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1

Gaps in Generalised Phrase Structure Grammar.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since its inception, proponents of Generalized Phrase Structure Grammar (GPSG) have claimed the superiority of the analyses that the theory makes available for certain problematic constructions in English. Two examples of such constructions are (1) rightward unbounded dependencies (including right node raising) and (2) parasitic gaps. However, as…

Harlow, Steve

2

Studies in Generalized Phrase Structure Grammar. Working Papers in Linguistics #31.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A group of syntactic studies, primarily concerning English and German, within the framework of generalized phrase structure grammar include: "English Adverb Placement in Generalized Phrase Structure Grammar" (Belinda L. Brodie), concerning the placement of modal, evaluative, temporal, and verb phrase adverbs; "Syntactic Conditions on Two Types of…

Geis, Michael L., Ed.

3

On Directionality of Phrase Structure Building.  

PubMed

Minimalism in grammatical theorizing (Chomsky in The minimalist program. MIT Press, Cambridge, 1995) led to simpler linguistic devices and a better focalization of the core properties of the structure building engine: a lexicon and a free (recursive) phrase formation operation, dubbed Merge, are the basic components that serve in building syntactic structures. Here I suggest that by looking at the elementary restrictions that apply to Merge (i.e., selection and licensing of functional features), we could conclude that a re-orientation of the syntactic derivation (from bottom-up/right-left to top-down/left-right) is necessary to make the theory simpler, especially for long-distance (filler-gap) dependencies, and is also empirically more adequate. If the structure building operations would assemble lexical items in the order they are pronounced (Phillips in Order and structure. PhD thesis, MIT, 1996; Chesi in Phases and cartography in linguistic computation: Toward a cognitively motivated computational model of linguistic competence. PhD thesis, Università di Siena, 2004; Chesi in Competence and computation: Toward a processing friendly minimalist grammar. Unipress, Padova, 2012), on-line performance data could better fit the grammatical model, without resorting to external "performance factors." The phase-based, top-down (and, as a consequence, left-right) Minimalist Grammar here discussed goes in this direction, ultimately showing how strong Islands (Huang in Logical relations in Chinese and the theory of grammar. PhD thesis, MIT, 1982) and intervention effects (Gordon et al. in J Exp Psychol Learn Mem Cogn 27:1411-1423, 2001, Gordon et al. in J Mem Lang 51:97-114, 2004) could be better explained in structural terms assuming this unconventional derivational direction. PMID:25408515

Chesi, Cristiano

2014-11-19

4

Advanced English; Lessons in Grammar.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This grammar text was prepared especially for advanced students of English in the Somali Republic. The material consists for the most part of explanations and exercises in English generative--transformational grammar. Chapters treat the following aspects of English grammar: (1) the phrase structure of simple sentences; (2) the English noun phrase

Palmer, Joe Darwin

5

Gender and Heritage Spanish Bilingual Grammars: A Study of Code-Mixed Determiner Phrases and Copula Constructions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study examined heritage speaker grammars and to what extent they diverge with respect to grammatical gender from adult L2 learners. Results from a preference task involving code-mixed Determiner Phrases (DPs) and code-mixed copula constructions show a difference between these two types of operations. Heritage speakers patterned with the…

Valenzuela, Elena; Faure, Ana; Ramirez-Trujillo, Alma P.; Barski, Ewelina; Pangtay, Yolanda; Diez, Adriana

2012-01-01

6

On Directionality of Phrase Structure Building  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Minimalism in grammatical theorizing (Chomsky in "The minimalist program." MIT Press, Cambridge, 1995) led to simpler linguistic devices and a better focalization of the core properties of the structure building engine: a lexicon and a free (recursive) phrase formation operation, dubbed Merge, are the basic components that serve in…

Chesi, Cristiano

2015-01-01

7

The Syntactic Structure of Chinese Nominal Phrases  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The DP Hypothesis proposes that nominal phrases can be analyzed as consisting of Determiner Phrase (DP) on top of Noun Phrase (NP); however, there is a debate on whether this hypothesis works for all languages. Given that previous studies on Chinese leave this question unresolved, this dissertation investigates new empirical evidence to test…

Wang, Honglei

2012-01-01

8

Basque adjectives and the functional structure of the noun phrase  

E-print Network

Kayne's (1994) antisymmetric approach to phrase structure and, therefore, their implicit claim is independent of the adjective-as-specifier analysis; Kayne's antisymmetry hypothesis would not be right

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

9

Information Structure in English Nominal Phrases  

E-print Network

that distinction to nominal phrases, such as "a small lizard," instead of whole sentences, we find the same three types, as follows. (a) The focus may be on the whole phrase; as in "It's a small lizard," answering the question, "What's a gecko?" (b) The focus... may be on the headword, (the phrase-equivalent of an argument in a sentence); as in "No, it's a small lizard," answering the question "Is a gecko a small bird?" In this reply, it and small represent given information carried forward as topic...

Feist, Jim

2008-01-01

10

Creation Myths of Generative Grammar and the Mathematics of Syntactic Structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Syntactic Structures (Chomsky [6]) is widely believed to have laid the foundations of a cognitive revolution in linguistic science, and to have presented (i) the first use in linguistics of powerful new ideas regarding grammars as generative systems, (ii) a proof that English was not a regular language, (iii) decisive syntactic arguments against context-free phrase structure grammar description, and (iv) a demonstration of how transformational rules could provide a formal solution to those problems. None of these things are true. This paper offers a retrospective analysis and evaluation.

Pullum, Geoffrey K.

11

The use of phrases and structured queries in information retrieval  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both phrases and Boolean queries have a long history in information retrieval, particularly in commercial sys- tems. In previous work, Boolean queries have been used as a source of phrases for a statistical retrieval model, This work, like the majority of research on phrases, re- sulted in little improvement in retrieval effectiveness, In this paper, we describe an approach where

W. Bruce Croft; Howard R. Turtle; David D. Lewist

1991-01-01

12

The dependency structure of coordinate phrases: a corpus approach.  

PubMed

Hudson (1990) proposes that each conjunct in a coordinate phrase forms dependency relations with heads or dependents outside the coordinate phrase (the "multi-head" view). This proposal is tested through corpus analysis of Wall Street Journal text. For right-branching constituents (such as direct-object NPs), a short-long preference for conjunct ordering is observed; this is predicted by the multi-head view, under the assumption that structures resulting in shorter dependencies are preferred. A short-long preference is also observed for left-branching constituents (such as subject NPs), which is less obviously accommodated by the multi-head view but not incompatible with it. The repetition of determiners was also examined (the dog and cat versus the dog and the cat), and a stronger preference was found for repetition with singular count nouns as opposed to mass or plural nouns; this accords well with the multi-head view, under the reasoning that single-determiner constructions require crossing dependencies with count nouns but not with plural or mass nouns. PMID:16341915

Temperley, David

2005-11-01

13

Grammar-guided writing for AAC users.  

PubMed

A method of grammar-guided writing has been devised to guide graphic sign users through the construction of text messages for use in e-mail and other applications with a remote receiver. The purpose is to promote morphologically and syntactically correct sentences. The available grammatical structures in grammar-guided writing are the highest frequency phrase and sentence types in a database of tagged and parsed e-mail messages. A companion learning path allows users to begin with simple grammatical structures, advancing in steps to more complex structures as their language skills develop. In order to give further support during e-mail composition, grammar-guided writing has been augmented with two complementary text input methods. One is a quick and easy method of choosing preprogrammed messages and e-mail phrases. The other is a more traditional method of selecting graphic signs freely without grammar guidance. PMID:17937055

Hunnicutt, Sheri; Magnuson, Tina

2007-01-01

14

The Dependency Structure of Coordinate Phrases: A Corpus Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Hudson (1990) proposes that each conjunct in a coordinate phrase forms dependency relations with heads or dependents outside the coordinate phrase (the "multi-head" view). This proposal is tested through corpus analysis of Wall Street Journal text. For right-branching constituents (such as direct-object NPs), a short-long preference for conjunct…

Temperley, David

2005-01-01

15

Parsing Internal Noun Phrase Structure with Collins' Models David Vadas and James R. Curran  

E-print Network

Parsing Internal Noun Phrase Structure with Collins' Models David Vadas and James R. Curran School Collins' widely-used parsing models treat noun phrases (NPs) in a different manner to other constituents of consequences, as parsers built using Collins' models assume that their training and test data will have

Curran, James R.

16

TEACHER'S MANUAL FOR EXPANSION OF THE PHRASE STRUCTURE RULES AND SINGLE-BASE TRANSFORMATIONS--LANGUAGE CURRICULUM II.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A MANUAL WAS PREPARED FOR EXPANSION OF PHRASE STRUCTURE RULES AND SINGLE-BASE TRANSFORMATIONS IN EIGHTH-GRADE LANGUAGE CURRICULUM. THE MANUAL INCREASED THE 18 PHRASE STRUCTURE RULES PREVIOUSLY REPORTED (ED 010 146, ED 010 148, AND ED 010 152). BACKGROUND INFORMATION AND GUIDES FOR THE TEACHER WERE PRESENTED FOR UNITS OF STUDY ON PHRASE STRUCTURE…

KITZHABER, ALBERT

17

Image Grammar: Using Grammatical Structures To Teach Writing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book is based on the premise that a writer is much like an artist who paints images, only using grammatical structures as tools. In conjunction with this approach, each chapter is divided into concepts and strategies: concepts illustrate how professional writers have applied image grammar to develop their art, and strategies provide…

Noden, Harry R.

18

Automatic Distillation of Musical Structures: Learning the Grammar of Music  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the possibility of extracting the structures underlying music sequences in an unsupervised manner using similar methods as those used for analyzing natural language. We apply ADIOS, a grammar induction algorithm shown to perform well on natural language corpora, to a corpus of Israeli folk songs, exploring several possible textual representations of music. We show that one of

Ofir Hermesh; Ofer Shacham; Keren Mendiuk; Ben Sandbank

19

Implicit Acquisition of Grammars with Crossed and Nested Non-Adjacent Dependencies: Investigating the Push-Down Stack Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A recent hypothesis in empirical brain research on language is that the fundamental difference between animal and human communication systems is captured by the distinction between finite-state and more complex phrase-structure grammars, such as context-free and context-sensitive grammars. However, the relevance of this distinction for the study…

Udden, Julia; Ingvar, Martin; Hagoort, Peter; Petersson, Karl M.

2012-01-01

20

Children's Knowledge of Hierarchical Phrase Structure: Quantifier Floating in Japanese  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The interpretation of floating quantifiers in Japanese requires knowledge of hierarchical phrase structure. However, the input to children is insufficient or even misleading, as our analysis indicates. This presents an intriguing question on learnability: do children interpret floating quantifiers based on a structure-dependent rule which is not…

Suzuki, Takaaki; Yoshinaga, Naoko

2013-01-01

21

Multi-Dimensional Contributions to Garden Path Strength: Dissociating Phrase Structure from Case Marking  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Psycholinguistic investigations of reanalysis phenomena have typically focused on revisions of phrase structure. Here, we identify a further subcomponent of syntactic reanalysis, namely the revision of case marking. This aspect of reanalysis was isolated by examining German subject-object ambiguities that require a revision towards a…

Bornkessel, Ina; McElree, Brian; Schlesewsky, Matthias; Friederici, Angela D.

2004-01-01

22

Information Structure of Native English-Speaking ESOL Teachers in Grammar Explanations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Problem: The purpose of this study was to identify and analyze the information structure of native-English speaking (NES) ESOL teachers in giving explanations in a grammar class at an Intensive English Program (IEP) at a university in southern California Method: This mixed-method study employed a sequential-exploratory design. Six grammar…

Malupa-Kim, Miralynn Faigao

2011-01-01

23

Entity grammar systems: a grammatical tool for studying the hierarchical structures of biological systems.  

PubMed

The hierarchical structures of biological systems are the typical complex hierarchical dynamical structures in the physical world, the effective investigations on which could not be performed with the existing formal grammar systems. To meet the needs of the investigation on these kinds of systems, especially the emerging field of system biology, a grammatical tool was proposed in the present article. Because the grammatical tool mainly deals with the systems composed of structured entities, they are called entity grammar systems (EGSs). The structure of entities in EGSs have the general form of the objects in the physical world, which means EGSs could be used as a tool to study the complex system composed of many objects with different structures, just like the biological systems. The article contains the formal definition of EGSs and the hierarchy of EGSs, which is congruent with the Chomsky hierarchy. The relationship between EGSs and array grammar systems, graph grammar systems, tree grammar systems, multi-set grammar systems are discussed to show the generative power of EGSs. At the end of the present article, the steps to define new grammar systems with the form of EGS are provided and the possible applicable fields of EGSs are discussed. PMID:15006443

Wang, Yun

2004-05-01

24

Syntactic Structure and Artificial Grammar Learning: The Learnability of Embedded Hierarchical Structures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Embedded hierarchical structures, such as "the rat the cat ate was brown", constitute a core generative property of a natural language theory. Several recent studies have reported learning of hierarchical embeddings in artificial grammar learning (AGL) tasks, and described the functional specificity of Broca's area for processing such structures

de Vries, Meinou H.; Monaghan, Padraic; Knecht, Stefan; Zwitserlood, Pienie

2008-01-01

25

Grammar without sentence structure: A conversation analytic investigation of agrammatism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Although research into agrammatism has done much to characterise the nature of the underlying disorder, most studies have analysed elicited, task?based data. As a result, little is known about the grammar that people with agrammatism use in everyday talk with habitual conversational partners. There is evidence in the Conversation Analysis (CA) literature to suggest that conversational grammar may not

Suzanne Beeke; Ray Wilkinson; Jane Maxim

2007-01-01

26

UZBEK STRUCTURAL GRAMMAR. URALIC AND ALTAIC SERIES, VOLUME 18.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THIS GRAMMAR OF THE UZBEK LANGUAGES, THE MOST IMPORTANT IN THE SOUTHEASTERN GROUP OF TURKIC LANGUAGES, IS BASED ON THE EDUCATED DIALECT OF TASHKENT IN UZBEKISTAN, USSR. UZBEK IS SPOKEN TODAY BY APPROXIMATELY SEVEN MILLION PEOPLE IN UZBEKISTAN AND ADJOINING REPUBLICS OF SOVIET CENTRAL ASIA, AND IN UZBEK COMMUNITIES SCATTERED THROUGHOUT THE MIDDLE…

SJOBERG, ANDREE F.

27

Two-Dimensional Grammars And Their Applications To Artificial Intelligence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the past several years, the concepts and techniques of two-dimensional grammars1,2 have attracted growing attention as promising avenues of approach to problems in picture generation as well as in picture description3 representation, recognition, transformation and manipulation. Two-dimensional grammar techniques serve the purpose of exploiting the structure or underlying relationships in a picture. This approach attempts to describe a complex picture in terms of their components and their relative positions. This resembles the way a sentence is described in terms of its words and phrases, and the terms structural picture recognition, linguistic picture recognition, or syntactic picture recognition are often used. By using this approach, the problem of picture recognition becomes similar to that of phrase recognition in a language. However, describing pictures using a string grammar (one-dimensional grammar), the only relation between sub-pictures and/or primitives is the concatenation; that is each picture or primitive can be connected only at the left or right. This one-dimensional relation has not been very effective in describing two-dimensional pictures. A natural generaliza-tion is to use two-dimensional grammars. In this paper, two-dimensional grammars and their applications to artificial intelligence are presented. Picture grammars and two-dimensional grammars are introduced and illustrated by examples. In particular, two-dimensional grammars for generating all possible squares and all possible rhombuses are presented. The applications of two-dimensional grammars to solving region filling problems are discussed. An algorithm for region filling using two-dimensional grammars is presented together with illustrative examples. The advantages of using this algorithm in terms of computation time are also stated. A high-level description of a two-level picture generation system is proposed. The first level is the picture primitive generation using two-dimensional grammars. The second level is picture generation using either string description or entity-relationship (ER) diagram description. Illustrative examples are also given. The advantages of ER diagram description together with its comparison to string description are also presented. The results obtained in this paper may have useful applications in artificial intelligence, robotics, expert systems, picture processing, pattern recognition, knowledge engineering and pictorial database design. Furthermore, examples related to satellite surveillance and identifications are also included.

Lee, Edward T.

1987-05-01

28

Discussion. How Far Does a Construction Grammar Approach to Argument Structure Take Us in Understanding Children's Language Development?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents the responses of 12 authors to Michael Tomasello's essay, which comments on Adele Goldberg's recent book, "Constructions: A Construction Grammar Approach to Argument Structure." Goldberg's book develops the theory of construction grammar for a set of problems associated with verb-argument structure. (SM)

Journal of Child Language, 1998

1998-01-01

29

CONTENT-BASED INFERENCE OF HIERARCHICAL STRUCTURAL GRAMMAR FOR RECURRENT TV PROGRAMS USING MULTIPLE SEQUENCE ALIGNMENT  

E-print Network

hours of radio and television programs stored. However, such collections are useless in practiceCONTENT-BASED INFERENCE OF HIERARCHICAL STRUCTURAL GRAMMAR FOR RECURRENT TV PROGRAMS USING MULTIPLE to analyze the structure of TV programs, relying on the discovery of repeated elements within a program

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

30

Modelling the logical structure of books and journals using augmented transition network grammars  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a grammar for books and journals using augmented transition networks in automated document analysis. The approach takes the structure of layout elements in books and journals to be part of a semiotic system, which therefore can be described using methods developed for the description of other semiotic systems, e.g. languages. It differs from previous research in the

Birgit Stehno; Gregor Retti

2003-01-01

31

Determiner Phrase and Definiteness in Old High German  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates the status of nominal functional categories in the Old High German (OHG) "Isidor" and "Tatian" translations and Otfrid's "Evangelienbuch" and the structure of the extended nominal group, including the Noun Phrase (NP) and the functional phrases Determiner Phrase (DP), Case Phrase (KP) and Number Phrase (NumP), which govern…

Kraiss, Andrew M.

2011-01-01

32

Deriving a probabilistic syntacto-semantic grammar for biomedicine based on domain-specific terminologies.  

PubMed

Biomedical natural language processing (BioNLP) is a useful technique that unlocks valuable information stored in textual data for practice and/or research. Syntactic parsing is a critical component of BioNLP applications that rely on correctly determining the sentence and phrase structure of free text. In addition to dealing with the vast amount of domain-specific terms, a robust biomedical parser needs to model the semantic grammar to obtain viable syntactic structures. With either a rule-based or corpus-based approach, the grammar engineering process requires substantial time and knowledge from experts, and does not always yield a semantically transferable grammar. To reduce the human effort and to promote semantic transferability, we propose an automated method for deriving a probabilistic grammar based on a training corpus consisting of concept strings and semantic classes from the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS), a comprehensive terminology resource widely used by the community. The grammar is designed to specify noun phrases only due to the nominal nature of the majority of biomedical terminological concepts. Evaluated on manually parsed clinical notes, the derived grammar achieved a recall of 0.644, precision of 0.737, and average cross-bracketing of 0.61, which demonstrated better performance than a control grammar with the semantic information removed. Error analysis revealed shortcomings that could be addressed to improve performance. The results indicated the feasibility of an approach which automatically incorporates terminology semantics in the building of an operational grammar. Although the current performance of the unsupervised solution does not adequately replace manual engineering, we believe once the performance issues are addressed, it could serve as an aide in a semi-supervised solution. PMID:21549857

Fan, Jung-Wei; Friedman, Carol

2011-10-01

33

Teaching Grammar  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Grammar is a component in all language skills: reading, writing, speaking, and listening. Teachers need to know rules of grammar (teacher knowledge) as well as techniques that help students use grammar effectively and effortlessly (teaching knowledge). Using reflective practice to help teachers become comfortable with teaching grammar, this…

Crawford, William J.

2013-01-01

34

The Alsea Noun Phrase.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The structure of the noun phrase (NP) in Alsea, an extinct language of the Oregon coast, is examined with particular attention to the behavior of a clitic occurring in second position within the NP. A presentation of the basic facts includes the following: referential(s) and the deictics, possessive pronouns, third-person possessive, the ergative,…

Buckley, Eugene

1989-01-01

35

Adapting Existing Grammars: The XLE Experience Ronald M. Kaplan and Tracy Holloway King and John T. Maxwell III  

E-print Network

English grammar developed for the ParGram project (Butt et al., 1999; Butt et al., 2002) to be adapted, prepositional phrases, coordination; see (Butt et al., 1999)). We have built two different specialized grammars

36

The grammar of visual narrative: Neural evidence for constituent structure in sequential image comprehension.  

PubMed

Constituent structure has long been established as a central feature of human language. Analogous to how syntax organizes words in sentences, a narrative grammar organizes sequential images into hierarchic constituents. Here we show that the brain draws upon this constituent structure to comprehend wordless visual narratives. We recorded neural responses as participants viewed sequences of visual images (comics strips) in which blank images either disrupted individual narrative constituents or fell at natural constituent boundaries. A disruption of either the first or the second narrative constituent produced a left-lateralized anterior negativity effect between 500 and 700ms. Disruption of the second constituent also elicited a posteriorly-distributed positivity (P600) effect. These neural responses are similar to those associated with structural violations in language and music. These findings provide evidence that comprehenders use a narrative structure to comprehend visual sequences and that the brain engages similar neurocognitive mechanisms to build structure across multiple domains. PMID:25241329

Cohn, Neil; Jackendoff, Ray; Holcomb, Phillip J; Kuperberg, Gina R

2014-09-18

37

Fig. 1: Structure generation by a sensitive, twophase growth grammar. Fig. 2: Plant with epitonic growth habit, produced by GROGRA from the sensitive  

E-print Network

­dependent shoot growth, produced by GROGRA from the sensitive growth grammar densi2d.ssy (see Table 2) after 15 steps. #12; Fig. 4: The shadow­relevant cone of a shoot. #12; Fig. 5: Competition for light in a simpleFig. 1: Structure generation by a sensitive, two­phase growth grammar. #12; Fig. 2: Plant

Kurth, Winfried

38

Grammar without Grammar: Just Playing Around, Writing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the author's way of meeting grammar education learning objectives. Structures the class by presenting model sentences to the students and doing imitation writing activities, practicing different sentence constructions in class. Concludes that by using this "language play," students' sensitivity to language (and to what it can do)…

Dean, Deborah

2001-01-01

39

Grammar Teaching Tools for Tamil language  

Microsoft Academic Search

Grammar plays an important role in good communication. Learning grammar rules for Tamil language is very difficult as they have a very rich morphological structure which is agglutinative. Students get annoyed with the language rules and the old teaching methodology. Computer assisted Grammar Teaching Tools makes students to learn faster and better. NLP applications are used to generate such tools

Dhanalakshmi Velliangiri; M. Anand Kumar; R. U. Rekha; K. P. Soman; S. Rajendran

2010-01-01

40

Creative Grammar and Art Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The grammar of creative practices is described by George Steiner as the "articulate organisation of perception, reflection and experience, the nerve structure of consciousness when it communicates with itself and with others." Steiner's description of creative grammar is consistent with Lev Vygotsky's comment that "art is the social within us, and…

Cunliffe, Leslie

2011-01-01

41

Is Computer-Based Grammar Instruction as Effective as Teacher Directed Grammar Instruction for Teaching L2 Structures?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study described here compared postsecondary English as a Second Language (ESL) students' acquisition of selected English structures based on the method of instruction—computer-based instruction versus teacher- directed instruction.1 The results showed that for all levels of English pro- ficiency, the computer-based students scored significantly higher on open- ended tests covering the structures in question than the teacher-directed students. No

Joyce Nutta

42

Music summarization using key phrases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Systems to automatically provide a representative summary or `key phrase' of a piece of music are described. For a `rock' song with `verse' and `chorus' sections, we aim to return the chorus or in any case the most repeated and hence most memorable section. The techniques are less applicable to music with more complicated structure although possibly our general framework

Beth Logan; Stephen Chu

2000-01-01

43

Syntactic and eurhythmic constraints on phrasing decisions in Catalan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article investigates the role of syntactic and prosodic markedness constraints on the construction of phonological phrases (\\/- or p-phrases) in Catalan. It is shown that the construction of prosodic structure in this language cannot solely rely on syntactic information but rather also has to refer to prosodic markedness constraints which regulate the size and eurhythmicity of phrase constituents. Specifically,

Pilar Prieto

2005-01-01

44

Phrase-Level Parallelism Effect on Noun Phrase Number Agreement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the role of phrase-level parallelism on noun phrase number agreement and demonstrates Puerto Rican Spanish and Brazilian Portuguese exhibit more similarities than differences with regard to this constraint. Claims the phrase-level parallelism effect on noun phrase number agreement is embedded in a universal principle of linguistic use:…

Scherre, Maria Mata Pereira

2001-01-01

45

Evolution of Universal Grammar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Universal grammar specifies the mechanism of language acquisition. It determines the range of grammatical hypothesis that children entertain during language learning and the procedure they use for evaluating input sentences. How universal grammar arose is a major challenge for evolutionary biology. We present a mathematical framework for the evolutionary dynamics of grammar learning. The central result is a coherence threshold, which specifies the condition for a universal grammar to induce coherent communication within a population. We study selection of grammars within the same universal grammar and competition between different universal grammars. We calculate the condition under which natural selection favors the emergence of rule-based, generative grammars that underlie complex language.

Nowak, Martin A.; Komarova, Natalia L.; Niyogi, Partha

2001-01-01

46

Processing Elided Verb Phrases with Flawed Antecedents: the Recycling Hypothesis  

PubMed Central

Traditional syntactic accounts of verb phrase ellipsis (e.g. “Jason laughed. Sam did [ ] too.”) categorize as ungrammatical many sentences that language users find acceptable (they “undergenerate”); semantic accounts overgenerate. We propose that a processing theory, together with a syntactic account, does a better job of describing and explaining the data on verb phrase-ellipsis. Five acceptability judgment experiments supported a “VP recycling hypothesis,” which claims that when a syntactically-matching antecedent is not available, the listener/reader creates one using the materials at hand. Experiments 1 and 2 used verb phrase ellipsis sentences with antecedents ranging from perfect (a verb phrase in matrix verb phrase position) to impossible (a verb phrase containing only a deverbal word). Experiments 3 and 4 contrasted antecedents in verbal versus nominal gerund subjects. Experiment 5 explored the possibility that speakers are particularly likely to go beyond the grammar and produce elided constituents without perfect matching antecedents when the antecedent needed is less marked than the antecedent actually produced. This experiment contrasted active (unmarked) and passive antecedents to show that readers seem to honor such a tendency. PMID:17710192

Arregui, Ana; Clifton, Charles; Frazier, Lyn; Moulton, Keir

2006-01-01

47

Transition network grammars for natural language analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of augmented transition network grammars for the analysis of natural language sentences is described. Structure-building actions associated with the arcs of the grammar network allow for the reordering, restructuring, and copying of constituents necessary to produce deep-structure representations of the type normally obtained from a transformational analysis, and conditions on the arcs allow for a powerful selectivity which

William A. Woods

1970-01-01

48

Constraining Multiple Grammars  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article offers the author's commentary on the Multiple Grammars (MG) language acquisition theory proposed by Luiz Amaral and Tom Roeper in the present issue. Multiple Grammars advances the claim that optionality is a constitutive characteristic of any one grammar, with interlanguage grammars being perhaps the clearest examples of a…

Hopp, Holger

2014-01-01

49

Rhetorical Grammar for Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A conscious understanding of the grammar system can have value for student writers. Unfortunately, the positive value of teaching grammar in an instrumental, or functional, way has been overshadowed by the negative and irrelevant data concerning "formal grammar." However, if teachers were to use "rhetorical grammar" and emphasize the importance of…

Kolln, Martha

50

Grammar as a Programming Language. Artificial Intelligence Memo 391.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Student projects that involve writing generative grammars in the computer language, "LOGO," are described in this paper, which presents a grammar-running control structure that allows students to modify and improve the grammar interpreter itself while learning how a simple kind of computer parser works. Included are procedures for programing a…

Rowe, Neil

51

Adaptive Star Grammars and Their Languages Frank Drewes1  

E-print Network

Adaptive Star Grammars and Their Languages Frank Drewes1 , Berthold Hoffmann2 , Dirk Janssens3 the structure of object-oriented programs, adaptive star grammars are in- troduced, and their fundamental properties are studied. In adaptive star grammars, rules are actually schemata which, via the cloning of so

Drewes, Frank

52

A Functional Semantics of Attribute Grammars  

Microsoft Academic Search

A definition of the semantics of attribute grammars is given, using the lambda calculus. We show how this semantics allows us to prove results about attribute grammars in a calculational style. In particular, we give a new proof of Chirica and Martin's result [6], that the attribute values can be computed by a structural recursion over the tree. We also

Kevin Backhouse

2002-01-01

53

Greek Grammar  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

While some may view ancient Greek as a "dead language", this informative and edifying website proves that the language is far from dead, and that there much to be gained through close consideration of this magisterial language. Created and maintained by Professor Marc Huys, a faculty member of the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven in Belgium, the site serves as a clearinghouse of available online resources for studying ancient Greek. Throughout the site's various areas, Professor Huys has reviewed each individual resource and provided a brief description of its contents and also assigned a rating to each distinct resource. Some of these topical areas include reviews of sites on Greek fonts, systematic grammar, history of the Greek language, and dictionaries. The site is rounded out by a "What's New?" area which contains information about the latest additions to the site.

54

Intonational Phrase Structure Processing at Different Stages of Syntax Acquisition: ERP Studies in 2-, 3-, and 6-Year-Old Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explored the electrophysiology underlying intonational phrase processing at different stages of syntax acquisition. Developmental studies suggest that children's syntactic skills advance significantly between 2 and 3 years of age. Here, children of three age groups were tested on phrase-level prosodic processing before and after this…

Mannel, Claudia; Friederici, Angela D.

2011-01-01

55

Van Wijngaarden grammars, metamorphism and K-ary malwares  

E-print Network

Grammars are used to describe sentences structure, thanks to some sets of rules, which depends on the grammar type. A classification of grammars has been made by Noam Chomsky, which led to four well-known types. Yet, there are other types of grammars, which do not exactly fit in Chomsky's classification, such as the two-level grammars. As their name suggests it, the main idea behind these grammars is that they are composed of two grammars. Van Wijngaarden grammars, particularly, are such grammars. They are interesting by their power (expressiveness), which can be the same, under some hypotheses, as the most powerful grammars of Chomsky's classification, i.e. Type 0 grammars. Another point of interest is their relative conciseness and readability. Van Wijngaarden grammars can describe static and dynamic semantic of a language. So, by using them as a generative engine, it is possible to generate a possibly infinite set of words, while assuring us that they all have the same semantic. Moreover, they can describe...

Gueguen, Geoffroy

2010-01-01

56

Fun with Grammar!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Use these links to improve your grammar! Learn parts of speech and play fun games to test your knowledge! Grammar is an important part of writing. It involves identifying parts of speech and knowing the mechanics of writing are all important. Below are some links that will help make learning about and practicing grammar fun! First, learn terms. The link below is a glossary full of terminology. Grammar Glossary Once you have a ...

Duffus, Miss

2010-04-20

57

Ms. Marsh's Grammar Links  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Select the link below to complete your assignment. Grammar Bytes Words to watch for BBC - Skillswise - Sentence Grammar BBC-Skillwise- Spelling BBC - Skillswise - Varieties of English BBC Skillswise - verb tense BBC - Skillswise - Word Grammar Quotation Marks Quiz on Using Quotation Marks Grammar Final - Wadsworth National Geographic - Witchcraft Hysteria Ms. Chambers Web Page - This page has the links to the Crucilble project. English Zone Confusing Words ...

Ms. Schultz

2008-09-30

58

Using statistical models to predict phrase boundaries for speech synthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a variety of methods for insertingphrase boundaries in text. The methods work by examiningthe likelihood of a phrase break occurring in asequence of three part-of-speech tags. The paper explainsthis basic technique and desribes more sophisticaed variationsusing distance probabilities.1. INTRODUCTIONThe derivation of the prosodic phrase structure of a sentenceis an important part of the text analysis module ofany

Eric Sanders; Paul Taylor

1995-01-01

59

Statistical Phrase-Based Translation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a new phrase-based translation model and decoding algorithm that enables us to evaluate and compare several, previously proposed phrase-based translation models. Within our framework, we carry out a large number of experiments to understand better and explain why phrase-based models out-perform word-based models. Our empirical results, which hold for all examined language pairs, suggest that the highest levels

Philipp Koehn; Franz Josef Och; Daniel Marcu

2003-01-01

60

English-Mongolian Phrase Book.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The phrase book is intended for use by Peace Corps workers in Mongolia, and reflects daily communication needs in that context. Phrases and vocabulary are presented first in English, then in Mongolian translation (in Cyrillic alphabet), on the following topics: greetings and introductions; discussing work; expressing thanks and congratulations;…

Amraa, J.; Nadya, S.

61

Using Grammar Induction to Discover the Structure of Recurrent TV Programs  

E-print Network

.gravier@irisa.fr Abstract--Video structuring, in particular applied to TV programs which have strong editing structures. Experimental evaluation is performed on three types of shows, viz., game shows, news and magazines. In the video, the underlying program structure is often reflected in editing rules. Also, the structure

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

62

Corpus-based Statistical Screening for Phrase Identification  

PubMed Central

Purpose: The authors study the extraction of useful phrases from a natural language database by statistical methods. The aim is to leverage human effort by providing preprocessed phrase lists with a high percentage of useful material. Method: The approach is to develop six different scoring methods that are based on different aspects of phrase occurrence. The emphasis here is not on lexical information or syntactic structure but rather on the statistical properties of word pairs and triples that can be obtained from a large database. Measurements: The Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) incorporates a large list of humanly acceptable phrases in the medical field as a part of its structure. The authors use this list of phrases as a gold standard for validating their methods. A good method is one that ranks the UMLS phrases high among all phrases studied. Measurements are 11-point average precision values and precision-recall curves based on the rankings. Result: The authors find of six different scoring methods that each proves effective in identifying UMLS quality phrases in a large subset of MEDLINE. These methods are applicable both to word pairs and word triples. All six methods are optimally combined to produce composite scoring methods that are more effective than any single method. The quality of the composite methods appears sufficient to support the automatic placement of hyperlinks in text at the site of highly ranked phrases. Conclusion: Statistical scoring methods provide a promising approach to the extraction of useful phrases from a natural language database for the purpose of indexing or providing hyperlinks in text. PMID:10984469

Kim, Won; Wilbur, W. John

2000-01-01

63

Vocabulary and Grammar Knowledge in Second Language Reading Comprehension: A Structural Equation Modeling Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using structural equation modeling analysis, this study examined the contribution of vocabulary and grammatical knowledge to second language reading comprehension among 190 advanced Chinese English as a foreign language learners. Vocabulary knowledge was measured in both breadth (Vocabulary Levels Test) and depth (Word Associates Test);…

Zhang, Dongbo

2012-01-01

64

Processing 'd-linked' phrases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Linguists drawa distinct ion between two types of interrogatives: d-linked (discourse linked) phrases such as which man, which implies the existence of a set of contextually-determined entities (men)from which the speaker is asking for achoice, and non-d-linked interrogatives such as who, which carryno such implication. Two questionnaires and an on-line reading studyshowed,that readers prefer ad-linked phrase more than a

Lyn Frazier; Charles Clifton

2002-01-01

65

The minimalist grammar of action.  

PubMed

Language and action have been found to share a common neural basis and in particular a common 'syntax', an analogous hierarchical and compositional organization. While language structure analysis has led to the formulation of different grammatical formalisms and associated discriminative or generative computational models, the structure of action is still elusive and so are the related computational models. However, structuring action has important implications on action learning and generalization, in both human cognition research and computation. In this study, we present a biologically inspired generative grammar of action, which employs the structure-building operations and principles of Chomsky's Minimalist Programme as a reference model. In this grammar, action terminals combine hierarchically into temporal sequences of actions of increasing complexity; the actions are bound with the involved tools and affected objects and are governed by certain goals. We show, how the tool role and the affected-object role of an entity within an action drives the derivation of the action syntax in this grammar and controls recursion, merge and move, the latter being mechanisms that manifest themselves not only in human language, but in human action too. PMID:22106430

Pastra, Katerina; Aloimonos, Yiannis

2012-01-12

66

Swahili Learners' Reference Grammar. African Language Learners' Reference Grammar Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This reference grammar is written for speakers of English who are learning Swahili. Because many language learners are not familiar with the grammatical terminology, this book explains the basic terminology and concepts of English grammar that are necessary for understanding the grammar of Swahili. It assumes no formal knowledge of English grammar…

Thompson, Katrina Daly; Schleicher, Antonia Folarin

67

The Grammar Gallimaufry: Teaching Students to Challenge the Grammar Gods  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

How a person teaches grammar depends on what he or she believes it does. Some see grammar as a set of rules, inherited from wise forefathers. For them, teaching grammar means making students aware of, and then holding them to, these rules. Others see grammar as an expression of style, an invitation to the writer to explore how to create a…

House, Jeff

2009-01-01

68

Grammar A and Grammar B: Rhetorical Life and Death.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the past, writers have chosen stylistic devices within the parameters of the traditional grammar of style, "Grammar A," characterized by analyticity, coherence, and clarity. But many contemporary writers are creating a new grammar of style, "Grammar B," characterized by synchronicity, discontinuity, and ambiguity, which relies on such devices…

Guinn, Dorothy Margaret

69

A New Grammar Checker.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evaluates CorrecText, Houghton-Mifflin's computer-based grammar checker that fully parses sentences and finds errors in grammar, style, and usage. Argues that, while CorrecText is an improvement over similar programs, it still cannot accommodate the syntactically ambiguous nature of English. Limits current design's usefulness to unedited prose.…

Dobrin, David N.

1990-01-01

70

Grammar for Grownups.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Noting that grammar is alive, changing, and controversial, this book offers a combination of guidelines and creative language use for people who have already been exposed to the rules of grammar to help them start building their own style of speaking and writing. The first part of the book "Recalling the Parts of Speech," provides a review of the…

Dumond, Val

71

On Not Teaching Grammar.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Concludes that both sides of the "great debate" on teaching grammar are wrong--the problem will be resolved only when the majority of the profession becomes active and reformulates the question. Suggests that grammar and grammatical terms should be use as a tool to teach students how sentences work, including such things as how the human brain…

Vavra, Ed

1996-01-01

72

xREI: a phylo-grammar visualization webserver.  

PubMed

Phylo-grammars, probabilistic models combining Markov chain substitution models with stochastic grammars, are powerful models for annotating structured features in multiple sequence alignments and analyzing the evolution of those features. In the past, these methods have been cumbersome to implement and modify. xrate provides means for the rapid development of phylo-grammars (using a simple file format) and automated parameterization of those grammars from training data (via the Expectation Maximization algorithm). xREI (pron. 'X-ray') is an intuitive, flexible AJAX (Asynchronous Javascript And XML) web interface to xrate providing grammar visualization tools as well as access to xrate's training and annotation functionality. It is hoped that this application will serve as a valuable tool to those developing phylo-grammars, and as a means for the exploration and dissemination of such models. xREI is available at http://harmony.biowiki.org/xrei/ PMID:18522975

Barquist, Lars; Holmes, Ian

2008-07-01

73

The English Noun Phrase in its Sentential Aspect  

Microsoft Academic Search

This dissertation is a defense of the hypothesis that the noun phrase is headed by a functional element (i.e., "non-lexical" category) D, identified with the determiner. In this way, the structure of the noun phrase parallels that of the sentence, which is headed by Infl(ection), under assumptions now standard within the Government-Binding (GB) framework. The central empirical problem addressed is

Steven Paul Abney

1987-01-01

74

Will Corpus Linguistics Revolutionize Grammar Teaching in the 21st Century?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues that corpus linguistics could radically change grammar teaching in the 21st century in three ways: register-specific grammatical description could replace the grammar of English, grammar and vocabulary teaching could become more integrated, and emphasis could shift from structural accuracy to appropriateness of grammatical choice.…

Conrad, Susan

2000-01-01

75

Customizing Grammar Checking.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analysis of the use of Gram.mat.ik IV grammar checker software in business communication classes found 114 errors the program did not identify in 67 student papers. Modifications of the software were recommended to increase its usefulness. (SK)

Spinks, Nelda H.; Wells, Barron W.; Meche, Melanie

1997-01-01

76

Parsing English with a Link Grammar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract We develop a formal grammatical system called a link grammar, show how English grammar can be encoded in such a system, and give algorithms for efficiently parsing with a link grammar. Although the expressive power of link grammars is equivalent to that of context free grammars, encoding natural language grammars,appears to be much,easier with the new system. We have

Daniel Dominic Sleator; David Temperley

1995-01-01

77

Phrase versus Phase: Family Engagement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Parents and their roles in schools, public or private, often become the bed of heated discussions. "Parent involvement" is yesterday's buzz word; today, it is "family involvement." The phrase "parent involvement" connotes an image of parents being involved in their children's education. Family involvement is a more encompassing concept, embracing…

Ferrara, Margaret M.

2011-01-01

78

Dictionary of Phrase and Fable  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Bartleby.com (see the March 24, 2000 Scout Report) has recently placed this new work online. It is E. Cobham Brewer's 1898 Dictionary of Phrase and Fable, a collection of more than 18,000 entries "that reveal the etymologies, trace the origins and otherwise catalog 'words with a tale to tell.'" The entries can be browsed alphabetically or searched by keyword.

79

Exploring story grammar structure in the book reading interactions of African American mothers and their preschool children: a pilot investigation  

PubMed Central

The aim of this investigation was to identify the book reading behaviors and book reading styles of middle class African American mothers engaged in a shared book reading activity with their preschool children. To this end, the mothers and their children were videotaped reading one of three books, Julius, Grandfather and I, or Somewhere in Africa. Both maternal and child behaviors were coded for the frequency of occurrence of story grammar elements contained in their stories and maternal behaviors were also coded for their use of narrative eliciting strategies. In addition, mothers were queried about the quality and quantity of book reading/story telling interactions in the home environment. The results suggest that there is a great deal of individual variation in how mothers use the story grammar elements and narrative eliciting strategies to engage their children in a shared book reading activity. Findings are discussed in terms of suggestions for additional research and practical applications are offered on ways to optimally engage African American preschool children and African American families from diverse socioeconomic backgrounds in shared book reading interactions. PMID:24926276

Harris, Yvette R.; Rothstein, Susan E.

2014-01-01

80

Variable-Length Unit Selection in TTS Using Structural Syntactic Cost  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a variable-length unit selection scheme based on syntactic cost to select text-to-speech (TTS) synthesis units. The syntactic structure of a sentence is derived from a probabilistic context-free grammar (PCFG), and represented as a syntactic vector. The syntactic difference between target and candidate units (words or phrases) is estimated by the cosine measure with the inside probability of

Chung-hsien Wu; Chi-chun Hsia; Jiun-fu Chen; Jhing-fa Wang

2007-01-01

81

Effective Grammar Teaching: Lessons from Confident Grammar Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Learning the grammar of a language is an integral part of learning a second or foreign language. Studies on teacher beliefs, teacher language awareness (TLA) and grammar teaching have reported that the majority of English language teachers recognise the importance of teaching grammar (Borg, 2001; Borg & Burns, 2008). At the same time, many…

Petraki, Eleni; Hill, Deborah

2011-01-01

82

Generalized augmented transition network grammars for generation from semantic networks  

SciTech Connect

The augmented transition network (ATN) is a formalism for writing parsing grammars which has been much used in artificial intelligence and computational linguistics. A few researchers have also used ATNs for writing grammars for generating sentences. Previously, however, either generation ATNs did not have the same semantics as parsing ATNs, or they required an auxiliary mechanism to determine the syntactic structure of the sentence to be generated. This paper reports a generalization of the ATN formalism which allows ATN grammars to be written to parse labelled directed graphs. Specifically, an ATN grammar can be written to parse a semantic network and generate a surface string as its analysis. An example is given of a combined parsing-generating grammar which parses surface sentences, builds and queries a semantic network knowledge representation, and generates surface sentences in response. 8 references.

Shapiro, S.C.

1982-01-01

83

Dependency Grammar: Classification and Exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Syntactic representations based on word-to-word dependencies have a long tradition in descriptive linguistics [29]. In recent years, they have also become increasingly used in computational tasks, such as information extraction [5], machine translation [43], and parsing [42]. Among the purported advantages of dependency over phrase structure representations are conciseness, intuitive appeal, and closeness to semantic representations such as predicate-argument structures. On the more practical side, dependency representations are attractive due to the increasing availability of large corpora of dependency analyses, such as the Prague Dependency Treebank [19].

Debusmann, Ralph; Kuhlmann, Marco

84

La gramatica comunicativa (Communicative Grammar).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper explains the main concepts of communicative grammar and provides a detailed view of how communicative grammar analyses language at various levels. Language is discussed in terms of communication; the central elements in the analysis are those that carry information. Communicative grammar seeks to describe the process of the linguistic…

Zierer, Ernesto

85

Implicit Learning of Recursive Context-Free Grammars  

PubMed Central

Context-free grammars are fundamental for the description of linguistic syntax. However, most artificial grammar learning experiments have explored learning of simpler finite-state grammars, while studies exploring context-free grammars have not assessed awareness and implicitness. This paper explores the implicit learning of context-free grammars employing features of hierarchical organization, recursive embedding and long-distance dependencies. The grammars also featured the distinction between left- and right-branching structures, as well as between centre- and tail-embedding, both distinctions found in natural languages. People acquired unconscious knowledge of relations between grammatical classes even for dependencies over long distances, in ways that went beyond learning simpler relations (e.g. n-grams) between individual words. The structural distinctions drawn from linguistics also proved important as performance was greater for tail-embedding than centre-embedding structures. The results suggest the plausibility of implicit learning of complex context-free structures, which model some features of natural languages. They support the relevance of artificial grammar learning for probing mechanisms of language learning and challenge existing theories and computational models of implicit learning. PMID:23094021

Rohrmeier, Martin; Fu, Qiufang; Dienes, Zoltan

2012-01-01

86

Yes, We Still Need Universal Grammar  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a recent paper [Lidz, J., Gleitman, H., & Gleitman, L. (2003). Understanding how input matters: Verb learning and the footprint of universal grammar. "Cognition," 87, 151-178], we provided cross-linguistic evidence in favor of the following linked assertions: (i) Verb argument structure is a correlate of verb meaning; (ii) However, argument…

Lidz, Jeffrey; Gleitman, Lila R.

2004-01-01

87

Representational Issues in Systemic Functional Grammar and Systemic Grammar and Functional Unification Grammar. ISI Reprint Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Consisting of two separate papers, "Representational Issues in Systemic Functional Grammar," by Christian Matthiessen and "Systemic Grammar and Functional Unification Grammar," by Robert Kasper, this document deals with systemic aspects of natural language processing and linguistic theory and with computational applications of M. A. K. Halliday's…

Matthiessen, Christian; Kasper, Robert

88

Multiple Grammars and MOGUL  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Optionality is a central phenomenon in second language acquisition (SLA), for which any adequate theory must account. Amaral and Roeper (this issue; henceforth A&R) offer an appealing approach to it, using Roeper's Multiple Grammars Theory, which was created with first language in mind but which extends very naturally to SLA. They include…

Truscott, John

2014-01-01

89

A GUJARATI REFERENCE GRAMMAR.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THIS REFERENCE GRAMMAR WAS WRITTEN TO FILL THE NEED FOR AN UP-TO-DATE ANALYSIS OF THE MODERN LANGUAGE SUITABLE FOR LANGUAGE LEARNERS AS WELL AS LINGUISTS. THE AUTHOR LISTS IN THE INTRODUCTION THOSE STUDIES PREVIOUS TO THIS ONE WHICH MAY BE OF INTEREST TO THE READER. INCLUDED IN HIS ANALYSIS OF THE LANGUAGE ARE MAJOR CHAPTERS ON--(1) PHONOLOGY, (2)…

CARDONA, GEORGE

90

Studies in Inuktitut Grammar  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This dissertation addresses a number of issues about the grammar of Eastern Canadian Inuktitut. Inuktitut is a dialect within the Inuit dialect continuum which is a group of languages/dialects within the Eskimo-Aleut language family. (Eastern Canadian Inuktitut has an ISO 693-3 language code of "ike".) Typologically, it is an ergative language…

Beach, Matthew David

2012-01-01

91

GPS (Grammar Positioning System)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this Cross Talk, Mark Blaauw-Hara, the author of "Mapping the Frontier: A Survey of Twenty Years of Grammar Articles in 'TETYC,'" and one of the manuscript's reviewers, Andy Anderson, engage in a brief conversation about the essay, its content, and the processes of writing, reviewing, and revising. This article is presented in three sections:…

Blaauw-Hara, Mark; Anderson, Andy

2007-01-01

92

Teaching Grammar for Proficiency.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses a foreign language pedagogy that facilitates teaching for communication and teaching grammar, which is defined as a system for converting meaning into language. The teacher is advised to do in the classroom only what cannot be done elsewhere. Four instructional tactics are described. (SED)

Higgs, Theodore V.

1985-01-01

93

Effects of Noun Phrase Type on Sentence Complexity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A series of self-paced reading time experiments was performed to assess how characteristics of noun phrases (NPs) contribute to the difference in processing difficulty between object- and subject-extracted relative clauses. Structural semantic characteristics of the NP in the embedded clause (definite vs. indefinite and definite vs. generic) did…

Gordon, Peter C.; Hendrick, Randall; Johnson, Marcus

2004-01-01

94

Phrase animation generation reflecting impression of words  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a phrase animation generation reflecting impressions of words. The process of generating phrase animations consists of two procedures; impression estimation and animation output. In the former procedure, impressions of an inputted phrase are estimated from impressions of an inputted adjective\\/adjectival verb. That is derived from the number of co-occurrence on web search between the adjective\\/adjectival verb and

Ryou Morita; Takehisa Onisawa

2008-01-01

95

Grammar Dilemma: Teaching Grammar as a Resource for Making Meaning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adopting a functional perspective that views grammar as a rich resource for making contextualized meanings in a culture- and language-specific way, the article reconsiders the role of explicit grammar instruction in developing communicative abilities of second language learners. It draws on two distinct but complementary research frameworks,…

Liamkina, Olga; Ryshina-Pankova, Marianna

2012-01-01

96

Application of Information Technology: Improved Identification of Noun Phrases in Clinical Radiology Reports Using a High-Performance Statistical Natural Language Parser Augmented with the UMLS Specialist Lexicon  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveThe aim of this study was to develop and evaluate a method of extracting noun phrases with full phrase structures from a set of clinical radiology reports using natural language processing (NLP) and to investigate the effects of using the UMLS® Specialist Lexicon to improve noun phrase identification within clinical radiology documents.DesignThe noun phrase identification (NPI) module is composed of

Yang Huang; Henry J. Lowe; Dan Klein; Russell J. Cucina

2005-01-01

97

Abstract Expression Grammar Symbolic Regression  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This chapter examines the use of Abstract Expression Grammars to perform the entire Symbolic Regression process without the use of Genetic Programming per se. The techniques explored produce a symbolic regression engine which has absolutely no bloat, which allows total user control of the search space and output formulas, which is faster, and more accurate than the engines produced in our previous papers using Genetic Programming. The genome is an all vector structure with four chromosomes plus additional epigenetic and constraint vectors, allowing total user control of the search space and the final output formulas. A combination of specialized compiler techniques, genetic algorithms, particle swarm, aged layered populations, plus discrete and continuous differential evolution are used to produce an improved symbolic regression sytem. Nine base test cases, from the literature, are used to test the improvement in speed and accuracy. The improved results indicate that these techniques move us a big step closer toward future industrial strength symbolic regression systems.

Korns, Michael F.

98

Paperback Grammar for Handbook Haters.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students will respond better to grammar instruction if the traditional heavy handbooks are replaced with light-weight paperbacks, each full of practical suggestions and clear examples. Several inexpensive paperbacks are available for instruction in grammar and usage, spelling, vocabulary, reading comprehension, and writing. Unlike the conventional…

Lambert, Dorothy

1967-01-01

99

A Reference Grammar of Bena  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This dissertation is a grammar of Rena (ISO bez), a Bantu language spoken in southwestern Tanzania by approximately 600,000 people. Bena is largely undocumented, and though aspects of Bena grammar have been described, there is no usable, detailed treatment of the Bena language. Therefore the goal of this dissertation is provide the first detailed…

Morrison, Michelle Elizabeth

2011-01-01

100

A Pedagogical Grammar of Tboli.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Tboli is a language spoken by people living in southwestern Mindanao, Philippines, in the province of South Cotabato. The pedagogical grammar of Tboli has been written to help non-Tboli interested in learning to speak Tboli. A discussion of spelling and pronunciation includes the alphabet and spelling rules. Other forms of grammar described are…

Forsberg, Vivian M.

1992-01-01

101

Adding and subtracting alternation: resumption and prepositional phrase chopping in Spanish relative clauses.  

E-print Network

??This dissertation is a variationist account of two non-standard relative clause (RC) structures in Spanish: resumptive pronouns (RPs) and prepositional-phrase (PP) chopping. Previous typological studies… (more)

Cerrón-Palomino López, Alvaro

2010-01-01

102

Regular right part grammars and their parsers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces an alternative to context-free grammars called regular right part (RRP) grammars, which resemble PASCAL syntax diagrams. Formally, RRP grammars have production right parts, which are nondeterministic finite state machines (FSMs), and, as a special case, regular expression, since these can be converted to FSMs. RRP grammars describe the syntax of programming languages more concisely and more understandably

Wilf R. LaLonde

1977-01-01

103

Re-Examining the Content Validation of a Grammar Test: The (Im)Possibility of Distinguishing Vocabulary and Structural Knowledge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Vocabulary and structural knowledge" (Grabe, 1991, p. 379) appears to be a key component of reading ability. However, is this component to be taken as a unitary one or is structural knowledge a separate factor that can therefore also be tested in isolation in, say, a test of syntax? If syntax can be singled out (e.g. in order to…

Alderson, J. Charles; Kremmel, Benjamin

2013-01-01

104

A tropical grammar : an architectural grammar for hot humid climates  

E-print Network

This thesis considers the viability of an architectural grammar based on traditional Caribbean architecture as an aid to designing climatically responsive architecture in hot humid climates. It argues that since traditional ...

Beamish, Anne, 1954-

1993-01-01

105

A Deeper Look at the Grammar and Some Implications of "Ser" and "Estar" + Locative in Spanish.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues that the explanation of the use of "ser" and "estar" with locatives presented in the March 1984 issue of "Hispania" derives so directly from a theory of universal grammar because it is indicative of the explanatory adequacy of Case Grammar or of other, comparable theories of the deeper levels of linguistic structure. (SED)

Franco, Fabiola; Steinmetz, Donald

1985-01-01

106

A Machine Learning Approach to Coreference Resolution of Noun Phrases  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present a learning approach to coreference resolution of noun phrases in unrestricted text. The approach learns from a small, annotated corpus and the task includes resolving not just a certain type of noun phrase (e.g., pronouns) but rather general noun phrases. It also does not restrict the entity types of the noun phrases; that is, coreference

Wee Meng Soon; Hwee Tou Ng; Chung Yong Lim

2001-01-01

107

Musical phrase boundaries, wrap-up and the closure positive shift.  

PubMed

We investigated global integration (wrap-up) processes at the boundaries of musical phrases by comparing the effects of well and non-well formed phrases on event-related potentials time-locked to two boundary points: the onset and the offset of the boundary pause. The Closure Positive Shift, which is elicited at the boundary offset, was not modulated by the quality of phrase structure (well vs. non-well formed). In contrast, the boundary onset potentials showed different patterns for well and non-well formed phrases. Our results contribute to specify the functional meaning of the Closure Positive Shift in music, shed light on the large-scale structural integration of musical input, and raise new hypotheses concerning shared resources between music and language. PMID:25139422

Silva, Susana; Branco, Paulo; Barbosa, Fernando; Marques-Teixeira, João; Petersson, Karl Magnus; Castro, São Luís

2014-10-17

108

Does the mastery of center-embedded linguistic structures distinguish humans from nonhuman primates?  

PubMed

In a recent Science article, Fitch and Hauser (2004; hereafter, F&H) claimed to have demonstrated that cotton-top tamarins fail to learn an artificial language produced by a phrase structure grammar (Chomsky, 1957) generating center-embedded sentences, whereas adult humans easily learn such a language. We report an experiment replicating the results of F&H in humans but also showing that subjects learned the language without exploiting in any way the center-embedded structure. When the procedure was modified to make the processing of this structure mandatory, the subjects no longer showed evidence of learning. We propose a simple interpretation for the difference in performance observed in F&H's task between humans and tamarins and argue that, beyond the specific drawbacks inherent in F&H's study, researching the source of the inability of nonhuman primates to master language within a framework built around Chomsky's hierarchy of grammars is a conceptual dead end. PMID:16082811

Perruchet, Pierre; Rey, Arnaud

2005-04-01

109

Grammar structures and deaf and hard of hearing students: a review of past performance and a report of new findings.  

PubMed

Results of a study are presented that suggest the grammatical structures of English some deaf and hard of hearing students struggle to acquire. A review of the literature from the past 40 years is presented, exploring particular lexical and morphosyntactic areas in which deaf and hard of hearing children have traditionally exhibited difficulty. Twenty-six participants from an urban day school for the deaf used the LanguageLinks software, produced by Laureate Learning Systems, for 10 minutes daily for 9 weeks. The descriptive analysis of the results expands on findings reported by Cannon, Easterbrooks, Gagne, and Beal-Alvarez (2011). The results indicated that many participants struggled with regular noun singular/plural; accusative first- and second-person singular; noun/verb agreement copular "be"; accusative third-person number/ gender; locative pronominals; auxiliary "be"/regular past "-ed;" and prenominal determiners plural. PMID:24133956

Cannon, Joanna E; Kirby, Susannah

2013-01-01

110

CAD GRAMMARS: EXTENDING SHAPE AND GRAPH GRAMMARS FOR SPATIAL DESIGN MODELLING  

E-print Network

design and PCB design. Graph grammars contain production rules with similar generational properties1 CAD GRAMMARS: EXTENDING SHAPE AND GRAPH GRAMMARS FOR SPATIAL DESIGN MODELLING PETER DEAK, CHRIS-linear formal grammars that have been used in a range of design domains such as architecture, industrial product

Reed, Chris

111

The Parallel Grammar Project Miriam Butt  

E-print Network

The Parallel Grammar Project Miriam Butt Cent. for Computational Linguistics UMIST Manchester M60 1 range of purposes. In this paper, we report on the Parallel Grammar (ParGram) project (Butt et al., 1999

112

On Anaphora and the Binding Principles in Categorial Grammar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In type logical categorial grammar the analysis of an expression is a resource-conscious proof. Anaphora represents a particular challenge to this approach in that the antecedent resource is multiplied in the semantics. This duplication, which corresponds logically to the structural rule of contraction, may be treated lexically or syntactically. Furthermore, anaphora is subject to constraints, which Chomsky (1981) formulated as Binding Principles A, B, and C. In this paper we consider English anaphora in categorial grammar including reference to the binding principles. We invoke displacement calculus, modal categorial calculus, categorial calculus with limited contraction, and entertain addition of negation as failure.

Morrill, Glyn; Valentín, Oriol

113

Teaching Grammar as a Liberating Force  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The idea of grammar as a "liberating force" comes from a paper by Henry Widdowson (1990) in which grammar is depicted as a resource which liberates the language user from an over-dependency on lexis and context for the expression of meaning. In this paper, I consider the implications for second language teaching of the notion of grammar as a…

Cullen, Richard

2008-01-01

114

The Philosophical Significance of Universal Grammar  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Throughout its long history, the project of a science of grammar has always been an inherently philosophical one, in which the study of grammar was taken to have special epistemological significance. I ask why 20th and 21st century inquiry into Universal Grammar (UG) has largely lost this dimension, a fact that I argue is partially responsible for…

Hinzen, Wolfram

2012-01-01

115

Teacher Grammar and Pupil Achievement in Mathematics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A total of 102 fourth grade students were assigned to one of six groups defined by the possible combinations of two pupil ability level conditions (above versus below average ability) and three teacher verbal fluency conditions (good grammar, moderately good grammar, poor grammar). Each group was presented a lesson concerning mathematical…

Forney, Mary Ann; Smith, Lyle R.

116

A Construction Grammar for the Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Construction grammars (Lakoff, Women, fire and dangerous things: What categories reveal about the Mind, University of Chicago Press, 1987; Langacker, Foundations of cognitive grammar: Theoretical pre-requisites, Stanford University Press, 1987; Croft, Radical construction grammar: Syntactic theory in typological perspective, Oxford University…

Holme, Randal

2010-01-01

117

Delta's Key to the Next Generation TOEFL[R] Test: Essential Grammar for the iBT  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although the TOEFL iBT does not have a discrete grammar section, knowledge of English sentence structure is important throughout the test. Essential Grammar for the iBT reviews the skills that are fundamental to success on tests. Content includes noun and verb forms, clauses, agreement, parallel structure, punctuation, and much more. The book may…

Gallagher, Nancy

2012-01-01

118

Primitive computations in phrase construction  

E-print Network

The Minimalist Program in current linguistic theory seeks to explain linguistic structure in terms of economy principles, under the assumption that the human language faculty is a perfect system that performs only enough ...

Nguyen, Chieu V

2009-01-01

119

Southern White English: The Changing Verb Phrase.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a sociolinguistic study of the verb phrase in Southern White English, a pattern of change in progress was observed. The 14 variables studied showed that certain variants were increasing, others decreasing, and yet others stable across time within the community, and that each variable's change was progressing in a wave sensitive to age, social…

Feagin, Louise Crawford

120

Latin Phrases and Words Used in English  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site is for anyone who wants a quick reference to those oft used, but not always understood Latin words and phrases. The definitions from over fifty commonly used terms are taken from the Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary - Tenth Edition. The site is part of a Brooklyn College Latin course homepage.

121

Chemical Accelerators The phrase "chemical accelerators"  

E-print Network

Meetings Chemical Accelerators The phrase "chemical accelerators" is scarcely older than for one or two dozen people grew to include nearly a hundred. Chemical accelerators is a name sug- gested by one of us for devices that produce beams of chemically interesting species at relative kinetic

Zare, Richard N.

122

SWAHILI GRAMMAR AND SYNTAX. DUQUESNE STUDIES, AFRICAN SERIES 1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THIS COMPREHENSIVE STUDY OF SWAHILI, ONE OF THE BANTU LANGUAGES IN THE NIGER-CONGO GROUP, IS BASED ON THE AUTHOR'S 37 YEARS OF WRITING AND TEACHING EXPERIENCE IN EAST AFRICA. THE STUDY IS INTENDED TO PRESENT THE SWAHILI LANGUAGE IN TERMS OF ITS OWN STRUCTURE, RATHER THAN IN TERMS OF LATIN OR ENGLISH GRAMMARS. A PRELIMINARY SECTION IN PART ONE…

LOOGMAN, ALFONS

123

What Artificial Grammar Learning Reveals about the Neurobiology of Syntax  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper we examine the neurobiological correlates of syntax, the processing of structured sequences, by comparing FMRI results on artificial and natural language syntax. We discuss these and similar findings in the context of formal language and computability theory. We used a simple right-linear unification grammar in an implicit artificial…

Petersson, Karl-Magnus; Folia, Vasiliki; Hagoort, Peter

2012-01-01

124

Upending the Grammar of the Conventional Religious School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article provides an overview and analysis of a relatively new phenomenon: congregational schools that have altered the conventional grammar of schooling, either through their structural arrangements or through their curricular approaches. Five pre-bar/bat mitzvah models are discussed: family schools, schools as communities,…

Aron, Isa

2014-01-01

125

Assigning phrase breaks from part-of-speech sequences.   

E-print Network

One of the important stages in the process of turning unmarked text into speech is the assignment of appropriate phrase break boundaries. Phrase break boundaries are important to later modules including accent ...

Black, Alan W; Taylor, Paul A

1997-01-01

126

Using statistical models to predict phrase boundaries for speech synthesis.   

E-print Network

This paper describes a variety of methods for inserting phrase boundaries in text. The methods work by examining the likelihood of a phrase break occurring in a sequence of three part-of-speech tags. The paper explains ...

Sanders, Eric; Taylor, Paul A

1995-01-01

127

ENGLISH GRAMMAR WORKSHOP SERIES English Grammar Review for Chinese  

E-print Network

.824.3849. FALL 2010 WORKSHOPS For English as a Second Language (ESL) and WINTER 2014 English Grammar Review confronted by graduate student writers whose first language is not English. Taught in tandem with native speakers who excel in English writing, these workshops target the unique needs of first language speakers

Rose, Michael R.

128

Probabilistic Tree-Adjoining Grammar As A Framework For Statistical Natural Language Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, I argue for the use of a probabilistic form of tree-adjoining grammar (TAG) in statistical natural language processing. I first discuss two previous statistical approaches --- one that concentrates on the probabilities of structural operations, and another that emphasizes co-occurrence relationships between words. I argue that a purely structural apprach, exemplified by probabilistic context-free grammar, lacks sufficient

Philip Resnik

1992-01-01

129

Learnable Classes of Categorial Grammars.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Learnability theory is an attempt to illuminate the concept of learnability using a mathematical model of learning. Two models of learning of categorial grammars are examined here: the standard model, in which sentences presented to the learner are flat strings of words, and one in which sentences are presented in the form of functor-argument…

Kanazawa, Makoto

130

Topological Grammars for data analysis  

E-print Network

Topological Grammars for data analysis Alexander Gorban, Leicester with Andrei Zinovyev, Paris and Neil Sumner, Leicester #12;Plan of the talk Two paradigms for data analysis: statistics and modelling #12;Two basic paradigms for data analysis Data set Statistical Analysis Data Modelling #12;Statistical

Gorban, Alexander N.

131

Transformational Grammar and Cognitive Psycholinguistics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An overview of Noam Chomsky's theories about transformational grammar and phonology is given. Since Chomsky was interested in characterizing what it is to know a language, the ways in which we demonstrate knowledge of our native language are discussed in detail. Particular emphasis is placed on describing how the transformational approach actually…

Lester, Mark

1973-01-01

132

Readings in Applied Transformational Grammar.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This volume contains nineteen essays, dealing with various aspects of transformational grammar, by scholars such as Noam Chomsky, Eric H. Lenneberg, and Leon Jakobovits. These essays have been reprinted from sources such as "College English" and "Language Learning" and are intended for the most part for a nontechnical audience. The anthology is…

Lester, Mark, Ed.

133

Virtual World Grammar (Extended Abstract)  

E-print Network

Virtual World Grammar (Extended Abstract) Tomas Trescak Artificial Intelligence Research Institute by means of 3D virtual worlds facilitating then the interaction among participants, i.e humans and agents. In this paper we propose a system that can automatically gen- erate a 3D virtual world from formal

Rodríguez, Inmaculada

134

Grammar Competency and Business Communications.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study sought to determine the relationship between grammar competency and success in a business communication course. Students completed a written English competency test consisting of 25 sentences, each with one of eight kinds of errors, including comma splice and incorrect pronoun reference. Students were then asked to choose the one…

Waltman, John L.

135

Urdu and the Parallel Grammar Project Miriam Butt  

E-print Network

Urdu and the Parallel Grammar Project Miriam Butt Cent. for Computational Linguistics UMIST PO Box grammar in the Parallel Grammar (ParGram) project (Butt et al., 1999; Butt et al., 2002).1 The Par of the Urdu grammar in the Parallel Grammar (ParGram) project (Butt et al., 1999; Butt et al., 2002). The Par

136

A Comparative Study on the Effectiveness of Two Song-Teaching Methods: Holistic vs. Phrase-by-Phrase  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of our study was to compare the effectiveness of two song-teaching methods: holistic and phrase-by-phrase. Thirty-two first-grade children (n = 32) from two music classes in an urban elementary school were taught two folksongs. The first class (n = 16) was taught one song through the phrase-by-phrase method and another song through the…

Persellin, Diane; Bateman, Laura

2009-01-01

137

Prosodic Phrasing: Machine and Human Evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a set of experiments aiming at the construction and evaluation of a new phrasing module for European Portuguese text-to-speech synthesis, using classification and regression trees learned from hand-labelled texts. Using the assessment criteria of matching boundary predictions against the corresponding labelled ones, the best solution achieves an overall performance of 91.9%, with 86.3% of correctly assigned breaks

M. Céu Viana; Luís C. Oliveira; Ana I. Mata

2003-01-01

138

Phrase frequency effects in language production.  

PubMed

A classic debate in the psychology of language concerns the question of the grain-size of the linguistic information that is stored in memory. One view is that only morphologically simple forms are stored (e.g., 'car', 'red'), and that more complex forms of language such as multi-word phrases (e.g., 'red car') are generated on-line from the simple forms. In two experiments we tested this view. In Experiment 1, participants produced noun+adjective and noun+noun phrases that were elicited by experimental displays consisting of colored line drawings and two superimposed line drawings. In Experiment 2, participants produced noun+adjective and determiner+noun+adjective utterances elicited by colored line drawings. In both experiments, naming latencies decreased with increasing frequency of the multi-word phrase, and were unaffected by the frequency of the object name in the utterance. These results suggest that the language system is sensitive to the distribution of linguistic information at grain-sizes beyond individual words. PMID:22479370

Janssen, Niels; Barber, Horacio A

2012-01-01

139

Can Individuals with Down Syndrome Improve Their Grammar?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Morphosyntax constitutes one of the most complex areas of language. It takes into account the structure of the word and that of the sentence, and its development allows one to establish adequately agreements both within the nominal phrase and in the rest of the sentence. Morphosyntax is particularly impaired in individuals with Down syndrome. To…

Sepulveda, Esther Moraleda; Lopez-Villasenor, Miguel Lazaro; Heinze, Elena Garayzabal

2013-01-01

140

Defense et illustration de la grammaire philologique (An Example and a Defense of Philological Grammar)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Author cites philological grammar" as one of three ways of treating language. The other two approaches to language are traditional grammar and linguistic grammar or transformational generative grammar. Philological grammar stresses the art of reading. (DS)

Dupont, Louis

1972-01-01

141

Longman Grammar of Spoken and Written English  

Microsoft Academic Search

IntroductionSince its publication in 1985, the outstanding 1,800-page Comprehensive Grammar of theEnglish Language, by Randolph Quirk, Sidney Greenbaum, Geoffrey Leech, and JanSvartvik, has been the definitive description of the grammar of English and an in-.dispensable reference for any research in the analysis or generation of English thatattempts serious coverage of the syntactic phenomena of the language. The new LongmanGrammar of

Douglas Biber; Stig Johansson; Geoffrey Leech; Susan Conrad; Edward Finegan

1999-01-01

142

Kent Sakoda Discusses Pidgin Grammar  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For a number of years, Kent Sakoda has been teaching at the University of Hawai'i at Manoa in the Department of Second Language Studies. His course, "Pidgin and Creole English in Hawai'i," is popular among students on campus. He has also taught at Hawai'i Pacific University. Because of his expertise on the grammar of Pidgin (Hawai'i Creole),…

Sakoda, Kent; Tamura, Eileen H.

2008-01-01

143

Adding and Subtracting Alternation: Resumption and Prepositional Phrase Chopping in Spanish Relative Clauses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This dissertation is a variationist account of two non-standard relative clause (RC) structures in Spanish: resumptive pronouns (RPs) and prepositional-phrase (PP) chopping. Previous typological studies considered RP explanations based on difficulty of processing (Hawkins, 1994), while Spanish-specific quantitative studies proposed a number of…

Cerron-Palomino Lopez, Alvaro

2010-01-01

144

Nigel: a systemic grammar for text generation  

SciTech Connect

Programming a computer to write text which meets a prior need is a challenging research task. As part of such research, Nigel, a large programmed grammar of English, has been created in the framework of systemic linguistics begun by Halliday. In addition to specifying function and structures of English, Nigel has a novel semantic stratum which specifies the situations in which each grammatical feature should be used. The report consists of three papers on Nigel: an introductory overview, the script of a demonstration of its use in generation, and an exposition of how Nigel relates to the systemic framework. Although the effort to develop Nigel is significant both as computer science research and as linguistic inquiry the outlook of the report is oriented to its linguistic significance.

Mann, W.C.; Matthiessen, C.M.

1983-02-01

145

Assigning phrase breaks from part-of-speech sequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an algorithm for automatically assigning phrase breaks to unrestricted text for use in a text-to-speech synthesizer. Text is first converted into a sequence of part-of-speech tags. Next a Markov model is used to give the most likely sequence of phrase breaks for the input part-of-speech tags. In the Markov model, states represent types of phrase break and

Paul Taylor; Alan W. Black

1998-01-01

146

Metrical presentation boosts implicit learning of artificial grammar.  

PubMed

The present study investigated whether a temporal hierarchical structure favors implicit learning. An artificial pitch grammar implemented with a set of tones was presented in two different temporal contexts, notably with either a strongly metrical structure or an isochronous structure. According to the Dynamic Attending Theory, external temporal regularities can entrain internal oscillators that guide attention over time, allowing for temporal expectations that influence perception of future events. Based on this framework, it was hypothesized that the metrical structure provides a benefit for artificial grammar learning in comparison to an isochronous presentation. Our study combined behavioral and event-related potential measurements. Behavioral results demonstrated similar learning in both participant groups. By contrast, analyses of event-related potentials showed a larger P300 component and an earlier N2 component for the strongly metrical group during the exposure phase and the test phase, respectively. These findings suggests that the temporal expectations in the strongly metrical condition helped listeners to better process the pitch dimension, leading to improved learning of the artificial grammar. PMID:25372147

Selchenkova, Tatiana; François, Clément; Schön, Daniele; Corneyllie, Alexandra; Perrin, Fabien; Tillmann, Barbara

2014-01-01

147

Chamorro Reference Grammar. Pali Language Texts: Micronesia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This detailed reference grammar of Chamorro, the native Malayo-Polynesian language spoken in Guam and the other Mariana Islands (Saipan, Rota, Tinian), differs from earlier grammars of the language in that: (1) it includes new data; (2) it offers a different interpretation of some of the data based on more recent linguistic concepts; and (3) it is…

Topping, Donald M.; Dungca, Bernadita C.

148

Grammar and Linguistics: A Contrast in Realities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An appeal for a reappraisal of the role of linguistics and traditional grammar in the secondary school is made in this article. A case is made for a return to traditional grammar in the teaching of English at all levels prior to graduate school. Five writing models with student assignments based on creative imitation illustrate the kind of…

Wolfe, Don M.

1964-01-01

149

Romanian Grammar Workbook for Peace Corps Volunteers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed as a reference tool for continued language learning beyond the beginning level, this workbook provides explanations and sets of exercises for learning, practicing, and understanding the major points of Romanian grammar. The manual contains 11 units on certain grammar problems for use with a tutor or under self-guided learning…

Peace Corps (Moldova).

150

Studying Grammar in the Technological Age  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When being a student in grade school as well as in high school (1934-1946), grammar was heavily emphasized in English/language arts classes, particularly in grades four through the senior year in high school. Evidently, teachers and school administrators then saw a theoretical way to assist pupils in writing achievement. Grammar and writing were…

Ediger, Marlow

2012-01-01

151

Studies in French Grammar and Phonology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The monograph contains two papers. The first presents a generative grammar for verbal forms in French. It consists of an ordered set of rewrite rules and a set of tables. It generates all existing verbal forms without generating any non-existing ones. The departure from an ordinary generative grammar lies in the use of a tabular form for…

Benguerel, Andre-Pierre; Grundstrom, Allan W.

152

Reading and Grammar Learning through Mobile Phones  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes an ongoing language-learning project, three years into its development. We examine both the feasibility and the limitations of developing English reading and grammar skills through the interface of mobile phones. Throughout the project, reading and grammar materials were regularly sent to students' mobile phones. Students…

Wang, Shudong; Smith, Simon

2013-01-01

153

Towards a Pedagogy of Grammar Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Grammar can be viewed both as knowledge and as ability. When viewed as knowledge, the focus is on rules for sentence formation. When viewed as ability, the focus is on how grammar is used as a resource in the creation of spoken and written texts. Twelve principles are proposed as the basis for a pedagogy that focusses on acquiring learning to use…

Richards, Jack C.; Reppen, Randi

2014-01-01

154

A Comparative Evaluation of French Grammar Checkers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Four grammar checkers, all of French Canadian origin, were evaluated: "Le Correcteur 101,""GramR,""Hugo Plus," and "French Proofing Tools." Results indicate that "Le Correcteur 101" is the best French grammar checker on the market and worth its premium cost. (two references) (CK)

Burston, Jack

1996-01-01

155

Flexible Processing and the Design of Grammar  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We explore the consequences of letting the incremental and integrative nature of language processing inform the design of competence grammar. What emerges is a view of grammar as a system of local monotonic constraints that provide a direct characterization of the signs (the form-meaning correspondences) of a given language. This…

Sag, Ivan A.; Wasow, Thomas

2015-01-01

156

A Cognitive Model of Sentence Interpretation: the Construction Grammar approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a new, psychologically-plausible model of human sentence interpretation, based on a new model of linguistic structure, Construction Grammar. This on-line, parallel, prob- abilistic interpreter accounts for a wide variety of psycholinguistic results on lexical access, idiom processing, parsing preferences, and studies of gap-filling and other valence ambiguities, includ- ing various frequency effects. We show that many of

Daniel Jurafsky

1993-01-01

157

What English Teachers Need to Know about Grammar.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggests that English teachers need to know that grammar is a difficult subject; know what children know about grammar; know that grammatical error is complex; and know more about language than just grammar. Concludes with the advice of Noam Chomsky--that grammar should be taught for its own intrinsic interest. (RS)

Murdick, William

1996-01-01

158

An Analysis of Spoken Grammar: The Case for Production  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Corpus-based grammars, notably "Cambridge Grammar of English," give explicit information on the forms and use of native-speaker grammar, including spoken grammar. Native-speaker norms as a necessary goal in language teaching are contested by supporters of English as a Lingua Franca (ELF); however, this article argues for the inclusion of selected…

Mumford, Simon

2009-01-01

159

XRate: a fast prototyping, training and annotation tool for phylo-grammars  

PubMed Central

Background Recent years have seen the emergence of genome annotation methods based on the phylo-grammar, a probabilistic model combining continuous-time Markov chains and stochastic grammars. Previously, phylo-grammars have required considerable effort to implement, limiting their adoption by computational biologists. Results We have developed an open source software tool, xrate, for working with reversible, irreversible or parametric substitution models combined with stochastic context-free grammars. xrate efficiently estimates maximum-likelihood parameters and phylogenetic trees using a novel "phylo-EM" algorithm that we describe. The grammar is specified in an external configuration file, allowing users to design new grammars, estimate rate parameters from training data and annotate multiple sequence alignments without the need to recompile code from source. We have used xrate to measure codon substitution rates and predict protein and RNA secondary structures. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that xrate estimates biologically meaningful rates and makes predictions whose accuracy is comparable to that of more specialized tools. PMID:17018148

Klosterman, Peter S; Uzilov, Andrew V; Bendaña, Yuri R; Bradley, Robert K; Chao, Sharon; Kosiol, Carolin; Goldman, Nick; Holmes, Ian

2006-01-01

160

ARG-ST on Phrases: Evidence from Polish Adam Przepirkowski  

E-print Network

ARG-ST on Phrases: Evidence from Polish Adam Przepiórkowski Ohio State University and Polish. Some works assume that ARG-ST is present on words only; this is the claim of, e.g., Pollard and Sag), and Meurers (1999) (to deal with case assignment in German verb clusters). Works assuming ARG-ST on phrases do

Kuhn, Jonas

161

Phonetic pitch movements of accentual phrases in Korean read speech  

E-print Network

Phonetic pitch movements of accentual phrases in Korean read speech Hyongsil Cho & Stéphane Rauzy phonetic pitch movements and accentual phrase boundaries using a technique of pattern extraction of prosodic units needs to be revised. The aim of this study is to examine the role of phonetic pitch

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

162

What contributes to the perception of musical phrases  

E-print Network

of the Innovation Impulse programme "Towards a Unifying Model of Linguistic, Musical and Visual ProcessingWhat contributes to the perception of musical phrases in western classical music? Neta Spiro #12;#12;What contributes to the perception of musical phrases in western classical music? #12;ILLC Dissertation

ten Cate, Balder

163

Modelling dynamics with context-free grammars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article presents a strategy to model the dynamics performed by vehicles in a freeway. The proposal consists on encode the movement as a set of finite states. A watershed-based segmentation is used to localize regions with high-probability of motion. Each state represents a proportion of a camera projection in a two-dimensional space, where each state is associated to a symbol, such that any combination of symbols is expressed as a language. Starting from a sequence of symbols through a linear algorithm a free-context grammar is inferred. This grammar represents a hierarchical view of common sequences observed into the scene. Most probable grammar rules express common rules associated to normal movement behavior. Less probable rules express themselves a way to quantify non-common behaviors and they might need more attention. Finally, all sequences of symbols that does not match with the grammar rules, may express itself uncommon behaviors (abnormal). The grammar inference is built with several sequences of images taken from a freeway. Testing process uses the sequence of symbols emitted by the scenario, matching the grammar rules with common freeway behaviors. The process of detect abnormal/normal behaviors is managed as the task of verify if any word generated by the scenario is recognized by the grammar.

García-Huerta, Juan-M.; Jiménez-Hernández, Hugo; Herrera-Navarro, Ana-M.; Hernández-Díaz, Teresa; Terol-Villalobos, Ivan

2014-03-01

164

ANTLR Tree Grammar Generator and Extensions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A computer program implements two extensions of ANTLR (Another Tool for Language Recognition), which is a set of software tools for translating source codes between different computing languages. ANTLR supports predicated- LL(k) lexer and parser grammars, a notation for annotating parser grammars to direct tree construction, and predicated tree grammars. [ LL(k) signifies left-right, leftmost derivation with k tokens of look-ahead, referring to certain characteristics of a grammar.] One of the extensions is a syntax for tree transformations. The other extension is the generation of tree grammars from annotated parser or input tree grammars. These extensions can simplify the process of generating source-to-source language translators and they make possible an approach, called "polyphase parsing," to translation between computing languages. The typical approach to translator development is to identify high-level semantic constructs such as "expressions," "declarations," and "definitions" as fundamental building blocks in the grammar specification used for language recognition. The polyphase approach is to lump ambiguous syntactic constructs during parsing and then disambiguate the alternatives in subsequent tree transformation passes. Polyphase parsing is believed to be useful for generating efficient recognizers for C++ and other languages that, like C++, have significant ambiguities.

Craymer, Loring

2005-01-01

165

A Relationship: Word Alignment, Phrase Table, and Translation Quality  

PubMed Central

In the last years, researchers conducted several studies to evaluate the machine translation quality based on the relationship between word alignments and phrase table. However, existing methods usually employ ad-hoc heuristics without theoretical support. So far, there is no discussion from the aspect of providing a formula to describe the relationship among word alignments, phrase table, and machine translation performance. In this paper, on one hand, we focus on formulating such a relationship for estimating the size of extracted phrase pairs given one or more word alignment points. On the other hand, a corpus-motivated pruning technique is proposed to prune the default large phrase table. Experiment proves that the deduced formula is feasible, which not only can be used to predict the size of the phrase table, but also can be a valuable reference for investigating the relationship between the translation performance and phrase tables based on different links of word alignment. The corpus-motivated pruning results show that nearly 98% of phrases can be reduced without any significant loss in translation quality. PMID:24883402

Chao, Lidia S.

2014-01-01

166

A Web-Based Tool for Oral Practice and Assessment of Grammatical Structures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The grammar course objectives at Brigham Young University's English Language Center (ELC) are a list of grammar structures for each level that students are expected to be able to master. These objectives currently are only measured by pencil-paper grammar tests, providing information regarding receptive grammar ability only. Therefore, there is a…

Torrie, Heather

2007-01-01

167

The Cambridge Grammar of the English Language  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: king these assumptions explicit, perhaps by using the book asthe basis for a large-scale computational grammar, very likely one in the tradition ofPullum's earlier work (Gazdar et al. 1985). Such a project, although very worthwhile,would probably be too long-term for most of us, so we now turn to other ways inwhich the availability of the grammar may enhance the

Rodney Huddleston; Geoffrey K. Pullum

2002-01-01

168

A stochastic context free grammar based framework for analysis of protein sequences  

PubMed Central

Background In the last decade, there have been many applications of formal language theory in bioinformatics such as RNA structure prediction and detection of patterns in DNA. However, in the field of proteomics, the size of the protein alphabet and the complexity of relationship between amino acids have mainly limited the application of formal language theory to the production of grammars whose expressive power is not higher than stochastic regular grammars. However, these grammars, like other state of the art methods, cannot cover any higher-order dependencies such as nested and crossing relationships that are common in proteins. In order to overcome some of these limitations, we propose a Stochastic Context Free Grammar based framework for the analysis of protein sequences where grammars are induced using a genetic algorithm. Results This framework was implemented in a system aiming at the production of binding site descriptors. These descriptors not only allow detection of protein regions that are involved in these sites, but also provide insight in their structure. Grammars were induced using quantitative properties of amino acids to deal with the size of the protein alphabet. Moreover, we imposed some structural constraints on grammars to reduce the extent of the rule search space. Finally, grammars based on different properties were combined to convey as much information as possible. Evaluation was performed on sites of various sizes and complexity described either by PROSITE patterns, domain profiles or a set of patterns. Results show the produced binding site descriptors are human-readable and, hence, highlight biologically meaningful features. Moreover, they achieve good accuracy in both annotation and detection. In addition, findings suggest that, unlike current state-of-the-art methods, our system may be particularly suited to deal with patterns shared by non-homologous proteins. Conclusion A new Stochastic Context Free Grammar based framework has been introduced allowing the production of binding site descriptors for analysis of protein sequences. Experiments have shown that not only is this new approach valid, but produces human-readable descriptors for binding sites which have been beyond the capability of current machine learning techniques. PMID:19814800

Dyrka, Witold; Nebel, Jean-Christophe

2009-01-01

169

Application of Montague grammar to English-Japanese machine translation  

SciTech Connect

English-Japanese machine translation requires a large amount of structural transformation in both grammatical and conceptual level. In order to make the control structure clearer and more understandable, this paper proposes a model based on Montague grammar. The translation process is modelled as a data flow computation process. Formal description tools are developed and a prototype system is constructed. Various problems which arise in this modelling and their solutions are described. Results of experiments are shown and the extent to which initial goals are achieved is discussed. 14 references.

Nishida, T.; Doshita, S.

1983-01-01

170

Cyclicity and the scope of wh-phrases  

E-print Network

This thesis argues that in a constituent question with a universal quantifier, syntactic reconstruction of the wh-phrase below the quantifier is the source of scope ambiguities. In particular, I argue, based on the interaction ...

Aguero Bautista, Calixto

2001-01-01

171

Providing a unified account of definite noun phrases in discourse  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper focuses on particular phenomena of this sort-the use of various referring expressions such as def'mite noun phrases and pronouns-and examines their interaction with mechanisms used to maintain discourse coherence

Barbara J. Grosz; Aravind K. Joshi; Scott Weinstein

1983-01-01

172

Assigning phrase breaks from part-of-speech sequences   

E-print Network

This paper presents an algorithm for automatically assigning phrase breaks to unrestricted text for use in a text-to-speech synthesizer. Text is first converted into a sequence of part-of-speech tags. Next a Markov model ...

Taylor, Paul; Black, Alan W

173

The French Noun Phrase in Preschool Children with SLI: Morphosyntactic and Error Analyses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We studied spontaneous speech noun-phrase production in eight French-speaking children with SLI (aged 5;0 to 5; 1) and controls matched on age (4;10 to 5;11) or MLU (aged 3;2 to 4;1). Results showed that children with SLI prefer simple DP structures to complex ones while producing more substitution and omission errors than controls. The three…

Royle, Phaedra; Stine, Isabelle

2013-01-01

174

Learning Deterministic Context Free Grammars: The Omphalos Competition  

E-print Network

Learning Deterministic Context Free Grammars: The Omphalos Competition Alexander Clark (alexc. This paper describes the winning entry to the Omphalos context free grammar learning competition. Our heuristics based on substitutability and frequency. The competition is discussed from the perspective

Clark, Alexander

175

Exploring Shape Grammar Optimization as a Tool for Automated Design  

E-print Network

requires tediously adjusting its many hard-coded parameters. This research serves to answer whether a sub-optimal shape grammar could instead be adjusted using grammar induction and optimization techniques. A general optimization framework for shape...

Cazamias, Jordan A

2013-09-24

176

Design by grammar : algorithmic design in an architectural context  

E-print Network

An experimental study was performed to explore the practical applicability of the rule based design method of shape grammars. The shape grammar method is used for the analysis and synthesis of the hayat house type in a ...

Colakoglu, M. Birgul (Meryem Birgul), 1966-

2001-01-01

177

The Feature Space in Parallel Grammar Writing Miriam Butt  

E-print Network

The Feature Space in Parallel Grammar Writing Miriam Butt Centre for Comp. Linguistics UMIST PO Box at producing broad-coverage compu- tational grammars for a variety of languages ((Butt et al., 1999; Butt et al

178

Phrasal Ordering Constraints in Sentence Production: Phrase Length and Verb Disposition in Heavy-NP Shift  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heavy-NP shift is the tendency for speakers to place long or “heavy” noun phrase direct objects at the end of a sentence rather than in the canonical postverbal position. Three experiments using several task variations confirmed that length of the noun phrase influenced the ordering of the noun phrase and prepositional phrase during production. We also found that heavy-NP shift

Lynne M. Stallings; Maryellen C. MacDonald; Padraig G. O'Seaghdha

1998-01-01

179

Artificial grammar learning of melody is constrained by melodic inconsistency: Narmour's principles affect melodic learning.  

PubMed

Considerable evidence suggests that people acquire artificial grammars incidentally and implicitly, an indispensable capacity for the acquisition of music or language. However, less research has been devoted to exploring constraints affecting incidental learning. Within the domain of music, the extent to which Narmour's (1990) melodic principles affect implicit learning of melodic structure was experimentally explored. Extending previous research (Rohrmeier, Rebuschat & Cross, 2011), the identical finite-state grammar is employed having terminals (the alphabet) manipulated so that melodies generated systematically violated Narmour's principles. Results indicate that Narmour-inconsistent melodic materials impede implicit learning. This further constitutes a case in which artificial grammar learning is affected by prior knowledge or processing constraints. PMID:23874388

Rohrmeier, Martin; Cross, Ian

2013-01-01

180

Learning Complex Grammar in the Virtual Classroom: A Comparison of Processing Instruction, Structured Input, Computerized Visual Input Enhancement, and Traditional Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the effects of processing instruction (PI) and structured input (SI) on the acquisition of the subjunctive in adjectival clauses by 92 second-semester distance learners of Spanish. Computerized visual input enhancement (VIE) was combined with PI and SI in an attempt to increase the salience of the targeted grammatical form…

Russell, Victoria

2012-01-01

181

Playful Explicitness with Grammar: A Pedagogy for Writing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The place of grammar within the teaching of writing has long been contested and successive research studies have indicated no correlation between grammar teaching and writing attainment. However, a recent study has shown a significant positive impact on writing outcomes when the grammar input is intrinsically linked to the demands of the writing…

Myhill, Debra; Jones, Susan; Watson, Annabel; Lines, Helen

2013-01-01

182

Grammar and the Lexicon. Working Papers in Linguistics 16.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this volume, five working papers are presented. "Minimal Signs and Grammar" (Lars Hellan) proposes that a significant part of the "production" of grammar is incremental, building larger and larger constructs, with lexical objects called minimal signs as the first steps. It also suggests that the basic lexical information in grammar is…

University of Trondheim Working Papers in Linguistics, 1993

1993-01-01

183

Difficulties in Teaching and Learning Grammar in an EFL Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The role of grammar instruction in an ESL/EFL context has been for decades a major issue for students and teachers alike. Researchers have debated whether grammar should be taught in the classroom and students, for their part, have generally looked upon grammar instruction as a necessary evil at best, and an avoidable burden at worst. The paper…

Al-Mekhlafi, Abdu Mohammed; Nagaratnam, Ramani Perur

2011-01-01

184

Grammar in the Labyrinth: Resources on the World Wide Web.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Notes and discusses resources on the World Wide Web that deal with grammar and that may be useful to teachers. Lists traditional grammar websites, including online handbooks and style guides, but warns that the isolated teaching of grammar has little impact on student writing. Concludes that websites are needed that actually show teachers how to…

Patterson, Nancy, Ed.; Pipkin, Gloria, Ed.

2001-01-01

185

CAD GRAMMARS Combining CAD and Automated Spatial Design  

E-print Network

and PCB design. Graph grammars contain production rules with similar generational propertiesCAD GRAMMARS Combining CAD and Automated Spatial Design PETER DEAK, GLENN ROWE, CHRIS REED grammars that have been used in a range of design domains such as architecture, industrial product design

Reed, Chris

186

A Genetic Algorithm for Grammars James Anderson and Joe Staines  

E-print Network

A Genetic Algorithm for Grammars James Anderson and Joe Staines July 1, 2010 Background training data. 1 #12;A Genetic Algorithm for Grammars Of course, there are many more grammars than be able to search heuristically. Project Proposal We propose a project which uses a genetic algorithm

Goldschmidt, Christina

187

Commitment-Based Learning of Hidden Linguistic Structures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Learners must simultaneously learn a grammar and a lexicon from observed forms, yet some structures that the grammar and lexicon reference are unobservable in the acoustic signal. Moreover, these "hidden" structures interact: the grammar maps an underlying form to a particular interpretation. Learning one structure depends on learning…

Akers, Crystal Gayle

2012-01-01

188

The Processing and Interpretation of Verb Phrase Ellipsis Constructions by Children at Normal and Slowed Speech Rates  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To examine children's comprehension of verb phrase (VP) ellipsis constructions in light of their automatic, online structural processing abilities and conscious, metalinguistic reflective skill. Method: Forty-two children ages 5 through 12 years listened to VP ellipsis constructions involving the strict/sloppy ambiguity (e.g., "The…

Callahan, Sarah M.; Walenski, Matthew; Love, Tracy

2012-01-01

189

Content Validation of the Comprehension of Written Grammar Assessment for Deaf and Hard of Hearing Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Content validation is a crucial, but often neglected, component of good test development. In the present study, content validity evidence was collected to determine the degree to which elements (e.g., grammatical structures, items, picture responses, administration, and scoring instructions) of the Comprehension of Written Grammar (CWG) test are…

Cannon, Joanna E.; Hubley, Anita M.

2014-01-01

190

Commentary to "Multiple Grammars and Second Language Representation," by Luiz Amaral and Tom Roeper  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this commentary, the author defends the Multiple Grammars (MG) theory proposed by Luiz Amaral and Tom Roepe (A&R) in the present issue. Topics discussed include second language acquisition, the concept of developmental optionality, and the idea that structural decisions involve the lexical dimension. The author states that A&R's…

Pérez-Leroux, Ana T.

2014-01-01

191

Chomsky's Universal Grammar and Halliday's Systemic Functional Linguistics: An Appraisal and a Compromise  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent developments in theories of language (grammars) seem to share a number of tenets which mark a drastic shift from traditional disentangled descriptions of language: emphasis on a big number of discrete grammatical rules or a corpus of structure patterns has given way to a more unitary, explanatory powerful description of language informed by…

Bavali, Mohammad; Sadighi, Firooz

2008-01-01

192

An MEG Study of Temporal Characteristics of Semantic Integration in Japanese Noun Phrases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many studies of on-line comprehension of semantic violations have shown that the human sentence processor rapidly constructs a higher-order semantic interpretation of the sentence. What remains unclear, however, is the amount of time required to detect semantic anomalies while concatenating two words to form a phrase with very rapid stimuli presentation. We aimed to examine the time course of semantic integration in concatenating two words in phrase structure building, using magnetoencephalography (MEG). In the MEG experiment, subjects decided whether two words (a classifier and its corresponding noun), presented each for 66ms, form a semantically correct noun phrase. Half of the stimuli were matched pairs of classifiers and nouns. The other half were mismatched pairs of classifiers and nouns. In the analysis of MEG data, there were three primary peaks found at approximately 25ms (M1), 170ms (M2) and 250ms (M3) after the presentation of the target words. As a result, only the M3 latencies were significantly affected by the stimulus conditions. Thus, the present results indicate that the semantic integration in concatenating two words starts from approximately 250ms.

Kiguchi, Hirohisa; Asakura, Nobuhiko

193

Terminator Detection by Support Vector Machine Utilizing aStochastic Context-Free Grammar  

SciTech Connect

A 2-stage detector was designed to find rho-independent transcription terminators in the Escherichia coli genome. The detector includes a Stochastic Context Free Grammar (SCFG) component and a Support Vector Machine (SVM) component. To find terminators, the SCFG searches the intergenic regions of nucleotide sequence for local matches to a terminator grammar that was designed and trained utilizing examples of known terminators. The grammar selects sequences that are the best candidates for terminators and assigns them a prefix, stem-loop, suffix structure using the Cocke-Younger-Kasaami (CYK) algorithm, modified to incorporate energy affects of base pairing. The parameters from this inferred structure are passed to the SVM classifier, which distinguishes terminators from non-terminators that score high according to the terminator grammar. The SVM was trained with negative examples drawn from intergenic sequences that include both featureless and RNA gene regions (which were assigned prefix, stem-loop, suffix structure by the SCFG), so that it successfully distinguishes terminators from either of these. The classifier was found to be 96.4% successful during testing.

Francis-Lyon, Patricia; Cristianini, Nello; Holbrook, Stephen

2006-12-30

194

Formal Grammar and Psycholinguistic Theory Mark Steedman  

E-print Network

Formal Grammar and Psycholinguistic Theory Mark Steedman [The] development of probabilistic models: Introduction: Zipf's Elephant · Once upon a time, linguists, psycholinguists, and computational linguists (cf. Lakoff 1970a). 5 #12;The Flaming Sword · As a result, experimental psycholinguists have become

Steedman, Mark

195

On Psycholinguistic Grammars Patrick Juola \\Lambda  

E-print Network

On Psycholinguistic Grammars Patrick Juola \\Lambda University of Oxford patrick computational psycholinguistics and information theory. 1 #12; Abstract It has long been known that language that might need saying in either psycholinguistics (as a model of human language processing), or in com

Juola, Patrick

196

The 12th conference on Formal Grammar  

E-print Network

and efficient solution to the problem of compositional anal- ysis of discontinuous dependencies (cross-serial. The logical type grammars extend the classical CG with the introduction rules making the choice of raisable known discontinuous dependencies, but it does not apply to the cross-serial dependencies in Dutch

197

Generation and Synchronous TreeAdjoining Grammars  

E-print Network

Generation and Synchronous Tree­Adjoining Grammars Stuart M. Shieber Yves Schabes Aiken Computation) have been proposed as a formal­ ism for generation based on the intuition that the extended domain serving as an aid to generation from semantic representations. We demonstrate that this intuition can

Shieber, Stuart

198

Using Technology for Teaching Arabic Language Grammar  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates the effect of using technology such as CD-ROM, computers, and internet to teach Arabic language grammar to students at Princess Alia University College at Al-Balqa University. The sample of the study consisted of 122 third year female students; (64) for the experimental group and (58) for the control group. The subjects of…

Arrabtah, Adel; Nusour, Tayseer

2012-01-01

199

Behavior Modeling with Probabilistic Context Free Grammars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Identifying the behavioral patterns in a social network setting is beneficial to understand how people behave in certain application domains. Such pat- terns can also be utilized to characterize social signals such as social roles from interactions. In this work, we examine how probabilistic context free grammars (PCFGs) can be utilized to model interactions and role taking in a social

Sahin Cem Geyik; Jierui Xie; Boleslaw K. Szymanski

2010-01-01

200

Alternatives to Teaching Formal, Analytical Grammar.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses alternatives to formal grammatical analysis to teach syntax and usage, including sentence combining, expansion, and modelling/imitation; transformation exercises; and inductive grammar. Considers ways of teaching editing/proofreading skills, including peer editing, teacher/student conferences, and selective marking of errors. Discusses…

Sedgwick, Ellery

1989-01-01

201

Visual Feature Learning in Artificial Grammar Classification  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Artificial Grammar Learning task has been used extensively to assess individuals' implicit learning capabilities. Previous work suggests that participants implicitly acquire rule-based knowledge as well as exemplar-specific knowledge in this task. This study investigated whether exemplar-specific knowledge acquired in this task is based on the…

Chang, Grace Y.; Knowlton, Barbara J.

2004-01-01

202

Epilogue: Dynamic Morphosyntax in Functional Discourse Grammar  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This epilogue addresses the most important topics and challenges for the Morphosyntactic Level in Functional Discourse Grammar that have been raised in the articles in this Special Issue. We begin by exploring the differences between the Morphosyntactic Level in FDG and the treatment of morphosyntactic phenomena in other linguistic frameworks. We…

Velasco, Daniel Garcia; Hengeveld, Kees; Mackenzie, J. Lachlan

2012-01-01

203

Bag Context Tree Grammars # Sigrid Ewert  

E-print Network

Bag Context Tree Grammars # Sigrid Ewert School of Computer Science, University University S--901 87 Umeša, Sweden {drewes,johanna}@cs.umu.se Abstract. Bag context is a device for regulated or string, but evolves on its own during a derivation. Motivation for investigating bag context tree

Drewes, Frank

204

Towards a Polish LTAG Grammar Katarzyna Krasnowska  

E-print Network

of Sciences, k.krasnowska@phd.ipipan.waw.pl Abstract. This paper reports on a Lexicalised Tree Adjoining Gram of 23 570 elementary trees anchored by 11 515 lexemes. Running the grammar on the sentences from the tree- bank using a modified version of TuLiPA parser showed that it achieves a high accordance (almost

205

Grammar Schools: Brief Flowering of Social Mobility?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Grammar schools are increasingly remembered, especially by right-wing ideologues, as the agents of a "brief flowering" of post-war social mobility. This article presents statistical, documentary and interview evidence of secondary education in the eleven plus era, and finds nothing to justify the claim that selective schools produced a general…

Barker, Bernard

2012-01-01

206

Gram. vs. Inf. Grammar versus Inference  

E-print Network

Gram. vs. Inf. Grammar versus Inference Ted Briscoe Computer Laboratory Natural Language and Information Processing Group University of Cambridge ENS, Paris Mar 2014 #12;Gram. vs. Inf. Evolutionary/Drift = 4 Linguistic Evolution #12;Gram. vs. Inf. Evolutionary Linguistics Universal Darwinism 1 Linguistic

Briscoe, Ted

207

Grammar and Syntax: The Student's Perspective.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues that problems in teaching grammar stem from failure to help students develop, as opposed to memorize, grammatical concepts. Recommends discussion of style and vocabulary, student stylistic analysis of their own writing, and deciphering syntactic use, not just definition, of parts of speech. Suggests that such training should begin in…

Vavra, Ed

1987-01-01

208

BIBLIOGRAPHY AND GLOSSARY FOR CHINESE GRAMMAR.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THIS BIBLIOGRAPHY LISTS 937 TITLES IN THE FIELD OF CHINESE GRAMMAR FROM AMERICAN AND FOREIGN BOOKS, MAGAZINES, AND JOURNALS. THE AUTHORS AND TITLES ARE LISTED IN PINYIN SYSTEM TRANSCRIPTION WITH A TRANSLATION OF THE TITLE IN ENGLISH AND WITH CHINESE LOGOGRAPHS AFTER THE SOURCE CITATION FOR THOSE ENTRIES ORGINALLY WRITTEN IN CHINESE. ENTRIES ARE…

LIU, LILLIAN; WANG, W. S-Y

209

English Grammar for Students of French.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This grammar is a self-study manual intended to aid native speakers of English who are beginning the study of French. It is designed to supplement the French textbook, not to replace it. The common grammatical terms that are necessary for learning to speak and write French are explained in English and illustrated by examples in both French and…

Morton, Jacqueline

210

English Grammar for Students of German.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This grammar is a self-study manual intended to aid native speakers of English who are beginning the study of German. It is designed to supplement the German textbook. The common grammatical terms that are necessary for learning to speak and write German are explained in English and illustrated by examples from German and English. The process of…

Zorach, Cecile

211

English Grammar for Students of Spanish.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This grammar is a self-study manual intended to aid native speakers of English who are beginning the study of Spanish. It is designed to supplement the Spanish textbook. The common grammatical terms that are necessary for learning to speak and write Spanish are explained in English and illustrated by examples in both Spanish and English. The…

Spinelli, Emily

212

A SPARSE REPRESENTATION-BASED CLASSIFIER FOR IN-SET BIRD PHRASE VERIFICATION AND CLASSIFICATION WITH LIMITED TRAINING DATA  

E-print Network

A SPARSE REPRESENTATION-BASED CLASSIFIER FOR IN-SET BIRD PHRASE VERIFICATION AND CLASSIFICATION-set bird phrase verification and classification is studied. The database contains phrases segmented from, for in-set bird phrase verification using a limited number of training tokens (3 - 7) per phrase class

Alwan, Abeer

213

Asymptotic distribution of motifs in a stochastic context-free grammar model of RNA folding.  

PubMed

We analyze the distribution of RNA secondary structures given by the Knudsen-Hein stochastic context-free grammar used in the prediction program Pfold. Our main theorem gives relations between the expected number of these motifs--independent of the grammar probabilities. These relations are a consequence of proving that the distribution of base pairs, of helices, and of different types of loops is asymptotically Gaussian in this model of RNA folding. Proof techniques use singularity analysis of probability generating functions. We also demonstrate that these asymptotic results capture well the expected number of RNA base pairs in native ribosomal structures, and certain other aspects of their predicted secondary structures. In particular, we find that the predicted structures largely satisfy the expected relations, although the native structures do not. PMID:24384698

Poznanovi?, Svetlana; Heitsch, Christine E

2014-12-01

214

Investigating the Usefulness of Lexical Phrases in Contemporary Coursebooks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Over the past decade, lexical theory, corpus statistics, and psycholinguistic research have pointed to the pedagogical value of lexical phrases. In response, commercial publishers have been quick to import these insights into their materials in a bid to accommodate consumers and to profit from the "lexical chunk" phenomenon. Contemporary British…

Koprowski, Mark

2005-01-01

215

THE PHONETICS AND PHONOLOGY OF INTONATIONAL PHRASING IN ROMANCE*  

E-print Network

THE PHONETICS AND PHONOLOGY OF INTONATIONAL PHRASING IN ROMANCE* SÃ?NIA FROTA1 , MARIAPAOLA D, 5 Universidade do Minho Abstract This paper examines the phonetics and phonology of intonational rise (H) and sustained pitch (!H). A detailed analysis of the phonetics of the H boundary tone, which

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

216

MINING MEDLINE: ABSTRACTS, SENTENCES, OR PHRASES? , D. BERLEANTa,d  

E-print Network

MINING MEDLINE: ABSTRACTS, SENTENCES, OR PHRASES? J. DINGa , D. BERLEANTa,d , D. NETTLETONb , AND E addresses automated mining for biochemical information from digital repositories of scientific literature, and effectiveness for the task of mining interactions among biochemical terms based on term co- occurrence. Results

Wurtele, Eve Syrkin

217

Phonological Phrase Boundaries Constrain Lexical Access II. Infant Data  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The location of phonological phrase boundaries was shown to affect lexical access by English-learning infants of 10 and 13 months of age. Experiments 1 and 2 used the head-turn preference procedure: infants were familiarized with two bisyllabic words, then presented with sentences that either contained the familiarized words or contained both…

Gout, A.; Christophe, A.; Morgan, J. L.

2004-01-01

218

INTRODUCTION 1. The phrase `continuous cover forestry' has featured  

E-print Network

1 INTRODUCTION 1. The phrase `continuous cover forestry' has featured increasingly in discussions about the future management of British forests. For example, The UK forestry standard (Forestry cover forestry system and to build them into the forest design'. `Continuous cover' is defined

219

Recognizing Contextual Polarity in Phrase-Level Sentiment Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a new approach to phrase-level sentiment analysis that first determines whether an expression is neu- tral or polar and then disambiguates the polarity of the polar expressions. With this approach, the system is able to automat- ically identify the contextual polarity for a large subset of sentiment expressions, achieving results that are significantly bet- ter than baseline.

Theresa Wilson; Janyce Wiebe; Paul Hoffmann

2005-01-01

220

Grammar Intervention: Content and Procedures for Facilitating Children's Language Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children with language impairment (LI) show an overall immaturity in grammatical structure. This includes difficulties with basic sentence constituents, pronouns, verb form elaboration, negative and interrogative sentences, noun phrase elaboration, and complex sentences. This article describes explicit instruction and scaffolding strategies, based…

Eisenberg, Sarita L.

2013-01-01

221

Grammar-based Automatic 3D Model Reconstruction from Terrestrial Laser Scanning Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The automatic reconstruction of 3D buildings has been an important research topic during the last years. In this paper, a novel method is proposed to automatically reconstruct the 3D building models from segmented data based on pre-defined formal grammar and rules. Such segmented data can be extracted e.g. from terrestrial or mobile laser scanning devices. Two steps are considered in detail. The first step is to transform the segmented data into 3D shapes, for instance using the DXF (Drawing Exchange Format) format which is a CAD data file format used for data interchange between AutoCAD and other program. Second, we develop a formal grammar to describe the building model structure and integrate the pre-defined grammars into the reconstruction process. Depending on the different segmented data, the selected grammar and rules are applied to drive the reconstruction process in an automatic manner. Compared with other existing approaches, our proposed method allows the model reconstruction directly from 3D shapes and takes the whole building into account.

Yu, Q.; Helmholz, P.; Belton, D.; West, G.

2014-04-01

222

Recent Developments in Transformational Grammar.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the years following the appearance of Noam Chomsky's book, "Syntactic Structures," in 1957, transformational grammarians modified and improved his initial model of language. The notion of a deep structure of meaning underlying a sentence's surface structure was revised to embody elements representing negation, command, and interrogation, and to…

Jacobs, Roderick A.

1969-01-01

223

A cultural, customizable and prefabricated housing grammar for Casablanca  

E-print Network

Proposing an innovative design grammar linking prefabrication, customization and cultural adaptability, this thesis addresses the present day housing deficit and lack of architectural identity in Casablanca, Morocco. The ...

Akkar, Ghita

2011-01-01

224

Finite State Machines from Feature Grammars  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the conversion of a set of feature grammar rules into a deterministicfinite state machine that accepts the same language (or at least a well-defined related language).First the reasoning behind why this is an interesting thing to do within the Edinburgh speechrecogniser project, is discussed. Then details about the compilation algorithm are given. Finally,there is some discussion of

Alan W Black

1989-01-01

225

What artificial grammar learning reveals about the neurobiology of syntax.  

PubMed

In this paper we examine the neurobiological correlates of syntax, the processing of structured sequences, by comparing FMRI results on artificial and natural language syntax. We discuss these and similar findings in the context of formal language and computability theory. We used a simple right-linear unification grammar in an implicit artificial grammar learning paradigm in 32 healthy Dutch university students (natural language FMRI data were already acquired for these participants). We predicted that artificial syntax processing would engage the left inferior frontal region (BA 44/45) and that this activation would overlap with syntax-related variability observed in the natural language experiment. The main findings of this study show that the left inferior frontal region centered on BA 44/45 is active during artificial syntax processing of well-formed (grammatical) sequence independent of local subsequence familiarity. The same region is engaged to a greater extent when a syntactic violation is present and structural unification becomes difficult or impossible. The effects related to artificial syntax in the left inferior frontal region (BA 44/45) were essentially identical when we masked these with activity related to natural syntax in the same subjects. Finally, the medial temporal lobe was deactivated during this operation, consistent with the view that implicit processing does not rely on declarative memory mechanisms that engage the medial temporal lobe. In the context of recent FMRI findings, we raise the question whether Broca's region (or subregions) is specifically related to syntactic movement operations or the processing of hierarchically nested non-adjacent dependencies in the discussion section. We conclude that this is not the case. Instead, we argue that the left inferior frontal region is a generic on-line sequence processor that unifies information from various sources in an incremental and recursive manner, independent of whether there are any processing requirements related to syntactic movement or hierarchically nested structures. In addition, we argue that the Chomsky hierarchy is not directly relevant for neurobiological systems. PMID:20943261

Petersson, Karl-Magnus; Folia, Vasiliki; Hagoort, Peter

2012-02-01

226

On the (Un)-Ambiguity of Adjectival Modification in Spanish Determiner Phrases: Informing Debates on the Mental Representations of L2 Syntax  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study contributes to a central debate within contemporary generative second language (L2) theorizing: the extent to which adult learners are (un)able to acquire new functional features that result in a L2 grammar that is mentally structured like the native target (see White, 2003). The adult acquisition of L2 nominal phi-features is explored,…

Rothman, Jason; Judy, Tiffany; Guijarro-Fuentes, Pedro; Pires, Acrisio

2010-01-01

227

A rule-based Afan Oromo Grammar Checker  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural language processing (NLP) is a subfield of computer science, with strong connections to artificial intelligence. One area of NLP is concerned with creating proofing systems, such as grammar checker. Grammar checker determines the syntactical correctness of a sentence which is mostly used in word processors and compilers. For languages, such as Afan Oromo, advanced tools have been lacking and

Debela Tesfaye

2011-01-01

228

Adaptive Mobile Interfaces Through Grammar Induction North Dakota State University  

E-print Network

Adaptive Mobile Interfaces Through Grammar Induction Jun Kong North Dakota State University jun.kong@ndsu.edu Keven L. Ates Kang Zhang University of Texas at Dallas {atescomp, kzhang}@utdallas.edu Yan Gu North Dakota State University yan.gu@ndsu.edu Abstract This paper presents a grammar-induction based ap- proach

Zhang, Kang

229

A PrT-Net Representation of Graph Grammars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Formal methods to represent graph grammars using PrT-nets are studied. A transformation procedure from a graph production to a PrT-subnet is given. Moreover, a method to generate a PrT-net that accurately simulates a sequential graph grammar is described.

Esa Montonen; Leo Ojala; Timo Tuuliniemi

1987-01-01

230

Universal Grammar Begins to Develop in Early Infanthood  

Microsoft Academic Search

language faculty 4,5 . This genetic identification has been made, typically, on the basis of tracing some specific forms of language impairment across related individuals. Clearly, identification of genes related to the language faculty does not prove the case that the universal grammar is genetically determined. In this article, using several arguments, we make the case that the universal grammar

Naresh Jotwani

231

Maurice Gross' grammar lexicon and Natural Language Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maurice Gross' grammar lexicon contains an extremly rich and exhaustive information about the morphosyntactic and semantic proper- ties of French syntactic functors (verbs, adjectives, nouns). Yet its use within natural language processing systems is still restricted. In this paper, we first argue that the information contained in the grammar lexicon is potentially useful for Natural Language Processing (NLP). We then

Claire Gardent; Bruno Guillaume; Guy Perrier; Ingrid Falk

232

PARSING GERMAN TOPOLOGICAL FIELDS WITH PROBABILISTIC CONTEXT-FREE GRAMMARS  

E-print Network

-of-the-art parsing results on two German newspaper corpora without any language- or model-dependent adaptation. WePARSING GERMAN TOPOLOGICAL FIELDS WITH PROBABILISTIC CONTEXT-FREE GRAMMARS by Jackie Chi Kit Cheung German Topological Fields with Probabilistic Context-Free Grammars Jackie Chi Kit Cheung M. Sc. Graduate

Toronto, University of

233

Investigating Effects of Computer-Based Grammar Tutorials  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This dissertation study examined a broad question of whether computer-based grammar tutorials are effective and welcome tools to review grammar for language learners by investigating effects of three different modes of such tutorials on learners' knowledge and satisfaction. For this study, I developed experimental tutorials in three different…

Kolesnikova, Anna

2011-01-01

234

The Effect of Grammar Teaching on Writing Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports on the results of two international systematic research reviews which focus on different aspects of teaching grammar to improve the quality and accuracy of 5-16-year-olds' writing in English. The results show that there is little evidence to indicate that the teaching of formal grammar is effective; and that teaching…

Andrews, Richard; Torgerson, Carole; Beverton, Sue; Freeman, Allison; Locke, Terry; Low, Graham; Robinson, Alison; Zhu, Die

2006-01-01

235

Grammar Is Back, but When Will We Start Cooking?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggests that the current "return" to grammar will fail unless educators can come to terms with definitions of fundamental grammatical concepts. Considers how educators cannot go back to teaching the traditional, because the traditional no longer exists. Argues that pedagogical grammar currently has too many cooks, all trying to prepare the same…

Vavra, Ed

2003-01-01

236

On the Equivalence of Formal Grammars and Machines.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores concepts of formal language and automata theory underlying computational linguistics. A computational formalism is described known as a "logic grammar," with which computational systems process linguistic data, with examples in declarative and procedural semantics and definite clause grammars. (13 references) (CB)

Lund, Bruce

1991-01-01

237

Reverse-engineering EBNF Grammars into MOF Metamodels  

E-print Network

system, which accepts queries written in nRQL, a query language specially designed for Description Logic a prototype for transforming an EBNF grammar (e.g. that of nRQL) to an object-oriented metamodel, so that later parsing a document conforming to that grammar (in the example, a document containing nRQL queries

238

A Discourse-Oriented Grammar of Eastern Bontoc.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study presents a grammar of Eastern Bontoc, an Austronesian language of the northern Philippines that includes five village dialects and has about 8,000 speakers. Data are from transcribed recordings of primarily one dialect, gathered in 1977-80. The discourse-oriented grammar is outlined in six chapters: an introduction to the language, its…

Fukuda, Takashi

1997-01-01

239

Grammar for College Writing: A Sentence-Composing Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Across America, in thousands of classrooms, from elementary school to high school, the time-tested sentence-composing approach has given students tools to become better writers. Now the authors present a much anticipated sentence-composing grammar worktext for college writing. This book presents a new and easier way to understand grammar: (1) Noun…

Killgallon, Don; Killgallon, Jenny

2010-01-01

240

An Interaction Grammar of interrogative and relative clauses in French  

E-print Network

An Interaction Grammar of interrogative and relative clauses in French Guy Perrier LORIA syn- tactic analysis of natural languages. From a scientific point of view, formalization can be very of these formal grammars. Regarding this challenge, relative and interrogative clauses in French are a good test

Perrier, Guy

241

The Effectiveness of Incidental Teaching of Grammar to Iranian Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports the results of a study and a pilot study. The "study" considers the effectiveness of incidental teaching of grammar in a learning class of English As A Second Language by Persian speaking students. The "pilot study" examines the students' attitudes toward the incidental learning of grammar from the perspective of field…

Ghabanchi, Z.

2010-01-01

242

Understanding the Role of Grammar in Proficiency-Oriented Instruction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The role of grammar instruction in proficiency-oriented second language instruction (POI) is examined, drawing on research and theory on second language use and instruction. Several premises are stated: (1) formal grammar has an important role in POI, while focus on form and communicative practice should be maintained; (2) in POI, a syllabus that…

Ruiz-Funes, Marcela

243

GENETIC TRANSPOSITION IN TREE-ADJOINING GRAMMAR GUIDED GENETIC PROGRAMMING  

E-print Network

GENETIC TRANSPOSITION IN TREE-ADJOINING GRAMMAR GUIDED GENETIC PROGRAMMING: THE DUPLICATION as mutation operators and as generic local search operators, in combination with genetic search, in a tree adjoining grammar guided genetic programming system (TAG3P). The results show that, on the problems tried

McKay, Robert Ian

244

Self-Reconfiguration Using Graph Grammars for Modular Robotics  

E-print Network

Self-Reconfiguration Using Graph Grammars for Modular Robotics Daniel Pickem Magnus Egerstedt: In this paper, we apply graph grammars to self-reconfigurable modular robots and present a method to reconfigure. INTRODUCTION Modular robotics is the assembly of simple individual modules into a larger, functional robot

Egerstedt, Magnus

245

Interface Problems: Structural Constraints on Interpretation?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Five experiments investigated the interpretation of quantified noun phrases in relation to discourse structure. They demonstrated, using questionnaire and on-line reading techniques, that readers in English prefer to give a quantified noun phrase in (VP-external) subject position a presuppositional interpretation, in which the noun phrase limits…

Frazier, Lyn; Clifton, Charles; Rayner, Keith; Deevy, Patricia; Koh, Sungryong; Bader, Markus

2005-01-01

246

Dynamic Systems Theory and Universal Grammar: Holding up a Turbulent Mirror to Development in Grammars  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research over the last decades has shown that language development in its multiple forms is characterized by a succession of stable and unstable states. However, the variation observed is neither expected nor can it be accounted for on the basis of traditional learning concepts conceived of within the Universal Grammar (UG) paradigm. In this…

Plaza-Pust, Carolina

2008-01-01

247

The Multiple Grammars Theory and the Nature of L2 Grammars  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article offers the author's commentary on the Multiple Grammar (MG) language acquisition theory proposed by Luiz Amaral and Tom Roeper in the present issue and touches on other second language acquisition research. Topics discussed include the concept of second language (L2) optionality, a hypothesis regarding the acquisition of the…

Liceras, Juana M.

2014-01-01

248

The Sentence-Composition Effect: Processing of Complex Sentences Depends on the Configuration of Common Noun Phrases versus Unusual Noun Phrases  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 2 experiments, the authors used an eye tracking while reading methodology to examine how different configurations of common noun phrases versus unusual noun phrases (NPs) influenced the difference in processing difficulty between sentences containing object- and subject-extracted relative clauses. Results showed that processing difficulty was…

Johnson, Marcus L.; Lowder, Matthew W.; Gordon, Peter C.

2011-01-01

249

Making Grammar Instruction More Empowering: An Exploratory Case Study of Corpus Use in the Learning/Teaching of Grammar  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite a long debate and the accompanying call for changes in the past few decades, grammar instruction in college English classes, according to some scholars, has remained largely "disempowering,""decontextualized," and "remedial" (Micciche, 2004, p. 718). To search for more effective and empowering grammar teaching, this study explores the use…

Liu, Dilin

2011-01-01

250

Auditory Artificial Grammar Learning in Macaque and Marmoset Monkeys  

PubMed Central

Artificial grammars (AG) are designed to emulate aspects of the structure of language, and AG learning (AGL) paradigms can be used to study the extent of nonhuman animals' structure-learning capabilities. However, different AG structures have been used with nonhuman animals and are difficult to compare across studies and species. We developed a simple quantitative parameter space, which we used to summarize previous nonhuman animal AGL results. This was used to highlight an under-studied AG with a forward-branching structure, designed to model certain aspects of the nondeterministic nature of word transitions in natural language and animal song. We tested whether two monkey species could learn aspects of this auditory AG. After habituating the monkeys to the AG, analysis of video recordings showed that common marmosets (New World monkeys) differentiated between well formed, correct testing sequences and those violating the AG structure based primarily on simple learning strategies. By comparison, Rhesus macaques (Old World monkeys) showed evidence for deeper levels of AGL. A novel eye-tracking approach confirmed this result in the macaques and demonstrated evidence for more complex AGL. This study provides evidence for a previously unknown level of AGL complexity in Old World monkeys that seems less evident in New World monkeys, which are more distant evolutionary relatives to humans. The findings allow for the development of both marmosets and macaques as neurobiological model systems to study different aspects of AGL at the neuronal level. PMID:24285889

Wilson, Benjamin; Slater, Heather; Kikuchi, Yukiko; Milne, Alice E.; Marslen-Wilson, William D.; Smith, Kenny

2013-01-01

251

The Effects of Phrase-Length Order and Scrambling in the Processing of Visually Presented Japanese Sentences  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study investigated the effects of phrase length and scrambling in the processing of Japanese sentences. Reading times of short phrases, long phrases, verbs, and whole sentences, meas- ured by the method of self-paced reading, did not differ in terms of phrase-length order and scram- bling. In addition, four types of sentences constructed on the basis of phrase-length order

Katsuo Tamaoka; Hiromu Sakai; Jun-ichiro Kawahara; Yayoi Miyaoka

2003-01-01

252

The Effects of Phrase-Length Order and Scrambling in the Processing of Visually Presented Japanese Sentences  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study investigated the effects of phrase length and scrambling in the processing of Japanese sentences. Reading times of short phrases, long phrases, verbs, and whole sentences, measured by the method of self-paced reading, did not differ in terms of phrase-length order and scrambling. In addition, four types of sentences constructed on the basis of phrase-length order and scrambling

Katsuo Tamaoka; Hiromu Sakai; Jun-ichiro Kawahara; Yayoi Miyaoka

2003-01-01

253

Grammar, Punctuation, and Capitalization: a Handbook for Technical Writers and Editors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Writing problems are addressed which are often encountered in technical documents and preferences are indicated (Langley's) when authorities do not agree. It is directed toward professional writers, editors, and proofreaders. Those whose profession lies in other areas (for example, research or management), but who have occasion to write or review others' writing will also find this information useful. A functional attitude toward grammar and punctuation is presented. Chapter 1 on grammar presents grammatical problems related to each part of speech. Chapter 2 on sentence structure concerns syntax, that is, effective arrangement of words, with emphasis on methods of revision to improve writing effectiveness. Chapter 3 addresses punctuation marks, presenting their function, situations when they are required or incorrect, and situations when they are appropriate but optional. Chapter 4 presents capitalization, which is mostly a matter of editorial style and preference rather than a matter of generally accepted rules. An index and glossary are included.

Mccaskill, Mary K.

1990-01-01

254

Sensory grammars for sensor networks  

PubMed Central

One of the major goals of Ambient Intelligence and Smart Environments is to interpret human activity sensed by a variety of sensors. In order to develop useful technologies and a subsequent industry around smart environments, we need to proceed in a principled manner. This paper suggests that human activity can be expressed in a language. This is a special language with its own phonemes, its own morphemes (words) and its own syntax and it can be learned using machine learning techniques applied to gargantuan amounts of data collected by sensor networks. Developing such languages will create bridges between Ambient Intelligence and other disciplines. It will also provide a hierarchical structure that can lead to a successful industry. PMID:21897837

Aloimonos, Yiannis

2009-01-01

255

Processing reflexives and pronouns in picture noun phrase.  

PubMed

Binding theory (e.g., Chomsky, 1981) has played a central role in both syntactic theory and models of language processing. Its constraints are designed to predict that the referential domains of pronouns and reflexives are nonoverlapping, that is, are complementary; these constraints are also thought to play a role in online reference resolution. The predictions of binding theory and its role in sentence processing were tested in four experiments that monitored participants' eye movements as they followed spoken instructions to have a doll touch a picture belonging to another doll. The instructions used pronouns and reflexives embedded in picture noun phrases (PNPs) containing possessor phrases (e.g., Pick up Ken. Have Ken touch Harry's picture of himself). Although the interpretations assigned to pronouns were generally consistent with binding theory, reflexives were frequently assigned interpretations that violated binding theory. In addition, the timing and pattern of eye movements were inconsistent with models of language processing that assume that binding theory acts as an early filter to restrict the referential domain. The interpretations assigned to reflexives in PNPs with possessors suggest that they are binding-theory-exempt logophors, a conclusion that unifies the treatment of reflexives in PNPs. PMID:21702814

Runner, Jeffrey T; Sussman, Rachel S; Tanenhaus, Michael K

2006-03-01

256

Corpus based learning of stochastic context-free grammar combined with hidden Markov models for tRNA modelling.  

PubMed

tRNA molecule has a well-known second structure in which it folds by pairing of far-off nucleotides. This paper shows a syntactic pattern recognition methodology for model tRNA second structure using stochastic context-free grammars. In order to learn models, structural regions (paired nucleotides) have been learned from categorized samples with full labelled tree with a Corpus based estimation algorithm. Nonstructural regions have been modelled by hidden Markov models and transformed to stochastic regular grammars to fusion together the structural regions. Test with positive samples and negative samples in comparison with Sakakibara achieved 1.81% in sequences error rate, 98.43% in precision and 100% in recall and 100% of SER in negative test. Corpus based algorithm is computational time efficient and required less training samples for converge to the correct model of the tRNA second structure. PMID:17270855

Garcia-Gomez, Juan Miguel; Benedi, Jose Miguel

2004-01-01

257

Normal ordering problem and the extensions of the Stirling grammar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the connection between context-free grammars and normal ordered problem, and then to explore various extensions of the Stirling grammar. We present grammatical characterizations of several well known combinatorial sequences, including the generalized Stirling numbers of the second kind related to the normal ordered problem and the r-Dowling polynomials. Also, possible avenues for future research are described.

Ma, S.-M.; Mansour, T.; Schork, M.

2014-04-01

258

Artificial grammar learning meets formal language theory: an overview  

PubMed Central

Formal language theory (FLT), part of the broader mathematical theory of computation, provides a systematic terminology and set of conventions for describing rules and the structures they generate, along with a rich body of discoveries and theorems concerning generative rule systems. Despite its name, FLT is not limited to human language, but is equally applicable to computer programs, music, visual patterns, animal vocalizations, RNA structure and even dance. In the last decade, this theory has been profitably used to frame hypotheses and to design brain imaging and animal-learning experiments, mostly using the ‘artificial grammar-learning’ paradigm. We offer a brief, non-technical introduction to FLT and then a more detailed analysis of empirical research based on this theory. We suggest that progress has been hampered by a pervasive conflation of distinct issues, including hierarchy, dependency, complexity and recursion. We offer clarifications of several relevant hypotheses and the experimental designs necessary to test them. We finally review the recent brain imaging literature, using formal languages, identifying areas of convergence and outstanding debates. We conclude that FLT has much to offer scientists who are interested in rigorous empirical investigations of human cognition from a neuroscientific and comparative perspective. PMID:22688631

Fitch, W. Tecumseh; Friederici, Angela D.

2012-01-01

259

Visual Phrase Learning and its Application in Computed Tomographic Colonography  

PubMed Central

In this work, we propose a visual phrase learning scheme to learn an optimal visual composite of anatomical components/parts from CT colonography images for computer-aided detection. The key idea is to utilize the anatomical parts of human body from medical images and associate them with biological targets of interest (organs, cancers, lesions, etc.) for joint detection and recognition. These anatomical parts of the human body are not necessarily near each other regarding their physical locations, and they serve more like a human body navigation system for detection and recognition. To show the effectiveness of the proposed learning scheme, we applied it to two subproblems in computed tomographic colonography: teniae detection and classification of colorectal polyp candidates. Experimental results showed its efficacy. PMID:24505672

Wang, Shijun; McKenna, Matthew; Wei, Zhuoshi; Liu, Jiamin; Liu, Peter; Summers, Ronald M.

2015-01-01

260

Effects of Musical Expertise and Boundary Markers on Phrase Perception in Music  

Microsoft Academic Search

A neural correlate for phrase boundary perception in music has recently been identified in musicians. It is called music closure positive shift (''music CPS'') and has an equivalent in the perception of speech (''language CPS''). The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of musical expertise and different phrase boundary markers on the music CPS, using event-related

Christiane Neuhaus; Thomas R. Knösche; Angela D. Friederici

2006-01-01

261

The Gender-Brand Effect of Key Phrases on User Clicks in Sponsored  

E-print Network

The Gender-Brand Effect of Key Phrases on User Clicks in Sponsored Search Abstract In this research-phrases, and (3) the occurrence of branded terms in those queries. The aim of this research is increased personalization of search engine results for branded queries targeting a specific gender. This will improve

Jansen, James

262

Planning in Sentence Production: Evidence for the Phrase as a Default Planning Scope  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Controversy remains as to the scope of advanced planning in language production. Smith and Wheeldon (1999) found significantly longer onset latencies when subjects described moving-picture displays by producing sentences beginning with a complex noun phrase than for matched sentences beginning with a simple noun phrase. While these findings are…

Martin, Randi C.; Crowther, Jason E.; Knight, Meredith; Tamborello, Franklin P., II; Yang, Chin-Lung

2010-01-01

263

The On-Line Processing of Verb-Phrase Ellipsis in Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We investigate the on-line processing of verb-phrase ellipsis (VPE) constructions in two brain injured populations: Broca's and Anomic aphasics. VPE constructions are built from two simple clauses; the first is the antecedent clause and the second is the ellipsis clause. The ellipsis clause is missing its verb and object (i.e., its verb phrase…

Poirier, Josee; Shapiro, Lewis P.; Love, Tracy; Grodzinsky, Yosef

2009-01-01

264

A Bidirectional Study on the Acquisition of Plural Noun Phrase Interpretation in English and Spanish  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper investigates how learners interpret definite plural noun phrases (e.g., "the tigers") and bare (article-less) plural noun phrases (e.g., "tigers") in their second language. Whereas Spanish allows definite plurals to have both generic and specific readings, English requires definite plurals to have specific, nongeneric readings. Generic…

Ionin, Tania; Montrul, Silvina; Crivos, Monica

2013-01-01

265

45 CFR 2554.6 - What does the phrase “know or have reason to know” mean?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false What does the phrase âknow or have reason to knowâ mean? 2554.6 Section 2554...6 What does the phrase “know or have reason to know” mean? A person knows or has reason to know (that a claim or statement is...

2011-10-01

266

13 CFR 142.6 - What does the phrase “know or have reason to know” mean?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false What does the phrase âknow or have reason to knowâ mean? 142.6 Section 142...6 What does the phrase “know or have reason to know” mean? A person knows or has reason to know (that a claim or statement is...

2011-01-01

267

13 CFR 142.6 - What does the phrase “know or have reason to know” mean?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false What does the phrase âknow or have reason to knowâ mean? 142.6 Section 142...6 What does the phrase “know or have reason to know” mean? A person knows or has reason to know (that a claim or statement is...

2012-01-01

268

13 CFR 142.6 - What does the phrase “know or have reason to know” mean?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false What does the phrase âknow or have reason to knowâ mean? 142.6 Section 142...6 What does the phrase “know or have reason to know” mean? A person knows or has reason to know (that a claim or statement is...

2013-01-01

269

45 CFR 2554.6 - What does the phrase “know or have reason to know” mean?  

...false What does the phrase âknow or have reason to knowâ mean? 2554.6 Section 2554...6 What does the phrase “know or have reason to know” mean? A person knows or has reason to know (that a claim or statement is...

2014-10-01

270

45 CFR 2554.6 - What does the phrase “know or have reason to know” mean?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false What does the phrase âknow or have reason to knowâ mean? 2554.6 Section 2554...6 What does the phrase “know or have reason to know” mean? A person knows or has reason to know (that a claim or statement is...

2013-10-01

271

45 CFR 2554.6 - What does the phrase “know or have reason to know” mean?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false What does the phrase âknow or have reason to knowâ mean? 2554.6 Section 2554...6 What does the phrase “know or have reason to know” mean? A person knows or has reason to know (that a claim or statement is...

2012-10-01

272

13 CFR 142.6 - What does the phrase “know or have reason to know” mean?  

...false What does the phrase âknow or have reason to knowâ mean? 142.6 Section 142...6 What does the phrase “know or have reason to know” mean? A person knows or has reason to know (that a claim or statement is...

2014-01-01

273

Blue Car, Red Car: Developing Efficiency in Online Interpretation of Adjective-Noun Phrases  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two experiments investigated the development of fluency in interpreting adjective-noun phrases in 30- and 36-month-old English-learning children. Using online processing measures, children's gaze patterns were monitored as they heard the familiar adjective-noun phrases (e.g. "blue car") in visual contexts where the adjective was either informative…

Fernald, Anne; Thorpe, Kirsten; Marchman, Virginia A.

2010-01-01

274

Statistical Analysis of Alignment Characteristics for Phrase-based Machine Translation  

E-print Network

Statistical Analysis of Alignment Characteristics for Phrase-based Machine Translation Patrik In most statistical machine translation (SMT) systems, bilingual segments are ex- tracted via word Introduction Most statistical machine translation (SMT) sys- tems (e.g. phrase-based, n-gram-based) build

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

275

77 FR 6138 - Draft Policy on Interpretation of the Phrase “Significant Portion of Its Range” in the Endangered...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...interpreting the phrase ``significant portion of its range...interpretation and application of ``significant portion of its range...minimizes undesirable policy outcomes, while fulfilling the conservation...interpretation of the phrase ``significant portion of its...

2012-02-07

276

Using the Web to Practice and Learn Grammar: ESL Student Perspectives  

E-print Network

The purpose of this study was to describe and explain the perspectives of ESL college students on using the Internet resources found in the Web site NetGrammar for grammar practice. In order to understand the ...

Pacheco, Allen Quesada

2000-03-29

277

THE EFFECTIVENESS OF SOCIAL MEDIA ACTIVITIES ON TAIWANESE UNDERGRADUATES' EFL GRAMMAR ACHIEVEMENT  

E-print Network

. Paul Markham, Chairperson _________________________________ Dr. Ronald Aust _________________________________ Dr. William Skorupski... GRAMMAR ACHIEVEMENT Committee: _________________________________ Dr. Paul Markham, Chairperson _________________________________ Dr. Ronald Aust...

Singman, Cooper

2012-12-31

278

Finite state grammars for dialects of the advertising song of the savannah sparrow (Passerculus Sandwichensis ).  

PubMed

Right-linear finite state grammars were extracted for song sequences of Savannah Sparrows (Passerculus sandwichensis) from Ontario and Nova Scotia. The Nova Scotia grammar was found to be longer than the Ontario grammar (possess more rewrite statements) and allow for the production of sequences containing consecutive trills. These differences are discussed with respect to genetic and environmental factors shaping song behaviour in the two regions. Limitations of a nonstochastic finite state grammar procedure are also addressed. PMID:24923612

Chew, L

1983-03-01

279

An approach to the teaching of Korean particles based on case grammar  

E-print Network

-15. This rationalist philosophy of language merged with various other independent developments in the 17th century, leading to the first really significant theory of linguistic structure such as "philosophical" or "universaln grammar. 8 Noam Chomsky, "Review... L~ ~Elish ~se'L~~(AnnAb EU'. fk'h'HPe 1945) p. 9. Ibid. , pe 14 ' Ronald Wardhaugh, "The Contrastive Analysis HYU *he ', " PEECI ~at 1, I 1. 0, Ro. s (19707. 4, Noam Chomsky, La~n ~a e and Mind ( New York: Harcourt, Brace, and World, Inc. , 1...

Kang, Joo Ok

2012-06-07

280

Concurrent grammar inference machines for 2-D pattern recognition: a comparison with the level set approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Parallel processing promises scalable and effective computing power which can handle the complex data structures of knowledge representation languages efficiently. Past and present sequential architectures, despite the rapid advances in computing technology, have yet to provide such processing power and to offer a holistic solution to the problem. This paper presents a fresh attempt in formulating alternative techniques for grammar learning, based upon the parallel and distributed model of connectionism, to facilitate the more cognitively demanding task of pattern understanding. The proposed method has been compared with the contemporary approach of shape modelling based on level sets, and demonstrated its potential as a prototype for constructing robust networks on high performance parallel platforms.

Lam, K. P.; Fletcher, P.

2009-02-01

281

Language Practice with Multimedia Supported Web-Based Grammar Revision Material  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study was to investigate the perceptions of elementary-level English language learners towards web-based, multimedia-annotated grammar learning. WEBGRAM, a system designed to provide supplementary web-based grammar revision material, uses audio-visual aids to enrich the contextual presentation of grammar and allows learners to…

Baturay, Meltem Huri; Daloglu, Aysegul; Yildirim, Soner

2010-01-01

282

The Role of Grammar in the Writing Curriculum: A Review of the Literature  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For most Anglophone countries, the history of grammar teaching over the past 50 years is one of contestation, debate and dissent: and 50 years on we are no closer to reaching a consensus about the role of grammar in the English/Language Arts curriculum. The debate has been described through the metaphor of battle and grammar wars (Kamler, 1995;…

Myhill, Debra; Watson, Annabel

2014-01-01

283

The Association between Expressive Grammar Intervention and Social and Emergent Literacy Outcomes for Preschoolers with SLI  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To determine whether (a) expressive grammar intervention facilitated social and emergent literacy outcomes better than no intervention and (b) expressive grammar gains and/or initial expressive grammar level predicted social and emergent literacy outcomes. Method: This investigation was a follow-up to a recently published study exploring…

Washington, Karla N.

2013-01-01

284

Evaluating and Extending the Coverage of HPSG Grammars: A Case Study for German  

E-print Network

Evaluating and Extending the Coverage of HPSG Grammars: A Case Study for German Jeremy Nicholson In this work, we examine and attempt to extend the coverage of a German HPSG grammar. We use the grammar to parse a corpus of newspaper text and evaluate the proportion of sentences which have a correct attested

Dridan, Rebecca

285

Teacher to Teacher: What Is Your Most Compelling Reason for Teaching Grammar?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents compelling reasons from teachers why they teach grammar. Amy Benjamin from Hendrick Hudson High School says, she teaches grammar for two reasons. The first is that grammar instruction gives students metalanguage, "language about language." The second reason is that students are interested in language--its changes and…

English Journal, 2006

2006-01-01

286

A Note on Hack's Conjecture, Parikh Images of Matrix Languages and Multiset Grammars  

E-print Network

A Note on Hack's Conjecture, Parikh Images of Matrix Languages and Multiset Grammars Georg Zetzsche It is shown that Hack's Conjecture on Petri nets implies that for every language generated by a matrix grammar by arbitrary and monotone multiset grammars coincide. Zusammenfassung Es wird gezeigt, dass die Hack

Hamburg.Universit�¤t

287

Can Prosody Be Used to Discover Hierarchical Structure in Continuous Speech?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We tested whether adult listeners can simultaneously keep track of variations in pitch and syllable duration in order to segment continuous speech into phrases and group these phrases into sentences. The speech stream was constructed so that prosodic cues signaled hierarchical structures (i.e., phrases embedded within sentences) and non-adjacent…

Langus, Alan; Marchetto, Erika; Bion, Ricardo Augusto Hoffmann; Nespor, Marina

2012-01-01

288

Proceedings of a Conference--"The Future of Grammar in American Schools" (Winchester, VA, August 10-11, 1990).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Providing alternatives to the way grammar is taught, this proceedings includes every paper (or summary) except one delivered at a conference on the future of grammar in American schools. Papers in the proceedings are: "Keynote: The Future of Grammar in American Schools" (Martha Kolln); "Approaches to Grammar: Teaching & Otherwise" (Kathy…

National Council of Teachers of English, Urbana, IL. Assembly for the Teaching of English Grammar.

289

Visualization feedback for musical ensemble practice: A case study on phrase articulation and dynamics  

E-print Network

Visualization feedback for musical ensemble practice: A case study on phrase articulation advantages of visualization in supporting musical interpretation. Specifically, we in- vestigate the use of visualizations in making a subjective judgement of a student's performance compared to reference "expert

Cooperstock, Jeremy R.

290

Assigning intonation elements and prosodic phrasing for English speech synthesis from high level linguistic input   

E-print Network

This paper describes a method for generating intonation events and prosodic phrasing from a high level linguistic description. Specifically, the input consists of information normally available from linguistic processing: ...

Black, Alan W; Taylor, Paul A

291

Towards Future Technology Projection: A Method for Extracting Capability Phrases from Documents  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with novel approaches for discovering phrases expressing technical capabilities in technical literature (such\\u000a as patents), intended to support strategic consultants introducing new technologies and their capabilities to their clients.\\u000a An extracted capability phrase is scored based on its expected business impact, which can also be considered as unexpectedness\\u000a of the capability in a specified technology field. The

Risa Nishiyama; Hironori Takeuchi; Hideo Watanabe

2007-01-01

292

Morphological Variability in Interlanguage Grammars: New Evidence from the Acquisition of Gender and Number in Italian Determiner Phrases and Direct Object Pronouns  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper, I investigate the phenomenon of morphological variability in the production of Italian determiners, descriptive adjectives, and direct object pronouns by adult English learners of Italian to determine whether morphological errors are the result of computational or representational difficulties. Second language acquisitionists do…

Santoro, Maurizio

2012-01-01

293

Aspects of a Grammar of Makary Kotoko (Chadic, Cameroon)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Makary Kotoko (MK), a Central Chadic B language, is spoken in the north of Cameroon just south of Lake Chad. Published works on MK to date include about a dozen articles on different aspects of the grammar of the language, primarily by H. Tourneux. The present work, which is based on a substantial corpus of recorded texts, is a systematic…

Allison, Sean David

2012-01-01

294

The Role of Core Grammar in Pidgin Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the process of pidgin development within the context of the Government and Binding Theory proposed by Chomsky in 1981. Hypothesizes that the contact of various languages may produce a new experience which subsequently fixes the parameters of Universal Grammar, providing a pidgin core gammar. (SED)

Macedo, Donaldo P.

1986-01-01

295

Normal and Scrambled Grammar in Discrimination, Imitation, and Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the relationship between syntax discrimination and other language skills with 50 children each in kindergarten, first grade and second grade. Also, the children were asked to imitate and show comprehension of normal and scrambled grammar sentences. (Author/JH)

Bohannon, John Neil, III

1976-01-01

296

Language Dictionaries and Grammars of Guam and Micronesia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study of language reference materials, particularly dictionaries and grammar works, for languages of Guam and Micronesia includes a brief history of their evolution and an annotated bibliography. An introductory section describes the geographic situation of Micronesia and chronicles numerous periods of foreign influence: Spanish Colonization…

Goetzfridt, Nicholas J.; Goniwiecha, Mark C.

297

Attribute Grammars for Scalable Query Processing on XML Streams  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce the new notion of XML Stream Attribute Grammars (XSAGs). XSAGs are the rst scalable query language for XML streams (running strictly in linear time with bounded memory consumption independent of the size of the stream) that allows for actual data transformations rather than just docu- ment ltering. XSAGs are also relatively easy to use for humans. Moreover, the

Christoph Koch; Stefanie Scherzinger

2003-01-01

298

What Does Frequency Have To Do with Grammar Teaching?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using frequency findings from corpus linguistics, explores the relationship between the information presented in English-as-a-Second/Foreign-Language (ESL/EFL) materials and what is known about actual language use based on empirical studies. Three aspects of materials development for grammar instruction are discussed. (Author/VWL)

Biber, Douglas; Reppen, Randi

2002-01-01

299

Tanzanian Swahili: Grammar Handbook. Peace Corps Language Handbook Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This grammar handbook analyzes the rules of Tanzanian Swahili and provides different types of exercises on them. It is divided into 36 lessons and is illustrated with pen-and-ink drawings. A bibliography, index, and Swahili-English glossary complete the volume. (AMH)

Hawkinson, Annie K.

300

Sentence Planning as Description Using Tree Adjoining Grammar Matthew Stone  

E-print Network

and pragmatics of words and constructions, so that we can build the syntax and semantics of sentences the realization of sentences as parallel to the construction of referring expressions, and thereby bring to bearSentence Planning as Description Using Tree Adjoining Grammar Matthew Stone Department of Computer

Stone, Matthew

301

Transfer in Artificial Grammar Learning: The Role of Repetition Information  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the authors report 2 experiments that investigated the sources of information used in transfer and nontransfer tasks in artificial grammar learning. Multiple regression analyses indicated that 2 types of information about repeating elements were crucial for performance in both tasks: information about the repetition of adjacent…

Lotz, Anja; Kinder, Annette

2006-01-01

302

A Reference Grammar of Japanese. Yale Linguistic Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This reference grammar of Japanese is divided into thirty-one major sections: (1) notational conventions, including spelling, punctuation, accent, and juncture; (2) sentence construction: nuclear sentences and expanded sentences; (3) predicate adjuncts; (4) expansion constraints and noun subcategorization; (5) voice conversions; (6) nuclear focus…

Martin, Samuel E.

303

Development and Analysis of Television Grammar: An Overall View.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research has shown that producers and consumers of television programs are still uncertain about the nature of the "grammar" or "lexicon" that makes up the language of television. Although attempts have been made in experimental television ("video art"), systematic studies on the idiosyncratic nature, unique features, and specific components of…

Metallinos, Nikos

304

Shifting Perspectives about Grammar: Changing What and How We Teach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Today, when the author reads articles or hears discussions about teaching grammar, she finds interesting dichotomies in perspectives. Some people see language issues as right or wrong: That's it. No flexibility. This perspective is evident when people look at issues of language in stark contrasts instead of in relation to context. Another…

Dean, Deborah

2011-01-01

305

The Story of English Grammar in United States Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article assumes the value of a scientifically grounded, rhetorically focused, professionally supported, and publicly embraced grammar within the public schools and examines the past century of practices within the United States from that perspective. It describes a brief renaissance in the 50's and early 60's, inspired largely by the…

Kolln, Martha; Hancock, Craig

2005-01-01

306

Noam Chomsky Writes to Mrs. Davis about Grammar and Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a personal letter, Chomsky suggests that while the study of grammar has little detectable effect on writing ability, it can, as a branch of science, help students learn how (and why) to think about hard and intriguing questions and to develop natural curiosity. (HOD)

English Education, 1984

1984-01-01

307

The evaluation metric in generative grammar John Goldsmith  

E-print Network

and colleagues that we have known here: my own teachers, Noam Chomsky and Morris Halle and Haj Ross and Paul concept in the development of generative grammar by Noam Chomsky. And yet it is at the same time one with the notion of explanatory adequacy. I am going to sketch an idealized picture of what I take it that Noam

Goldsmith, John A.

308

Automatic Extraction of Japanese Grammar from a Bracketed Corpus  

E-print Network

.2 Extracting CFG rules Each node other than any leaf in a skeletal tree can be transformed into a production a CFG by using a large corpus. The advantage of this approach includes: less human labor, broad coverage features into the grammar. This may help to choose a correct parse tree. Lari and Young (Lari and Young

Shirai, Kiyoaki

309

Teachers' Grammar on the Electronic Highway: Design Criteria for "Telegram."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the rationale and criteria for developing "Telegram," an electronic grammar database for English-as-a- Second-Language teachers in Hong Kong. Describes the importance of explicit grammatical knowledge in effective language teaching, and describes the design criteria for "Telegram," which aims to provide a body of content knowledge and…

Wu, Kamyin; Tsui, Amy B. M.

1997-01-01

310

LEARNING JAZZ GRAMMARS Jon Gillick Kevin Tang Robert M. Keller  

E-print Network

LEARNING JAZZ GRAMMARS Jon Gillick Kevin Tang Robert M. Keller Wesleyan University jrgillick in educational software tools that can generate novel jazz solos in a style representative of a body of performed for contours of typical jazz solos, which we call "slopes", then show how these slopes may be incorporated

Chen, Tsuhan

311

Ewe (for Togo): Grammar Handbook. Peace Corps Language Handbook Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This handbook is composed of: (1) 20 grammar lessons; (2) an introduction to the handbook and to the Ewe language; (3) an appendix presenting the most important differences between Ewe and Mina, the lingua franca in the capital and in markets, offices, and work-sites throughout Togo; (4) answers to written summary exercises; (5) an Ewe-English…

Kozelka, Paul R.

312

THE ACQUISITION OF SPANISH GRAMMAR BY MEXICAN CHILDREN.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

USING THE METHODOLOGY DEVISED BY JEAN BERKO (1958) TO TEST AMERICAN CHILDREN ON THEIR INTERNALIZATION OF ENGLISH GRAMMATICAL RULES, 92 MEXICAN CHILDREN OF CIUDAD GUZMAN, JALISCO, WERE TESTED TO DETERMINE THEIR INTERNALIZATION OF SPANISH GRAMMAR. THE CHILDREN WERE FROM THE LOWER SOCIO-ECONOMIC CLASS, AS WERE THE 18 ADULTS WHO TOOK THE SAME TEST TO…

BLOUNT, B.G.; KERNAN, KEITH T.

313

Treebank Analysis and Search Using an Extracted Tree Grammar  

E-print Network

Treebank Analysis and Search Using an Extracted Tree Grammar Seth Kulick and Ann Bies Linguistic describe here a new approach to the problem of analyzing and comparing two sets of trees that contain during treebank construction and also for evaluating parser output as compared to the gold trees. Our

Plotkin, Joshua B.

314

The German Statistical Grammar Model: Development, Training and Linguistic Exploitation  

E-print Network

for the statistical training process, two sub-corpora from the 200 million token newspaper corpus Huge German CorpusThe German Statistical Grammar Model: Development, Training and Linguistic Exploitation Sabine. The framework is language-independent and has been applied to German, English, Portuguese, and Chinese

Reyle, Uwe

315

A New Method and Curriculum for Teaching Writing and Grammar.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In order to support an argument for the teaching of grammar in a writing class, this report first summarizes the descriptive studies done by Kellogg Hunt in 1965 and 1970, and the comparative studies done by John Mellon and Frank O'Hare in 1969 and 1973. The second part of the report consists of five workshop handouts about the following topics:…

Vavra, Ed

316

Caught'ya Again! More Grammar with a Giggle.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This teaching guide is built around a method (called the "Caught'ya" method) of teaching grammar and mechanics with humor. The guide contains story ideas and three sets of 100 Caught'ya sentences, as well as a chapter which discusses specific ways to use the Caught'ya at home. Following an introduction, the guide is divided into the following nine…

Kiester, Jane Bell

317

MICA: A Probabilistic Dependency Parser Based on Tree Insertion Grammars  

E-print Network

MICA: A Probabilistic Dependency Parser Based on Tree Insertion Grammars Application Note Srinivas.nasr@lif.univ-mrs.fr rambow@ccls.columbia.edu benoit.sagot@inria.fr Abstract MICA is a dependency parser which returns deep This application note presents a freely avail- able parser, MICA (Marseille-INRIA-Columbia- AT&T).1 MICA has

Boyer, Edmond

318

Functional Grammar in the ESL Classroom: Noticing, Exploring and Practicing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A set of easy to use techniques helps students discover for themselves how grammar works in real world contexts and how grammatical choices are not just about form but about meaning. Sample teaching ideas, covering a wide range of grammatical topics including verb tense, voice, reference and the organization of texts, accompanies each procedure.…

Lock, Graham; Jones, Rodney

2011-01-01

319

Linguistic grammar learning and DRD2-TAQ-IA polymorphism.  

PubMed

As research into the neurobiology of language has focused primarily on the systems level, fewer studies have examined the link between molecular genetics and normal variations in language functions. Because the ability to learn a language varies in adults and our genetic codes also vary, research linking the two provides a unique window into the molecular neurobiology of language. We consider a candidate association between the dopamine receptor D2 gene (DRD2) and linguistic grammar learning. DRD2-TAQ-IA polymorphism (rs1800497) is associated with dopamine receptor D2 distribution and dopamine impact in the human striatum, such that A1 allele carriers show reduction in D2 receptor binding relative to carriers who are homozygous for the A2 allele. The individual differences in grammatical rule learning that are particularly prevalent in adulthood are also associated with striatal function and its role in domain-general procedural memory. Therefore, we reasoned that procedurally-based grammar learning could be associated with DRD2-TAQ-IA polymorphism. Here, English-speaking adults learned artificial concatenative and analogical grammars, which have been respectively associated with procedural and declarative memory. Language learning capabilities were tested while learners' neural hemodynamic responses were simultaneously measured by fMRI. Behavioral learning and brain activation data were subsequently compared with the learners' DRD2 (rs1800497) genotype. Learners who were homozygous for the A2 allele were better at concatenative (but not analogical) grammar learning and had higher striatal responses relative to those who have at least one A1 allele. These results provide preliminary evidence for the neurogenetic basis of normal variations in linguistic grammar learning and its link to domain-general functions. PMID:23741438

Wong, Patrick C M; Ettlinger, Marc; Zheng, Jing

2013-01-01

320

Linguistic Grammar Learning and DRD2-TAQ-IA Polymorphism  

PubMed Central

As research into the neurobiology of language has focused primarily on the systems level, fewer studies have examined the link between molecular genetics and normal variations in language functions. Because the ability to learn a language varies in adults and our genetic codes also vary, research linking the two provides a unique window into the molecular neurobiology of language. We consider a candidate association between the dopamine receptor D2 gene (DRD2) and linguistic grammar learning. DRD2-TAQ-IA polymorphism (rs1800497) is associated with dopamine receptor D2 distribution and dopamine impact in the human striatum, such that A1 allele carriers show reduction in D2 receptor binding relative to carriers who are homozygous for the A2 allele. The individual differences in grammatical rule learning that are particularly prevalent in adulthood are also associated with striatal function and its role in domain-general procedural memory. Therefore, we reasoned that procedurally-based grammar learning could be associated with DRD2-TAQ-IA polymorphism. Here, English-speaking adults learned artificial concatenative and analogical grammars, which have been respectively associated with procedural and declarative memory. Language learning capabilities were tested while learners’ neural hemodynamic responses were simultaneously measured by fMRI. Behavioral learning and brain activation data were subsequently compared with the learners’ DRD2 (rs1800497) genotype. Learners who were homozygous for the A2 allele were better at concatenative (but not analogical) grammar learning and had higher striatal responses relative to those who have at least one A1 allele. These results provide preliminary evidence for the neurogenetic basis of normal variations in linguistic grammar learning and its link to domain-general functions. PMID:23741438

Wong, Patrick C. M.; Ettlinger, Marc; Zheng, Jing

2013-01-01

321

Chinese lexical networks: The structure, function and formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper Chinese phrases are modeled using complex networks theory. We analyze statistical properties of the networks and find that phrase networks display some important features: not only small world and the power-law distribution, but also hierarchical structure and disassortative mixing. These statistical traits display the global organization of Chinese phrases. The origin and formation of such traits are analyzed from a macroscopic Chinese culture and philosophy perspective. It is interesting to find that Chinese culture and philosophy may shape the formation and structure of Chinese phrases. To uncover the structural design principles of networks, network motif patterns are studied. It is shown that they serve as basic building blocks to form the whole phrase networks, especially triad 38 (feed forward loop) plays a more important role in forming most of the phrases and other motifs. The distinct structure may not only keep the networks stable and robust, but also be helpful for information processing. The results of the paper can give some insight into Chinese language learning and language acquisition. It strengthens the idea that learning the phrases helps to understand Chinese culture. On the other side, understanding Chinese culture and philosophy does help to learn Chinese phrases. The hub nodes in the networks show the close relationship with Chinese culture and philosophy. Learning or teaching the hub characters, hub-linking phrases and phrases which are meaning related based on motif feature should be very useful and important for Chinese learning and acquisition.

Li, Jianyu; Zhou, Jie; Luo, Xiaoyue; Yang, Zhanxin

2012-11-01

322

Age affects chunk-based, but not rule-based learning in artificial grammar acquisition.  

PubMed

Explicit learning is well known to decline with age, but divergent results have been reported for implicit learning. Here, we assessed the effect of aging on implicit vs. explicit learning within the same task. Fifty-five young (mean 32 years) and 55 elderly (mean 64 years) individuals were exposed to letter strings generated by an artificial grammar. Subsequently, participants classified novel strings as grammatical or nongrammatical. Acquisition of superficial ("chunk-based") and structural ("rule-based") features of the grammar were analyzed separately. We found that overall classification accuracy was diminished in the elderly, driven by decreased performance on items that required chunk-based knowledge. Performance on items requiring rule-based knowledge was comparable between groups. Results indicate that rule-based and chunk-based learning are differentially affected by age: while rule-based learning, reflecting implicit learning, is preserved, chunk-based learning, which contains at least some explicit learning aspects, declines with age. Our findings may explain divergent results on implicit learning tasks in previous studies on aging. They may also help to better understand compensatory mechanisms during the aging process. PMID:21093109

Kürten, Julia; De Vries, Meinou H; Kowal, Kristina; Zwitserlood, Pienie; Flöel, Agnes

2012-07-01

323

One grammar or two? Sign Languages and the Nature of Human Language  

PubMed Central

Linguistic research has identified abstract properties that seem to be shared by all languages—such properties may be considered defining characteristics. In recent decades, the recognition that human language is found not only in the spoken modality but also in the form of sign languages has led to a reconsideration of some of these potential linguistic universals. In large part, the linguistic analysis of sign languages has led to the conclusion that universal characteristics of language can be stated at an abstract enough level to include languages in both spoken and signed modalities. For example, languages in both modalities display hierarchical structure at sub-lexical and phrasal level, and recursive rule application. However, this does not mean that modality-based differences between signed and spoken languages are trivial. In this article, we consider several candidate domains for modality effects, in light of the overarching question: are signed and spoken languages subject to the same abstract grammatical constraints, or is a substantially different conception of grammar needed for the sign language case? We look at differences between language types based on the use of space, iconicity, and the possibility for simultaneity in linguistic expression. The inclusion of sign languages does support some broadening of the conception of human language—in ways that are applicable for spoken languages as well. Still, the overall conclusion is that one grammar applies for human language, no matter the modality of expression. PMID:25013534

Lillo-Martin, Diane C; Gajewski, Jon

2014-01-01

324

Modelling unsupervised online-learning of artificial grammars: linking implicit and statistical learning.  

PubMed

Humans rapidly learn complex structures in various domains. Findings of above-chance performance of some untrained control groups in artificial grammar learning studies raise questions about the extent to which learning can occur in an untrained, unsupervised testing situation with both correct and incorrect structures. The plausibility of unsupervised online-learning effects was modelled with n-gram, chunking and simple recurrent network models. A novel evaluation framework was applied, which alternates forced binary grammaticality judgments and subsequent learning of the same stimulus. Our results indicate a strong online learning effect for n-gram and chunking models and a weaker effect for simple recurrent network models. Such findings suggest that online learning is a plausible effect of statistical chunk learning that is possible when ungrammatical sequences contain a large proportion of grammatical chunks. Such common effects of continuous statistical learning may underlie statistical and implicit learning paradigms and raise implications for study design and testing methodologies. PMID:24905545

Rohrmeier, Martin A; Cross, Ian

2014-07-01

325

English Grammar Learning System Based on Knowledge Network of Fill-in-the-Blank Exercises  

Microsoft Academic Search

To understand English grammar is essential to write\\/speak\\/ read English appropriately. Fill-in-the-blank exercise of English\\u000a grammar is one of the popular types of exercises, which is introduced to check acquired\\/in-acquired grammatical knowledge\\u000a by evaluating the word selected by a learner for each sentence. Since such exercise-based learning is effective to acquire\\u000a practical knowledge, our objective is to construct English grammar

Takuya Goto; Tomoko Kojiri; Toyohide Watanabe; Takeshi Yamada; Tomoharu Iwata

2008-01-01

326

A Context-sensitive Graph Grammar Formalism for the Specification of Visual Languages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Graph grammars may be used as natural and powerful syntax-definition formalisms for visual programming languages. Yet most graph-grammar parsing algorithms presented so far are either unable to recognize interesting visual languages or tend to be inefficient (with exponential time complexity) when applied to graphs with a large number of nodes and edges. This paper presents a context-sensitive graph grammar called

Da-qian Zhang; Kang Zhang; Jiannong Cao

2001-01-01

327

Pro-Forms in the Spanish Noun Phrase. Studies in Linguistics and Language Learning, Volume III.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The object of this study is to treat pronominalization in Spanish within the framework of generative grammar. (The non-hypenated word "pronoun" refers to the traditional class of words including alguien, algo, el, or ella. The hypenated form, "pro-noun," refers to the underlying lexical entries or feature complexes which share the features [+pro,…

Lackstrom, John Edwin

328

Formal Grammars for Product Data Management on Distributed Manufacturing Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work shows how formal grammars with attributes can be advantageously used to deal with two fundamental aspects of product data management - product diversity management and generation of specific product data based on clients’ specification - in the context of distributed manufacturing systems, while networks of geographically distant collaborative entities. This contribution will constitute a new component for an existing model, developed by the authors, for dynamic production planning and control which includes the interoperability with industrial equipment. The proposed approach is centered on attributed formal grammars, allowing the formalization of the data representation for each family of products and also of some of the inherent processing (e.g. generation of specific products’ bill-of-materials).

Sousa, Rui M.; Martins, Paulo J.; Lima, Rui M.

329

Regular languages, regular grammars and automata in splicing systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Splicing system is known as a mathematical model that initiates the connection between the study of DNA molecules and formal language theory. In splicing systems, languages called splicing languages refer to the set of double-stranded DNA molecules that may arise from an initial set of DNA molecules in the presence of restriction enzymes and ligase. In this paper, some splicing languages resulted from their respective splicing systems are shown. Since all splicing languages are regular, languages which result from the splicing systems can be further investigated using grammars and automata in the field of formal language theory. The splicing language can be written in the form of regular languages generated by grammar. Besides that, splicing systems can be accepted by automata. In this research, two restriction enzymes are used in splicing systems namely BfuCI and NcoI.

Mohamad Jan, Nurhidaya; Fong, Wan Heng; Sarmin, Nor Haniza

2013-04-01

330

Learning Cue Phrase Patterns from Radiology Reports Using a Genetic Algorithm  

SciTech Connect

Various computer-assisted technologies have been developed to assist radiologists in detecting cancer; however, the algorithms still lack high degrees of sensitivity and specificity, and must undergo machine learning against a training set with known pathologies in order to further refine the algorithms with higher validity of truth. This work describes an approach to learning cue phrase patterns in radiology reports that utilizes a genetic algorithm (GA) as the learning method. The approach described here successfully learned cue phrase patterns for two distinct classes of radiology reports. These patterns can then be used as a basis for automatically categorizing, clustering, or retrieving relevant data for the user.

Patton, Robert M [ORNL] [ORNL; Beckerman, Barbara G [ORNL] [ORNL; Potok, Thomas E [ORNL] [ORNL

2009-01-01

331

Categorial Dependency Grammars Michael Dekhtyar a,1  

E-print Network

assigning dependency trees (DTs) to well-formed sentences. A DT of a sentence is a labelled arrows tree equivalence" produced an illusion that DTs are byproduct of head selection in constituent structures. It may expressive power is concerned. For instance, the DTs assigned to constituent structures with selected heads

332

Definite Clause Grammars for Language Analysis - A Survey of the Formalism and a Comparison with Augmented Transition Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

A clear andpowerfulformalism for describing languages, both natural and artificial, follows fiom a method for expressing grammars in logic due to Colmerauer and Kowalski. This formalism, which is a natural extension of context-free grammars, we call \\

Fernando C. N. Pereira; David H. D. Warren

1980-01-01

333

Documents Terms Skip pointers Phrase queries Most slides are from Schtze, Center for Information and Language Processing,  

E-print Network

Documents Terms Skip pointers Phrase queries terms Most slides are from Schütze, Center for Information and Language Processing, University of Munich September 11, 2014 terms 1 / 67 #12;Documents Terms Skip pointers Phrase queries Overview 1 Documents 2 Terms General + Non-English case folding stop words

Lu, Jianguo

334

A Grammar-Based Semantic Similarity Algorithm for Natural Language Sentences  

PubMed Central

This paper presents a grammar and semantic corpus based similarity algorithm for natural language sentences. Natural language, in opposition to “artificial language”, such as computer programming languages, is the language used by the general public for daily communication. Traditional information retrieval approaches, such as vector models, LSA, HAL, or even the ontology-based approaches that extend to include concept similarity comparison instead of cooccurrence terms/words, may not always determine the perfect matching while there is no obvious relation or concept overlap between two natural language sentences. This paper proposes a sentence similarity algorithm that takes advantage of corpus-based ontology and grammatical rules to overcome the addressed problems. Experiments on two famous benchmarks demonstrate that the proposed algorithm has a significant performance improvement in sentences/short-texts with arbitrary syntax and structure. PMID:24982952

Chang, Jia Wei; Hsieh, Tung Cheng

2014-01-01

335

Sexually attractive phrases increase yolk androgens deposition in Canaries ( Serinus canaria)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The androgen concentration in birds’ eggs varies with laying order, breeding conditions, and mate attractiveness. In passerine birds, mate attractiveness depends upon song quality. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effect of one criterion used by females to assess male song quality that is to say the presence of sexually attractive phrases on yolk androgen deposition. Twenty-five

Aurélie Tanvez; Nathalie Béguin; Olivier Chastel; André Lacroix; Gérard Lebouchera

2004-01-01

336

13 CFR 142.6 - What does the phrase “know or have reason to know” mean?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT REGULATIONS Overview and Definitions § 142.6 What does the phrase “know or have reason to know” mean? A person knows or has reason to know (that a claim or statement is false) if the person: (a) Has...

2010-01-01

337

45 CFR 2554.6 - What does the phrase “know or have reason to know” mean?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...CIVIL REMEDIES ACT REGULATIONS Overview and Definitions § 2554.6 What does the phrase “know or have reason to know” mean? A person knows or has reason to know (that a claim or statement is false) if the person: (a) Has...

2010-10-01

338

A Phrase-Based, Joint Probability Model for Statistical Machine Translation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a joint probability model for statistical machine translation, which au- tomatically learns word and phrase equiv- alents from bilingual corpora. Transla- tions produced with parameters estimated using the joint model are more accu- rate than translations produced using IBM Model 4.

Daniel Marcu; William Wong

2002-01-01

339

Large scale testing of a descriptive phrase finder Department of Information Studies  

E-print Network

the TREC Collection showed that 90% of the queries had at least one correct DP in the top 5 ranked, searching for phrases from the World Wide Web (WWW) using the output of a commercial Web search engine by pointers to future work. 2. THE SYSTEM The Web-based DPF was composed of two parts: a front

Sanderson, Mark

340

Developmental Relationships between Speech and Writing: Is Verb-Phrase Anaphora Production a Special Case?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Young children's speech is typically more linguistically sophisticated than their writing. However, there are grounds for asking whether production of cohesive devices, such as verb-phrase anaphora (VPA), might represent an exception to this developmental pattern, as cohesive devices are generally more important in writing than in…

Donaldson, Morag L.; Cooper, Lynn S. M.

2013-01-01

341

Interesting-Phrase Mining for Ad-Hoc Text Analytics Srikanta Bedathur  

E-print Network

Interesting-Phrase Mining for Ad-Hoc Text Analytics Srikanta Bedathur , Klaus Berberich , Jens.dittrich@cs.uni-saarland.de ABSTRACT Large text corpora with news, customer mail and reports, or Web 2.0 contributions offer a great potential for enhancing business-intelligence applications. We propose a framework for performing text ana

342

You Say Probable and I Say Likely: Improving Interpersonal Communication With Verbal Probability Phrases  

Microsoft Academic Search

When forecasters and decision makers describe uncertain events using verbal probability terms, there is a risk of miscommunication because people use different probability phrases and interpret them in different ways. In an effort to facilitate the communication process, the authors investigated various ways of converting the forecasters' verbal probabilities to the decision maker's terms. The authors present 3 studies in

Tzur M. Karelitz; David V. Budescu

2004-01-01

343

The Language of Energy: A Glossary of Words and Phrases Used in the Energy Industry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provided is an alphabetical list or words and phrases commonly used in the energy industry. Entries range from such general terms as biomass, fossil fuels, and wetlands to such highly specific terms as Arab oil embargo of 1973-74 and Exxon Donor Solvent (EDS) Process. (JN)

American Petroleum Inst., Washington, DC.

344

Extending the METEOR Machine Translation Evaluation Metric to the Phrase Level  

E-print Network

Extending the METEOR Machine Translation Evaluation Metric to the Phrase Level Michael Denkowski Pittsburgh, PA 15232, USA {mdenkows,alavie}@cs.cmu.edu Abstract This paper presents METEOR-NEXT, an ex- tended version of the METEOR metric de- signed to have high correlation with post- editing measures

Lavie, Alon

345

Phrases of the Kinetic: Dynamic Physicality as a Dimension of the Design Process  

E-print Network

an experimental approach to digitally augmented organic form finding in fashion and product design. Thesis1 Phrases of the Kinetic: Dynamic Physicality as a Dimension of the Design Process Amanda Jane Parkes Submitted to the Program in Media Arts and Sciences, School of Architecture and Planning

Ishii, Hiroshi

346

7 CFR 15f.4 - What do certain words and phrases in these regulations mean?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What do certain words and phrases in these regulations...Agriculture ADJUDICATIONS UNDER SECTION 741 What Is the Purpose of These Regulations and to Whom and to What Programs Do They Apply? § 15f.4...

2010-01-01

347

7 CFR 15f.4 - What do certain words and phrases in these regulations mean?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false What do certain words and phrases in these regulations...Agriculture ADJUDICATIONS UNDER SECTION 741 What Is the Purpose of These Regulations and to Whom and to What Programs Do They Apply? § 15f.4...

2012-01-01

348

7 CFR 15f.4 - What do certain words and phrases in these regulations mean?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false What do certain words and phrases in these regulations...Agriculture ADJUDICATIONS UNDER SECTION 741 What Is the Purpose of These Regulations and to Whom and to What Programs Do They Apply? § 15f.4...

2011-01-01

349

7 CFR 15f.4 - What do certain words and phrases in these regulations mean?  

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false What do certain words and phrases in these regulations...Agriculture ADJUDICATIONS UNDER SECTION 741 What Is the Purpose of These Regulations and to Whom and to What Programs Do They Apply? § 15f.4...

2014-01-01

350

7 CFR 15f.4 - What do certain words and phrases in these regulations mean?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false What do certain words and phrases in these regulations...Agriculture ADJUDICATIONS UNDER SECTION 741 What Is the Purpose of These Regulations and to Whom and to What Programs Do They Apply? § 15f.4...

2013-01-01

351

32 ROCHESTERREVIEW MarchApril2014 t a time when the phrase "ancient  

E-print Network

32 ROCHESTERREVIEW March­April2014 A t a time when the phrase "ancient history" is a common ethics, can reasonably be counted as among the key influences of scholars not only in philosophy much of his career. Al- though his primary appointment is in the School of Arts & Sciences, he's had

Cantlon, Jessica F.

352

Phonological Phrase Boundaries Constrain the Online Syntactic Analysis of Spoken Sentences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two experiments tested whether phonological phrase boundaries constrain online syntactic analysis in French. Pairs of homophones belonging to different syntactic categories (verb and adjective) were used to create sentences with a local syntactic ambiguity (e.g., [le petit chien "mort"], in English, the "dead" little dog, vs. [le petit chien]…

Millotte, Severine; Rene, Alice; Wales, Roger; Christophe, Anne

2008-01-01

353

Early Acquisition of Gender Agreement in the Spanish Noun Phrase: Starting Small  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nativist and constructivist accounts differ in their characterization of children's knowledge of grammatical categories. In this paper we present research on the process of acquisition of a particular grammatical system, gender agreement in the Spanish noun phrase, in children under three years of age. The design of the longitudinal study employed…

Mariscal, Sonia

2009-01-01

354

A General and Multi-lingual Phrase Chunking Model Based on Masking Method  

E-print Network

A General and Multi-lingual Phrase Chunking Model Based on Masking Method Yu-Chieh Wu1 , Chia achieved better performance via integrating external resources, e.g., parsers and additional training data available and the combination of multiple learners will increase the cost of training and testing

Chang, Chia-Hui

355

Translator, Traitor, Source of Data: Classifying Translations of "Foreign Phrases" as an Awareness-Raising Exercise.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A system for classifying (coding) translations of sentence-length or similar material is presented and illustrated with codings of entries in the "Dictionary of Foreign Phrases and Classical Quotations." Problems in coding are discussed, relating especially to intertextuality, intention, and ownership. The system is intended for pedagogic use, and…

Parkinson, Brian

1998-01-01

356

ASSIGNING PHRASE BREAKS FROM PART-OF-SPEECH SEQUENCES Alan W Black and Paul Taylor  

E-print Network

ASSIGNING PHRASE BREAKS FROM PART-OF-SPEECH SEQUENCES Alan W Black and Paul Taylor Centre://www.cstr.ed.ac.uk email: awb@cstr.ed.ac.uk, Paul.Taylor@ed.ac.uk 1. BACKGROUND One of the important stages in the process

Edinburgh, University of

357

USING STATISTICAL MODELS TO PREDICT PHRASE BOUNDARIES FOR SPEECH Eric Sanders 1 and Paul Taylor 2  

E-print Network

Technology Research, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, U.K. email: Paul.Taylor@ed.ac.uk httpUSING STATISTICAL MODELS TO PREDICT PHRASE BOUNDARIES FOR SPEECH SYNTHESIS Eric Sanders 1 and Paul Taylor 2 (1) Nijmegen University, Netherlands. email: eric@challenge1.let.kun.nl (2) Centre for Speech

Edinburgh, University of

358

ASSIGNING PHRASE BREAKS FROM PARTOFSPEECH SEQUENCES Alan W Black and Paul Taylor  

E-print Network

ASSIGNING PHRASE BREAKS FROM PART­OF­SPEECH SEQUENCES Alan W Black and Paul Taylor Centre://www.cstr.ed.ac.uk email: awb@cstr.ed.ac.uk, Paul.Taylor@ed.ac.uk 1. BACKGROUND One of the important stages in the process

Edinburgh, University of

359

Phase structure rewrite systems in information retrieval  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Operational level automatic indexing requires an efficient means of normalizing natural language phrases. Subject switching requires an efficient means of translating one set of authorized terms to another. A phrase structure rewrite system called a Lexical Dictionary is explained that performs these functions. Background, operational use, other applications and ongoing research are explained.

Klingbiel, P. H.

1985-01-01

360

Computation-Friendly Shape Grammars with Application to Determining the Interior Layout of Buildings from Image Data  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A shape grammar is a formalism that has been widely applied, in many different fields, to analyzing designs. Computer implementation of a shape grammar interpreter is vital to both research and application. However, implementing a shape grammar interpreter is hard, especially for parametric shapes defined by open terms. This dissertation…

Yue, Kui

2009-01-01

361

Problematizing the Teaching and Learning of Grammar in the Intermediate German Classroom: A Sociocultural Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A framework is presented for grammar instruction based on sociocultural theory and critical pedagogy. It is argued that restricting students' learning to the standard German of the monolingual, educated native speaker is both insufficient and inappropriate. It is proposed that grammar teaching and learning should support learners as developing…

Levine, Glenn S.

2006-01-01

362

Enhancing Secondary Stage Students' Writing: Effects of Context of Songs in Teaching Grammar Implicitly  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study reported in this article investigated the effect of context of songs in teaching grammar implicitly on students writing. The study was conducted on sixty students who were assigned to an experimental group and a control one. The control group was taught grammar explicitly with an explanation of grammatical rules; however, the…

Abdel Rhim, Azza Ashraf Mohammed

2013-01-01

363

Integrated, interactive, and visualized teaching of writing and grammar: Prototypes of two ICALL tools  

E-print Network

Integrated, interactive, and visualized teaching of writing and grammar: Prototypes of two ICALL writing and grammar instruction: COMPASS-II for secondary/tertiary levels of education, and the Sentence be parameterized with respect to L1 and L2, the size of the lexicon, and the level of detail of the visualized

Harbusch, Karin

364

Integrating Grammar and Segmentation for Human Pose Estimation Brandon Rothrock1  

E-print Network

in a wide range of poses, body proportions, clothing, and backgrounds. One of the key modeling challengesIntegrating Grammar and Segmentation for Human Pose Estimation Brandon Rothrock1 , Seyoung Park1@stat.ucla.edu Abstract In this paper we present a compositional and-or graph grammar model for human pose estimation. Our

Zhu, Song Chun

365

Knowledge about the teaching of (sentence) grammar: The state of play  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following the publication of an article summarising two systematic reviews on whether the teaching of grammar is effective in improving 5-16 year olds' writing (Andrews et al, 2006), the present article reflects on the relationship between knowledge about language and knowledge about grammar. It argues that there is no evidence for the assumption made by policy-makers and researchers in the

RICHARD ANDREWS

366

Towards polylectal grammars of African languages, Hamburg, 27.29.11.2009 Documenting linguistic varieties  

E-print Network

at SouthBauch West languages whose situation as minority or severely endangered languages entails specificTowards polylectal grammars of African languages, Hamburg, 27.29.11.2009 Documenting linguistic the question "What grammar for what language(s)?". The answer to this question will involve personal

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

367

Assessing the Need for Change in J-School Grammar Curricula.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Surveys 100 journalism schools investigating: (1) whether journalism schools treat spelling, punctuation, grammar, and AP style as important factors in improving the state of journalism; (2) how journalism schools are teaching and assessing spelling, punctuation, grammar, and AP style; and (3) whether journalism schools are using entrance or exit…

Seamon, Marc

2001-01-01

368

Parsing the wall street journal using a Lexical-Functional Grammar and discriminative estimation techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a stochastic parsing system consisting of a Lexical-Functional Grammar (LFG), a constraint-based parser and a stochastic disambiguation model. We report on the results of applying this system to parsing the UPenn Wall Street Journal (WSJ) treebank. The model combines full and partial parsing techniques to reach full grammar coverage on unseen data. The treebank annotations are used to

Stefan Riezler; Tracy H. King; Ronald M. Kaplan; Richard Crouch; John T. III maxwell; Mark Johnson

2001-01-01

369

Tree-Adjoining Grammars Aravind K. Joshi1 and Yves Schabes2  

E-print Network

Tree-Adjoining Grammars Aravind K. Joshi1 and Yves Schabes2 1 Department of Computer, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA email: schabes@merl.com 1. Introduction In this paper, we will describe a tree generating system called tree-adjoining grammar TAG and state some of the recent results about TAGs. The work

Plotkin, Joshua B.

370

Implications of Incorporating Learning Probabilistic Context-sensitive Grammar in Genetic Programming on  

E-print Network

- sensitive grammar in strongly typed genetic programming (GP) employed for evolu- tion and adaptation of genetic programs in strongly typed GP), using aggregated reward values obtained from the evolved best, snake-like robot, strongly typed genetic program- ming, probabilistic context sensitive grammar 1

Fernandez, Thomas

371

Grammar Charts Analysis: A Tool to Promote Students' Visual Literacy and Autonomous Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This reflection paper attempts to show how we foreign language (FL) teachers can help our students develop their visual literacy concerning the use of grammar charts to help them to make better sense of the grammar information presented in their textbooks. In the first part, this reflection overviews the concept of visual literacy (VL), its…

Nausa T., Ricardo A.

2007-01-01

372

FROM FIRST WORDS TO GRAMMAR IN CHILDREN WITH FOCAL BRAIN INJURY  

E-print Network

to grammar. Parent report and/or free speech data are reported for 53 infants and preschool children betweenFROM FIRST WORDS TO GRAMMAR IN CHILDREN WITH FOCAL BRAIN INJURY Elizabeth Bates University Judi Fenson Children's Hospital & Research Center, San Diego Dorothy Aram Emerson College Julie Eisele

373

Electrical Stimulation of Broca's Area Enhances Implicit Learning of an Artificial Grammar  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Artificial grammar learning constitutes a well-established model for the acquisition of grammatical knowledge in a natural setting. Previous neuroimaging studies demonstrated that Broca's area (left BA 44/45) is similarly activated by natural syntactic processing and artificial grammar learning. The current study was conducted to investigate the…

de Vries, Meinou H.; Barth, Andre C. R.; Maiworm, Sandra; Knecht, Stefan; Zwitserlood, Pienie; Floel, Agnes

2010-01-01

374

Evaluating Verb Subcategorisation Frames learned by a German Statistical Grammar against Manual  

E-print Network

rules and information about lexical heads was trained on a large German newspaper corpusEvaluating Verb Subcategorisation Frames learned by a German Statistical Grammar against Manual De subcategorisation frames induced from a German lexicalised statistical grammar against manual verb de nitions

Reyle, Uwe

375

Speeding up q-gram mining on grammar based compressed text  

E-print Network

Speeding up q-gram mining on grammar based compressed text 1 #12;Background: Processing large scale+ '09] q-gram Frequencies [Goto+ '11]; [Goto+ '12] Grammar-Based Compressed String Processing #12 '07, '08]; [Hermelin + '09, '11] Pattern Discovery [Inenaga+ '09]; [Matsubara+ '09] q-gram Frequencies

Lonardi, Stefano

376

Progress in Biolinguistics - Geneses of Language - A View from Generative Grammar  

Microsoft Academic Search

(Abstract) Generative grammar constitutes one major branch of theoretical linguistics, but its more important role as biolinguistics can be found in the interdisciplinary field of human biology. By exploring one particular instance of the cognitive faculties of our species, i.e, the Language Faculty (or the Language Organ), researchers in generative grammar\\/biolinguistics aim to elucidate the fundamental properties of human intelligence,

Koji Fujita

2003-01-01

377

Knowledge about the Teaching of [Sentence] Grammar: The State of Play  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Following the publication of an article summarising two systematic reviews on whether the teaching of grammar is effective in improving 5-16 year olds' writing (Andrews et al, 2006), the present article reflects on the relationship between knowledge about language and knowledge about grammar. It argues that there is no evidence for the assumption…

Andrews, Richard

2005-01-01

378

Graph Composition in a Graph Grammar-Based Method for Automata Network Evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dynamics of neural and other automata networks are defined to a large extent by their topologies. Artificial evolution constitutes a practical means by which an optimal topology can be determined. Constructing a grammar of good graphs and then deriving new graphs from this grammar can facilitate this process. The following paper presents a simple but novel method of evolving

Martin H. Luerssen; David M. W. Powers

2005-01-01

379

Researching the Effects of Teaching Grammar Rules to English Second Language Adult Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the effects of an interventionist form-focused course on the written English of first-year second language university learners. For two semester courses the form (or grammar) of the language was concentrated upon. During the first semester the use of correct grammar was focussed on intensively, while during the second…

Ayliff, D.

2011-01-01

380

meta-Grammar Constant Creation with Grammatical Evolution by Grammatical Evolution  

E-print Network

meta-Grammar Constant Creation with Grammatical Evolution by Grammatical Evolution Ian Dempsey creation based on Grammatical Evolution by Grammatical Evolution ((GE)2 ) [10]. A meta-Grammar is employed to constant creation is particularly beneficial on the dy- namic problem instances in terms of the best

Fernandez, Thomas

381

Using a Grammar Checker for Evaluation and Postprocessing of Statistical Machine Translation  

Microsoft Academic Search

One problem in statistical machine translation (SMT) is that the output often is ungrammatical. To address this issue, we have investi- gated the use of a grammar checker for two purposes in connection with SMT: as an evaluation tool and as a postprocessing tool. As an evaluation tool the grammar checker gives a complementary picture to standard metrics such as

Sara Stymne; Lars Ahrenberg

2010-01-01

382

The Gang's All Here: Grammar Goes Global for Purdue, Unisa and Adelaide University  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The University of South Australia and Purdue University (Indiana) launched the "Grammar Gang Blog" in June 2008, as a collaborative forum for talking about language. The blog reaches a far-flung community of learners from Australia to the United States, Brisbane to Bangalore and Ghana to Germany. The Grammar Gang--where Owls meet Possums--started…

Duff, Andrea; Spangenberg, Brady; Carter, Susanna; Miller, Julia

2010-01-01

383

Re-Evaluating and Exploring the Contributions of Constituency Grammar to Semantic Role Labeling  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since the seminal work of Gildea and Jurafsky (2000), semantic role labeling (SRL) researchers have been trying to determine the appropriate syntactic/semantic knowledge and statistical algorithms to tackle the challenges in SRL. In search of the appropriate knowledge, SRL researchers shifted from constituency grammar to dependency grammar around…

Yang, Li

2009-01-01

384

J. LOGIC PROGRAMMING 1994:19, 20:1--679 1 CHARACTERIZING LOGIC GRAMMARS: A  

E-print Network

J. LOGIC PROGRAMMING 1994:19, 20:1--679 1 CHARACTERIZING LOGIC GRAMMARS: A SUBSTRUCTURAL LOGIC Grammars (SDGs), a logic gram­ mar formalism due to Dahl, is given in this paper. A substructural logic, Canada V5A 1S6. THE JOURNAL OF LOGIC PROGRAMMING c fl Elsevier Science Inc., 1994 655 Avenue

Andrews, Jamie

385

The Place of Grammar in the ESL/EFL Classroom: An Annotated Bibliography.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This annotated bibliography includes citations of journal articles and book chapters that focus on current theories related to teaching grammar in English-as-a-Second-Language and English-as-a-Foreign-Language classrooms. Citations include: (1) "Field Independence-Dependence and the Teaching of Grammar" (R. G. Abraham); (2) "Making Informed…

Kotapish, Carl E.

386

In Search of an ‘Early Teaching Grammar’  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on the psychology of learning suggests that identifying, labelling, and constructing ‘types’ of sentence could help improve children's punctuation and sentence construction. Samples of written work from a primary school were, therefore, analysed into ‘sentences’, and these classified into a manageable number of structural patterns which could be given labels meaningful to young children. The most common pattern was

John L. Presland

1974-01-01

387

Aspectual Effects on Interpretation in Early Grammar  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper focuses on the temporal and modal meanings associated with root infinitives (RIs) and other non-finite clauses in several typologically diverse languages--English, Russian, Greek and Dutch. I discuss the role that event structure, aspect, and modality play in the interpretation of these clauses. The basic hypothesis is that in the…

Hyams, Nina

2007-01-01

388

Disfluencies, Language Comprehension, and Tree Adjoining Grammars  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Disfluencies include editing terms such as "uh" and "um" as well as repeats and revisions. Little is known about how disfluencies are processed, and there has been next to no research focused on the way that disfluencies affect structure-building operations during comprehension. We review major findings from both computational linguistics and…

Ferreira, Fernanda; Lau, Ellen F.; Bailey, Karl G. D.

2004-01-01

389

Partial Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Assembly for the Teaching of English Grammar (5th, Normal, IL, August 12-13, 1994).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This partial proceedings contains papers presented at the fifth annual conference of the Assembly for the Teaching of English Grammar on the topic of learning, teaching, and researching grammar. Papers in the proceedings are: "Using Grammatical Information to Make Rhetorical Points (Wanda Van Goor); "Grammar with a Purpose: Using Grammar to Teach…

National Council of Teachers of English, Urbana, IL. Assembly for the Teaching of English Grammar.

390

Two-Dimensional Visual Language Grammar  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Visual language refers to the idea that communication occurs through visual symbols, as opposed to verbal symbols or words.\\u000a Contrast to a sentence construction in spoken language with a linear ordering of words, a visual language has a simultaneous\\u000a structure with a parallel temporal and spatial configuration. Inspired by Deikto [5], we propose a two-dimensional string\\u000a or sentence construction of

Siska Fitrianie; Léon J. M. Rothkrantz

2006-01-01

391

Evolution of the most common English words and phrases over the centuries.  

PubMed

By determining the most common English words and phrases since the beginning of the sixteenth century, we obtain a unique large-scale view of the evolution of written text. We find that the most common words and phrases in any given year had a much shorter popularity lifespan in the sixteenth century than they had in the twentieth century. By measuring how their usage propagated across the years, we show that for the past two centuries, the process has been governed by linear preferential attachment. Along with the steady growth of the English lexicon, this provides an empirical explanation for the ubiquity of Zipf's law in language statistics and confirms that writing, although undoubtedly an expression of art and skill, is not immune to the same influences of self-organization that are known to regulate processes as diverse as the making of new friends and World Wide Web growth. PMID:22832364

Perc, Matjaz

2012-12-01

392

Phonological phrase boundaries constrain the online syntactic analysis of spoken sentences.  

PubMed

Two experiments tested whether phonological phrase boundaries constrain online syntactic analysis in French. Pairs of homophones belonging to different syntactic categories (verb and adjective) were used to create sentences with a local syntactic ambiguity (e.g., [le petit chien mort], in English, the dead little dog, vs. [le petit chien] [mord], in English, the little dog bites, where brackets indicate phonological phrase boundaries). An expert speaker recorded the sentences with either a maximally informative prosody or a minimally informative one. Participants correctly assigned the appropriate syntactic category to the target word, even without any access to the lexical disambiguating information, in both a completion task (Experiment 1) and an abstract word detection task (Experiment 2). The size of the experimental effect was modulated by the prosodic manipulation (maximally vs. minimally informative), guaranteeing that prosody played a crucial role in disambiguation. The authors discuss the implications of these results for models of online speech perception and language acquisition. PMID:18605875

Millotte, Séverine; René, Alice; Wales, Roger; Christophe, Anne

2008-07-01

393

Effects of speaking rate on the acceptability of change in segmental duration within a phrase  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To contribute to the naturalness criteria of speech synthesis, acceptability of changes in segment duration has been investigated. Previous studies showed context dependency of the acceptability evaluation such as intraphrase positional effect, where listeners were more sensitive to the phrase-initial segment duration than the phrase-final one. Such contextual effects were independent of the original durations of the segments tested [Kato et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 104, 540-549 (1998)]. However, past studies used only normal-speed speech and temporal variation was limited. The current study, therefore, examined the contextual effect with a wide variety of speaking rates. The materials were three-mora phrases with either rising or falling accent that were spoken at three rates (fast, normal, and slow) with or without a carrier sentence. The duration of each vowel was either lengthened or shortened (10-50 ms) and listeners evaluated the acceptability of these changes. The results showed a clear speaking-rate effect in parallel with the intraphrase positional effect: the acceptability declined more rapidly as the speaking rate became faster. These results, along with those of Kato et al., suggest that acceptability is evaluated based on the speaking rate rather than on the original duration itself. [Work supported by TAO, Japan.] a)Currently at GITI, Waseda University.

Muto, Makiko; Kato, Hiroaki; Tsuzaki, Minoru; Sagisaka, Yoshinori

2001-05-01

394

TRANSITIONS Transitions are words, phrases, or clauses that indicate a gradual change from one idea or topic to  

E-print Network

carefully considering transitions, ideas may be disconnected and potentially confuse the reader. When usedTRANSITIONS ___________________________________________________________________________ Transitions are words, phrases, or clauses that indicate a gradual change from one idea or topic to another. Transitions

Boonstra, Rudy

395

Translation of Untranslatable Words — Integration of Lexical Approximation and Phrase-Table Extension Techniques into Statistical Machine Translation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper proposes a method for handling out-of-vocabulary (OOV) words that cannot be translated using conventional phrase-based statistical machine translation (SMT) systems. For a given OOV word, lexical approximation techniques are utilized to identify spelling and inflectional word variants that occur in the training data. All OOV words in the source sentence are then replaced with appropriate word variants found in the training corpus, thus reducing the number of OOV words in the input. Moreover, in order to increase the coverage of such word translations, the SMT translation model is extended by adding new phrase translations for all source language words that do not have a single-word entry in the original phrase-table but only appear in the context of larger phrases. The effectiveness of the proposed methods is investigated for the translation of Hindi to English, Chinese, and Japanese.

Paul, Michael; Arora, Karunesh; Sumita, Eiichiro

396

Computer-Based Linguistic Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Noam Chomsky's transformational-generative grammar model may effectively be translated into an equivalent computer model. Phrase-structure rules and transformations are tested as to their validity and ordering by the computer via the process of random lexical substitution. Errors appearing in the grammar are detected and rectified, and formal…

Wright, James R.

397

Lineage grammars: describing, simulating and analyzing population dynamics  

PubMed Central

Background Precise description of the dynamics of biological processes would enable the mathematical analysis and computational simulation of complex biological phenomena. Languages such as Chemical Reaction Networks and Process Algebras cater for the detailed description of interactions among individuals and for the simulation and analysis of ensuing behaviors of populations. However, often knowledge of such interactions is lacking or not available. Yet complete oblivion to the environment would make the description of any biological process vacuous. Here we present a language for describing population dynamics that abstracts away detailed interaction among individuals, yet captures in broad terms the effect of the changing environment, based on environment-dependent Stochastic Tree Grammars (eSTG). It is comprised of a set of stochastic tree grammar transition rules, which are context-free and as such abstract away specific interactions among individuals. Transition rule probabilities and rates, however, can depend on global parameters such as population size, generation count, and elapsed time. Results We show that eSTGs conveniently describe population dynamics at multiple levels including cellular dynamics, tissue development and niches of organisms. Notably, we show the utilization of eSTG for cases in which the dynamics is regulated by environmental factors, which affect the fate and rate of decisions of the different species. eSTGs are lineage grammars, in the sense that execution of an eSTG program generates the corresponding lineage trees, which can be used to analyze the evolutionary and developmental history of the biological system under investigation. These lineage trees contain a representation of the entire events history of the system, including the dynamics that led to the existing as well as to the extinct individuals. Conclusions We conclude that our suggested formalism can be used to easily specify, simulate and analyze complex biological systems, and supports modular description of local biological dynamics that can be later used as “black boxes” in a larger scope, thus enabling a gradual and hierarchical definition and simulation of complex biological systems. The simple, yet robust formalism enables to target a broad class of stochastic dynamic behaviors, especially those that can be modeled using global environmental feedback regulation rather than direct interaction between individuals. PMID:25047682

2014-01-01

398

Toward a formal study of jazz chord sequences generated by Steedman's grammar  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper shows how to generate jazz chord sequences incrementally using Steedman's grammar by taking advantage of some formal properties. We point out the specific role played by particular chord sequences called \\

Marc Chemillier

2004-01-01

399

Unsupervised Learning of Probabilistic Grammar-Markov Models for Object Categories  

E-print Network

of Statistical Natural Language Processing. MIT Press, 1999.is well known in natural language processing and leads toNatural Language Grammar Induction Using a Constituent-Context Model,” Advances in Neural Informa- tion Processing

Long (Leo) Zhu; Yuanhao Chen; Alan Yuille

2011-01-01

400

Unsupervised Learning of Probabilistic Grammar-Markov Models for Object Categories  

E-print Network

of Statistical Natural Language Processing. MIT Press, 1999.is well known in natural language processing and leads toNatural Language Grammar Induction Using a Constituent-Context Model,” Advances in Neural Informa- tion Processing

Zhu, Long Leo; Chen, Yuanhao; Yuille, Alan

2009-01-01

401

General Shape Grammar Interpreter for Intelligent Designs Generations Artificial Intelligence Research Institute  

E-print Network

General Shape Grammar Interpreter for Intelligent Designs Generations T. Trescak Artificial@maia.ub.es M. Esteva Artificial Intelligence Research Institute Spanish Council for Scientific Research visualization and artificial intelligent technologies have motivated the evolution of traditional computer aided

Rodríguez, Inmaculada

402

Artificial Grammar Learning of Melody Is Constrained by Melodic Inconsistency: Narmour's Principles Affect Melodic Learning  

E-print Network

Considerable evidence suggests that people acquire artificial grammars incidentally and implicitly, an indispensable capacity for the acquisition of music or language. However, less research has been devoted to exploring ...

Rohrmeier, Martin Alois

403

Designing Testsuites for Grammar-based Systems in Applications Valeria de Paiva  

E-print Network

Designing Testsuites for Grammar-based Systems in Applications Valeria de Paiva Palo Alto Research Center 3333 Coyote Hill Rd. Palo Alto, CA 94304 USA valeria.paiva@gmail.com Tracy Holloway King Palo Alto

de Paiva, Valeria

404

Introduction: Initially proposed as tool for modeling syntax, synthetic grammars have become a powerful tool  

E-print Network

of the feature-positive effect. "Synthetic Grammar Learning" by Pigeons (Columba livia) 0 25 50 75 100 of Psychology, Whitman College Method: 10 male white carneaux pigeons (Columba livia) were maintained at 80

Herbranson, Wally

405

Introduction: Synthetic grammars have become a powerful tool for investigating category learning in humans and,  

E-print Network

-Based Accounts of Synthetic Grammar Learning in Pigeons (Columba livia) Training Chunk strength -10 -8 -6 -4 -2 0 Method: 6 male white carneaux pigeons (Columba livia) were maintained at 80% of free-feeding weight

Herbranson, Wally

406

Entangled Parametric Hierarchies: Problems for an Overspecified Universal Grammar  

PubMed Central

This study addresses the feasibility of the classical notion of parameter in linguistic theory from the perspective of parametric hierarchies. A novel program-based analysis is implemented in order to show certain empirical problems related to these hierarchies. The program was developed on the basis of an enriched data base spanning 23 contemporary and 5 ancient languages. The empirical issues uncovered cast doubt on classical parametric models of language acquisition as well as on the conceptualization of an overspecified Universal Grammar that has parameters among its primitives. Pinpointing these issues leads to the proposal that (i) the (bio)logical problem of language acquisition does not amount to a process of triggering innately pre-wired values of parameters and (ii) it paves the way for viewing language, epigenetic (‘parametric’) variation as an externalization-related epiphenomenon, whose learning component may be more important than what sometimes is assumed. PMID:24019867

Boeckx, Cedric; Leivada, Evelina

2013-01-01

407

Teaching Photovoltaics: From Grammar School to Graduate School  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photovoltaics (PV) has certainly become the topic of the times in economic and political circles. I have had the opportunity to teach some aspect of the subject at a wide range of educational levels. I taught a graduate course, as an Adjunct Professor at the Colorado School of Mines (CSM), over the time period from 1990 to 2000. As a consequence of various outreach programs, like those sponsored by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, I have given presentations to audiences ranging from grammar school to high school. I have given another type of presentation to the service clubs like Rotary International and Kiwanis Clubs. Finally, in recent years and the rapid growth of the photovoltaic industry, I have been asked to give a basic presentation to business people with modest technical backgrounds. Each audience presents a different set of challenges and each requires a different type of presentation.

Ahrenkiel, Richard

2009-05-01

408

Do Humans Really Learn A[superscript n] B[superscript n] Artificial Grammars from Exemplars?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An important topic in the evolution of language is the kinds of grammars that can be computed by humans and other animals. Fitch and Hauser (F&H; 2004) approached this question by assessing the ability of different species to learn 2 grammars, (AB)[superscript n] and A[superscript n] B[superscript n]. A[superscript n] B[superscript n] was taken to…

Hochmann, Jean-Remy; Azadpour, Mahan; Mehler, Jacques

2008-01-01

409

Grammarly is available to UTS students and staff. Please note, there are a limited number of licences available each year. Last updated: 14 October 2013 UTS:LIBRARY/2013/UTS CRICOSCODE 00099F  

E-print Network

to Sign Up for Grammarly 1. Go to the library web site and search for Grammarly 2. In the results screen to start using Grammarly! Note: your account will expire each year, check the library web site news

University of Technology, Sydney

410

The Impact of Adjacent-Dependencies and Staged-Input on the Learnability of Center-Embedded Hierarchical Structures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A theoretical debate in artificial grammar learning (AGL) regards the learnability of hierarchical structures. Recent studies using an A[superscript n]B[superscript n] grammar draw conflicting conclusions ([Bahlmann and Friederici, 2006] and [De Vries et al., 2008]). We argue that 2 conditions crucially affect learning A[superscript…

Lai, Jun; Poletiek, Fenna H.

2011-01-01

411

Does complexity matter? Meta-analysis of learner performance in artificial grammar tasks  

PubMed Central

Complexity has been shown to affect performance on artificial grammar learning (AGL) tasks (categorization of test items as grammatical/ungrammatical according to the implicitly trained grammar rules). However, previously published AGL experiments did not utilize consistent measures to investigate the comprehensive effect of grammar complexity on task performance. The present study focused on computerizing Bollt and Jones's (2000) technique of calculating topological entropy (TE), a quantitative measure of AGL charts' complexity, with the aim of examining associations between grammar systems' TE and learners' AGL task performance. We surveyed the literature and identified 56 previous AGL experiments based on 10 different grammars that met the sampling criteria. Using the automated matrix-lift-action method, we assigned a TE value for each of these 10 previously used AGL systems and examined its correlation with learners' task performance. The meta-regression analysis showed a significant correlation, demonstrating that the complexity effect transcended the different settings and conditions in which the categorization task was performed. The results reinforced the importance of using this new automated tool to uniformly measure grammar systems' complexity when experimenting with and evaluating the findings of AGL studies. PMID:25309495

Schiff, Rachel; Katan, Pesia

2014-01-01

412

PROVIDING EFFECTIVE FEEDBACK ON WHOLE-PHRASE INPUT IN COMPUTER-ASSISTED LANGUAGE LEARNING  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract CALL systems ,which ,allow whole-phrase ,input are still in the ,minority and those which,do rely,either on parsing,for feedback,provision (a solution which isineffective,when,input is poor) or simply,process,input token by token,(an unsatisfactory,method ,if input ,is incorrectly ordered). Since poor ,input and incorrect word-order occur frequently in CALL responses,a different approach may,be beneficial. The LISC system, developed at the University of Kent

Alison M. L. Fowler

413

A Genetic Algorithm for Learning Significant Phrase Patterns in Radiology Reports  

SciTech Connect

Radiologists disagree with each other over the characteristics and features of what constitutes a normal mammogram and the terminology to use in the associated radiology report. Recently, the focus has been on classifying abnormal or suspicious reports, but even this process needs further layers of clustering and gradation, so that individual lesions can be more effectively classified. Using a genetic algorithm, the approach described here successfully learns phrase patterns for two distinct classes of radiology reports (normal and abnormal). These patterns can then be used as a basis for automatically analyzing, categorizing, clustering, or retrieving relevant radiology reports for the user.

Patton, Robert M [ORNL; Potok, Thomas E [ORNL; Beckerman, Barbara G [ORNL; Treadwell, Jim N [ORNL

2009-01-01

414

Effects of animacy and noun-phrase relatedness on the processing of complex sentences.  

PubMed

Previous work has suggested that syntactically complex object-extracted relative clauses are easier to process when the head noun phrase (NP1) is inanimate and the embedded noun phrase (NP2) is animate, as compared with the reverse animacy configuration, with differences in processing difficulty beginning as early as NP2 (e.g., The article that the senator . . . vs. The senator that the article . . .). Two eye-tracking-while-reading experiments were conducted to better understand the source of this effect. Experiment 1 showed that having an inanimate NP1 facilitated processing even when NP2 was held constant. Experiment 2 manipulated both animacy of NP1 and the degree of semantic relatedness between the critical NPs. When NP1 and NP2 were paired arbitrarily, the early animacy effect emerged at NP2. When NP1 and NP2 were semantically related, this effect disappeared, with effects of NP1 animacy emerging in later processing stages for both the related and arbitrary conditions. The results indicate that differences in the animacy of NP1 influence early processing of complex sentences only when the critical NPs share no meaningful relationship. PMID:24452417

Lowder, Matthew W; Gordon, Peter C

2014-07-01

415

Using dual-task methodology to dissociate automatic from nonautomatic processes involved in artificial grammar learning.  

PubMed

Previous studies have suggested that both automatic and intentional processes contribute to the learning of grammar and fragment knowledge in artificial grammar learning (AGL) tasks. To explore the relative contribution of automatic and intentional processes to knowledge gained in AGL, we utilized dual-task methodology to dissociate automatic and intentional grammar- and fragment-based knowledge in AGL at both acquisition and at test. Both experiments used a balanced chunk strength grammar to assure an equal proportion of fragment cues (i.e., chunks) in grammatical and nongrammatical test items. In Experiment 1, participants engaged in a working memory dual-task either during acquisition, test, or both acquisition and test. The results showed that participants performing the dual-task during acquisition learned the artificial grammar as well as the single-task group, presumably by relying on automatic learning mechanisms. A working memory dual-task at test resulted in attenuated grammar performance, suggesting a role for intentional processes for the expression of grammatical learning at test. Experiment 2 explored the importance of perceptual cues by changing letters between the acquisition and test phase; unlike Experiment 1, there was no significant learning of grammatical information for participants under dual-task conditions in Experiment 2, suggesting that intentional processing is necessary for successful acquisition and expression of grammar-based knowledge under transfer conditions. In sum, it appears that some aspects of learning in AGL are indeed relatively automatic, although the expression of grammatical information and the learning of grammatical patterns when perceptual similarity is eliminated both appear to require explicit resources. PMID:23627281

Hendricks, Michelle A; Conway, Christopher M; Kellogg, Ronald T

2013-09-01

416

Eine neue deutsche Grammatik: Moglichkeiten zur Belebung des Grammatikunterrichts in der Volksschule (A New German Grammar: Possibilities for the Enlivenment Grammar Instruction in the Elementary School).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The modern German grammar approach stresses good usage not in isolation but in hearing, speaking, reading, and writing. Consequently, practice precedes analysis for the primary-level native learner. The child learns by demonstration what a sentence is and is then taught five parts of speech according to function: noun, verb, adjective, pronoun,…

Glinz, Hans

1962-01-01

417

Acquisition of Structure and Interpretation: Cases from Mandarin Bare and Non-Bare Noun Phrases  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children's production of bare nominals is universal. When acquiring languages disallowing bare nominals, children will develop from the bare to the non-bare stage. However, Mandarin nominals may appear bare or non-bare in various positions with all kinds of interpretations. This dissertation conducts two acquisition studies to examine the…

Chang, Hsiang-Hua

2011-01-01

418

Event structure and the encoding of arguments : the syntax of the Mandarin and English verb phrase  

E-print Network

(cont.) to variations in the way functional elements interact with verbal roots. Overall, my work not only contributes to our understanding of how events are syntactically represented, but also explicates interactions at ...

Lin, Jimmy J. (Jimmy Jr-Pin), 1979-

2004-01-01

419

Automated Diagnosis of Otitis Media: Vocabulary and Grammar  

PubMed Central

We propose a novel automated algorithm for classifying diagnostic categories of otitis media: acute otitis media, otitis media with effusion, and no effusion. Acute otitis media represents a bacterial superinfection of the middle ear fluid, while otitis media with effusion represents a sterile effusion that tends to subside spontaneously. Diagnosing children with acute otitis media is difficult, often leading to overprescription of antibiotics as they are beneficial only for children with acute otitis media. This underscores the need for an accurate and automated diagnostic algorithm. To that end, we design a feature set understood by both otoscopists and engineers based on the actual visual cues used by otoscopists; we term this the otitis media vocabulary. We also design a process to combine the vocabulary terms based on the decision process used by otoscopists; we term this the otitis media grammar. The algorithm achieves 89.9% classification accuracy, outperforming both clinicians who did not receive special training and state-of-the-art classifiers. PMID:23997759

Kuruvilla, Anupama; Hoberman, Alejandro; Kova?evi?, Jelena

2013-01-01

420

Picture grammars in classification and semantic interpretation of 3D coronary vessels visualisations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The work presents the new opportunity for making semantic descriptions and analysis of medical structures, especially coronary vessels CT spatial reconstructions, with the use of AI graph-based linguistic formalisms. In the paper there will be discussed the manners of applying methods of computational intelligence to the development of a syntactic semantic description of spatial visualisations of the heart’s coronary vessels. Such descriptions may be used for both smart ordering of images while archiving them and for their semantic searches in medical multimedia databases. Presented methodology of analysis can furthermore be used for attaining other goals related performance of computer-assisted semantic interpretation of selected elements and/or the entire 3D structure of the coronary vascular tree. These goals are achieved through the use of graph-based image formalisms based on IE graphs generating grammars that allow discovering and automatic semantic interpretation of irregularities visualised on the images obtained during diagnostic examinations of the heart muscle. The basis for the construction of 3D reconstructions of biological objects used in this work are visualisations obtained from helical CT scans, yet the method itself may be applied also for other methods of medical 3D images acquisition. The obtained semantic information makes it possible to make a description of the structure focused on the semantics of various morphological forms of the visualised vessels from the point of view of the operation of coronary circulation and the blood supply of the heart muscle. Thanks to these, the analysis conducted allows fast and — to a great degree — automated interpretation of the semantics of various morphological changes in the coronary vascular tree, and especially makes it possible to detect these stenoses in the lumen of the vessels that can cause critical decrease in blood supply to extensive or especially important fragments of the heart muscle.

Ogiela, M. R.; Tadeusiewicz, R.; Trzupek, M.

2009-09-01

421

You Can Get the Grammar Needed for GCSE on to One Sheet of A4... But It Takes Two Years to Get Good at Using It  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author recommends a "starter kit" for teaching grammar. This kit uses an A4 sheet that allows students to express themselves correctly, removing the problem of "censoring grammar" and replacing it with an "enabling grammar." Using their "starter kit", pupils will enjoy being able to write extended paragraphs in a foreign…

Everett, Vincent

2005-01-01

422

Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Assembly for the Teaching of English Grammar (6th, Williamsport, PA, July 28-29, 1995).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This proceedings contains papers presented at the sixth annual conference of the Assembly for the Teaching of English Grammar. Papers in the proceedings are: "The Politics of Grammar" (Sabah A. Salih); "(Still) Trying to Find an Answer to the Problem of 'Error' in Writing" (William McCleary); "Grammar and Literacy: Embedding Outside Sources in…

National Council of Teachers of English, Urbana, IL. Assembly for the Teaching of English Grammar.

423

Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Association of Teachers of English Grammar (3rd, Williamsport, PA, June 18-19, 1992).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This proceedings contains half of the papers presented at the third annual conference of the Association of Teachers of English Grammar. Papers in the proceedings are: "Grammar as a Method, Not as a Subject" (Marilyn N. Silva); "Using Humor to Teach Grammar, or the Grammarian as Stand-up Comic" (Frank Peters); "Grammatical Competence and the…

National Council of Teachers of English, Urbana, IL. Assembly for the Teaching of English Grammar.

424

Effectiveness of Intervention for Grammar in School-Aged Children with Primary Language Impairments: A Review of the Evidence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article summarizes the evidence as regards the effectiveness of therapy for grammar for school-aged children with language impairments. I first review studies focusing on specific areas of grammar (both expressive and receptive targets) and then studies aiming to improve language more generally, several of which focus more on the…

Ebbels, Susan

2014-01-01

425

The Emergence of Grammar in Very-Low-Birth-Weight Finnish Children at Two Years of Age  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is not well understood how grammar emerges in very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) children. The main aim of the present study was to gain information on the emergence of grammar in this group at 2; 0. The Finnish version of the Communicative Development Inventory was used to collect data from VLBW children ("N" = 156) and full-term controls…

Stolt, Suvi; Matomaki, Jaakko; Haataja, Leena; Lapinleimu, Helena; Lehtonen, Liisa

2013-01-01

426

The Case for a Realistic Beginning-Level Grammar Syllabus: The Round Peg in the Round Hole  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The time has come to create a realistic grammar syllabus in the beginning language courses. Yet why do some in the profession insist that all grammar must be taught in the first year of language learning? Abundant data from decades of research on topics such as human memory, chunking, and second language acquisition exist that overwhelmingly…

Heining-Boynton, Audrey L.

2010-01-01

427

Applying Conceptual Grammar to Advanced-Level Language Teaching: The Case of Two Completive Constructions in Korean  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article introduces conceptual grammar as an approach to the analysis and teaching of grammar in foreign and second language contexts through a combination of paradigms: corpus, discourse analysis, and cognitive linguistics. Although the approach is applicable to virtually any language and any construction within that language at various…

Strauss, Susan; Lee, Jihye; Ahn, Kyungja

2006-01-01

428

Cooperative Learning as a Correction and Grammar Revision Technique: Communicative Exchanges, Self-Correction Rates and Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper focuses on cooperative learning (CL) used as a correction and grammar revision technique and considers the data collected in six Italian parallel classes, three of which (sample classes) corrected mistakes and revised grammar through cooperative learning, while the other three (control classes) in a traditional way. All the classes…

Servetti, Sara

2010-01-01

429

Testing the Stem Dominance Hypothesis: Meaning Analysis of Inflected Words and Prepositional Phrases  

PubMed Central

We tested the hypothesis that lexical-semantic access of inflected words is governed by the word stem. Object drawings overlaid with a dot/arrow marking position/movement were matched with corresponding linguistic expressions like “from the house”. To test whether the stem dominates lexical-semantic access irrespective of its position, we used Swedish prepositional phrases (locative information via preposition immediately preceding the stem) or Finnish case-inflected words (locative information via suffix immediately following the stem). Both in monolingual Swedish and in bilingual Finnish-Swedish speakers, correct stems with incorrect prepositions/case-endings were hardest to reject. This finding supports the view that the stem is indeed the dominant unit in meaning access of inflected words. PMID:24676218

Lehtonen, Minna; Harrer, Gabor; Wande, Erling; Laine, Matti

2014-01-01

430

Automatic feature template generation for maximum entropy based intonational phrase break prediction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The prediction of intonational phrase (IP) breaks is important for both the naturalness and intelligibility of Text-to- Speech (TTS) systems. In this paper, we propose a maximum entropy (ME) model to predict IP breaks from unrestricted text, and evaluate various keyword selection approaches in different domains. Furthermore, we design a hierarchical clustering algorithm for automatic generation of feature templates, which minimizes the need for human supervision during ME model training. Results of comparative experiments show that, for the task of IP break prediction, ME model obviously outperforms classification and regression tree (CART), log-likelihood ratio is the best scoring measure of keyword selection, compared with manual templates, templates automatically generated by our approach greatly improves the F-score of ME based IP break prediction, and significantly reduces the size of ME model.

Zhou, You

2013-03-01

431

An exemplar model of performance in the artificial grammar task: holographic representation.  

PubMed

We apply a multitrace model of memory to explain performance in the artificial grammar task. The model blends the convolution method for representation from Jones and Mewhort's BEAGLE model (Jones, M. N., & Mewhort, D. J. K. (2007). Representing word meaning and order information in a composite holographic lexicon. Psychological Review, 114, 1-37) of semantic memory with the multitrace storage and retrieval model from Hintzman's MINERVA 2 model (Hintzman, D. L. (1986). "Schema abstraction" in a multiple-trace memory model. Psychological Review, 93, 411-428) of episodic memory. We report an artificial grammar experiment, and we fit the model to those data at the level of individual items. We argue that performance in the artificial grammar task is best understood as a process of retrospective inference from memory. PMID:22686158

Jamieson, Randall K; Hauri, Brian R

2012-06-01

432

The Pronoun Attraction Effect for D(iscourse)-Linked Phrases: Evidence from Speakers of a Null Subject Language  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Frazier and Clifton (2002) argue that a d(iscourse)-linked wh-phrase such as which boy attracts the reference of a pronoun in a subordinate clause. We translated Frazier and Clifton's materials from English into Romanian. Romanian is a pro-drop language in which null subjects are licensed by person and number agreement on the verb. We found that…

Diaconescu, Rodica Constanta; Goodluck, Helen

2004-01-01

433

Spelling-Error Tolerant, Order-Independent Pass-Phrases via the Damerau-Levenshtein String-Edit Distance Metric  

E-print Network

with the Damerau- Levenshtein string-edit distance metric to construct a case-insensitive pass-phrase system and Key Exchange (PAKE), Damerau- Levenshtein String-Edit Distance Metric, Usable Se- curity. 1-file compromise. In Section 2.1 we introduce the Damerau-Levenshtein distance metric, and provide further details

434

Does the Noun Phrase Accessibility Hierarchy Predict the Difficulty Order in the Acquisition of Japanese Relative Clauses?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although Keenan and Comrie's (1977) noun phrase accessibility hierarchy (NPAH) has been shown to predict the difficulty order of relative clauses (RCs) in SLA, most studies of the NPAH have been on European languages. This paper tests the prediction for Japanese. Study 1 analyzes RCs in an oral interview corpus from 90 learners of Japanese at four…

Ozeki, Hiromi; Shirai, Yasuhiro

2007-01-01

435

TO RECYCLE A PHRASE FROM THE TOURISM campaign of a few years ago, New Jersey, the phar-  

E-print Network

TO RECYCLE A PHRASE FROM THE TOURISM campaign of a few years ago, New Jersey, the phar- maceutical in her field who wished to work in New Jersey: petroleum and pharmaceuticals. For Pantano and manufactured under very stringent conditions. Providing critical expertise New Jersey is home

Bieber, Michael

436

Noun and Noun Phrase Stress: A Phonetic Study of English Supplemented with an Error Analysis Using Finnish Speaker-Hearers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Confirms previous observations about the tonal character of English stress. Notes that Finnish listeners relied on duration as the perceptual cue for noun/noun phrase distinction (blackbird/black bird), reflecting the absence of linguistic contrasts based on an active use of the larynx in standard Finnish stress and intonation. (Author/RL)

Niemi, Jussi

1979-01-01

437

Aphorisms and Short Phrases as Pieces of Knowledge in the Pedagogical Framework of the Andalusian School of Public Health  

PubMed Central

Background: Bearing in mind the philosophical pedagogical significance of short phrases for the training of researchers in the health care ambit, we hence have studied the aphorisms and striking phrases expressed during the epidemiology course at the Andalusian School of Public Health. Methods: Belonging to the qualitative type and applied through the establishment of a multidisciplinary focus group made up of ten post-graduated students, where one of them acted as a moderator. The collection of information lasted four months. Information was classified in two ways: Firstly, aphorisms and short phrases with a pedagogical impact; and secondly, data with statistical, epidemiological, epistemological, pragmatic, or heuristic component, and for scientific diffusion. It was decided to perform a triangulation that included a descriptive presentation and a basic categorical analysis. The two teachers with a highest interpretative load have been identified . Results: A total of 127 elements, regarded as of interest by the focus group, were collected. Forty-four of them (34.6%) were aphorisms, and 83 were short phrases with a pedagogical load (65.3%). Most of all them were classified as statistical elements (35.4%) followed by epistemological (21.3%) and epidemiological (15.7%) elements. There was no tendency towards aphorisms or short phrases (P > 0.05) among the teachers with more informative representation. Conclusion: There has been a tilt in the contents towards the statistical area to the detriment of the epidemiological one. Concept maps have visualized classifications. This sort of qualitative analysis helps the researcher review contents acquired during his/her training process. PMID:22448313

González-García, Lorena; Chemello, Clarice; García-Sánchez, Filomena; Serpa-Anaya, Delia C.; Gómez-González, Carmen; Soriano-Carrascosa, Leticia; Muñoz-de Rueda, Paloma; Moya-Molina, Miguel; Sánchez-García, Fernando; Ortega-Calvo, Manuel

2012-01-01

438

Constraining Spanish Surface Structure, York Papers in Linguistics 4.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article attempts to refute D.M. Perlmutter's claim that the syntactic component in Spanish grammar can generate structures that are grammatical at the deep structure level but not at the surface structure level, and that it is necessary to impose a surface structure constraint (SSC) as a filter to reject the ungrammatical structures. The…

Green, John N.

439

Corpus based learning of stochastic, context-free grammars combined with Hidden Markov Models for tRNA modelling.  

PubMed

In this paper, a new method for modelling tRNA secondary structures is presented. This method is based on the combination of stochastic context-free grammars (SCFG) and Hidden Markov Models (HMM). HMM are used to capture the local relations in the loops of the molecule (nonstructured regions) and SCFG are used to capture the long term relations between nucleotides of the arms (structured regions). Given annotated public databases, the HMM and SCFG models are learned by means of automatic inductive learning methods. Two SCFG learning methods have been explored. Both of them take advantage of the structural information associated with the training sequences: one of them is based on a stochastic version of the Sakakibara algorithm and the other one is based on a Corpus based algorithm. A final model is then obtained by merging of the HMM of the nonstructured regions and the SCFG of the structured regions. Finally, the performed experiments on the tRNA sequence corpus and the non-tRNA sequence corpus give significant results. Comparative experiments with another published method are also presented. PMID:18048138

Garcia-Gomez, Juan Miguel; Benedi, Jose Miguel; Vicente, Javier; Robles, Montserrat

2005-01-01

440

Using the Web To Practice and Learn Grammar: ESL Students' Perspectives.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses a study that took place in an intensive English program and focuses on an English-as-a-Second-language grammar course. Suggests that language learners benefit from Web-based materials but that they need ongoing training and technical support in using new and evolving resources. (Author/VWL)

Quesada, Allen

2000-01-01

441

Symbiotic Gesture and the Sociocognitive Visibility of Grammar in Second Language Acquisition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article argues for the embodied and environmentally embedded nature of second language acquisition (SLA). Through fine-grained analysis of interaction using Goodwin's (2003a) concept of "symbiotic gesture"--gesture coupled with its rich environmental context to produce complex social action--we illustrate how a tutor, learner, and grammar…

Churchill, Eton; Okada, Hanako; Nishino, Takako; Atkinson, Dwight

2010-01-01

442

Voice and Valence-Altering Operations in Falam Chin: A Role and Reference Grammar Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This dissertation describes and analyzes voice and valence-altering operations in Falam Chin, a Tibeto-Burman language of Burma. The data is explained within the framework of Role and Reference Grammar (RRG), which supplies several key concepts particularly useful for generalizing the behavior of the Falam Chin operations. The first is RRG's…

King, Deborah

2010-01-01

443

Student Views on Learning Grammar with Web- and Book-Based Materials  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports on a study which examined students' attitudes to learning grammar in autonomous contexts and their preferences for the learning materials with which to do so. In all, 38 students were surveyed and 13 of these then spent some time working in a language resource centre (LRC) with web- and paper-based materials. Students then…

Jarvis, Huw; Szymczyk, Marta

2010-01-01

444

Complexity of pattern generation via planar parallel binary fission\\/fusion grammars  

Microsoft Academic Search

In two previous works [74CGP,86CGP], we defined and studied a scheme for grammar-based generation of planar maps, using deterministic parallel (in the sense of Lindenmayer) derivation rules of tow types — binary splitting of countries (fission) and binary merging (fusion). Countries would be visualized as cells in applications to modeling the development of (planar) biological organisms, for example. We are

Jack W. Carlyle; Sheila A. Greibach; Azaria Paz

1986-01-01

445

The Effect of Intellectual Disability on the Adherence of Child Witnesses to a "Story Grammar" Framework  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: This study examined the ability of 78 children (aged 9-12 years) with an intellectual disability (ID) to provide a narrative account of a staged event they had participated in four days earlier. Method: The children were interviewed using open-ended questions. The quality of their responses (using a story grammar framework) was…

Murfett, Romana; Powell, Martine B.; Snow, Pamela C.

2008-01-01

446

The Leading-Edge: The Significance of Sentence Disruptions in the Development of Grammar.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explored the relationship between sentence disruptions and the length and complexity of sentences spoken by 26 typical children developing grammar. For most children, disrupted sentences tended to be longer and more complex than fluent sentences and the magnitude of the differences in length and complexity was positively correlated with…

Rispoli, Matthew; Hadley, Pamela

2001-01-01

447

Comparison of Grammar-Based and Statistical Language Models Trained on the Same Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents a methodologically sound comparison of the performance of grammar-based (GLM) and statistical-based (SLM) recognizer architectures using data from the Clarissa procedure navigator domain. The Regulus open source packages make this possible with a method for constructing a grammar-based language model by training on a corpus. We construct grammar-based and statistical language models from the same corpus for comparison, and find that the grammar-based language models provide better performance in this domain. The best SLM version has a semantic error rate of 9.6%, while the best GLM version has an error rate of 6.0%. Part of this advantage is accounted for by the superior WER and Sentence Error Rate (SER) of the GLM (WER 7.42% versus 6.27%, and SER 12.41% versus 9.79%). The rest is most likely accounted for by the fact that the GLM architecture is able to use logical-form-based features, which permit tighter integration of recognition and semantic interpretation.

Hockey, Beth Ann; Rfayner, Manny

2005-01-01

448

Corpus-Based Optimization of Language Models Derived from Unification Grammars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We describe a technique which makes it feasible to improve the performance of a language model derived from a manually constructed unification grammar, using low-quality untranscribed speech data and a minimum of human annotation. The method is on a medium-vocabulary spoken language command and control task.

Rayner, Manny; Hockey, Beth Ann; James, Frankie; Bratt, Harry; Bratt, Elizabeth O.; Gawron, Mark; Goldwater, Sharon; Dowding, John; Bhagat, Amrita

2000-01-01

449

ORIGINAL PAPER Rule learning by zebra finches in an artificial grammar learning  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL PAPER Rule learning by zebra finches in an artificial grammar learning task: which rule of syntactic rules. The natural vocalizations of animals are syntactically simple, but several studies indicate following a `first and last identical versus different' rule that could not be solved by attending

Indiana University

450

Artificial Grammar Learning in Primary School Children with and without Developmental Dyslexia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper explores implicit learning in typically developing and primary school children (9-12 years old) with developmental dyslexia using an artificial grammar learning (AGL) task. Two experiments were conducted, which differed in time of presentation and nature of the instructional set (experiment 1-implicit instructions vs experiment…

Pavlidou, Elpis V.; Williams, Joanne M.; Kelly, Louise M.

2009-01-01

451

Grammar and Student Portfolios; Self-Evaluation and Pride in Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses using portfolios to evaluate the writing, vocabulary, and grammar of students with deafness. Describes the steps for student development and assembly of their portfolios for presentation and review. Also highlights student participation in the assessment of the portfolios and the benefits of portfolios. (CR)

Reed, Candi Mascia

1997-01-01

452

Foreign-Language Quotations and Code-Switching: the Grammar Behind Philippe De Brabanter  

E-print Network

Jean Nicod-CNRS, France phdebrab@yahoo.co.uk In this paper, I wish to look into a minor languageForeign-Language Quotations and Code-Switching: the Grammar Behind Philippe De Brabanter Institut-contact phenomenon -- foreign-language quotations -- and explore its connections to a widely studied language

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

453

Learning of Grammar-Like Visual Sequences by Adults with and without Language-Learning Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Two studies examined learning of grammar-like visual sequences to determine whether a general deficit in statistical learning characterizes this population. Furthermore, we tested the hypothesis that difficulty in sustaining attention during the learning task might account for differences in statistical learning. Method: In Study 1,…

Aguilar, Jessica M.; Plante, Elena

2014-01-01

454

From acoustics to grammar: Perceiving and interpreting grammatical prosody in adolescents with Asperger Syndrome  

E-print Network

with Asperger Syndrome Coralie Chevallier1 , Ira Noveck1 , Francesca Happé2 , Deirdre Wilson3, 4 Accepted the understanding of prosody in Asperger Syndrome (AS), a topic which has attracted little attention and led prosody is spared in Asperger Syndrome. Keywords: Asperger Syndrome; Prosody; Grammar; Language. #12;It

Institut des Sciences Cognitives, CNRS

455

Tuvan Manual: Area Handbook, Grammar, Reader, Glossary, Bibliography. Indiana University Uralic and Altaic Series, Vol. 126.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual on Tuva consists of the following: (1) an area handbook; (2) a grammar; (3) a reader; (4) a Tuvan-English glossary; and (5) an annotated bibliography. Part one contains the following articles: (1) "Tuva," by M. Underdown; (2) "The Tuvinian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic," translated by W. Dougherty; (3) "The Tuvans," by L. P.…

Krueger, John R.

456

Becoming Self-Editors: Using Metacognition to Improve Students' Grammar Knowledge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A few weeks into the marking period, the author's eighth-grade students took an all-essay literature test. While grading the tests, she noticed that students made many grammatical errors. It seemed clear that a new approach to grammar instruction was necessary. Staring at this stack of essay tests draws the author in to the concept of…

Annable, Jill

2012-01-01

457

An Evaluation of Computer-Assisted Instruction for English Grammar Review.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The use of computer assisted instruction (CAI) at Indiana University to provide basic grammar review to beginning writing students, and the results of an evaluation of the PLATO system as a learning resource are described. At the time of the evaluation, the CAI curriculum in use was the Language Arts Routing System (LARS). The evaluation involved…

Oates, William

1981-01-01

458

De l'enseignement de la grammaire par l'Internet (Grammar Instruction using the Internet).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines pedagogical advantages and limitations of the Internet for teaching French grammar, and shows how these factors were taken into consideration in creating a Web site at the University of Alberta (Canada), with special emphasis on the integration of exchanges between learners, and exchanges between learners and the virtual francophone…

Beaudoin, Martin

1998-01-01

459

Metacognitive differences between skilled and less skilled readers: Remediating deficits through story grammar and attribution training  

Microsoft Academic Search

Designed a metacognitive intervention program to remediate the failures of 42 4th-grade boys in using metacognitive skills to aid their reading comprehension. The program consisted of 2 components: story grammar training, designed to increase comprehension monitoring; and attribution training, designed to increase awareness of effort in efficient reading. Ss were assigned to 3 groups: 1 group received both components and

Elizabeth J. Short; Ellen B. Ryan

1984-01-01

460

Effect of Instruction in Story Grammar on the Narrative Writing of EFL Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study investigated the effects of explicit versus implicit instruction in story grammar on the narrative writing skills of English-as-a-Foreign-Language (EFL) students at the university level. Subjects were 83 freshmen enrolled in English at the Faculty of Education at Suez Canal University (Egypt). The subjects were randomly assigned to…

El-Koumy, Abdel Salam A.

461

Mutation Testing implements Grammar-Based Testing Jeff Offutt and Paul Ammann  

E-print Network

Mutation Testing implements Grammar-Based Testing Jeff Offutt and Paul Ammann Information, Switzerland ling.liu@inf.ethz.ch Abstract This paper presents an abstract view of mutation analy- sis. Mutation was originally thought of as making changes to program source, but similar kinds of changes have

Offutt, Jeff

462

Essentials of English Grammar: A Practical Guide to the Mastery of English. Second Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intended to be a guide, this book can serve as a handy reference to grammar, usage, and style for the person who needs an easy-to-use, reliable source to answer specific questions about the English language. In clear, concise terms, with lively examples, the new edition of the book provides general usage rules for parts of speech, punctuation,…

Baugh, L. Sue

463

Grammar as Style: A Better Approach to the Concept of Error.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two areas of study in the composition field, grammar and style, have fallen below the critical and professional radar, left to the handbook writers, old-school theorists, and secondary educators. Though a few voices remain, their conspicuous absence in the scholarly journals and at professional conferences clearly suggests that the field has moved…

Edwards, David

464

Typological Asymmetries in Round Vowel Harmony: Support from Artificial Grammar Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Providing evidence for the universal tendencies of patterns in the world's languages can be difficult, as it is impossible to sample all possible languages, and linguistic samples are subject to interpretation. However, experimental techniques, such as artificial grammar learning paradigms, make it possible to uncover the psychological reality of…

Finley, Sara

2012-01-01

465

Grammar as an Emergent Property of the Human Brain Lee McCauley  

E-print Network

in the ancestors of modern humans. (Calvin 1998) One explanation for the incredible fact of our existence may1 Grammar as an Emergent Property of the Human Brain Lee McCauley The University of Memphis t-mccauley@memphis.edu Introduction Language is one of the most studied and debated issues in human cognition. It is also the human

McCauley, Thomas

466

The Effect of Direct Instruction Model on Intermediate Class Achievement and Attitudes toward English Grammar  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was aimed at investigating the effect of the direct instruction model on intermediate class achievement and attitudes toward English grammar. It was an experimental study and the purpose was to explore the relative effectiveness of instructional methodology (independent variable) on students' achievement and attitude (dependent…

Kousar, Rubina

2010-01-01

467

Large Lexicons for Natural Language Processing: Utilising the Grammar Coding System of LDOCE  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article focusses on the derivation of large lexicons for natural language processing. We describe the development of a dictionary support environment linking a restructured version of the Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English to natural language processing systems. The process of restructuring the information in the machine readable version of the dictionary is discussed. The Longman grammar code system is

Branimir Boguraev; Ted Briscoe

1987-01-01

468

"No Study so Agreeable to the Youthful Mind": Geographical Education in the Georgian Grammar School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The conservativeness of Georgian grammar schools used to be emphasised; however, as the case of geography teaching shows, this picture is complex with the growth of British trade and empire and the requirements of polite society and culture fostering a demand for "modern" subjects. Drawing on work in the history of education, Georgian society and…

Elliott, Paul; Daniels, Stephen

2010-01-01

469

Sociolinguistic Priming and the Perception of Agreement Variation: Testing Predictions of Exemplar-Theoretic Grammar  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This dissertation investigates the sociolinguistic perception of morphosyntactic variation and is motivated by exemplar-based approaches to grammar. The study uses syntactic priming experiments to test the effects of participants' exposure to subject-verb agreement variants. Experiments also manipulate the gender, social status, and individual…

Squires, Lauren M.

2011-01-01

470

Computational Intelligence, Volume xx, Number 000, 2009 Molecular event extraction from Link Grammar parse trees  

E-print Network

and Economics, 1117 Budapest, Hungary Domonkos Tikk, Quang Long Nguyen, Ulf Leser Humbolt-Universit¨at zu Berlin character of extracted statements. We first parse documents using Link Grammar (BioLG) and store the parse trees in a database. Events are extracted using a newly developed query language with traverses the BioLG

Baral, Chitta

471

Aboriginal and Islander Grammars: Collected Papers. Work Papers of SIL-AAB, Series A, Volume 9.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Six papers on Australian Aboriginal and Islander grammars include: "Repetition of Tiwi at Clause Level" (Marie P. Godfrey); "Iwaidja Verbal Clauses" (Noreen Pym); "Murinbata Noun Clauses" (Chester S. Street); "Clauses in Kala Lagaw Ya" (Rod Kennedy); "Kalaw Kawaw Verbs" (Rod Kennedy); and "Kalaw Kawaw Verbs: Speaker Perspective and Tense, Mood,…

Ray, S., Ed.

472

Information Aesthetics Showcase SIGGRAPH 2009 Multiscale Meta Shape Grammar Objects for  

E-print Network

Information Aesthetics Showcase SIGGRAPH 2009 16 Multiscale Meta Shape Grammar Objects for "...a grain of sand turns the balance" and ATLAS in silico This aesthetically impelled work explores the use. These images and sculptures are a subset of a vast aesthetically impelled in silico atlas. They were created

Schulze, Jürgen P.

473

Using Conceptual Metaphor and Functional Grammar to Explore How Language Used in Physics Affects Student Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper introduces a theory about the role of language in learning physics. The theory is developed in the context of physics students and physicists talking and writing about the subject of quantum mechanics. We found that physicists' language encodes different varieties of analogical models through the use of grammar and conceptual metaphor.…

Brookes, David T.; Etkina, Eugenia

2007-01-01

474

Automatic Induction of N-Gram Language Models from a Natural Language Grammar1  

E-print Network

Automatic Induction of N-Gram Language Models from a Natural Language Grammar1 Stephanie Seneff work in developing a technique which can automatically generate class n-gram language models from the standard class n-gram framework for compu- tational efficiency. Moreover, both the n-gram classes and train

475

The Relationship between Traditional English Grammar Teaching and Communicative Language Teaching  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reconsiders the functions of the traditional English grammar teaching and the communicative language teaching. Through analysis and practice, we think that they are not opposed to each other. In order to improve the students' ability and gain better teaching results, the two kinds of teaching approaches should not be used respectively.…

Li, Zhong-guo; Song, Min-yan

2007-01-01

476

The Effects of Age on Second Language Grammar and Speech Production  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study examined the age of learning effect on second language (L2) acquisition. The research goals of the study were twofold: to test whether there is an independent age effect controlling for other potentially confounding variables, and to clarify the age effect across L2 grammar and speech production domains. The study included 118…

Huang, Becky H.

2014-01-01

477

Using a Grammar Checker for Evaluation and Postprocessing of Statistical Machine Translation  

E-print Network

metrics and by a human error analysis. These results indicate that grammar checker techniques are a useful- oped to find errors in texts produced by humans, but in this study we investigate if they can also analysis on SMT output. A human error analysis showed that the corrections were successful in most cases

Ahrenberg, Lars

478

Somewhere over the Border: Grammar in a Class of Its Own  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Grammar Gang blog has now passed its fourth anniversary as a borderless, non-proprietary language and learning online classroom. It gives wing to the aspirations of academic staff from four universities to explore language and learning across hemispheres. The Blog's recent birthday provides a timely opportunity to explore how this…

Duff, Andrea; Miller, Julia; Johnston, Helen; Bergmann, Linda S.

2012-01-01

479

Grammar as a Gateway into Discourse: A Systemic Functional Approach to Subject, Theme, and Logic  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper illustrates grammar as a meaning-making resource for early intermediate to advanced adult learners. It focuses on the environment of clause complexing, where different functions, such as Subject and Theme, are unified to construct a rhetorically oriented language logic. The paper suggests that learners' awareness of this logic offers a…

Teruya, Kazuhiro

2009-01-01

480

A Novel Format for Teaching Spanish Grammar: Lessons from the Lecture Hall  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes a third-year Spanish grammar course that is taught in lecture/discussion format. The course, which enrolls over 150 students each semester, provides explicit instruction during a weekly lecture and opportunities for students to engage in meaningful output and interaction during small group discussion sessions. The goal is to…

Zyzik, Eve

2008-01-01

481

Textual, Genre and Social Features of Spoken Grammar: A Corpus-Based Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes a corpus-based approach to teaching and learning spoken grammar for English for Academic Purposes with reference to Bhatia's (2002) multi-perspective model for discourse analysis: a textual perspective, a genre perspective and a social perspective. From a textual perspective, corpus-informed instruction helps students identify…

Perez-Llantada, Carmen

2009-01-01

482

Knowing English Grammar--An Important Aid in Second Language Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses a small-scale study that explored students', teachers', and university lecturers' beliefs about the value of studying English grammar in foreign and second language learning. A major debate in second language acquisition literature has been concerned with experiential (implicit) learning as opposed to analytical (explicit)…

Cleary, Colin

2004-01-01

483

Straight on through to Universal Grammar: Spatial Modifiers in Second Language Acquisition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There has been considerable progress in second language (L2) research at the syntax-semantics interface addressing how syntax can inform phrasal semantics, in terms of interpretive correlates of word order (Slabakova, 2008). This article provides evidence of a flow of information ostensibly in the opposite direction, from meaning to grammar, at…

Stringer, David; Burghardt, Beatrix; Seo, Hyun-Kyoung; Wang, Yi-Ting

2011-01-01

484

North Slope Inupiaq Grammar, Second Year (Preliminary Edition for Student Use Only).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The second-year grammar of Inupiaq, an Eskimo language spoken in northwestern Alaska, contains six chapters on these grammatical constructions: contemporative I mood; operative-imperative and negative contemporative moods; demonstrative adverbs in locative, vialis, ablative, and terminalis; transitive "present" and "past" tense verb endings of the…

MacLean, Edna Ahgeak

485

North Slope Inupiaq Grammar, First Year. Third Edition, Revised, with Supplement: North Slope Inupiaq Dialogues.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The text covers the phonology and grammar of the variety of Inupiaq, an Eskimo language, spoken in northwestern Alaska. A introductory section explains and maps the geographic distribution of Inupiaq dialects. Subsequent chapters address these topics: pronunciation; phonological processes in Inupiaq; Inupiaq morphology; intransitive verbs;…

MacLean, Edna Ahgeak

486

Cross-Over Phenomena; A Study in the Grammar of Coreference.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper is a study in the grammar of coreference. A wide variety of evidence is presented which shows that the distribution of nominal expressions in English sentences if subject to previously unsuspected constraints involving coreference. Principles are suggested which explain a large number of such cases in terms of general restrictions on…

Postal, Paul M.

487

THE BACON not the bacon: How children and adults understand accented and unaccented noun phrases  

PubMed Central

Two eye-tracking experiments examine whether adults and 4 and 5 year old children use the presence or absence of accenting to guide their interpretation of noun phrases (e.g., the bacon) with respect to the discourse context. Unaccented nouns tend to refer to contextually accessible referents, while accented variants tend to be used for less accessible entities. Experiment 1 confirms that accenting is informative for adults, who show a bias toward previously-mentioned objects beginning 300 msec after the onset of unaccented nouns and pronouns. But contrary to findings in the literature, accented words produced no observable bias. In Experiment 2, 4 and 5 year olds were also biased toward previously-mentioned objects with unaccented nouns and pronouns. This builds on findings of limits on children’s on-line reference comprehension (Arnold, Brown-Schmidt, & Trueswell, in press), showing that children’s interpretation of unaccented nouns and pronouns is constrained in contexts with one single highly accessible object. PMID:18358460

Arnold, Jennifer E.

2008-01-01

488

Comprehension of Elided Phrases in Korean and English: VP-Ellipsis, Null Object Constructions, and One-Substitution  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study is to experimentally investigate the comprehension of elided phrases in Korean and English, focusing on the patterns exemplified below. (1) Korean a. VP-ellipsis: Sungki-ka phalan kabang-ul sa-ss-e-yo. Sunhuy-to-yey-yo Sungki-NOM blue bag-ACC buy-PST-DECL-POL Sunhuy-also-be-POL "Sungki bought a blue bag. Sunhuy did…

Kim, Jinsook

2012-01-01

489

Harmonic analysis of music using combinatory categorial grammar   

E-print Network

Various patterns of the organization of Western tonal music exhibit hierarchical structure, among them the harmonic progressions underlying melodies and the metre underlying rhythmic patterns. Recognizing these structures ...

Granroth-Wilding, Mark Thomas; Wilding, Mark Thomas Granroth

2013-11-28

490

The source ambiguity problem: Distinguishing the effects of grammar and processing on acceptability judgments  

PubMed Central

Judgments of linguistic unacceptability may theoretically arise from either grammatical deviance or significant processing difficulty. Acceptability data are thus naturally ambiguous in theories that explicitly distinguish formal and functional constraints. Here, we consider this source ambiguity problem in the context of Superiority effects: the dispreference for ordering a wh-phrase in front of a syntactically “superior” wh-phrase in multiple wh-questions, e.g. What did who buy? More specifically, we consider the acceptability contrast between such examples and so-called D-linked examples, e.g. Which toys did which parents buy? Evidence from acceptability and self-paced reading experiments demonstrates that (i) judgments and processing times for Superiority violations vary in parallel, as determined by the kind of wh-phrases they contain, (ii) judgments increase with exposure while processing times decrease, (iii) reading times are highly predictive of acceptability judgments for the same items, and (iv) the effects of the complexity of the wh-phrases combine in both acceptability judgments and reading times. This evidence supports the conclusion that D-linking effects are likely reducible to independently motivated cognitive mechanisms whose effects emerge in a wide range of sentence contexts. This in turn suggests that Superiority effects, in general, may owe their character to differential processing difficulty.* PMID:23539204

Hofmeister, Philip; Jaeger, T. Florian; Arnon, Inbal; Sag, Ivan A.; Snider, Neal

2012-01-01

491

Development and evaluation of RapTAT: a machine learning system for concept mapping of phrases from medical narratives.  

PubMed

Rapid, automated determination of the mapping of free text phrases to pre-defined concepts could assist in the annotation of clinical notes and increase the speed of natural language processing systems. The aim of this study was to design and evaluate a token-order-specific naïve Bayes-based machine learning system (RapTAT) to predict associations between phrases and concepts. Performance was assessed using a reference standard generated from 2860 VA discharge summaries containing 567,520 phrases that had been mapped to 12,056 distinct Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine - Clinical Terms (SNOMED CT) concepts by the MCVS natural language processing system. It was also assessed on the manually annotated, 2010 i2b2 challenge data. Performance was established with regard to precision, recall, and F-measure for each of the concepts within the VA documents using bootstrapping. Within that corpus, concepts identified by MCVS were broadly distributed throughout SNOMED CT, and the token-order-specific language model achieved better performance based on precision, recall, and F-measure (0.95±0.15, 0.96±0.16, and 0.95±0.16, respectively; mean±SD) than the bag-of-words based, naïve Bayes model (0.64±0.45, 0.61±0.46, and 0.60±0.45, respectively) that has previously been used for concept mapping. Precision, recall, and F-measure on the i2b2 test set were 92.9%, 85.9%, and 89.2% respectively, using the token-order-specific model. RapTAT required just 7.2ms to map all phrases within a single discharge summary, and mapping rate did not decrease as the number of processed documents increased. The high performance attained by the tool in terms of both accuracy and speed was encouraging, and the mapping rate should be sufficient to support near-real-time, interactive annotation of medical narratives. These results demonstrate the feasibility of rapidly and accurately mapping phrases to a wide range of medical concepts based on a token-order-specific naïve Bayes model and machine learning. PMID:24316051

Gobbel, Glenn T; Reeves, Ruth; Jayaramaraja, Shrimalini; Giuse, Dario; Speroff, Theodore; Brown, Steven H; Elkin, Peter L; Matheny, Michael E

2014-04-01

492

The pace of prosodic phrasing couples the listener's cortex to the reader's voice.  

PubMed

We studied online coupling between a reader's voice and a listener's cortical activity using a novel, ecologically valid continuous listening paradigm. Whole-scalp magnetoencephalographic (MEG) signals were recorded from 10 right-handed, native French-speaking listeners in four conditions: a female (Exp1f) and a male (Exp1m) reading the same text in French; a male reading a text in Finnish (Exp 2), a language incomprehensible for the subjects, and a male humming Exp1 text (Exp 3). The fundamental frequency (f0) of the reader's voice was recorded with an accelerometer attached to the throat, and coherence was computed between f0 time-course and listener's MEG. Similar levels of right-hemisphere-predominant coherence were found at ˜0.5 Hz in Exps 1-3. Dynamic imaging of coherent sources revealed that the most coherent brain regions were located in the right posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) and posterior superior temporal gyrus (pSTG) in Exps 1-2 and in the right supratemporal auditory cortex in Exp 3. Comparison between speech rhythm and phrasing suggested a connection of the observed coherence to pauses at the sentence level both in the spoken and hummed text. These results demonstrate significant coupling at ?0.5 Hz between reader's voice and listener's cortical signals during listening to natural continuous voice. The observed coupling suggests that voice envelope fluctuations, due to prosodic rhythmicity at the phrasal and sentence levels, are reflected in the listener's cortex as rhythmicity of about 2-s cycles. The predominance of the coherence in the right pSTS and pSTG suggests hemispherical asymmetry in processing of speech sounds at subsentence time scales. PMID:22392861

Bourguignon, Mathieu; De Tiège, Xavier; de Beeck, Marc Op; Ligot, Noémie; Paquier, Philippe; Van Bogaert, Patrick; Goldman, Serge; Hari, Riitta; Jousmäki, Veikko

2013-02-01

493

Modeling Graph Languages with Grammars Extracted via Tree Decompositions  

E-print Network

, but there is increasing in- terest in more general graph-shaped structures since they seem to be bet- ter suited for representing natural lan- guage semantics, ontologies, or other varieties of knowledge structures. How- ever for representing semantic structures, since a single concept could play multiple roles within a sentence

Edinburgh, University of

494

Universal Grammar and Biological Variation: An EvoDevo Agenda for Comparative Biolinguistics.  

PubMed

Recent advances in genetics and neurobiology have greatly increased the degree of variation that one finds in what is taken to provide the biological foundations of our species-specific linguistic capacities. In particular, this variation seems to cast doubt on the purportedly homogeneous nature of the language faculty traditionally captured by the concept of "Universal Grammar." In this article we discuss what this new source of diversity reveals about the biological reality underlying Universal Grammar. Our discussion leads us to support (1) certain hypotheses advanced in evolutionary developmental biology that argue for the existence of robust biological mechanisms capable of canalizing variation at different levels, and (2) a bottom-up perspective on comparative cognition. We conclude by sketching future directions for what we call "comparative biolinguistics," specifying which experimental directions may help us succeed in this new research avenue. PMID:24955079

Benítez-Burraco, Antonio; Boeckx, Cedric

2014-01-01

495

Semantic Network Language Generation based on a Semantic Networks Serialization Grammar  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper studies the Semantic Network Language Generation (SNLG), which is used to generate natural language from the information\\u000a represented as Semantic Networks (SN). After a brief analysis of the challenges faced by SNLG, a Semantic Network Serialization\\u000a Grammar (SNSG) is proposed to generate natural language from semantic networks. The SNSG is constituted by four components:\\u000a (a) a semantic pattern

Yintang Dai; Shiyong Zhang; Jidong Chen; Tianyuan Chen; Wei Zhang

2010-01-01

496

Annotating Wall Street Journal Texts Using a Hand-Crafted Deep Linguistic Grammar  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an on-going effort which aims to annotate the Wall Street Journal sections of the Penn Treebank with the help of a hand-written large-scale and wide-coverage grammar of English. In do- ing so, we are not only focusing on the various stages of the semi-automated an- notation process we have adopted, but we are also showing that rich

Valia Kordoni; Yi Zhang

2009-01-01

497

A Procedure for Quantitatively Comparing the Syntactic Coverage of English Grammars  

Microsoft Academic Search

sentences. For instance, the grammars of Steve Abney (Bellcore), Ezra Black (IBM), Dan Flickinger (IIewlett Packard), Claudia Gdaniec (Logos), Ralph Grishman and Tomek Strzalkowski (NYU), Phil Harrison (Boe-ing), Don tfindle (AT&T), Bob Ingria (BBN), and Mitch Marcus (U. of Pennsylvania) recognize in com-mon only the following constituents, when each gram-marian provides the single parse which he\\/she would ideally want his\\/her

Ezra Black; Steven P. Abney; D. Flickenger; Claudia Gdaniec; Ralph Grishman; P. Harrison; Donald Hindle; Robert Ingria; Frederick Jelinek; Judith L. Klavans; Mark Liberman; Mitchell P. Marcus; Salim Roukos; Beatrice Santorini; Tomek Strzalkowski

1991-01-01

498

MDLBased ContextFree Graph Grammar Induction Istvan Jonyer, Lawrence B. Holder and Diane J. Cook  

E-print Network

MDL­Based Context­Free Graph Grammar Induction Istvan Jonyer, Lawrence B. Holder and Diane J. Cook­ theoretic approach, or expression approach (Nagl 1987). Here a graph is a pair of sets G = #V, E where V is the set of vertices or nodes, and E Í V � V is the set of edges. Production rules are of the form

Holder, Lawrence B.

499

Neural Processing of Repetition and Non-Repetition Grammars in 7- and 9-Month-Old Infants  

PubMed Central

An essential aspect of infant language development involves the extraction of meaningful information from a continuous stream of auditory input. Studies have identified early abilities to differentiate auditory input along various dimensions, including the presence or absence of structural regularities. In newborn infants, frontal and temporal regions were found to respond differentially to these regularities (Gervain et al., 2008), and in order to examine the development of this abstract rule learning we presented 7- and 9-month-old infants with syllables containing an ABB pattern (e.g., “balolo”) or an ABC pattern (e.g., “baloti”) and measured activity in left and right lateral brain regions using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). While prior newborn work found increases in oxyhemoglobin (oxyHb) activity in response to ABB blocks as compared to ABC blocks in anterior regions, 7- and 9-month-olds showed no differentiation between grammars in oxyHb. However, changes in deoxyhemoglobin (deoxyHb) pointed to a developmental shift, whereby 7-month-olds showed deoxyHb responding significantly different from zero for ABB blocks, but not ABC blocks, and 9-month-olds showed the opposite pattern, with deoxyHb responding significantly different from zero for the ABC blocks but not the ABB blocks. DeoxyHb responses were more pronounced over anterior regions. A grammar by time interaction also illustrated that during the early blocks, deoxyHb was significantly greater to ABC than in later blocks, but there was no change in ABB activation over time. The shift from stronger activation to ABB in newborns (Gervain et al., 2008) and 7-month-olds in the present study to stronger activation to ABC by 9-month-olds here is discussed in terms of changes in stimulus salience and novelty preference over the first year of life. The present discussion also highlights the importance of future work exploring the coupling between oxyHb and deoxyHb activation in infant NIRS studies. PMID:21811483

Wagner, Jennifer B.; Fox, Sharon E.; Tager-Flusberg, Helen; Nelson, Charles A.

2011-01-01

500

The Role of Communicative Goals in the Structuring of Conversation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on a study of telephone calls to the hotline service at WordPerfect Danmark. 1 Even though the structure of the hotline telephone conversations can be described by something like a grammar, their structure is not linguistic like that of a sentence. Rather, the structure of the central problem solving phase of the conversations is due to its

Ole Ravnholt