical reasoning based on attributed graph grammar for prismatic parts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modern manufacturing systems rely on a smooth and quick transformation of the design specification into manufacturing instructions. The shift towards feature-based design and manufacturing supports this effort. One of the weak links in this chain of activities is the conversion of the design features into the manufacturing features. This article presents a method based on graph grammar parsing that converts

DAVID BEN-ARIEH

1999-01-01

407

GAME DYNAMICS WITH LEARNING AND EVOLUTION OF UNIVERSAL GRAMMAR  

E-print Network

history of human language, given the limited physical evidence [5, 14, 2, 8, 9, 29, 7, 22, 21GAME DYNAMICS WITH LEARNING AND EVOLUTION OF UNIVERSAL GRAMMAR W. GARRETT MITCHENER Abstract. We investigate a model of language evolution, based on population game dynamics with learning. Specifically, we

Mitchener, W. Garrett

408

Cultural Values and Lexical Features in Spanish Grammar.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is a set of difficult Spanish grammar questions (ser-estar, preterite-imperfect, subjunctive-indicative, word order, and prepositions) in which the description of the semantic component is essential. Even though generative formulations treat them in differing ways, these questions possess the common characteristic of associating a form…

Stiehm, Bruce G.

409

Concurrent derivations as single pushout graph grammar processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Algebraic graph transformations visually support intuition, have a strong theoretical basis, and provide a formal, implementation independent basis for the description of discretely evolving computational systems and their formal and tractable analysis. Graph grammar models of concurrent systems (petri nets, actor systems) have inspired corresponding semantics developments. Recently this led to the introduction of partial orders of concurrent derivations (concurrent

Martin Korff; Leila Ribeiro

1995-01-01

410

From Grammar to Lexicon: Unsupervised Learning of Lexical Syntax  

Microsoft Academic Search

Imagine a language that is completely unfamiliar; the only means of studying it are an ordinary grammar book and a very large corpus of text. No dictionary is available. How can easily recognized, surface grammatical facts be used to extract from a corpus as much syntactic information as possible about individual words? This paper describes an approach based on two

Michael R. Brent

1993-01-01

411

Combining Hidden Markov Models and Stochastic-Context Free Grammars  

E-print Network

Combining Hidden Markov Models and Stochastic-Context Free Grammars Joanna Davies Worcester College assumed to be independent. I develop methods that take a hidden Markov model for gene finding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 2.2 Why are hidden Markov models appropriate for gene finding

Goldschmidt, Christina

412

Grammar-Based Testing Using Realistic Domains in PHP  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an integration of grammar-based testing in a framework for contract-based testing in PHP. It relies on the notion of \\\\gtypes, that make it possible to assign domains to data, by means of contract assertions written inside the source code of a PHP application. Then a test generation tool uses the contracts to generate relevant test data for

Ivan Enderlin; Frederic Dadeau; Alain Giorgetti; Fabrice Bouquet

2012-01-01

413

The Grammar of Catholic Schooling and Radically "Catholic" Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A "grammar of Catholic schooling" inhibits many elementary and secondary Catholic schools from reflecting on how they practice Catholic Social Teaching (CST). The values of human dignity, the common good, and a preferential option for the marginalized are central to CST. Schools can live these values by serving children who live in poverty, are…

Scanlan, Martin

2008-01-01

414

Effectiveness of Using Games in Teaching Grammar to Young Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The primary aim of this study was to explore the effectiveness of using games in teaching grammar to young learners from the view points of Turkish EFL teachers working in primary schools. English language teacher' (n = 15) opinions were collected through a questionnaire and the results of this study demonstrated that Turkish EFL teachers have a…

Yolageldili, Gulin; Arikan, Arda

2011-01-01

415

Offline grammar-based recognition of handwritten sentences.  

PubMed

This paper proposes a sequential coupling of a Hidden Markov Model (HMM) recognizer for offline handwritten English sentences with a probabilistic bottom-up chart parser using Stochastic Context-Free Grammars (SCFG) extracted from a text corpus. Based on extensive experiments, we conclude that syntax analysis helps to improve recognition rates significantly. PMID:16640266

Zimmermann, Matthias; Chappelier, Jean-Cédric; Bunke, Horst

2006-05-01

416

A Study of Streaming at a Grammar School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research indicates that less streaming of the grammar school ability band leads to social and academic gain for more pupils but with some loss in performance by the brightest boys. Perhaps too wide an ability range in the class would increase this loss intolerably. (Author)

Douglas, J. F.

1973-01-01

417

Noam Chomsky Writes to Mrs. Davis about Grammar and Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a personal letter, Chomsky suggests that while the study of grammar has little detectable effect on writing ability, it can, as a branch of science, help students learn how (and why) to think about hard and intriguing questions and to develop natural curiosity. (HOD)

English Education, 1984

1984-01-01

418

The evaluation metric in generative grammar John Goldsmith  

E-print Network

and colleagues that we have known here: my own teachers, Noam Chomsky and Morris Halle and Haj Ross and Paul concept in the development of generative grammar by Noam Chomsky. And yet it is at the same time one with the notion of explanatory adequacy. I am going to sketch an idealized picture of what I take it that Noam

Goldsmith, John A.

419

Input-Based Grammar Pedagogy: A Comparison of Two Possibilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents arguments for using listening and reading activities as an option for techniques in grammar pedagogy. It describes two possible approaches: Processing Instruction (PI) and Enriched Input (EI), and examples of their key features are included in the appendices. The article goes on to report on a classroom based quasi-experiment…

Marsden, Emma

2005-01-01

420

Aspects of a Grammar of Makary Kotoko (Chadic, Cameroon)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Makary Kotoko (MK), a Central Chadic B language, is spoken in the north of Cameroon just south of Lake Chad. Published works on MK to date include about a dozen articles on different aspects of the grammar of the language, primarily by H. Tourneux. The present work, which is based on a substantial corpus of recorded texts, is a systematic…

Allison, Sean David

2012-01-01

421

The Economy of Fluent Speaking: Phrase-Level Reduction in a Patient with Pure Apraxia of Speech  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The term "phrase-level reduction" refers to transformations of the phonetic forms of words in connected speech. They are a characteristic property of fluent speech in normal speakers. Phrase-level reductions contribute to a reduction of articulatory-motor effort and constitute an important aspect of speech naturalness. So far, these phenomena have…

Staiger, Anja; Ruttenauer, Anna; Ziegler, Wolfram

2010-01-01

422

Processing Coordinated Verb Phrases: The Relevance of Lexical-Semantic, Conceptual, and Contextual Information towards Establishing Verbal Parallelism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This dissertation examines the influence of lexical-semantic representations, conceptual similarity, and contextual fit on the processing of coordinated verb phrases. The study integrates information gleaned from current linguistic theory with current psycholinguistic approaches to examining the processing of coordinated verb phrases. It has…

Tutunjian, Damon A.

2010-01-01

423

Improving Oral Reading Fluency through Response Opportunities: A Comparison of Phrase Drill Error Correction with Repeated Readings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to compare two oral reading fluency treatments (repeated readings and phrase drill error correction) which differ in the way they prompt student responding. Repeated readings (RR) and phrase drill (PD) error correction were alternated with a baseline and a reward condition within an alternating treatments design with…

Begeny, John C.; Daly, Edward J., III; Valleley, Rachel J.

2006-01-01

424

Quantitative modeling of the neural representation of nouns and phrasesrepresentation of nouns and phrases  

E-print Network

LTI Thesis Defense p y ( ) #12;Two Major Advancements · Brain imaging technology allows us to directly and phrases Student: Kai-min Kevin Chang Committee Members: Marcel Adam Just (chair), CMU T Mit h ll ( h i Resonance Imaging (fMRI) · Measures the hemodynamic response (changes in blood flow and blood oxygenation

425

Phonological Phrase Boundaries Constrain the Online Syntactic Analysis of Spoken Sentences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two experiments tested whether phonological phrase boundaries constrain online syntactic analysis in French. Pairs of homophones belonging to different syntactic categories (verb and adjective) were used to create sentences with a local syntactic ambiguity (e.g., [le petit chien "mort"], in English, the "dead" little dog, vs. [le petit chien]…

Millotte, Severine; Rene, Alice; Wales, Roger; Christophe, Anne

2008-01-01

426

Disambiguating Prepositional Phrase Attachments by Using On-Line Dictionary Definitions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Standard on-line dictionaries offer a wealth of knowledge expressed in natural language form. We claim that such knowledge can and should be accessed by natural language processing systems to solve difficult ambiguity problems. This paper sustains that claim by describing a set of computational tools and techniques used to disambiguate prepositional phrase attachments in English sentences, by accessing on-line dictionary

Karen Jensen; Jean-Louis Binot

1987-01-01

427

The Language of Energy: A Glossary of Words and Phrases Used in the Energy Industry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provided is an alphabetical list or words and phrases commonly used in the energy industry. Entries range from such general terms as biomass, fossil fuels, and wetlands to such highly specific terms as Arab oil embargo of 1973-74 and Exxon Donor Solvent (EDS) Process. (JN)

American Petroleum Inst., Washington, DC.

428

Design and Analysis of Delimiters for Selection-Action Pen Gesture Phrases in Scriboli  

E-print Network

Design and Analysis of Delimiters for Selection-Action Pen Gesture Phrases in Scriboli Ken Hinckley a quantitative analysis of delimiters for pen gestures. A delimiter is "something different" in the input stream dwelling with the pen to delimit the lasso from the mark. Button uses a button press to signal when

Keinan, Alon

429

Dvandvas, Blocking, and the Associative: The Bumpy Ride from Phrase to Word  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The oldest form of Sanskrit has a class of expressions that are in some respects like asyndetically coordinated syntactic phrases, in other respects like single compound words. I propose to resolve the conflicting evidence by drawing on prosodic phonology, stratal optimality theory, and the lexicalist approach to morphological blocking. I then…

Kiparsky, Paul

2010-01-01

430

Lattice Score Based Data Cleaning For Phrase-Based Statistical Machine Translation  

E-print Network

Lattice Score Based Data Cleaning For Phrase-Based Statistical Machine Translation Jie Jiang , Andy,away}@computing.dcu.ie, julie.berndsen@ucd.ie Abstract Statistical machine translation relies heav- ily on parallel corpora score-based data cleaning method to select proper sen- tence pairs from the ones extracted from

Way, Andy

431

Differences in the Timing of Implausibility Detection for Recipient and Instrument Prepositional Phrases  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We conducted two word-by-word reading experiments to investigate the timing of implausibility detection for recipient and instrument prepositional phrases (PPs). These PPs differ in thematic role, relative frequency, and possibly in argument status. The results showed a difference in the timing of garden path effects such that the detection of…

Blodgett, Allison; Boland, Julie E.

2004-01-01

432

Frequency effects in noun phrase production: Implications for models of lexical access  

E-print Network

Frequency effects in noun phrase production: Implications for models of lexical access F and about the locus of the classic frequency effect to derive predictions about possible frequency effects orthogonally the frequencies of the adjective and of the noun that composed the NPs. We consistently found

Caramazza, Alfonso

433

The Gender-Brand Effect of Key Phrases on User Clicks in Sponsored  

E-print Network

advertising campaign from a major US retailer. We segregate the key-phrases into six different categories. To thrive in their business, these businesses need to optimize their search engine advertising strategies the revenue and profit of the advertisers. Our data consists of 7 million daily records from a keyword

Jansen, James

434

A Content-Addressable Pointer Mechanism Underlies Comprehension of Verb-Phrase Ellipsis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Interpreting a verb-phrase ellipsis (VP ellipsis) requires accessing an antecedent in memory, and then integrating a representation of this antecedent into the local context. We investigated the online interpretation of VP ellipsis in an eye-tracking experiment and four speed-accuracy tradeoff experiments. To investigate whether the antecedent for…

Martin, Andrea E.; McElree, Brian

2008-01-01

435

Memory Operations that Support Language Comprehension: Evidence from Verb-Phrase Ellipsis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Comprehension of verb-phrase ellipsis (VPE) requires reevaluation of recently processed constituents, which often necessitates retrieval of information about the elided constituent from memory. A. E. Martin and B. McElree (2008) argued that representations formed during comprehension are content addressable and that VPE antecedents are retrieved…

Martin, Andrea E.; McElree, Brian

2009-01-01

436

Feature-Based and Model-Based Semantics for English, French, and German Verb Phrases.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the relative merits of feature versus model based semantics for the interpretation of verb phrases in English, French, and German. The article concludes that the simplicity afforded by features is offset by the depth of analysis achieved with event models that are additionally able to support a sophisticated approach to machine…

Kent, Stuart; Pitt, Jeremy

1996-01-01

437

Who is where: Deriving right edge WH phrases in Ikalanga WH constructions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earlier literature on Bantu languages claimed that interrogative WH constructions in Bantu languages involve no WH movement (see Bokamba, 1976; Kimenyi, 1980). Using data from Ikalanga (an understudied Bantu language spoken in Botswana), this paper challenges this view and argues that although this language has WH in situ, WH constructions with left edge and right edge WH phrases prefixed with

Rose M. Letsholo

2007-01-01

438

Web as Huge Information Source for Noun Phrases Integration in the Information Retrieval Process  

E-print Network

Language Processing (NLP) was well studied for IR, as mentioned during TREC "NLP tracks" [TREC]. NLP can) and at matching time (dynamic NLP integration). We work on textual content indexing, with the aim to use a smarter NLP than words truncation or stop-words remove. We propose to use noun phrases for documents

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

439

Sexually attractive phrases increase yolk androgens deposition in Canaries ( Serinus canaria)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The androgen concentration in birds’ eggs varies with laying order, breeding conditions, and mate attractiveness. In passerine birds, mate attractiveness depends upon song quality. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effect of one criterion used by females to assess male song quality that is to say the presence of sexually attractive phrases on yolk androgen deposition. Twenty-five

Aurélie Tanvez; Nathalie Béguin; Olivier Chastel; André Lacroix; Gérard Lebouchera

2004-01-01

440

The Effects of Multiple Presentations on the Ratings and Memorability of Novel Figurative Phrases  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

How the perceptions of novel figurative phrases change over the course of numerous presentations were addressed in three studies using rating tasks (Studies 1 and 3) and recall tasks (Study 2). The present set of studies replicated much of Schweigert et al.'s (J Psychol Res 32:455-475, 2003) findings of changes in correlations among figurative…

Schweigert, Wendy A.

2009-01-01

441

Developmental Relationships between Speech and Writing: Is Verb-Phrase Anaphora Production a Special Case?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Young children's speech is typically more linguistically sophisticated than their writing. However, there are grounds for asking whether production of cohesive devices, such as verb-phrase anaphora (VPA), might represent an exception to this developmental pattern, as cohesive devices are generally more important in writing than in…

Donaldson, Morag L.; Cooper, Lynn S. M.

2013-01-01

442

Between Anaphora and Deixis ... The Resolution of the Demonstrative Noun Phrase "That N"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three experiments examined the hypothesis that the demonstrative noun phrase (NP) that N, as an anadeictic expression, preferentially refers to the less salient referent in a discourse representation when used anaphorically, whereas the anaphoric pronoun he or she preferentially refers to the highly-focused referent. The findings, from a sentence…

Fossard, Marion; Garnham, Alan; Cowles, H. Wind

2012-01-01

443

The Interplay between Semantic and Referential Aspects of Anaphoric Noun Phrase Resolution: Evidence from ERPs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this event-related brain potential (ERP) study, we examined how semantic and referential aspects of anaphoric noun phrase resolution interact during discourse comprehension. We used a full factorial design that crossed referential ambiguity with semantic incoherence. Ambiguous anaphors elicited a sustained negative shift (Nref effect), and…

Nieuwland, Mante S.; Van Berkum, Jos J. A.

2008-01-01

444

Evaluating Phrase Sets for Use with Text Entry Method Evaluation with Dyslexic Participants  

E-print Network

Evaluating Phrase Sets for Use with Text Entry Method Evaluation with Dyslexic Participants Akiyo that are currently used in text entry method evaluation. The paper looks at how the usability of text entry experience difficulties during text input method evaluation tasks, and those that are specific to evaluation

445

Fourteen Light Tasks for Comparing Analogical and Phrase-based Machine Translation  

E-print Network

scripts. We imple- mented an analogical device and compared its performance to the state-of-the-art phrase. For the sake of reproducibility, we share the datasets used in this study. 1 Introduction A proportional for the translation of fourteen different testbeds. We also improve the state-of-the-art of analogical learning

Langlais, Philippe

446

Interes'ng-Phrase Mining for Ad-Hoc Text Analy'cs  

E-print Network

'on barack obama) Gaining insights is tedious and a task mostly leW to users (e.g., iden'fy characteris'c quota'ons by barack obama) 2 / 27 #12;Interes'ng-Phrase Mining-hoc document set D' D (e.g., all documents that contain barack obama) Output: k most

447

Extending the METEOR Machine Translation Evaluation Metric to the Phrase Level  

E-print Network

Extending the METEOR Machine Translation Evaluation Metric to the Phrase Level Michael Denkowski Pittsburgh, PA 15232, USA {mdenkows,alavie}@cs.cmu.edu Abstract This paper presents METEOR-NEXT, an ex- tended version of the METEOR metric de- signed to have high correlation with post- editing measures

Lavie, Alon

448

Acquisition of Generic Noun Phrases in Chinese: Learning about Lions without an '-S'  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

English-speaking children understand and produce generic expressions in the preschool years, but there are cross-linguistic differences in how generics are expressed. Three studies examined interpretation of generic noun phrases in three- to seven-year-old child (N=192) and adult speakers (N=163) of Mandarin Chinese. Contrary to suggestions by…

Tardif, Twila; Gelman, Susan A.; Fu, Xiaolan; Zhu, Liqi

2012-01-01

449

Linguistic Grammar Learning and DRD2-TAQ-IA Polymorphism  

PubMed Central

As research into the neurobiology of language has focused primarily on the systems level, fewer studies have examined the link between molecular genetics and normal variations in language functions. Because the ability to learn a language varies in adults and our genetic codes also vary, research linking the two provides a unique window into the molecular neurobiology of language. We consider a candidate association between the dopamine receptor D2 gene (DRD2) and linguistic grammar learning. DRD2-TAQ-IA polymorphism (rs1800497) is associated with dopamine receptor D2 distribution and dopamine impact in the human striatum, such that A1 allele carriers show reduction in D2 receptor binding relative to carriers who are homozygous for the A2 allele. The individual differences in grammatical rule learning that are particularly prevalent in adulthood are also associated with striatal function and its role in domain-general procedural memory. Therefore, we reasoned that procedurally-based grammar learning could be associated with DRD2-TAQ-IA polymorphism. Here, English-speaking adults learned artificial concatenative and analogical grammars, which have been respectively associated with procedural and declarative memory. Language learning capabilities were tested while learners’ neural hemodynamic responses were simultaneously measured by fMRI. Behavioral learning and brain activation data were subsequently compared with the learners’ DRD2 (rs1800497) genotype. Learners who were homozygous for the A2 allele were better at concatenative (but not analogical) grammar learning and had higher striatal responses relative to those who have at least one A1 allele. These results provide preliminary evidence for the neurogenetic basis of normal variations in linguistic grammar learning and its link to domain-general functions. PMID:23741438

Wong, Patrick C. M.; Ettlinger, Marc; Zheng, Jing

2013-01-01

450

Linguistic grammar learning and DRD2-TAQ-IA polymorphism.  

PubMed

As research into the neurobiology of language has focused primarily on the systems level, fewer studies have examined the link between molecular genetics and normal variations in language functions. Because the ability to learn a language varies in adults and our genetic codes also vary, research linking the two provides a unique window into the molecular neurobiology of language. We consider a candidate association between the dopamine receptor D2 gene (DRD2) and linguistic grammar learning. DRD2-TAQ-IA polymorphism (rs1800497) is associated with dopamine receptor D2 distribution and dopamine impact in the human striatum, such that A1 allele carriers show reduction in D2 receptor binding relative to carriers who are homozygous for the A2 allele. The individual differences in grammatical rule learning that are particularly prevalent in adulthood are also associated with striatal function and its role in domain-general procedural memory. Therefore, we reasoned that procedurally-based grammar learning could be associated with DRD2-TAQ-IA polymorphism. Here, English-speaking adults learned artificial concatenative and analogical grammars, which have been respectively associated with procedural and declarative memory. Language learning capabilities were tested while learners' neural hemodynamic responses were simultaneously measured by fMRI. Behavioral learning and brain activation data were subsequently compared with the learners' DRD2 (rs1800497) genotype. Learners who were homozygous for the A2 allele were better at concatenative (but not analogical) grammar learning and had higher striatal responses relative to those who have at least one A1 allele. These results provide preliminary evidence for the neurogenetic basis of normal variations in linguistic grammar learning and its link to domain-general functions. PMID:23741438

Wong, Patrick C M; Ettlinger, Marc; Zheng, Jing

2013-01-01

451

German Grammar in the Students' Words: The "Essentialization" of German Grammar by American College-Level Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study of 134 college-level learners of German, enrolled in four years of instruction, showed them to "essentialize" German grammar when asked to describe it to a hypothetical friend. Kubota defined the term essentialization to capture learners' views of the target culture. Its main characteristic is the presupposition of "essential, stable,…

Chavez, Monika

2011-01-01

452

Perspectives on the rhythm-grammar link and its implications for typical and atypical language development.  

PubMed

This paper reviews the mounting evidence for shared cognitive mechanisms and neural resources for rhythm and grammar. Evidence for a role of rhythm skills in language development and language comprehension is reviewed here in three lines of research: (1) behavioral and brain data from adults and children, showing that prosody and other aspects of timing of sentences influence online morpho-syntactic processing; (2) comorbidity of impaired rhythm with grammatical deficits in children with language impairment; and (3) our recent work showing a strong positive association between rhythm perception skills and expressive grammatical skills in young school-age children with typical development. Our preliminary follow-up study presented here revealed that musical rhythm perception predicted variance in 6-year-old children's production of complex syntax, as well as online reorganization of grammatical information (transformation); these data provide an additional perspective on the hierarchical relations potentially shared by rhythm and grammar. A theoretical framework for shared cognitive resources for the role of rhythm in perceiving and learning grammatical structure is elaborated on in light of potential implications for using rhythm-emphasized musical training to improve language skills in children. PMID:25773612

Gordon, Reyna L; Jacobs, Magdalene S; Schuele, C Melanie; McAuley, J Devin

2015-03-01

453

Role of prior knowledge in implicit and explicit learning of artificial grammars.  

PubMed

Artificial grammar learning (AGL) performance reflects both implicit and explicit processes and has typically been modeled without incorporating any influence from general world knowledge. Our research provides a systematic investigation of the implicit vs. explicit nature of general knowledge and its interaction with knowledge types investigated by past AGL research (i.e., rule- and similarity-based knowledge). In an AGL experiment, a general knowledge manipulation involved expectations being either congruent or incongruent with training stimulus structure. Inconsistent observations paradoxically led to an advantage in structural knowledge and in the use of general world knowledge in both explicit (conscious) and implicit (unconscious) cases (as assessed by subjective measures). The above findings were obtained under conditions of reduced processing time and impaired executive resources. Key findings from our work are that implicit AGL can clearly be affected by general knowledge, and implicit learning can be enhanced by the violation of expectations. PMID:24999179

Ziori, Eleni; Pothos, Emmanuel M; Dienes, Zoltán

2014-08-01

454

Combining Grammar-Based and Memory-Based Models of Perception of Time Signature and Phase  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study investigates the modeling of the perception of time signature and phase using grammar-based and memorybased\\u000a approaches. It explores how far note-length can be used as the sole input to a model of perception of heard music. Two models\\u000a are developed: one uses a rule-based grammar and the other uses a combination of a rule-based grammar and a

Neta Spiro

2002-01-01

455

English Grammar Learning System Based on Knowledge Network of Fill-in-the-Blank Exercises  

Microsoft Academic Search

To understand English grammar is essential to write\\/speak\\/ read English appropriately. Fill-in-the-blank exercise of English\\u000a grammar is one of the popular types of exercises, which is introduced to check acquired\\/in-acquired grammatical knowledge\\u000a by evaluating the word selected by a learner for each sentence. Since such exercise-based learning is effective to acquire\\u000a practical knowledge, our objective is to construct English grammar

Takuya Goto; Tomoko Kojiri; Toyohide Watanabe; Takeshi Yamada; Tomoharu Iwata

2008-01-01

456

Regular languages, regular grammars and automata in splicing systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Splicing system is known as a mathematical model that initiates the connection between the study of DNA molecules and formal language theory. In splicing systems, languages called splicing languages refer to the set of double-stranded DNA molecules that may arise from an initial set of DNA molecules in the presence of restriction enzymes and ligase. In this paper, some splicing languages resulted from their respective splicing systems are shown. Since all splicing languages are regular, languages which result from the splicing systems can be further investigated using grammars and automata in the field of formal language theory. The splicing language can be written in the form of regular languages generated by grammar. Besides that, splicing systems can be accepted by automata. In this research, two restriction enzymes are used in splicing systems namely BfuCI and NcoI.

Mohamad Jan, Nurhidaya; Fong, Wan Heng; Sarmin, Nor Haniza

2013-04-01

457

Expectation Grammars: Leveraging High-Level Expectations for Activity Recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Video-based recognition and prediction of a temporally ex- tended activity can benefit from a detailed description of high-level expectations about the activity. Stochastic gr am- mars allow for an efficient representation of such expecta- tions and are well-suited for the specification of temporall y well-ordered activities. In this paper, we extend stochast ic grammars by adding event parameters, state checks,

David Minnen; Irfan A. Essa; Thad Starner

2003-01-01

458

Automatic grammar correction for second-language learners  

Microsoft Academic Search

A computer conversational system can potentially help a foreign- language student improve his\\/her fluency through practice dia- logues. One of its potential roles could be to correct ungrammat- ical sentences. This paper1 describes our research on a sentence- level, generation-based approach to grammar correction: first, a word lattice of candidate corrections is generated from an ill- formed input. A traditional

John Lee; Stephanie Seneff

2006-01-01

459

FrAG, a Hybrid Constraint Grammar Parser for French  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a hybrid tagger\\/parser for French (FrAG), and presents results from ongoing development work, corpus annotation and evaluation. The core of the system is a sentence scope Constraint Grammar (CG), with linguist-written rules. However, unlike traditional CG, the system uses hybrid techniques on both its morphological input side and its syntactic output side. Thus, FrAG draws on a

Eckhard Bick

2010-01-01

460

A Constraint Grammar Based Question Answering System for Portuguese  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This paper describes a linguistic, NLP based Information Extraction (IE) system for Portuguese text. The system focuses on\\u000a the natural language Question Answering task (QA) and relies on full syntactic tree parses, exploiting both lexico-semantic\\u000a information, syntactic pattern matching and named entity subtyping. Context driven Constraint Grammar rules (CG) are used\\u000a not only for PoS disambiguation, but also to assign

Eckhard Bick

2003-01-01

461

Evolution of the most common English words and phrases over the centuries.  

PubMed

By determining the most common English words and phrases since the beginning of the sixteenth century, we obtain a unique large-scale view of the evolution of written text. We find that the most common words and phrases in any given year had a much shorter popularity lifespan in the sixteenth century than they had in the twentieth century. By measuring how their usage propagated across the years, we show that for the past two centuries, the process has been governed by linear preferential attachment. Along with the steady growth of the English lexicon, this provides an empirical explanation for the ubiquity of Zipf's law in language statistics and confirms that writing, although undoubtedly an expression of art and skill, is not immune to the same influences of self-organization that are known to regulate processes as diverse as the making of new friends and World Wide Web growth. PMID:22832364

Perc, Matjaz

2012-12-01

462

Incremental VLSI design systems based on circular attribute grammars  

SciTech Connect

It is shown that attribute grammar techniques, used in the field of programming languages, form an efficient basis for the implementation of systems supporting hierarchical and incremental VLSI design. Such systems can interactively compute estimates for the speed and power dissipation of a circuit, check adherence to clocking disciplines, and recompute these quantities at reasonable cost as the designer changes the circuit, uses new modules, subsystems or standard cells. The bidirectional properties of devices and wires and the frequent use of signal feedback as a design technique imply that many properties of circuits are circular. Previous research has dealt almost exclusively with noncircular attribute grammars since this condition easily guarantees the existence and uniqueness of a consistent assignment of attribute values. It is noted that the noncircularity condition for attribute grammars is not a necessary one, it is sufficient that all circular attributes have a least fixed point obtainable with finite (and efficient) computation. Efficient algorithms are presented for exhaustive and incremental evaluation of circular attributes under any conditions that guarantee finite convergence.

Jones, L.G.

1986-01-01

463

Automatic natural language parsing  

SciTech Connect

This collection of papers on automatic natural language parsing examines research and development in language processing over the past decade. It focuses on current trends toward a phrase structure grammar and deterministic parsing.

Sprack-Jones, K.; Wilks, Y.

1985-01-01

464

Spot Me if You Can: Uncovering Spoken Phrases in Encrypted VoIP Conversations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the rapid adoption of Voice over IP (VoIP), its security implications are not yet fully un- derstood. Since VoIP calls may traverse untrusted networks, packets should be encrypted to ensure confidentiality. However, we show that when the audio is encoded using variable bit rate codecs, the lengths of encrypted VoIP packets can be used to identify the phrases spoken

Charles V. Wright; Lucas Ballard; Scott E. Coull; Fabian Monrose; Gerald M. Masson

2008-01-01

465

Blue car, red car: Developing efficiency in online interpretation of adjective-noun phrases.  

PubMed

Two experiments investigated the development of fluency in interpreting adjective-noun phrases in 30- and 36-month-old English-learning children. Using online processing measures, children's gaze patterns were monitored as they heard the familiar adjective-noun phrases (e.g. blue car) in visual contexts where the adjective was either informative (e.g. blue car paired with red car or red house) or uninformative (e.g. blue car paired with blue house). Thirty-six-month-olds processed adjective-noun phrases incrementally as adults do, orienting more quickly to the target picture on informative-adjective trials than on control trials. Thirty-month-olds did not make incremental use of informative adjectives, and experienced disruption on trials when the two potential referents were identical in kind. In the younger children, difficulty in integrating prenominal adjectives with the subsequent noun was associated with slower processing speed across conditions. These findings provide evidence that skill in putting color word knowledge to use in real-time language processing emerges gradually over the third year. PMID:20189552

Fernald, Anne; Thorpe, Kirsten; Marchman, Virginia A

2010-05-01

466

Blue Car, Red Car: Developing Efficiency in Online Interpretation of Adjective-Noun Phrases  

PubMed Central

Two experiments investigated the development of fluency in interpreting adjective-noun phrases in 30- and 36-month-old English-learning children. Using online processing measures, children’s gaze patterns were monitored as they heard the familiar adjective/noun phrases (e.g. blue car) in visual contexts where the adjective was either informative (e.g. blue car paired with red car or red house) or uninformative (e.g. blue car paired with blue house). Thirty-six-month-olds processed adjective-noun phrases incrementally as adults do, orienting more quickly to the target picture on informative-adjective trials than on control trials. Thirty-month-olds did not make incremental use of informative adjectives, and experienced disruption on trials when the two potential referents were identical in kind. In the younger children, difficulty in integrating prenominal adjectives with the subsequent noun was associated with slower processing speed across conditions. These findings provide evidence that skill in putting color word knowledge to use in real-time language processing emerges gradually over the third year. PMID:20189552

Fernald, Anne; Thorpe, Kirsten; Marchman, Virginia A.

2010-01-01

467

Recognition of chemical entities: combining dictionary-based and grammar-based approaches  

PubMed Central

Background The past decade has seen an upsurge in the number of publications in chemistry. The ever-swelling volume of available documents makes it increasingly hard to extract relevant new information from such unstructured texts. The BioCreative CHEMDNER challenge invites the development of systems for the automatic recognition of chemicals in text (CEM task) and for ranking the recognized compounds at the document level (CDI task). We investigated an ensemble approach where dictionary-based named entity recognition is used along with grammar-based recognizers to extract compounds from text. We assessed the performance of ten different commercial and publicly available lexical resources using an open source indexing system (Peregrine), in combination with three different chemical compound recognizers and a set of regular expressions to recognize chemical database identifiers. The effect of different stop-word lists, case-sensitivity matching, and use of chunking information was also investigated. We focused on lexical resources that provide chemical structure information. To rank the different compounds found in a text, we used a term confidence score based on the normalized ratio of the term frequencies in chemical and non-chemical journals. Results The use of stop-word lists greatly improved the performance of the dictionary-based recognition, but there was no additional benefit from using chunking information. A combination of ChEBI and HMDB as lexical resources, the LeadMine tool for grammar-based recognition, and the regular expressions, outperformed any of the individual systems. On the test set, the F-scores were 77.8% (recall 71.2%, precision 85.8%) for the CEM task and 77.6% (recall 71.7%, precision 84.6%) for the CDI task. Missed terms were mainly due to tokenization issues, poor recognition of formulas, and term conjunctions. Conclusions We developed an ensemble system that combines dictionary-based and grammar-based approaches for chemical named entity recognition, outperforming any of the individual systems that we considered. The system is able to provide structure information for most of the compounds that are found. Improved tokenization and better recognition of specific entity types is likely to further improve system performance.

2015-01-01

468

Translation of Untranslatable Words — Integration of Lexical Approximation and Phrase-Table Extension Techniques into Statistical Machine Translation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper proposes a method for handling out-of-vocabulary (OOV) words that cannot be translated using conventional phrase-based statistical machine translation (SMT) systems. For a given OOV word, lexical approximation techniques are utilized to identify spelling and inflectional word variants that occur in the training data. All OOV words in the source sentence are then replaced with appropriate word variants found in the training corpus, thus reducing the number of OOV words in the input. Moreover, in order to increase the coverage of such word translations, the SMT translation model is extended by adding new phrase translations for all source language words that do not have a single-word entry in the original phrase-table but only appear in the context of larger phrases. The effectiveness of the proposed methods is investigated for the translation of Hindi to English, Chinese, and Japanese.

Paul, Michael; Arora, Karunesh; Sumita, Eiichiro

469

Definite Clause Grammars for Language Analysis - A Survey of the Formalism and a Comparison with Augmented Transition Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

A clear andpowerfulformalism for describing languages, both natural and artificial, follows fiom a method for expressing grammars in logic due to Colmerauer and Kowalski. This formalism, which is a natural extension of context-free grammars, we call \\

Fernando C. N. Pereira; David H. D. Warren

1980-01-01

470

A Grammar-Based Semantic Similarity Algorithm for Natural Language Sentences  

PubMed Central

This paper presents a grammar and semantic corpus based similarity algorithm for natural language sentences. Natural language, in opposition to “artificial language”, such as computer programming languages, is the language used by the general public for daily communication. Traditional information retrieval approaches, such as vector models, LSA, HAL, or even the ontology-based approaches that extend to include concept similarity comparison instead of cooccurrence terms/words, may not always determine the perfect matching while there is no obvious relation or concept overlap between two natural language sentences. This paper proposes a sentence similarity algorithm that takes advantage of corpus-based ontology and grammatical rules to overcome the addressed problems. Experiments on two famous benchmarks demonstrate that the proposed algorithm has a significant performance improvement in sentences/short-texts with arbitrary syntax and structure. PMID:24982952

Chang, Jia Wei; Hsieh, Tung Cheng

2014-01-01

471

Deductive Systems and Grammars: Proofs as Grammatical Structures  

E-print Network

to stay at Indiana University. I would like to thank my father, Heinz Tiede, his wife Anke, and my mother Elke Shivananda; I would not be where I am without their help, love, and support. The Indiana initiative ``Mathematics Throughout Curriculum.'' Finally, I dedicate this work, with love, to my wife

Pentus, Mati

472

A generative grammar approach to diatonic harmonic structure  

E-print Network

. This approach covers cases of modulation, tonicisation and some aspects of large-scale harmonic form, and may and corpus analysis, as well as in the music psychological investigation of tonal cognition.1 I. INTRODUCTION explained by linear approaches. In compositional practice, harmonic progressions explore a large set

Kouroupetroglou, Georgios

473

Computation-Friendly Shape Grammars with Application to Determining the Interior Layout of Buildings from Image Data  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A shape grammar is a formalism that has been widely applied, in many different fields, to analyzing designs. Computer implementation of a shape grammar interpreter is vital to both research and application. However, implementing a shape grammar interpreter is hard, especially for parametric shapes defined by open terms. This dissertation…

Yue, Kui

2009-01-01

474

"I'll Take Commas for $200": An Instructional Intervention Using Games to Help Students Master Grammar Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Effective writing requires mastering grammar. For journalists, this mastery is critical because research shows poor grammar erodes media credibility. College writing instructors say students do not understand basic grammar concepts, and greater numbers of students are enrolling in remedial writing classes. This quasi-experimental mixed methods…

Bullard, Sue Burzynski; Anderson, Nancy

2014-01-01

475

Guide to Grammar and Writing: Sentence Variety  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This guide explains how to vary sentence length and structure to add interest and expression to writing. It includes several online quizzes covering variety in modifier placement, variety in subject placement, and identifying sentence types. Quizzes include the correct answers with explanations. The resource also provides links to definitions, examples, and online quizzes for run-on sentences and sentence fragments.

Capital Community College and Dr. Charles Darling

2012-04-02

476

Electrical Stimulation of Broca's Area Enhances Implicit Learning of an Artificial Grammar  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Artificial grammar learning constitutes a well-established model for the acquisition of grammatical knowledge in a natural setting. Previous neuroimaging studies demonstrated that Broca's area (left BA 44/45) is similarly activated by natural syntactic processing and artificial grammar learning. The current study was conducted to investigate the…

de Vries, Meinou H.; Barth, Andre C. R.; Maiworm, Sandra; Knecht, Stefan; Zwitserlood, Pienie; Floel, Agnes

2010-01-01

477

A Social History of English Grammar in the Early United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

: This essay recovers the power of English grammar for ordinary Americans in the early nineteenth century, when hundreds of grammars were composed and printed. Between their cheap covers, these books contained the arresting possibilities of what Raymond Williams called the “third revolution,” a cultural transformation that was intimately tied to profound political and economic changes in the eighteenth and

Beth Barton Schweiger

2010-01-01

478

A Social History of English Grammar in the Early United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

This essay recovers the power of English grammar for ordinary Americans in the early nineteenth century, when hundreds of grammars were composed and printed. Between their cheap covers, these books contained the arresting possibilities of what Raymond Williams called the “third revolution,” a cultural transformation that was intimately tied to profound political and economic changes in the eighteenth and nineteenth

Beth Barton Schweiger

2010-01-01

479

Intact learning of artificial grammars and intact category learning by patients with Parkinson's disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) have been shown to be impaired on some nondeclara- tive memory tasks that require cognitive skill learning (perceptual-motor sequence learning, probabilistic classification). To determine what other skill-based tasks are impaired, 13 patients with PD were tested on artificial grammar learning, artificial grammar learning with transfer to novel lettersets, and prototype learning. Patients with PD performed

Paul J. Reber; Larry R. Squire

1999-01-01

480

Tree-Adjoining Grammars Aravind K. Joshi1 and Yves Schabes2  

E-print Network

Tree-Adjoining Grammars Aravind K. Joshi1 and Yves Schabes2 1 Department of Computer, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA email: schabes@merl.com 1. Introduction In this paper, we will describe a tree generating system called tree-adjoining grammar TAG and state some of the recent results about TAGs. The work

Plotkin, Joshua B.

481

GENETIC TRANPOSITION IN TREE-ADJOINING GRAMMAR GUIDED GENTIC PROGRAMMING: THE RELOCATION OPERATOR  

E-print Network

GENETIC TRANPOSITION IN TREE-ADJOINING GRAMMAR GUIDED GENTIC PROGRAMMING: THE RELOCATION OPERATOR, in combination with genetic search, in a Tree Adjoining Grammar Guided Genetic Programming system (TAG3P genetic programming (GP). Moreover, it manages to solve problems with very small population sizes. 1

Fernandez, Thomas

482

J. LOGIC PROGRAMMING 1994:19, 20:1--679 1 CHARACTERIZING LOGIC GRAMMARS: A  

E-print Network

J. LOGIC PROGRAMMING 1994:19, 20:1--679 1 CHARACTERIZING LOGIC GRAMMARS: A SUBSTRUCTURAL LOGIC Grammars (SDGs), a logic gram­ mar formalism due to Dahl, is given in this paper. A substructural logic, Canada V5A 1S6. THE JOURNAL OF LOGIC PROGRAMMING c fl Elsevier Science Inc., 1994 655 Avenue

Andrews, Jamie

483

The Gang's All Here: Grammar Goes Global for Purdue, Unisa and Adelaide University  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The University of South Australia and Purdue University (Indiana) launched the "Grammar Gang Blog" in June 2008, as a collaborative forum for talking about language. The blog reaches a far-flung community of learners from Australia to the United States, Brisbane to Bangalore and Ghana to Germany. The Grammar Gang--where Owls meet Possums--started…

Duff, Andrea; Spangenberg, Brady; Carter, Susanna; Miller, Julia

2010-01-01

484

Strings to Trees to Strings* An Introduction to Tree-adjoining Grammars  

E-print Network

. Synchronous Tree-adjoining grammar #12;5 Preliminaries #12;6 Sentences as Strings David likes peanuts Noun: a Non-terminal symbol: A #12;8 Context-Free Grammars S NP VP VP V NP | VP ADV NP David | peanuts V peanuts, David likes peanuts passionately, ... } ·Lexical sensitivity is lost ·CFGs also generate

Sarkar, Anoop

485

Effective Intervention for Expressive Grammar in Children with Specific Language Impairment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Children with specific language impairment are known to struggle with expressive grammar. While some studies have shown successful intervention under laboratory conditions, there is a paucity of evidence for the effectiveness of grammar treatment in young children in community settings. Aim: To evaluate the effectiveness of a…

Smith-Lock, Karen M.; Leitao, Suze; Lambert, Lara; Nickels, Lyndsey

2013-01-01

486

The English Definite Article: What ESL/EFL Grammars Say and What Corpus Findings Show  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To ascertain whether what ESL/EFL grammars say is informed by what scholars discuss in the literature and supported by what corpus findings actually show, this paper first presents a brief overview of the literature on the English definite article and then compares popular ESL/EFL grammars' coverage of "the" and corpus findings on definite article…

WonHo Yoo, Isaiah

2009-01-01

487

First language acquisition of French grammar (from 10 months to 4 years old)1  

E-print Network

First language acquisition of French grammar (from 10 months to 4 years old)1 Introduction Martine-based approach to first language acquisition, where grammar is shaped by usage, and linguistic constructions approach to language acquisition. The corpus under investigation is the Paris Corpus, now available

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

488

Teaching Conceptual Model-Based Word Problem Story Grammar to Enhance Mathematics Problem Solving  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Borrowing the concept of story grammar from reading comprehension literature, the purpose of this study was to examine the effect of teaching "word problem (WP) story grammar" on arithmetic WP solving that emphasizes the algebraic expression of mathematical relations in conceptual models. Participants were five students in Grades 4 and 5 with or…

Xin, Yan Ping; Wiles, Ben; Lin, Yu-Ying

2008-01-01

489

Grammar Graphics: A Novel Look at Syntax. Ideas and Techniques for Teaching Sentence Competency.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Grammar Graphics" is a technique for teaching English grammar to children in grades three through five using symbols to represent each part of speech. In this way children can graphically perceive and understand the function of words in a sentence. Basically the students learn symbols for all parts of speech except the preposition and conjunction…

Levy, Nancy R.

490

A generic tool to generate a lexicon for NLP from Lexicon-Grammar tables  

E-print Network

A generic tool to generate a lexicon for NLP from Lexicon-Grammar tables Matthieu Constant and Elsa (construction, argument distribution, and so on). However, they are not directly exploitable for NLP Fort 2007, Danlos et Sagot 2009) attempted to reformat Lexicon- Grammar tables in a lexicon for NLP

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

491

A generic tool to generate a lexicon for NLP from Lexicon-Grammar tables  

E-print Network

A generic tool to generate a lexicon for NLP from Lexicon-Grammar tables Matthieu Constant 1, Elsa lexicon but they cannot be directly used in Natural Language Processing (NLP) applications because a syntactic lexicon for NLP from the lexicon- grammar tables. It relies on a global table that contains

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

492

The Syntax of Attempto Controlled English: An Abstract Grammar for ACE 4  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Attempto Controlled English (ACE) is a controlled natural language specifically designed for requirements specifications and knowledge representation ACE is a subset of English with a restricted grammar constrained by a small set of construction and interpretation rules In this report, we describe the syntax of ACE, version 4 0, and present an abstract grammar for it in the form

Stefan Hoefler

2004-01-01

493

On the Richness of Grammar as an Analytical Lens in the Integrated Language Arts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As a teacher of Bowling Green State University's English 3810, Grammar and Writing, the author is charged with teaching future language arts teachers how to teach grammar so that it actually helps their students become better writers and communicators. Because such teaching rejects the ineffective but time-honored drill-it-and-kill-it approach, in…

Massey, Lance

2011-01-01

494

Density of Visual Input Enhancement and Grammar Learning: A Research Proposal  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research in the field of second language acquisition (SLA) has been done to ascertain the effectiveness of visual input enhancement (VIE) on grammar learning. However, one issue remains unexplored: the effects of VIE density on grammar learning. This paper presents a research proposal to investigate the effects of the density of VIE on English…

Tran, Thu Hoang

2009-01-01

495

The Grammar Workshop: Systematic Language Study in Reading and Writing Contexts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this "prosumer" era in which people seem always to be producing and consuming texts, words matter as much as--or more than--they ever have. Learning how grammar works in the texts they read and write is essential to students' literacy. It is time to reframe English teachers' view to include both writing "and" reading as contexts for grammar

Zuidema, Leah A.

2012-01-01

496

Contradictory Information in the Input as the Cause of Multiple Grammars: Predictions for Bilingual Acquisition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The central claim in Amaral and Roeper's (this issue; henceforth A&R) keynote article is that everyone is multilingual, whether they speak one or more languages. In a nutshell, the idea is that each speaker has multiple grammars or "sub-sets of rules (or sub-grammars) that co-exist". Thus, rather than positing complex rules to…

Unsworth, Sharon

2014-01-01

497

Simplified English grammar and style correction in an MT framework: the LRE SECC project  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes ongoing developments in the LRE-2 project SECC (A Simplified English Grammar and Style Checker\\/Corrector). After a general description of the project, the approach to building the SECC writing tool is discussed. First, lingware issues are dealt with: resources used, technical implications of simplified grammar correction as machine translation, testing and evaluation issues. Next, we take a look

Geert Adriaens

1995-01-01

498

Reviving the Dead Butler? Towards a Review of Aspects of National Literacy Strategy Grammar Advice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In his 2004 article "How was a dead butler killed: The way English national strategies maim grammatical parts" published in "Language and Education" 18, no. 1, Wasyl Cajkler calls for a review of grammar advice to teachers in the UK National Literacy Strategy (NLS) materials. His evidence demonstrates clearly that NLS grammar advice is "a…

Wales, Lynn

2009-01-01

499

Re-Evaluating and Exploring the Contributions of Constituency Grammar to Semantic Role Labeling  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since the seminal work of Gildea and Jurafsky (2000), semantic role labeling (SRL) researchers have been trying to determine the appropriate syntactic/semantic knowledge and statistical algorithms to tackle the challenges in SRL. In search of the appropriate knowledge, SRL researchers shifted from constituency grammar to dependency grammar around…

Yang, Li

2009-01-01

500

Use of a text grammar for generating highlight abstracts of magazine articles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Browsing a database of article abstracts is one way to select and buy relevant magazine articles online. Our research contributes to the design and development of text grammars for abstracting texts in unlimited subject domains. We developed a system that parses texts based on the text grammar of a specific text type and that extracts sentences and statements which are

Marie-Francine Moens; Jos Dumortier

2000-01-01