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1

Processing English with a Generalized Phrase Structure Grammar  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a natural language processing system implemented at Hewlett-Packard's Computer Research Center. The system's main components are: a Generalized Phrase Structure Grammar (GPSG); a top-down parser; a logic transducer that outputs a first-order logical representation; and a \\

Jean Mark Gawron; Jonathan King; John Lamping; Egon Loebner; E. Anne Paulson; Geoffrey K. Pullum; Ivan A. Sag; Thomas Wasow

1982-01-01

2

Head-driven Phrase Structure Grammar  

Microsoft Academic Search

e and typing tostate-of-the-art linguistic analyses. It also complements the more theoretically orientedworks of Carpenter (1992) and Keller (1993) on typed-feature structures and their logic.So, although its intended audience is clearly primarily linguists, this book is essentialreading for anybody interested in building an NLP system with a nontrivial syntacticcomponent. All the more so, since Pollard and Sag, in order to

Carl Pollard; Ivan A. Sag; John Nerbonne; Klaus Netter

1994-01-01

3

Learning Grammars for Noun Phrase Extraction by Partition Search  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes an application of Grammar Learning by Partition Search to noun phrase extraction, an essential tas k in information extraction and many other NLP applications. Grammar Learning by Partition Search is a general method for automatically constructing grammars for a range of parsing tasks; it constructs an optim ised probabilistic context-free grammar by searching a spa ce of

Anja Belz

2002-01-01

4

The UOT System: Improve String-to-Tree Translation Using Head-Driven Phrase Structure Grammar and Predicate-Argument Structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the UOT Machine Translation System that was used in the IWSLT-09 evaluation campaign. This year, we participated in the BTEC track for Chinese-to-English trans- lation. Our system is based on a string-to-tree framework. To integrate deep syntactic information, we propose the use of parse trees and semantic dependencies on English sen- tences described respectively by Head-driven Phrase Struc-

Xianchao Wu; Takuya Matsuzaki; Naoaki Okazaki; Yusuke Miyao

5

Automatic Acquisition of Phrase Grammars for Stochastic Language Modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phrase-based language models have been recognized to have an advantage over word-based language models since they allow us to capture long span- ning dependencies. Class based language models have been used to improve model generalization and overcome problems with data sparseness. In this pa- per, we present a novel approach for combining the phrase acquisition with class construction process to

Giuseppe Riccardi; Srinivas Bangalore

6

Children's knowledge of hierarchical phrase structure: quantifier floating in Japanese.  

PubMed

The interpretation of floating quantifiers in Japanese requires knowledge of hierarchical phrase structure. However, the input to children is insufficient or even misleading, as our analysis indicates. This presents an intriguing question on learnability: do children interpret floating quantifiers based on a structure-dependent rule which is not obvious in the input or do they employ a sentence comprehension strategy based on the available input? Two experiments examined four- to six-year-old Japanese-speaking children for their interpretations of floating quantifiers in SOV and OSV sentences. The results revealed that no child employed a comprehension strategy in terms of the linear ordering of constituents, and most five- and six-year-olds correctly interpreted floating quantifiers when word-order difficulty was reduced. These facts indicate that children's interpretation of floating quantifiers is structurally dependent on hierarchical phrase structure, suggesting that this knowledge is a part of children's grammar despite the insufficient input available to them. PMID:22850618

Suzuki, Takaaki; Yoshinaga, Naoko

2012-07-31

7

Gender and Heritage Spanish Bilingual Grammars: A Study of Code-Mixed Determiner Phrases and Copula Constructions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The study examined heritage speaker grammars and to what extent they diverge with respect to grammatical gender from adult L2 learners. Results from a preference task involving code-mixed Determiner Phrases (DPs) and code-mixed copula constructions show a difference between these two types of operations. Heritage speakers patterned with the…

Valenzuela, Elena; Faure, Ana; Ramirez-Trujillo, Alma P.; Barski, Ewelina; Pangtay, Yolanda; Diez, Adriana

2012-01-01

8

Notes on noun phrase structure in Tagalog  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents some observations on the syntax and semantics of the Tagalog phrase marking particles ang, ng, and sa. While there is some evidence for the widely held view that the phrase marking particles form a kind of paradigm in that they are at least in partial complementary distribution, they differ significantly in their distributional characteristics. Consequently, it will

Nikolaus P. Himmelmann

2002-01-01

9

Teaching Grammar: Is Structural Linguistics Really Better?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses the continuing controversy over how to teach grammar. Finds that the traditional, structural, and transformational approaches each have their strengths and weaknesses, with none clearly better than the others. Suggests that the teaching of grammar, while not the key to improvement in written English, will always have a place in the…

Gann, Marjorie

1984-01-01

10

Compiler structure engineering with attribute grammars  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper are discussed the concepts of a compiler structure design system and its prototype implementation.In order to obtain the pass structure based on the properties of the deterministic left to right evaluable attribute grammars we use short path algorithms for directed graphs. An algorithm for assignment of attributes to separate passes is shown. We propose a method for

Ilka Miloucheva; Hans Loeper

1991-01-01

11

Development and Validation of a Diagnostic Grammar Test for Japanese Learners of English  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article reports on the development and validation of the English Diagnostic Test of Grammar (EDiT Grammar) for Japanese learners of English. From among the many aspects of grammar, this test focuses on the knowledge of basic English noun phrases (NPs), especially their internal structures, because previous research has indicated the…

Koizumi, Rie; Sakai, Hideki; Ido, Takahiro; Ota, Hiroshi; Hayama, Megumi; Sato, Masatoshi; Nemoto, Akiko

2011-01-01

12

Modeling RNA tertiary structure motifs by graph-grammars  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new approach, graph-grammars, to encode RNA tertiary structure patterns is introduced and exemplified with the classical sarcin-ricin motif. The sarcin-ricin motif is found in the stem of the crucial ribosomal loop E (also referred to as the sarcin-ricin loop), which is sensitive to the a-sarcin and ricin toxins. Here, we generate a graph- grammar for the sarcin-ricin motif and

Karine St-Onge; Philippe Thibault; Sylvie Hamel; Francois Major

2007-01-01

13

Language switching in the production of phrases.  

PubMed

The language switching task has provided a useful insight into how bilinguals produce language. So far, however, the studies using this method have been limited to lexical access. The present study provides empirical evidence on language switching in the production of simple grammar structures. In the reported experiment, Polish-English unbalanced bilinguals switched between their L1 and L2 while describing pictures of ongoing and completed actions with simple SV progressive and perfective phrases. The results show asymmetrical switching costs for progressive phrases and symmetrical switching costs with reversed dominance for perfective phrases. These findings parallel those obtained in tasks requiring the production of single words, although the present study is the first in which the same bilingual participants display different patterns of switching costs depending on the characteristics of utterances they produce. These results can be explained using recently developed models of bilingual language control. PMID:22450881

Tarlowski, Andrzej; Wodniecka, Zofia; Marzecová, Anna

2013-04-01

14

Treebank-Based Acquisition of a Chinese Lexical-Functional Grammar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scaling wide-coverage, constraint-based grammars such as Lexical-Functional Grammars (LFG) (Kaplan and Bresnan, 1982; Bresnan, 2001) or Head-Driven Phrase Structure Grammars (HPSG) (Pollard and Sag, 1994) from fragments to naturally occurring unrestricted text is knowledge-intensive, time-consuming and (often prohibitively) expensive. A number of researchers have recently presented methods to automatically acquire wide-coverage, probabilistic constraint-based grammatical resources from treebanks (Cahill et al.,

Michael BURKE; Olivia LAM; Aoife CAHILL; Rowena CHAN; Ruth O'DONOVAN; Adams BODOMO; Josef van GENABITH

2004-01-01

15

The Internet Grammar of English  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Written and designed for undergraduate students, the Internet Grammar of English (IGE) explains the functions and relations of word classes in English sentences, in order to teach readers the principles and rules governing grammatical structure. The IGE consists of an introduction and five chapters: Word Classes, Introducing Phrases, Clauses and Sentences, Form and Function, and Functions in Phrases. A series of three dozen interactive exercises correspond to the lessons in the grammar. The IGE is extremely easy to navigate and may be used as a reference source as well as an instructional tool. It includes a detailed table of contents, a glossary of terms, and a complete index. Moreover, the entire site is searchable by keyword. The IGE was produced by the Survey of English Usage, a research team within the English Department of the University College London.

16

Structural selection in implicit learning of artificial grammars  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the contextual cueing paradigm, Endo and Takeda (in Percept Psychophys 66:293–302, 2004) provided evidence that implicit learning involves selection of the aspect of a structure that is most useful to one’s task.\\u000a The present study attempted to replicate this finding in artificial grammar learning to investigate whether or not implicit\\u000a learning commonly involves such a selection. Participants in Experiment

Esther van den Bos; Fenna H. Poletiek

2010-01-01

17

Implicit Acquisition of Grammars with Crossed and Nested Non-Adjacent Dependencies: Investigating the Push-Down Stack Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A recent hypothesis in empirical brain research on language is that the fundamental difference between animal and human communication systems is captured by the distinction between finite-state and more complex phrase-structure grammars, such as context-free and context-sensitive grammars. However, the relevance of this distinction for the study…

Udden, Julia; Ingvar, Martin; Hagoort, Peter; Petersson, Karl M.

2012-01-01

18

Learning linear grammars from structural information  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract. Lin ear lan guage class is a subclass of context-free lan guage class. In t his paper, we propose an algorithm to learn linear languages from structural i nformation of t heir strings. We compare our algorithm with other ad apt ed algorithm from Radhakrishnan an d Nagaraja [RN1]. The proposed method and the adapt ed algorithm are heuristic

José M. Sempere; Antonio Fos

1996-01-01

19

Rhetorical Structure Analysis of Japanese Patent Claims using Cue Phrases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The most important part of patent specification is where the claims are written. It is common that claims written in Japanese are described in one sentence with peculiar style and are difficult to understand for ordinary people. We are inves- tigating NLPtechnologies to improve readability of patent claims. To do so, it is necessary to present the structure of patent

Akihiro SHINMORI; Makoto IWAYAMA

20

On the basis of phrase structure: A reply to Bever, Fodor, and Weksel  

Microsoft Academic Search

On Bever et al.'s central contention (see 40:2674), the linguistic evidence seems insufficient to show that the order of elements in the simple declarative sentence is a deformation of the order in the underlying string: The deformation appears to be imposed by the choice of a particular phrase-structure model, rather than a fact about English. While undoubtedly insufficient and imprecise,

Martin D. Braine

1965-01-01

21

Grammar without sentence structure: A conversation analytic investigation of agrammatism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Although research into agrammatism has done much to characterise the nature of the underlying disorder, most studies have analysed elicited, task?based data. As a result, little is known about the grammar that people with agrammatism use in everyday talk with habitual conversational partners. There is evidence in the Conversation Analysis (CA) literature to suggest that conversational grammar may not

Suzanne Beeke; Ray Wilkinson; Jane Maxim

2007-01-01

22

Syntactic Structure and Artificial Grammar Learning: The Learnability of Embedded Hierarchical Structures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Embedded hierarchical structures, such as "the rat the cat ate was brown", constitute a core generative property of a natural language theory. Several recent studies have reported learning of hierarchical embeddings in artificial grammar learning (AGL) tasks, and described the functional specificity of Broca's area for processing such structures.…

de Vries, Meinou H.; Monaghan, Padraic; Knecht, Stefan; Zwitserlood, Pienie

2008-01-01

23

SAGPAR: structural grammar-based automated pathway reconstruction.  

PubMed

In-silico metabolic engineering is a very useful branch of systems biology for modeling, analysis and prediction of various outcomes of metabolic pathways. It can also be used for detecting interactions and dynamics within a network. Various protocols have been proposed for modeling a pathway. But most of these protocols have various disadvantages and shortcomings with respect to automated pathway modeling and analysis. In the present article, we have proposed a novel algorithm for automated pathway reconstruction. We have also made a comparative study of our algorithm with other standard protocols and discussed its advantages over others. We present StructurAl Grammar-based automated PAthway Reconstruction (SAGPAR), a fast and robust algorithm that generates any metabolic pathway using some given structural representations of metabolites. Users can model any pathway based on some pre-required features that are asked as an input by the algorithm. The algorithm also takes into considerations various thermodynamic thresholds and structural properties while modeling a pathway. The given algorithm has been tested on the standard pathway datasets of 25 pathways of Mycoplasma pneumoniae M129 and 24 pathways of Homo sapiens. The dataset is taken from KEGG and PubChem Compound data repositories. SAGPAR performs much better than some already present metabolic pathway analysis tools like Copasi, PHT, Gepasi, Jarnac and Path-A. PMID:22843234

Tagore, Somnath; De, Rajat K

2012-07-29

24

Family practice clerkship encounters documented with structured phrases on paper and hand-held computer logs.  

PubMed Central

Patient encounter logs allow faculty to monitor students' clinical experiences, especially in decentralized clerkships. However, there are generally tradeoffs involving the expressiveness of patient encounter forms, the effort required to complete the forms, and the utility of the forms for informing the clerkship director. The family practice clerkship at Washington University changed the school's standard free text, paper log to a controlled vocabulary paper log, borrowing 93 generic ICD-9 codes and the SNOMED concept of 'process at location' phrases for localized problems. Subsequently, this architecture was used in a Palm computer program. Students using the structured paper logs documented slightly more patient encounters than students using free text logs in the previous year, with similar numbers of problems per patient (1.3 to 1.4) and prevalence of common illnesses, but used the phrase structure and code vocabulary inconsistently. Students using computer logs documented many more patient encounters, but only documented 1.09 problems per patient. Students' documentation of psychosocial diagnoses declined significantly with the computer log. Although the computer program was flexible, the effort required to enter multiple problems exceeded the effort of finding similar codes on a short paper form. This problem confounds efforts to monitor exposure to complex patients and hidden medical problems. Another design for the hand-held computer log is being tested.

Marshall, M.; Sumner, W.

2000-01-01

25

``The Grammar of Science''  

Microsoft Academic Search

MAY I, through your columns, point out to Prof. Pearson what seems to me a serious ``antinomy,'' to use his own phrase, in his ``Grammar of Science.'' The foundation of the whole book is the proposition that since we cannot directly apprehend anything but sense-impressions, therefore the things we commonly speak of as objective, or external to ourselves, and their

Edward T. Dixon

1892-01-01

26

UZBEK STRUCTURAL GRAMMAR. URALIC AND ALTAIC SERIES, VOLUME 18.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THIS GRAMMAR OF THE UZBEK LANGUAGES, THE MOST IMPORTANT IN THE SOUTHEASTERN GROUP OF TURKIC LANGUAGES, IS BASED ON THE EDUCATED DIALECT OF TASHKENT IN UZBEKISTAN, USSR. UZBEK IS SPOKEN TODAY BY APPROXIMATELY SEVEN MILLION PEOPLE IN UZBEKISTAN AND ADJOINING REPUBLICS OF SOVIET CENTRAL ASIA, AND IN UZBEK COMMUNITIES SCATTERED THROUGHOUT THE MIDDLE…

SJOBERG, ANDREE F.

27

Visual Language Editing Using a Grammar-Based Visual Structure Editor  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a structure editor that allows visual programs and other visual structures to be created and manipulated in a visual component-based manner with automatic layout. The structure editor is able to edit any number of visual languages simultaneously through the use of visual grammars to control the editing action. In this paper, we describe the operation of the editor,

Calum A. M. Grant

1998-01-01

28

Discussion. How Far Does a Construction Grammar Approach to Argument Structure Take Us in Understanding Children's Language Development?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents the responses of 12 authors to Michael Tomasello's essay, which comments on Adele Goldberg's recent book, "Constructions: A Construction Grammar Approach to Argument Structure." Goldberg's book develops the theory of construction grammar for a set of problems associated with verb-argument structure. (SM)|

Journal of Child Language, 1998

1998-01-01

29

La Grammaire: Lectures (Grammar: Readings).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A historical perspective of French grammar is developed in this chronologically arranged reader. Part One includes material on French grammar from the 16th to the 19th century: (1) the "Premiere Epoque": 1530-1660, (2) the general grammar of Port-Royal, and (3) the "philosophical grammars" treating syntax, sentence structure, and discourse…

Arrive, Michel; Chevalier, Jean-Claude

30

An Affix Grammar for a Comparative Corpus-Based Study of Spoken and Written NPs in MSA1  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present paper, a formal approach is intending to compare syntactic structures in spoken and written varieties of Modern Standard Arabic (MSA). This depends on writing a formal grammar for the automatic parsing of Noun Phrases (NPs) in two sample corpora of the above varieties. This approach will help in giving concrete and objective information in terms of frequency

Sameh Al-Ansary

2002-01-01

31

Predicting RNA Secondary Structure Using Profile Stochastic Context-Free Grammars and Phylogenic Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stochastic context-free grammars (SCFGs) have been applied to predicting RNA secondary structure. The prediction of RNA secondary\\u000a structure can be facilitated by incorporating with comparative sequence analysis. However, most of existing SCFG-based methods\\u000a lack explicit phylogenic analysis of homologous RNA sequences, which is probably the reason why these methods are not ideal\\u000a in practical application. Hence, we present a new

Xiao-Yong Fang; Zhi-Gang Luo; Zheng-hua Wang

2008-01-01

32

Mining Key Phrase Translations from Web Corpora  

Microsoft Academic Search

Key phrases are usually among the most information-bearing linguistic structures. Translating them correctly will improve many natural language processing appli- cations. We propose a new framework to mine key phrase translations from web corpora. We submit a source phrase to a search engine as a query, then expand queries by adding the translations of topic-relevant hint words from the re-

Fei Huang; Ying Zhang; Stephan Vogel

2005-01-01

33

Deriving a probabilistic syntacto-semantic grammar for biomedicine based on domain-specific terminologies  

PubMed Central

Biomedical natural language processing (BioNLP) is a useful technique that unlocks valuable information stored in textual data for practice and/or research. Syntactic parsing is a critical component of BioNLP applications that rely on correctly determining the sentence and phrase structure of free text. In addition to dealing with the vast amount of domain-specific terms, a robust biomedical parser needs to model the semantic grammar to obtain viable syntactic structures. With either a rule-based or corpus-based approach, the grammar engineering process requires substantial time and knowledge from experts, and does not always yield a semantically transferable grammar. To reduce the human effort and to promote semantic transferability, we propose an automated method for deriving a probabilistic grammar based on a training corpus consisting of concept strings and semantic classes from the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS), a comprehensive terminology resource widely used by the community. The grammar is designed to specify noun phrases only due to the nominal nature of the majority of biomedical terminological concepts. Evaluated on manually parsed clinical notes, the derived grammar achieved a recall of 0.644, precision of 0.737, and average cross-bracketing of 0.61, which demonstrated better performance than a control grammar with the semantic information removed. Error analysis revealed shortcomings that could be addressed to improve performance. The results indicated the feasibility of an approach which automatically incorporates terminology semantics in the building of an operational grammar. Although the current performance of the unsupervised solution does not adequately replace manual engineering, we believe once the performance issues are addressed, it could serve as an aide in a semi-supervised solution.

Fan, Jung-Wei; Friedman, Carol

2011-01-01

34

ENGLISH GRAMMAR II.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"ENGLISH GRAMMAR II" IS A TRANSFORMATIONAL FORMULATION OF THE SYNTACTIC RULES RELATING DEEP AND SURFACE STRUCTURES FOR A NUMBER OF CONSTRUCTIONS IN ENGLISH. TOPICS TREATED BY THIS GRAMMAR INCLUDE EMBEDDED SENTENCE FORMATION, RELATIVE CLAUSE FORMATION, GENITIVE CONSTRUCTIONS, TIME AND PLACE ADVERBIALS, AND A FULL RANGE OF SIMPLE SENTENCE PHENOMENA…

ROSENBAUM, PETER S.

35

Grammar Games  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The mere mention of a grammar lesson can set students' eyes rolling. The fun activities described in this article can turn those blank looks into smiles. Here, the author presents grammar games namely: (1) noun tennis; (2) the minister's cat; (3) kids take action; (4) what's my adverb?; (5) and then I saw...; and (6) grammar sing-along.

Brown, Kim

2004-01-01

36

The emergence of grammar: Systematic structure in a new language  

PubMed Central

This report contains a linguistic description of a language created spontaneously without any apparent external influence in a stable existing community. We describe the syntactic structure of Al-Sayyid Bedouin Sign Language, a language that has arisen in the last 70 years in an isolated endogamous community with a high incidence of nonsyndromic, genetically recessive, profound prelingual neurosensory deafness. In the space of one generation from its inception, systematic grammatical structure has emerged in the language. Going beyond a conventionalized list of words for actions, objects, people, characteristics, and so on, a systematic way of marking the grammatical relations among those elements has appeared in the form of highly regular word order. These systematic structures cannot be attributed to influence from other languages, because the particular word orders that appear in Al-Sayyid Bedouin Sign Language differ from those found both in the ambient spoken languages in the community and in the other sign language found predominantly in the surrounding area. Therefore, the emerging grammatical structures should be regarded as an independent development within the language.

Sandler, Wendy; Meir, Irit; Padden, Carol; Aronoff, Mark

2005-01-01

37

Comments on Skinner's grammar  

PubMed Central

The strong tradition of “school room” grammars may have had a negative influence on the reception given a functional analysis of verbal behavior, both within and without the field of behavior analysis. Some of the failings of those traditional grammars, and their largely prescriptive nature were outlined through reference to other critics, and conflicting views. Skinner's own treatment of grammatical issues was presented, emphasizing his view of a functional unit and his use of the autoclitic and intraverbal functions to describe alternatives to a formal or structural analysis. Finally, the relevance of stimulus control variables to some recurring questions about verbal behavior and, specifically grammar, were mentioned.

Mabry, John H.

1993-01-01

38

Specification and Utilization of a Transformational Grammar.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report consists of four parts: (1) 'English Grammar II' by Peter S. Rosenbaum--Our current grammar of English is presented in full, with sample deep structures and transformational derivational histories provided to illustrate the generative power of ...

P. S. Rosenbaum

1967-01-01

39

Mapping of prosodic structure onto words and phrases in children's and adults' speech production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Direct recordings of lip and jaw movement were obtained to investigate how children and adults differentiate prosodic structure both within iambic and trochaic words and across word boundaries. It was hypothesised that children, especially those with less language skills, would be particularly likely to produce strong-weak (or trochaic) sequences. This experiment examined children's (both normally developing and specifically language impaired,

Lisa Goffman; Lori Heisler; Rahul Chakraborty

2006-01-01

40

A circuit grammar for operational amplifier design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electrical circuit designers seldom create really new topologies or use old ones in a novel way. Most designs are known combinations of common configurations tailored for the particular problem at hand. In this thesis I show that much of the behavior of a designer engaged in such ordinary design can be modeled by a clearly defined computational mechanism executing a set of stylized rules. Each of my rules embodies a particular piece of the designer's knowledge. A circuit is represented as a hierarchy of abstract objects each of which is composed of other objects. The leaves of this tree represent the physical devices from which physical circuits are fabricated. By analogy with context-free languages, a class of circuits is generated by a phrase-structure grammar, of which each rule describes how one type of abstract object can be expanded into a combination of more concrete parts. Circuits are designed by first postulating an abstract object which meets the particular design requirements. This object is then expanded into a concrete circuit by successive refinement using rules of my grammar. There are in general many rules which can be used to expand a given abstract component. Analysis must be done at each level of the expansion to constrain the search to a reasonable set.

Ressler, A. L.

1984-01-01

41

Adaptation to aphasia: grammar, prosody and interaction.  

PubMed

This paper investigates recurrent use of the phrase very good by a speaker with non-fluent agrammatic aphasia. Informal observation of the speaker's interaction reveals that she appears to be an effective conversational partner despite very severe word retrieval difficulties that result in extensive reliance on variants of the phrase very good. The question that this paper addresses using an essentially conversation analytic framework is: What is the speaker achieving through these variants of very good and what are the linguistic and interactional resources that she draws on to achieve these communicative effects? Tokens of very good in the corpus were first analyzed in a bottom-up fashion, attending to sequential position, structure and participant orientation. This revealed distinct uses that were subsequently subjected to detailed acoustic analysis in order to investigate specific prosodic characteristics within and across the interactional variants. We identified specific clusters of prosodic cues that were exploited by the speaker to differentiate interactional uses of very good. The analysis thus shows how, in the adaptation to aphasia, the speaker exploits the rich interface between prosody, grammar and interaction both to manage the interactional demands of conversation and to communicate propositional content. PMID:23237417

Rhys, Catrin S; Ulbrich, Christiane; Ordin, Mikhail

2013-01-01

42

Searching the ASRS Database Using QUORUM Keyword Search, Phrase Search, Phrase Generation, and Phrase Discovery.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

To support Search Requests and Quick Responses at the Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS), four new QUORUM methods have been developed: keyword search, phrase search, phrase generation, and phrase discovery. These methods build upon the core QUORUM me...

M. W. McGreevy

2001-01-01

43

Learning optimality-theoretic grammars  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present evidence that Optimality Theory's account of Universal Grammar has manifold implications for learning. The general principles of Optimality Theory (OT; Prince and Smolensky, 1993) are reviewed and illustrated with Grimshaw and Samek-Lodovici's (1995) OT theory of clausal subjects. The optimization structure OT provides grammar is used to derive a principled decomposition of the learning problem into the problem

Bruce B. Tesar; Paul Smolensky

1998-01-01

44

Grammar Engineering for the Next Millenium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prevailing current view of a (symbolic, computational) grammar is basically that of a set of rewriting rules using feature-structured categories. However, whenever such a grammar is aimed at development of a real- world applied project, at least two disadvantages become clear. First, it breaks with the traditional understanding of a grammar as a network of phenomena (such as agreement,

Karel OLIVA; M. Andrew MOSHIER; Sabine LEHMANN

45

Drama Grammar: Towards a Performative Postmethod Pedagogy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article presents the original concept of drama grammar, the synthesis of grammar instruction and drama pedagogy, which integrates both structural and communicative paradigms through a dialectic combination of acting and linguistic analysis. Based on the principles of drama pedagogy, drama grammar makes use of techniques from the performing…

Even, Susanne

2011-01-01

46

RNACompress: Grammar-based compression and informational complexity measurement of RNA secondary structure  

PubMed Central

Background With the rapid emergence of RNA databases and newly identified non-coding RNAs, an efficient compression algorithm for RNA sequence and structural information is needed for the storage and analysis of such data. Although several algorithms for compressing DNA sequences have been proposed, none of them are suitable for the compression of RNA sequences with their secondary structures simultaneously. This kind of compression not only facilitates the maintenance of RNA data, but also supplies a novel way to measure the informational complexity of RNA structural data, raising the possibility of studying the relationship between the functional activities of RNA structures and their complexities, as well as various structural properties of RNA based on compression. Results RNACompress employs an efficient grammar-based model to compress RNA sequences and their secondary structures. The main goals of this algorithm are two fold: (1) present a robust and effective way for RNA structural data compression; (2) design a suitable model to represent RNA secondary structure as well as derive the informational complexity of the structural data based on compression. Our extensive tests have shown that RNACompress achieves a universally better compression ratio compared with other sequence-specific or common text-specific compression algorithms, such as Gencompress, winrar and gzip. Moreover, a test of the activities of distinct GTP-binding RNAs (aptamers) compared with their structural complexity shows that our defined informational complexity can be used to describe how complexity varies with activity. These results lead to an objective means of comparing the functional properties of heteropolymers from the information perspective. Conclusion A universal algorithm for the compression of RNA secondary structure as well as the evaluation of its informational complexity is discussed in this paper. We have developed RNACompress, as a useful tool for academic users. Extensive tests have shown that RNACompress is a universally efficient algorithm for the compression of RNA sequences with their secondary structures. RNACompress also serves as a good measurement of the informational complexity of RNA secondary structure, which can be used to study the functional activities of RNA molecules.

Liu, Qi; Yang, Yu; Chen, Chun; Bu, Jiajun; Zhang, Yin; Ye, Xiuzi

2008-01-01

47

The Teaching of Grammar: The Relationship of Structure to Communication. ACTFL Master Lecture Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Teaching grammar for its own sake is largely counterproductive when the goal of instruction is to have students communicate spontaneously, fluently, and accurately in the target language. The ideal foreign language program is one providing the best possible environment for language acquisition to take place. Explicit teaching about the language…

Higgs, Theodore V.

48

Integer programming-based method for grammar-based tree compression and its application to pattern extraction of glycan tree structures  

PubMed Central

Background A bisection-type algorithm for the grammar-based compression of tree-structured data has been proposed recently. In this framework, an elementary ordered-tree grammar (EOTG) and an elementary unordered-tree grammar (EUTG) were defined, and an approximation algorithm was proposed. Results In this paper, we propose an integer programming-based method that finds the minimum context-free grammar (CFG) for a given string under the condition that at most two symbols appear on the right-hand side of each production rule. Next, we extend this method to find the minimum EOTG and EUTG grammars for given ordered and unordered trees, respectively. Then, we conduct computational experiments for the ordered and unordered artificial trees. Finally, we apply our methods to pattern extraction of glycan tree structures. Conclusions We propose integer programming-based methods that find the minimum CFG, EOTG, and EUTG for given strings, ordered and unordered trees. Our proposed methods for trees are useful for extracting patterns of glycan tree structures.

2010-01-01

49

Recursive Patterns in Phonological Phrases  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we investigate an instance of phonological recursion, more specifically we investigate iterative rule application in phonological phrases. The question is whether or not edge-marking processes, such as early pitch accent placement, can be applied recursively to phonological phrases that are embedded in larger phonological phrases. 1. Overview

Maartje Schreuder; Dicky Gilbers

50

Phrase recognition method and apparatus  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A phrase recognition method breaks streams of text into text "chunks" and selects certain chunks as "phrases" useful for automated full text searching. The phrase recognition method uses a carefully assembled list of partition elements to partition the text into the chunks, and selects phrases from the chunks according to a small number of frequency based definitions. The method can also incorporate additional processes such as categorization of proper names to enhance phrase recognition. The method selects phrases quickly and efficiently, referring simply to the phrases themselves and the frequency with which they are encountered, rather than relying on complex, time-consuming, resource-consuming grammatical analysis, or on collocation schemes of limited applicability, or on heuristical text analysis of limited reliability or utility.

1998-10-06

51

Grammar! A Conference Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Papers from a conference on the teaching of grammar, particularly in second language instruction, include: "Grammar: Acquisition and Use" (Richard Johnstone); "Grammar and Communication" (Brian Page); "Linguistic Progression and Increasing Independence" (Bernardette Holmes); "La grammaire? C'est du bricolage!" ("Grammar? That's Hardware!") (Barry…

King, Lid, Ed.; Boaks, Peter, Ed.

52

Intonational Phrase Structure Processing at Different Stages of Syntax Acquisition: ERP Studies in 2-, 3-, and 6-Year-Old Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study explored the electrophysiology underlying intonational phrase processing at different stages of syntax acquisition. Developmental studies suggest that children's syntactic skills advance significantly between 2 and 3 years of age. Here, children of three age groups were tested on phrase-level prosodic processing before and after this…

Mannel, Claudia; Friederici, Angela D.

2011-01-01

53

Greek Grammar  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

While some may view ancient Greek as a "dead language", this informative and edifying website proves that the language is far from dead, and that there much to be gained through close consideration of this magisterial language. Created and maintained by Professor Marc Huys, a faculty member of the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven in Belgium, the site serves as a clearinghouse of available online resources for studying ancient Greek. Throughout the site's various areas, Professor Huys has reviewed each individual resource and provided a brief description of its contents and also assigned a rating to each distinct resource. Some of these topical areas include reviews of sites on Greek fonts, systematic grammar, history of the Greek language, and dictionaries. The site is rounded out by a "What's New?" area which contains information about the latest additions to the site.

54

High precision English base noun phrase identification based on \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on classical model that used by software exploitation in the subject of Software Engineering - waterfall model, a high precision model for English noun phrase identification is presented. In this model, three important features (interior structure, context information and boundary character) in base noun phrase identification are orderly used, and the relative method (the rule method, the transfer-based and

Ying-Hong Liang; Tie-Jun Zhao; Hao Yu; Jian-Min Yao

2005-01-01

55

Grammar-Guided Writing for AAC Users  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A method of grammar-guided writing has been devised to guide graphic sign users through the construction of text messages for use in e-mail and other applications with a remote receiver. The purpose is to promote morphologically and syntactically correct sentences. The available grammatical structures in grammar-guided writing are the highest…

Hunnicutt, Sheri; Magnuson, Tina

2007-01-01

56

Grammar as a Programming Language. Artificial Intelligence Memo 391.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Student projects that involve writing generative grammars in the computer language, "LOGO," are described in this paper, which presents a grammar-running control structure that allows students to modify and improve the grammar interpreter itself while learning how a simple kind of computer parser works. Included are procedures for programing a…

Rowe, Neil

57

The relationship of story grammar and executive function following TBI  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Story grammar is a super-structural measure of discourse performance that has shown to be sensitive to the deficits seen following traumatic brain injury (TBI). Narrative organisation and identification of logical relationships between events and characters are key components of story grammar. Reports of significant correlations for measures of story grammar and scores from various tests of executive functioning for

Jennifer Mozeiko; Karen Le; Carl Coelho; Frank Krueger; Jordan Grafman

2011-01-01

58

Treebank-Based Acquisition of Multilingual Unification Grammar Resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deep unification- (constraint-)based grammars are usually hand-crafted. Scaling such grammars from fragments to unrestricted text is time-consuming and expensive. This problem can be exacerbated in multilingual broad-coverage grammar development scenarios. Cahill et al. (2002, 2004) and O’Donovan et al. (2004) present an automatic f-structure annotation-based methodology to acquire broad-coverage, deep, Lexical-Functional Grammar (LFG) resources for English from the Penn-II Treebank.

Aoife Cahill; Michael Burke; Martin Forst; Ruth O’donovan; Christian Rohrer; Josef van Genabith

2005-01-01

59

Sentiment Classification Using Phrase Patterns  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a phrase pattern-based method in classifying sentiment orientation of text. That is to analyze whether the text expresses a favorable or unfavorable sentiment for a specific subject. In our method, we construct some phrase patterns and calculate their sentiment orientation by unsupervised learning algorithm. When we classify a document, we first add special tags to some words

Zhongchao Fei; Jian Liu; Gengfeng Wu

2004-01-01

60

Storing and Retrieving Word Phrases.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Zipfian laws for frequency distributions of word pairs and longer phrases are derived from text sample analysis. From crossing of Zipfian curves, it is deduced that number of multi-word phrases that occur frequently in text is surprisingly small, of same order of magnitude as number of individual word-types. (8 references) (EJS)

Smith, F. J.; Devine, K.

1985-01-01

61

English-Mongolian Phrase Book.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The phrase book is intended for use by Peace Corps workers in Mongolia, and reflects daily communication needs in that context. Phrases and vocabulary are presented first in English, then in Mongolian translation (in Cyrillic alphabet), on the following topics: greetings and introductions; discussing work; expressing thanks and congratulations;…

Amraa, J.; Nadya, S.

62

Holistic Verification of Handwritten Phrases  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we describe a system for rapid verification of unconstrained off-line handwritten phrases using perceptual holistic features of the handwritten phrase image. The system is used to verify handwritten street names automatically extracted from live U.S. mail against recognition results of analytical classifiers. Presented with a binary image of a street name and an ASCII street name, holistic

Sriganesh Madhvanath; Evelyn Kleinberg; Venu Govindaraju

1999-01-01

63

Constraint Multiset Grammars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Constraint multiset grammars provide a general, high-level framework for the definition of visual languages. They are a new formalism based on multiset rewriting. We give a formal semantics for constraint multiset grammars, investigate the theoretical complexity of parsing with these grammars and give an incremental parsing algorithm

Kim Marriott

1994-01-01

64

Argumenthood and English Prepositional Phrase Attachment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two self-paced reading experiments are presented to assess how temporary ambiguities in prepositional phrase attachment are resolved in English verb–noun-phrase–prepositional-phrase sequences. The hypothesis tested is a preference to maximize argument relations, in contrast to an overall verb phrase attachment preference (cf. Minimal Attachment). Five syntactic argumenthood diagnostics were used to construct noun phrase argument and verb phrase modifier completions of

Carson T. Schütze; Edward Gibson

1999-01-01

65

A composite method based on formal grammar and DNA structural features in detecting human polymerase II promoter region.  

PubMed

An important step in understanding gene regulation is to identify the promoter regions where the transcription factor binding takes place. Predicting a promoter region de novo has been a theoretical goal for many researchers for a long time. There exists a number of in silico methods to predict the promoter region de novo but most of these methods are still suffering from various shortcomings, a major one being the selection of appropriate features of promoter region distinguishing them from non-promoters. In this communication, we have proposed a new composite method that predicts promoter sequences based on the interrelationship between structural profiles of DNA and primary sequence elements of the promoter regions. We have shown that a Context Free Grammar (CFG) can formalize the relationships between different primary sequence features and by utilizing the CFG, we demonstrate that an efficient parser can be constructed for extracting these relationships from DNA sequences to distinguish the true promoter sequences from non-promoter sequences. Along with CFG, we have extracted the structural features of the promoter region to improve upon the efficiency of our prediction system. Extensive experiments performed on different datasets reveals that our method is effective in predicting promoter sequences on a genome-wide scale and performs satisfactorily as compared to other promoter prediction techniques. PMID:23437045

Datta, Sutapa; Mukhopadhyay, Subhasis

2013-02-20

66

A Composite Method Based on Formal Grammar and DNA Structural Features in Detecting Human Polymerase II Promoter Region  

PubMed Central

An important step in understanding gene regulation is to identify the promoter regions where the transcription factor binding takes place. Predicting a promoter region de novo has been a theoretical goal for many researchers for a long time. There exists a number of in silico methods to predict the promoter region de novo but most of these methods are still suffering from various shortcomings, a major one being the selection of appropriate features of promoter region distinguishing them from non-promoters. In this communication, we have proposed a new composite method that predicts promoter sequences based on the interrelationship between structural profiles of DNA and primary sequence elements of the promoter regions. We have shown that a Context Free Grammar (CFG) can formalize the relationships between different primary sequence features and by utilizing the CFG, we demonstrate that an efficient parser can be constructed for extracting these relationships from DNA sequences to distinguish the true promoter sequences from non-promoter sequences. Along with CFG, we have extracted the structural features of the promoter region to improve upon the efficiency of our prediction system. Extensive experiments performed on different datasets reveals that our method is effective in predicting promoter sequences on a genome-wide scale and performs satisfactorily as compared to other promoter prediction techniques.

Datta, Sutapa; Mukhopadhyay, Subhasis

2013-01-01

67

Extracting noun phrases for all of MEDLINE.  

PubMed Central

A natural language parser that could extract noun phrases for all medical texts would be of great utility in analyzing content for information retrieval. We discuss the extraction of noun phrases from MEDLINE, using a general parser not tuned specifically for any medical domain. The noun phrase extractor is made up of three modules: tokenization; part-of-speech tagging; noun phrase identification. Using our program, we extracted noun phrases from the entire MEDLINE collection, encompassing 9.3 million abstracts. Over 270 million noun phrases were generated, of which 45 million were unique. The quality of these phrases was evaluated by examining all phrases from a sample collection of abstracts. The precision and recall of the phrases from our general parser compared favorably with those from three other parsers we had previously evaluated. We are continuing to improve our parser and evaluate our claim that a generic parser can effectively extract all the different phrases across the entire medical literature.

Bennett, N. A.; He, Q.; Powell, K.; Schatz, B. R.

1999-01-01

68

Parsing strategies with 'lexicalized' grammars: application to Tree Adjoining Grammars  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present a general parsing strategy that arose from the development of an Earley-type parsing algorithm for TAGs (Schabes and Joshi 1988) and from recent linguistic work in TAGs (Abeille 1988).In our approach elementary structures are associated with their lexical heads. These structures specify extended domains of locality (as compared to a context-free grammar) over which constraints

Yves Schabes; Anne Abeillé; Aravind K. Joshi

1988-01-01

69

On the Formal Componential Structure of the Transformational-Generative Model of Grammar.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the relationship that exists between the syntactic and phonological components of the transformational-generative model insofar as their formal structures are concerned. It is demonstrated that the number and importance of the structural similarities between the syntax and the phonology make it necessary to provide for them in…

Brew, P. J.

1970-01-01

70

Long Phrases in Torah Codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Torah code hypothesis states that the Torah (the first five books of the Hebrew Bible) contains within it letter sequences (codes) that were created intentionally, as a form of communication to human beings, the intended receivers. We test a long phrase aspect of the hypothesis, by first proposing a method for estimating the probability that letter sequences can be

Art Levitt; Nachum Bombach; Harold Gans; Robert Haralick; Leib Schwartzman; Chaim Stal

71

Dictionary of Phrase and Fable  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Bartleby.com (see the March 24, 2000 Scout Report) has recently placed this new work online. It is E. Cobham Brewer's 1898 Dictionary of Phrase and Fable, a collection of more than 18,000 entries "that reveal the etymologies, trace the origins and otherwise catalog 'words with a tale to tell.'" The entries can be browsed alphabetically or searched by keyword.

72

BIGOLORED DIGRAPH GRAMMAR SYSTEMS (')  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new class of generating Systems (the bdg Systems), is introduced and they are shown to be equivalent to the class of programmed grammars. They have independent interest since their définition gives doser ties between language theory and graph theory. This in turn gives rise to a number of interesting hybrid graph — grammar open problems.

Derick WOOD

73

Swahili Learners' Reference Grammar. African Language Learners' Reference Grammar Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This reference grammar is written for speakers of English who are learning Swahili. Because many language learners are not familiar with the grammatical terminology, this book explains the basic terminology and concepts of English grammar that are necessary for understanding the grammar of Swahili. It assumes no formal knowledge of English grammar

Thompson, Katrina Daly; Schleicher, Antonia Folarin

74

The Grammar Gallimaufry: Teaching Students to Challenge the Grammar Gods  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|How a person teaches grammar depends on what he or she believes it does. Some see grammar as a set of rules, inherited from wise forefathers. For them, teaching grammar means making students aware of, and then holding them to, these rules. Others see grammar as an expression of style, an invitation to the writer to explore how to create a…

House, Jeff

2009-01-01

75

On-line handwritten Kanji string recognition based on grammar description of character structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we evaluate a method for on-line hand- written Kanji character recognition by describing the structure of Kanji using Stochastic Context-Free Gram- mar (SCFG), and extend it in order to recognize Kanji strings. In this method, we turn attention to the hi- erarchical structure of Kanji characters which consist of character-parts and strokes, and consider all char- acter

Ikumi Ota; Ryo Yamamoto; Takuya Nishimoto; Shigeki Sagayama

2008-01-01

76

Compacting the Penn Treebank Grammar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Treebanks, such as the Penn Treebank (PTB), offer a simple approach to obtaining a broad coverage grammar: one can simply read the grammar off the parse trees in the treebank. While such a grammar is easy to obtain, a square-root rate of growth of the rule set with corpus size suggests that the derived grammar is far from complete and

Alexander Krotov; Mark Hepple; Robert J. Gaizauskas; Yorick Wilks

1998-01-01

77

Grammar Learning by Partition Search  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes Grammar Learning by Partition Search, a general method for automatically constructing grammars for a range of parsing tasks. Given a base grammar, a training corpus, and a parsing task, Partition Search constructs an optimised p robabilistic context-free grammar by searching a space of nonterminal set partitions, looking for a partition that maximises parsin g performance and minimises

Anja Belz

2002-01-01

78

L1/L2 Spanish Grammars and the Pragmatic Deficit Hypothesis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Investigates whether the underspecification of Number, which has been proposed to account for the structural properties of child grammars, can provide an explanation for changes in developing first- and second-language Spanish grammars. (Author/VWL)|

Liceras, J. M.; Valenzuela, E.; Diaz, L.

1999-01-01

79

3D Visual Phrases for Landmark Recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we study the problem of landmark recognition and propose to leverage 3D visual phrases to improve the performance. A 3D visual phrase is a triangular facet on the surface of a reconstructed 3D landmark model. In contrast to existing 2D visual phrases which are mainly based on co-occurrence statistics in 2D image planes, such 3D visual phrases

Qiang Hao; Rui Cai; Zhiwei Li; Lei Zhang; Yanwei Pang; Feng Wu

2012-01-01

80

Text fragment extraction using incremental evolving fuzzy grammar fragments learner  

Microsoft Academic Search

Additional structure within free texts can be utilized to assist in identification of matching items and can benefit many intelligent text pattern recognition applications. This paper presents an incremental evolving fuzzy grammar (IEFG) method that focuses on the learning of underlying text fragment patterns and provides an efficient fuzzy grammar representation that exploits both syntactic and semantic properties. This notion

Nurfadhlina Mohd Sharef; Yun Shen

2010-01-01

81

Context-free-grammar based token tagger in reconfigurable devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present reconfigurable hardware ar- chitecture for detecting semantics of streaming data on 1+ Gbps networks. The design leverages on the characteristics of context-free-grammar (CFG) that allows the computers to understand the semantics of data. Although our parser is not a true CFG parser, we use the linguistic structure de- fined in the grammars to explore a

Young H. Cho; James Moscola; John W. Lockwood

2006-01-01

82

Will Corpus Linguistics Revolutionize Grammar Teaching in the 21st Century?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues that corpus linguistics could radically change grammar teaching in the 21st century in three ways: register-specific grammatical description could replace the grammar of English, grammar and vocabulary teaching could become more integrated, and emphasis could shift from structural accuracy to appropriateness of grammatical choice.…

Conrad, Susan

2000-01-01

83

Artificial grammar learning by 1-year-olds leads to specific and abstract knowledge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four experiments used the head-turn preference procedure to assess whether infants could extract and remember information from auditory strings produced by a miniature artificial grammar. In all four experiments, infants generalized to new structure by discriminating new grammatical strings from ungrammatical ones after less than 2 min exposure to the grammar. Infants acquired specific information about the grammar as demonstrated

Rebecca L. Gomez; LouAnn Gerken

1999-01-01

84

Emergence of net-grammar in communicating agents.  

PubMed

Evolution of symbolic language and grammar is studied in a network model. Language is expressed by words, i.e. strings of symbols, which are generated by agents with their own symbolic grammar system. Agents communicate with each other by deriving and accepting words via rewriting rule set. They are ranked according to their communicative effectiveness: an agent which can derive less frequent and less acceptable words and accept words in less computational time will have higher scores. They can evolve by mutational processes, which change rewriting rules in their symbolic grammars. Complexity and diversity of words increase in the course of time. The emergence of modules and loop structure enhances the evolution. On the other hand, ensemble structure lead to a net-grammar, restricting individual grammars and their evolution. PMID:8833744

Hashimoto, T; Ikegami, T

1996-01-01

85

Towards Converting Clinical Phrases into SNOMED CT Expressions  

PubMed Central

Converting information contained in natural language clinical text into computer-amenable structured representations can automate many clinical applications. As a step towards that goal, we present a method which could help in converting novel clinical phrases into new expressions in SNOMED CT, a standard clinical terminology. Since expressions in SNOMED CT are written in terms of their relations with other SNOMED CT concepts, we formulate the important task of identifying relations between clinical phrases and SNOMED CT concepts. We present a machine learning approach for this task and using the dataset of existing SNOMED CT relations we show that it performs well.

Kate, Rohit J.

2013-01-01

86

QR in Child Grammar: Evidence from Antecedent-Contained Deletion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|We show that 4-year-olds assign the correct interpretation to antecedent-contained deletion (ACD) sentences because they have the correct representation of these structures. This representation involves Quantifier Raising (QR) of a Quantificational Noun Phrase (QNP) that must move out of the site of the verb phrase in which it is contained to…

Syrett, Kristen; Lidz, Jeffrey

2009-01-01

87

Teaching Grammar: What Really Works  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this book, the authors share procedures for teaching grammar effectively and dynamically, in ways that appeal to students and teachers alike. Ideal for teachers just beginning their work in grammar instruction, this book includes day-by-day units and reproducibles to help them embed grammar lessons into writing instruction. Using visuals,…

Benjamin, Amy; Berger, Joan

2010-01-01

88

Grammar and the Spoken Language.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Argues that second language teaching that aims to foster speaking skills and natural spoken interaction should be based upon the grammar of spoken language, not on grammars that mainly reflect written norms. Using evidence from a mini-corpus of conversational English, it is shown that popular pedagogical grammars are deficient in conversational…

Carter, Ronald; McCarthy, Michael

1995-01-01

89

Finding Phrases Rather Than Discovering Collocations: Searching Corpora for Dictionary Phrases  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes our attempts to find information about phrases and their syntactic variants for inclu- sion in a computer lexicon. We started with a list of thirty phrases from the British Collins English Dictio- nary. After making a few phrase modifications to accom- modate American usage, we searched for occurrences in the Gutenberg corpus, the Wall Street Journal (1987,

Debra S. Baddorf

1998-01-01

90

Implicit Learning of Recursive Context-Free Grammars  

PubMed Central

Context-free grammars are fundamental for the description of linguistic syntax. However, most artificial grammar learning experiments have explored learning of simpler finite-state grammars, while studies exploring context-free grammars have not assessed awareness and implicitness. This paper explores the implicit learning of context-free grammars employing features of hierarchical organization, recursive embedding and long-distance dependencies. The grammars also featured the distinction between left- and right-branching structures, as well as between centre- and tail-embedding, both distinctions found in natural languages. People acquired unconscious knowledge of relations between grammatical classes even for dependencies over long distances, in ways that went beyond learning simpler relations (e.g. n-grams) between individual words. The structural distinctions drawn from linguistics also proved important as performance was greater for tail-embedding than centre-embedding structures. The results suggest the plausibility of implicit learning of complex context-free structures, which model some features of natural languages. They support the relevance of artificial grammar learning for probing mechanisms of language learning and challenge existing theories and computational models of implicit learning.

Rohrmeier, Martin; Fu, Qiufang; Dienes, Zoltan

2012-01-01

91

Definiteness in the Hebrew noun phrase  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper suggests an analysis of Modern Hebrew noun phrases in the framework of HPSG. It focuses on the peculiar properties of the definite article , including the requirement for definite- ness agreement among various elements in the noun phrase, definiteness inheritance in construct- state nominals, the fact that the article does not combine wi th constructs and the similarities

SHULY WINTNER

2000-01-01

92

Useful Phrases in English: Cantonese. Language SOS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This English-Cantonese phrase book is designed for the English speaking person learning Cantonese. The useful phrases and vocabulary words are divided into eleven sections: basic needs and safety; greetings and amenities; getting acquainted; directions and classroom articles; calendar, numbers, and time; subjects; shapes, sizes, and colors; body…

Los Angeles Unified School District, CA.

93

Yes, We Still Need Universal Grammar  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a recent paper [Lidz, J., Gleitman, H., & Gleitman, L. (2003). Understanding how input matters: Verb learning and the footprint of universal grammar. "Cognition," 87, 151-178], we provided cross-linguistic evidence in favor of the following linked assertions: (i) Verb argument structure is a correlate of verb meaning; (ii) However, argument…

Lidz, Jeffrey; Gleitman, Lila R.

2004-01-01

94

Graph Grammar Engineering: A Software Specification Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Graphs as conceptual data models are accepted and used in a wide range of different problem areas. Giving some examples we outline common aspects for modeling complex structures by graphs. We present a formal frame-work based on graph grammars to specify graph classes and the corresponding graph manipulations. We show that such a specification can be written in a systematic,

Gregor Engels; Claus Lewerentz I; Wilhelm Schäfer

1986-01-01

95

A BINI GRAMMAR, PART 1--PHONOLOGY.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A PHONOLOGY OF BINI GRAMMAR (A LANGUAGE OF WESTERN NIGERIA) HAS BEEN DESIGNED FOR A HIGHLY HETEROGENEOUS AUDIENCE. THE VOLUME IS AIMED AT (1) AREA SPECIALISTS INTERESTED IN LANGUAGE OR CULTURE STUDIES OF AFRICA, (2) ETHNOGRAPHERS FOCUSING ON THE SOCIAL STRUCTURE OF THE EDO-SPEAKING PEOPLES, (3) HISTORIANS WORKING ON THE BENIN PROJECT OF IBADAN…

WESCOTT, ROGER W.

96

Yes, We Still Need Universal Grammar  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In a recent paper [Lidz, J., Gleitman, H., & Gleitman, L. (2003). Understanding how input matters: Verb learning and the footprint of universal grammar. "Cognition," 87, 151-178], we provided cross-linguistic evidence in favor of the following linked assertions: (i) Verb argument structure is a correlate of verb meaning; (ii) However, argument…

Lidz, Jeffrey; Gleitman, Lila R.

2004-01-01

97

Teaching and Research: Options in Grammar Teaching  

Microsoft Academic Search

A substantial body of research has investigated how form-focussed instruction contributes to language learning, but there has been very little discussion of how the knowledge provided by this research can inform language teaching. This article reviews research that addresses how grammar can best be taught in terms of four theoretically motivated instructional options: (a) structured input, (b) explicit instruction, (c)

Rod Ellis

1998-01-01

98

Attribute Grammars in a Compiler Construction Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attribute grammar (AG) specifications are implemented by attribute evaluators which perform computations on tree structures as specified. An AG system should concentrate on generating that implementation. In compiler construction the attribute evaluator has to be combined with other modules, like scanner, parser, tree construction, data bases, and translation modules. Those are generated by other compiler tools, taken from a library,

Uwe Kastens

1991-01-01

99

Tree-adjoining grammars  

Microsoft Academic Search

this paper, we will describe a tree generating system called tree-adjoining grammar (TAG) and state some of the recent results about TAGs. The work on TAGs is motivated by linguistic considerations. However, a number of formal results have been established for TAGs, which we believe, would be of interest to researchers in formal languages and automata, including those interested in

Aravind Joshi; Yves Schabes

1997-01-01

100

Teaching Grammar for Proficiency.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses a foreign language pedagogy that facilitates teaching for communication and teaching grammar, which is defined as a system for converting meaning into language. The teacher is advised to do in the classroom only what cannot be done elsewhere. Four instructional tactics are described. (SED)|

Higgs, Theodore V.

1985-01-01

101

GPS (Grammar Positioning System)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this Cross Talk, Mark Blaauw-Hara, the author of "Mapping the Frontier: A Survey of Twenty Years of Grammar Articles in 'TETYC,'" and one of the manuscript's reviewers, Andy Anderson, engage in a brief conversation about the essay, its content, and the processes of writing, reviewing, and revising. This article is presented in three sections:…

Blaauw-Hara, Mark; Anderson, Andy

2007-01-01

102

GPS (Grammar Positioning System)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this Cross Talk, Mark Blaauw-Hara, the author of "Mapping the Frontier: A Survey of Twenty Years of Grammar Articles in 'TETYC,'" and one of the manuscript's reviewers, Andy Anderson, engage in a brief conversation about the essay, its content, and the processes of writing, reviewing, and revising. This article is presented in three sections:…

Blaauw-Hara, Mark; Anderson, Andy

2007-01-01

103

Reflections on Grammar's Demise  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Of the seven liberal arts, on which Western education was based, grammar has always been preeminent. Yet English teachers in recent years have belittled it to the point of an irrelevance. Not only has this higher illiteracy rendered Americans unable to extract ideas from sophisticated prose, David Mulroy worries, but also it leaves us with the…

Mulroy, David

2004-01-01

104

On defining quality based grammar metrics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Grammar metrics have been introduced to measure the quality and the complexity of the formal grammars. The aim of this paper is to explore the meaning of these notions and to experiment, on several grammars of domain specific languages and of general purpose languages, existing grammar metrics together with new metrics based on grammar LR automaton and on the produced

Julien Cervelle; Matej Crepinsek; Rémi Forax; Tomaz Kosar; Marjan Mernik; Gilles Roussel

2009-01-01

105

Artificial grammar learning in pigeons  

Microsoft Academic Search

In two experiments, we developed a new methodology for studying complex stimulus control by spatial sequences of letters generated\\u000a by artificial grammars. An artificial grammar is a system of rules that defines which letter sequences or strings are “grammatical.”\\u000a In Experiment 1, pigeons learned to respond differently to strings conforming to a grammar versus strings that were nongrammatical\\u000a distortions. Several

Walter T. Herbranson; Charles P. Shimp

2008-01-01

106

The Grammar of Trademarks  

Microsoft Academic Search

How do people talk when they talk about trademarks? If trademarks havebecome, as linguist Geoffrey Nunberg suggests, our “new global tongue,”perhaps we should pay greater attention to the grammar we use when wetalk about them. We use “Coke” to refer to the Coca-Cola beverage in theNorth, and “coke” to refer to any kind of soda in the South, yet we

Laura A. Heymann

2010-01-01

107

Mathematical formula recognition using graph grammar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes current results of Ofr, a system for extracting and understanding mathematical expressions in documents. Such a tool could be really useful to be able to re-use knowledge in scientific books which are not available in electronic form. We currently also study use of this system for direct input of formulas with a graphical tablet for computer algebra system softwares. Existing solutions for mathematical recognition have problems to analyze 2D expressions like vectors and matrices. This is because they often try to use extended classical grammar to analyze formulas, relatively to baseline. But a lot of mathematical notations do not respect rules for such a parsing and that is the reason why they fail to extend text parsing technic. We investigate graph grammar and graph rewriting as a solution to recognize 2D mathematical notations. Graph grammar provide a powerful formalism to describe structural manipulations of multi-dimensional data. The main two problems to solve are ambiguities between rules of grammar and construction of graph.

Lavirotte, Stephane; Pottier, Loic

1998-04-01

108

Out of the Box Phrase Indexing  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a method for optimizing phrase search based on inverted indexes. Our approach adds selected (two-term) phrases\\u000a to an existing index. Whereas competing approaches are often based on the analysis of query logs, our approach works out of\\u000a the box and uses only the information contained in the index. Also, our method is competitive in terms of query performance

Frederik Transier; Peter Sanders

2008-01-01

109

NPI any and connected exceptive phrases  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses two puzzles in the semantics of connected exceptive phrases (EP): (i) the compatibility of EPs modifying\\u000a noun phrases headed by the negative polarity item (NPI) determiner any and (ii) the ability of a negative universal quantifier modified by an EP to license strong NPIs. Previous analyses of EPs\\u000a are shown to fail to solve these puzzles. A

Jon Gajewski

2008-01-01

110

Optimised Phrase Querying and Browsing of Large Text Databases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most search systems for querying large document collections---for example, web search engines---are based on well-understood information retrieval principles. These systems are both efficient and effective in finding answers to many user information needs, expressed through informal ranked or structured Boolean queries. Phrase querying and browsing are additional techniques that can augment or replace conventional querying tools. In this paper, we

Dirk Bahle; Hugh E. Williams; Justin Zobel

2001-01-01

111

A Machine Learning Approach to Coreference Resolution of Noun Phrases  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present a learning approach to coreference resolution of noun phrases in unrestricted text. The approach learns from a small, annotated corpus and the task includes resolving not just a certain type of noun phrase (e.g., pronouns) but rather general noun phrases. It also does not restrict the entity types of the noun phrases; that is, coreference

Wee Meng Soon; Hwee Tou Ng; Chung Yong Lim

2001-01-01

112

Senior moments: The acceptability of an ageist phrase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: This study examines instances of the phrase senior moment in newspapers to identify definitions of the phrase and determine how the phrase operates in discourse. Design and methods: A search on Lexis-Nexus Academic Universe revealed 136 newspaper articles using senior moment 181 times between 1991 and 2000. These articles and instances of the phrase were examined through quantitative and

Jaye L Bonnesen; Elisabeth O Burgess

2004-01-01

113

Using bilingual ETD collections to mine phrase translations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phrase translation lists can enhance cross-language information retrieval. However, finding translations for technical phrases is difficult. Bilingual dictionaries have limited coverage for specialized fields, and even more limited coverage of technical phrases. Since phrases can have very specific meanings in technical fields, this limits the quality of translations produced by generic machine translation systems. We hypothesize that digital libraries of

Ryan Richardson; Edward A. Fox

2007-01-01

114

A Pedagogical Grammar of Tboli.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Tboli is a language spoken by people living in southwestern Mindanao, Philippines, in the province of South Cotabato. The pedagogical grammar of Tboli has been written to help non-Tboli interested in learning to speak Tboli. A discussion of spelling and pronunciation includes the alphabet and spelling rules. Other forms of grammar described are…

Forsberg, Vivian M.

1992-01-01

115

A Reference Grammar of Bena  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This dissertation is a grammar of Rena (ISO bez), a Bantu language spoken in southwestern Tanzania by approximately 600,000 people. Bena is largely undocumented, and though aspects of Bena grammar have been described, there is no usable, detailed treatment of the Bena language. Therefore the goal of this dissertation is provide the first detailed…

Morrison, Michelle Elizabeth

2011-01-01

116

Compact XML grammar based compression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extensible Markup Language (XML) is the standard format for content representation and sharing on the Web. XML is a highly verbose language, especially regarding the duplication of meta-data in the form of elements and attributes. As XML content is becoming more widespread so is the demand to compress XML data volume. This paper presents a new grammar, called D-grammar, which

S. Harrusi; A. Averbuch; A. Yehudai

117

Grammar and the Spoken Language.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper argues that second language instruction that aims to foster speaking skills and natural spoken interaction should be based upon the grammar of the spoken language, and not on grammars that reflect written norms. Using evidence from a corpus of conversational English, this examination focuses on how four grammatical features that occur…

Carter, Ronald; McCarthy, Michael

118

A Comparative Study on the Effectiveness of Two Song-Teaching Methods: Holistic vs. Phrase-by-Phrase  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of our study was to compare the effectiveness of two song-teaching methods: holistic and phrase-by-phrase. Thirty-two first-grade children (n = 32) from two music classes in an urban elementary school were taught two folksongs. The first class (n = 16) was taught one song through the phrase-by-phrase method and another song through…

Persellin, Diane; Bateman, Laura

2009-01-01

119

Regular right part grammars and their parsers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces an alternative to context-free grammars called regular right part (RRP) grammars, which resemble PASCAL syntax diagrams. Formally, RRP grammars have production right parts, which are nondeterministic finite state machines (FSMs), and, as a special case, regular expression, since these can be converted to FSMs. RRP grammars describe the syntax of programming languages more concisely and more understandably

Wilf R. LaLonde

1977-01-01

120

Inference of Edge Replacement Graph Grammars  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe an algorithm and experiments for inference of edge replacement graph grammars. This method generates candidate recursive graph grammar productions based on isomorphic subgraphs which overlap by two nodes. If there is no edge between the two overlapping nodes, the method generates a recursive graph grammar production with a virtual edge. We guide the search for the graph grammar

Jacek P. Kukluk; Lawrence B. Holder; Diane J. Cook

2007-01-01

121

The Suffix-Signature Method for Searching for Phrases in Text  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dealing effectively with large volumes of semistructured data requiresefficient retrieval. Finding all occurrences of a given word in alarge static text is a well-studied problem. Most solutions, however,are not well-suited for phrase-searching. In this paper, we investigatea new algorithm to find all occurrences of a given phrase in a large,static text, based on the data structure known as a suffix

Mei Zhou; Frank Wm. Tompa

1998-01-01

122

The Suffix-Signature Method for Searching for Phrases in Text  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dealing effectively with large volumes of semistructured data requiresefficient retrieval. Finding all occurrences of a given word in alarge static text is a well-studied problem. Most solutions, however,are not well-suited for phrase-searching. In this paper, we investigatea new algorithm to find all occurrences of a given phrase in a large,static text, based on the data structure known as a suffix

Frank W. Tompa; Mei Zhou

1997-01-01

123

Earley-style Parsing for Relational Grammars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Predictive, Earley-style parsing for unrestricted relational grammars faces a number of problems not present in a context-free string grammar counterpart. Here a subclass of unrestricted relational grammars called fringe relational grammars is proposed along with an Earley-style recognition algorithm. The grammar makes use of fringe elements (the minimal and maximal elements of partially ordered sets) in defining its productions. The

Kent Wittenburg

1992-01-01

124

Flexible Phrase Based Query Handling Algorithms.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Flexibility in query handling can be important if one types a search engine query that is misspelled, contains terms not in the database, or requires knowledge of a controlled vocabulary. Presents results of experiments that suggest the optimal form of similarity functions that are applicable to the task of phrase based retrieval to find either…

Wilbur, W. John; Kim, Won

2001-01-01

125

Flexible Phrase Based Query Handling Algorithms.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Flexibility in query handling can be important if one types a search engine query that is misspelled, contains terms not in the database, or requires knowledge of a controlled vocabulary. Presents results of experiments that suggest the optimal form of similarity functions that are applicable to the task of phrase based retrieval to find either…

Wilbur, W. John; Kim, Won

2001-01-01

126

Spotting phrases in lines of imaged text  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A system that searches for user-specified phrases in imaged text is described. The search `phrases' can be word fragments, words, or groups of words. The imaged text can be composed of a number of different fonts and can contain graphics. A combination of morphology, simple statistical methods and hidden Markov modeling is used to detect and locate the phrases. The image is deskewed, and then bounding boxes are found for text-lines in the image using multiresolution morphology. Baselines, toplines and the x-height in a text-line are identified using simple statistical methods. The distance between baseline and x-height is used to normalize each hypothesized text-line bounding box, and the columns of pixel values in a normalized bounding box serve as the feature vector for that box. Hidden Markov models are crated for each user-specified search string and to represent all text and graphics other than the search strings. Phrases are identified using Viterbi decoding on a spotting network created from the models. The operating point of the system can be varied to trade off the percentage of words correctly spotted and the percentage of false alarms. Results are given using a subset of the UW English Document Image Database I.

Chen, Francine R.; Bloomberg, Dan S.; Wilcox, Lynn D.

1995-03-01

127

Analysis of Algorithms for Phrase Recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three algorithms, designed to recognize vowels, are analyzed for their complexity class or growth pattern. First a databank was prepared from vowel loops of Peterson and Barney (1952) which was used for vowel recognition. The above three algorithms produced the same vowel-recognition rate of more than 78% on a given short phrase. This paper submits the result of our analysis

J. S. Mirza; Muhammad Umair; S. A. Hayat; A. Hussain

2005-01-01

128

Whole Word, Phrase or Number Reading.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An object of this invention is to provide a method of reading text, which locates and recognizes phrases, individual words, or numbers as single units. Another object is to provide a method of recognizing words or numbers like a person with dyslexia, whic...

M. A. O'Hair

1986-01-01

129

SEMANTIC AND TEXTUAL CONDITIONS ON NOUN PHRASE MOVEMENT IN ENGLISH (GENERATIVE GRAMMAR, CONSTRAINTS, COMPOSITION)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the inception of the Standard Theory, it has generally been recognized that syntactic transformations must be severely constrained in their expressive power in order for linguistic descriptions to approach explanatory adequacy. To remedy this deficiency, various syntactic constraints on movement rules have been proposed.^ This program has not received unanimous support. Lakoff (1971) argues that transformations are too weak,

MARK STEPHEN LETOURNEAU

1986-01-01

130

A Diversity of Grammars: Breaking the Boundaries of "The Well Made Box."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In his 1976 article, "Grammars of Style: New Options in Composition," Winston Weathers calls for a Grammar B, an alternate set of conventions which govern the construction of whole compositions. He urges compositionists to look beyond the "well-made box" and consider other options for compositional patterns and discourse structures. Fields such as…

Sidler, Michelle

131

Relationships of English Grammar and Communicative Fluency to Reading in Deaf Adolescents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two groups (N=65 each) of congenitally deaf teenagers divided according to hearing/deaf parents were assessed for three measures of communicative fluency and two measures of English grammar/structure. High correlations were found between reading and the English grammar measures. Fluency in American Sign Language was not correlated with reading for…

Moores, Donald F.; Sweet, Catherine

1990-01-01

132

A Deeper Look at the Grammar and Some Implications of "Ser" and "Estar" + Locative in Spanish.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Argues that the explanation of the use of "ser" and "estar" with locatives presented in the March 1984 issue of "Hispania" derives so directly from a theory of universal grammar because it is indicative of the explanatory adequacy of Case Grammar or of other, comparable theories of the deeper levels of linguistic structure. (SED)|

Franco, Fabiola; Steinmetz, Donald

1985-01-01

133

Translating OOV phrases based on lexical information and web mining  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a novel approach to improve the OOV (Out-of-vocabulary) phrase translation by combining lexical information and web mining. We first retrieve the top relevant anchor words with source OOV phrase from search engine, and then search the translation with expanded query ¿source OOV phrase + anchor word¿ from mixed-language web pages. Finally, a ME (Maximum Entropy) model is

Guihua Sun; Gaopan Xu; Ke Zhang

2008-01-01

134

Generative Graph Grammar of Neo-Vai?e?ika Formal Ontology (NVFO)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NLP applications for Sanskrit so far work within computational paradigm of string grammars. However, to compute 'meanings', as in traditional ?? bdabodha prakriy?-s, there is a need to develop suitable graph grammars. Ontological structures are fundamentally graphs. We work within the formal framework of Neo-Vai?e?ika Formal Ontology (NVFO) to propose a generative graph grammar. The proposed formal grammar only produces well-formed graphs that can be readily interpreted in accordance with Vai?e? ika Ontology. We show that graphs not permitted by Vai?e? ika ontology are not generated by the proposed grammar. Further, we write Interpreter of these graphical structures. This creates computational environment which can be deployed for writing computational applications of Vai?e? ika ontology. We illustrate how this environment can be used to create applications like computing ?? bdabodha of sentences.

Tavva, Rajesh; Singh, Navjyoti

135

Priming Prepositional-Phrase Attachment During Comprehension  

Microsoft Academic Search

Strong evidence suggests that prior syntactic context affects language production (e.g., J. K. Bock, 1986). The authors report 4 experiments that used an expression-picture matching task to investigate whether it also affects ambiguity resolution in comprehension. All experiments examined the interpretation of prepositional phrases that were ambiguous between high and low attachment. After reading a prime expression with a high-attached

Holly P. Branigan; Martin J. Pickering; Janet F. McLean

2005-01-01

136

Regularly Controlled Bidirectional Extended Linear Basic Grammars.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The concept of bidirectional application of productions - i.e., using a production of a grammar as a reduction too - is studied with respect to regularly controlled extended linear basic (macro) grammars, provided with a restricted mode of derivation. So ...

J. A. Hogendorp

1989-01-01

137

Phrase Frequency Effects in Language Production  

PubMed Central

A classic debate in the psychology of language concerns the question of the grain-size of the linguistic information that is stored in memory. One view is that only morphologically simple forms are stored (e.g., ‘car’, ‘red’), and that more complex forms of language such as multi-word phrases (e.g., ‘red car’) are generated on-line from the simple forms. In two experiments we tested this view. In Experiment 1, participants produced noun+adjective and noun+noun phrases that were elicited by experimental displays consisting of colored line drawings and two superimposed line drawings. In Experiment 2, participants produced noun+adjective and determiner+noun+adjective utterances elicited by colored line drawings. In both experiments, naming latencies decreased with increasing frequency of the multi-word phrase, and were unaffected by the frequency of the object name in the utterance. These results suggest that the language system is sensitive to the distribution of linguistic information at grain-sizes beyond individual words.

Janssen, Niels; Barber, Horacio A.

2012-01-01

138

Does the mastery of center-embedded linguistic structures distinguish humans from nonhuman primates?  

PubMed

In a recent Science article, Fitch and Hauser (2004; hereafter, F&H) claimed to have demonstrated that cotton-top tamarins fail to learn an artificial language produced by a phrase structure grammar (Chomsky, 1957) generating center-embedded sentences, whereas adult humans easily learn such a language. We report an experiment replicating the results of F&H in humans but also showing that subjects learned the language without exploiting in any way the center-embedded structure. When the procedure was modified to make the processing of this structure mandatory, the subjects no longer showed evidence of learning. We propose a simple interpretation for the difference in performance observed in F&H's task between humans and tamarins and argue that, beyond the specific drawbacks inherent in F&H's study, researching the source of the inability of nonhuman primates to master language within a framework built around Chomsky's hierarchy of grammars is a conceptual dead end. PMID:16082811

Perruchet, Pierre; Rey, Arnaud

2005-04-01

139

A Construction Grammar for the Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Construction grammars (Lakoff, Women, fire and dangerous things: What categories reveal about the Mind, University of Chicago Press, 1987; Langacker, Foundations of cognitive grammar: Theoretical pre-requisites, Stanford University Press, 1987; Croft, Radical construction grammar: Syntactic theory in typological perspective, Oxford University…

Holme, Randal

2010-01-01

140

A Construction Grammar for the Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Construction grammars (Lakoff, Women, fire and dangerous things: What categories reveal about the Mind, University of Chicago Press, 1987; Langacker, Foundations of cognitive grammar: Theoretical pre-requisites, Stanford University Press, 1987; Croft, Radical construction grammar: Syntactic theory in typological perspective, Oxford University…

Holme, Randal

2010-01-01

141

The Philosophical Significance of Universal Grammar  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Throughout its long history, the project of a science of grammar has always been an inherently philosophical one, in which the study of grammar was taken to have special epistemological significance. I ask why 20th and 21st century inquiry into Universal Grammar (UG) has largely lost this dimension, a fact that I argue is partially responsible…

Hinzen, Wolfram

2012-01-01

142

Goodness criteria for programming language grammar rules  

Microsoft Academic Search

The grammar of a programming language is important as it is used in developing software engineering tools. Sometimes grammars of programming languages are not readily available or they are incomplete; hence they are inferred from a set of valid programs. An exact grammar can not be learned from a set of positive samples (set of valid programs) alone as there

Alpana Dubey

2006-01-01

143

The Hmong Language: Sentences, Phrases and Words. General Information Series, No. 15. Indochinese Refugee Education Guides.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide is intended to familiarize Americans with the basic structure of Hmong sentences and with words or phrases that may be useful with Hmong refugees. Hmong is represented in the Romanized Popular Alphabet. Following a general discussion of pronunciation and tone in Hmong, the structure of basic, compound, and complex sentences is…

Center for Applied Linguistics, Arlington, VA.

144

What Artificial Grammar Learning Reveals about the Neurobiology of Syntax  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this paper we examine the neurobiological correlates of syntax, the processing of structured sequences, by comparing FMRI results on artificial and natural language syntax. We discuss these and similar findings in the context of formal language and computability theory. We used a simple right-linear unification grammar in an implicit…

Petersson, Karl-Magnus; Folia, Vasiliki; Hagoort, Peter

2012-01-01

145

SWAHILI GRAMMAR AND SYNTAX. DUQUESNE STUDIES, AFRICAN SERIES 1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|THIS COMPREHENSIVE STUDY OF SWAHILI, ONE OF THE BANTU LANGUAGES IN THE NIGER-CONGO GROUP, IS BASED ON THE AUTHOR'S 37 YEARS OF WRITING AND TEACHING EXPERIENCE IN EAST AFRICA. THE STUDY IS INTENDED TO PRESENT THE SWAHILI LANGUAGE IN TERMS OF ITS OWN STRUCTURE, RATHER THAN IN TERMS OF LATIN OR ENGLISH GRAMMARS. A PRELIMINARY SECTION IN PART ONE…

LOOGMAN, ALFONS

146

Delta's Key to the Next Generation TOEFL[R] Test: Essential Grammar for the iBT  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Although the TOEFL iBT does not have a discrete grammar section, knowledge of English sentence structure is important throughout the test. Essential Grammar for the iBT reviews the skills that are fundamental to success on tests. Content includes noun and verb forms, clauses, agreement, parallel structure, punctuation, and much more. The book may…

Gallagher, Nancy

2012-01-01

147

Learnable Classes of Categorial Grammars.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Learnability theory is an attempt to illuminate the concept of learnability using a mathematical model of learning. Two models of learning of categorial grammars are examined here: the standard model, in which sentences presented to the learner are flat strings of words, and one in which sentences are presented in the form of functor-argument…

Kanazawa, Makoto

148

Multitext Grammars and Synchronous Parsers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multitext Grammars (MTGs) generate arbitrarily many parallel texts via production rules of arbitrary length. Both ordinary MTGs and their bilexical subclass admit relatively efficient parsers. Yet, MTGs are more expressive than other synchronous formalisms for which parsers have been described in the literature. The combination of greater expressive power and relatively low cost of inference makes MTGs an attractive foundation

I. Dan Melamed

2003-01-01

149

Complex Grammar in Williams Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study investigated knowledge of binding and raising in two groups of children with Williams syndrome (WS), 6-12 and 12-16-years-old, compared to typically developing (TD) controls matched on non-verbal MA, verbal MA, and grammar. In typical development, difficulties interpreting pronouns, but not reflexives, persist until the age of around…

Perovic, Alexandra; Wexler, Ken

2007-01-01

150

Attributed grammars in hypnogram analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hypnogram is a schematic representation of sleep dynamics as a sequence of stages along the night. The authors have shown, in previous work, the adequacy of syntactic modeling in automatic sleep analysis. According to this approach, the hypnogram is viewed as expression of a language whose temporal organization is described by stochastic context-free grammars. Here, the authors propose a

Ana L. N. Fred; J. M. N. Leitao

1995-01-01

151

Grammar Competency and Business Communications.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study sought to determine the relationship between grammar competency and success in a business communication course. Students completed a written English competency test consisting of 25 sentences, each with one of eight kinds of errors, including comma splice and incorrect pronoun reference. Students were then asked to choose the one…

Waltman, John L.

152

Proverbs, Maxims and Phrases of All Ages  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The lyrical poet Horace once said that "The road of death must be travelled by all." He said many other things, and some of his sayings may be found within this classic volume. Originally published in 1887, the volume "Proverbs, Maxims and Phrases of All Ages" was compiled by Robert Christy. The intent of this volume was to serve as a reference volume for libraries and personal use. The people at Bartleby.com have made it available here in its entirety, and it may serve as a source of inspiration to budding writers, philosophers, and orators. Visitors can search the work by categories like "Advice," "Fortune," and "Honor." Also, the formal Preface is quite an elaborate bit of writing, and sets an appropriate tone for the work.

153

An open source grammar development environment and broad-coverage English grammar using HPSG  

Microsoft Academic Search

The LinGO (Linguistic Grammars Online) project's English Resource Grammar and the LKB grammar development environment are language resources which are freely available for download for any purpose, including commercial use (see http:\\/\\/lingo.stanford.edu). Executable programs and source code are both included. In this paper, we give an outline of the LinGO English grammar and LKB system, and discuss the ways in

Ann Copestake; Dan Flickinger

2000-01-01

154

Paradigms for Attribute-Grammar-Based Language Implementation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Attribute grammars are a formalism for specifying and implementing programming languages. Methods and techniques are presented for expressing attribute grammars themselves as a language. These methods are based on relating attribute grammars with programm...

J. Paakki

1991-01-01

155

Block diagram grammar and signal flow graph grammar with their applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

A block diagram grammar and a signal flow graph grammar were previously defined as a theoretical and practical foundation for the computerized analysis and design of control systems and filters by using block diagrams and\\/or signal flow graphs. They are formalized on the basis of a context-sensitive graph grammar. In this research, a knowledge representation method in order to generate

Y. Adachi; S. Kobayashi; Y. Suda; K. Tsuchida

1999-01-01

156

Web opinion mining based on sentiment phrase classification vector  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opinion mining is an important research area of web data mining. As it is related to natural language process and data mining, opinion mining is very challenging. This paper presents a web opining mining algorithm based on sentiment phrase classification vector. By the techniques of sentiment phrase classification, the algorithm compares the similarity between document vectors, mines the theme of

Pengcheng Han; Junping Du; Liping Chen

2010-01-01

157

Clicked phrase document expansion for sponsored search ad retrieval  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a document expansion approach that uses Conditional Random Field (CRF) segmentation to automatically extract salient phrases from ad titles. We then supplement the ad document with query segments that are probable translations of the document phrases, as learned from a large commercial search engine's click logs. Our approach provides a significant improvement in DCG and interpolated precision and

Dustin Hillard; Chris Leggetter

2010-01-01

158

Document Retrieval Using Proximity-Based Phrase Searching  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exact phrase matching is a powerful tool to quickly retrieve results when a sufficient section of the text is accurately provided as the query. If the section of the text is not completely accurate, phrase searching will fail. A method must be used which will enforce strict enough conditions to achieve high accuracy while allowing for mistakes in the text

Kathryn Patterson; Carolyn R. Watters; Michael A. Shepherd

2008-01-01

159

Use of Noun Phrases in Interactive Search Refinement  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents an approach to interactively refining user search formulations and its evaluation in the new High Accuracy Retrieval from Documents (HARD) track of TREC-12. The method consists of showing to the user a list of noun phrases, extracted from the initial document set, and then expanding the query with the terms taken from the phrases selected by the

Olga Vechtomova; Murat Karamuftuoglu

160

A Query Expansion Algorithm Based on Phrases Semantic Similarity  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the indexing process of traditional search engine, web pages become a list of terms, but single term cannot represent the rich content of web pages, which makes information retrieval methods mainly based on terms matching often result in depressed precision. This paper proposes a novel query expansion technique that has phrases as its expansion unit. Phrases typically have a

Yongli Liu; Chao Li; Pin Zhang; Zhang Xiong

2008-01-01

161

Parallel phrase matching for cloud based security services  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phrase matching is a technique used to detect virus patterns, data leakage, SPAM, and embedded URLs in messages. Depending on the length of the phrases, the complexity of detecting them increases. Presented is an algorithm that can be implemented efficiently using GPU by reducing the copy costs. The algorithm creates k-grams using collision resistant hashing techniques and matches the k-grams

Jose Kolenchery

2011-01-01

162

Phrasing in the Speech and Reading of the Hearing Impaired.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Speech samples from 21 deaf subjects (9-16 years old) were rated for phrasal quality and reading comprehension under four reading conditions. Results suggested that--whereas staccato-speaking deaf students may lack a sense of the phrase altogether--phrasal-speaking deaf youngsters fail to independently apply their phrase sense in the normal…

Gregory, James F.

1986-01-01

163

Prosodic Phrasing and Modifier Attachment in Standard Arabic Sentence Processing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This dissertation investigates the syntax-prosody interface in Standard Arabic, focusing on the ambiguity of a modifier (relative clause or adjective phrase) in relation to the two nouns in a complex noun phrase. Ambiguity resolution tendencies for this construction differ across languages, contrary to otherwise universal parsing tendencies. One…

Abdelghany, Hala

2010-01-01

164

Mining Search-Phrase Definitions from Item Descriptions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we develop a model for representing term dependence based on Markov Random Fields and present an approach based on Markov Chain Monte Carlo technique for generating phrase definitions. This approach can use a small corpus of keyword matching and a random sample of other product descriptions for an advertiser's search-phrase to effectively mine and rank alternative but

Hung V. Nguyen; Hasan Davulcu

2008-01-01

165

On search guide phrase compilation for recommending home medical products.  

PubMed

To help people find desired home medical products (HMPs), we developed an intelligent personal health record (iPHR) system that can automatically recommend HMPs based on users' health issues. Using nursing knowledge, we pre-compile a set of "search guide" phrases that provides semantic translation from words describing health issues to their underlying medical meanings. Then iPHR automatically generates queries from those phrases and uses them and a search engine to retrieve HMPs. To avoid missing relevant HMPs during retrieval, the compiled search guide phrases need to be comprehensive. Such compilation is a challenging task because nursing knowledge updates frequently and contains numerous details scattered in many sources. This paper presents a semi-automatic tool facilitating such compilation. Our idea is to formulate the phrase compilation task as a multi-label classification problem. For each newly obtained search guide phrase, we first use nursing knowledge and information retrieval techniques to identify a small set of potentially relevant classes with corresponding hints. Then a nurse makes the final decision on assigning this phrase to proper classes based on those hints. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our techniques by compiling search guide phrases from an occupational therapy textbook. PMID:21096155

Luo, Gang

2010-01-01

166

A VIETNAMESE GRAMMAR.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

IN ADDITION TO GIVING A COMPLETE DESCRIPTION OF THE GRAMMATICAL STRUCTURE OF VIETNAMESE, THIS TEXT CONTAINS A STUDY OF VIETNAMESE PRONUNCIATION, BASED ON THE EDUCATED SPEECH OF HANOI, WHICH IS CONSIDERED STANDARD. ANOTHER ENTIRE SECTION IS DEVOTED TO DIALECTAL DIFFERENCES, SPECIFICALLY TO COMPARISONS WITH THE SPEECH OF SAIGON. ALL PHONOLOGY IS…

THOMPSON, LAURENCE C.

167

Machine Recognition of Transformational Grammars of English.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report is divided into three sections. Section I, written by Robert Kirk, contains a fragment of an English grammar dealing with complement constructions in English. It is based upon the IBM Core Grammar of English by Peter Rosenbaum and Dorita Lochak...

S. J. Keyser R. Kirk

1967-01-01

168

Some Computational Properties of Tree Adjoining Grammars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tree Adjoining Grammar (TAG) is a formalism for natural language grammars. Some of the basic notions of TAG's were introduced in [Joshi, Levy, and Takahashi 1975] and by [Joshi, 1983]. A detailed investigation of the linguistic relevance of TAG's has been carried out in [Kroch and Joshi, 1985]. In this paper, we will describe some new results for TAG's, especially

Aravind K. Joshi; K. Vijay-Shanker

1985-01-01

169

Grammar and Linguistics: A Contrast in Realities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|An appeal for a reappraisal of the role of linguistics and traditional grammar in the secondary school is made in this article. A case is made for a return to traditional grammar in the teaching of English at all levels prior to graduate school. Five writing models with student assignments based on creative imitation illustrate the kind of…

Wolfe, Don M.

1964-01-01

170

Towards a Framework for Teaching Spoken Grammar  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since the advent of spoken corpora, descriptions of native speaker spoken grammar have become far more detailed and comprehensive. These insights, however, have been relatively slow to filter through to ELT practice. The aim of this article is to outline an approach to the teaching of native-speaker spoken grammar which is not only pedagogically…

Timmis, Ivor

2005-01-01

171

Grammar based function definition in Grammatical Evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe the use of grammars as an approach to automatic function definition in Grammatical Evo- lution. The automatic generation of functions al- lows the evolution of both the function and the code belonging to the main body of the program which has the ability to call upon the evolving function. As proof of concept we apply a grammar using

Michael O'neill; Conor Ryan

2000-01-01

172

Romanian Grammar Workbook for Peace Corps Volunteers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed as a reference tool for continued language learning beyond the beginning level, this workbook provides explanations and sets of exercises for learning, practicing, and understanding the major points of Romanian grammar. The manual contains 11 units on certain grammar problems for use with a tutor or under self-guided learning…

Peace Corps (Moldova).

173

Propelling Students into Active Grammar Participation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|"O! this learning, what a thing it is." -W. Shakespeare, "The Taming of the Shrew." The aim of this action research was to find out if active grammar involvement amongst students might lead to better results. My approach was to activate my students during grammar instruction by using cooperative learning: that is a form of learning in which…

Jurhill, Dennis A.

2011-01-01

174

Studying Grammar in the Technological Age  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|When being a student in grade school as well as in high school (1934-1946), grammar was heavily emphasized in English/language arts classes, particularly in grades four through the senior year in high school. Evidently, teachers and school administrators then saw a theoretical way to assist pupils in writing achievement. Grammar and writing were…

Ediger, Marlow

2012-01-01

175

Agrammatism as evidence about grammar.  

PubMed

A variety of experimental paradigms has yielded surprisingly fine-grained evidence about the kinds of syntactic information to which agrammatic aphasics are sensitive. This paper contrasts three accounts of agrammatism which draw quite different conclusions about the implications of this disorder for normal function: the chain-disruption, trade-off, and mapping hypotheses. Counterarguments to the chain disruption and trade-off hypotheses are presented, and it is argued that agrammatism provides considerable support for the modularity of syntax but provides no evidence more specific than that regarding the psychological reality of government binding theory vis-à-vis other current theories of grammar. PMID:7552230

Linebarger, M C

1995-07-01

176

Packrat parsers can handle practical grammars in mostly constant space  

Microsoft Academic Search

Packrat parsing is a powerful parsing algorithm presented by Ford in 2002. Packrat parsers can handle complicated grammars and recursive structures in lexical elements more easily than the traditional LL(k) or LR(1) parsing algorithms. However, packrat parsers require O(n) space for memoization, where n is the length of the input. This space inefficiency makes packrat parsers impractical in some applications.

Kota Mizushima; Atusi Maeda; Yoshinori Yamaguchi

2010-01-01

177

Grammar based off line generation of disposable credit card numbers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Context free grammars present the desirable cryptographic property that it is easy to generate and validate strings from a given grammar, however it is hard to identify a grammar given only the strings generated by it. The algorithm used in the authentication protocol proposed in this paper makes use of context free grammars. This authentication protocol is a perfect candidate

Abhishek Singh; Andre L. M. dos Santos

2002-01-01

178

An Analysis of Spoken Grammar: The Case for Production  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Corpus-based grammars, notably "Cambridge Grammar of English," give explicit information on the forms and use of native-speaker grammar, including spoken grammar. Native-speaker norms as a necessary goal in language teaching are contested by supporters of English as a Lingua Franca (ELF); however, this article argues for the inclusion of selected…

Mumford, Simon

2009-01-01

179

Pourquoi les exercices de grammaire? (Why Grammar Exercises?)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent theories and experiementation running the gamut from the absolute necessity of grammar to its uselessness in teaching a language form the basis of this article. Topics covered are: a typology of the grammar exercise; explicit grammar and linguistic competence; grammar exercises responding to real needs. (Text is in French.) (AMH)

Bastuji, Jacqueline

1977-01-01

180

Varieties of Crossing Dependencies: Structure Dependence and Mild Context Sensitivity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Four different kinds of grammars that can define crossing dependencies in human language are compared here: (1) "context sensitive rewrite" grammars with rules that depend on context; (2) "matching" grammars with constraints that filter the generative structure of the language; (3) "copying" grammars which can copy structures of unbounded size;…

Stabler, Edward P.

2004-01-01

181

Incremental Syntactic Language Models for Phrase-Based Translation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper describes a novel technique for incorporating syntactic knowledge into phrase-based machine translation through incremental syntactic parsing. Bottom-up and top-down parsers typically require a completed string as input. This requirement makes ...

C. Callison-Burch L. Schwartz S. Wu W. Schuler

2011-01-01

182

Phonological phrase boundaries constrain lexical access II. Infant data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The location of phonological phrase boundaries was shown to affect lexical access by English-learning infants of 10 and 13 months of age. Experiments 1 and 2 used the head-turn preference procedure: infants were familiarized with two bisyllabic words, then presented with sentences that either contained the familiarized words or contained both their syllables separated by a phonological phrase boundary. Ten-month-olds

Ariel Gout; Anne Christophe; James L. Morgan

2004-01-01

183

Repeating phrases across unrelated narratives: Evidence of text repetition effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research has shown that text repetition effects are limited to conditions in which the context remains consistent across the\\u000a two processing episodes, particularly when readers are focused on comprehension. Despite this, we found evidence of transfer\\u000a effects across unrelated narratives. In a repeated condition, an ambiguous phrase appeared in two consecutive stories. In\\u000a Story A, the phrase was presented in

Celia M. Klin; Angela S. Ralano; Kristin M. Weingartner

2007-01-01

184

Bound-phrase searching in OCLC FirstSearch  

Microsoft Academic Search

A useful way to pinpoint information in OCLC FirstSearch is through a wordlist bound-phrase search. A bound-phrase search looks for the full title, author, and so forth. exactly as you type it. A wordlist search will tell you how many hits to expect before you are charged for a search. You can also browse through the wordlist for additional related

Janice Zlendich

1994-01-01

185

Identifying Idiomatic Expressions Using Phrase Alignments in Bilingual Parallel Corpus  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Previous efforts to identify idiomatic expressions using a bilingual parallel corpus have focused on the method of using word\\u000a alignments to catch the sense of individual words. In this paper, we propose a method of using phrase alignments rather than\\u000a word alignments in a parallel corpus to recognize the sense of phrases as well as words. Our proposed scoring functions

Hyoung-Gyu Lee; Min-Jeong Kim; Gum-Won Hong; Sang-Bum Kim; Young-Sook Hwang; Hae-Chang Rim

2010-01-01

186

Parsing facades with shape grammars and reinforcement learning.  

PubMed

In this paper, we use shape grammars (SGs) for facade parsing, which amounts to segmenting 2D building facades into balconies, walls, windows, and doors in an architecturally meaningful manner. The main thrust of our work is the introduction of reinforcement learning (RL) techniques to deal with the computational complexity of the problem. RL provides us with techniques such as Q-learning and state aggregation which we exploit to efficiently solve facade parsing. We initially phrase the 1D parsing problem in terms of a Markov Decision Process, paving the way for the application of RL-based tools. We then develop novel techniques for the 2D shape parsing problem that take into account the specificities of the facade parsing problem. Specifically, we use state aggregation to enforce the symmetry of facade floors and demonstrate how to use RL to exploit bottom-up, image-based guidance during optimization. We provide systematic results on the Paris building dataset and obtain state-of-the-art results in a fraction of the time required by previous methods. We validate our method under diverse imaging conditions and make our software and results available online. PMID:23682000

Teboul, Olivier; Kokkinos, Iasonas; Simon, Loic; Koutsourakis, Panagiotis; Paragios, Nikos

2013-07-01

187

An Influence Model for Reference Object Selection in Spatially Locative Phrases  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comprehensive influence model for choosing a reference object in a spatially locative phrase is developed. The model is\\u000a appropriate for a Bayesian network implementation and intended as a step toward machine learning of spatial language. It takes\\u000a its structure from the necessary steps a listener must take in utilising spatial communication and contains as variables parameters\\u000a derived from the

Michael Barclay; Antony Galton

2008-01-01

188

Indexing Anatomical Phrases in Neuro-Radiology Reports to the UMLS 2005AA  

PubMed Central

This work describes a methodology to index anatomical phrases to the 2005AA release of the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS). A phrase chunking tool based on Natural Language Processing (NLP) was developed to identify semantically coherent phrases within medical reports. Using this phrase chunker, a set of 2,551 unique anatomical phrases was extracted from brain radiology reports. These phrases were mapped to the 2005AA release of the UMLS using a vector space model. Precision for the task of indexing unique phrases was 0.87.

Bashyam, Vijayaraghavan; Taira, Ricky K.

2005-01-01

189

Do grammars minimize dependency length?  

PubMed

A well-established principle of language is that there is a preference for closely related words to be close together in the sentence. This can be expressed as a preference for dependency length minimization (DLM). In this study, we explore quantitatively the degree to which natural languages reflect DLM. We extract the dependencies from natural language text and reorder the words in such a way as to minimize dependency length. Comparing the original text with these optimal linearizations (and also with random linearizations) reveals the degree to which natural language minimizes dependency length. Tests on English data show that English shows a strong effect of DLM, with dependency length much closer to optimal than to random; the optimal English grammar also has many specific features in common with English. In German, too, dependency length is significantly less than random, but the effect is much weaker than in English. We conclude by speculating about some possible reasons for this difference between English and German. PMID:21564213

Gildea, Daniel; Temperley, David

2009-10-27

190

Building and Using a Russian Resource Grammar in GF  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Grammatical Framework (GF) [5] is a grammar formalism for describing formal and natural languages. An application grammar\\u000a in GF is usually written for a restricted language domain, e.g. to map a formal language to a natural language. A resource\\u000a grammar, on the other hand, aims at a complete description of a natural languages. The language-independent grammar API (Application\\u000a Programmer’s Interface)

Janna Khegai; Aarne Ranta

2004-01-01

191

An extended grammar system for learning and recognizing complex visual events.  

PubMed

For a grammar-based approach to the recognition of visual events, there are two major limitations that prevent it from real application. One is that the event rules are predefined by domain experts, which means huge manual cost. The other is that the commonly used grammar can only handle sequential relations between subevents, which is inadequate to recognize more complex events involving parallel subevents. To solve these problems, we propose an extended grammar approach to modeling and recognizing complex visual events. First, motion trajectories as original features are transformed into a set of basic motion patterns of a single moving object, namely, primitives (terminals) in the grammar system. Then, a Minimum Description Length (MDL) based rule induction algorithm is performed to discover the hidden temporal structures in primitive stream, where Stochastic Context-Free Grammar (SCFG) is extended by Allen's temporal logic to model the complex temporal relations between subevents. Finally, a Multithread Parsing (MTP) algorithm is adopted to recognize interesting complex events in a given primitive stream, where a Viterbi-like error recovery strategy is also proposed to handle large-scale errors, e.g., insertion and deletion errors. Extensive experiments, including gymnastic exercises, traffic light events, and multi-agent interactions, have been executed to validate the effectiveness of the proposed approach. PMID:21193807

Zhang, Zhang; Tan, Tieniu; Huang, Kaiqi

2011-02-01

192

Noun Phrase Compression in Navy Messages.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An important goal of the Navy's future message systems is to be able to interpret automatically the English narrative in Navy messages. To accomplish this, such systems must incorporate a natural language parser that determines the structure of English ph...

J. C. Bachenko C. L. Heitmeyer

1983-01-01

193

Processing Elided Verb Phrases with Flawed Antecedents: The Recycling Hypothesis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Traditional syntactic accounts of verb phrase ellipsis (e.g., ''Jason laughed. Sam did [ ] too.'') categorize as ungrammatical many sentences that language users find acceptable (they ''undergenerate''); semantic accounts overgenerate. We propose that a processing theory, together with a syntactic account, does a better job of describing and…

Arregui, Ana; Clifton, Charles, Jr.; Frazier, Lyn; Moulton, Keir

2006-01-01

194

A Chinese Idiomatic Phrase E-Learning System  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a Chinese phrase e-learning system. We apply the concept of Web 2.0 and the technology of AJAX to this teaching system. For the past ten years people have been using computers as a communication tool, which greatly reduces the chance of handwriting and causes a decline in their ability to compose. Here we develop a teaching system

Yih-Jeng Lin; Wen-Lung Tsai; Tong-Sheng Lee

2009-01-01

195

A Semantic Characterization of Referentially Dependent Noun Phrases.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Many syntactic and semantic studies have focused on the distribution of closed-class lexical noun phrases (NPs) such as "her, herself, and each other." Recent work has demonstrated that many other NPs are also referentially dependent. A model-theoretic semantic analysis of a number of such referentially dependent NPs is presented. These NPs are…

Tyhurst, James J.

196

Retrieval of Biomedical Documents by Prioritizing Key Phrases  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we presented an approach to retrieving relevant articles from the biomedical corpus. Our first run considered four kinds of operators as query expansion. The operators are phrase, mandatory, optional and synonym set. The second run lowered the ranking of documents which contained query terms only in their MeSH fields. The results of the official runs were listed.

Kevin Hsin-yih Lin; Wen-juan Hou; Hsin-hsi Chen

2005-01-01

197

TIJAH at INEX 2004: Modeling Phrases and Relevance Feedback  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses our participation in INEX using the TIJAH XML-IR system. We have enriched the TIJAH system, which follows a standard layered database architecture, with several new features. An extensible conceptual level processing unit has been added to the system. The algebra on the logical level and the implementation on the physical level have been extended to support phrase

V. Mihajlovic; G. Ramirez; Vries de A. P; D. Hiemstra; H. E. Blok; N. Fuhr; M. Lalmas; S. Malik; Z. Szlàvik

2005-01-01

198

TIJAH at INEX 2004 - Modeling Phrases and Relevance Feedback  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses our participation in INEX using the TIJAH XML-IR system. We have enriched the TIJAH system, which follows a standard layered database architecture, with several new features. An extensible conceptual level processing unit has been added to the system. The algebra on the logical level and the implementation on the physical level have been extended to support phrase

Vojkan Mihajlovic; Georgina Ramirez; Vries de Arjen P; Djoerd Hiemstra; Henk Ernst Blok; Norbert Fuhr; Mounia Lalmas; Saadia Malik; Zoltán Szlavik

2005-01-01

199

Phonological phrase boundaries constrain lexical access I. Adult dataq  

Microsoft Academic Search

We tested the effect of local lexical ambiguities while manipulating the type of prosodic boundary at which the ambi- guity occurred, using French sentences and participants. We observed delayed lexical access when a local lexical ambi- guity occurred within a phonological phrase (consistent with previous research; e.g., (un chat grincheux), containing the potential competitor word chagrin, was processed more slowly

Anne Christophe; Sharon Peperkamp; Christophe Pallier; Eliza Block; Jacques Mehler

200

Lexical Entrainment and Lexical Differentiation in Reference Phrase Choice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Speakers reuse prior references to objects when choosing reference phrases, a phenomenon known as lexical entrainment. One explanation is that speakers want to maintain a set of previously established referential precedents. Speakers may also contrast any new referents against this previously established set, thereby avoiding applying the same…

Van Der Wege, Mija M.

2009-01-01

201

Investigating the Usefulness of Lexical Phrases in Contemporary Coursebooks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Over the past decade, lexical theory, corpus statistics, and psycholinguistic research have pointed to the pedagogical value of lexical phrases. In response, commercial publishers have been quick to import these insights into their materials in a bid to accommodate consumers and to profit from the "lexical chunk" phenomenon. Contemporary British…

Koprowski, Mark

2005-01-01

202

Perceptual constraints and the learnability of simple grammars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cognitive processes are often attributed to statistical or symbolic general-purpose mechanisms. Here we show that some spontaneous generalizations are driven by specialized, highly constrained symbolic operations. We explore how two types of artificial grammars are acquired, one based on repetitions and the other on characteristic relations between tones (“ordinal” grammars). Whereas participants readily acquire repetition-based grammars, displaying early electrophysiological responses

Ansgar D. Endress; Ghislaine Dehaene-Lambertz; Jacques Mehler

2007-01-01

203

Parsing expression grammars: a recognition-based syntactic foundation  

Microsoft Academic Search

For decades we have been using Chomsky's generative system of grammars, particularly context-free grammars (CFGs) and regular expressions (REs), to express the syntax of programming languages and protocols. The power of generative grammars to express ambiguity is crucial to their original purpose of modelling natural languages, but this very power makes it unnecessarily difficult both to express and to parse

Bryan Ford

2004-01-01

204

A Grammar of English for a Machine Translation System.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The development of a new grammar of English for machine translation systems at Weidner Communications Corporation is described. Although the project began with the intention of simply modifying the grammar rules already in use in the translation system, the reorganization of the grammar was deemed necessary for providing a principled manner of…

Pinkham, Jessie

205

Does Intensive Explicit Grammar Instruction Make All the Difference?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper investigates the effect of explicit grammar instruction on grammatical knowledge and writing proficiency in first-year students of French at a UK university. Previous research suggests that explicit grammar instruction results in gains in explicit knowledge and its application in specific grammar-related tasks, but there is less…

Macaro, Ernesto; Masterman, Liz

2006-01-01

206

From Sentence to Discourse: Discourse Grammar and English Language Teaching.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Argues that there are very good reasons for developing discourse grammars for second-language (L2) teaching. Exemplifies the criteria for moving from sentence-based grammar to the discourse level. The criteria are based on pedagogical and descriptive problems in grammar that sentence-based approaches cannot adequately deal with. (Author/VWL)|

McCarthy, Michael; Hughes, Rebecca

1998-01-01

207

The Use of Shared Forests in Tree Adjoining Grammar Parsing  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study parsing of tree adjoining grammars with particular emphasis on the use of shared forests to represent all the parse trees deriving a well-formed string. We show that there are two distinct ways of representing the parse forest one of which involves the use of linear indexed grammars and the other the use of context-free grammars. The work presented

K. Vijay-Shanker; David J. Weir

1993-01-01

208

Ways of Knowing: Writing with Grammar in Mind  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the international context of concerns about standards in writing, this article addresses the role of grammar in the teaching of writing. It considers both current and historical perspectives on the teaching of grammar and offers a critique of research which attempts to determine the impact of grammar teaching on writing, but which does not…

Myhill, Debra

2005-01-01

209

From Exemplar to Grammar: Integrating Analogy and Probability in Language Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a new model of language learning which is based on the following idea: if a language learner does not know which phrase-structure trees should be assigned to initial sentences, s\\/he allows (implicitly) for all possible trees and lets linguistic experience decide which is the 'best' tree for each sentence. The best tree is obtained by maximizing 'structural analogy'

Rens Bod

2008-01-01

210

Inverted indexes for phrases and strings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inverted indexes are the most fundamental and widely used data structures in information retrieval. For each unique word occurring in a document collection, the inverted index stores a list of the documents in which this word occurs. Compression techniques are often applied to further reduce the space requirement of these lists. However, the index has a shortcoming, in that only

Manish Patil; Sharma V. Thankachan; Rahul Shah; Wing-Kai Hon; Jeffrey Scott Vitter; Sabrina Chandrasekaran

2011-01-01

211

Learning Complex Grammar in the Virtual Classroom: A Comparison of Processing Instruction, Structured Input, Computerized Visual Input Enhancement, and Traditional Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study investigated the effects of processing instruction (PI) and structured input (SI) on the acquisition of the subjunctive in adjectival clauses by 92 second-semester distance learners of Spanish. Computerized visual input enhancement (VIE) was combined with PI and SI in an attempt to increase the salience of the targeted grammatical form…

Russell, Victoria

2012-01-01

212

Phrase Discovery for English and Cross-language Retrieval at TREC6  

Microsoft Academic Search

Berkeley's experiments in TREC-6 center around phrase discovery in topics anddocuments. The technique of ranking bigram term pairs by their expected mutualinformation value was utilized for English phrase discovery as well as Chinese segmentation.This differentiates our phrase-finding method from the mechanistic oneof using all bigrams which appear at least 25 times in the collection. Phrase findingpresents an interesting interaction with

Fredric C. Gey

1998-01-01

213

User-Chosen Phrases in Interactive Query Formulation for Information Retrieval  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of using phrases as content representation for documents and for queries has generally been accepted as a desirable feature in information retrieval systems because phrases are generally regarded as being more content-bearing than their constituent words. This has been borne by experiments in which the impact of phrases on retrieval performance has usually been found to be pos

Alan F. Smeaton; Fergus Kelledy

1998-01-01

214

American Sign Language Phrase Verification in an Educational Game for Deaf Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

We perform real-time American Sign Language (ASL) phrase verification for an educational game, CopyCat, which is designed to improve deaf children's signing skills. Taking advantage of context information in the game we verify a phrase, using Hidden Markov Models (HMMs), by applying a rejection threshold on the probability of the observed sequence for each sign in the phrase. We tested

Zahoor Zafrulla; Helene Brashear; Pei Yin; Peter Presti; Thad Starner; Harley Hamilton

2010-01-01

215

Some Novel Applications of Explanation-Based Learning for Parsing Lexicalized Tree-Adjoining Grammars  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present some novel applications of Explanation-Based Learning (EBL) technique to parsing Lexicalized Tree-Adjoining grammars. The novel aspects are (a) immediate generalization of parses in the training set, (b) generalization over recursive structures and (c) representation of generalized parses as Finite State Transducers. A highly impoverished parser called a \\

Srinivas Bangalore; Aravind K. Joshi

1995-01-01

216

Context-driven discovery of gene cassettes in mobile integrons using a computational grammar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Gene discovery algorithms typically examine sequence data for low level patterns. A novel method to computationally discover higher order DNA structures is presented, using a context sensitive grammar. The algorithm was applied to the discovery of gene cassettes associated with integrons. The discovery and annotation of antibiotic resistance genes in such cassettes is essential for effective monitoring of antibiotic

Guy Tsafnat; Enrico W. Coiera; Sally R. Partridge; Jaron Schaeffer; Jon R. Iredell

2009-01-01

217

El Sistema de Formas en Colores for Teaching Grammar in Spanish  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sistema de formas en colores (SFC) is a symbols-based system for teaching Spanish grammatical structures and concepts within a communicative context in the elementary school. The (ACTFL) Standards for Foreign Language Learning: Preparing for the 21st Century states that, "While grammar and vocabulary are essential tools for communication, it is…

Nailon, James

2010-01-01

218

Using Halliday's Functional Grammar to Examine Early Years Worded Mathematics Texts  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the grammatical complexity of six worded mathematics texts. These text s come from a Maths worksheet (Way, 2004) and are typical of those put to early years students to assess their competencies for relating everyday experiences to mathematical operations of addition, subtraction, division and multiplication. Functional Grammar (Halliday, 1990), in particular analyses of mood type, clause structure

Keiran Abel; Beryl Exley

219

White matter integrity in the vicinity of Broca's area predicts grammar learning success  

Microsoft Academic Search

Humans differ substantially in their ability to implicitly extract structural regularities from experience, as required for learning the grammar of a language. The mechanisms underlying this fundamental inter-individual difference, which may determine initial success in language learning, are incompletely understood. Here, we use diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DTI) to determine white matter integrity around Broca's area, which is crucially

Agnes Flöel; Meinou H. de Vries; Jan Scholz; Caterina Breitenstein; Heidi Johansen-Berg

2009-01-01

220

Grammar Schools: Brief Flowering of Social Mobility?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Grammar schools are increasingly remembered, especially by right-wing ideologues, as the agents of a "brief flowering" of post-war social mobility. This article presents statistical, documentary and interview evidence of secondary education in the eleven plus era, and finds nothing to justify the claim that selective schools produced a general…

Barker, Bernard

2012-01-01

221

COORDINATION AND CASE THEORY IN GB GRAMMAR  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. The standard view of Case Theory. In GB grammar, as a consequence of the Full Interpretation Principle (cf. Chomsky 1986b:98), referential expressions (RE's, in what follows) in sentences of natural language must be 'interpretable' in the relevant senses, and therefore must be 'visible' to different classes of rules. RE's, however, are not homogeneous, and given the way GB theory

J. L. G. Escribano

1991-01-01

222

Teaching Grammar as a Humanities Course.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Nassau Community College (NCC) offers a grammar course as a humanities option that may be taken instead of a literature course. The approach to the course incorporates reader-response theory, feminist criticism, new historicism, and journal writing as the key means for enabling students to learn. Each student has a notebook divided into sections…

Kliman, Bernice W.

223

Common Sense in Teaching FL Grammar.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This essay considers three areas in Spanish grammar that generally cause difficulty to English-speaking learners: the use of "ser" and "estar," the difference in use between the preterite and imperfect tenses, and the use of the subjunctive. Like most problematic grammatical elements in any language, these points are difficult for non-native…

Zucker, George K.

224

Directed Self-Assembly Using Graph Grammars  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we describe the graph grammar approach to modeling self-assembly. The approach is used to describe how the topol- ogy of an assembling aggregate changes as it grows. The main purpose of the paper is to demonstrate the utility of the approach by giving detailed examples. We also describe the beginnings of our approach to physically embedding graph

Eric Klavins

2004-01-01

225

Auditory and Articulatory Aspects of Grammar.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The author addresses the need for a new acoustic recognition strategy, extending the position that any adequate grammar of a language must distinguish between auditory and articulatory knowledge. Reviewing the existing literature and theories of language and its acquisition, the author discusses their limitations and inadequacies in accounting…

Gruber, Frederic A.

226

IN GRAMMAR'S FALL, WE SINNED ALL.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THROUGH THEIR LOSS OF FAITH IN TRADITIONAL GRAMMAR, MEN HAVE "SINNED" AND CONTRIBUTED SLIGHTLY BUT IMPORTANTLY TO THE CREATION OF AN AMORAL AND RELATIVISTIC SOCIETY. PROMPTED BY THE SIN OF INTELLECTUAL PRIDE, SOME LINGUISTS SEEM TO ASSUME THAT GRAMMATICAL PROBLEMS CAN BE SOLVED BY RATIOCINATION ALONE. IGNORANCE OF THE PAST--ANOTHER SIN--AND…

TIBBETTS, A.M.

227

Collaborative learning in university grammar courses  

Microsoft Academic Search

An innovative collaborative learning model, used for the teaching of modern English grammar classes, combined elements from peer teaching and cooperative learning. This model is innovative for higher education since it involved students and instructor co-laboring to master knowledge as a socially held phenomenon without any authoritarian leveling. It involved: 1) Student lectures explaining assigned readings from the text(s); 2)

James W. Ney

1991-01-01

228

Parser visualizations for developing grammars with yacc  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes Gyacc (graphical yacc), a tool we have developed to support a graphical approach to developing languages with parser generators such as yacc. Gyacc is an interactive environment which supports the construction of context-free grammars, and provides the user with the ability to study yacc-generated parsers. We are strongly convinced that to fully teach and understand the details

Mona E. Lovato; Michael F. Kleyn

1995-01-01

229

Teaching Grammar as a Humanities Course.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nassau Community College (NCC) offers a grammar course as a humanities option that may be taken instead of a literature course. The approach to the course incorporates reader-response theory, feminist criticism, new historicism, and journal writing as the key means for enabling students to learn. Each student has a notebook divided into sections…

Kliman, Bernice W.

230

Alternatives to Teaching Formal, Analytical Grammar.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses alternatives to formal grammatical analysis to teach syntax and usage, including sentence combining, expansion, and modelling/imitation; transformation exercises; and inductive grammar. Considers ways of teaching editing/proofreading skills, including peer editing, teacher/student conferences, and selective marking of errors. Discusses…

Sedgwick, Ellery

1989-01-01

231

The grammar of Taiwanese traditional vernacular dwellings  

Microsoft Academic Search

A shape grammar, which can exemplify and visually explain the style of Taiwanese traditional vernacular dwellings, is presented in the form of rules of composition that are derived from considerations of traditional processes of design and construction, and from cultural influences.

S-C Chiou; R Krishnamurti

1995-01-01

232

Caught'Ya! Grammar with a Giggle.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Helping students in grades 3 through 11 to master the mechanics of language, this book describes the "Caught'ya" approach to teaching grammar, in which students correct error-filled sentences that form an ongoing humorous plot. The book notes that the sentences are presented 3 to 5 times a week at the start of class and take less than 10 minutes…

Kiester, Jane Bell

233

A simple implementation of grammar libraries  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an extension of the Tatoo compiler compiler that supports separate compilation and dynamic linking of formal gram- mars. It allows the developer to define reusable libraries of grammars such as those of arithmetic expressions or of classical control operators. The aim of this feature is to simplify the development of domain specific languages especially for non specialists

Julien Cervelle; Rémi Forax; Gilles Roussel

2007-01-01

234

A Progressive Grammar of the Tamil Language.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The first chapter of this grammar of prose Tamil introduces the alphabet and orthography. Following chapters deal with parts of speech and verb constructions. A final chapter deals with colloquialisms and foreign words. Appended are lists of abbreviations, grammatical and temporal terms, and other information useful to the student, as well as a…

Arden, A. H.; Clayton, A. C.

235

Grammar and the English National Curriculum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In 1998 the regulatory body for the National Curriculum, the Qualifications and Curriculum Authority, acknowledged that there was "widespread uncertainty" over the grammar requirements of the English Curriculum. In this paper I argue that the QCA still has not addressed this uncertainty. I analyse the 1999 and 2011 Primary English Curricula,…

Paterson, Laura Louise

2010-01-01

236

A Robust Parsing Algorithm For Link Grammars  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present a robust parsing algorithm based on the link grammar formalism for parsingnatural languages. Our algorithm is a natural extension of the original dynamic programmingrecognition algorithm which recursively counts the number of linkages between two words in theinput sentence. The modified algorithm uses the notion of a null link in order to allow a connectionbetween any

Dennis Grinberg; John Lafferty; Daniel Dominic Sleator

1995-01-01

237

On search guide phrase compilation for recommending home medical products  

Microsoft Academic Search

To help people find desired home medical products (HMPs), we developed an intelligent personal health record (iPHR) system that can automatically recommend HMPs based on users' health issues. Using nursing knowledge, we pre-compile a set of “search guide” phrases that provides semantic translation from words describing health issues to their underlying medical meanings. Then iPHR automatically generates queries from those

Gang Luo

2010-01-01

238

Query Based Chinese Phrase Extraction for Site Search  

Microsoft Academic Search

Word segmentation(WS) is one of the major issues of infor- mation processing in character-based languages, for there are no explicit word boundaries in these languages. Moreover, a combination of multi- ple continuous words, a phrase, is usually a minimum meaningful unit. Although much work has been done on WS, in site web search, little has been explored to mine site-specific

Jingfang Xu; Shaozhi Ye; Xing Li

2004-01-01

239

Using Commonsense Knowledge to Disambiguate Prepositional Phrase Modifiers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a method using commonsense knowledge for discarding spurious syntactic ambiguities introduced by post- verbal prepositional phrase attachment during parsing. A com- pletely naive parser will generate three parses for sentences of the form NP-V-Det-N-PP. The prepositions alone are insufficiently pre- cise in meaning to guide selection among competing parses. The method is imbedded in the Kind Types

Kathleen Dahlgren; Joyce P. Mcdowell

1986-01-01

240

Turning points, tonal targets, and the English L- phrase accent  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study of the alignment of L- in the H* L- H% contour of American English finds the strongest predictor of the location of the retracted phrase-accent “elbow” to be the location of the accent-related F0 peak, rather than one of a set of metrical “attractors” investigated. A strong correlation between peak height and elbow sharpness suggests that the elbow

Jonathan Barnes; Nanette Veilleux; Alejna Brugos; Stefanie Shattuck-Hufnagel

2010-01-01

241

Terminator Detection by Support Vector Machine Utilizing aStochastic Context-Free Grammar  

SciTech Connect

A 2-stage detector was designed to find rho-independent transcription terminators in the Escherichia coli genome. The detector includes a Stochastic Context Free Grammar (SCFG) component and a Support Vector Machine (SVM) component. To find terminators, the SCFG searches the intergenic regions of nucleotide sequence for local matches to a terminator grammar that was designed and trained utilizing examples of known terminators. The grammar selects sequences that are the best candidates for terminators and assigns them a prefix, stem-loop, suffix structure using the Cocke-Younger-Kasaami (CYK) algorithm, modified to incorporate energy affects of base pairing. The parameters from this inferred structure are passed to the SVM classifier, which distinguishes terminators from non-terminators that score high according to the terminator grammar. The SVM was trained with negative examples drawn from intergenic sequences that include both featureless and RNA gene regions (which were assigned prefix, stem-loop, suffix structure by the SCFG), so that it successfully distinguishes terminators from either of these. The classifier was found to be 96.4% successful during testing.

Francis-Lyon, Patricia; Cristianini, Nello; Holbrook, Stephen

2006-12-30

242

Quantiers and scope in pregroup grammar  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we investigate the contribution of quantied noun phrases to the meanings of the sentences (or contexts) in which they occur, proposing a geometrical representation of scope properties by means of the planar 'proof nets' of compact bilinear logic (cbill(7),(8)). From a logical point of view quantiers are functions from properties into propositions, and scope limitations are unambiguously

Claudia Casadio

243

Diagnostic grammar and assessment: translating criteria into questions.  

PubMed

There has been concern about whether standardized psychiatric interviews make valid diagnoses. Agreements between the Diagnostic Interview Schedule (DIS), as an example of a standardized interview, with independent assessments by a clinician are reasonably high in most studies, but the clinical assessment is itself of uncertain validity. Using predictive ability is an alternative way of judging validity. Data are presented to show that the DIS is almost as good at prediction as a clinician's assessment, but here too there are problems. Because prediction is probabilistic (i.e. the same disorder can have multiple outcomes, and different disorders can share outcomes), it is not possible to say how good prediction has to be to demonstrate perfect validity. Across varied methods of validity assessment, some disorders are regularly found more validly diagnosed than others, suggesting that part of the source of invalidity lies in the diagnostic grammar of the systems whose criteria standardized interviews evaluate. Sources of invalidity inherent in the content and structure of a variety of diagnoses in DSM-III and its heir, DSM-III-R, are reviewed and illustrated, in part with results from the Epidemiological Catchment Area study. The relationship between diagnostic criteria and standardized interviews is symbiotic. While attempts to adhere closely to existing diagnostic criteria contribute to the diagnostic accuracy of standardized interviews, the exercise of translating official diagnostic criteria into standardized questions highlights problems in the system's diagnostic grammar, enabling standardized interviews to contribute to improvements in diagnostic nosology. PMID:2727211

Robins, L N

1989-02-01

244

A Comparison of Two. Construct-a-Concept-Map Science Assessments: Created Linking Phrases and Selected Linking Phrases. CSE Report 624.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the equivalence of two construct-a-concept-map techniques. construct-a-map with created linking phrases (C) and construct-a-map with selected linking phrases (S). The former places few constraints on the respondent and has been considered the gold standard; the latter is cost- and time-efficient. They are compared in terms…

Yin, Yue; Vanides, Jim; Ruiz-Primo, Maria Araceli; Ayala, Carlos C.; Shavelson, Richard

2004-01-01

245

The Sentence-Composition Effect: Processing of Complex Sentences Depends on the Configuration of Common Noun Phrases versus Unusual Noun Phrases  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In 2 experiments, the authors used an eye tracking while reading methodology to examine how different configurations of common noun phrases versus unusual noun phrases (NPs) influenced the difference in processing difficulty between sentences containing object- and subject-extracted relative clauses. Results showed that processing difficulty was…

Johnson, Marcus L.; Lowder, Matthew W.; Gordon, Peter C.

2011-01-01

246

Corpora and evaluation tools for multilingual named entity grammar development  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an effort for the development of multilingual named entity grammars in a unification-based finite-state formalism (SProUT). Following an extended version of the MUC7 standard, we have developed Named Entity Recognition grammars for German, Chinese, Japanese, French, Spanish, English, and Czech. The grammars recognize person names, organizations, geographical locations, currency, time and date expressions. Subgrammars and gazetteers are shared

Christian Bering; Gregor Erbach; Clara Guasch; Petr Homola; Sabine Lehmann; Hong Li; Hans-Ulrich Krieger; Jakub Piskorski; Ulrich Schäfer; Atsuko Shimada; Melanie Siegel; Feiyu Xu; Dorothee Ziegler-Eisele

247

Feature Models, Grammars, and Propositional Formulas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Feature models are used to specify members of a product-line. Despite years of progress, contemporary tools provide limited support for fea- ture constraints and offer little or no support for debugging feature models. We integrate prior results to connect feature models, grammars, and propositional formulas. This connection allows arbitrary propositional constraints to be defined among features and enables off-the-shelf satisfiability

Don S. Batory

2005-01-01

248

Some Aspects of Parsing Expression Grammar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parsing Expression Grammar (PEG) is a new way to specify syntax, by means of a top-down process with limited backtracking. It can be directly transcribed into a recursive-descent parser. The parser does not require a separate lexer, and backtracking removes the usual LL(1) constraint. This is convenient for many applications, but there are two problems: PEG is not well understood

Roman R. Redziejowski

2008-01-01

249

Astronomy at Torquay Boys' Grammar School  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

TBGS Observatory is owned and run by Torquay Boys' Grammar School in South Devon. The school itself encompasses a wide curriculum from sports to academic studies, ranging from the arts to humanities and science. Due to a high interest from pupils and staff the school has a special focus upon Astronomy. Resulting from this TBGS owns one of the largest, best equipped school observatories in the UK. It is now a minor centre for research and studies at GCSE and higher levels.

Reid, David; Lintott, Chris

1996-10-01

250

Simulating the Paninian System of Sanskrit Grammar  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a model for computer representation of the P??inian system of sanskrit grammar. Based on this model, we render\\u000a the grammatical data and simulate the rules of A???dhy?y? on computer. We then employ these rules for generation of morpho-syntactical\\u000a components of the language. These generated components we store in a p-subsequential transducer. This we use to develop a\\u000a lexicon

Anand Mishra

2008-01-01

251

Hierarchical artificial grammar processing engages Broca's area  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present fMRI study investigates the neural basis of hierarchical processing using two types of artificial grammars: one governed by rules of adjacent dependencies and the other by rules of hierarchical dependencies. The adjacent dependency sequences followed the rule (AB)n, at which simple transitions between two types of syllable categories were generated (e.g. A1B1A2B2). The hierarchical syllable sequences followed the

Jörg Bahlmann; Ricarda I. Schubotz; Angela D. Friederici

2008-01-01

252

A Graph Grammar Approach to Artificial Life  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the high-level language of relational growth grammars (RGGs) as a formalism designed for the specification of ALife models. RGGs can be seen as an extension of the well-known parametric Lindenmayer systems and contain rule-based, procedural, and object-oriented features. They are defined as rewriting systems operating on graphs with the edges coming from a set of user-defined relations, whereas

Ole Kniemeyer; Gerhard H. Buck-sorlin; Winfried Kurth

2004-01-01

253

Verb Order and Head Movement  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper will focus on the treatment of so-called verb movement phenomena within non-transformational approaches to grammar, namely Categorial Grammar (CG) and Head Driven Phrase Structure Grammar (HPSG). We will discuss a number of recent proposals put forward by categorial grammarians, including one of the approaches taken within the LILOG project, which is a version of Categorial Unification Grammar (CUG).

Tibor Kiss; Birgit Wesche

1991-01-01

254

Hilft es die Regel zu wissen um sie anzuwenden? Das Verhaltnis von Melatlinguistischem Bewusstsein und grammatischer Kompetenz (Is Knowledge of Grammar Rules Helpful in Their Application? The Relationship between Metalinguistic Insight and Grammar Competency in the Study of German as a Foreign Language).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines to what extent, if at all, grammar instruction fosters or accelerates language acquisition. Presents a study investigating the acquisition of syntactic or morphological structures in 340 students learning German as a foreign language. The results are discussed. (AS)

Schultz, Renate A.

2002-01-01

255

The Effects of Phrase-Length Order and Scrambling in the Processing of Visually Presented Japanese Sentences  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study investigated the effects of phrase length and scrambling in the processing of Japanese sentences. Reading times of short phrases, long phrases, verbs, and whole sentences, meas- ured by the method of self-paced reading, did not differ in terms of phrase-length order and scram- bling. In addition, four types of sentences constructed on the basis of phrase-length order

Katsuo Tamaoka; Hiromu Sakai; Jun-ichiro Kawahara; Yayoi Miyaoka

2003-01-01

256

Grammar predicts procedural learning and consolidation deficits in children with Specific Language Impairment.  

PubMed

The Procedural Deficit Hypothesis (PDH) posits that Specific Language Impairment (SLI) can be largely explained by abnormalities of brain structures that subserve procedural memory. The PDH predicts impairments of procedural memory itself, and that such impairments underlie the grammatical deficits observed in the disorder. Previous studies have indeed reported procedural learning impairments in SLI, and have found that these are associated with grammatical difficulties. The present study extends this research by examining consolidation and longer-term procedural sequence learning in children with SLI. The Alternating Serial Reaction Time (ASRT) task was given to children with SLI and typically developing (TD) children in an initial learning session and an average of three days later to test for consolidation and longer-term learning. Although both groups showed evidence of initial sequence learning, only the TD children showed clear signs of consolidation, even though the two groups did not differ in longer-term learning. When the children were re-categorized on the basis of grammar deficits rather than broader language deficits, a clearer pattern emerged. Whereas both the grammar impaired and normal grammar groups showed evidence of initial sequence learning, only those with normal grammar showed consolidation and longer-term learning. Indeed, the grammar-impaired group appeared to lose any sequence knowledge gained during the initial testing session. These findings held even when controlling for vocabulary or a broad non-grammatical language measure, neither of which were associated with procedural memory. When grammar was examined as a continuous variable over all children, the same relationships between procedural memory and grammar, but not vocabulary or the broader language measure, were observed. Overall, the findings support and further specify the PDH. They suggest that consolidation and longer-term procedural learning are impaired in SLI, but that these impairments are specifically tied to the grammatical deficits in the disorder. The possibility that consolidation and longer-term learning are problematic in the disorder suggests a locus of potential study for therapeutic approaches. In sum, this study clarifies our understanding of the underlying deficits in SLI, and suggests avenues for further research. PMID:21840165

Hedenius, Martina; Persson, Jonas; Tremblay, Antoine; Adi-Japha, Esther; Veríssimo, João; Dye, Cristina D; Alm, Per; Jennische, Margareta; Bruce Tomblin, J; Ullman, Michael T

2011-08-12

257

Prosodic Boundaries, Comma Rules, and Brain Responses: The Closure Positive Shift in ERPs as a Universal Marker for Prosodic Phrasing in Listeners and Readers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Just as the false comma in this sentence, shows punctuation can influence sentence processing considerably. Pauses and other prosodic cues in spoken language serve the same function of structuring the sentence in smaller phrases. However, surprisingly little effort has been spent on the question as to whether both phenomena rest on the same mechanism and whether they are equally efficient

Karsten Steinhauer; Angela D. Friederici

2001-01-01

258

Integrating Grammar Instruction and Communicative Language Use through Grammar Consciousness-Raising Tasks.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study of three grammar consciousness-raising tasks dealing with word order among Japanese university students showed that the tasks successfully promoted both proficiency gains and second-language negotiated interaction in participants. Negotiation quantity was determined by the combination of task features present rather than the nature of the…

Fotos, Sandra S.

1994-01-01

259

Dynamic Systems Theory and Universal Grammar: Holding up a Turbulent Mirror to Development in Grammars  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research over the last decades has shown that language development in its multiple forms is characterized by a succession of stable and unstable states. However, the variation observed is neither expected nor can it be accounted for on the basis of traditional learning concepts conceived of within the Universal Grammar (UG) paradigm. In this…

Plaza-Pust, Carolina

2008-01-01

260

Ambiguous grammars and the chemical transactions of life : Part I: environmental constraints of grammar ambiguity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Since proposed by Darwin, evolution is considered to be dependent on a source of genetic variability that must be constrained by environmental conditions in order to generate stable (adapted) phenotypes. Several sources and causes of this variability have been proposed so far. This paper aims to posit that ambiguity of fuzzy grammars is the main source of genetic

A. F. Rocha; E. Massad

2006-01-01

261

GRAMMAR--THE PROTEUS OF THE ENGLISH CURRICULUM.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|THE ENGLISH CURRICULUM CAN BE MADE MORE EFFECTIVE BY CONSIDERING THE SIGNIFICANT PART PLAYED BY THE COMPONENT OF GRAMMAR. THE NATIVE SPEAKER OF ENGLISH POSSESSES AN INTUITIVE KNOWLEDGE OF THE RULES OF GRAMMAR AND YET CANNOT EXPLAIN WHAT HIS INTUITION KNOWS. THEREFORE, A PRECISE, ECONOMICAL DESCRIPTION OF THE LANGUAGE MECHANISM AND HOW IT…

ASTON, KATHARINE O.

262

Customising Linguistics: Developing an Electronic Grammar Database for Teachers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Considers issues in customizing descriptions of English grammar in the context of creating an electronic database for secondary school teachers in Hong Kong. In developing the database, the aim was to incorporate insights from functional grammar and corpus linguistics while keeping information accessible and relevant to teachers only familiar with…

Lock, Graham; Tsui, Amy B. M.

2000-01-01

263

Parser Combinators, (Simply) Indexed Grammars, Natural Language Parsing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Parser combinators [4, 6] are higher order functions that transform parsers into parsers. Parsing with context free grammars can be handled by defining combinators for the key operations in context free grammar rules: recognizing epsilon, recognizing a terminal, choice between rewrite rules for a given nonterminal, and sequencing under a nonterminal. After explaining and illustrating this in some detail,

Jan van Eijck

2004-01-01

264

Generation of Efficient LALR Parsers for Regular Right Part Grammars  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for building small fast LALR parsers for regular right part grammars is given. No grammar transformation is required. No extra state of the LALR parser for the recognition of strings generated by a right part is required. At some reduce states the parser may refer to lookback states (states in which the parser may be restarted after the

Ikuo Nakata; Masataka Sassa

1986-01-01

265

Towards a linguistically motivated computational grammar for Hebrew  

Microsoft Academic Search

While the morphology of Modern Hebrew is well accounted for computationally, there are few com- putational grammars describing the syntax of the language. Existing grammars are scarcely based on solid linguistic grounds: they do not conform to any particular linguistic theory and do not provide a lin- guistically plausible analysis for the data they cover. This paper presents a first

Shuly Wintner

266

Grammar Transformations in an EDA for Genetic Programming  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present a new Estimation-of-Distribution Algorithm (EDA) for Genetic Programming (GP). We propose a proba- bility distribution for the space of trees, based on a grammar. To intro- duce dependencies into the distribution, grammar transformations are performed that facilitate the description of specific subfunctions. We present some results from experiments on two benchmark problems and show some

Peter A. N. Bosman; Edwin D. de Jong

2004-01-01

267

A Study of the Aklanon Dialect. Volume One: Grammar.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purposes of this grammar of Aklanon are to: (1) provide teachers with a sourcebook on their dialect, so that they can understand the formalities of Aklanon; (2) provide foreign learners of the dialect, particularly Peace Corps volunteers or missionaries, with a reference grammar; and (3) provide linguists with a treatment of an unresearched…

de la Cruz, Beato A.; Zorc, R. David Paul

268

Short article Goal relevance and artificial grammar learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

This investigation used a newly developed artificial grammar learning (AGL) paradigm in which par- ticipants were exposed to sequences of stimuli that varied in two dimensions (colours and letters) that were superimposed on each other. Variation within each dimension was determined by a different grammar. The results of two studies strongly suggest that implicit learning in AGL depends on the

Baruch Eitam; Yaacov Schul; Ran R. Hassin

269

Where Is She? Gender Occurrences in Online Grammar Guides  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines seven online grammar guides for instances of linguistic sexism. The grammar sentences from .edu Websites were analyzed based on NCTE's "Guidelines for Gender-Fair Use of Language" (2002) using the criteria of generic he and man; titles, labels, and names; gender stereotypes; order of mention (firstness); and ratio of male to…

Amare, Nicole

2007-01-01

270

Investigating Effects of Computer-Based Grammar Tutorials  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This dissertation study examined a broad question of whether computer-based grammar tutorials are effective and welcome tools to review grammar for language learners by investigating effects of three different modes of such tutorials on learners' knowledge and satisfaction. For this study, I developed experimental tutorials in three different…

Kolesnikova, Anna

2011-01-01

271

The Place of Grammar in the Language Arts Curriculum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The history of grammar instruction includes two approaches: the handbook approach, which is practiced today, and the textbook approach. The handbook approach focuses on rules for correct writing and is an error-based view, while the textbook approach would treat grammar holistically and interpretively and would systematically explain new concepts…

Einarsson, Robert

272

Second Language Learners' Beliefs about Grammar Instruction and Error Correction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Learner beliefs are an important individual difference in second language (L2) learning. Furthermore, an ongoing debate surrounds the role of grammar instruction and error correction in the L2 classroom. Therefore, this study investigated the beliefs of L2 learners regarding the controversial role of grammar instruction and error correction. A…

Loewen, Shawn; Li, Shaofeng; Fei, Fei; Thompson, Amy; Nakatsukasa, Kimi; Ahn, Seongmee; Chen, Xiaoqing

2009-01-01

273

Gramin: a system for incremental learning of programming language grammars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Major software vendors now offer software maintenance as service. Bug detection and removal are major tasks in the maintenance phase of the software life cycle. Vendors often rely on in-house built analysis tools for software fault localization. Programming language grammar is an absolute requirement for building such tools, especially for platforms which are built by third parties. However, the grammar

Diptikalyan Saha; Vishal Narula

2011-01-01

274

How Teachers Can Use Grammar To Help Young Writers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Grammar, historically, has been taught in a manner that leaves young learners wondering why they need to learn it. The problem has been partly that teachers have not been provided the insights needed to move the teaching of language conventions and grammar from the position of "textbook exercise" to that of "tools of the trade" as used by…

Martin, Rodney

275

Grammar Transformations: Using Composite Grammars to Understand Hybridity in Design, With an Example from Medieval Islamic Courtyard Buildings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hybrid designs are those that develop from multiple sources. This paper presents the methodology of composite grammars, developed by merging multiple grammars, for the analysis of hybrid designs. The methodology is discussed with an example from Islamic architecture, which is known to have developed by borrowing from various sources. The methodology is seen to be useful for the analysis of

Scott Chase; Sumbul Ahmad

2005-01-01

276

Separability of prosodic phrase boundary and phonemic information.  

PubMed

It was hypothesized that the retrieval of prosodic and phonemic information from the acoustic signal is facilitated when prosodic information is encoded by co-occurring suprasegmental cues. To test the hypothesis, two-choice speeded classification experiments were conducted, which examined processing interaction between prosodic phrase-boundary vs stop-place information in speakers of Southern British English. Results confirmed that the degree of interaction between boundary and stop-place information diminished when the pre-boundary vowel was signaled by duration and F(0), compared to when it was signaled by either duration or F(0) alone. It is argued that the relative ease of retrieval of prosodic and phonemic information arose from advantages of prosodic cue integration. PMID:21361453

Nakai, Satsuki; Turk, Alice E

2011-02-01

277

MEDLINE Abstracts Classification Based on Noun Phrases Extraction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many algorithms have come up in the last years to tackle automated text categorization. They have been exhaustively studied, leading to several variants and combinations not only in the particular procedures but also in the treatment of the input data. A widely used approach is representing documents as Bag-Of-Words (BOW) and weighting tokens with the TFIDF schema. Many researchers have thrown into precision and recall improvements and classification time reduction enriching BOW with stemming, n-grams, feature selection, noun phrases, metadata, weight normalization, etc. We contribute to this field with a novel combination of these techniques. For evaluation purposes, we provide comparisons to previous works with SVM against the simple BOW. The well known OHSUMED corpus is exploited and different sets of categories are selected, as previously done in the literature. The conclusion is that the proposed method can be successfully applied to existing binary classifiers such as SVM outperforming the mixture of BOW and TFIDF approaches.

Ruiz-Rico, Fernando; Vicedo, José-Luis; Rubio-Sánchez, María-Consuelo

278

Sensory grammars for sensor networks  

PubMed Central

One of the major goals of Ambient Intelligence and Smart Environments is to interpret human activity sensed by a variety of sensors. In order to develop useful technologies and a subsequent industry around smart environments, we need to proceed in a principled manner. This paper suggests that human activity can be expressed in a language. This is a special language with its own phonemes, its own morphemes (words) and its own syntax and it can be learned using machine learning techniques applied to gargantuan amounts of data collected by sensor networks. Developing such languages will create bridges between Ambient Intelligence and other disciplines. It will also provide a hierarchical structure that can lead to a successful industry.

Aloimonos, Yiannis

2009-01-01

279

Narrative text classification for automatic key phrase extraction in web document corpora  

Microsoft Academic Search

Automatic key phrase extraction is a useful tool in many text related applications such as clustering and summarization. State-of-the-art methods are aimed towards extracting key phrases from traditional text such as technical papers. Application of these methods on Web documents, which often contain diverse and heterogeneous contents, is of particular interest and challenge in the information age. In this work,

Yongzheng Zhang; Nur Zincir-Heywood; Evangelos E. Milios

2005-01-01

280

Hyperlinking Lyrics: A Method for Creating Hyperlinks Between Phrases in Song Lyrics  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a novel method for creating a hyperlink from a phrase in the lyrics of a song to the same phrase in the lyrics of another song. This method can be applied to various ap- plications, such as song clustering based on the meaning of the lyrics and a music playback interface that will enable a user to browse

Hiromasa Fujihara; Masataka Goto; Jun Ogata

2008-01-01

281

Blue Car, Red Car: Developing Efficiency in Online Interpretation of Adjective-Noun Phrases  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Two experiments investigated the development of fluency in interpreting adjective-noun phrases in 30- and 36-month-old English-learning children. Using online processing measures, children's gaze patterns were monitored as they heard the familiar adjective-noun phrases (e.g. "blue car") in visual contexts where the adjective was either…

Fernald, Anne; Thorpe, Kirsten; Marchman, Virginia A.

2010-01-01

282

A Bidirectional Study on the Acquisition of Plural Noun Phrase Interpretation in English and Spanish  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper investigates how learners interpret definite plural noun phrases (e.g., "the tigers") and bare (article-less) plural noun phrases (e.g., "tigers") in their second language. Whereas Spanish allows definite plurals to have both generic and specific readings, English requires definite plurals to have specific, nongeneric readings. Generic…

Ionin, Tania; Montrul, Silvina; Crivos, Monica

2013-01-01

283

Evaluating Phrase Sets for Use with Text Entry Method Evaluation with Dyslexic Participants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much of pen input research is focused on the use of the pen devices for text input, with accuracy and efficiency being of great importance for the user experience. In measuring these variables, most evaluations use short text phrases. In this paper, we consider the need to evaluate phrase sets to be used with dyslexic participants in evaluating pen-input devices,

Akiyo Kano

284

Lexical Access in Phrase and Sentence Production: Results from Picture–Word Interference Experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four experiments investigated the span of advance planning for phrases and short sentences. Dutch subjects were presented with pairs of objects, which they named using noun-phrase conjunctions (e.g., the translation equivalent of “the arrow and the bag”) or sentences (“the arrow is next to the bag”). Each display was accompanied by an auditory distractor, which was related in form or

Antje S. Meyer

1996-01-01

285

Natural Language Processing in Support of Decision-Making: Phrases and Part-of-Speech Tagging.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Increasing information retrieval performance using phrases and part-of-speech (POS) information is one example of a type of decision-making performance that is improved when using this linguistic information. The relative effectiveness of using multi-term phrases as opposed to individual terms is shown, as well as the relative worth of POS tagged…

Losee, Robert M.

2001-01-01

286

Effects of Musical Expertise and Boundary Markers on Phrase Perception in Music  

Microsoft Academic Search

A neural correlate for phrase boundary perception in music has recently been identified in musicians. It is called music closure positive shift (''music CPS'') and has an equivalent in the perception of speech (''language CPS''). The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of musical expertise and different phrase boundary markers on the music CPS, using event-related

Christiane Neuhaus; Thomas R. Knösche; Angela D. Friederici

2006-01-01

287

Blue Car, Red Car: Developing Efficiency in Online Interpretation of Adjective-Noun Phrases  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two experiments investigated the development of fluency in interpreting adjective-noun phrases in 30- and 36-month-old English-learning children. Using online processing measures, children's gaze patterns were monitored as they heard the familiar adjective-noun phrases (e.g. "blue car") in visual contexts where the adjective was either informative…

Fernald, Anne; Thorpe, Kirsten; Marchman, Virginia A.

2010-01-01

288

13 CFR 142.6 - What does the phrase âknow or have reason to knowâ mean?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false What does the phrase...Section 142.6 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION... § 142.6 What does the phrase...knowâ mean? A person knows...that a claim or statement is false) if...

2012-01-01

289

The On-Line Processing of Verb-Phrase Ellipsis in Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We investigate the on-line processing of verb-phrase ellipsis (VPE) constructions in two brain injured populations: Broca's and Anomic aphasics. VPE constructions are built from two simple clauses; the first is the antecedent clause and the second is the ellipsis clause. The ellipsis clause is missing its verb and object (i.e., its verb phrase

Poirier, Josee; Shapiro, Lewis P.; Love, Tracy; Grodzinsky, Yosef

2009-01-01

290

Phrase Length Matters: The Interplay between Implicit Prosody and Syntax in Korean "Garden Path" Sentences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In spoken language comprehension, syntactic parsing decisions interact with prosodic phrasing, which is directly affected by phrase length. Here we used ERPs to examine whether a similar effect holds for the on-line processing of written sentences during silent reading, as suggested by theories of "implicit prosody." Ambiguous Korean sentence…

Hwang, Hyekyung; Steinhauer, Karsten

2011-01-01

291

It's Not Just the "Heavy NP": Relative Phrase Length Modulates the Production of Heavy-NP Shift  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Heavy-NP shift is the tendency for speakers to place long direct object phrases at the end of a clause rather than next to the verb. Though some analyses have focused on length of the direct object phrase alone, results from two experiments demonstrate that the length of the direct object relative to that of other phrases, and not the length of…

Stallings, Lynne M.; MacDonald, Maryellen C.

2011-01-01

292

Teaching English Grammar in Initial Teacher Training: A Course Evaluation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An English grammar course for preservice teachers in Britain, focusing on speech, morphology, and syntax was analyzed using pre/posttest data. All students improved knowledge and expressed satisfaction, but one-third failed to reach the required standard. (SK)

Jeffcoate, Robert

2000-01-01

293

Managing decentralized uncertainties - the concept of fuzzyness in grammar systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The contribution sketches a possibility how to represent and manage uncertainties in decentralized systems. For this purpose the formal concept of fuzzyness in combination with the formalized language-theoretic concept of grammar systems is used.

Jozef Kelemen; Alica Kelemenová

2010-01-01

294

The Construction of Semantic Memory: Grammar-Based Representations Learned from Relational Episodic Information  

PubMed Central

After acquisition, memories underlie a process of consolidation, making them more resistant to interference and brain injury. Memory consolidation involves systems-level interactions, most importantly between the hippocampus and associated structures, which takes part in the initial encoding of memory, and the neocortex, which supports long-term storage. This dichotomy parallels the contrast between episodic memory (tied to the hippocampal formation), collecting an autobiographical stream of experiences, and semantic memory, a repertoire of facts and statistical regularities about the world, involving the neocortex at large. Experimental evidence points to a gradual transformation of memories, following encoding, from an episodic to a semantic character. This may require an exchange of information between different memory modules during inactive periods. We propose a theory for such interactions and for the formation of semantic memory, in which episodic memory is encoded as relational data. Semantic memory is modeled as a modified stochastic grammar, which learns to parse episodic configurations expressed as an association matrix. The grammar produces tree-like representations of episodes, describing the relationships between its main constituents at multiple levels of categorization, based on its current knowledge of world regularities. These regularities are learned by the grammar from episodic memory information, through an expectation-maximization procedure, analogous to the inside–outside algorithm for stochastic context-free grammars. We propose that a Monte-Carlo sampling version of this algorithm can be mapped on the dynamics of “sleep replay” of previously acquired information in the hippocampus and neocortex. We propose that the model can reproduce several properties of semantic memory such as decontextualization, top-down processing, and creation of schemata.

Battaglia, Francesco P.; Pennartz, Cyriel M. A.

2011-01-01

295

Second Language Reading and the Role of Grammar  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper reviews research on second language (L2) reading, focusing on the various factors involved, i.e., orthography, vocabulary, grammar, background knowledge, and metacognitive strategies. Based on the overview of L2 reading research, how grammar makes a unique contribution to L2 reading comprehension is emphasized. The discussion includes analysis of the distinctive roles served by background knowledge and linguistic knowledge, the

Jookyoung Jung

296

A Bidirectional Grammar-Based Medical Speech Translator  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a bidirectional version of the grammar-based MedSLT medical speech system. The system supports simple medi- cal examination dialogues about throat pain between an English-speaking physician and a Spanish-speaking patient. The physician's side of the dialogue is assumed to consist mostly of WH-questions, and the patient's of elliptical answers. The paper focusses on the grammar-based speech processing architec- ture,

Pierrette Bouillon; Glenn Flores; Marianne Starlander; Nikos Chatzichrisafis; Marianne Santaholma; Nikos Tsourakis; Manny Rayner; Beth Ann Hockey

2007-01-01

297

Choosing Word Occurrences for the Smallest Grammar Problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The smallest grammar problem - namely, finding a smallest context-free grammar that generates exactly one sequence - is of\\u000a practical and theoretical importance in fields such as Kolmogorov complexity, data compression and pattern discovery. We propose\\u000a to focus on the choice of the occurrences to be rewritten by non-terminals. We extend classical offline algorithms by introducing\\u000a a global optimization of

Rafael Carrascosa; François Coste; Matthias Gallé; Gabriel G. Infante López

2010-01-01

298

The effect of grammar teaching on writing development  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reports on the results of two international systematic research reviews which focus on different aspects of teaching grammar to improve the quality and accuracy of 5–16?year?olds' writing in English. The results show that there is little evidence to indicate that the teaching of formal grammar is effective; and that teaching sentence?combining has a more positive effect. In both

Richard Andrews; Carole Torgerson; Sue Beverton; Allison Freeman; Terry Locke; Graham Low; Alison Robinson; Die Zhu

2006-01-01

299

Normal forms for bicolored-digraph-grammar systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

We prove that for any bicolored-digraph-grammar system without choice there is an equivalent such system in canonical form. This provides an alternative solution (cf. [3]) to Problem 1 raised by D. Wood in [2]; the choice does not modify the generative capacity of these systems. Then it is shown that for any bicolored-digraph-grammar system (with or without choice) there is

Gheorghe P?un

1979-01-01

300

A GRAMMAR-THEORETIC TREATMENT OF MULTIAGENT SYSTEMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A variant of cooperating and distributed grammar systems—the so-called colony—is studied to capture some aspects of multiagent systems consisting of a finite number of very simple autonomous agents. A colony is considered as a set up from a finite number of regular grammars generating finite languages that cooperate without any explicit predefined strategy. Generative power and hierarchical properties of colonies

JOZEF KELEMEN; ALICA KELEMENOVÁ

1992-01-01

301

Corpus based learning of stochastic context-free grammar combined with hidden Markov models for tRNA modelling.  

PubMed

tRNA molecule has a well-known second structure in which it folds by pairing of far-off nucleotides. This paper shows a syntactic pattern recognition methodology for model tRNA second structure using stochastic context-free grammars. In order to learn models, structural regions (paired nucleotides) have been learned from categorized samples with full labelled tree with a Corpus based estimation algorithm. Nonstructural regions have been modelled by hidden Markov models and transformed to stochastic regular grammars to fusion together the structural regions. Test with positive samples and negative samples in comparison with Sakakibara achieved 1.81% in sequences error rate, 98.43% in precision and 100% in recall and 100% of SER in negative test. Corpus based algorithm is computational time efficient and required less training samples for converge to the correct model of the tRNA second structure. PMID:17270855

Garcia-Gomez, Juan Miguel; Benedi, Jose Miguel

2004-01-01

302

Improved Identification of Noun Phrases in Clinical Radiology Reports Using a High-Performance Statistical Natural Language Parser Augmented with the UMLS Specialist Lexicon  

PubMed Central

Objective: The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate a method of extracting noun phrases with full phrase structures from a set of clinical radiology reports using natural language processing (NLP) and to investigate the effects of using the UMLS® Specialist Lexicon to improve noun phrase identification within clinical radiology documents. Design: The noun phrase identification (NPI) module is composed of a sentence boundary detector, a statistical natural language parser trained on a nonmedical domain, and a noun phrase (NP) tagger. The NPI module processed a set of 100 XML-represented clinical radiology reports in Health Level 7 (HL7)® Clinical Document Architecture (CDA)–compatible format. Computed output was compared with manual markups made by four physicians and one author for maximal (longest) NP and those made by one author for base (simple) NP, respectively. An extended lexicon of biomedical terms was created from the UMLS Specialist Lexicon and used to improve NPI performance. Results: The test set was 50 randomly selected reports. The sentence boundary detector achieved 99.0% precision and 98.6% recall. The overall maximal NPI precision and recall were 78.9% and 81.5% before using the UMLS Specialist Lexicon and 82.1% and 84.6% after. The overall base NPI precision and recall were 88.2% and 86.8% before using the UMLS Specialist Lexicon and 93.1% and 92.6% after, reducing false-positives by 31.1% and false-negatives by 34.3%. Conclusion: The sentence boundary detector performs excellently. After the adaptation using the UMLS Specialist Lexicon, the statistical parser's NPI performance on radiology reports increased to levels comparable to the parser's native performance in its newswire training domain and to that reported by other researchers in the general nonmedical domain.

Huang, Yang; Lowe, Henry J.; Klein, Dan; Cucina, Russell J.

2005-01-01

303

Artificial grammar learning meets formal language theory: an overview  

PubMed Central

Formal language theory (FLT), part of the broader mathematical theory of computation, provides a systematic terminology and set of conventions for describing rules and the structures they generate, along with a rich body of discoveries and theorems concerning generative rule systems. Despite its name, FLT is not limited to human language, but is equally applicable to computer programs, music, visual patterns, animal vocalizations, RNA structure and even dance. In the last decade, this theory has been profitably used to frame hypotheses and to design brain imaging and animal-learning experiments, mostly using the ‘artificial grammar-learning’ paradigm. We offer a brief, non-technical introduction to FLT and then a more detailed analysis of empirical research based on this theory. We suggest that progress has been hampered by a pervasive conflation of distinct issues, including hierarchy, dependency, complexity and recursion. We offer clarifications of several relevant hypotheses and the experimental designs necessary to test them. We finally review the recent brain imaging literature, using formal languages, identifying areas of convergence and outstanding debates. We conclude that FLT has much to offer scientists who are interested in rigorous empirical investigations of human cognition from a neuroscientific and comparative perspective.

Fitch, W. Tecumseh; Friederici, Angela D.

2012-01-01

304

A Nearly Unsupervised Learning Method for Automatic Paraphrasing of Japanese Noun Phrases  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a nealy unsuper- vised learning method for converting or paraphrasing Japanese noun phras- es to verb phrases without changing their semantic contents. We focus on the paraphrasing of the noun phras- es in the form of \\

Kentaro Torisawa

2001-01-01

305

Glossary of Initialisms, Terms, Acronyms, Phrases, etc. 2nd ed. Publication No. 17 (Revised).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This glossary of terms includes definitions for over 500 words, acronyms, initialisms, and phrases generally used in librarianship or used specifically in Colorado State University (CSU) libraries. The glossary is in alphabetical order. Cross references a...

1983-01-01

306

Increases in individualistic words and phrases in American books, 1960-2008.  

PubMed

Cultural products such as song lyrics, television shows, and books reveal cultural differences, including cultural change over time. Two studies examine changes in the use of individualistic words (Study 1) and phrases (Study 2) in the Google Books Ngram corpus of millions of books in American English. Current samples from the general population generated and rated lists of individualistic words and phrases (e.g., "unique," "personalize," "self," "all about me," "I am special," "I'm the best"). Individualistic words and phrases increased in use between 1960 and 2008, even when controlling for changes in communal words and phrases. Language in American books has become increasingly focused on the self and uniqueness in the decades since 1960. PMID:22808113

Twenge, Jean M; Campbell, W Keith; Gentile, Brittany

2012-07-10

307

The Role of Chunks, Phrases, and Body Language in Understanding Coordinated Academic Lectures.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A crucial component of academic lectures is the use of chunks, phrases, and body language, and their role in facilitating understanding. This article examines the function and context of this component in the discourse of academic lectures. (Author/VWL)

Khuwaileh, A. A.

1999-01-01

308

Towards Future Technology Projection: A Method for Extracting Capability Phrases from Documents  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with novel approaches for discovering phrases expressing technical capabilities in technical literature (such\\u000a as patents), intended to support strategic consultants introducing new technologies and their capabilities to their clients.\\u000a An extracted capability phrase is scored based on its expected business impact, which can also be considered as unexpectedness\\u000a of the capability in a specified technology field. The

Risa Nishiyama; Hironori Takeuchi; Hideo Watanabe

2007-01-01

309

Context effects of pictures and words in naming objects, reading words, and generating simple phrases  

Microsoft Academic Search

In five language production experiments it was examined which aspects of words are activated in memory by context pictures and words. Context pictures yielded Stroop-like and semantic effects on response times when participants generated gender-marked noun phrases in response to written words (Experiment 1A). However, pictures yielded no such effects when participants simply read aloud the noun phrases (Experiment 2).

Ardi Roelofs

2006-01-01

310

The ParaPhrase Project: Parallel Patterns for Adaptive Heterogeneous Multicore Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the ParaPhrase project, a new 3-year targeted research project funded under EU Framework 7 Objective 3.4 (Computer Systems), starting in October 2011. ParaPhrase aims to follow a new approach to introducing parallelism using advanced refactoring techniques coupled with high-level parallel design patterns. The refactoring approach will use these design patterns to restructure pro- grams defined as networks

Kevin Hammond; Marco Aldinucci; Chris Brown; Francesco Cesarini; Marco Danelutto; Horacio Gonz'alez-V'elez; Peter Kilpatrick; Rainer Keller; Michael Rossbory; Gilad Shainer

2013-01-01

311

MCORES: a system for noun phrase coreference resolution for clinical records  

PubMed Central

Objective Narratives of electronic medical records contain information that can be useful for clinical practice and multi-purpose research. This information needs to be put into a structured form before it can be used by automated systems. Coreference resolution is a step in the transformation of narratives into a structured form. Methods This study presents a medical coreference resolution system (MCORES) for noun phrases in four frequently used clinical semantic categories: persons, problems, treatments, and tests. MCORES treats coreference resolution as a binary classification task. Given a pair of concepts from a semantic category, it determines coreferent pairs and clusters them into chains. MCORES uses an enhanced set of lexical, syntactic, and semantic features. Some MCORES features measure the distance between various representations of the concepts in a pair and can be asymmetric. Results and Conclusion MCORES was compared with an in-house baseline that uses only single-perspective ‘token overlap’ and ‘number agreement’ features. MCORES was shown to outperform the baseline; its enhanced features contribute significantly to performance. In addition to the baseline, MCORES was compared against two available third-party, open-domain systems, RECONCILEACL09 and the Beautiful Anaphora Resolution Toolkit (BART). MCORES was shown to outperform both of these systems on clinical records.

Szolovits, Peter; Uzuner, Ozlem

2012-01-01

312

Gene structure prediction by linguistic methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The higher-order structure of genes and other features of biological sequences can be described by means of formal grammars. These grammars can then be used by general-purpose parsers to detect and to assemble such structures by means of syntactic pattern recognition. We describe a grammar and parser for eukaryotic protein-encoding genes, which by some measures is as effective as current

Shan Dong; David B. Searls

1994-01-01

313

Hierarchical and Linear Sequence Processing: An Electrophysiological Exploration of Two Different Grammar Types  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study investigated the processing of two types of artificial grammars by means of event-related brain potentials. Two categories of meaningless CV syllables were applied in each grammar type. The two grammars differed with regard to the type of the underlying rule. The finite-state grammar (FSG) followed the rule (AB)n, thereby generating local transitions between As and Bs (e.g.,

Jörg Bahlmann; Thomas C. Gunter; Angela D. Friederici

2006-01-01

314

The Processing and Interpretation of Verb Phrase Ellipsis Constructions by Children at Normal and Slowed Speech Rates  

PubMed Central

Purpose To examine children’s comprehension of verb phrase (VP) ellipsis constructions in light of their automatic, online structural processing abilities and conscious, metalinguistic reflective skill. Method Forty-two children ages 5 through 12 years listened to VP ellipsis constructions involving the strict/sloppy ambiguity (e.g., “The janitor untangled himself from the rope and the fireman in the elementary school did too after the accident.”) in which the ellipsis phrase (“did too”) had 2 interpretations: (a) strict (“untangled the janitor”) and (b) sloppy (“untangled the fireman”). We examined these sentences at a normal speech rate with an online cross-modal picture priming task (n = 14) and an offline sentence–picture matching task (n = 11). Both tasks were also given with slowed speech input (n = 17). Results Children showed priming for both the strict and sloppy interpretations at a normal speech rate but only for the strict interpretation with slowed input. Offline, children displayed an adultlike preference for the sloppy interpretation with normal-rate input but a divergent pattern with slowed speech. Conclusions Our results suggest that children and adults rely on a hybrid syntax-discourse model for the online comprehension and offline interpretation of VP ellipsis constructions. This model incorporates a temporally sensitive syntactic process of VP reconstruction (disrupted with slow input) and a temporally protracted discourse effect attributed to parallelism (preserved with slow input).

Callahan, Sarah M.; Walenski, Matthew; Love, Tracy

2013-01-01

315

How feasible is the reuse of grammars for Named Entity Recognition?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we investigate whether reusing existing grammars for NE recognition instead of creating them from scratch is a viable solution to time constraints in developing grammars. We discuss three possible factors that hinder grammar reuse and we present our corresponding empirical results, that encourage more widespread use of valuable existing resources.

Katerina Pastra; Diana Maynard; Oana Hamza; Hamish Cunningham; Yorick Wilks

2002-01-01

316

Attributed Programmed Graph Grammars and Their Application to Schematic Diagram Interpretation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attributed programmed graph grammars are introduced in this paper and their application to the interpretation of schematic diagrams is proposed. In contrast with most of the approaches to syntactic pattern recognition, where the grammar controls a parser, the grammar in our system is used as a generative tool. Two classes of diagrams are studied, namely circuit diagrams and flowcharts. The

Horst Bunke

1982-01-01

317

Relational Grammars: Theory and Practice in a Visual Language Interface for Process Modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relational Grammars (RGs) are one of the higher-dimensional grammar formalisms that have been proposed for representing visual languages (VLs). This paper serves as an overview of the formalism as well as a case study of its application in a visual language interface (VLI) for process model- ing. Relational Grammars are a member of the context-free family of Con- straint Multiset

Kent Wittenburg; Louis Weitzman

1996-01-01

318

Teacher to Teacher: What Is Your Most Compelling Reason for Teaching Grammar?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article presents compelling reasons from teachers why they teach grammar. Amy Benjamin from Hendrick Hudson High School says, she teaches grammar for two reasons. The first is that grammar instruction gives students metalanguage, "language about language." The second reason is that students are interested in language--its changes and…

English Journal, 2006

2006-01-01

319

Consciousness Raising and Noticing through Focus on Form: Grammar Task Performance versus Formal Instruction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research is presented that investigates the amount of learner noticing produced by two types of grammar consciousness-raising treatments: teacher-fronted grammar lessons and interactive, grammar problem-solving tasks. Results indicate that task performance is as effective as formal instruction in promoting noticing. (Contains 33 references.)…

Fotos, Sandra S.

1993-01-01

320

The contribution of phonological short-term memory to artificial grammar learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three experiments investigated the contribution of phonological short-term memory (STM) to grammar learning by manipulating rehearsal during study of an auditory artificial grammar made up from a vocabulary of spoken Mandarin syllables. Experiment 1 showed that concurrent, irrelevant articulation impaired grammar learning compared with a nonverbal control task. Experiment 2 replicated and extended this finding, showing that repeating the grammatical

Jackie Andrade; Alan Baddeley

2011-01-01

321

Shared Logistic Normal Distributions for Soft Parameter Tying in Unsupervised Grammar Induction  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a family of priors over probabilis- tic grammar weights, called the shared logistic normal distribution. This family extends the partitioned logistic normal distribution, en- abling factored covariance between the prob- abilities of different derivation events in the probabilistic grammar, providing a new way to encode prior knowledge about an unknown grammar. We describe a variational EM al- gorithm

Shay B. Cohen; Noah A. Smith

2009-01-01

322

Language Practice with Multimedia Supported Web-Based Grammar Revision Material  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The aim of this study was to investigate the perceptions of elementary-level English language learners towards web-based, multimedia-annotated grammar learning. WEBGRAM, a system designed to provide supplementary web-based grammar revision material, uses audio-visual aids to enrich the contextual presentation of grammar and allows learners to…

Baturay, Meltem Huri; Daloglu, Aysegul; Yildirim, Soner

2010-01-01

323

Electrical Stimulation of Broca's Area Enhances Implicit Learning of an Artificial Grammar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Artificial grammar learning constitutes a well-established model for the acquisition of grammatical knowledge in a natural setting. Previous neuroimaging studies demonstrated that Broca's area (left BA 44\\/45) is similarly activated by natural syntactic processing and artificial grammar learning. The current study was conducted to investigate the causal relationship between Broca's area and learning of an artificial grammar by means of

Meinou H. de Vries; Andre C. R. Barth; Sandra Maiworm; Stefan Knecht; Pienie Zwitserlood; Agnes Flöel

2010-01-01

324

The developmental acquisition of English grammar as an additional language.  

PubMed

The results are presented here of an investigation into the development of receptive and expressive English grammar when this is acquired as a second language. A cross-sectional survey using standardised assessments was conducted. 103 children were randomly selected from three local primary schools. These children were aged between 5 and 11 years and were acquiring English sequentially. Data relating to the receptive and expressive grammar of English as a second language was collected from each child. Analysis of this data revealed preliminary developmental patterns that appear to be specific to the sequential acquisition of English grammar. This data confirms the importance of not using data pertaining to the acquisition of first language English for English that is acquired as a second language. PMID:11340802

Quinn, C

2001-01-01

325

Proceedings of a Conference--"The Future of Grammar in American Schools" (Winchester, VA, August 10-11, 1990).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Providing alternatives to the way grammar is taught, this proceedings includes every paper (or summary) except one delivered at a conference on the future of grammar in American schools. Papers in the proceedings are: "Keynote: The Future of Grammar in American Schools" (Martha Kolln); "Approaches to Grammar: Teaching & Otherwise" (Kathy…

National Council of Teachers of English, Urbana, IL. Assembly for the Teaching of English Grammar.

326

Grammatikschulen und Schulgrammatik: Zur Ubertragbarkeit linguistischer Modelle in den Englischunterricht (Schools of Grammar and School Grammar: The Transferability of Linguistic Models into English Instruction)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A proposal for grammatical pluralism and view of the potential contributions of the descriptive, contrastive, and transformational schools of grammar analysis to classroom language instruction. (RS)|

Glaap, Albert-Reiner

1972-01-01

327

Learning Cue Phrase Patterns from Radiology Reports Using a Genetic Algorithm  

SciTech Connect

Various computer-assisted technologies have been developed to assist radiologists in detecting cancer; however, the algorithms still lack high degrees of sensitivity and specificity, and must undergo machine learning against a training set with known pathologies in order to further refine the algorithms with higher validity of truth. This work describes an approach to learning cue phrase patterns in radiology reports that utilizes a genetic algorithm (GA) as the learning method. The approach described here successfully learned cue phrase patterns for two distinct classes of radiology reports. These patterns can then be used as a basis for automatically categorizing, clustering, or retrieving relevant data for the user.

Patton, Robert M [ORNL; Beckerman, Barbara G [ORNL; Potok, Thomas E [ORNL

2009-01-01

328

The Grammar of Catholic Schooling and Radically "Catholic" Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A "grammar of Catholic schooling" inhibits many elementary and secondary Catholic schools from reflecting on how they practice Catholic Social Teaching (CST). The values of human dignity, the common good, and a preferential option for the marginalized are central to CST. Schools can live these values by serving children who live in poverty, are…

Scanlan, Martin

2008-01-01

329

Hong Kong ESL Teachers' Questions About English Grammar.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports an exploratory study of questions about English grammar sent in by a group of Hong Kong English-as-a-Second-Language teachers to a teacher support network, "Telenex." The study examines the questions Hong Kong ESL teachers ask about the English language. (Author/JL)

Wu, Kamyin; Sengupta, Sima

1998-01-01

330

On the Form of Bilingual Grammars: The Phonological Component.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research is based on the assumption that a Spanish/English bilingual is aware of the phonological and semantic relatedness of the many hundreds of pairs of transparently cognate items in the two languages. This awareness is linguistically significant in that it is reflected in the internalized grammar of the bilingual. The bilingual speaker…

Elerick, Charles

331

Cultural Values and Lexical Features in Spanish Grammar.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|There is a set of difficult Spanish grammar questions (ser-estar, preterite-imperfect, subjunctive-indicative, word order, and prepositions) in which the description of the semantic component is essential. Even though generative formulations treat them in differing ways, these questions possess the common characteristic of associating a form…

Stiehm, Bruce G.

332

Shifting Perspectives about Grammar: Changing What and How We Teach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Today, when the author reads articles or hears discussions about teaching grammar, she finds interesting dichotomies in perspectives. Some people see language issues as right or wrong: That's it. No flexibility. This perspective is evident when people look at issues of language in stark contrasts instead of in relation to context. Another…

Dean, Deborah

2011-01-01

333

Making Meaning with Grammar: A Repertoire of Possibilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The place of grammar in an English or literacy curriculum has long been a source of debate, one in which professionals, politicians and the public have often engaged with unbridled enthusiasm. As such, the debate has sometimes been characterised more by ideology or polemic, than by intellectual engagement with the core ideas. In part, this is…

Myhill, Debra; Lines, Helen; Watson, Annabel

2012-01-01

334

The Story of English Grammar in United States Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article assumes the value of a scientifically grounded, rhetorically focused, professionally supported, and publicly embraced grammar within the public schools and examines the past century of practices within the United States from that perspective. It describes a brief renaissance in the 50's and early 60's, inspired largely by the…

Kolln, Martha; Hancock, Craig

2005-01-01

335

Grammar disruption in a patient with Neuro-Sweet syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper for the first time reports detailed neurolinguistic findings in a patient with Neuro-Sweet syndrome. In this patient the presenting symptoms of central nervous system (CNS) involvement primarily consisted of a selective grammar deficit restricted to spontaneous speech. On MRI a left prefrontal ischemic stroke (superior part BA 6) and two small subcortical left parietal infarctions were found. Neurolinguistic

Peter Mariën; Wim Tops; Roel Crols; Roel Jonkers; Peter P. De Deyn; Jo Verhoeven

2011-01-01

336

Grammar disruption in a patient with Neuro-Sweet syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper for the first time reports detailed neurolinguistic findings in a patient with Neuro-Sweet syndrome. In this patient the presenting symptoms of central nervous system (CNS) involvement primarily consisted of a selective grammar deficit restricted to spontaneous speech. On MRI a left prefrontal ischemic stroke (superior part BA 6) and two small subcortical left parietal infarctions were found. Neurolinguistic

Peter Mariën; Wim Tops; Roel Crols; Roel Jonkers; Peter P. De Deyn; Jo Verhoeven

2012-01-01

337

On the Form of Bilingual Grammars: The Phonological Component.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This research is based on the assumption that a Spanish/English bilingual is aware of the phonological and semantic relatedness of the many hundreds of pairs of transparently cognate items in the two languages. This awareness is linguistically significant in that it is reflected in the internalized grammar of the bilingual. The bilingual speaker…

Elerick, Charles

338

Transfer in Artificial Grammar Learning: The Role of Repetition Information  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this article, the authors report 2 experiments that investigated the sources of information used in transfer and nontransfer tasks in artificial grammar learning. Multiple regression analyses indicated that 2 types of information about repeating elements were crucial for performance in both tasks: information about the repetition of adjacent…

Lotz, Anja; Kinder, Annette

2006-01-01

339

Phonological Memory and Children's Second Language Grammar Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examined the role of phonological memory in second language (L2) grammar learning in a group of native French-speaking children undergoing a 5-month intensive English program. Phonological memory (as referenced by Arabic [ANWR] and English [ENWR] nonword repetition tasks), L2 vocabulary (receptive and productive vocabulary knowledge),…

French, Leif M.; O'Brien, Irena

2008-01-01

340

E-Learning Turkish Language and Grammar: Analyzing Learners' Behavior  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study analyses the behavior and the preferences of the Greek learners of Turkish language, who use a particular e-learning website in parallel with their studies, namely: http://turkish.pgeorgalas.gr. The website offers free online material in Greek and English language for learning the Turkish language and grammar. The traffic of several…

Georgalas, Panagiotis

2012-01-01

341

The Theoretical Significance of Universal Grammar in Second Language Acquisition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Evidence that native language acquisition is possible because children are born with an innate language faculty--universal grammar (UG)--is considerable. In second language acquisition by older learners, this notion is less clear. Discusses the poverty of stimulus phenomena (POS) in relation to this, and argues that while POS phenomena are…

Hawkins, Roger

2001-01-01

342

Effectiveness of Using Games in Teaching Grammar to Young Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The primary aim of this study was to explore the effectiveness of using games in teaching grammar to young learners from the view points of Turkish EFL teachers working in primary schools. English language teacher' (n = 15) opinions were collected through a questionnaire and the results of this study demonstrated that Turkish EFL teachers have a…

Yolageldili, Gulin; Arikan, Arda

2011-01-01

343

The Strategies Approach: Effective for Reviewing Grammar and Punctuation Concepts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article is based on results of a quasi-experimental study in which the efficacy of the strategies approach for reviewing grammar and punctuation concepts was assessed in a business communication course. The control group studied rules-based review materials; the treatment group studied strategies-based review materials. On the three sets of…

Quible, Zane K.

2008-01-01

344

Automatic Construction of User Interfaces from Constraint Multiset Grammars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Describes tools which automatically generate a sophisticated user interface from a constraint multiset grammar specification of a visual language. The user interface allows the user to construct diagrams in the visual language from primitive tokens such as text, lines, rectangles or circles. These tokens are incrementally parsed into sub-diagrams. During parsing, automatic error correction removes geometric errors, providing feedback about

Sitt Sen Chok; Kim Marriott

1995-01-01

345

Caught'ya Again! More Grammar with a Giggle.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This teaching guide is built around a method (called the "Caught'ya" method) of teaching grammar and mechanics with humor. The guide contains story ideas and three sets of 100 Caught'ya sentences, as well as a chapter which discusses specific ways to use the Caught'ya at home. Following an introduction, the guide is divided into the following…

Kiester, Jane Bell

346

The Foreign Language Syllabus--Grammar, Notions and Functions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Papers in this journal issue concern various aspects of foreign language syllabus construction. Titles and authors are: "The Threshold Level: A Notional-Functional Syllabus" (Barbara F. Matthies); "Functions of Grammar in a Language Teaching Syllabus" (William E. Rutherford); "Communicative and Grammatical Syllabuses to Teach Conversational…

Saltarelli, Mario, Ed.

1983-01-01

347

Shifting Perspectives about Grammar: Changing What and How We Teach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Today, when the author reads articles or hears discussions about teaching grammar, she finds interesting dichotomies in perspectives. Some people see language issues as right or wrong: That's it. No flexibility. This perspective is evident when people look at issues of language in stark contrasts instead of in relation to context. Another…

Dean, Deborah

2011-01-01

348

An Efficient Chart Generator for (Semi)Lexicalist Grammars  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a generator for rule-based grammars which are primarily lexicalist but may introduce some semantics via constructions. By combining chart generation with a treatment of modification by adjunc- tion, we obtain substantial performance improvements over standard lexically-driven chart-generation.

John Carroll; Ann Copestake; Dan Flickinger

1999-01-01

349

Deity, conditional language, and human response : an apostolic grammar lesson  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this essay is to provide a sampling of a variety of grammatical mistakes that biblical scholars routinely commit concerning conditional sentences of the first and third-class. It is not my intention to develop a brief grammar of the Greek conditional sentence, at this time. Much good work has already been done toward that end. Rather, it is

Ardel B. Caneday

1997-01-01

350

The Pedagogic Effectiveness of Developmental Readiness in ESL Grammar Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The project reported in this paper aims to test the concept of "learner developmental readiness" and its pedagogic effectiveness in the teaching of foreign language grammar. It focuses on the teaching of English as a second language (ESL) in a formal classroom context. The aim is to ascertain whether a specific teaching order based on the concept…

Mansouri, Fethi; Duffy, Loretta

2005-01-01

351

Recognizing Paraphrases and Textual Entailment using Inversion Transduction Grammars  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present first results using paraphrase as well as textual entailment data to test the language univer- sal constraint posited by Wu's (1995, 1997) Inver- sion Transduction Grammar (ITG) hypothesis. In machine translation and alignment, the ITG Hypoth- esis provides a strong inductive bias, and has been shown empirically across numerous language pairs and corpora to yield both efficiency and

Dekai Wu

2005-01-01

352

Textual Entailment Recognition Based on Inversion Transduction Grammars  

Microsoft Academic Search

The PASCAL Challenge's textual entailment recog- nition (RTE) task presents intriguing opportunities to test various implications of the strong language universal constraint posited by Wu's (1995, 1997) Inversion Transduction Grammar (ITG) hypothe- sis. The ITG Hypothesis provides a strong induc- tive bias, and has been repeatedly shown empiri- cally to yield both efficiency and accuracy gains for numerous language acquisition

Dekai Wu

353

On the Hotz Group of a Context-Free Grammar  

Microsoft Academic Search

This note gives a new and algebraic construction of the Hotz group of a context-free grammar. The main result, that the Hotz group is defined by the generated language, as well as the relationships between this group and the syntactic monoid of the language are then easy consequences of this presentation.

Christiane Frougny; Jacques Sakarovitch; Erich Valkema

1982-01-01

354

"Fire Your Proofreader!" Grammar Correction in the Writing Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article critically reviews the usefulness of grammar correction in second language writing instruction through the eyes of five second-language writers. It first examines the validity of four teaching principles that appear to influence how writing instructors approach error correction in classrooms and concludes with discussions as to why…

Shin, Sang-Keun

2008-01-01

355

The Strategies Approach: Effective for Reviewing Grammar and Punctuation Concepts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article is based on results of a quasi-experimental study in which the efficacy of the strategies approach for reviewing grammar and punctuation concepts was assessed in a business communication course. The control group studied rules-based review materials; the treatment group studied strategies-based review materials. On the three sets of…

Quible, Zane K.

2008-01-01

356

DEVELOPMENT OF AN ENGLISH GRAMMAR CHECKER A PROGRESS REPORT  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to leave more time for EFL teachers to work on higher-level re- writing tasks, we decided to develop a computer grammar checker. The first stage of development was devoted to error analysis of 125 writing samples collected from our students. We found 1659 errors and classified them into 14 main types and 93 subtypes. The analysis served as

Hsien-Chin Liou

357

Developmental word acquisition and grammar learning by humanoid robots through a self-organizing incremental neural network.  

PubMed

We present a new approach for online incremental word acquisition and grammar learning by humanoid robots. Using no data set provided in advance, the proposed system grounds language in a physical context, as mediated by its perceptual capacities. It is carried out using show-and-tell procedures, interacting with its human partner. Moreover, this procedure is open-ended for new words and multiword utterances. These facilities are supported by a self-organizing incremental neural network, which can execute online unsupervised classification and topology learning. Embodied with a mental imagery, the system also learns by both top-down and bottom-up processes, which are the syntactic structures that are contained in utterances. Thereby, it performs simple grammar learning. Under such a multimodal scheme, the robot is able to describe online a given physical context (both static and dynamic) through natural language expressions. It can also perform actions through verbal interactions with its human partner. PMID:17926715

He, Xiaoyuan; Ogura, Tomotaka; Satou, Akihiro; Hasegawa, Osamu

2007-10-01

358

Pro-Forms in the Spanish Noun Phrase. Studies in Linguistics and Language Learning, Volume III.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The object of this study is to treat pronominalization in Spanish within the framework of generative grammar. (The non-hypenated word "pronoun" refers to the traditional class of words including alguien, algo, el, or ella. The hypenated form, "pro-noun," refers to the underlying lexical entries or feature complexes which share the features [+pro,…

Lackstrom, John Edwin

359

Pro-Forms in the Spanish Noun Phrase. Studies in Linguistics and Language Learning, Volume III.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The object of this study is to treat pronominalization in Spanish within the framework of generative grammar. (The non-hypenated word "pronoun" refers to the traditional class of words including alguien, algo, el, or ella. The hypenated form, "pro-noun," refers to the underlying lexical entries or feature complexes which share the features [+pro,…

Lackstrom, John Edwin

360

Linguistic Grammar Learning and DRD2-TAQ-IA Polymorphism  

PubMed Central

As research into the neurobiology of language has focused primarily on the systems level, fewer studies have examined the link between molecular genetics and normal variations in language functions. Because the ability to learn a language varies in adults and our genetic codes also vary, research linking the two provides a unique window into the molecular neurobiology of language. We consider a candidate association between the dopamine receptor D2 gene (DRD2) and linguistic grammar learning. DRD2-TAQ-IA polymorphism (rs1800497) is associated with dopamine receptor D2 distribution and dopamine impact in the human striatum, such that A1 allele carriers show reduction in D2 receptor binding relative to carriers who are homozygous for the A2 allele. The individual differences in grammatical rule learning that are particularly prevalent in adulthood are also associated with striatal function and its role in domain-general procedural memory. Therefore, we reasoned that procedurally-based grammar learning could be associated with DRD2-TAQ-IA polymorphism. Here, English-speaking adults learned artificial concatenative and analogical grammars, which have been respectively associated with procedural and declarative memory. Language learning capabilities were tested while learners’ neural hemodynamic responses were simultaneously measured by fMRI. Behavioral learning and brain activation data were subsequently compared with the learners’ DRD2 (rs1800497) genotype. Learners who were homozygous for the A2 allele were better at concatenative (but not analogical) grammar learning and had higher striatal responses relative to those who have at least one A1 allele. These results provide preliminary evidence for the neurogenetic basis of normal variations in linguistic grammar learning and its link to domain-general functions.

Wong, Patrick C. M.; Ettlinger, Marc; Zheng, Jing

2013-01-01

361

Linguistic grammar learning and DRD2-TAQ-IA polymorphism.  

PubMed

As research into the neurobiology of language has focused primarily on the systems level, fewer studies have examined the link between molecular genetics and normal variations in language functions. Because the ability to learn a language varies in adults and our genetic codes also vary, research linking the two provides a unique window into the molecular neurobiology of language. We consider a candidate association between the dopamine receptor D2 gene (DRD2) and linguistic grammar learning. DRD2-TAQ-IA polymorphism (rs1800497) is associated with dopamine receptor D2 distribution and dopamine impact in the human striatum, such that A1 allele carriers show reduction in D2 receptor binding relative to carriers who are homozygous for the A2 allele. The individual differences in grammatical rule learning that are particularly prevalent in adulthood are also associated with striatal function and its role in domain-general procedural memory. Therefore, we reasoned that procedurally-based grammar learning could be associated with DRD2-TAQ-IA polymorphism. Here, English-speaking adults learned artificial concatenative and analogical grammars, which have been respectively associated with procedural and declarative memory. Language learning capabilities were tested while learners' neural hemodynamic responses were simultaneously measured by fMRI. Behavioral learning and brain activation data were subsequently compared with the learners' DRD2 (rs1800497) genotype. Learners who were homozygous for the A2 allele were better at concatenative (but not analogical) grammar learning and had higher striatal responses relative to those who have at least one A1 allele. These results provide preliminary evidence for the neurogenetic basis of normal variations in linguistic grammar learning and its link to domain-general functions. PMID:23741438

Wong, Patrick C M; Ettlinger, Marc; Zheng, Jing

2013-05-31

362

German Grammar in the Students' Words: The "Essentialization" of German Grammar by American College-Level Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study of 134 college-level learners of German, enrolled in four years of instruction, showed them to "essentialize" German grammar when asked to describe it to a hypothetical friend. Kubota defined the term essentialization to capture learners' views of the target culture. Its main characteristic is the presupposition of "essential, stable,…

Chavez, Monika

2011-01-01

363

Re-thinking grammar: the impact of embedded grammar teaching on students’ writing and students’ metalinguistic understanding  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on a national study, involving a mixed-method research design comprising a randomised controlled trial (RCT), text analysis, student and teacher interviews and lesson observations. It set out to investigate whether contextualised teaching of grammar, linked to the teaching of writing, would improve student outcomes in writing and in metalinguistic understanding. The RCT involved 744 students in 31

Debra A. Myhill; Susan M. Jones; Helen Lines; Annabel Watson

2011-01-01

364

Re-thinking grammar: the impact of embedded grammar teaching on students’ writing and students’ metalinguistic understanding  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on a national study, involving a mixed-method research design comprising a randomised controlled trial (RCT), text analysis, student and teacher interviews and lesson observations. It set out to investigate whether contextualised teaching of grammar, linked to the teaching of writing, would improve student outcomes in writing and in metalinguistic understanding. The RCT involved 744 students in 31

Debra A. Myhill; Susan M. Jones; Helen Lines; Annabel Watson

2012-01-01

365

An Individualized Problem-Solving Approach for Teaching Choral Phrase Shaping: An Experimental Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This experiment tested a treatment designed to improve choral students' expressiveness regarding keyword emphasis and phrase shaping. The treatment was founded upon the constructivist belief that students actively construct conceptual knowledge through problem solving. Participants were 46 university students randomly selected from a…

Broomhead, Paul

2009-01-01

366

A Content-Addressable Pointer Mechanism Underlies Comprehension of Verb-Phrase Ellipsis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Interpreting a verb-phrase ellipsis (VP ellipsis) requires accessing an antecedent in memory, and then integrating a representation of this antecedent into the local context. We investigated the online interpretation of VP ellipsis in an eye-tracking experiment and four speed-accuracy tradeoff experiments. To investigate whether the antecedent…

Martin, Andrea E.; McElree, Brian

2008-01-01

367

Phonological Phrase Boundaries Constrain the Online Syntactic Analysis of Spoken Sentences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Two experiments tested whether phonological phrase boundaries constrain online syntactic analysis in French. Pairs of homophones belonging to different syntactic categories (verb and adjective) were used to create sentences with a local syntactic ambiguity (e.g., [le petit chien "mort"], in English, the "dead" little dog, vs. [le petit chien]…

Millotte, Severine; Rene, Alice; Wales, Roger; Christophe, Anne

2008-01-01

368

The Interplay between Semantic and Referential Aspects of Anaphoric Noun Phrase Resolution: Evidence from ERPs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this event-related brain potential (ERP) study, we examined how semantic and referential aspects of anaphoric noun phrase resolution interact during discourse comprehension. We used a full factorial design that crossed referential ambiguity with semantic incoherence. Ambiguous anaphors elicited a sustained negative shift (Nref effect), and…

Nieuwland, Mante S.; Van Berkum, Jos J. A.

2008-01-01

369

A Novel Approach for Frequent Phrase Mining in Web Search Engine Query Streams  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, conceptual frequency rate, a new frequency definition suitable for query stream mining, is introduced. An online single-pass algorithm called OFSD (Online Fre- quent Sequence Discovery) is given, to mine the set of all conceptual frequent sequences in a data stream whose con- ceptual frequency rates satisfy a minimum user defined fre- quency rate. Phrase recommender algorithm is

M. Barouni-ebrahimi; Ali A. Ghorbani

2007-01-01

370

Between Anaphora and Deixis ... The Resolution of the Demonstrative Noun Phrase "That N"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three experiments examined the hypothesis that the demonstrative noun phrase (NP) that N, as an anadeictic expression, preferentially refers to the less salient referent in a discourse representation when used anaphorically, whereas the anaphoric pronoun he or she preferentially refers to the highly-focused referent. The findings, from a sentence…

Fossard, Marion; Garnham, Alan; Cowles, H. Wind

2012-01-01

371

The Language of Energy: A Glossary of Words and Phrases Used in the Energy Industry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Provided is an alphabetical list or words and phrases commonly used in the energy industry. Entries range from such general terms as biomass, fossil fuels, and wetlands to such highly specific terms as Arab oil embargo of 1973-74 and Exxon Donor Solvent (EDS) Process. (JN)|

American Petroleum Inst., Washington, DC.

372

Frequency effects in noun phrase production: Implications for models of lexical access  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the processes of lexical retrieval during the production of adjectival noun phrases (NPs) such as ''the blue kite''. We used various current assumptions about the scope of grammatical and phonological encoding and about the locus of the classic frequency effect to derive predictions about possible frequency effects in the NP naming task. The predictions were tested in two

F.-Xavier Alario; Albert Costa; Alfonso Caramazza

2002-01-01

373

Dvandvas, Blocking, and the Associative: The Bumpy Ride from Phrase to Word  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The oldest form of Sanskrit has a class of expressions that are in some respects like asyndetically coordinated syntactic phrases, in other respects like single compound words. I propose to resolve the conflicting evidence by drawing on prosodic phonology, stratal optimality theory, and the lexicalist approach to morphological blocking. I then…

Kiparsky, Paul

2010-01-01

374

Improving Learning Implicit User Interest Hierarchy with Variable Length Phrases TR CS2003-17  

Microsoft Academic Search

A continuum of general to specific interests of a user called a user interest hierarchy (UIH) represents a user's interests at different abstraction levels. A UIH can be learned from a set of web pages visited by a user. In this paper, we focus on improving learning the UIH by adding phrases. We propose the VPF algorithm that can find

Hyoung-Rae Kim; Philip K. Chan

375

Translator, Traitor, Source of Data: Classifying Translations of "Foreign Phrases" as an Awareness-Raising Exercise.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A system for classifying (coding) translations of sentence-length or similar material is presented and illustrated with codings of entries in the "Dictionary of Foreign Phrases and Classical Quotations." Problems in coding are discussed, relating especially to intertextuality, intention, and ownership. The system is intended for pedagogic use, and…

Parkinson, Brian

1998-01-01

376

7 CFR 15f.4 - What do certain words and phrases in these regulations mean?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false What do certain words and phrases...ADJUDICATIONS UNDER SECTION 741 What Is the Purpose of These Regulations and to Whom and to What Programs Do They Apply...violation of the Equal Credit Opportunity Act (15 U.S.C....

2013-01-01

377

"THE BACON" Not "the Bacon": How Children and Adults Understand Accented and Unaccented Noun Phrases  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two eye-tracking experiments examine whether adults and 4- and 5-year-old children use the presence or absence of accenting to guide their interpretation of noun phrases (e.g., "the bacon") with respect to the discourse context. Unaccented nouns tend to refer to contextually accessible referents, while accented variants tend to be used for less…

Arnold, Jennifer E.

2008-01-01

378

Identifying significant single phrases in submitted free - Order arabic natural language questions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose a technique for extracting significant phrases from Arabic natural language questions to databases. An Arabic natural language (ANL) question is accepted as an input and then outputs all possible relations and its corresponding attributes. Arabic morphological, ontological, and syntactical analyses were applied in this paper. A lexicon is derived from the database which consists of

Khaleel Saleh Al-Rababah; Safwan Mahmood Shatnawi; AbdelMahdi Saleh Al-Rababah

2011-01-01

379

A Phrase-Based, Joint Probability Model for Statistical Machine Translation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a joint probability model for statistical machine translation, which au- tomatically learns word and phrase equiv- alents from bilingual corpora. Transla- tions produced with parameters estimated using the joint model are more accu- rate than translations produced using IBM Model 4.

Daniel Marcu; William Wong

2002-01-01

380

Disambiguating Prepositional Phrase Attachments by Using On-Line Dictionary Definitions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Standard on-line dictionaries offer a wealth of knowledge expressed in natural language form. We claim that such knowledge can and should be accessed by natural language processing systems to solve difficult ambiguity problems. This paper sustains that claim by describing a set of computational tools and techniques used to disambiguate prepositional phrase attachments in English sentences, by accessing on-line dictionary

Karen Jensen; Jean-Louis Binot

1987-01-01

381

Pauses and Intonational Phrasing: ERP Studies in 5-month-old German Infants and Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

In language learning, infants are faced with the challenge of decomposing continuous speech into relevant units, such as syntactic clauses and words. Within the framework of prosodic bootstrapping, behavioral studies suggest infants approach this segmentation problem by relying on prosodic information, especially on acoustically marked intonational phrase boundaries (IPBs). In the current ERP study, we investigate processing of IPBs in

Claudia Männel; Angela D. Friederici

2009-01-01

382

Finding Ways to Make Phrase-Learning Feasible: The Mnemonic Effect of Alliteration  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Lexical Approach (LA) is founded on the belief that, in order to achieve a high level of accuracy "with fluency," learners of a foreign language need to commit to memory vast numbers of multi-word expressions. However, since it is far from clear that the methodology currently associated with the LA holds out well-founded hope that phrase

Boers, Frank; Lindstromberg, Seth

2005-01-01

383

Regular languages, regular grammars and automata in splicing systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Splicing system is known as a mathematical model that initiates the connection between the study of DNA molecules and formal language theory. In splicing systems, languages called splicing languages refer to the set of double-stranded DNA molecules that may arise from an initial set of DNA molecules in the presence of restriction enzymes and ligase. In this paper, some splicing languages resulted from their respective splicing systems are shown. Since all splicing languages are regular, languages which result from the splicing systems can be further investigated using grammars and automata in the field of formal language theory. The splicing language can be written in the form of regular languages generated by grammar. Besides that, splicing systems can be accepted by automata. In this research, two restriction enzymes are used in splicing systems namely BfuCI and NcoI.

Mohamad Jan, Nurhidaya; Fong, Wan Heng; Sarmin, Nor Haniza

2013-04-01

384

Attributed programmed graph grammars and their application to schematic diagram interpretation.  

PubMed

Attributed programmed graph grammars are introduced in this paper and their application to the interpretation of schematic diagrams is proposed. In contrast with most of the approaches to syntactic pattern recognition, where the grammar controls a parser, the grammar in our system is used as a generative tool. Two classes of diagrams are studied, namely circuit diagrams and flowcharts. The task is in either case to extract a description from an input diagram. PMID:22499631

Bunke, H

1982-06-01

385

Expectation Grammars: Leveraging High-Level Expectations for Activity Recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Video-based recognition and prediction of a temporally ex- tended activity can benefit from a detailed description of high-level expectations about the activity. Stochastic gr am- mars allow for an efficient representation of such expecta- tions and are well-suited for the specification of temporall y well-ordered activities. In this paper, we extend stochast ic grammars by adding event parameters, state checks,

David Minnen; Irfan A. Essa; Thad Starner

2003-01-01

386

Evolution of the most common English words and phrases over the centuries.  

PubMed

By determining the most common English words and phrases since the beginning of the sixteenth century, we obtain a unique large-scale view of the evolution of written text. We find that the most common words and phrases in any given year had a much shorter popularity lifespan in the sixteenth century than they had in the twentieth century. By measuring how their usage propagated across the years, we show that for the past two centuries, the process has been governed by linear preferential attachment. Along with the steady growth of the English lexicon, this provides an empirical explanation for the ubiquity of Zipf's law in language statistics and confirms that writing, although undoubtedly an expression of art and skill, is not immune to the same influences of self-organization that are known to regulate processes as diverse as the making of new friends and World Wide Web growth. PMID:22832364

Perc, Matjaz

2012-07-25

387

Spot Me if You Can: Uncovering Spoken Phrases in Encrypted VoIP Conversations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the rapid adoption of Voice over IP (VoIP), its security implications are not yet fully un- derstood. Since VoIP calls may traverse untrusted networks, packets should be encrypted to ensure confidentiality. However, we show that when the audio is encoded using variable bit rate codecs, the lengths of encrypted VoIP packets can be used to identify the phrases spoken

Charles V. Wright; Lucas Ballard; Scott E. Coull; Fabian Monrose; Gerald M. Masson

2008-01-01

388

Asking what no one has asked before: using phrase similarities to generate synthetic web search queries  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces a method for automatically inferring meaningful, not-yet-submitted queries. The inferred queries fill some of the knowledge gaps between documents, on one hand, and known (i.e., already-submitted) queries, on the other hand. Thus, the inferred queries expand query logs and increase their coverage. New candidate queries are over-generated from known queries via phrase similarity data, then filtered against

Marius Pasca

2011-01-01

389

Genetic-based approach for cue phrase selection in dialogue act recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Automatic cue phrase selection is a crucial step for designing a dialogue act recognition model using machine learning techniques.\\u000a The approaches, currently used, are based on specific type of feature selection approaches, called ranking approaches. Despite\\u000a their computational efficiency for high dimensional domains, they are not optimal with respect to relevance and redundancy.\\u000a In this paper we propose a genetic-based

Anwar Ali Yahya; Abd Rahman Ramli

2009-01-01

390

Empirical data for the semantic interpretation of prepositional phrases in medical documents.  

PubMed Central

We report on the results from an empirical study deal-ing with the semantic interpretation of prepositional phrases in medical free texts. We use a small number of semantic interpretation schemata only, which operate on well-defined configurations in dependency graphs. We provide a quantitative analysis of the performance of the semantic interpreter in terms of recall/precision data, and consider, in qualitative terms, the impact semantic interpretation patterns have on the construction of the underlying medical ontology.

Romacker, M.; Hahn, U.

2001-01-01

391

Rule-based Translation With Statistical Phrase-based Post-editing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes a machine translation system based on an automatic post-editing strategy: initially translate the input text into the target-language using a rule-based MT system, then automatically post-edit the out- put using a statistical phrase-based system. An implementation of this approach based on the SYSTRAN and PORTAGE MT sys- tems was used in the shared task of the Sec-

Michel Simard; Nicola Uefng; Pierre Isabelle; Roland Kuhn

2007-01-01

392

Rule learning by zebra finches in an artificial grammar learning task: which rule?  

PubMed

A hallmark of the human language faculty is the use of syntactic rules. The natural vocalizations of animals are syntactically simple, but several studies indicate that animals can detect and discriminate more complex structures in acoustic stimuli. However, how they discriminate such structures is often not clear. Using an artificial grammar learning paradigm, zebra finches were tested in a Go/No-go experiment for their ability to distinguish structurally different three-element sound sequences. In Experiment 1, zebra finches learned to discriminate ABA and BAB from ABB, AAB, BBA, and ABB sequences. Tests with probe sounds consisting of four elements suggested that the discrimination was based on attending to the presence or absence of repeated A- and B-elements. One bird generalized the discrimination to a new element type. In Experiment 2, we continued the training by adding four-element songs following a 'first and last identical versus different' rule that could not be solved by attending to repetitions. Only two out of five birds learned the overall discrimination. Testing with novel probes demonstrated that discrimination was not based on using the 'first and last identical' rule, but on attending to the presence or absence of the individual training stimuli. The two birds differed in the strategies used. Our results thus demonstrate only a limited degree of abstract rule learning but highlight the need for extensive and critical probe testing to examine the rules that animals (and humans) use to solve artificial grammar learning tasks. They also underline that rule learning strategies may differ between individuals. PMID:22971840

van Heijningen, Caroline A A; Chen, Jiani; van Laatum, Irene; van der Hulst, Bonnie; ten Cate, Carel

2012-09-13

393

Pauses and intonational phrasing: ERP studies in 5-month-old German infants and adults.  

PubMed

In language learning, infants are faced with the challenge of decomposing continuous speech into relevant units, such as syntactic clauses and words. Within the framework of prosodic bootstrapping, behavioral studies suggest infants approach this segmentation problem by relying on prosodic information, especially on acoustically marked intonational phrase boundaries (IPBs). In the current ERP study, we investigate processing of IPBs in 5-month-old infants by varying the acoustic cues signaling the IPB. In an experiment in which pitch variation, vowel lengthening, and pause cues are present (Experiment 1), 5-month-old German infants show an ERP obligatory response. This obligatory response signals lower level perceptual processing of acoustic cues that, however, disappear when no pause cue is present (Experiment 2). This suggests that infants are sensitive to sentence internal pause, a cue that is relevant for the processing of IPBs. Given that German adults show both the obligatory components and the closure positive shift, a particular ERP component known to reflect the perception of IPBs, independent of the presence of a pause cue, the results of the current ERP study indicate clear developmental differences in intonational phrase processing. The comparison of our neurophysiological data from German-learning infants with behavioral data from English-learning infants furthermore suggests cross-linguistic differences in intonational phrase processing during infancy. These findings are discussed in the light of differences between the German and the English intonation systems. PMID:19296725

Männel, Claudia; Friederici, Angela D

2009-10-01

394

Blue Car, Red Car: Developing Efficiency in Online Interpretation of Adjective-Noun Phrases  

PubMed Central

Two experiments investigated the development of fluency in interpreting adjective-noun phrases in 30- and 36-month-old English-learning children. Using online processing measures, children’s gaze patterns were monitored as they heard the familiar adjective/noun phrases (e.g. blue car) in visual contexts where the adjective was either informative (e.g. blue car paired with red car or red house) or uninformative (e.g. blue car paired with blue house). Thirty-six-month-olds processed adjective-noun phrases incrementally as adults do, orienting more quickly to the target picture on informative-adjective trials than on control trials. Thirty-month-olds did not make incremental use of informative adjectives, and experienced disruption on trials when the two potential referents were identical in kind. In the younger children, difficulty in integrating prenominal adjectives with the subsequent noun was associated with slower processing speed across conditions. These findings provide evidence that skill in putting color word knowledge to use in real-time language processing emerges gradually over the third year.

Fernald, Anne; Thorpe, Kirsten; Marchman, Virginia A.

2010-01-01

395

Definite Clause Grammars for Language Analysis - A Survey of the Formalism and a Comparison with Augmented Transition Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

A clear andpowerfulformalism for describing languages, both natural and artificial, follows fiom a method for expressing grammars in logic due to Colmerauer and Kowalski. This formalism, which is a natural extension of context-free grammars, we call \\

Fernando C. N. Pereira; David H. D. Warren

1980-01-01

396

Disfluencies, language comprehension, and Tree Adjoining Grammars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disfluencies include editing terms such as uh and um as well as repeats and revisions. Little is known about how disfluencies are processed, and there has been next to no research focused on the way that disfluencies affect structure-building operations during comprehension. We review major findings from both computational linguistics and psycholinguistics, and then we summarize the results of our

Fernanda Ferreira; Ellen F. Lau; Karl G. D. Bailey

2004-01-01

397

Disfluencies, Language Comprehension, and Tree Adjoining Grammars  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Disfluencies include editing terms such as "uh" and "um" as well as repeats and revisions. Little is known about how disfluencies are processed, and there has been next to no research focused on the way that disfluencies affect structure-building operations during comprehension. We review major findings from both computational linguistics and…

Ferreira, Fernanda; Lau, Ellen F.; Bailey, Karl G. D.

2004-01-01

398

Disfluencies, Language Comprehension, and Tree Adjoining Grammars  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Disfluencies include editing terms such as "uh" and "um" as well as repeats and revisions. Little is known about how disfluencies are processed, and there has been next to no research focused on the way that disfluencies affect structure-building operations during comprehension. We review major findings from both computational linguistics and…

Ferreira, Fernanda; Lau, Ellen F.; Bailey, Karl G. D.

2004-01-01

399

Dictionaries, Dictionary Grammars and Dictionary Entry Parsing  

Microsoft Academic Search

We identify two complementary processes in the conversion of machine-readable dictionaries into lexical databases: recovery of the dictionary stucture from the typographical markings which persist on the dictionary distribution tapes and embody the publishers' notational conventions; followed by making explicit all of the codified and ellided information packed into individual entries. We discuss notational conventions and tape formats, outline structural

Mary S. Neff; Branimir K. Boguraev

1989-01-01

400

Grammar Charts Analysis: A Tool to Promote Students' Visual Literacy and Autonomous Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This reflection paper attempts to show how we foreign language (FL) teachers can help our students develop their visual literacy concerning the use of grammar charts to help them to make better sense of the grammar information presented in their textbooks. In the first part, this reflection overviews the concept of visual literacy (VL), its…

Nausa T., Ricardo A.

2007-01-01

401

Assessing the Need for Change in J-School Grammar Curricula.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Surveys 100 journalism schools investigating: (1) whether journalism schools treat spelling, punctuation, grammar, and AP style as important factors in improving the state of journalism; (2) how journalism schools are teaching and assessing spelling, punctuation, grammar, and AP style; and (3) whether journalism schools are using entrance or exit…

Seamon, Marc

2001-01-01

402

The Grammar Tool Box: A Case Study Comparing GLR Parsing Algorithms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Grammar Tool Box is a toolset for manipulating Context Free Grammars and objects associated with them such as parsers, languages and derivations. GTB has three main roles: as a pedagogic tool; as an experimental platform for novel algorithms and representations; and as a production tool for translator front end generation. In this paper we give an overview of GTB

Adrian Johnstone; Elizabeth Scott; Giorgios Economopoulos

2004-01-01

403

Assessing the Need for Change: A Survey of Grammar Curricula in American J-Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Spelling, punctuation, grammar, and AP (Associated Press) style errors are among the factors that are hurting media credibility in the eyes of the public. Some have said that journalism schools share the blame for sloppy grammar because they do not prepare students. A survey of 100 randomly selected journalism schools and examination of their…

Seamon, Marc

404

Re-Evaluating and Exploring the Contributions of Constituency Grammar to Semantic Role Labeling  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Since the seminal work of Gildea and Jurafsky (2000), semantic role labeling (SRL) researchers have been trying to determine the appropriate syntactic/semantic knowledge and statistical algorithms to tackle the challenges in SRL. In search of the appropriate knowledge, SRL researchers shifted from constituency grammar to dependency grammar around…

Yang, Li

2009-01-01

405

The Effect of Story Grammar Instruction on EFL Students' Comprehension of Narrative Text.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Story grammar is a recent area of research related to an interactive conceptualization of reading. A study of 70 sixth-grade students studying English as a foreign language (EFL) suggests that direct instruction in story grammar helps students abstract a story's episodic sequence and metastructure. Sample texts are appended. (Contains 21…

Amer, Aly A.

1992-01-01

406

Problematizing the Teaching and Learning of Grammar in the Intermediate German Classroom: A Sociocultural Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A framework is presented for grammar instruction based on sociocultural theory and critical pedagogy. It is argued that restricting students' learning to the standard German of the monolingual, educated native speaker is both insufficient and inappropriate. It is proposed that grammar teaching and learning should support learners as developing…

Levine, Glenn S.

2006-01-01

407

Incrementally Inferring Context-Free Grammars for Domain-Specific Languages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Grammatical inference (or grammar inference) has been applied to various problems in areas such as computational biology, and speech and pattern recognition but its application to the programming language problem domain has been limited. We propose a new application area for grammar inference which intends to make domain-specific language development easier and finds a second application in renovation tools for

Faizan Javed; Marjan Mernik; Alan P. Sprague; Barrett R. Bryant

2006-01-01

408

Reviving the Dead Butler? Towards a Review of Aspects of National Literacy Strategy Grammar Advice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In his 2004 article "How was a dead butler killed: The way English national strategies maim grammatical parts" published in "Language and Education" 18, no. 1, Wasyl Cajkler calls for a review of grammar advice to teachers in the UK National Literacy Strategy (NLS) materials. His evidence demonstrates clearly that NLS grammar advice is "a…

Wales, Lynn

2009-01-01

409

A Grammar of Sierra Popoluca (Soteapanec, a Mixe-Zoquean Language)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This dissertation is a comprehensive description of the grammar of Sierra Popoluca (SP, aka Soteapanec), a Mixe-Zoquean language spoken by approximately 28,000 people in Veracruz, Mexico. This grammar begins with an introduction to the language, its language family, a typological overview of the language, a brief history of my fieldwork, and the…

de Jong Boudreault, Lynda J.

2009-01-01

410

The Gang's All Here: Grammar Goes Global for Purdue, Unisa and Adelaide University  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The University of South Australia and Purdue University (Indiana) launched the "Grammar Gang Blog" in June 2008, as a collaborative forum for talking about language. The blog reaches a far-flung community of learners from Australia to the United States, Brisbane to Bangalore and Ghana to Germany. The Grammar Gang--where Owls meet Possums--started…

Duff, Andrea; Spangenberg, Brady; Carter, Susanna; Miller, Julia

2010-01-01

411

Transforming Grammar Checking Technology into a Learning Environment for Second Language Writing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper focuses on the transformation of grammar checking technology into a learn- ing environment for second language writing. Our starting point is a grammar checker for Swedish, called Granska. Two studies have been conducted aimed at exploring the use of computer support for writing in the context of second language learning. In the first study, we developed a methodology

Ola Knutsson; Teresa Cerratto Pargman; Kerstin Severinson Eklundh

412

Transliterating Urdu for a Broad-Coverage Urdu\\/Hindi LFG Grammar  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present a system for transliterating the Ar abic-based script of Urdu to a Roman transliteration scheme. The system is integrated into a larger system consisting of a morphology module, implemented via finite state technologies, and a co mputational LFG grammar of Urdu that was developed with the grammar development platform XLE (Crouch et al. 2008). Our

Muhammad Kamran Malik; Tafseer Ahmed; Sebastian Sulger; Tina Bögel; Atif Gulzar; Ghulam Raza; Sarmad Hussain; Miriam Butt

2010-01-01

413

The Place of Grammar in the ESL/EFL Classroom: An Annotated Bibliography.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This annotated bibliography includes citations of journal articles and book chapters that focus on current theories related to teaching grammar in English-as-a-Second-Language and English-as-a-Foreign-Language classrooms. Citations include: (1) "Field Independence-Dependence and the Teaching of Grammar" (R. G. Abraham); (2) "Making Informed…

Kotapish, Carl E.

414

The English Definite Article: What ESL/EFL Grammars Say and What Corpus Findings Show  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|To ascertain whether what ESL/EFL grammars say is informed by what scholars discuss in the literature and supported by what corpus findings actually show, this paper first presents a brief overview of the literature on the English definite article and then compares popular ESL/EFL grammars' coverage of "the" and corpus findings on definite…

WonHo Yoo, Isaiah

2009-01-01

415

Spoken Grammar: What Is It and How Can We Teach It?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article argues that consideration by teachers of spoken English shows that learners need to be given choices between written and spoken grammars, that the interpersonal implications of spoken grammars are important, and that methodologically inductive learning may be more appropriate than the presentation-practice-production approaches…

McCarthy, Michael; Carter, Ronald

1995-01-01

416

Electrical Stimulation of Broca's Area Enhances Implicit Learning of an Artificial Grammar  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Artificial grammar learning constitutes a well-established model for the acquisition of grammatical knowledge in a natural setting. Previous neuroimaging studies demonstrated that Broca's area (left BA 44/45) is similarly activated by natural syntactic processing and artificial grammar learning. The current study was conducted to investigate the…

de Vries, Meinou H.; Barth, Andre C. R.; Maiworm, Sandra; Knecht, Stefan; Zwitserlood, Pienie; Floel, Agnes

2010-01-01

417

Electrical Stimulation of Broca's Area Enhances Implicit Learning of an Artificial Grammar  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Artificial grammar learning constitutes a well-established model for the acquisition of grammatical knowledge in a natural setting. Previous neuroimaging studies demonstrated that Broca's area (left BA 44/45) is similarly activated by natural syntactic processing and artificial grammar learning. The current study was conducted to investigate the…

de Vries, Meinou H.; Barth, Andre C. R.; Maiworm, Sandra; Knecht, Stefan; Zwitserlood, Pienie; Floel, Agnes

2010-01-01

418

Ueber die Schwierigkeiten, eine Grammatik zu schreiben (On the Difficulties of Writing a Grammar)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the form of a review article, the "English Minimum Grammar" developed by Hans G. Hoffmann (Max Hueber Verlag, Munich, 1973) is discussed, and the problems that beset the writer of a modern teaching grammar are pointed out. (Text is in German.) (IFS/WGA)

Gutschow, Harald

1975-01-01

419

Students' Uses of Grammars of English--Can We Avoid Teaching.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents an analysis of the responses German college students of English gave on a questionnaire regarding their attitudes toward and use of English grammars. Results found that several factors affected students' attitudes, and suggestions were made on how to improve the design of future grammars and on how to instruct students in the use of…

Leitner, Gerhard

1990-01-01

420

The Grammar Workshop: Systematic Language Study in Reading and Writing Contexts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this "prosumer" era in which people seem always to be producing and consuming texts, words matter as much as--or more than--they ever have. Learning how grammar works in the texts they read and write is essential to students' literacy. It is time to reframe English teachers' view to include both writing "and" reading as contexts for grammar

Zuidema, Leah A.

2012-01-01

421

Teaching Grammar to Adult English Language Learners: Focus on Form. CAELA Network Brief  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many adult English language learners place a high value on learning grammar. Perceiving a link between grammatical accuracy and effective communication, they associate excellent grammar with opportunities for employment and promotion, the attainment of educational goals, and social acceptance by native speakers. Reflecting the disagreement that…

Gallup Rodriguez, Amber

2009-01-01

422

Intact learning of artificial grammars and intact category learning by patients with Parkinson's disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) have been shown to be impaired on some nondeclara- tive memory tasks that require cognitive skill learning (perceptual-motor sequence learning, probabilistic classification). To determine what other skill-based tasks are impaired, 13 patients with PD were tested on artificial grammar learning, artificial grammar learning with transfer to novel lettersets, and prototype learning. Patients with PD performed

Paul J. Reber; Larry R. Squire

1999-01-01

423

Reviving the Dead Butler? Towards a Review of Aspects of National Literacy Strategy Grammar Advice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In his 2004 article "How was a dead butler killed: The way English national strategies maim grammatical parts" published in "Language and Education" 18, no. 1, Wasyl Cajkler calls for a review of grammar advice to teachers in the UK National Literacy Strategy (NLS) materials. His evidence demonstrates clearly that NLS grammar advice is "a…

Wales, Lynn

2009-01-01

424

Computation-Friendly Shape Grammars with Application to Determining the Interior Layout of Buildings from Image Data  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A shape grammar is a formalism that has been widely applied, in many different fields, to analyzing designs. Computer implementation of a shape grammar interpreter is vital to both research and application. However, implementing a shape grammar interpreter is hard, especially for parametric shapes defined by open terms. This dissertation…

Yue, Kui

2009-01-01

425

Comparing test-suite based evaluation and corpus-based evaluation of a wide-coverage grammar for English  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present our experiences in the evaluation of a wide-coverage grammar of English: the XTAG English grammar. We give a brief history of previous evaluations done using the XTAG grammar and then describe a pair of new evaluations done on a corpus of weather reports and the CSLI LKB test suite. Based on these experiments, we discuss

Rashmi Prasad; Anoop Sarkar

2000-01-01

426

Computational Grammars for Interrogation of Genomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Antibiotic resistance genes are embedded in mobile genetic elements (MGEs) that spread genes between organisms, even of different\\u000a species. MGEs are large structures that consist of genes, and protein interaction sites. Although a considerable number of\\u000a microbial DNA sequences have been published, searching for multi-resistant MGEs remains largely a manual task. This usually\\u000a involves BLAST searches and a combination of

Jaron Schaeffer; Afra Held; Guy Tsafnat

427

The Grammar Matrix: An Open-Source Starter-Kit for the Rapid Development of Cross-Linguistically Consistent Broad-Coverage Precision Grammars  

Microsoft Academic Search

The grammar matrix is an open-source starter-kit for the development of broad- coverage HPSGs. By using a type hierar- chy to represent cross-linguistic generaliza- tions and providing compatibility with other open-source tools for grammar engineering, evaluation, parsing and generation, it facil- itates not only quick start-up but also rapid growth towards the wide coverage necessary for robust natural language processing

Emily M. Bender; Dan Flickinger; Stephan Oepen

428

Grammatical representations of macromolecular structure.  

PubMed

Since the first application of context-free grammars to RNA secondary structures in 1988, many researchers have used both ad hoc and formal methods from computational linguistics to model RNA and protein structure. We show how nearly all of these methods are based on the same core principles and can be converted into equivalent approaches in the framework of tree-adjoining grammars and related formalisms. We also propose some new approaches that extend these core principles in novel ways. PMID:16796552

Chiang, David; Joshi, Aravind K; Searls, David B

2006-06-01

429

The interpretation of disjunction in universal grammar.  

PubMed

Child and adult speakers of English have different ideas of what 'or' means in ordinary statements of the form 'A or B'. Even more far-reaching differences between children and adults are found in other languages. This tells us that young children do not learn what 'or' means by watching how adults use 'or'. An alternative is to suppose that children draw upon a priori knowledge of the meaning of 'or'. This conclusion is reinforced by the observation that all languages adopt the same meaning of 'or' in certain structures. For example, statements of the form 'not S[A or B]' have the same meanings in all languages, and disjunctive statements receive a uniform interpretation in sentences that contain certain focus expressions, such as English 'only'. These observations are relevant for the long-standing "nature versus nurture" controversy. A linguistic property that (a) emerges in child language without decisive evidence from experience, and (b) is common to all human languages, is a likely candidate for innate specification. Experience matters, of course. As child speakers grow up, they eventually learn to use 'or' in the same way as adults do. But, based on findings from child language and cross-linguistic research, it looks like certain aspects of language, including the interpretation of disjunction, are part of the human genome. PMID:18561548

Crain, Stephen

2008-01-01

430

Optical imaging for the new grammar of drug discovery.  

PubMed

Optical technologies used in biomedical research have undergone tremendous development in the last decade and enabled important insight into biochemical, cellular and physiological phenomena at the microscopic and macroscopic level. Historically in drug discovery, to increase throughput in screening, or increase efficiency through automation of image acquisition and analysis in pathology, efforts in imaging were focused on the reengineering of established microscopy solutions. However, with the emergence of the new grammar for drug discovery, other requirements and expectations have created unique opportunities for optical imaging. The new grammar of drug discovery provides rules for translating the wealth of genomic and proteomic information into targeted medicines with a focus on complex interactions of proteins. This paradigm shift requires highly specific and quantitative imaging at the molecular level with tools that can be used in cellular assays, animals and finally translated into patients. The development of fluorescent targeted and activatable 'smart' probes, fluorescent proteins and new reporter gene systems as functional and dynamic markers of molecular events in vitro and in vivo is therefore playing a pivotal role. An enabling optical imaging platform will combine optical hardware refinement with a strong emphasis on creating and validating highly specific chemical and biological tools. PMID:22006912

Krucker, Thomas; Sandanaraj, Britto S

2011-11-28

431

The On-Line Processing of Verb-Phrase Ellipsis in Aphasia  

PubMed Central

We investigated the on-line processing of verb-phrase ellipsis (VPE) constructions in two brain injured populations: Broca’s and Anomic aphasics. VPE constructions are built from two simple clauses; the first is the antecedent clause and the second is the ellipsis clause. The ellipsis clause is missing its verb and object (i.e., its verb phrase (VP)), which receives its reference from the fully specified VP in the antecedent clause. VPE constructions are unlike other sentence types that require displacement of an argument NP; these latter constructions (e.g., object-relatives, wh-questions) yield either on-time or delayed antecedent reactivation. Our results demonstrate that Anomics, like unimpaired individuals, evince reactivation of the direct object NP (within the VP) at the elided position. Broca’s patients, on the other hand, do not show reactivation of the antecedent. We consider several interpretations for our data, including explanations focusing on the larger ‘grain size’ of the reconstructed material in the ellipsis clause, the properties of the auxiliary that carries tense and agreement features, and the possibility that the cost-free syntactic copy procedure claimed to underlie VPE may be modulated by the functional deficit in Broca’s aphasia.

Shapiro, Lewis P.; Love, Tracy; Grodzinsky, Yosef

2009-01-01

432

An implementation of the trigram phrase matching method for text similarity problems.  

PubMed

The representation of texts by term vectors with element values calculated by a TFIDF method yields to significant results in text similarity problems, such as finding related documents in bibliographic or full-text databases and identifying MeSH concepts from medical texts by lexical approach and also harmonizing journal citation in ISI/SciELO references and normalizing author's affiliation in MEDLINE. Our work considered "trigrams" as the terms (elements) of a term vector representing a text, according to the Trigram Phrase Matching published by the NLM's Indexing Initiative and its logarithmic Term Frequency-Inverse Document Frequency method for term weighting. Trigrams are overlapping 3-char strings from a text, extracted by a couple of rules, and a trigram matching method may improve the probability of identifying synonym phrases or similar texts. The matching process was implemented as a simple algorithm, and requires a certain amount of computer resources. An efficiency-focused C-programming was adopted. In addition, some heuristic rules improved the efficiency of the method and made it feasible a regular "find your scientific production in SciELO collection" information service. We describe an implementation of the Trigram Matching method, the software tool we developed and a set of experimental parameters for the above results. PMID:15747904

Tardelli, Adalberto O; Anção, Meide S; Packer, Abel L; Sigulem, Daniel

2004-01-01

433

D-LTAG: extending lexicalized TAG to discourse  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper surveys work on applying the insights of lexicalized grammars to low-level discourse, to show the value of positing an autonomous grammar for low-level discourse in which words (or idiomatic phrases) are associated with discourse-level predicate-argument structures or modification structures that convey their syntactic-semantic meaning and scope. It starts by describing a lexicalized Tree Adjoining Grammar for discourse (D-LTAG).

Bonnie Webber

2004-01-01

434

Entangled Parametric Hierarchies: Problems for an Overspecified Universal Grammar  

PubMed Central

This study addresses the feasibility of the classical notion of parameter in linguistic theory from the perspective of parametric hierarchies. A novel program-based analysis is implemented in order to show certain empirical problems related to these hierarchies. The program was developed on the basis of an enriched data base spanning 23 contemporary and 5 ancient languages. The empirical issues uncovered cast doubt on classical parametric models of language acquisition as well as on the conceptualization of an overspecified Universal Grammar that has parameters among its primitives. Pinpointing these issues leads to the proposal that (i) the (bio)logical problem of language acquisition does not amount to a process of triggering innately pre-wired values of parameters and (ii) it paves the way for viewing language, epigenetic (‘parametric’) variation as an externalization-related epiphenomenon, whose learning component may be more important than what sometimes is assumed.

Boeckx, Cedric; Leivada, Evelina

2013-01-01

435

Context-Sensitive Grammar Transform: Compression and Pattern Matching  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A framework of context-sensitive grammar transform for speeding-up compressed pattern matching (CPM) is proposed. A greedy compression algorithm with the transform model is presented as well as a Knuth-Morris-Pratt (KMP)-type compressed pattern matching algorithm. The compression ratio is a match for gzip and Re-Pair, and the search speed of our CPM algorithm is almost twice faster than the KMP-type CPM algorithm on Byte-Pair-Encoding by Shibata et al.[18], and in the case of short patterns, faster than the Boyer-Moore-Horspool algorithm with the stopper encoding by Rautio et al.[14], which is regarded as one of the best combinations that allows a practically fast search.

Maruyama, Shirou; Tanaka, Youhei; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Takeda, Masayuki

436

Teaching Photovoltaics: From Grammar School to Graduate School  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photovoltaics (PV) has certainly become the topic of the times in economic and political circles. I have had the opportunity to teach some aspect of the subject at a wide range of educational levels. I taught a graduate course, as an Adjunct Professor at the Colorado School of Mines (CSM), over the time period from 1990 to 2000. As a consequence of various outreach programs, like those sponsored by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, I have given presentations to audiences ranging from grammar school to high school. I have given another type of presentation to the service clubs like Rotary International and Kiwanis Clubs. Finally, in recent years and the rapid growth of the photovoltaic industry, I have been asked to give a basic presentation to business people with modest technical backgrounds. Each audience presents a different set of challenges and each requires a different type of presentation.

Ahrenkiel, Richard

2009-05-01

437

Entangled parametric hierarchies: problems for an overspecified universal grammar.  

PubMed

This study addresses the feasibility of the classical notion of parameter in linguistic theory from the perspective of parametric hierarchies. A novel program-based analysis is implemented in order to show certain empirical problems related to these hierarchies. The program was developed on the basis of an enriched data base spanning 23 contemporary and 5 ancient languages. The empirical issues uncovered cast doubt on classical parametric models of language acquisition as well as on the conceptualization of an overspecified Universal Grammar that has parameters among its primitives. Pinpointing these issues leads to the proposal that (i) the (bio)logical problem of language acquisition does not amount to a process of triggering innately pre-wired values of parameters and (ii) it paves the way for viewing language, epigenetic ('parametric') variation as an externalization-related epiphenomenon, whose learning component may be more important than what sometimes is assumed. PMID:24019867

Boeckx, Cedric; Leivada, Evelina

2013-09-03

438

Using definite clause grammars to build a global system for analyzing collections of documents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Collections of documents are sets of heterogeneous documents, like a specific ancient book series, having proper structural and semantic properties linking them. A particular collection contains document images with specific physical layouts, like text pages or full-page illustrations, appearing in a specific order. Its contents, like journal articles, may be shared by several pages, not necessary following, producing strong dependencies between pages interpretations. In order to build an analysis system which can bring contextual information from the collection to the appropriate recognition modules for each page, we propose to express the structural and the semantic properties of a collection with a definite clause grammar. This is made possible by representing collections as streams of document images, and by using extensions to the formalism we present here. We are then able to automatically generate a parser dedicated to a collection. Beside allowing structural variations and complex information flows, we also show that this approach enables the design of analysis stages, on a document or a set of documents. The interest of context usage is illustrated with several examples and their appropriate formalization in this framework.

Chazalon, Joseph; Coüasnon, Bertrand

2010-01-01

439

Unsupervised grammar induction and similarity retrieval in medical language processing using the Deterministic Dynamic Associative Memory (DDAM) model.  

PubMed

This paper is an overview of unsupervised grammar induction and similarity retrieval, two fundamental information processing functions of importance to medical language processing applications and to the construction of intelligent medical information systems. Existing literature with a focus on text segmentation tasks is reviewed. The review includes a comparison of existing approaches and reveals the longstanding interest in these traditionally distinct topics despite the significant computational challenges that characterizes them. Further, a unifying approach to unsupervised representation and processing of sequential data, the Deterministic Dynamic Associative Memory (DDAM) model, is introduced and described theoretically from both structural and functional perspectives. The theoretical descriptions of the model are complemented by a selection and discussion of interesting experimental results in the tasks of unsupervised grammar induction and similarity retrieval with applications to medical language processing. Notwithstanding the challenges associated with the evaluation of unsupervised information-processing models, it is concluded that the DDAM model demonstrates interesting properties that encourage further investigations in both theoretical and applied contexts. PMID:20637898

Pantazi, Stefan V

2010-07-15

440

Generation of efficient parsers through direct compilation of XML Schema grammars  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the widespread adoption of SOAP and Web services, XML-based processing, and parsing of XML documents in particular, is becoming a performance-critical aspect of business computing. In such scenarios, XML is often constrained by an XML Schema grammar, which can be used during parsing to improve performance. Although traditional grammar-based parser generation techniques could be applied to the XML Schema

Eric Perkins; Morris Matsa; Margaret Gaitatzes Kostoulas; Abraham Heifets; Noah Mendelsohn

2006-01-01

441

Relational Growth Grammars - A Parallel Graph Transformation Approach with Applications in Biology and Architecture  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the formalism of relational growth grammars. They are a variant of graph grammars with a principal application\\u000a for plant modelling, where they extend the well-established, but limited formalism of L-systems. The main property is the\\u000a application of rules in parallel, motivated by the fact that life is fundamentally parallel. A further speciality is the dynamic\\u000a creation of right-hand

Ole Kniemeyer; Günter Barczik; Reinhard Hemmerling; Winfried Kurth

2007-01-01

442

Design and behavior study of a grammar-guided genetic programming algorithm for mining association rules  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a proposal for the extraction of association rules called G3PARM (Grammar-Guided Genetic Programming for\\u000a Association Rule Mining) that makes the knowledge extracted more expressive and flexible. This algorithm allows a context-free\\u000a grammar to be adapted and applied to each specific problem or domain and eliminates the problems raised by discretization.\\u000a This proposal keeps the best individuals (those

José M. Luna; José Raúl Romero; Sebastián Ventura

443

Do Humans Really Learn A[superscript n] B[superscript n] Artificial Grammars from Exemplars?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|An important topic in the evolution of language is the kinds of grammars that can be computed by humans and other animals. Fitch and Hauser (F&H; 2004) approached this question by assessing the ability of different species to learn 2 grammars, (AB)[superscript n] and A[superscript n] B[superscript n]. A[superscript n] B[superscript n] was taken…

Hochmann, Jean-Remy; Azadpour, Mahan; Mehler, Jacques

2008-01-01

444

Acquisition of Structure and Interpretation: Cases from Mandarin Bare and Non-Bare Noun Phrases  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Children's production of bare nominals is universal. When acquiring languages disallowing bare nominals, children will develop from the bare to the non-bare stage. However, Mandarin nominals may appear bare or non-bare in various positions with all kinds of interpretations. This dissertation conducts two acquisition studies to examine the…

Chang, Hsiang-Hua

2011-01-01

445

Evaluating word in phrase: the modulation effect of emotional context on word comprehension.  

PubMed

The present study aims to explore the influence of emotional context on word evaluation. Participants were asked to read an "adjective + noun" phrase, where the adjective could be a positive or negative word, and the noun could be a positive, neutral or negative word, and then to make an emotional evaluation on the emotional tone of the target noun based on a 9-point Likert scale. In a control condition, an isolated noun was presented with no context. Results showed that positive context made the evaluation of target words bias toward positive tone, while negative context shaped the evaluation of target words toward negative tone. The modulatory effect of negative context was greater than that of positive context in shaping evaluation of emotional words with opposite valence. Moreover, the modulatory effect of emotional context was constrained by the inherent meaning of target word. The present study demonstrated the flexibility as well as the relative stability of emotional meaning of word. PMID:22688323

Liu, Hongyan; Hu, Zhiguo; Peng, Danling

2013-08-01

446

The role of local and global syntactic structure in language production: Evidence from syntactic priming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental research has provided evidence for an autonomous stage of syntactic processing during language production. We report eight syntactic priming experiments that investigated whether this stage uses the same procedures to produce phrases with a particular structure when they appear in different syntactic contexts. Experiments 1–3 demonstrated syntactic priming for verb phrase structure in main clauses, irrespective of whether the

Holly P. Branigan; Martin J. Pickering; Janet F. McLean; Andrew J. Stewart

2006-01-01

447

Does the Noun Phrase Accessibility Hierarchy Predict the Difficulty Order in the Acquisition of Japanese Relative Clauses?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although Keenan and Comrie's (1977) noun phrase accessibility hierarchy (NPAH) has been shown to predict the difficulty order of relative clauses (RCs) in SLA, most studies of the NPAH have been on European languages. This paper tests the prediction for Japanese. Study 1 analyzes RCs in an oral interview corpus from 90 learners of Japanese at four…

Ozeki, Hiromi; Shirai, Yasuhiro

2007-01-01

448

The Production of Noun Phrases in English and Spanish: Implications for the Scope of Phonological Encoding in Speech Production  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of the phonological word as a planning unit in the production of noun phrases (NPs) was investigated in three picture-word interference experiments. We addressed this issue cross-linguistically by asking Spanish and English speakers to produce simple (determiner + noun [in English]) and complex (determiner + adjective + noun [in English] or determiner + noun + adjective [in Spanish])

Albert Costa; Alfonso Caramazza

2002-01-01

449

Aphorisms and Short Phrases as Pieces of Knowledge in the Pedagogical Framework of the Andalusian School of Public Health  

PubMed Central

Background: Bearing in mind the philosophical pedagogical significance of short phrases for the training of researchers in the health care ambit, we hence have studied the aphorisms and striking phrases expressed during the epidemiology course at the Andalusian School of Public Health. Methods: Belonging to the qualitative type and applied through the establishment of a multidisciplinary focus group made up of ten post-graduated students, where one of them acted as a moderator. The collection of information lasted four months. Information was classified in two ways: Firstly, aphorisms and short phrases with a pedagogical impact; and secondly, data with statistical, epidemiological, epistemological, pragmatic, or heuristic component, and for scientific diffusion. It was decided to perform a triangulation that included a descriptive presentation and a basic categorical analysis. The two teachers with a highest interpretative load have been identified . Results: A total of 127 elements, regarded as of interest by the focus group, were collected. Forty-four of them (34.6%) were aphorisms, and 83 were short phrases with a pedagogical load (65.3%). Most of all them were classified as statistical elements (35.4%) followed by epistemological (21.3%) and epidemiological (15.7%) elements. There was no tendency towards aphorisms or short phrases (P > 0.05) among the teachers with more informative representation. Conclusion: There has been a tilt in the contents towards the statistical area to the detriment of the epidemiological one. Concept maps have visualized classifications. This sort of qualitative analysis helps the researcher review contents acquired during his/her training process.

Gonzalez-Garcia, Lorena; Chemello, Clarice; Garcia-Sanchez, Filomena; Serpa-Anaya, Delia C.; Gomez-Gonzalez, Carmen; Soriano-Carrascosa, Leticia; Munoz-de Rueda, Paloma; Moya-Molina, Miguel; Sanchez-Garcia, Fernando; Ortega-Calvo, Manuel

2012-01-01

450

Predicting RNA secondary structures with pseudoknots by MCMC sampling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The most probable secondary structure of an RNA molecule, given the nucleotide sequence, can be computed efficiently if a\\u000a stochastic context-free grammar (SCFG) is used as the prior distribution of the secondary structure. The structures of some\\u000a RNA molecules contain so-called pseudoknots. Allowing all possible configurations of pseudoknots is not compatible with context-free\\u000a grammar models and makes the search for

Dirk Metzler; Markus E. Nebel

2008-01-01

451

Automated Diagnosis of Otitis Media: Vocabulary and Grammar  

PubMed Central

We propose a novel automated algorithm for classifying diagnostic categories of otitis media: acute otitis media, otitis media with effusion, and no effusion. Acute otitis media represents a bacterial superinfection of the middle ear fluid, while otitis media with effusion represents a sterile effusion that tends to subside spontaneously. Diagnosing children with acute otitis media is difficult, often leading to overprescription of antibiotics as they are beneficial only for children with acute otitis media. This underscores the need for an accurate and automated diagnostic algorithm. To that end, we design a feature set understood by both otoscopists and engineers based on the actual visual cues used by otoscopists; we term this the otitis media vocabulary. We also design a process to combine the vocabulary terms based on the decision process used by otoscopists; we term this the otitis media grammar. The algorithm achieves 89.9% classification accuracy, outperforming both clinicians who did not receive special training and state-of-the-art classifiers.

Kuruvilla, Anupama; Hoberman, Alejandro; Kovacevic, Jelena

2013-01-01

452

Electrical stimulation of Broca's area enhances implicit learning of an artificial grammar.  

PubMed

Artificial grammar learning constitutes a well-established model for the acquisition of grammatical knowledge in a natural setting. Previous neuroimaging studies demonstrated that Broca's area (left BA 44/45) is similarly activated by natural syntactic processing and artificial grammar learning. The current study was conducted to investigate the causal relationship between Broca's area and learning of an artificial grammar by means of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). Thirty-eight healthy subjects participated in a between-subject design, with either anodal tDCS (20 min, 1 mA) or sham stimulation, over Broca's area during the acquisition of an artificial grammar. Performance during the acquisition phase, presented as a working memory task, was comparable between groups. In the subsequent classification task, detecting syntactic violations, and specifically, those where no cues to superficial similarity were available, improved significantly after anodal tDCS, resulting in an overall better performance. A control experiment where 10 subjects received anodal tDCS over an area unrelated to artificial grammar learning further supported the specificity of these effects to Broca's area. We conclude that Broca's area is specifically involved in rule-based knowledge, and here, in an improved ability to detect syntactic violations. The results cannot be explained by better tDCS-induced working memory performance during the acquisition phase. This is the first study that demonstrates that tDCS may facilitate acquisition of grammatical knowledge, a finding of potential interest for rehabilitation of aphasia. PMID:19925194

de Vries, Meinou H; Barth, Andre C R; Maiworm, Sandra; Knecht, Stefan; Zwitserlood, Pienie; Flöel, Agnes

2010-11-01

453

The Impact of Adjacent-Dependencies and Staged-Input on the Learnability of Center-Embedded Hierarchical Structures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A theoretical debate in artificial grammar learning (AGL) regards the learnability of hierarchical structures. Recent studies using an A[superscript n]B[superscript n] grammar draw conflicting conclusions ([Bahlmann and Friederici, 2006] and [De Vries et al., 2008]). We argue that 2 conditions crucially affect learning A[superscript…

Lai, Jun; Poletiek, Fenna H.

2011-01-01

454

The Impact of Adjacent-Dependencies and Staged-Input on the Learnability of Center-Embedded Hierarchical Structures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A theoretical debate in artificial grammar learning (AGL) regards the learnability of hierarchical structures. Recent studies using an A[superscript n]B[superscript n] grammar draw conflicting conclusions ([Bahlmann and Friederici, 2006] and [De Vries et al., 2008]). We argue that 2 conditions crucially affect learning A[superscript…

Lai, Jun; Poletiek, Fenna H.

2011-01-01

455

Acquisition of Generic Noun Phrases in Chinese: Learning about lions without an '-s'  

PubMed Central

English-speaking children understand and produce generic expressions in the preschool years, but there are cross-linguistic differences in how generics are expressed. Three studies examined interpretation of generic noun phrases in 3- to 7-year-old child (N = 192) and adult speakers (N = 163) of Mandarin Chinese. Contrary to suggestions by A. Bloom (1981), Chinese-speaking adults honor a clear distinction between generics (expressed as bare NPs) and other quantified expressions (‘all’/suo3you3 and ‘some’/you3de). Furthermore, Mandarin-speaking children begin to distinguish generics from ‘all’ or ‘some’ as early as 5 years, as shown in both confirmation (Study 2) and property-generation (Study 3) tasks. Nonetheless, the developmental trajectory for Chinese appears prolonged relative to English and this seems to reflect difficulty with ‘all’ and ‘some’ rather than difficulty with generics. Altogether these results suggest that generics are primary, and that the consistency of markings affects the rate at which non-generic NPs are distinguished from generics.

Tardif, Twila; Gelman, Susan A.; Fu, Xiaolan; Zhu, Liqi

2013-01-01

456

Amplitude modulation of sexy phrases is salient for song attractiveness in female canaries (Serinus canaria).  

PubMed

Song discrimination and recognition in songbird species have usually been studied by measuring responses to song playbacks. In female canaries, Serinus canaria, copulation solicitation displays (CSDs) are used as an index of female preferences, which are related to song recognition. Despite the fact that many studies underline the role of song syntax in this species, we observed that short segments of songs (a few seconds long) are enough for females to discriminate between conspecific and heterospecific songs, whereas such a short duration is not sufficient to identify the syntax rules. This suggests that other cues are salient for song recognition. In this experiment, we investigated the influence of amplitude modulation (AM) on the responses (CSDs) of female canaries to song playbacks. We used two groups of females: (1) raised in acoustic isolation and (2) raised in normal conditions. When adult, we tested their preferences for sexy phrases with different AMs. We broadcast three types of stimuli: (1) songs with natural canary AM, (2) songs with AM removed, or (3) song with wren Troglodytes troglodytes AM. Results indicate that female canaries prefer and have predispositions for a song type with the natural canary AM. Thus, this acoustic parameter is a salient cue for song attractiveness. PMID:22476242

Pasteau, Magali; Ung, Davy; Kreutzer, Michel; Aubin, Thierry

2012-04-05

457

Corpus-Based Evaluation of Prosodic Phrase Break Prediction Using nltk_lite's Chunk Parser to Detect Prosodic Phrase Boundaries in the Aix-MARSEC Corpus of Spoken English1  

Microsoft Academic Search

An automatic phrase break prediction system aims to identify prosodic-syntactic boundaries in text which correspond to the way a native speaker might process or chunk that same text as speech. In computational linguistics, Machine Learning from hand-annotated corpus data has become the de-facto standard approach to text annotation problems such as prosodic annotation. This is treated as a classification task

Claire Brierley; Eric Atwell

458

Design Generation of the Central Asian Caravanserai: Use of a parametric shape grammar for the analysis of historic Islamic architecture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Challenges for the study of Islamic architecture include its abundance and diversity in expression and its classification based on distinct functional or stylistic types. We address these issues by presenting shape grammars as a methodology for the analysis and design generation of Islamic architecture, with a specific example in the form of a parametric shape grammar for central Asian caravanserais.

Sumbul Ahmad; Scott C. Chase

2004-01-01

459

Applying Conceptual Grammar to Advanced-Level Language Teaching: The Case of Two Completive Constructions in Korean  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article introduces conceptual grammar as an approach to the analysis and teaching of grammar in foreign and second language contexts through a combination of paradigms: corpus, discourse analysis, and cognitive linguistics. Although the approach is applicable to virtually any language and any construction within that language at various…

Strauss, Susan; Lee, Jihye; Ahn, Kyungja

2006-01-01

460

The Effects of Teaching a Difficult Grammatical Feature of English through Grammar Instruction and a Communicative Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The issue of the role of grammar instruction in L2 learning\\/teaching as opposed to a communicative approach is controversial. While communicative approaches have been greatly promoted in language teaching, research has suggested that grammar instruction can make a difference for L2 acquisition and speed the learning process for adult learners. The present study examines the effect of teaching the past

Chu-tai H. Lee; Chaochang Wang

461

Exploring the Outcomes of a Novel Computer-Assisted Treatment Program Targeting Expressive-Grammar Deficits in Preschoolers with SLI  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: The impact of a newly designed computer-assisted treatment ("C-AT") program, "My Sentence Builder", for the remediation of expressive-grammar deficits in children with specific language impairment (SLI) was explored. This program was specifically designed with features to directly address expressive-grammar difficulties, thought to be…

Washington, Karla N.; Warr-Leeper, Genese; Thomas-Stonell, Nancy

2011-01-01

462

Cooperative Learning as a Correction and Grammar Revision Technique: Communicative Exchanges, Self-Correction Rates and Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper focuses on cooperative learning (CL) used as a correction and grammar revision technique and considers the data collected in six Italian parallel classes, three of which (sample classes) corrected mistakes and revised grammar through cooperative learning, while the other three (control classes) in a traditional way. All the classes…

Servetti, Sara

2010-01-01

463

You Can Get the Grammar Needed for GCSE on to One Sheet of A4... But It Takes Two Years to Get Good at Using It  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this article, the author recommends a "starter kit" for teaching grammar. This kit uses an A4 sheet that allows students to express themselves correctly, removing the problem of "censoring grammar" and replacing it with an "enabling grammar." Using their "starter kit", pupils will enjoy being able to write extended paragraphs in a foreign…

Everett, Vincent

2005-01-01

464

Picture grammars in classification and semantic interpretation of 3D coronary vessels visualisations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The work presents the new opportunity for making semantic descriptions and analysis of medical structures, especially coronary vessels CT spatial reconstructions, with the use of AI graph-based linguistic formalisms. In the paper there will be discussed the manners of applying methods of computational intelligence to the development of a syntactic semantic description of spatial visualisations of the heart’s coronary vessels. Such descriptions may be used for both smart ordering of images while archiving them and for their semantic searches in medical multimedia databases. Presented methodology of analysis can furthermore be used for attaining other goals related performance of computer-assisted semantic interpretation of selected elements and/or the entire 3D structure of the coronary vascular tree. These goals are achieved through the use of graph-based image formalisms based on IE graphs generating grammars that allow discovering and automatic semantic interpretation of irregularities visualised on the images obtained during diagnostic examinations of the heart muscle. The basis for the construction of 3D reconstructions of biological objects used in this work are visualisations obtained from helical CT scans, yet the method itself may be applied also for other methods of medical 3D images acquisition. The obtained semantic information makes it possible to make a description of the structure focused on the semantics of various morphological forms of the visualised vessels from the point of view of the operation of coronary circulation and the blood supply of the heart muscle. Thanks to these, the analysis conducted allows fast and — to a great degree — automated interpretation of the semantics of various morphological changes in the coronary vascular tree, and especially makes it possible to detect these stenoses in the lumen of the vessels that can cause critical decrease in blood supply to extensive or especially important fragments of the heart muscle.

Ogiela, M. R.; Tadeusiewicz, R.; Trzupek, M.

2009-09-01

465

Interface problems: Structural constraints on interpretation?  

PubMed Central

Five experiments investigated the interpretation of quantified noun phrases in relation to discourse structure. They demonstrated, using questionnaire and on-line reading techniques, that readers in English prefer to give a quantified noun phrase in (VP-external) subject position a presuppositional interpretation, in which the noun phrase limits or restricts the interpretation of an already available set, rather than giving it a nonpresuppositional or existential interpretation, in which it introduces completely new entities into the discourse. Experiment 1 showed that readers prefer a presuppositional interpretation of three ships over the existential interpretation in Five ships appeared on the horizon. Three ships sank. Experiment 2 showed longer reading times in sentences that are disambiguated toward the existential interpretation than in sentences that permit the presuppositional interpretation. Experiment 3 suggested that the presuppositional preference is greater when the phrase three ships occurs outside the verb phrase than when it occurs inside the verb phrase. Experiment 4 showed that Korean subjects marked with a topic marker received more presuppositional interpretations than subjects marked with a nominative marker. Experiment 5 showed that German subjects in VP-external (but nontopic) position received more presuppositional interpretations than VP-internal subjects. The results suggest the syntactic position of a phrase is one determinant of its interpretation, as expected according to the mapping hypothesis of Diesing (1990).

Frazier, Lyn; Clifton, Charles; Rayner, Keith; Deevy, Patricia; Koh, Sungryong; Bader, Markus

2006-01-01

466

Abstract and concrete phrases processing differentially modulates cortico-spinal excitability.  

PubMed

An important challenge of embodied theories is to explain the comprehension of abstract sentences. The aim of the present study was to scrutinize the role of the motor cortex in this process. We developed a new paradigm to study the abstract-concrete dimension by combining concrete (i.e., action-related) and abstract (i.e., non-action-related) verbs with nouns of graspable and non-graspable objects. Using these verb-noun combinations we performed a Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) on the left primary motor cortex while participants performed a sentence sensibility task. Single-TMS pulses were delivered 250ms after verb or noun presentation in each of four combinations of abstract and concrete verbs and nouns. To evaluate cortico-spinal excitability we registered the electromyographic activity of the right first dorsal interosseous muscle. As to verb-noun integration, analysis of motor evoked potentials (MEPs) after TMS pulse during noun presentation revealed greater peak-to-peak amplitude in phrases containing abstract rather than concrete verbs. Response times were also collected and showed that compatible (Concrete-Concrete and Abstract-Abstract) combinations were processed faster than mixed ones; moreover in combinations containing concrete verbs, participants were faster when the pulse was delivered on the first word (verb) than on the second one (noun). Results support previous findings showing early activation of hand-related areas after concrete verbs processing. The prolonged or delayed activation of the same areas by abstract verbs will be discussed in the framework of recent embodied theories based on multiple types of representation, particularly theories emphasizing the role of different acquisition mechanisms for concrete and abstract words (Borghi and Cimatti, 2009,2012). PMID:23044471

Scorolli, Claudia; Jacquet, Pierre O; Binkofski, Ferdinand; Nicoletti, Roberto; Tessari, Alessia; Borghi, Anna M

2012-10-05

467

De-Infinitiv oder reiner Infinitiv im Franzoesischen. Ein Beispiel fuer die Verwertung von Ergebnissen der linguistischen Grammatik in einer didaktischen Grammatik. ("De-" Infinitive or Pure Infinitive in French. An Example of the Utilization of Findings of Linguistic Grammar in a Teaching Grammar).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Recommends the "distributional" and transformational grammar approach as especially suitable for developing a teaching grammar for dealing with the French simple infinitive and infinitive with "de". (IFS/WGA)|

Seelbach, Dieter

1978-01-01

468

From first words to grammar in children with focal brain injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of focal brain injury were investigated in the first stages of language development, during the passage from first words to grammar. Parent report, free?speech data, or both are reported for 53 infants and preschool children between 10 and 44 months of age. All children had suffered a single, unilateral brain injury to the left or right hemisphere, incurred

Elizabeth Bates; Donna Thal; Doris Trauner; Judi Fenson; Dorothy Aram; Julie Eisele; Ruth Nass

1997-01-01

469

Generation of Components for Software Renovation Factories from Context-Free Grammars  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an approach for the generation of components for a software renovation factory. These components are generated from a context-free grammar definitionthat recognizes the code that has to be renovated. We generate analy- sis and transformation components that can be instantiated with a specifictransformation or analysis task. We apply our approach to COBOL and we discuss the construction of

Mark Van Den Brand; M. P. A. Sellink; Chris Verhoef

1997-01-01

470

Computers-in-the-Curriculum Workshop. Computers and Tutors Together Help Third Graders Master Grammar.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

After evaluation, three software programs were chosen and used by fifth-grade pupils to tutor third graders in grammar rules. Setting up the tutoring programs, developing games for it, and describing the results are covered. Sources for the software packages are listed. (MT)

Casella, Vicki

1988-01-01

471

Editor in Chief[R] Beginning: Grammar Disasters and Punctuation Faux Pas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This workbook is designed as an introduction to the "Editor in Chief" series, which reinforces the rules of written English. In this workbook, student first review the rules of grammar and mechanics using multiple-choice questions; then the students learn to apply these rules in context by editing stories in a variety of formats. This "Beginning"…

Beckwith, Carrie; Block, Cheryl; Broz, Christine; Hockett, Margaret; White, David

472

Editor in Chief, Level C-1: Grammar Disasters and Punctuation Faux Pas. [Diskette.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Providing grade 8 to adult students with practice and reinforcement in editing for capitalization, grammar, spelling, vocabulary, usage, and content, this computer software program contains over 30 written accounts that have been sequenced from easier to more difficult. The program has 3 levels of play: beginning, intermediate, and advanced. At…

Baker, M.; Block, C.; Borla, L.; Dietrich, G.; Hockett, M.; Holly, Thad

473

Editor in Chief: Grammar Disasters and Punctuation Faux Pas. Book B-1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 33 activities in this book reinforce the rules of written English by providing students with practice in editing a variety of formats. The activities help students develop a basic understanding of the rules of grammar and mechanics (generally taught in grades 6-7) in context and exercise their critical thinking abilities by identifying content…

Baker, Michael; And Others

474

Editor in Chief, Level B-1: Grammar Disasters and Punctuation Faux Pas. [Diskette.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Providing students in grades 6-8 with practice and reinforcement in editing for capitalization, grammar, spelling, vocabulary, usage, and content, this computer software program contains over 30 written accounts that have been sequenced from easier to more difficult. The program has 3 levels of play: beginning, intermediate, and advanced. At each…

Baker, M.; Block, C.; Borla, L.; Dietrich, G.; Hockett, M.; Holly, Thad

475

Editor in Chief, Level A-1: Grammar Disasters and Punctuation Faux Pas. [Diskette.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Providing grades 4-6 students with practice and reinforcement in editing for capitalization, grammar, spelling, vocabulary, usage, and content, this computer software program contains over 30 written accounts that have been sequenced from easier to more difficult. The program has 3 levels of play: beginning, intermediate, and advanced. At each…

Baker, M.; Block, C.; Borla, L.; Dietrich, G.; Hockett, M.; Holly, Thad

476

Editor in Chief: Grammar Disasters and Punctuation Faux Pas. Book C-1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 33 activities in this book reinforce the rules of written English by providing students with practice in editing a variety of formats. The activities help students develop a basic understanding of the rules of grammar and mechanics (generally taught in grades 8 and up) in context and exercise their critical thinking abilities by identifying…

Baker, Michael; And Others

477

Editor in Chief: Grammar Disasters and Punctuation Faux Pas. Book A-1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 33 activities in this book reinforce the rules of written English by providing students with practice in editing a variety of formats. The activities help students develop a basic understanding of the rules of grammar and mechanics (generally taught in grades 4-5) in context and exercise their critical thinking abilities by identifying content…

Baker, Michael; And Others

478

The Effect of Event Repetition on the Production of Story Grammar in Children's Event Narratives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objective: This study examined the effect of event repetition on the amount and nature of story-grammar produced by children when recalling the event. Method: Children aged 4 years (N=50) and 7 years (N=56) participated in either 1 or 6 occurrences of a highly similar event where details varied across the occurrences. Half the children in each…

Feltis, Brooke B.; Powell, Martine B.; Roberts, Kim P.

2011-01-01

479

The Effect of Intellectual Disability on the Adherence of Child Witnesses to a "Story Grammar" Framework  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: This study examined the ability of 78 children (aged 9-12 years) with an intellectual disability (ID) to provide a narrative account of a staged event they had participated in four days earlier. Method: The children were interviewed using open-ended questions. The quality of their responses (using a story grammar framework) was…

Murfett, Romana; Powell, Martine B.; Snow, Pamela C.

2008-01-01

480

"No Study so Agreeable to the Youthful Mind": Geographical Education in the Georgian Grammar School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The conservativeness of Georgian grammar schools used to be emphasised; however, as the case of geography teaching shows, this picture is complex with the growth of British trade and empire and the requirements of polite society and culture fostering a demand for "modern" subjects. Drawing on work in the history of education, Georgian society and…

Elliott, Paul; Daniels, Stephen

2010-01-01

481

Using Conceptual Metaphor and Functional Grammar to Explore How Language Used in Physics Affects Student Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper introduces a theory about the role of language in learning physics. The theory is developed in the context of physics students and physicists talking and writing about the subject of quantum mechanics. We found that physicists' language encodes different varieties of analogical models through the use of grammar and conceptual metaphor.…

Brookes, David T.; Etkina, Eugenia

2007-01-01

482

A Novel Format for Teaching Spanish Grammar: Lessons from the Lecture Hall  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article describes a third-year Spanish grammar course that is taught in lecture/discussion format. The course, which enrolls over 150 students each semester, provides explicit instruction during a weekly lecture and opportunities for students to engage in meaningful output and interaction during small group discussion sessions. The goal is…

Zyzik, Eve

2008-01-01

483

Age and Uptake in TESL Training: Differing Responses to Declaratively- and Procedurally-Oriented Grammar Instruction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Thirty-six TESL trainees of three different age groups used classroom theory and practical experience to shape their own knowledge of English grammar. Participants completed a series of three grammatical explanation tasks over the course of two academic terms. Analysis of results revealed that the two groups of older trainees (23-34 years and…

Morris, Lori

2002-01-01

484

The Effect of Direct Instruction Model on Intermediate Class Achievement and Attitudes toward English Grammar  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was aimed at investigating the effect of the direct instruction model on intermediate class achievement and attitudes toward English grammar. It was an experimental study and the purpose was to explore the relative effectiveness of instructional methodology (independent variable) on students' achievement and attitude (dependent…

Kousar, Rubina

2010-01-01

485

Parsing Expression Grammar as a Primitive Recursive-Descent Parser with Backtracking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two recent developments in the fleld of formal languages are Parsing Expression Grammar (PEG) and packrat parsing. The PEG formalism is similar to BNF, but deflnes syntax in terms of recognizing strings, rather than constructing them. It is, in fact, precise speciflcation of a backtracking recursive- descent parser. Packrat parsing is a general method to handle backtracking in recursive-descent parsers.

Roman R. Redziejowski

2007-01-01

486

Linguistic Types and the Valence of Operators in Applicative Universal Grammar.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The relationship between linguistic types and the valence of operators on the genotype level of Applicative Universal Grammar (AUG) is examined. Assuming that the "t" and "s" types may be treated as zero-place operators, a relationship is found between the valence of an operator and its genotype, which explains the difference between types…

Sypniewski, Bernard Paul

487

Similarities and Differences: Post-Secondary (Grammar) Vocational Schools in Poland and Canadian Community Colleges  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article compares Polish post-secondary vocational (grammar) schools with Canadian community colleges. Recent changes in Polish schooling and Canadian government initiatives drive this work. Accessibility, governance and programs are discussed. The theoretical framework for this comparison was supplied by the notion of the school as an…

Butler, Norman L.; Davidson, Barry S.; Pachocinski, Ryszard; Kritsonis, William Allan

2006-01-01

488

The Effect of Computer Assisted Grammar Teaching on the Academic Success of Classroom Teacher Candidates  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study is to determine the effect of computer assisted grammar teaching on the academic success of classroom teacher candidates. The study group consists of 2nd grade students from Karadeniz Technical University Fatih, Faculty of Education, Department of Classroom Teaching in the educational year of 2010 to 2011. Experimental…

Eyup, Bircan

2012-01-01

489

Grammar as Style: A Better Approach to the Concept of Error.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Two areas of study in the composition field, grammar and style, have fallen below the critical and professional radar, left to the handbook writers, old-school theorists, and secondary educators. Though a few voices remain, their conspicuous absence in the scholarly journals and at professional conferences clearly suggests that the field has…

Edwards, David

490

The Effect of Computer Assisted Grammar Teaching on the Academic Success of Classroom Teacher Candidates  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The aim of this study is to determine the effect of computer assisted grammar teaching on the academic success of classroom teacher candidates. The study group consists of 2nd grade students from Karadeniz Technical University Fatih, Faculty of Education, Department of Classroom Teaching in the educational year of 2010 to 2011. Experimental…

Eyup, Bircan

2012-01-01

491

Grammars of Spoken English: New Outcomes of Corpus-Oriented Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews research that has been emerging from the availability of corpora on the grammar of spoken English. Presents arguments for the view that spoken and written language utilize the same basic grammatical repertoire, however different their implementations of it are. (Author/VWL)

Leech, Geoffrey

2000-01-01

492

Scheduling of outputs in grammar-based hardware synthesis of data communication protocols  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a grammar based specification method for hardware synthesis of data communication protocols in which the specification is independent of the port size. Instead, it is used during the synthesis process as a constraint. When the width of the output assignments exceed the chosen out-put port width, the assignments are split and scheduled over the available states. We present

Johnny Öberg; Anshul Kumar; Ahmed Hemani

1998-01-01

493

Visual Input Enhancement and Grammar Learning: A Meta-Analytic Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Effects of pedagogical interventions with visual input enhancement on grammar learning have been investigated by a number of researchers during the past decade and a half. The present review delineates this research domain via a systematic synthesis of 16 primary studies (comprising 20 unique study samples) retrieved through an exhaustive…

Lee, Sang-Ki; Huang, Hung-Tzu

2008-01-01

494

Scientific Revolution and the Grammar of Culture: The Case of Darwin's "Origin."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Addresses the question: If an intellectual change is truly fundamental, how can it be socially comprehensible? Claims that the question is particularly pressing in the case of Darwin's "Origin." Argues that the answer lies in an understanding of how scientific revolutions depend on continuity with an existent cultural grammar. (JD)

Campbell, John Angus

1986-01-01

495

Scientific revolution and the grammar of culture: The case of Darwin's origin  

Microsoft Academic Search

This essay addresses the question: If an intellectual change is truly fundamental, how can it be socially comprehensible? The question is particularly pressing in the case of Darwin's Origin, which popularized evolutionism within a ten year period. The answer, it is argued, lies in an understanding of how scientific revolutions depend on continuity with an existent cultural grammar.

John Angus Campbell

1986-01-01

496

Age-Related Effects on the Acquisition of Second Language Phonology and Grammar  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The current study set out to examine the age-related effects on ultimate attainment of second language (L2) phonology and grammar. The goals of the study are threefold: (1) to unravel the complexity of ultimate L2 attainment by surveying multiple contributing factors, (2) to explore the relative strength of the Age of Arrival (AOA) variable and…

Huang, Hsuan-hua Becky

2009-01-01

497

Grammar-based codes: A new class of universal lossless source codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate a type of lossless source code called a grammar based code, which, inresponse to any input data string x over a fixed finite alphabet, selects a context-freegrammar G x representing x in the sense that x is the unique string belonging to the languagegenerated by G x . Lossless compression of x takes place indirectly via compressionof the

John C. Kieffer; En-hui Yang

2000-01-01

498

Learners' Strategies with a Grammar Application: The Influence of Language Ability and Personality Preferences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This case study investigated the ways pre-major and pre-minor students of Spanish interacted with a grammar application from four perspectives. Firstly, using the computer's tracking ability to collect learners' behaviors, the study set out to uncover the different ways learners approached the application. Secondly, the study assessed the…

Hwu, Fenfang

2007-01-01

499

"The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly": Some Problems with Grammar Rules.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article questions the presentation of rules in the classroom and explores some of the different senses of the term "rule." After making some basic distinctions, the article considers implications for the classroom and suggests there is no single approach to the presentation of grammar rules, and that learners should be encouraged to express…

Forth, Ian; Naysmith, John

1995-01-01

500

The Grammar Crammer: How To Write Perfect Sentences. The Study Smart Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This grammar handbook emphasizes formal written usage, offering clues to help with comprehension. The seven sections discuss: (1) "Nouns" (e.g., most nouns can follow "the," and possessives can show more than possession); (2) "Pronouns" (e.g., pronouns come in small groups, and some pronouns defy logic); (3) "Verbs" (e.g., some plural subjects…

Kesselman-Turkel, Judi; Peterson, Franklynn