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Sample records for phrase structure grammar

  1. A Lexical Phrase Grammar for ESL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nattinger, James R.

    1980-01-01

    Lexical phrases such as deictic locutions, phrasal constraints, sentence builders, and situational utterances are examined using categories from artificial intelligence. It is argued that these and other types of patterned speech should be carefully organized and given a greater place in English as a Second Language curricula than at present. (PMJ)

  2. Phrase Structure, Possessives, and Definiteness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyons, Christopher

    Definiteness and indefiniteness are usually seen as essentially a matter of lexical semantics, in that whether a noun phrase (NP) is definite or indefinite depends on the choice of determiner. It may be more accurate to say that the position of the determiners within phrase structure configurations may correlate with the definite/indefinite…

  3. On directionality of phrase structure building.

    PubMed

    Chesi, Cristiano

    2015-02-01

    Minimalism in grammatical theorizing (Chomsky in The minimalist program. MIT Press, Cambridge, 1995) led to simpler linguistic devices and a better focalization of the core properties of the structure building engine: a lexicon and a free (recursive) phrase formation operation, dubbed Merge, are the basic components that serve in building syntactic structures. Here I suggest that by looking at the elementary restrictions that apply to Merge (i.e., selection and licensing of functional features), we could conclude that a re-orientation of the syntactic derivation (from bottom-up/right-left to top-down/left-right) is necessary to make the theory simpler, especially for long-distance (filler-gap) dependencies, and is also empirically more adequate. If the structure building operations would assemble lexical items in the order they are pronounced (Phillips in Order and structure. PhD thesis, MIT, 1996; Chesi in Phases and cartography in linguistic computation: Toward a cognitively motivated computational model of linguistic competence. PhD thesis, Università di Siena, 2004; Chesi in Competence and computation: Toward a processing friendly minimalist grammar. Unipress, Padova, 2012), on-line performance data could better fit the grammatical model, without resorting to external "performance factors." The phase-based, top-down (and, as a consequence, left-right) Minimalist Grammar here discussed goes in this direction, ultimately showing how strong Islands (Huang in Logical relations in Chinese and the theory of grammar. PhD thesis, MIT, 1982) and intervention effects (Gordon et al. in J Exp Psychol Learn Mem Cogn 27:1411-1423, 2001, Gordon et al. in J Mem Lang 51:97-114, 2004) could be better explained in structural terms assuming this unconventional derivational direction. PMID:25408515

  4. Structural Ambiguity in Montague Grammar and Categorial Grammar

    E-print Network

    Morrill, Glyn

    Structural Ambiguity in Montague Grammar and Categorial Grammar Glyn Morrill Departament de://www.lsi.upc.edu/~morrill/ Abstract We give a type logical categorial grammar for the syntax and semantics of Montague's seminal). Keywords: categorial grammar, displacement calculus, intensionality, modal categorial logic, Montague

  5. Can Intonational Phrase Structure Be Primed (Like Syntactic Structure)?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tooley, Kristen M.; Konopka, Agnieszka E.; Watson, Duane G.

    2014-01-01

    In 3 experiments, we investigated whether intonational phrase structure can be primed. In all experiments, participants listened to sentences in which the presence and location of intonational phrase boundaries were manipulated such that the recording included either no intonational phrase boundaries, a boundary in a structurally dispreferred…

  6. Gender and Heritage Spanish Bilingual Grammars: A Study of Code-Mixed Determiner Phrases and Copula Constructions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valenzuela, Elena; Faure, Ana; Ramirez-Trujillo, Alma P.; Barski, Ewelina; Pangtay, Yolanda; Diez, Adriana

    2012-01-01

    The study examined heritage speaker grammars and to what extent they diverge with respect to grammatical gender from adult L2 learners. Results from a preference task involving code-mixed Determiner Phrases (DPs) and code-mixed copula constructions show a difference between these two types of operations. Heritage speakers patterned with the…

  7. On Directionality of Phrase Structure Building

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chesi, Cristiano

    2015-01-01

    Minimalism in grammatical theorizing (Chomsky in "The minimalist program." MIT Press, Cambridge, 1995) led to simpler linguistic devices and a better focalization of the core properties of the structure building engine: a lexicon and a free (recursive) phrase formation operation, dubbed Merge, are the basic components that serve in…

  8. Can intonational phrase structure be primed (like syntactic structure)?

    PubMed

    Tooley, Kristen M; Konopka, Agnieszka E; Watson, Duane G

    2014-03-01

    In 3 experiments, we investigated whether intonational phrase structure can be primed. In all experiments, participants listened to sentences in which the presence and location of intonational phrase boundaries were manipulated such that the recording included either no intonational phrase boundaries, a boundary in a structurally dispreferred location, a boundary in a preferred location, or boundaries in both locations. In Experiment 1, participants repeated the sentences to test whether they would reproduce the prosodic structure they had just heard. Experiments 2 and 3 used a prime-target paradigm to evaluate whether the intonational phrase structure heard in the prime sentence might influence that of a novel target sentence. Experiment 1 showed that participants did repeat back sentences that they had just heard with the original intonational phrase structure, yet Experiments 2 and 3 found that exposure to intonational phrase boundaries on prime trials did not influence how a novel target sentence was prosodically phrased. These results suggest that speakers may retain the intonational phrasing of a sentence, but this effect is not long-lived and does not generalize across unrelated sentences. Furthermore, these findings provide no evidence that intonational phrase structure is formulated during a planning stage that is separate from other sources of linguistic information. PMID:24188467

  9. The Syntactic Structure of Chinese Nominal Phrases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Honglei

    2012-01-01

    The DP Hypothesis proposes that nominal phrases can be analyzed as consisting of Determiner Phrase (DP) on top of Noun Phrase (NP); however, there is a debate on whether this hypothesis works for all languages. Given that previous studies on Chinese leave this question unresolved, this dissertation investigates new empirical evidence to test…

  10. Portmanteau Constructions, Phrase Structure, and Linearization

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Brian Hok-Shing

    2015-01-01

    In bilingual code-switching which involves language-pairs with contrasting head-complement orders (i.e., head-initial vs. head-final), a head may be lexicalized from both languages with its complement sandwiched in the middle. These so-called “portmanteau” sentences (Nishimura, 1985, 1986; Sankoff et al., 1990, etc.) have been attested for decades, but they had never received a systematic, formal analysis in terms of current syntactic theory before a few recent attempts (Hicks, 2010, 2012). Notwithstanding this lack of attention, these structures are in fact highly relevant to theories of linearization and phrase structure. More specifically, they challenge binary-branching (Kayne, 1994, 2004, 2005) as well as the Antisymmetry hypothesis (ibid.). Not explained by current grammatical models of code-switching, including the Equivalence Constraint (Poplack, 1980), the Matrix Language Frame Model (Myers-Scotton, 1993, 2002, etc.), and the Bilingual Speech Model (Muysken, 2000, 2013), the portmanteau construction indeed looks uncommon or abnormal, defying any systematic account. However, the recurrence of these structures in various datasets and constraints on them do call for an explanation. This paper suggests an account which lies with syntax and also with the psycholinguistics of bilingualism. Assuming that linearization is a process at the Sensori-Motor (SM) interface (Chomsky, 2005, 2013), this paper sees that word order is not fixed in a syntactic tree but it is set in the production process, and much information of word order rests in the processor, for instance, outputting a head before its complement (i.e., head-initial word order) or the reverse (i.e., head-final word order). As for the portmanteau construction, it is the output of bilingual speakers co-activating two sets of head-complement orders which summon the phonetic forms of the same word in both languages. Under this proposal, the underlying structure of a portmanteau construction is as simple as an XP in which a head X merges with its complement YP and projects an XP (i.e., X YP ? [XP X YP]).

  11. STRUCTURE PRESERVING TRANSFORMATIONS ON NON-LEFT-RECURSIVE GRAMMARS

    E-print Network

    Theune, Mariët

    of the cases it is quite obvious to demand weak equivalence for these two grammars. Transformations on context semantic mapping. In case a context-free grammar G' covers a context-free grammar G we can use the originalSTRUCTURE PRESERVING TRANSFORMATIONS ON NON-LEFT-RECURSIVE GRAMMARS (preliminary version ) Anton

  12. Development and Validation of a Diagnostic Grammar Test for Japanese Learners of English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koizumi, Rie; Sakai, Hideki; Ido, Takahiro; Ota, Hiroshi; Hayama, Megumi; Sato, Masatoshi; Nemoto, Akiko

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on the development and validation of the English Diagnostic Test of Grammar (EDiT Grammar) for Japanese learners of English. From among the many aspects of grammar, this test focuses on the knowledge of basic English noun phrases (NPs), especially their internal structures, because previous research has indicated the…

  13. The Rate of Phrase Structure Change in the History of Yiddish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santorini, Beatrice

    1993-01-01

    Examines the rate of phrase structure change in Yiddish, using quantitative methods to estimate the rate of change of structurally ambiguous verb clauses. Four subcases of phrase structure change are distinguished, three of which provide strong evidence for the Constant Rate Hypothesis of linguistic change. (MDM)

  14. The Structure of Jarai Clauses and Noun Phrases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Joshua Martin

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation provides a syntactic account for the Jarai noun phrase and for the three regions of the Jarai clause: the operator domain, the inflectional domain, and the theta domain. Within the noun phrase, I argue that demonstrative-final word order involves phrasal movement of the demonstrative's complement into Spec,D, where it…

  15. Graph Grammar Induction on Structural Data for Visual Programming Keven Ates1

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Kang

    Graph Grammar Induction on Structural Data for Visual Programming Keven Ates1 , Jacek Kukluk2. The underlying theories of visual programming languages involve graph grammars. As graph grammars are usually, a technique for automatically constructing graph grammars--at least in part--is desirable. An induction method

  16. The grammar of visual narrative: Neural evidence for constituent structure in sequential image comprehension

    E-print Network

    Kuperberg, Gina

    The grammar of visual narrative: Neural evidence for constituent structure in sequential image September 2014 Keywords: Constituent structure Grammar Narrative Visual language Comics ERPs a b s t r a c syntax organizes words in sentences, a narrative grammar organizes sequential images into hierarchic

  17. The emergence of grammar: Systematic structure in a new language

    E-print Network

    Wintner, Shuly

    The emergence of grammar: Systematic structure in a new language Wendy Sandler*, Irit Meir , Carol Padden§ , and Mark Aronoff¶ *Department of English Language and Literature and Departments of Hebrew Language and Communication Disorders and Language Sciences, University of Haifa, 31905 Haifa, Israel

  18. A Task Grammar Approach to the Structure and Analysis of Robot Programs

    E-print Network

    Lyons, Damian M.

    A Task Grammar Approach to the Structure and Analysis of Robot Programs R.Vijaykumar y , S on Languages for Automation, Vienna, Austria, August 25,26th, 1987. #12; Task Grammar 1 A Task Grammar Approach of simpler tasks are sequencing, parallel execution and conditional execution. In each case, we

  19. An Endogeneous Corpus-Based Method for Structural Noun Phrase Disambiguation

    E-print Network

    in the Terminology Extraction Sotware LEXTER. We first explain why the integration of LEXTER in the LEXTER-K project is a Terminology Extraction Software (Bourigault, 1992a, 1992b). A corpus of French-language texts on any, by a structural analysis of the terminological noun phrases extracted by LEXTER; on the other hand, by an analysis

  20. Implicit Acquisition of Grammars with Crossed and Nested Non-Adjacent Dependencies: Investigating the Push-Down Stack Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Udden, Julia; Ingvar, Martin; Hagoort, Peter; Petersson, Karl M.

    2012-01-01

    A recent hypothesis in empirical brain research on language is that the fundamental difference between animal and human communication systems is captured by the distinction between finite-state and more complex phrase-structure grammars, such as context-free and context-sensitive grammars. However, the relevance of this distinction for the study…

  1. Lexical Functional Grammar Carol Neidle, Boston University

    E-print Network

    Marcolli, Matilde

    Lexical Functional Grammar Carol Neidle, Boston University The term Lexical Functional Grammar (LFG grammar and relational grammar in assuming a single level of syntactic structure. LFG rejects syntactic as fundamentally syntactic in nature, resulting, within transformational grammar, from syntactic movement

  2. Information Structure of Native English-Speaking ESOL Teachers in Grammar Explanations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malupa-Kim, Miralynn Faigao

    2011-01-01

    The Problem: The purpose of this study was to identify and analyze the information structure of native-English speaking (NES) ESOL teachers in giving explanations in a grammar class at an Intensive English Program (IEP) at a university in southern California Method: This mixed-method study employed a sequential-exploratory design. Six grammar

  3. (In)Flexibility of Constituency in Japanese in Multi-Modal Categorial Grammar with Structured Phonology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kubota, Yusuke

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation proposes a theory of categorial grammar called Multi-Modal Categorial Grammar with Structured Phonology. The central feature that distinguishes this theory from the majority of contemporary syntactic theories is that it decouples (without completely segregating) two aspects of syntax--hierarchical organization (reflecting…

  4. Automatic RNA secondary structure determination stochastic context-free grammars

    SciTech Connect

    Grate, L.

    1995-12-31

    We have developed a method for predicting the common secondary structure of large RNA multiple alignments using only the information in the alignment. It uses a series of progressively more sensitive searches of the data in an iterative manner to discover regions of base pairing; the first pass examines the entire multiple alignment. The searching uses two methods to find base pairings. Mutual information is used to measure covariation between pairs of columns in the multiple alignment and a minimum length encoding method is used to detect column pairs with high potential to base pair. Dynamic programming is used to recover the optimal tree made up of the best potential base pairs and to create a stochastic context-free grammar. The information in the tree guides the next iteration of searching. The method is similar to the traditional comparative sequence analysis technique. The method correctly identifies most of the common secondary structure in 16S and 23S rRNA.

  5. Syntactic Structure and Artificial Grammar Learning: The Learnability of Embedded Hierarchical Structures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Vries, Meinou H.; Monaghan, Padraic; Knecht, Stefan; Zwitserlood, Pienie

    2008-01-01

    Embedded hierarchical structures, such as "the rat the cat ate was brown", constitute a core generative property of a natural language theory. Several recent studies have reported learning of hierarchical embeddings in artificial grammar learning (AGL) tasks, and described the functional specificity of Broca's area for processing such structures.…

  6. On the structure of context-sensitive grammars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Book, R. V.

    1973-01-01

    Consideration of the problem of explaining the use of context in generating noncontext-free languages. A number of existing results regarding the constraints placed on the form of the rules (i.e., on the context) of context-sensitive grammars are reviewed and interpreted. Three types of constraints are considered - namely, constraints which do not restrict the weak generative capacity of the class of grammars (i.e., all the context-sensitive languages are generated by grammars with these constraints), constraints which restrict the weak generative capacity to the extent that all context-sensitive languages are not generated but some noncontext-free languages are generated, and constraints which restrict the weak generative capacity to such an extent that only context-free languages are generated.

  7. A PARSING ALGORITHM FOR UNIFICATION GRAMMAR Department of Computer Science

    E-print Network

    A PARSING ALGORITHM FOR UNIFICATION GRAMMAR AndrewHaas Department of Computer Science State grammar that combines bottom-up construction of phrases with top-down filtering. This algorithm works on a class of grammars called depth-bounded grammars, and it is guaranteed to halt for any input string

  8. Pfold: RNA secondary structure prediction using stochastic context-free grammars

    E-print Network

    Hein, Jotun

    Pfold: RNA secondary structure prediction using stochastic context-free grammars Bjarne Knudsen Building for Pathogen Research, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3SY, UK Received February 15, 2003; Revised and Accepted April 5, 2003 ABSTRACT RNA secondary structures are important in many biological processes

  9. Determiner Phrase and Definiteness in Old High German

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraiss, Andrew M.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the status of nominal functional categories in the Old High German (OHG) "Isidor" and "Tatian" translations and Otfrid's "Evangelienbuch" and the structure of the extended nominal group, including the Noun Phrase (NP) and the functional phrases Determiner Phrase (DP), Case Phrase (KP) and Number Phrase (NumP), which govern…

  10. The Evolution Of Phrase Structure In Bayesian Iterated Artificial Language Learning: A Linguistic System’s Evolution After The Emergence Of An Unbounded Combinatorial Capacity 

    E-print Network

    Saldana, Carmen

    2013-08-15

    of the actual system or the cognitive underpinnings that allow it? Using Bayesian Iterated Artificial Language Models, the present work will show the evolution of Phrase Structure through cultural transmission in populations of Bayesian learners from a trade...

  11. The Alsea Noun Phrase.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckley, Eugene

    1989-01-01

    The structure of the noun phrase (NP) in Alsea, an extinct language of the Oregon coast, is examined with particular attention to the behavior of a clitic occurring in second position within the NP. A presentation of the basic facts includes the following: referential(s) and the deictics, possessive pronouns, third-person possessive, the ergative,…

  12. A Reference Grammar of Spoken Kannada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schiffman, Harold

    This reference grammar is a description of the speech of educated people of the Bangalore/Mysore area of Karnataka State in South India. This particular dialect is used in films and, to some extent, on the radio. The four sections of the book deal with: (1) phonology, (2) the noun phrase, (3) the verb phrase, and (4) syntax. Each item that is…

  13. Case Grammar in Philippine Languages. Preliminary Draft.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Alan M.

    This paper presents evidence from Philippine languages which suggests a number of modifications in the theory of case grammar. Philippine languages and adjacent related languages mark the case relationship between the verb and one noun phrase in the sentence by a particle on the noun phrase and an affix on the verb, a phenomenon which in recent…

  14. Necessity of Grammar Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Jianyun

    2009-01-01

    Grammar is often misunderstood in the language teaching field. The misconception lies in the view that grammar is a collection of arbitrary rules about static structures in the language. Further questionable claims are that the structures do not have to be thought, learners will acquire them on their own, or if the structures are taught, the…

  15. Grammar for the People: Flowcharts of SHRDLU's Grammar

    E-print Network

    Rubin, Andee

    1973-03-01

    The grammar which SHRDLU uses to parse sentences is outlined in a series of flowcharts which attempt to modularize and illuminate its structure. In addition, a short discussion of systemic grammar is included.

  16. Deriving a probabilistic syntacto-semantic grammar for biomedicine based on domain-specific terminologies

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Jung-Wei; Friedman, Carol

    2011-01-01

    Biomedical natural language processing (BioNLP) is a useful technique that unlocks valuable information stored in textual data for practice and/or research. Syntactic parsing is a critical component of BioNLP applications that rely on correctly determining the sentence and phrase structure of free text. In addition to dealing with the vast amount of domain-specific terms, a robust biomedical parser needs to model the semantic grammar to obtain viable syntactic structures. With either a rule-based or corpus-based approach, the grammar engineering process requires substantial time and knowledge from experts, and does not always yield a semantically transferable grammar. To reduce the human effort and to promote semantic transferability, we propose an automated method for deriving a probabilistic grammar based on a training corpus consisting of concept strings and semantic classes from the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS), a comprehensive terminology resource widely used by the community. The grammar is designed to specify noun phrases only due to the nominal nature of the majority of biomedical terminological concepts. Evaluated on manually parsed clinical notes, the derived grammar achieved a recall of 0.644, precision of 0.737, and average cross-bracketing of 0.61, which demonstrated better performance than a control grammar with the semantic information removed. Error analysis revealed shortcomings that could be addressed to improve performance. The results indicated the feasibility of an approach which automatically incorporates terminology semantics in the building of an operational grammar. Although the current performance of the unsupervised solution does not adequately replace manual engineering, we believe once the performance issues are addressed, it could serve as an aide in a semi-supervised solution. PMID:21549857

  17. New Structural Patterns in Moribund Grammar: Case Marking in Heritage German.

    PubMed

    Yager, Lisa; Hellmold, Nora; Joo, Hyoun-A; Putnam, Michael T; Rossi, Eleonora; Stafford, Catherine; Salmons, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Research treats divergences between monolingual and heritage grammars in terms of performance-'L1 attrition,' e.g., lexical retrieval-or competence-'incomplete acquisition', e.g., lack of overt tense markers (e.g., Polinsky, 1995; Sorace, 2004; Montrul, 2008; Schmid, 2010). One classic difference between monolingual and Heritage German is reduction in morphological case in the latter, especially loss of dative marking. Our evidence from several Heritage German varieties suggests that speakers have not merely lost case, but rather developed innovative structures to mark it. More specifically, Heritage German speakers produce dative forms in line with established patterns of Differential Object Marking (Bossong, 1985, 1991; Aissen, 2003), suggesting a reallocated mapping of case. We take this as evidence for innovative reanalysis in heritage grammars (Putnam and Sánchez, 2013). Following Kamp and Reyle (1993) and Wechsler (2011, 2014), the dative adopts a more indexical discourse function, forging a tighter connection between morphosyntax and semantic properties. Moribund grammars deploy linguistic resources in novel ways, a finding which can help move us beyond simple narratives of 'attrition' and 'incomplete acquisition.' PMID:26635649

  18. New Structural Patterns in Moribund Grammar: Case Marking in Heritage German

    PubMed Central

    Yager, Lisa; Hellmold, Nora; Joo, Hyoun-A; Putnam, Michael T.; Rossi, Eleonora; Stafford, Catherine; Salmons, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Research treats divergences between monolingual and heritage grammars in terms of performance—‘L1 attrition,’ e.g., lexical retrieval—or competence—‘incomplete acquisition’, e.g., lack of overt tense markers (e.g., Polinsky, 1995; Sorace, 2004; Montrul, 2008; Schmid, 2010). One classic difference between monolingual and Heritage German is reduction in morphological case in the latter, especially loss of dative marking. Our evidence from several Heritage German varieties suggests that speakers have not merely lost case, but rather developed innovative structures to mark it. More specifically, Heritage German speakers produce dative forms in line with established patterns of Differential Object Marking (Bossong, 1985, 1991; Aissen, 2003), suggesting a reallocated mapping of case. We take this as evidence for innovative reanalysis in heritage grammars (Putnam and Sánchez, 2013). Following Kamp and Reyle (1993) and Wechsler (2011, 2014), the dative adopts a more indexical discourse function, forging a tighter connection between morphosyntax and semantic properties. Moribund grammars deploy linguistic resources in novel ways, a finding which can help move us beyond simple narratives of ‘attrition’ and ‘incomplete acquisition.’ PMID:26635649

  19. Teaching Grammar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, William J.

    2013-01-01

    Grammar is a component in all language skills: reading, writing, speaking, and listening. Teachers need to know rules of grammar (teacher knowledge) as well as techniques that help students use grammar effectively and effortlessly (teaching knowledge). Using reflective practice to help teachers become comfortable with teaching grammar, this…

  20. Unificational Combinatory Categorial Grammar: Combining Information Structure and Discourse Representations

    E-print Network

    are integrated in the compositional se- mantics, using Discourse Representation Theory as first-order semantic the potential to advance spoken dialogue systems. 1 Introduction The integration of information structure (the (Steedman, 1990). Moreover, CCG has a built-in theory of intonation and information structure (Steed- man

  1. When global structure "Explains Away" local grammar: a Bayesian account of rule-induction in tone sequences.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Colin; Gerken, Louann

    2011-09-01

    While many constraints on learning must be relatively experience-independent, past experience provides a rich source of guidance for subsequent learning. Discovering structure in some domain can inform a learner's future hypotheses about that domain. If a general property accounts for particular sub-patterns, a rational learner should not stipulate separate explanations for each detail without additional evidence, as the general structure has "explained away" the original evidence. In a grammar-learning experiment using tone sequences, manipulating learners' prior exposure to a tone environment affects their sensitivity to the grammar-defining feature, in this case consecutive repeated tones. Grammar-learning performance is worse if context melodies are "smooth" -- when small intervals occur more than large ones -- as Smoothness is a general property accounting for a high rate of repetition. We present an idealized Bayesian model as a "best case" benchmark for learning repetition grammars. When context melodies are Smooth, the model places greater weight on the small-interval constraint, and does not learn the repetition rule as well as when context melodies are not Smooth, paralleling the human learners. These findings support an account of abstract grammar-induction in which learners rationally assess the statistical evidence for underlying structure based on a generative model of the environment. PMID:21257161

  2. The grammar of visual narrative: Neural evidence for constituent structure in sequential image comprehension.

    PubMed

    Cohn, Neil; Jackendoff, Ray; Holcomb, Phillip J; Kuperberg, Gina R

    2014-09-18

    Constituent structure has long been established as a central feature of human language. Analogous to how syntax organizes words in sentences, a narrative grammar organizes sequential images into hierarchic constituents. Here we show that the brain draws upon this constituent structure to comprehend wordless visual narratives. We recorded neural responses as participants viewed sequences of visual images (comics strips) in which blank images either disrupted individual narrative constituents or fell at natural constituent boundaries. A disruption of either the first or the second narrative constituent produced a left-lateralized anterior negativity effect between 500 and 700ms. Disruption of the second constituent also elicited a posteriorly-distributed positivity (P600) effect. These neural responses are similar to those associated with structural violations in language and music. These findings provide evidence that comprehenders use a narrative structure to comprehend visual sequences and that the brain engages similar neurocognitive mechanisms to build structure across multiple domains. PMID:25241329

  3. Auditory Temporal Structure Processing in Dyslexia: Processing of Prosodic Phrase Boundaries Is Not Impaired in Children with Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geiser, Eveline; Kjelgaard, Margaret; Christodoulou, Joanna A.; Cyr, Abigail; Gabrieli, John D. E.

    2014-01-01

    Reading disability in children with dyslexia has been proposed to reflect impairment in auditory timing perception. We investigated one aspect of timing perception--"temporal grouping"--as present in prosodic phrase boundaries of natural speech, in age-matched groups of children, ages 6-8 years, with and without dyslexia. Prosodic phrase

  4. Hierarchical and linear sequence processing: an electrophysiological exploration of two different grammar types.

    PubMed

    Bahlmann, Jörg; Gunter, Thomas C; Friederici, Angela D

    2006-11-01

    The present study investigated the processing of two types of artificial grammars by means of event-related brain potentials. Two categories of meaningless CV syllables were applied in each grammar type. The two grammars differed with regard to the type of the underlying rule. The finite-state grammar (FSG) followed the rule (AB)n, thereby generating local transitions between As and Bs (e.g., n=2, ABAB). The phrase structure grammar (PSG) followed the rule AnBn, thereby generating center-embedded structures in which the first A and the last B embed the middle elements (e.g., n=2, [A[AB]B]). Two sequence lengths (n=2, n=4) were used. Violations of the structures were introduced at different positions of the syllable sequences. Early violations were situated at the beginning of a sequence, and late violations were placed at the end of a sequence. A posteriorly distributed early negativity elicited by violations was present only in FSG. This effect was interpreted as the possible reflection of a violated local expectancy. Moreover, both grammar-type violations elicited a late positivity. This positivity varied as a function of the violation position in PSG, but not in FSG. These findings suggest that the late positivity could reflect difficulty of integration in PSG sequences. PMID:17069474

  5. Grammar Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Kim

    2004-01-01

    The mere mention of a grammar lesson can set students' eyes rolling. The fun activities described in this article can turn those blank looks into smiles. Here, the author presents grammar games namely: (1) noun tennis; (2) the minister's cat; (3) kids take action; (4) what's my adverb?; (5) and then I saw...; and (6) grammar sing-along.

  6. Capitalization Cues Improve Dependency Grammar Induction Valentin I. Spitkovsky

    E-print Network

    Cortes, Corinna

    Capitalization Cues Improve Dependency Grammar Induction Valentin I. Spitkovsky Stanford University- and lower- case tokens tend to align with the boundaries of base (English) noun phrases. Such signals can be used as partial bracketing constraints to train a grammar inducer: in our experiments, directed

  7. Essentials of Gwari Grammar. Occasional Publication No. 27.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyman, Larry M.; Magaji, Daniel J.

    This book is intended as a practical introduction to the study of the Gwari language. Therefore, the descriptive analysis of the grammar of Gwari is made without recourse to technical language. The book is divided into 5 sections, dealing with: (1) phonology; (2) the noun phrase; (3) the verb phrase; (4) the sentence; and (5) vocabulary, in the…

  8. Comments on Skinner's grammar

    PubMed Central

    Mabry, John H.

    1993-01-01

    The strong tradition of “school room” grammars may have had a negative influence on the reception given a functional analysis of verbal behavior, both within and without the field of behavior analysis. Some of the failings of those traditional grammars, and their largely prescriptive nature were outlined through reference to other critics, and conflicting views. Skinner's own treatment of grammatical issues was presented, emphasizing his view of a functional unit and his use of the autoclitic and intraverbal functions to describe alternatives to a formal or structural analysis. Finally, the relevance of stimulus control variables to some recurring questions about verbal behavior and, specifically grammar, were mentioned. PMID:22477082

  9. Toward Plain Language: A Guide to Paraphrasing Complex Noun Phrases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Michael P.

    1994-01-01

    Claims that complex noun phrases in technical writing materials present major comprehension difficulties for a variety of readers. Establishes methods for paraphrasing complex noun phrases into shorter and simpler structures. Applies principles outlined to a short legal text. (HB)

  10. Data Structure Lower Bounds on Random Access to Grammar-Compressed Strings

    E-print Network

    Chen, Shiteng; Yu, Wei

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the problem of building a static data structure that represents a string s using space close to its compressed size, and allows fast access to individual characters of s. This type of structures was investigated by the recent paper of Bille et al. Let n be the size of a context-free grammar that derives a unique string s of length L. (Note that L might be exponential in n.) Bille et al. showed a data structure that uses space O(n) and allows to query for the i-th character of s using running time O(log L). Their data structure works on a word RAM with a word size of logL bits. Here we prove that for such data structures, if the space is poly(n), then the query time must be at least (log L)^{1-\\epsilon}/log S where S is the space used, for any constant eps>0. As a function of n, our lower bound is \\Omega(n^{1/2-\\epsilon}). Our proof holds in the cell-probe model with a word size of log L bits, so in particular it holds in the word RAM model. We show that no lower bound significantl...

  11. Knowing Chinese character grammar.

    PubMed

    Myers, James

    2016-02-01

    Chinese character structure has often been described as representing a kind of grammar, but the notion of character grammar has hardly been explored. Patterns in character element reduplication are particularly grammar-like, displaying discrete combinatoriality, binarity, phonology-like final prominence, and potentially the need for symbolic rules (X?XX). To test knowledge of these patterns, Chinese readers were asked to judge the acceptability of fake characters varying both in grammaticality (obeying or violating reduplication constraints) and in lexicality (of the reduplicative configurations). While lexical knowledge was important (lexicality improved acceptability and grammatical configurations were accepted more quickly when also lexical), grammatical knowledge was important as well, with grammaticality improving acceptability equally for lexical and nonlexical configurations. Acceptability was also higher for more frequent reduplicative elements, suggesting that the reduplicative configurations were decomposed. Chinese characters present an as-yet untapped resource for exploring fundamental questions about the nature of the human capacity for grammar. PMID:26684059

  12. Mungbam Grammar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lovegren, Jesse Stuart James

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation is an attempt to state what is known at present about the grammar of Mungbam (ISO 693-3 [mij]). Mungbam is a Niger-Congo language spoken in the Northwest Region of Cameroon. The dissertation is a descriptive grammar, covering the phonetics, phonology morphology and syntax of the language. Source data are texts and elicited data…

  13. Adaptation to aphasia: grammar, prosody and interaction.

    PubMed

    Rhys, Catrin S; Ulbrich, Christiane; Ordin, Mikhail

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates recurrent use of the phrase very good by a speaker with non-fluent agrammatic aphasia. Informal observation of the speaker's interaction reveals that she appears to be an effective conversational partner despite very severe word retrieval difficulties that result in extensive reliance on variants of the phrase very good. The question that this paper addresses using an essentially conversation analytic framework is: What is the speaker achieving through these variants of very good and what are the linguistic and interactional resources that she draws on to achieve these communicative effects? Tokens of very good in the corpus were first analyzed in a bottom-up fashion, attending to sequential position, structure and participant orientation. This revealed distinct uses that were subsequently subjected to detailed acoustic analysis in order to investigate specific prosodic characteristics within and across the interactional variants. We identified specific clusters of prosodic cues that were exploited by the speaker to differentiate interactional uses of very good. The analysis thus shows how, in the adaptation to aphasia, the speaker exploits the rich interface between prosody, grammar and interaction both to manage the interactional demands of conversation and to communicate propositional content. PMID:23237417

  14. Drama Grammar: Towards a Performative Postmethod Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Even, Susanne

    2011-01-01

    This article presents the original concept of drama grammar, the synthesis of grammar instruction and drama pedagogy, which integrates both structural and communicative paradigms through a dialectic combination of acting and linguistic analysis. Based on the principles of drama pedagogy, drama grammar makes use of techniques from the performing…

  15. Creative Grammar and Art Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunliffe, Leslie

    2011-01-01

    The grammar of creative practices is described by George Steiner as the "articulate organisation of perception, reflection and experience, the nerve structure of consciousness when it communicates with itself and with others." Steiner's description of creative grammar is consistent with Lev Vygotsky's comment that "art is the social within us, and…

  16. The Role of Grammar Teaching in Writing in Second Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Li-Li

    2008-01-01

    "Grammar is the sound, structure, and meaning system of language. All languages have grammar, and each language has its own grammar" (Beverly, 2007, p.1). People who speak the same language are able to communicate with each other because they all know the grammar system and structure of that language, that is, the meaningful rules of grammar.…

  17. On the Factor Structure of the Grammar Section of University of Tehran English Proficiency Test (UTEPT)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salehi, Mohammad; Rezaee, Abbas Ali

    2009-01-01

    The study was conducted with 3,385 participants who took an English language proficiency test as a partial requirement for entering a PhD program in different fields of education. This test has three sections which are grammar, vocabulary and reading comprehension. To determine the construct validity of the test, a series of analyses were done.…

  18. Optimal Recurrence Grammars

    E-print Network

    Graben, Peter beim; Fröhlich, Flavio

    2015-01-01

    We optimally estimate the recurrence structure of a multivariate time series by Markov chains obtained from recurrence grammars. The goodness of fit is assessed with a utility function derived from the stochastic Markov transition matrix. It assumes a local maximum for the distance threshold of the optimal recurrence grammar. We validate our approach by means of the nonlinear Lorenz system and its linearized stochastic surrogates. Finally we apply our optimization procedure to the segmentation of neurophysiological time series obtained from anesthetized animals. We propose the number of optimal recurrence domains as a statistic for classifying an animals' state of consciousness.

  19. Mining Quality Phrases from Massive Text Corpora

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jialu; Shang, Jingbo; Wang, Chi; Ren, Xiang; Han, Jiawei

    2015-01-01

    Text data are ubiquitous and play an essential role in big data applications. However, text data are mostly unstructured. Transforming unstructured text into structured units (e.g., semantically meaningful phrases) will substantially reduce semantic ambiguity and enhance the power and efficiency at manipulating such data using database technology. Thus mining quality phrases is a critical research problem in the field of databases. In this paper, we propose a new framework that extracts quality phrases from text corpora integrated with phrasal segmentation. The framework requires only limited training but the quality of phrases so generated is close to human judgment. Moreover, the method is scalable: both computation time and required space grow linearly as corpus size increases. Our experiments on large text corpora demonstrate the quality and efficiency of the new method. PMID:26705375

  20. THAI, REFERENCE GRAMMAR.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NOSS, RICHARD B.

    A REFERENCE GRAMMAR FOR THE THAI LANGUAGE IS PROVIDED. THE MAIN STRUCTURAL FEATURES OF STANDARD SPOKEN THAI ARE OUTLINED AND ELABORATED BY SUBCLASSIFICATION AND EXAMPLE. IN ADDITION, AN INDEX OF MINOR FORM-CLASS MEMBERS IS PROVIDED. THE APPROACH TO CLASSIFICATION OF GRAMMATICAL FEATURES FOLLOWS CURRENT TECHNIQUES OF AMERICAN DESCRIPTIVE…

  1. Searching the ASRS Database Using QUORUM Keyword Search, Phrase Search, Phrase Generation, and Phrase Discovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGreevy, Michael W.; Connors, Mary M. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    To support Search Requests and Quick Responses at the Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS), four new QUORUM methods have been developed: keyword search, phrase search, phrase generation, and phrase discovery. These methods build upon the core QUORUM methods of text analysis, modeling, and relevance-ranking. QUORUM keyword search retrieves ASRS incident narratives that contain one or more user-specified keywords in typical or selected contexts, and ranks the narratives on their relevance to the keywords in context. QUORUM phrase search retrieves narratives that contain one or more user-specified phrases, and ranks the narratives on their relevance to the phrases. QUORUM phrase generation produces a list of phrases from the ASRS database that contain a user-specified word or phrase. QUORUM phrase discovery finds phrases that are related to topics of interest. Phrase generation and phrase discovery are particularly useful for finding query phrases for input to QUORUM phrase search. The presentation of the new QUORUM methods includes: a brief review of the underlying core QUORUM methods; an overview of the new methods; numerous, concrete examples of ASRS database searches using the new methods; discussion of related methods; and, in the appendices, detailed descriptions of the new methods.

  2. Processing Elided Verb Phrases with Flawed Antecedents: the Recycling Hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Arregui, Ana; Clifton, Charles; Frazier, Lyn; Moulton, Keir

    2006-01-01

    Traditional syntactic accounts of verb phrase ellipsis (e.g. “Jason laughed. Sam did [ ] too.”) categorize as ungrammatical many sentences that language users find acceptable (they “undergenerate”); semantic accounts overgenerate. We propose that a processing theory, together with a syntactic account, does a better job of describing and explaining the data on verb phrase-ellipsis. Five acceptability judgment experiments supported a “VP recycling hypothesis,” which claims that when a syntactically-matching antecedent is not available, the listener/reader creates one using the materials at hand. Experiments 1 and 2 used verb phrase ellipsis sentences with antecedents ranging from perfect (a verb phrase in matrix verb phrase position) to impossible (a verb phrase containing only a deverbal word). Experiments 3 and 4 contrasted antecedents in verbal versus nominal gerund subjects. Experiment 5 explored the possibility that speakers are particularly likely to go beyond the grammar and produce elided constituents without perfect matching antecedents when the antecedent needed is less marked than the antecedent actually produced. This experiment contrasted active (unmarked) and passive antecedents to show that readers seem to honor such a tendency. PMID:17710192

  3. Dissociating neural subsystems for grammar by contrasting word order and inflection

    E-print Network

    Makous, Walter

    Dissociating neural subsystems for grammar by contrasting word order and inflection Aaron J.Alternatively,thefactthatthe grammars of different languages encode information in different ways may place different processing demands.g., in German, suffixes are added to words within the noun phrase to mark the noun's"case" or role

  4. Grammar Myths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Roger

    2015-01-01

    This paper looks at the continued survival of "myths" about English grammar, for example, the statement that in negative and interrogative sentences "any" should be used instead of "some". It is based on a survey of 195 Hong Kong students majoring in English, in five different cohorts, which found that such myths are…

  5. The Neurophysiology of Language Processing Shapes the Evolution of Grammar: Evidence from Case Marking

    PubMed Central

    Bickel, Balthasar; Witzlack-Makarevich, Alena; Choudhary, Kamal K.; Schlesewsky, Matthias; Bornkessel-Schlesewsky, Ina

    2015-01-01

    Do principles of language processing in the brain affect the way grammar evolves over time or is language change just a matter of socio-historical contingency? While the balance of evidence has been ambiguous and controversial, we identify here a neurophysiological constraint on the processing of language that has a systematic effect on the evolution of how noun phrases are marked by case (i.e. by such contrasts as between the English base form she and the object form her). In neurophysiological experiments across diverse languages we found that during processing, participants initially interpret the first base-form noun phrase they hear (e.g. she…) as an agent (which would fit a continuation like … greeted him), even when the sentence later requires the interpretation of a patient role (as in … was greeted). We show that this processing principle is also operative in Hindi, a language where initial base-form noun phrases most commonly denote patients because many agents receive a special case marker ("ergative") and are often left out in discourse. This finding suggests that the principle is species-wide and independent of the structural affordances of specific languages. As such, the principle favors the development and maintenance of case-marking systems that equate base-form cases with agents rather than with patients. We confirm this evolutionary bias by statistical analyses of phylogenetic signals in over 600 languages worldwide, controlling for confounding effects from language contact. Our findings suggest that at least one core property of grammar systematically adapts in its evolution to the neurophysiological conditions of the brain, independently of socio-historical factors. This opens up new avenues for understanding how specific properties of grammar have developed in tight interaction with the biological evolution of our species. PMID:26267884

  6. The neurophysiology of language processing shapes the evolution of grammar: evidence from case marking.

    PubMed

    Bickel, Balthasar; Witzlack-Makarevich, Alena; Choudhary, Kamal K; Schlesewsky, Matthias; Bornkessel-Schlesewsky, Ina

    2015-01-01

    Do principles of language processing in the brain affect the way grammar evolves over time or is language change just a matter of socio-historical contingency? While the balance of evidence has been ambiguous and controversial, we identify here a neurophysiological constraint on the processing of language that has a systematic effect on the evolution of how noun phrases are marked by case (i.e. by such contrasts as between the English base form she and the object form her). In neurophysiological experiments across diverse languages we found that during processing, participants initially interpret the first base-form noun phrase they hear (e.g. she…) as an agent (which would fit a continuation like … greeted him), even when the sentence later requires the interpretation of a patient role (as in … was greeted). We show that this processing principle is also operative in Hindi, a language where initial base-form noun phrases most commonly denote patients because many agents receive a special case marker ("ergative") and are often left out in discourse. This finding suggests that the principle is species-wide and independent of the structural affordances of specific languages. As such, the principle favors the development and maintenance of case-marking systems that equate base-form cases with agents rather than with patients. We confirm this evolutionary bias by statistical analyses of phylogenetic signals in over 600 languages worldwide, controlling for confounding effects from language contact. Our findings suggest that at least one core property of grammar systematically adapts in its evolution to the neurophysiological conditions of the brain, independently of socio-historical factors. This opens up new avenues for understanding how specific properties of grammar have developed in tight interaction with the biological evolution of our species. PMID:26267884

  7. Parsing Key Word Grammars

    E-print Network

    Martin, William

    1969-03-01

    Key word grammars are defined to be the same as context free grammars, except that a production may specify a string of arbitrary symbols. These grammars define languages similar to those used in the programs CARPS and ...

  8. Intonational Phrase Structure Processing at Different Stages of Syntax Acquisition: ERP Studies in 2-, 3-, and 6-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mannel, Claudia; Friederici, Angela D.

    2011-01-01

    This study explored the electrophysiology underlying intonational phrase processing at different stages of syntax acquisition. Developmental studies suggest that children's syntactic skills advance significantly between 2 and 3 years of age. Here, children of three age groups were tested on phrase-level prosodic processing before and after this…

  9. Book Reviews Japanese Phrase Structure Grammar: A Unification-Based Approach be known; and finally, that it should be kept alive in

    E-print Network

    of the category D to unify with the category H; and a SUBCAT feature principle (SFP), which ensures-marked categories as its value, and the SFP states that in complementation, the value of the mother's SUBCAT

  10. Language Switching in the Production of Phrases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarlowski, Andrzej; Wodniecka, Zofia; Marzecova, Anna

    2013-01-01

    The language switching task has provided a useful insight into how bilinguals produce language. So far, however, the studies using this method have been limited to lexical access. The present study provides empirical evidence on language switching in the production of simple grammar structures. In the reported experiment, Polish-English unbalanced…

  11. Constraining Multiple Grammars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopp, Holger

    2014-01-01

    This article offers the author's commentary on the Multiple Grammars (MG) language acquisition theory proposed by Luiz Amaral and Tom Roeper in the present issue. Multiple Grammars advances the claim that optionality is a constitutive characteristic of any one grammar, with interlanguage grammars being perhaps the clearest examples of a…

  12. Acquisition of the noun category: Exploring syntactic priming of noun phrase structure in young children and adults using novel and familiar noun prime stimuli. 

    E-print Network

    Dalgleish, Gwen

    2008-06-27

    Objectives. The purpose of this study was to further investigate the nature of young children’s syntactic representations. More specifically, this study was interested in examining syntactic priming for noun phrase ...

  13. Basic Grammar and Freshman Composition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kearns, Michael S.

    If college freshmen know something about syntax, have practiced combining and breaking down sentences, and have learned to think in terms of deep structures and surface structures, they may be better able to understand and relieve the discomfort caused by a garbled key sentence structure. Grammar instruction in freshman composition provides a…

  14. Grammar as a Programming Language. Artificial Intelligence Memo 391.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, Neil

    Student projects that involve writing generative grammars in the computer language, "LOGO," are described in this paper, which presents a grammar-running control structure that allows students to modify and improve the grammar interpreter itself while learning how a simple kind of computer parser works. Included are procedures for programing a…

  15. OPTIMIZING THE COMPUTATIONAL LEXICALIZATION OF LARGE GRAMMARS

    E-print Network

    , computational anchoring concerns any of the lexical items found in a rule and is only motivated by the quality rules "Nmetalalloy" will be activated when encountering the word "alloy" in the input. In this paper, we Structure Grammar (Pollard and Sag, 1987) or Lexicalized Context-Free Grammar (Schabes and Waters, 1993

  16. English-Mongolian Phrase Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amraa, J.; Nadya, S.

    The phrase book is intended for use by Peace Corps workers in Mongolia, and reflects daily communication needs in that context. Phrases and vocabulary are presented first in English, then in Mongolian translation (in Cyrillic alphabet), on the following topics: greetings and introductions; discussing work; expressing thanks and congratulations;…

  17. Van Wijngaarden grammars, metamorphism and K-ary malwares

    E-print Network

    Gueguen, Geoffroy

    2010-01-01

    Grammars are used to describe sentences structure, thanks to some sets of rules, which depends on the grammar type. A classification of grammars has been made by Noam Chomsky, which led to four well-known types. Yet, there are other types of grammars, which do not exactly fit in Chomsky's classification, such as the two-level grammars. As their name suggests it, the main idea behind these grammars is that they are composed of two grammars. Van Wijngaarden grammars, particularly, are such grammars. They are interesting by their power (expressiveness), which can be the same, under some hypotheses, as the most powerful grammars of Chomsky's classification, i.e. Type 0 grammars. Another point of interest is their relative conciseness and readability. Van Wijngaarden grammars can describe static and dynamic semantic of a language. So, by using them as a generative engine, it is possible to generate a possibly infinite set of words, while assuring us that they all have the same semantic. Moreover, they can describe...

  18. Syntactic Functions in Functional Discourse Grammar and Role and Reference Grammar: An Evaluative Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Christopher S.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to compare the treatment of syntactic functions, and more particularly those traditionally labelled as Subject and Object, in Functional Discourse Grammar and Role and Reference Grammar. Relevant aspects of the overall structure of the two theories are briefly described. The concept of alignment between levels of the…

  19. Associative Grammar Combination Operators for Tree-Based Grammars

    E-print Network

    Wintner, Shuly

    Associative Grammar Combination Operators for Tree-Based Grammars Yael Sygal Department of Computer University of Haifa, Israel shuly@cs.haifa.ac.il Abstract Polarized unification grammar (PUG) is a linguistic formalism which uses polarities to better control the way grammar fragments interact. The grammar

  20. On the Formal Componential Structure of the Transformational-Generative Model of Grammar.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brew, P. J.

    1970-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship that exists between the syntactic and phonological components of the transformational-generative model insofar as their formal structures are concerned. It is demonstrated that the number and importance of the structural similarities between the syntax and the phonology make it necessary to provide for them in…

  1. Extracting noun phrases for all of MEDLINE.

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, N. A.; He, Q.; Powell, K.; Schatz, B. R.

    1999-01-01

    A natural language parser that could extract noun phrases for all medical texts would be of great utility in analyzing content for information retrieval. We discuss the extraction of noun phrases from MEDLINE, using a general parser not tuned specifically for any medical domain. The noun phrase extractor is made up of three modules: tokenization; part-of-speech tagging; noun phrase identification. Using our program, we extracted noun phrases from the entire MEDLINE collection, encompassing 9.3 million abstracts. Over 270 million noun phrases were generated, of which 45 million were unique. The quality of these phrases was evaluated by examining all phrases from a sample collection of abstracts. The precision and recall of the phrases from our general parser compared favorably with those from three other parsers we had previously evaluated. We are continuing to improve our parser and evaluate our claim that a generic parser can effectively extract all the different phrases across the entire medical literature. PMID:10566444

  2. CONTEXT FREE GRAMMAR presented by

    E-print Network

    Dragan, Feodor F.

    2/17/2015 1 CONTEXT FREE GRAMMAR · presented by Mahender reddy · What is Context Free Grammar? · Why we are using Context Free Grammar? · Applications of Context free Grammar. #12;2/17/2015 2 Definition of CFG:Definition of CFG:Definition of CFG:Definition of CFG: A Context free grammar is 4-tuple G

  3. CONTEXT FREE GRAMMAR presented by

    E-print Network

    Dragan, Feodor F.

    CONTEXT FREE GRAMMAR · presented by Mahender reddy #12;· What is Context Free Grammar? · Why we are using Context Free Grammar? · Applications of Context free Grammar. #12;Definition of CFG: A Context free grammar is 4-tuple G=(V, T, P, S) where, · V= set of variables or non-terminals. · T= set

  4. The Accessibility of Universal Grammar in the Acquisition of Structure-Dependency in Persian Learners of English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadeghi, Sima

    2006-01-01

    To what extent does Universal Grammar (UG) constrain second language (L2) acquisition? This is not only an empirical question, but one which is currently investigable. In this context, L2 acquisition is emerging as an important new domain of psycholinguistic research. Three logical possibilities have been articulated regarding the role of UG in L2…

  5. Vocabulary and Grammar Knowledge in Second Language Reading Comprehension: A Structural Equation Modeling Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Dongbo

    2012-01-01

    Using structural equation modeling analysis, this study examined the contribution of vocabulary and grammatical knowledge to second language reading comprehension among 190 advanced Chinese English as a foreign language learners. Vocabulary knowledge was measured in both breadth (Vocabulary Levels Test) and depth (Word Associates Test);…

  6. Is Grammar Spared in Autism Spectrum Disorder? Data from Judgments of Verb Argument Structure Overgeneralization Errors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ambridge, Ben; Bannard, Colin; Jackson, Georgina H.

    2015-01-01

    Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) aged 11-13 (N = 16) and an IQ-matched typically developing (TD) group aged 7-12 (N = 16) completed a graded grammaticality judgment task, as well as a standardized test of cognitive function. In a departure from previous studies, the judgment task involved verb argument structure overgeneralization…

  7. Tree-bank grammars

    SciTech Connect

    Charniak, E.

    1996-12-31

    By a {open_quotes}tree-bank grammar{close_quotes} we mean a context-free grammar created by reading the production rules directly from hand-parsed sentences in a tree bank. Common wisdom has it that such grammars do not perform well, though we know of no published data on the issue. The primary purpose of this paper is to show that the common wisdom is wrong. In particular, we present results on a tree-bank grammar based on the Penn Wall Street Journal tree bank. To the best of our knowledge, this grammar outperforms all other non-word-based statistical parsers/grammars on this corpus. That is, it outperforms parsers that consider the input as a string of tags and ignore the actual words of the corpus.

  8. Mapping text with phrase nets.

    PubMed

    van Ham, Frank; Wattenberg, Martin; Viégas, Fernanda B

    2009-01-01

    We present a new technique, the phrase net, for generating visual overviews of unstructured text. A phrase net displays a graph whose nodes are words and whose edges indicate that two words are linked by a user-specified relation. These relations may be defined either at the syntactic or lexical level; different relations often produce very different perspectives on the same text. Taken together, these perspectives often provide an illuminating visual overview of the key concepts and relations in a document or set of documents. PMID:19834186

  9. Is Grammar Spared in Autism Spectrum Disorder? Data from Judgments of Verb Argument Structure Overgeneralization Errors.

    PubMed

    Ambridge, Ben; Bannard, Colin; Jackson, Georgina H

    2015-10-01

    Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) aged 11-13 (N = 16) and an IQ-matched typically developing (TD) group aged 7-12 (N = 16) completed a graded grammaticality judgment task, as well as a standardized test of cognitive function. In a departure from previous studies, the judgment task involved verb argument structure overgeneralization errors (e.g., *Lisa fell the cup off the shelf) of the type sometimes observed amongst typically developing children, as well as grammatical control sentences with the same verbs (e.g., The cup fell off the shelf). The ASD group showed a smaller dispreference for ungrammatical sentences (relative to the control sentences) than did the TD group. These findings are indicative of a subtle grammatical impairment in even relatively high-functioning children with ASD. PMID:26048042

  10. Grammar as a Programming Language

    E-print Network

    Rowe, Neil

    1976-10-01

    This paper discusses some student projects involving generative grammars. While grammars are usually associated with linguisitics, their usefuleness goes far beyond just "language" to make different domains. Their ...

  11. Parallel parsing of tree adjoining grammars on the connection machine

    SciTech Connect

    Palis, M.A. ); Wei, D.S.L. )

    1992-02-01

    This paper describes a parsing algorithm for Tree Adjoining Grammar (TAG) and its parallel implementation on the Connection Machine. TAG is a formalism for natural language that employs trees as the basic grammar structures. Parsing involves the application of two operations, called adjunction and substitution, to produce derived tree structures. Sequential parsing algorithms for TAGs run in time quadratic in the grammer size, which is impractical for the very large grammars currently being developed for natural language. This paper presents two parallel algorithms, one running in time nearly linear in the grammar size, and the other running in time logarithmic in the grammar size. Both parallel algorithms were implemented on a Connection Machine CM-2 and performance measurements were obtained for varying grammar sizes.

  12. Advanced Research in Artificial Intelligence98 DERIVATION OF CONTEXT-FREE STOCHASTIC L-GRAMMAR RULES

    E-print Network

    Fernandez, Thomas

    -grammars are a special class of parallel grammars that can model the growth of living organisms, e.g. plant development% accuracy [Ranawana and Palade, 2005], however they do not provide any insight on the internal structure

  13. Phrase versus Phase: Family Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrara, Margaret M.

    2011-01-01

    Parents and their roles in schools, public or private, often become the bed of heated discussions. "Parent involvement" is yesterday's buzz word; today, it is "family involvement." The phrase "parent involvement" connotes an image of parents being involved in their children's education. Family involvement is a more encompassing concept, embracing…

  14. Graph Grammars, Insertion Lie Algebras, and Quantum Field Theory

    E-print Network

    Matilde Marcolli; Alexander Port

    2015-02-27

    Graph grammars extend the theory of formal languages in order to model distributed parallelism in theoretical computer science. We show here that to certain classes of context-free and context-sensitive graph grammars one can associate a Lie algebra, whose structure is reminiscent of the insertion Lie algebras of quantum field theory. We also show that the Feynman graphs of quantum field theories are graph languages generated by a theory dependent graph grammar.

  15. The minimalist grammar of action

    PubMed Central

    Pastra, Katerina; Aloimonos, Yiannis

    2012-01-01

    Language and action have been found to share a common neural basis and in particular a common ‘syntax’, an analogous hierarchical and compositional organization. While language structure analysis has led to the formulation of different grammatical formalisms and associated discriminative or generative computational models, the structure of action is still elusive and so are the related computational models. However, structuring action has important implications on action learning and generalization, in both human cognition research and computation. In this study, we present a biologically inspired generative grammar of action, which employs the structure-building operations and principles of Chomsky's Minimalist Programme as a reference model. In this grammar, action terminals combine hierarchically into temporal sequences of actions of increasing complexity; the actions are bound with the involved tools and affected objects and are governed by certain goals. We show, how the tool role and the affected-object role of an entity within an action drives the derivation of the action syntax in this grammar and controls recursion, merge and move, the latter being mechanisms that manifest themselves not only in human language, but in human action too. PMID:22106430

  16. A Grammar of Belep

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCracken, Chelsea Leigh

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation is a description of the grammar of Belep [yly], an Austronesian language variety spoken by about 1600 people in and around the Belep Isles in New Caledonia. The grammar begins with a summary of the cultural and linguistic background of Belep speakers, followed by chapters on Belep phonology and phonetics, morphology and word…

  17. A Papago Grammar.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zepeda, Ofelia

    A Papago grammar, intented to help Papago and other junior high, high school and college students learn and appreciate the language and give linguists an overview of the language, contains background information on the language and the book, two grammar units, a unit of five conversations in Papago, and a section of supplementary material. Text…

  18. A Marathi Reference Grammar.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berntsen, Maxine; Nimbkar, Jai

    This Marathi reference grammar designed for adult students is based on the model of transformational grammar developed by Zellig Harris, and may be of interest to linguists as well. The basic grammatical facts of Marathi are set forth in eleven chapters: (1) the Marathi sound system, (2) the Devenagari script, (3) nouns, pronouns, and adjectives,…

  19. Grammar Instruction and Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lacina, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Much of the research literature from the past 25 years has supported the importance of teaching grammar in the context of writing instruction (Calkins, 1980; DiStefano & Killion, 1984; Weaver, 1996,1998). Unlike other content areas, practice does not make perfect when learning grammar. While isolated drill and practice of grammatical concepts may…

  20. xREI: a phylo-grammar visualization webserver.

    PubMed

    Barquist, Lars; Holmes, Ian

    2008-07-01

    Phylo-grammars, probabilistic models combining Markov chain substitution models with stochastic grammars, are powerful models for annotating structured features in multiple sequence alignments and analyzing the evolution of those features. In the past, these methods have been cumbersome to implement and modify. xrate provides means for the rapid development of phylo-grammars (using a simple file format) and automated parameterization of those grammars from training data (via the Expectation Maximization algorithm). xREI (pron. 'X-ray') is an intuitive, flexible AJAX (Asynchronous Javascript And XML) web interface to xrate providing grammar visualization tools as well as access to xrate's training and annotation functionality. It is hoped that this application will serve as a valuable tool to those developing phylo-grammars, and as a means for the exploration and dissemination of such models. xREI is available at http://harmony.biowiki.org/xrei/ PMID:18522975

  1. Structural competition in grammar

    E-print Network

    Katzir, Roni (Roni A.)

    2008-01-01

    This thesis makes the following three claims: (1) Competition exists in natural language: the grammaticality (and meaning) of using a linguistic object 0 can be affected by the grammaticality (and meaning) of a different ...

  2. Phonology without universal grammar.

    PubMed

    Archangeli, Diana; Pulleyblank, Douglas

    2015-01-01

    The question of identifying the properties of language that are specific human linguistic abilities, i.e., Universal Grammar, lies at the center of linguistic research. This paper argues for a largely Emergent Grammar in phonology, taking as the starting point that memory, categorization, attention to frequency, and the creation of symbolic systems are all nonlinguistic characteristics of the human mind. The articulation patterns of American English rhotics illustrate categorization and systems; the distribution of vowels in Bantu vowel harmony uses frequencies of particular sequences to argue against Universal Grammar and in favor of Emergent Grammar; prefix allomorphy in Esimbi illustrates the Emergent symbolic system integrating phonological and morphological generalizations. The Esimbi case has been treated as an example of phonological opacity in a Universal Grammar account; the Emergent analysis resolves the pattern without opacity concerns. PMID:26388791

  3. Phonology without universal grammar

    PubMed Central

    Archangeli, Diana; Pulleyblank, Douglas

    2015-01-01

    The question of identifying the properties of language that are specific human linguistic abilities, i.e., Universal Grammar, lies at the center of linguistic research. This paper argues for a largely Emergent Grammar in phonology, taking as the starting point that memory, categorization, attention to frequency, and the creation of symbolic systems are all nonlinguistic characteristics of the human mind. The articulation patterns of American English rhotics illustrate categorization and systems; the distribution of vowels in Bantu vowel harmony uses frequencies of particular sequences to argue against Universal Grammar and in favor of Emergent Grammar; prefix allomorphy in Esimbi illustrates the Emergent symbolic system integrating phonological and morphological generalizations. The Esimbi case has been treated as an example of phonological opacity in a Universal Grammar account; the Emergent analysis resolves the pattern without opacity concerns. PMID:26388791

  4. Dependency Grammar: Classification and Exploration

    E-print Network

    Debusmann, Ralph

    Chapter 1 Dependency Grammar: Classification and Exploration Ralph Debusmann and Marco Kuhlmann Abstract Grammar formalisms built on the notion of word-to-word dependencies make attractive alternatives of dependency grammars, and few such grammars have been implemented. We present results from two strands

  5. Grammar and Grammaring: Toward Modes for English Grammar Teaching in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nan, Chengyu

    2015-01-01

    The value of grammar instruction in foreign language learning and teaching has been a focus of debate for quite some time, which has resulted in different views on grammar and grammar teaching as well as different teaching approaches based on different perspectives or in different language learning contexts. To explore some modes for grammar

  6. Parsing videos of actions with segmental grammars Hamed Pirsiavash

    E-print Network

    Reif, Rafael

    Parsing videos of actions with segmental grammars Hamed Pirsiavash Massachusetts Institute-world videos of human activities exhibit temporal structure at various scales; long videos are typically com, but are computationally diffi- cult to apply for long video streams. We describe sim- ple grammars that capture

  7. A Grammar of Northern Mao (Mawes Aas'e)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahland, Michael Bryan

    2012-01-01

    Northern Mao is an endangered Afroasiatic-Omotic language of western Ethiopia with fewer than 5,000 speakers. This study is a comprehensive grammar of the language, written from a functional/typological perspective which embraces historical change as an explanation for synchronic structure. The grammar introduces the Northern Mao people, aspects…

  8. QR in Child Grammar: Evidence from Antecedent-Contained Deletion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Syrett, Kristen; Lidz, Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    We show that 4-year-olds assign the correct interpretation to antecedent-contained deletion (ACD) sentences because they have the correct representation of these structures. This representation involves Quantifier Raising (QR) of a Quantificational Noun Phrase (QNP) that must move out of the site of the verb phrase in which it is contained to…

  9. Effects of Noun Phrase Type on Sentence Complexity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Peter C.; Hendrick, Randall; Johnson, Marcus

    2004-01-01

    A series of self-paced reading time experiments was performed to assess how characteristics of noun phrases (NPs) contribute to the difference in processing difficulty between object- and subject-extracted relative clauses. Structural semantic characteristics of the NP in the embedded clause (definite vs. indefinite and definite vs. generic) did…

  10. MediaWiki Grammar Recovery

    E-print Network

    Zaytsev, Vadim

    2011-01-01

    The paper describes in detail the recovery effort of one of the official MediaWiki grammars. Over two hundred grammar transformation steps are reported and annotated, leading to delivery of a level 2 grammar, semi-automatically extracted from a community created semi-formal text using at least five different syntactic notations, several non-enforced naming conventions, multiple misspellings, obsolete parsing technology idiosyncrasies and other problems commonly encountered in grammars that were not engineered properly. Having a quality grammar will allow to test and validate it further, without alienating the community with a separately developed grammar.

  11. Dependency Grammar: Classification and Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debusmann, Ralph; Kuhlmann, Marco

    Syntactic representations based on word-to-word dependencies have a long tradition in descriptive linguistics [29]. In recent years, they have also become increasingly used in computational tasks, such as information extraction [5], machine translation [43], and parsing [42]. Among the purported advantages of dependency over phrase structure representations are conciseness, intuitive appeal, and closeness to semantic representations such as predicate-argument structures. On the more practical side, dependency representations are attractive due to the increasing availability of large corpora of dependency analyses, such as the Prague Dependency Treebank [19].

  12. Effective Grammar Teaching: Lessons from Confident Grammar Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petraki, Eleni; Hill, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    Learning the grammar of a language is an integral part of learning a second or foreign language. Studies on teacher beliefs, teacher language awareness (TLA) and grammar teaching have reported that the majority of English language teachers recognise the importance of teaching grammar (Borg, 2001; Borg & Burns, 2008). At the same time, many…

  13. Generalized augmented transition network grammars for generation from semantic networks

    SciTech Connect

    Shapiro, S.C.

    1982-01-01

    The augmented transition network (ATN) is a formalism for writing parsing grammars which has been much used in artificial intelligence and computational linguistics. A few researchers have also used ATNs for writing grammars for generating sentences. Previously, however, either generation ATNs did not have the same semantics as parsing ATNs, or they required an auxiliary mechanism to determine the syntactic structure of the sentence to be generated. This paper reports a generalization of the ATN formalism which allows ATN grammars to be written to parse labelled directed graphs. Specifically, an ATN grammar can be written to parse a semantic network and generate a surface string as its analysis. An example is given of a combined parsing-generating grammar which parses surface sentences, builds and queries a semantic network knowledge representation, and generates surface sentences in response. 8 references.

  14. Cortical tracking of hierarchical linguistic structures in connected speech.

    PubMed

    Ding, Nai; Melloni, Lucia; Zhang, Hang; Tian, Xing; Poeppel, David

    2016-01-01

    The most critical attribute of human language is its unbounded combinatorial nature: smaller elements can be combined into larger structures on the basis of a grammatical system, resulting in a hierarchy of linguistic units, such as words, phrases and sentences. Mentally parsing and representing such structures, however, poses challenges for speech comprehension. In speech, hierarchical linguistic structures do not have boundaries that are clearly defined by acoustic cues and must therefore be internally and incrementally constructed during comprehension. We found that, during listening to connected speech, cortical activity of different timescales concurrently tracked the time course of abstract linguistic structures at different hierarchical levels, such as words, phrases and sentences. Notably, the neural tracking of hierarchical linguistic structures was dissociated from the encoding of acoustic cues and from the predictability of incoming words. Our results indicate that a hierarchy of neural processing timescales underlies grammar-based internal construction of hierarchical linguistic structure. PMID:26642090

  15. Implicit Learning of Recursive Context-Free Grammars

    PubMed Central

    Rohrmeier, Martin; Fu, Qiufang; Dienes, Zoltan

    2012-01-01

    Context-free grammars are fundamental for the description of linguistic syntax. However, most artificial grammar learning experiments have explored learning of simpler finite-state grammars, while studies exploring context-free grammars have not assessed awareness and implicitness. This paper explores the implicit learning of context-free grammars employing features of hierarchical organization, recursive embedding and long-distance dependencies. The grammars also featured the distinction between left- and right-branching structures, as well as between centre- and tail-embedding, both distinctions found in natural languages. People acquired unconscious knowledge of relations between grammatical classes even for dependencies over long distances, in ways that went beyond learning simpler relations (e.g. n-grams) between individual words. The structural distinctions drawn from linguistics also proved important as performance was greater for tail-embedding than centre-embedding structures. The results suggest the plausibility of implicit learning of complex context-free structures, which model some features of natural languages. They support the relevance of artificial grammar learning for probing mechanisms of language learning and challenge existing theories and computational models of implicit learning. PMID:23094021

  16. Teaching Grammar: What Really Works

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benjamin, Amy; Berger, Joan

    2010-01-01

    In this book, the authors share procedures for teaching grammar effectively and dynamically, in ways that appeal to students and teachers alike. Ideal for teachers just beginning their work in grammar instruction, this book includes day-by-day units and reproducibles to help them embed grammar lessons into writing instruction. Using visuals,…

  17. Adjective-noun order as representational structure: native-language grammar influences perception of similarity and recognition memory.

    PubMed

    Mata, André; Percy, Elise J; Sherman, Steven J

    2014-02-01

    This article describes two experiments linking native-language grammar rules with implications for perception of similarity and recognition memory. In prenominal languages (e.g., English), adjectives usually precede nouns, whereas in postnominal languages (e.g., Portuguese), nouns usually precede adjectives. We explored the influence of such rules upon similarity judgments about, and recognition of, objects with multiple category attributes (one nominal attribute and one adjectival attribute). The results supported the hypothesized primacy effect of native-language word order such that nouns generally carried more weight for Portuguese speakers than for English speakers. This pattern was observed for judgments of similarity (i.e., Portuguese speakers tended to judge objects that shared a noun-designated attribute as more similar than did English speakers), as well as for false alarms in recognition memory (i.e., Portuguese speakers tended to falsely recognize more objects if they possessed a familiar noun attribute, relative to English speakers). The implications of such linguistic effects for the cognition of similarity and memory are discussed. PMID:23868719

  18. Yes, We Still Need Universal Grammar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lidz, Jeffrey; Gleitman, Lila R.

    2004-01-01

    In a recent paper [Lidz, J., Gleitman, H., & Gleitman, L. (2003). Understanding how input matters: Verb learning and the footprint of universal grammar. "Cognition," 87, 151-178], we provided cross-linguistic evidence in favor of the following linked assertions: (i) Verb argument structure is a correlate of verb meaning; (ii) However, argument…

  19. A BINI GRAMMAR, PART 1--PHONOLOGY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WESCOTT, ROGER W.

    A PHONOLOGY OF BINI GRAMMAR (A LANGUAGE OF WESTERN NIGERIA) HAS BEEN DESIGNED FOR A HIGHLY HETEROGENEOUS AUDIENCE. THE VOLUME IS AIMED AT (1) AREA SPECIALISTS INTERESTED IN LANGUAGE OR CULTURE STUDIES OF AFRICA, (2) ETHNOGRAPHERS FOCUSING ON THE SOCIAL STRUCTURE OF THE EDO-SPEAKING PEOPLES, (3) HISTORIANS WORKING ON THE BENIN PROJECT OF IBADAN…

  20. A Developmental Model of Syntax Acquisition in the Construction Grammar Framework with Cross-Linguistic Validation in English and Japanese

    E-print Network

    Dominey, Peter F.

    33 A Developmental Model of Syntax Acquisition in the Construction Grammar Framework with Cross of a genetically specified universal grammar, such that language acquisition consists of configuring the UG sequences. Subsequent studies of grammar induction demonstrate how syntactic structure can be recovered from

  1. A Grammar of Kurtop

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyslop, Gwendolyn

    2011-01-01

    Kurtop is a Tibeto-Burman language spoken by approximately 15,000 people in Northeastern Bhutan. This dissertation is the first descriptive grammar of the language, based on extensive fieldwork and community-driven language documentation in Bhutan. When possible, analyses are presented in typological and historical/comparative perspectives and…

  2. Studies in Inuktitut Grammar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beach, Matthew David

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation addresses a number of issues about the grammar of Eastern Canadian Inuktitut. Inuktitut is a dialect within the Inuit dialect continuum which is a group of languages/dialects within the Eskimo-Aleut language family. (Eastern Canadian Inuktitut has an ISO 693-3 language code of "ike".) Typologically, it is an ergative language…

  3. Reflections on Grammar's Demise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulroy, David

    2004-01-01

    Of the seven liberal arts, on which Western education was based, grammar has always been preeminent. Yet English teachers in recent years have belittled it to the point of an irrelevance. Not only has this higher illiteracy rendered Americans unable to extract ideas from sophisticated prose, David Mulroy worries, but also it leaves us with the…

  4. A Grammar of Bih

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Tam Thi Minh

    2013-01-01

    Bih is a Chamic (Austronesian) language spoken by approximately 500 people in the Southern highlands of Vietnam. This dissertation is the first descriptive grammar of the language, based on extensive fieldwork and community-based language documentation in Vietnam and written from a functional/typological perspective. The analysis in this work is…

  5. Hualapai Reference Grammar.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watahomigie, Lucille J.; And Others

    A first and modest beginning toward a grammar of the Hualapai language, a Pai branch of the Yuman language family, this reference book is intended for use by: the Hualapai people to reaffirm the vitality of their language; the Hualapai teachers in their preparation of language materials for teaching; younger Haulapais to find the regularity and…

  6. Multiple Grammars and MOGUL

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Truscott, John

    2014-01-01

    Optionality is a central phenomenon in second language acquisition (SLA), for which any adequate theory must account. Amaral and Roeper (this issue; henceforth A&R) offer an appealing approach to it, using Roeper's Multiple Grammars Theory, which was created with first language in mind but which extends very naturally to SLA. They include…

  7. A GUJARATI REFERENCE GRAMMAR.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CARDONA, GEORGE

    THIS REFERENCE GRAMMAR WAS WRITTEN TO FILL THE NEED FOR AN UP-TO-DATE ANALYSIS OF THE MODERN LANGUAGE SUITABLE FOR LANGUAGE LEARNERS AS WELL AS LINGUISTS. THE AUTHOR LISTS IN THE INTRODUCTION THOSE STUDIES PREVIOUS TO THIS ONE WHICH MAY BE OF INTEREST TO THE READER. INCLUDED IN HIS ANALYSIS OF THE LANGUAGE ARE MAJOR CHAPTERS ON--(1) PHONOLOGY, (2)…

  8. Restricted Global Grammar Constraints. George Katsirelos1

    E-print Network

    Walsh, Toby

    Restricted Global Grammar Constraints. George Katsirelos1 , Sebastian Maneth2 , Nina Narodytska2.walsh@nicta.com.au Abstract. We investigate the global GRAMMAR constraint over restricted classes of context free grammars for the GRAMMAR constraint in these cases is as hard as parsing an unrestricted context free grammar. We also

  9. Grammar as a Hostage to Ideology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Laurie

    Claims that grammar instruction does not improve written composition have led some teachers to a confident consensus that they do not have to deal with grammar, yet many still firmly believe in teaching it. Grammar instruction (meaning pedagogical or school grammar rather than scientific or linguistic grammar) can be viewed from the metaphorical…

  10. NEWCAT: Parsing natural language using left-associative grammar

    SciTech Connect

    Hausser, R.

    1986-01-01

    This book shows that constituent structure analysis induces an irregular order of linear composition which is the direct cause of extreme computational inefficiency. It proposes an alternative left-associative grammar which operates with a regular order of linear compositions. Left-associative grammar is based on building up and cancelling valencies. Left-associative parsers differ from all other systems in that the history of the parse doubles as the linguistic analysis. Left-associative grammar is illustrated with two left-associative natural language parsers: one for German and one for English.

  11. Towards Modular Development of Typed Unification Grammars

    E-print Network

    similar to computer programs. Yet grammar engineering is still in its infancy: Few grammar development in its infancy. In this work we focus on typed unification grammars (TUG), and their implementa- tion

  12. Abstract Expression Grammar Symbolic Regression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korns, Michael F.

    This chapter examines the use of Abstract Expression Grammars to perform the entire Symbolic Regression process without the use of Genetic Programming per se. The techniques explored produce a symbolic regression engine which has absolutely no bloat, which allows total user control of the search space and output formulas, which is faster, and more accurate than the engines produced in our previous papers using Genetic Programming. The genome is an all vector structure with four chromosomes plus additional epigenetic and constraint vectors, allowing total user control of the search space and the final output formulas. A combination of specialized compiler techniques, genetic algorithms, particle swarm, aged layered populations, plus discrete and continuous differential evolution are used to produce an improved symbolic regression sytem. Nine base test cases, from the literature, are used to test the improvement in speed and accuracy. The improved results indicate that these techniques move us a big step closer toward future industrial strength symbolic regression systems.

  13. Grammar Dilemma: Teaching Grammar as a Resource for Making Meaning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liamkina, Olga; Ryshina-Pankova, Marianna

    2012-01-01

    Adopting a functional perspective that views grammar as a rich resource for making contextualized meanings in a culture- and language-specific way, the article reconsiders the role of explicit grammar instruction in developing communicative abilities of second language learners. It draws on two distinct but complementary research frameworks,…

  14. A Bemba Grammar with Exercises.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoch, Ernst

    This Bemba grammar begins with an introduction which traces the history of the language, stresses the importance of learning it well and offers hints towards achieving this goal. The grammar itself is divided into three major sections: Part 1, "Phonetics," deals with the Bemba alphabet, tonality, and orthography; Part 2, "Parts of Speech,"…

  15. Paperback Grammar for Handbook Haters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Dorothy

    1967-01-01

    Students will respond better to grammar instruction if the traditional heavy handbooks are replaced with light-weight paperbacks, each full of practical suggestions and clear examples. Several inexpensive paperbacks are available for instruction in grammar and usage, spelling, vocabulary, reading comprehension, and writing. Unlike the conventional…

  16. Amino acid distribution rules predict protein fold: protein grammar for beta-strand sandwich-like structures.

    PubMed

    Kister, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    We present an alternative approach to protein 3D folding prediction based on determination of rules that specify distribution of "favorable" residues, that are mainly responsible for a given fold formation, and "unfavorable" residues, that are incompatible with that fold, in polypeptide sequences. The process of determining favorable and unfavorable residues is iterative. The starting assumptions are based on the general principles of protein structure formation as well as structural features peculiar to a protein fold under investigation. The initial assumptions are tested one-by-one for a set of all known proteins with a given structure. The assumption is accepted as a "rule of amino acid distribution" for the protein fold if it holds true for all, or near all, structures. If the assumption is not accepted as a rule, it can be modified to better fit the data and then tested again in the next step of the iterative search algorithm, or rejected. We determined the set of amino acid distribution rules for a large group of beta sandwich-like proteins characterized by a specific arrangement of strands in two beta sheets. It was shown that this set of rules is highly sensitive (~90%) and very specific (~99%) for identifying sequences of proteins with specified beta sandwich fold structure. The advantage of the proposed approach is that it does not require that query proteins have a high degree of homology to proteins with known structure. So long as the query protein satisfies residue distribution rules, it can be confidently assigned to its respective protein fold. Another advantage of our approach is that it allows for a better understanding of which residues play an essential role in protein fold formation. It may, therefore, facilitate rational protein engineering design. PMID:25625198

  17. Developing an ATC Grammar using the Review of the Cushing Grammar

    E-print Network

    Ladkin, Peter B.

    Developing an ATC Grammar using the Review of the Cushing Grammar in the project seminar Preface 1 2 Requirements for the ATC Grammar 1 3 How to ful#28;l the requirements 2 3.1 Changing the grammar syntax to an EBNF-near syntax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 3.2 Making the grammar machine

  18. When Global Structure "Explains Away" Local Grammar: A Bayesian Account of Rule-Induction in Tone Sequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, Colin; Gerken, LouAnn

    2011-01-01

    While many constraints on learning must be relatively experience-independent, past experience provides a rich source of guidance for subsequent learning. Discovering structure in some domain can inform a learner's future hypotheses about that domain. If a general property accounts for particular sub-patterns, a rational learner should not…

  19. AUTOMATICALLY ACQUIRING PHRASE STRUCTURE USING DISTRIBUTIONAL ANALYSIS

    E-print Network

    to determine empirically whether boy and girl are in the same word class, the linguist would need to determine similarity does not seem amenable to unsupervised acquisition. One way of determining whether boy and girl are in the same word class is to see whether it is the case that for all sentences that boy oc- curs in, the same

  20. Building Phrase Structure from Items and Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinney-Bock, Katherine S.

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation aims to revisit foundational issues in syntactic theory regarding cyclicity and displacement. I take narrow syntax to operate over domains ("phases") more local than in current Minimalism. To do this, I define a notion of "phase overlap" which involves the sharing of grammatical features across two independent…

  1. Without Specifiers: Phrase Structure and Events

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lohndal, Terje

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation attempts to unify two reductionist hypotheses: that there is no relational difference between specifiers and complements, and that verbs do not have thematic arguments. I argue that these two hypotheses actually bear on each other and that we get a better theory if we pursue both of them. The thesis is centered around the…

  2. Information Structure in English Nominal Phrases

    E-print Network

    Feist, Jim

    2008-01-01

    ] was the golden girl of the great prewar German soaring scene.” 3 (Three restrictive premodifiers and the head form the Topic.) (6) “I spent a therapeutic few hours . . .” 4 (A quantifying determiner, few, is part of the Topic.) (7) "[There... example repeated), great is a general and emotive word, which makes its use for Comment natural. (10) “She [Hanna Reitsch] was the golden girl of the great prewar German soaring scene.” Premodifiers, as modifiers, necessarily make a “comment...

  3. Intrinsic Constraints on Language: Grammar and Hermeneutics

    E-print Network

    Bickhard, Mark H.

    Intrinsic Constraints on Language: Grammar and Hermeneutics Mark H. Bickhard Mark H. Bickhard on Categorial Grammars and Model Theoretic Possible Worlds Semantics" (1992), and Foundational Issues on Language: Grammar and Hermeneutics Mark H. Bickhard Abstract Functional and pragmatic approaches to grammar

  4. Estimating Translation Probabilities Considering Semantic Recoverability of Phrase Retranslation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hyoung-Gyu; Kim, Min-Jeong; Quan, Yingxiu; Rim, Hae-Chang; Park, So-Young

    The general method for estimating phrase translation probabilities consists of sequential processes: word alignment, phrase pair extraction, and phrase translation probability calculation. However, during this sequential process, errors may propagate from the word alignment step through the translation probability calculation step. In this paper, we propose a new method for estimating phrase translation probabilities that reduce the effects of error propagation. By considering the semantic recoverability of phrase retranslation, our method identifies incorrect phrase pairs that have propagated from alignment errors. Furthermore, we define retranslation similarity which represents the semantic recoverability of phrase retranslation, and use this when computing translation probabilities. Experimental results show that the proposed phrase translation estimation method effectively prevents a PBSMT system from selecting incorrect phrase pairs, and consistently improves the translation quality in various language pairs.

  5. Primitive computations in phrase construction

    E-print Network

    Nguyen, Chieu V

    2009-01-01

    The Minimalist Program in current linguistic theory seeks to explain linguistic structure in terms of economy principles, under the assumption that the human language faculty is a perfect system that performs only enough ...

  6. Phrase-based Image Captioning Remi Lebret

    E-print Network

    (generated from a previously trained Convolutional Neural Network) and phrases that are used to described of neural networks to transform image and sentence representations into a common space (Mao et al., 2015 obtained from some pre-trained convolutional neural net- works. The model then learns a common embedding be

  7. Lexical Phrases, Functions and Vocabulary Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nattinger, James R.

    The position this paper assumes views vocabulary not as single words but as phrases, sentences, and sometimes entire segments of discourse that act as single words. This view of vocabulary would be helpful in: (1) bringing the vocabulary aspect of instruction in English as a second language (ESL) closer to current research in language performance,…

  8. Chemical Accelerators The phrase "chemical accelerators"

    E-print Network

    Meetings Chemical Accelerators The phrase "chemical accelerators" is scarcely older than for one or two dozen people grew to include nearly a hundred. Chemical accelerators is a name sug- gested by one of us for devices that produce beams of chemically interesting species at relative kinetic

  9. Phrase Completions: An Alternative to Likert Scales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodge, David R.; Gillespie, David

    2003-01-01

    Delineates the problems with Likert scales, with a particular emphasis on multidimensionality and coarse response categories, and proposes a new measurement method called "phrase completions," which has been designed to circumvent the problems inherent in Likert scales. Also conducts an exploratory test, in which Likert items were adapted to…

  10. What grammars tell us about corpora: the case of reduced relative clauses

    E-print Network

    Merlo, Paola

    What grammars tell us about corpora: the case of reduced relative clauses Paola Merlo LATL ambiguity to investigate (1) to what extent the structure of a grammar is reflected in a corpus, and (2) how of syntactic disambiguation preference. We look at the well­known case of the ambiguity be­ tween a main clause

  11. A Deeper Look at the Grammar and Some Implications of "Ser" and "Estar" + Locative in Spanish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franco, Fabiola; Steinmetz, Donald

    1985-01-01

    Argues that the explanation of the use of "ser" and "estar" with locatives presented in the March 1984 issue of "Hispania" derives so directly from a theory of universal grammar because it is indicative of the explanatory adequacy of Case Grammar or of other, comparable theories of the deeper levels of linguistic structure. (SED)

  12. The Journalism Writing Course: Evaluation of Hybrid versus Online Grammar Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Jensen; Jones, Khristen

    2015-01-01

    This study examined introductory journalism writing courses and compared hybrid (part online/part classroom) versus online grammar instruction. The hybrid structure allowed for grammar topics to be taught online, with a pretest following, and then reviewing missed/difficult pretest concepts in class prior to a posttest. The quasi-experimental…

  13. A tropical grammar : an architectural grammar for hot humid climates

    E-print Network

    Beamish, Anne, 1954-

    1993-01-01

    This thesis considers the viability of an architectural grammar based on traditional Caribbean architecture as an aid to designing climatically responsive architecture in hot humid climates. It argues that since traditional ...

  14. Using statistical models to predict phrase boundaries for speech synthesis. 

    E-print Network

    Sanders, Eric; Taylor, Paul A

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes a variety of methods for inserting phrase boundaries in text. The methods work by examining the likelihood of a phrase break occurring in a sequence of three part-of-speech tags. The paper explains ...

  15. Assigning phrase breaks from part-of-speech sequences. 

    E-print Network

    Black, Alan W; Taylor, Paul A

    1997-01-01

    One of the important stages in the process of turning unmarked text into speech is the assignment of appropriate phrase break boundaries. Phrase break boundaries are important to later modules including accent ...

  16. GRASP: Grammar-and Syntax-based Pattern-Finder for Collocation and Phrase Learning

    E-print Network

    "play". In WordNet, it has a myriad of senses including `participating in games or sport', `act or having an effect in a specified way' and `play on an instrument'. Learners may be aware of its senses Many language learners' queries (e.g., "play" and "role") are submitted to language-learning tools

  17. Shape grammar for medical injectors

    E-print Network

    Luciano, David (David A.)

    2014-01-01

    This thesis explores the applicability of algorithmic design for biomedical device design through the use of the shape grammar formalism. This method is expressed as an algorithm that describes the computational mechanism ...

  18. A SKETCH OF MALAGASY GRAMMAR.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GARVEY, CATHERINE J.

    THE RESULTS OF A PROGRAM TO BUILD A MALAGASY GRAMMAR, BASED MAINLY ON THE MERINA DIALECT, ARE PRESENTED. INCLUDED ARE SECTIONS OF PHONOLOGY, MORPHOLOGY, AND SYNTAX. (AN ACCOMPANYING MALAGASY INTRODUCTORY COURSE IS ED 010 482.) (GD)

  19. Which Noun Phrases Denote Which Concepts? Jayant Krishnamurthy

    E-print Network

    Mitchell, Tom

    phrases and the underly- ing concepts they refer to. As a result, a polysemous phrase like "apple" will refer sometimes to the con- cept Apple Computer (the company), and other times to the concept apple (the fruit). Furthermore, two synonymous noun phrases like "apple" and "Apple "apple" "apple computer" apple

  20. Pivot Language Approach for Phrase-Based Statistical Machine Translation

    E-print Network

    Wang, Haifeng

    Pivot Language Approach for Phrase-Based Statistical Machine Translation Hua Wu and Haifeng Wang proposes a novel method for phrase-based statistical machine translation by using pivot language corpora. 1 Introduction For statistical machine translation (SMT), phrase- based methods (Koehn et al

  1. A Comparative Study on the Effectiveness of Two Song-Teaching Methods: Holistic vs. Phrase-by-Phrase

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Persellin, Diane; Bateman, Laura

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to compare the effectiveness of two song-teaching methods: holistic and phrase-by-phrase. Thirty-two first-grade children (n = 32) from two music classes in an urban elementary school were taught two folksongs. The first class (n = 16) was taught one song through the phrase-by-phrase method and another song through the…

  2. Phrase Frequency Effects in Language Production

    PubMed Central

    Janssen, Niels; Barber, Horacio A.

    2012-01-01

    A classic debate in the psychology of language concerns the question of the grain-size of the linguistic information that is stored in memory. One view is that only morphologically simple forms are stored (e.g., ‘car’, ‘red’), and that more complex forms of language such as multi-word phrases (e.g., ‘red car’) are generated on-line from the simple forms. In two experiments we tested this view. In Experiment 1, participants produced noun+adjective and noun+noun phrases that were elicited by experimental displays consisting of colored line drawings and two superimposed line drawings. In Experiment 2, participants produced noun+adjective and determiner+noun+adjective utterances elicited by colored line drawings. In both experiments, naming latencies decreased with increasing frequency of the multi-word phrase, and were unaffected by the frequency of the object name in the utterance. These results suggest that the language system is sensitive to the distribution of linguistic information at grain-sizes beyond individual words. PMID:22479370

  3. Context-Free Grammars A grammar is a set of rules for putting strings

    E-print Network

    Goddard, Wayne

    Context-Free Grammars A grammar is a set of rules for putting strings together and so corresponds to a language. #12;Grammars A grammar consists of: · a set of variables (also called nonterminals), one of which is designated the start variable; It is customary to use upper-case letters for variables; · a set of terminals

  4. An open source grammar development environment and broad-coverage English grammar using HPSG

    E-print Network

    Copestake, Ann

    for teaching purposes are also distributed. We dis- cuss the steps we are taking to make the ERG and LinAn open source grammar development environment and broad-coverage English grammar using HPSG Ann @csli.stanford.edu Abstract The LinGO (Linguistic Grammars Online) project's English Resource Grammar

  5. Grammar, Spelling, Punctuation (GSP) Guide 1 Grammar, Spelling, Punctuation (GSP) Review Guide

    E-print Network

    Rock, Chris

    Grammar, Spelling, Punctuation (GSP) Guide 1 Grammar, Spelling, Punctuation (GSP) Review Guide Contents· KnowtheGrammar · It'sanApostropheThing... · Colons&Semi-colons · Commas&allthatJazz · QuotationMarks&Hyphens · Grammar&PunctuationStudyTips · SpellingTips&Tricks · Resources:Online&Printed · OfficialSpellingList 2-4 5

  6. CAD GRAMMARS: EXTENDING SHAPE AND GRAPH GRAMMARS FOR SPATIAL DESIGN MODELLING

    E-print Network

    Reed, Chris

    1 CAD GRAMMARS: EXTENDING SHAPE AND GRAPH GRAMMARS FOR SPATIAL DESIGN MODELLING PETER DEAK, CHRIS, but operating on graphs. This paper introduces CAD grammars, which combine qualities from shape and graph and manufacturing. Details about the integration of CAD grammars into automated spatial design systems and standard

  7. Evaluation of attributes in attribute grammars

    SciTech Connect

    Kurochkin, V.M.

    1995-05-01

    The problem of evaluating attributes on a derivation tree for attribute grammars is considered. The suggested algorithms do not impose any restrictions on a grammar and can be carried out in arbitrary derivation tree traversal.

  8. Delta's Key to the Next Generation TOEFL[R] Test: Essential Grammar for the iBT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    Although the TOEFL iBT does not have a discrete grammar section, knowledge of English sentence structure is important throughout the test. Essential Grammar for the iBT reviews the skills that are fundamental to success on tests. Content includes noun and verb forms, clauses, agreement, parallel structure, punctuation, and much more. The book may…

  9. Compiling circular attribute grammars into Prolog

    SciTech Connect

    Arbab, B.

    1986-05-01

    This paper describes an algorithm for compiling attribute grammars into Prolog. The attribute grammars may include inherited and synthesized attributes and contain recursive (circular) definitions. The semantics of the recursive definitions is defined in terms of a fixed-point finding function. The generated Prolog code stands in direct relation to its attribute grammar, where logical variables play the role of synthesized or inherited attributes. Thus an effective method for the execution of recursive attribute grammars has been defined and applied.

  10. 1 Finite Automata and Regular Grammars Definition 1. A regular grammar is a special kind of context-free grammar one in which every

    E-print Network

    Dougherty, Daniel J.

    -free grammars. The regular grammars are a very special sub-species of CFGs. It is certainly not the case that an arbitrary CFG is equivalent to a regular grammar, After all, if that were the case, then, by what we have1 Finite Automata and Regular Grammars Definition 1. A regular grammar is a special kind of context

  11. ENCODING FREQUENCY INFORMATION IN LEXICALIZED GRAMMARS

    E-print Network

    Weir, David

    it is usually the case that, at certain points in the derivation process, the grammar licenses several alternative ways of continuing with the derivation. In the case of context-free grammar (CFGChapter 2 ENCODING FREQUENCY INFORMATION IN LEXICALIZED GRAMMARS John Carroll David Weir Cognitive

  12. A corpus analysis of Pirah grammar

    E-print Network

    Makous, Walter

    A corpus analysis of Pirahã grammar: An investigation of recursion Steven T. Piantadosi (Rochester is proposed to be a core property of human language / Universal Grammar · Hauser, Chomsky & Fitch (2002) argued that the grammars for all human languages are recursive, such that "there is no longest sentence

  13. Teaching Grammar as a Liberating Force

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cullen, Richard

    2008-01-01

    The idea of grammar as a "liberating force" comes from a paper by Henry Widdowson (1990) in which grammar is depicted as a resource which liberates the language user from an over-dependency on lexis and context for the expression of meaning. In this paper, I consider the implications for second language teaching of the notion of grammar as a…

  14. Parallel Communicating Grammar Systems Lila Santean

    E-print Network

    Kari, Lila

    Parallel Communicating Grammar Systems Lila Santean Academy of Finland and Mathematics Department], Russian parallel [4] and Indian parallel [4] grammars are some ex- amples of such models based on formal and introduce most embarassing performance limitations. Cooperating /distributed grammar systems are an attempt

  15. KENT JOHNSON TACIT BELIEF, SEMANTICS AND GRAMMAR

    E-print Network

    Johnson, Kent

    KENT JOHNSON TACIT BELIEF, SEMANTICS AND GRAMMAR ABSTRACT. This paper explores speakers' epistemic that we have tacit belief in a grammar of our language.1 By assuming that we bear a cognitive relation like belief (or "cognizing", cf. Chomsky 1986, p. 265) to a grammar, we can explain the cognitive

  16. Animacy and egophoricity: Grammar, ontology and phylogeny

    E-print Network

    Enquist, Magnus

    Animacy and egophoricity: Grammar, ontology and phylogeny O¨ sten Dahl * Department of Linguistics: Animacy; Egophoricity; Grammar; Ontological category; Phylogeny 1. Aim of the paper The aim of this paper is to relate the role of animacy in grammar and discourse to some broader considerations of the nature

  17. Tools for Grammar Engineering Gregor Erbach

    E-print Network

    Tools for Grammar Engineering Gregor Erbach University of the Saarland Computational Linguistics W for the development and verification of broad-coverage grammars that are to be used for both analysis and generation. Such a tool is used to ensure that the coverage of the grammar is sufficient (in logical terms

  18. The Philosophical Significance of Universal Grammar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinzen, Wolfram

    2012-01-01

    Throughout its long history, the project of a science of grammar has always been an inherently philosophical one, in which the study of grammar was taken to have special epistemological significance. I ask why 20th and 21st century inquiry into Universal Grammar (UG) has largely lost this dimension, a fact that I argue is partially responsible for…

  19. A Construction Grammar for the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holme, Randal

    2010-01-01

    Construction grammars (Lakoff, Women, fire and dangerous things: What categories reveal about the Mind, University of Chicago Press, 1987; Langacker, Foundations of cognitive grammar: Theoretical pre-requisites, Stanford University Press, 1987; Croft, Radical construction grammar: Syntactic theory in typological perspective, Oxford University…

  20. Upending the Grammar of the Conventional Religious School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aron, Isa

    2014-01-01

    This article provides an overview and analysis of a relatively new phenomenon: congregational schools that have altered the conventional grammar of schooling, either through their structural arrangements or through their curricular approaches. Five pre-bar/bat mitzvah models are discussed: family schools, schools as communities,…

  1. What Artificial Grammar Learning Reveals about the Neurobiology of Syntax

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petersson, Karl-Magnus; Folia, Vasiliki; Hagoort, Peter

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we examine the neurobiological correlates of syntax, the processing of structured sequences, by comparing FMRI results on artificial and natural language syntax. We discuss these and similar findings in the context of formal language and computability theory. We used a simple right-linear unification grammar in an implicit artificial…

  2. Intuitive Theories as Grammars for Causal Inference Joshua B. Tenenbaum

    E-print Network

    Tenenbaum, Josh

    Intuitive Theories as Grammars for Causal Inference Joshua B. Tenenbaum Department of Brain of the study of intuitive theories, causal knowledge, and problems of inductive inference. By an intuitive theory, we mean a cognitive structure that in some important ways is analogous to a scientific theory

  3. Normative topographic ERP analyses of speed of speech processing and grammar before and after grammatical treatment.

    PubMed

    Yoder, Paul J; Molfese, Dennis; Murray, Micah M; Key, Alexandra P F

    2013-01-01

    Typically developing (TD) preschoolers and age-matched preschoolers with specific language impairment (SLI) received event-related potentials (ERPs) to four monosyllabic speech sounds prior to treatment and, in the SLI group, after 6 months of grammatical treatment. Before treatment, the TD group processed speech sounds faster than the SLI group. The SLI group increased the speed of their speech processing after treatment. Posttreatment speed of speech processing predicted later impairment in comprehending phrase elaboration in the SLI group. During the treatment phase, change in speed of speech processing predicted growth rate of grammar in the SLI group. PMID:24219693

  4. Gradience in Grammar: Experimental and Computational Aspects of Degrees of Grammaticality 

    E-print Network

    Keller, Frank

    This thesis deals with gradience in grammar, i.e., with the fact that some linguistic structures are not fully acceptable or unacceptable, but receive gradient linguistic judgments. The importance of gradient data for linguistic theory has been...

  5. Adding and Subtracting Alternation: Resumption and Prepositional Phrase Chopping in Spanish Relative Clauses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cerron-Palomino Lopez, Alvaro

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation is a variationist account of two non-standard relative clause (RC) structures in Spanish: resumptive pronouns (RPs) and prepositional-phrase (PP) chopping. Previous typological studies considered RP explanations based on difficulty of processing (Hawkins, 1994), while Spanish-specific quantitative studies proposed a number of…

  6. Improved Grammar-Based Compressed Indexes

    E-print Network

    Claude, Francisco

    2011-01-01

    We introduce the first grammar-compressed representation of a sequence that supports searches in time that depends only logarithmically on the size of the grammar. Given a text $T[1..u]$ that is represented by a (context-free) grammar of $n$ (terminal and nonterminal) symbols and size $N$ (measured as the sum of the lengths of the right hands of the rules), a basic grammar-based representation of $T$ takes $N\\lg n$ bits of space. Our representation requires $2N\\lg n + N\\lg u + \\epsilon\\, n\\lg n + o(N\\lg n)$ bits of space, for any $0grammar tree.

  7. Can Individuals with Down Syndrome Improve Their Grammar?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sepulveda, Esther Moraleda; Lopez-Villasenor, Miguel Lazaro; Heinze, Elena Garayzabal

    2013-01-01

    Morphosyntax constitutes one of the most complex areas of language. It takes into account the structure of the word and that of the sentence, and its development allows one to establish adequately agreements both within the nominal phrase and in the rest of the sentence. Morphosyntax is particularly impaired in individuals with Down syndrome. To…

  8. Sequential processing during noun phrase production.

    PubMed

    Bürki, Audrey; Sadat, Jasmin; Dubarry, Anne-Sophie; Alario, F-Xavier

    2016-01-01

    This study examined whether the brain operations involved during the processing of successive words in multi word noun phrase production take place sequentially or simultaneously. German speakers named pictures while ignoring a written distractor superimposed on the picture (picture-word interference paradigm) using the definite determiner and corresponding German noun. The gender congruency and the phonological congruency (i.e., overlap in first phonemes) between target and distractor were manipulated. Naming responses and EEG were recorded. The behavioural performance replicated both the phonology and the gender congruency effects (i.e., shorter naming latencies for gender congruent than incongruent and for phonologically congruent than incongruent trials). The phonological and gender manipulations also influenced the EEG data. Crucially, the two effects occurred in different time windows and over different sets of electrodes. The phonological effect was observed substantially earlier than the gender congruency effect. This finding suggests that the processing of determiners and nouns during determiner noun phrase production occurs at least partly sequentially. PMID:26407338

  9. Grammar Logics in Nested Sequent Calculus: Proof Theory and Decision Procedures

    E-print Network

    Tiu, Alwen; Gore, Rajeev

    2012-01-01

    A grammar logic refers to an extension to the multi-modal logic K in which the modal axioms are generated from a formal grammar. We consider a proof theory, in nested sequent calculus, of grammar logics with converse, i.e., every modal operator [a] comes with a converse. Extending previous works on nested sequent systems for tense logics, we show all grammar logics (with or without converse) can be formalised in nested sequent calculi, where the axioms are internalised in the calculi as structural rules. Syntactic cut-elimination for these calculi is proved using a procedure similar to that for display logics. If the grammar is context-free, then one can get rid of all structural rules, in favor of deep inference and additional propagation rules. We give a novel semi-decision procedure for context-free grammar logics, using nested sequent calculus with deep inference, and show that, in the case where the given context-free grammar is regular, this procedure terminates. Unlike all other existing decision proce...

  10. Essentials of Asheninka Perene Grammar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mihas, Elena

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this dissertation is to present a preliminary grammatical account of Asheninka Perene an endangered Arawak language of Southeastern Peru. The description and analysis of the language is based on the 29-week field research conducted in an area of the Southwest Amazonian high jungle. Interesting issues of Asheninka Perene grammar

  11. A Grammar of Inupiaq Morphosyntax

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lanz, Linda A.

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation is a reference grammar of the Malimiut Coastal dialect of Inupiaq (ISO: ESI, ESK, IPK), an Eskimo-Aleut language of northwestern Alaska spoken by the Inupiat people. It complements existing descriptions of Inupiaq by filling gaps in documentation. With approximately 2000 speakers, mainly above 50 years of age, Inupiaq is…

  12. Does Grammar Constrain Statistical Learning?

    E-print Network

    Jenison, Rick L.

    suggest- ing that their results may instead have resulted from facts about French that can be learned from, but this fact can be learned from experience. The 4,943 French CVCVCV words (based on a search of Lexique 3; NewCommentary Does Grammar Constrain Statistical Learning? Commentary on Bonatti, Pen~a, Nespor

  13. A Lifetime of Grammar Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Rod

    2012-01-01

    The author has worked as a language teacher, teacher educator, and second language acquisition (SLA) researcher for over forty years. During this time grammar has figured largely in his thinking, in part because it has traditionally been so central to language pedagogy and in part because he became fascinated with how the human mind grapples with…

  14. Learnable Classes of Categorial Grammars.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanazawa, Makoto

    Learnability theory is an attempt to illuminate the concept of learnability using a mathematical model of learning. Two models of learning of categorial grammars are examined here: the standard model, in which sentences presented to the learner are flat strings of words, and one in which sentences are presented in the form of functor-argument…

  15. A Reference Grammar of Pashto.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tegey, Habibullah; Robson, Barbara

    This grammar of Pashto was designed to accompany a set of beginning- and intermediate-level instructional materials for teaching the Pashto language to English speakers, but can be used separately as a reference by readers who are not learning the language. Introductory sections in English and Pashto describe the content and organization. The…

  16. Transformational Grammar and Cognitive Psycholinguistics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lester, Mark

    1973-01-01

    An overview of Noam Chomsky's theories about transformational grammar and phonology is given. Since Chomsky was interested in characterizing what it is to know a language, the ways in which we demonstrate knowledge of our native language are discussed in detail. Particular emphasis is placed on describing how the transformational approach actually…

  17. Readings in Applied Transformational Grammar.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lester, Mark, Ed.

    This volume contains nineteen essays, dealing with various aspects of transformational grammar, by scholars such as Noam Chomsky, Eric H. Lenneberg, and Leon Jakobovits. These essays have been reprinted from sources such as "College English" and "Language Learning" and are intended for the most part for a nontechnical audience. The anthology is…

  18. Grammar on the Information Superhighway: Proceed with Caution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perrin, Robert

    2003-01-01

    Describes six categories of websites on grammar. Considers the advantages and disadvantages that Internet grammar provides. Presents an annotated list of 15 web sites on grammar. Suggests adopting a positive but cautious approach to grammar on the Internet. Concludes that grammar on the Internet is a potentially helpful resource to use in addition…

  19. Some Experimental Results with Tree Adjunct Grammar Guided Genetic

    E-print Network

    McKay, Robert Ian

    Some Experimental Results with Tree Adjunct Grammar Guided Genetic Programming N.X.Hoai 1 , R.I. Mc-adjunct grammar guided genetic programming (TAG3P) [5] is a grammar guided genetic programming system that uses context-free grammars along with tree-adjunct grammars as means to set language bias for the genetic

  20. Grammar Teaching Revisited: EFL Teachers between Grammar Abstinence and Formal Grammar Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nazari, Ahmad; Allahyar, Negah

    2012-01-01

    The study of English language teachers' cognitions and its relationship to teachers' classroom practices have recently been the focus of language teaching and teacher education (Borg, 2006 & 2010). However, rarely have the studies delved into teachers' knowledge about grammar (reviewed by Borg, 2001) or investigated the relationships between…

  1. Defense et illustration de la grammaire philologique (An Example and a Defense of Philological Grammar)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dupont, Louis

    1972-01-01

    Author cites philological grammar" as one of three ways of treating language. The other two approaches to language are traditional grammar and linguistic grammar or transformational generative grammar. Philological grammar stresses the art of reading. (DS)

  2. Prosodic Phrasing and Modifier Attachment in Standard Arabic Sentence Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdelghany, Hala

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation investigates the syntax-prosody interface in Standard Arabic, focusing on the ambiguity of a modifier (relative clause or adjective phrase) in relation to the two nouns in a complex noun phrase. Ambiguity resolution tendencies for this construction differ across languages, contrary to otherwise universal parsing tendencies. One…

  3. 20 CFR 201.1 - Words and phrases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Words and phrases. 201.1 Section 201.1 Employees' Benefits...UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT DEFINITIONS § 201.1 Words and phrases. For the purposes of the regulations in...

  4. 20 CFR 201.1 - Words and phrases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Words and phrases. 201.1 Section 201.1 Employees' Benefits...UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT DEFINITIONS § 201.1 Words and phrases. For the purposes of the regulations in...

  5. 20 CFR 300.1 - Words and phrases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Words and phrases. 300.1 Section 300.1 Employees' Benefits...RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT DEFINITIONS § 300.1 Words and phrases. For the purposes of the regulations in...

  6. 20 CFR 300.1 - Words and phrases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Words and phrases. 300.1 Section 300.1 Employees' Benefits...RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT DEFINITIONS § 300.1 Words and phrases. For the purposes of the regulations in...

  7. 20 CFR 300.1 - Words and phrases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Words and phrases. 300.1 Section 300.1 Employees' Benefits...RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT DEFINITIONS § 300.1 Words and phrases. For the purposes of the regulations in...

  8. 20 CFR 201.1 - Words and phrases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Words and phrases. 201.1 Section 201.1 Employees' Benefits...UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT DEFINITIONS § 201.1 Words and phrases. For the purposes of the regulations in...

  9. 20 CFR 300.1 - Words and phrases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Words and phrases. 300.1 Section 300.1 Employees' Benefits...RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT DEFINITIONS § 300.1 Words and phrases. For the purposes of the regulations in...

  10. 20 CFR 300.1 - Words and phrases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Words and phrases. 300.1 Section 300.1 Employees' Benefits...RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT DEFINITIONS § 300.1 Words and phrases. For the purposes of the regulations in...

  11. Artificial grammar learning in individuals with severe aphasia.

    PubMed

    Zimmerer, Vitor C; Cowell, Patricia E; Varley, Rosemary A

    2014-01-01

    One factor in syntactic impairment in aphasia might be damage to general structure processing systems. In such a case, deficits would be evident in the processing of syntactically structured non-linguistic information. To explore this hypothesis, we examined performances on artificial grammar learning (AGL) tasks in which the grammar was expressed in non-linguistic visual forms. In the first experiment, AGL behavior of four aphasic participants with severe syntactic impairment, five aphasic participants without syntactic impairment, and healthy controls was examined. Participants were trained on sequences of nonsense stimuli with the structure A(n)B(n). Data were analyzed at an individual level to identify different behavioral profiles and account for heterogeneity in aphasic as well as healthy groups. Healthy controls and patients without syntactic impairment were more likely to learn configurational (item order) than quantitative (counting) regularities. Quantitative regularities were only detected by individuals who also detected the configurational properties of the stimulus sequences. By contrast, two individuals with syntactic impairment learned quantitative regularities, but showed no sensitivity towards configurational structure. They also failed to detect configurational structure in a second experiment in which sequences were structured by the grammar A(+)B(+). We discuss the potential relationship between AGL and processing of word order as well as the potential of AGL in clinical practice. PMID:24184437

  12. Spring Cleaning and Grammar Compression: Two Techniques for Detection of Redundancy in HPSG Grammars

    E-print Network

    Spring Cleaning and Grammar Compression: Two Techniques for Detection of Redundancy in HPSG Grammars Antske Fokkens a , Yi Zhang b and Emily M. Bender c a Department of Computational Linguistics which parts of an implemented grammar are used and which parts are computationally inactive. Our results

  13. RNA modeling using Gibbs sampling and stochastic context free grammars

    SciTech Connect

    Grate, L.; Herbster, M.; Rughey, R.; Haussler, D.

    1994-12-31

    A new method of discovering the common secondary structure of a family of homologous RNA sequences using Gibbs sampling and stochastic context-free grammars is proposed. Given an unaligned set of sequences, a Gibbs sampling step simultaneously estimates the secondary structure of each sequence and a set of statistical parameters describing the common secondary structure of the set as a whole. These parameters describe a statistical model of the family. After the Gibbs sampling has produced a crude statistical model for the family, this model is translated into a stochastic context-free grammar, which is then refined by an Expectation Maximization (EM) procedure to produce a more complete model. A prototype implementation of the method is tested on tRNA, pieces of 16S rRNA and on U5 snRNA with good results.

  14. Product Grammars for Alignment and Folding.

    PubMed

    Honer Zu Siederdissen, Christian; Hofacker, Ivo L; Stadler, Peter F

    2015-01-01

    We develop a theory of algebraic operations over linear and context-free grammars that makes it possible to combine simple "atomic" grammars operating on single sequences into complex, multi-dimensional grammars. We demonstrate the utility of this framework by constructing the search spaces of complex alignment problems on multiple input sequences explicitly as algebraic expressions of very simple one-dimensional grammars. In particular, we provide a fully worked frameshift-aware, semiglobal DNA-protein alignment algorithm whose grammar is composed of products of small, atomic grammars. The compiler accompanying our theory makes it easy to experiment with the combination of multiple grammars and different operations. Composite grammars can be written out in LATEX for documentation and as a guide to implementation of dynamic programming algorithms. An embedding in Haskell as a domain-specific language makes the theory directly accessible to writing and using grammar products without the detour of an external compiler. Software and supplemental files available here: http://www.bioinf. uni-leipzig.de/Software/gramprod/. PMID:26357262

  15. Kent Sakoda Discusses Pidgin Grammar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sakoda, Kent; Tamura, Eileen H.

    2008-01-01

    For a number of years, Kent Sakoda has been teaching at the University of Hawai'i at Manoa in the Department of Second Language Studies. His course, "Pidgin and Creole English in Hawai'i," is popular among students on campus. He has also taught at Hawai'i Pacific University. Because of his expertise on the grammar of Pidgin (Hawai'i Creole),…

  16. What exactly is Universal Grammar, and has anyone seen it?

    PubMed

    D?browska, Ewa

    2015-01-01

    Universal Grammar (UG) is a suspect concept. There is little agreement on what exactly is in it; and the empirical evidence for it is very weak. This paper critically examines a variety of arguments that have been put forward as evidence for UG, focussing on the three most powerful ones: universality (all human languages share a number of properties), convergence (all language learners converge on the same grammar in spite of the fact that they are exposed to different input), and poverty of the stimulus (children know things about language which they could not have learned from the input available to them). I argue that these arguments are based on premises which are either false or unsubstantiated. Languages differ from each other in profound ways, and there are very few true universals, so the fundamental crosslinguistic fact that needs explaining is diversity, not universality. A number of recent studies have demonstrated the existence of considerable differences in adult native speakers' knowledge of the grammar of their language, including aspects of inflectional morphology, passives, quantifiers, and a variety of more complex constructions, so learners do not in fact converge on the same grammar. Finally, the poverty of the stimulus argument presupposes that children acquire linguistic representations of the kind postulated by generative grammarians; constructionist grammars such as those proposed by Tomasello, Goldberg and others can be learned from the input. We are the only species that has language, so there must be something unique about humans that makes language learning possible. The extent of crosslinguistic diversity and the considerable individual differences in the rate, style and outcome of acquisition suggest that it is more promising to think in terms of a language-making capacity, i.e., a set of domain-general abilities, rather than an innate body of knowledge about the structural properties of the target system. PMID:26157406

  17. What exactly is Universal Grammar, and has anyone seen it?

    PubMed Central

    D?browska, Ewa

    2015-01-01

    Universal Grammar (UG) is a suspect concept. There is little agreement on what exactly is in it; and the empirical evidence for it is very weak. This paper critically examines a variety of arguments that have been put forward as evidence for UG, focussing on the three most powerful ones: universality (all human languages share a number of properties), convergence (all language learners converge on the same grammar in spite of the fact that they are exposed to different input), and poverty of the stimulus (children know things about language which they could not have learned from the input available to them). I argue that these arguments are based on premises which are either false or unsubstantiated. Languages differ from each other in profound ways, and there are very few true universals, so the fundamental crosslinguistic fact that needs explaining is diversity, not universality. A number of recent studies have demonstrated the existence of considerable differences in adult native speakers’ knowledge of the grammar of their language, including aspects of inflectional morphology, passives, quantifiers, and a variety of more complex constructions, so learners do not in fact converge on the same grammar. Finally, the poverty of the stimulus argument presupposes that children acquire linguistic representations of the kind postulated by generative grammarians; constructionist grammars such as those proposed by Tomasello, Goldberg and others can be learned from the input. We are the only species that has language, so there must be something unique about humans that makes language learning possible. The extent of crosslinguistic diversity and the considerable individual differences in the rate, style and outcome of acquisition suggest that it is more promising to think in terms of a language-making capacity, i.e., a set of domain-general abilities, rather than an innate body of knowledge about the structural properties of the target system. PMID:26157406

  18. Nigel: a systemic grammar for text generation

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, W.C.; Matthiessen, C.M.

    1983-02-01

    Programming a computer to write text which meets a prior need is a challenging research task. As part of such research, Nigel, a large programmed grammar of English, has been created in the framework of systemic linguistics begun by Halliday. In addition to specifying function and structures of English, Nigel has a novel semantic stratum which specifies the situations in which each grammatical feature should be used. The report consists of three papers on Nigel: an introductory overview, the script of a demonstration of its use in generation, and an exposition of how Nigel relates to the systemic framework. Although the effort to develop Nigel is significant both as computer science research and as linguistic inquiry the outlook of the report is oriented to its linguistic significance.

  19. Metrical Presentation Boosts Implicit Learning of Artificial Grammar

    PubMed Central

    Selchenkova, Tatiana; François, Clément; Schön, Daniele; Corneyllie, Alexandra; Perrin, Fabien; Tillmann, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigated whether a temporal hierarchical structure favors implicit learning. An artificial pitch grammar implemented with a set of tones was presented in two different temporal contexts, notably with either a strongly metrical structure or an isochronous structure. According to the Dynamic Attending Theory, external temporal regularities can entrain internal oscillators that guide attention over time, allowing for temporal expectations that influence perception of future events. Based on this framework, it was hypothesized that the metrical structure provides a benefit for artificial grammar learning in comparison to an isochronous presentation. Our study combined behavioral and event-related potential measurements. Behavioral results demonstrated similar learning in both participant groups. By contrast, analyses of event-related potentials showed a larger P300 component and an earlier N2 component for the strongly metrical group during the exposure phase and the test phase, respectively. These findings suggests that the temporal expectations in the strongly metrical condition helped listeners to better process the pitch dimension, leading to improved learning of the artificial grammar. PMID:25372147

  20. Phrase-programmable digital speech system

    SciTech Connect

    Raymond, W.J.; Morgan, R.L.; Miller, R.L.

    1987-01-27

    This patent describes a phrase speaking computer system having a programmable digital computer and a speech processor, the speech processor comprising: a voice synthesizer; a read/write speech data segment memory; a read/write command memory; control processor means including processor control programs and logic connecting to the memories and to the voice synthesizer. It is arranged to scan the command memory and to respond to command data entries stored therein by transferring corresponding speech data segments from the speech data segment memory to the voice synthesizer; data conveyance means, connecting the computer to the command memory and the speech data segment memory, for transferring the command data entries supplied by the computer into the command memory and for transferring the speech data segments supplied by the computer into the speech data segment memory; and an enable signal line connecting the computer to the speech processor and arranged to initiate the operation of the processor control programs and logic when the enable signal line is enabled by the computer; the programmable computer including speech control programs controlling the operation of the computer including data conveyance command sequences that cause the computer to supply command data entries to the data conveyance means and speech processor enabling command sequences that cause computer to energize the enable signal line.

  1. Research into Practice: Grammar Learning and Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsen-Freeman, Diane

    2015-01-01

    This selective review of the second language acquisition and applied linguistics research literature on grammar learning and teaching falls into three categories: where research has had little impact (the non-interface position), modest impact (form-focused instruction), and where it potentially can have a large impact (reconceiving grammar).…

  2. Making a Case for Rhetorical Grammar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Micciche, Laura R.

    2004-01-01

    Rhetorical grammar analysis encourages students to view writing as a material social practice in which meaning is actively made, rather than passively relayed or effortlessly produced. The study of rhetorical grammar can demonstrate to students that language does purposeful, consequential work in the world--work that can be learned and applied.

  3. Propelling Students into Active Grammar Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jurhill, Dennis A.

    2011-01-01

    "O! this learning, what a thing it is." -W. Shakespeare, "The Taming of the Shrew." The aim of this action research was to find out if active grammar involvement amongst students might lead to better results. My approach was to activate my students during grammar instruction by using cooperative learning: that is a form of learning in which…

  4. Can the Grammar of Schooling Be Changed?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arbelaiz, Asuncion Martinez; Correa Gorospe, Jose Miguel

    2009-01-01

    In this article we propose that the grammar of schooling [Tyack, D., & Tobin, W. (1994). "The 'grammar' of schooling: Why has it been so hard to change?" "American Educational Research Journal, 31"(3), 453-479.] is responsible not only for the well-known and world-wide difficulties in integrating ICT into formal educational settings, but also for…

  5. Reading and Grammar Learning through Mobile Phones

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Shudong; Smith, Simon

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes an ongoing language-learning project, three years into its development. We examine both the feasibility and the limitations of developing English reading and grammar skills through the interface of mobile phones. Throughout the project, reading and grammar materials were regularly sent to students' mobile phones. Students…

  6. Grammar and Usage: History and Myth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Ken

    2010-01-01

    The paper first traces the history of thinking about language from the Greek writers of the fifth century BC to the development of the first Greek grammar in about 100 BC. Since the glories of Ancient Greek literature predate the development of grammar, there is every reason to doubt the received wisdom that one must have an explicit knowledge of…

  7. Flexible Processing and the Design of Grammar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sag, Ivan A.; Wasow, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    We explore the consequences of letting the incremental and integrative nature of language processing inform the design of competence grammar. What emerges is a view of grammar as a system of local monotonic constraints that provide a direct characterization of the signs (the form-meaning correspondences) of a given language. This…

  8. Studies in French Grammar and Phonology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benguerel, Andre-Pierre; Grundstrom, Allan W.

    The monograph contains two papers. The first presents a generative grammar for verbal forms in French. It consists of an ordered set of rewrite rules and a set of tables. It generates all existing verbal forms without generating any non-existing ones. The departure from an ordinary generative grammar lies in the use of a tabular form for…

  9. Ágost Pável’s Prekmurje Slovene Grammar

    E-print Network

    Greenberg, Marc L.

    1989-01-01

    The author discusses the content of the unpublished standard grammar for the language of the Prekmurje (Mura River region). Completed in 1942, the grammar was written in Hungarian for use in regional schools. Today it is of value for the description...

  10. Studying Grammar in the Technological Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    2012-01-01

    When being a student in grade school as well as in high school (1934-1946), grammar was heavily emphasized in English/language arts classes, particularly in grades four through the senior year in high school. Evidently, teachers and school administrators then saw a theoretical way to assist pupils in writing achievement. Grammar and writing were…

  11. A Prototype Grammar Kit in Prolog.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahn, Kenneth M.

    1984-01-01

    Presents a prototype of a computerized grammar kit written in PROLOG and designed for children interested in exploring language. PROLOG's advantages for building parsers, generators, translators, and question-answering systems are discussed, and a scenario of a child working on a grammar project using the kit and implementation issues are…

  12. Towards a Pedagogy of Grammar Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Jack C.; Reppen, Randi

    2014-01-01

    Grammar can be viewed both as knowledge and as ability. When viewed as knowledge, the focus is on rules for sentence formation. When viewed as ability, the focus is on how grammar is used as a resource in the creation of spoken and written texts. Twelve principles are proposed as the basis for a pedagogy that focusses on acquiring learning to use…

  13. Developing rich and quickly accessed knowledge of an artificial grammar.

    PubMed

    Sallas, Bill; Mathews, Robert C; Lane, Sean M; Sun, Ron

    2007-12-01

    In contrast to prior research, our results demonstrate that it is possible to acquire rich, highly accurate, and quickly accessed knowledge of an artificial grammar. Across two experiments, we trained participants by using a string-edit task and highlighting relatively low-level (letters), medium-level (chunks), or high-level (structural; i.e., grammar diagram) information to increase the efficiency of grammar acquisition. In both experiments, participants who had structural information available during training generated more highly accurate strings during a cued generation test than did those in other conditions, with equivalent speed. Experiment 2 revealed that structural information enhanced acquisition only when relevant features were highlighted during the task using animation. We suggest that two critical components for producing enhanced performance from provided model-based knowledge involve (1) using the model to acquire experience-based knowledge, rather than using a representation of the model to generate responses, and (2) receiving that knowledge precisely when it is needed during training. PMID:18265626

  14. Attribute grammars and data-flow languages

    SciTech Connect

    Farrow, R.

    1983-06-01

    The author examines the similarity between attribute grammars and data-flow languages. For any attribute grammar there is a data-flow program that is an evaluator for it, and the author describes how to build this data-flow program. The design of semantic functions for an attribute grammar is seen to be a problem of programming in a data-flow language. Reinterpreting experience writing attribute grammars, he suggests some techniques to use in data-flow programming and proposes language features that will support them. He also proposes using data-flow notation to specify the semantic functions of attribute grammars and implementing attribute evaluators in a data-flow language. 37 references.

  15. Recognizing Bangla Grammar using Predictive Parser

    E-print Network

    Hasan, K M Azharul; Mondal, Amit; Saha, Amit

    2012-01-01

    We describe a Context Free Grammar (CFG) for Bangla language and hence we propose a Bangla parser based on the grammar. Our approach is very much general to apply in Bangla Sentences and the method is well accepted for parsing a language of a grammar. The proposed parser is a predictive parser and we construct the parse table for recognizing Bangla grammar. Using the parse table we recognize syntactical mistakes of Bangla sentences when there is no entry for a terminal in the parse table. If a natural language can be successfully parsed then grammar checking from this language becomes possible. The proposed scheme is based on Top down parsing method and we have avoided the left recursion of the CFG using the idea of left factoring.

  16. The French Noun Phrase in Preschool Children with SLI: Morphosyntactic and Error Analyses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Royle, Phaedra; Stine, Isabelle

    2013-01-01

    We studied spontaneous speech noun-phrase production in eight French-speaking children with SLI (aged 5;0 to 5; 1) and controls matched on age (4;10 to 5;11) or MLU (aged 3;2 to 4;1). Results showed that children with SLI prefer simple DP structures to complex ones while producing more substitution and omission errors than controls. The three…

  17. Assigning phrase breaks from part-of-speech sequences 

    E-print Network

    Taylor, Paul; Black, Alan W

    This paper presents an algorithm for automatically assigning phrase breaks to unrestricted text for use in a text-to-speech synthesizer. Text is first converted into a sequence of part-of-speech tags. Next a Markov model ...

  18. Accent phrase segmentation using transition probabilities between pitch pattern templates. 

    E-print Network

    Shimodaira, Hiroshi; Nakai, Mitsuru

    1993-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel method for segmenting continuous speech into accent phrases by using a prosodic feature 'pitch pattern'. The pitch pattern extracted from input speech signals is divided into the accent segments ...

  19. Identifying synonymy between relational phrases using word embeddings.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Nhung T H; Miwa, Makoto; Tsuruoka, Yoshimasa; Tojo, Satoshi

    2015-08-01

    Many text mining applications in the biomedical domain benefit from automatic clustering of relational phrases into synonymous groups, since it alleviates the problem of spurious mismatches caused by the diversity of natural language expressions. Most of the previous work that has addressed this task of synonymy resolution uses similarity metrics between relational phrases based on textual strings or dependency paths, which, for the most part, ignore the context around the relations. To overcome this shortcoming, we employ a word embedding technique to encode relational phrases. We then apply the k-means algorithm on top of the distributional representations to cluster the phrases. Our experimental results show that this approach outperforms state-of-the-art statistical models including latent Dirichlet allocation and Markov logic networks. PMID:26004792

  20. An Unsupervised Model for Statistically Determining Coordinate Phrase Attachment

    E-print Network

    chocolates)) (and roses)) Consider, then, the phrase: salad of lettuce and tomatoes 'Lettuce' attaches low to 'tomatoes', giving: L-attach: (salad (of ((lettuce) and (tomatoes))) [AR98] models. In addition to these

  1. Cyclicity and the scope of wh-phrases

    E-print Network

    Aguero Bautista, Calixto

    2001-01-01

    This thesis argues that in a constituent question with a universal quantifier, syntactic reconstruction of the wh-phrase below the quantifier is the source of scope ambiguities. In particular, I argue, based on the interaction ...

  2. Adaptation to Aphasia: Grammar, Prosody and Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhys, Catrin S.; Ulbrich, Christiane; Ordin, Mikhail

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates recurrent use of the phrase "very good" by a speaker with non-fluent agrammatic aphasia. Informal observation of the speaker's interaction reveals that she appears to be an effective conversational partner despite very severe word retrieval difficulties that result in extensive reliance on variants of the phrase "very…

  3. Tree-Adjoining Grammars Are Not Closed Under Strong Lexicalization

    E-print Network

    that the new grammar generates exactly the same set of parse trees as G. As a special case, this entailsTree-Adjoining Grammars Are Not Closed Under Strong Lexicalization Marco Kuhlmann Uppsala University Giorgio Satta University of Padua A lexicalized tree-adjoining grammar is a tree-adjoining grammar

  4. An Analysis of Spoken Grammar: The Case for Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mumford, Simon

    2009-01-01

    Corpus-based grammars, notably "Cambridge Grammar of English," give explicit information on the forms and use of native-speaker grammar, including spoken grammar. Native-speaker norms as a necessary goal in language teaching are contested by supporters of English as a Lingua Franca (ELF); however, this article argues for the inclusion of selected…

  5. ON THE PARSING OF LL-REGULAR GRAMMARS Anton Nijholt

    E-print Network

    Theune, Mariët

    for a deterministic push- down transducer (dpdt). In the case of an LR-regular grammar G the result of the pre to this LR(0) grammar. In the case of an LL- regular grammar it is possible to construct a strictON THE PARSING OF LL-REGULAR GRAMMARS Anton Nijholt Department of Mathematics Free University

  6. Petri Net Controlled Grammars: the Case of Special Petri Nets

    E-print Network

    Petri Net Controlled Grammars: the Case of Special Petri Nets JË?urgen Dassow (Otto sherzod.turaev@urv.cat) Abstract: A Petri net controlled grammar is a context­free grammar equipped with a Petri net, whose transitions are labeled with rules of the grammar or the empty string

  7. Petri Net Controlled Grammars: the Case of Special Petri Nets

    E-print Network

    Petri Net Controlled Grammars: the Case of Special Petri Nets J¨urgen Dassow (Otto sherzod.turaev@urv.cat) Abstract: A Petri net controlled grammar is a context-free grammar equipped with a Petri net, whose transitions are labeled with rules of the grammar or the empty string

  8. An Incremental Interactive Algorithm for Regular Grammar Inference \\Lambda

    E-print Network

    Honavar, Vasant

    An Incremental Interactive Algorithm for Regular Grammar Inference \\Lambda Rajesh Parekh & Vasant present interactive algorithms for learning regular grammars from positive ex­ amples and membership grammar G implicitly specifies a lattice (or version space) which represents a space of candidate grammars

  9. Book Review The Cambridge Grammar of the English Language

    E-print Network

    Book Review The Cambridge Grammar of the English Language Rodney Huddleston and Geoffrey K. Pullum University The Cambridge Grammar of the English Language is a comprehensive descriptive grammar of English designed to be accessible to the general reader. Part of the declared goal is to produce a grammar

  10. Parsing Preserving Techniques in Grammar Induction Smaranda Muresan

    E-print Network

    Parsing Preserving Techniques in Grammar Induction Smaranda Muresan Department of Computer Science the theoretical foundation of the search space for learning a class of constraint- based grammars, which preserve grammar lattice, and the lattice top element is a grammar that can always be learned from a set

  11. A Link Grammar for an Agglutinative Language Ozlem Istek

    E-print Network

    Cicekli, Ilyas

    A Link Grammar for an Agglutinative Language Ozlem Istek Department of Computer Engineering Bilkent presents a syntactic grammar developed in the link grammar formalism for Turkish which is an ag- glutinative language. In the link grammar formalism, the words of a sentence are linked with each other depend

  12. Generating French with a Reversible Unification Grammar DominiqueEstival

    E-print Network

    Generating French with a Reversible Unification Grammar DominiqueEstival ISSCO 54 rte des Acacias of the problems encountered in writing a reversible French grammar. This grammar is pri- marily intended to be one of the components of a machine translation system built using ELU,1 an enhanced PATR-II style unification grammar

  13. Pourquoi les exercices de grammaire? (Why Grammar Exercises?)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bastuji, Jacqueline

    1977-01-01

    Recent theories and experiementation running the gamut from the absolute necessity of grammar to its uselessness in teaching a language form the basis of this article. Topics covered are: a typology of the grammar exercise; explicit grammar and linguistic competence; grammar exercises responding to real needs. (Text is in French.) (AMH)

  14. What English Teachers Need to Know about Grammar.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murdick, William

    1996-01-01

    Suggests that English teachers need to know that grammar is a difficult subject; know what children know about grammar; know that grammatical error is complex; and know more about language than just grammar. Concludes with the advice of Noam Chomsky--that grammar should be taught for its own intrinsic interest. (RS)

  15. XRate: a fast prototyping, training and annotation tool for phylo-grammars

    PubMed Central

    Klosterman, Peter S; Uzilov, Andrew V; Bendaña, Yuri R; Bradley, Robert K; Chao, Sharon; Kosiol, Carolin; Goldman, Nick; Holmes, Ian

    2006-01-01

    Background Recent years have seen the emergence of genome annotation methods based on the phylo-grammar, a probabilistic model combining continuous-time Markov chains and stochastic grammars. Previously, phylo-grammars have required considerable effort to implement, limiting their adoption by computational biologists. Results We have developed an open source software tool, xrate, for working with reversible, irreversible or parametric substitution models combined with stochastic context-free grammars. xrate efficiently estimates maximum-likelihood parameters and phylogenetic trees using a novel "phylo-EM" algorithm that we describe. The grammar is specified in an external configuration file, allowing users to design new grammars, estimate rate parameters from training data and annotate multiple sequence alignments without the need to recompile code from source. We have used xrate to measure codon substitution rates and predict protein and RNA secondary structures. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that xrate estimates biologically meaningful rates and makes predictions whose accuracy is comparable to that of more specialized tools. PMID:17018148

  16. Grammar disruption in a patient with Neuro-Sweet syndrome.

    PubMed

    Mariën, Peter; Tops, Wim; Crols, Roel; Jonkers, Roel; De Deyn, Peter P; Verhoeven, Jo

    2012-06-01

    This paper for the first time reports detailed neurolinguistic findings in a patient with Neuro-Sweet syndrome. In this patient the presenting symptoms of central nervous system (CNS) involvement primarily consisted of a selective grammar deficit restricted to spontaneous speech. On MRI a left prefrontal ischemic stroke (superior part BA 6) and two small subcortical left parietal infarctions were found. Neurolinguistic analyses, however, did not reveal a profile consistent with any observations of agrammatism caused by structural damage to the language areas critically involved in grammatical processing. It is hypothesized that selectively distorted grammar might reflect disruption of the frontosubcortical network involved in language processing. Prefrontal neurobehavioral abnormalities associated with functional disruption of the inferior medial frontal regions as demonstrated by SPECT, additionally suggest that agrammatic symptoms may be linked to a higher-level cognitive disorder following encephalopathic CNS involvement. PMID:21879995

  17. Parsing Combinatory Categorial Grammar with Answer Set Programming: Preliminary Report

    E-print Network

    Lierler, Yuliya

    2011-01-01

    Combinatory categorial grammar (CCG) is a grammar formalism used for natural language parsing. CCG assigns structured lexical categories to words and uses a small set of combinatory rules to combine these categories to parse a sentence. In this work we propose and implement a new approach to CCG parsing that relies on a prominent knowledge representation formalism, answer set programming (ASP) - a declarative programming paradigm. We formulate the task of CCG parsing as a planning problem and use an ASP computational tool to compute solutions that correspond to valid parses. Compared to other approaches, there is no need to implement a specific parsing algorithm using such a declarative method. Our approach aims at producing all semantically distinct parse trees for a given sentence. From this goal, normalization and efficiency issues arise, and we deal with them by combining and extending existing strategies. We have implemented a CCG parsing tool kit - AspCcgTk - that uses ASP as its main computational mean...

  18. A new method of cardiographic image segmentation based on grammar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamdi, Salah; Ben Abdallah, Asma; Bedoui, Mohamed H.; Alimi, Adel M.

    2011-10-01

    The measurement of the most common ultrasound parameters, such as aortic area, mitral area and left ventricle (LV) volume, requires the delineation of the organ in order to estimate the area. In terms of medical image processing this translates into the need to segment the image and define the contours as accurately as possible. The aim of this work is to segment an image and make an automated area estimation based on grammar. The entity "language" will be projected to the entity "image" to perform structural analysis and parsing of the image. We will show how the idea of segmentation and grammar-based area estimation is applied to real problems of cardio-graphic image processing.

  19. Modelling dynamics with context-free grammars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Huerta, Juan-M.; Jiménez-Hernández, Hugo; Herrera-Navarro, Ana-M.; Hernández-Díaz, Teresa; Terol-Villalobos, Ivan

    2014-03-01

    This article presents a strategy to model the dynamics performed by vehicles in a freeway. The proposal consists on encode the movement as a set of finite states. A watershed-based segmentation is used to localize regions with high-probability of motion. Each state represents a proportion of a camera projection in a two-dimensional space, where each state is associated to a symbol, such that any combination of symbols is expressed as a language. Starting from a sequence of symbols through a linear algorithm a free-context grammar is inferred. This grammar represents a hierarchical view of common sequences observed into the scene. Most probable grammar rules express common rules associated to normal movement behavior. Less probable rules express themselves a way to quantify non-common behaviors and they might need more attention. Finally, all sequences of symbols that does not match with the grammar rules, may express itself uncommon behaviors (abnormal). The grammar inference is built with several sequences of images taken from a freeway. Testing process uses the sequence of symbols emitted by the scenario, matching the grammar rules with common freeway behaviors. The process of detect abnormal/normal behaviors is managed as the task of verify if any word generated by the scenario is recognized by the grammar.

  20. ANTLR Tree Grammar Generator and Extensions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craymer, Loring

    2005-01-01

    A computer program implements two extensions of ANTLR (Another Tool for Language Recognition), which is a set of software tools for translating source codes between different computing languages. ANTLR supports predicated- LL(k) lexer and parser grammars, a notation for annotating parser grammars to direct tree construction, and predicated tree grammars. [ LL(k) signifies left-right, leftmost derivation with k tokens of look-ahead, referring to certain characteristics of a grammar.] One of the extensions is a syntax for tree transformations. The other extension is the generation of tree grammars from annotated parser or input tree grammars. These extensions can simplify the process of generating source-to-source language translators and they make possible an approach, called "polyphase parsing," to translation between computing languages. The typical approach to translator development is to identify high-level semantic constructs such as "expressions," "declarations," and "definitions" as fundamental building blocks in the grammar specification used for language recognition. The polyphase approach is to lump ambiguous syntactic constructs during parsing and then disambiguate the alternatives in subsequent tree transformation passes. Polyphase parsing is believed to be useful for generating efficient recognizers for C++ and other languages that, like C++, have significant ambiguities.

  1. Asymptotic distribution of motifs in a stochastic context-free grammar model of RNA folding

    E-print Network

    Poznanovik, Svetlana

    2012-01-01

    We analyze the distribution of RNA secondary structures given by the Knudsen-Hein stochastic context-free grammar used in the prediction program Pfold. We prove that the distribution of base pairs, helices and various types of loops in RNA secondary structures in this probabilistic model is asymptotically Gaussian, for a generic choice of the grammar probabilities. Our proofs are based on singularity analysis of probability generating functions. Finally, we use our results to discuss how this model reflects the properties of some known ribosomal secondary structures.

  2. Overview of the Nigel text generation grammar

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, W.C.

    1983-04-01

    Research on the text generation task has led to creation of a large systemic grammar of English, Nigel, which is embedded in a computer program. The grammar and the systemic framework have been extended by addition of a semantic stratum. The grammar generates sentences and other units under several kinds of experimental control. This paper describes augmentations of various precedents in the systematic framework. The emphasis is on developments which control the text to fulfill a purpose, and on characteristics which make Nigel relatively easy to embed in a larger experimental program.

  3. Terminal context in context-sensitive grammars.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Book, R. V.

    1972-01-01

    Investigation of the conditions whereunder context-sensitive grammars generate context-free languages. The obtained results indicate that, if every noncontext-free rewriting rule of a context-sensitive grammar has as left context a string of terminal symbols and the left context is at least as long as the right context, then the language generated is context-free. Likewise, if every noncontext-free rewriting rule of a context-sensitive grammar has strings of terminal symbols as left and right contexts, then the language generated is also context-free.

  4. Lexical Noun Phrases in Texts Written by Deaf Children and Adults with Different Proficiency Levels in Sign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Beijsterveldt, Liesbeth Maria; van Hell, Janet

    2010-01-01

    We report an analysis of lexical noun phrases (NPs) in narrative and expository texts written by Dutch deaf individuals from a bimodal bilingual perspective. Texts written by Dutch deaf children and adults who are either proficient in Sign Language of the Netherlands (SLN) or low-proficient in SLN were compared on structures that either overlap in…

  5. The Noun Phrase in Tagalog-English Code Switching. Studies in Philippine Linguistics, Vol. 1, No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bautista, Maria Lourdes S.

    1977-01-01

    The structure of the Noun Phrase (NP) is analyzed in a corpus featuring Tagalog-English code-switching. Instances of first language (L1) NP's appearing as subjects and complements in second language (L2) sentential units are examined to gain insight into code-switching. Ten thirty-minute tapes of a radio program in Tagalog provided the corpus for…

  6. Information processing system for compaction and replacement of phrases

    SciTech Connect

    Zamora, E.M.

    1988-09-20

    This patent describes an information processing system including an input unit connected to an input word stream of natural language text, a storage unit for storing natural language text, an execution unit for executing instructions to process natural language text and an output unit for displaying an output word stream of natural language text, a process for the replacement of natural language test, a process for the replacement of natural language source phrases contained in the input word stream with natural language replacement phrases which are inserted into the output word stream, comprising the steps of: storing phrase-pair expressions in the storage unit, each expression including a source phrase segment containing a variable source word element and a constant source word element and each expression including a replacement phrase segment containing a variable replacement word element and a constant replacement word element; storing a source table is the storage unit, having source word element values arranged into ranks having a grammatically significant sequence.

  7. Learning simple and complex artificial grammars in the presence of a semantic reference field: effects on performance and awareness

    PubMed Central

    Van den Bos, Esther; Poletiek, Fenna H.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated whether the negative effect of complexity on artificial grammar learning could be compensated by adding semantics. Participants were exposed to exemplars from a simple or a complex finite state grammar presented with or without a semantic reference field. As expected, performance on a grammaticality judgment test was higher for the simple grammar than for the complex grammar. For the simple grammar, the results also showed that participants presented with a reference field and instructed to decode the meaning of each exemplar (decoding condition) did better than participants who memorized the exemplars without semantic referents (memorize condition). Contrary to expectations, however, there was no significant difference between the decoding condition and the memorize condition for the complex grammar. These findings indicated that the negative effect of complexity remained, despite the addition of semantics. To clarify how the presence of a reference field influenced the learning process, its effects on the acquisition of two types of knowledge (first- and second-order dependencies) and on participants' awareness of their knowledge were examined. The results tentatively suggested that the reference field enhanced the learning of second-order dependencies. In addition, participants in the decoding condition realized when they had knowledge relevant to making a grammaticality judgment, whereas participants in the memorize condition demonstrated some knowledge of which they were unaware. These results are in line with the view that the reference field enhanced structure learning by making certain dependencies more salient. Moreover, our findings stress the influence of complexity on artificial grammar learning. PMID:25745408

  8. Transfer Learning for Constituency-Based Grammars

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Yuan

    In this paper, we consider the problem of cross-formalism transfer in parsing. We are interested in parsing constituency-based grammars such as HPSG and CCG using a small amount of data specific for the target formalism, ...

  9. Flexible processing and the design of grammar.

    PubMed

    Sag, Ivan A; Wasow, Thomas

    2015-02-01

    We explore the consequences of letting the incremental and integrative nature of language processing inform the design of competence grammar. What emerges is a view of grammar as a system of local monotonic constraints that provide a direct characterization of the signs (the form-meaning correspondences) of a given language. This "sign-based" conception of grammar has provided precise solutions to the key problems long thought to motivate movement-based analyses, has supported three decades of computational research developing large-scale grammar implementations, and is now beginning to play a role in computational psycholinguistics research that explores the use of underspecification in the incremental computation of partial meanings. PMID:25385276

  10. Probabilistic geometric grammars for object recognition

    E-print Network

    Aycinena, Margaret Aida

    2005-01-01

    This thesis presents a generative three-dimensional (3D) representation and recognition framework for classes of objects. The framework uses probabilistic grammars to represent object classes recursively in terms of their ...

  11. On Psycholinguistic Grammars Patrick Juola \\Lambda

    E-print Network

    Juola, Patrick

    On Psycholinguistic Grammars Patrick Juola \\Lambda University of Oxford patrick.juola@psy.ox.ac.uk July 3, 1997 \\Lambda Patrick Juola is a researcher at the Department of Experimental Psychology, Oxford

  12. Application of Montague grammar to English-Japanese machine translation

    SciTech Connect

    Nishida, T.; Doshita, S.

    1983-01-01

    English-Japanese machine translation requires a large amount of structural transformation in both grammatical and conceptual level. In order to make the control structure clearer and more understandable, this paper proposes a model based on Montague grammar. The translation process is modelled as a data flow computation process. Formal description tools are developed and a prototype system is constructed. Various problems which arise in this modelling and their solutions are described. Results of experiments are shown and the extent to which initial goals are achieved is discussed. 14 references.

  13. A stochastic context free grammar based framework for analysis of protein sequences

    PubMed Central

    Dyrka, Witold; Nebel, Jean-Christophe

    2009-01-01

    Background In the last decade, there have been many applications of formal language theory in bioinformatics such as RNA structure prediction and detection of patterns in DNA. However, in the field of proteomics, the size of the protein alphabet and the complexity of relationship between amino acids have mainly limited the application of formal language theory to the production of grammars whose expressive power is not higher than stochastic regular grammars. However, these grammars, like other state of the art methods, cannot cover any higher-order dependencies such as nested and crossing relationships that are common in proteins. In order to overcome some of these limitations, we propose a Stochastic Context Free Grammar based framework for the analysis of protein sequences where grammars are induced using a genetic algorithm. Results This framework was implemented in a system aiming at the production of binding site descriptors. These descriptors not only allow detection of protein regions that are involved in these sites, but also provide insight in their structure. Grammars were induced using quantitative properties of amino acids to deal with the size of the protein alphabet. Moreover, we imposed some structural constraints on grammars to reduce the extent of the rule search space. Finally, grammars based on different properties were combined to convey as much information as possible. Evaluation was performed on sites of various sizes and complexity described either by PROSITE patterns, domain profiles or a set of patterns. Results show the produced binding site descriptors are human-readable and, hence, highlight biologically meaningful features. Moreover, they achieve good accuracy in both annotation and detection. In addition, findings suggest that, unlike current state-of-the-art methods, our system may be particularly suited to deal with patterns shared by non-homologous proteins. Conclusion A new Stochastic Context Free Grammar based framework has been introduced allowing the production of binding site descriptors for analysis of protein sequences. Experiments have shown that not only is this new approach valid, but produces human-readable descriptors for binding sites which have been beyond the capability of current machine learning techniques. PMID:19814800

  14. Zipf’s law holds for phrases, not words

    PubMed Central

    Ryland Williams, Jake; Lessard, Paul R.; Desu, Suma; Clark, Eric M.; Bagrow, James P.; Danforth, Christopher M.; Sheridan Dodds, Peter

    2015-01-01

    With Zipf’s law being originally and most famously observed for word frequency, it is surprisingly limited in its applicability to human language, holding over no more than three to four orders of magnitude before hitting a clear break in scaling. Here, building on the simple observation that phrases of one or more words comprise the most coherent units of meaning in language, we show empirically that Zipf’s law for phrases extends over as many as nine orders of rank magnitude. In doing so, we develop a principled and scalable statistical mechanical method of random text partitioning, which opens up a rich frontier of rigorous text analysis via a rank ordering of mixed length phrases. PMID:26259699

  15. System, method and apparatus for generating phrases from a database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGreevy, Michael W. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A phrase generation is a method of generating sequences of terms, such as phrases, that may occur within a database of subsets containing sequences of terms, such as text. A database is provided and a relational model of the database is created. A query is then input. The query includes a term or a sequence of terms or multiple individual terms or multiple sequences of terms or combinations thereof. Next, several sequences of terms that are contextually related to the query are assembled from contextual relations in the model of the database. The sequences of terms are then sorted and output. Phrase generation can also be an iterative process used to produce sequences of terms from a relational model of a database.

  16. Zipf’s law holds for phrases, not words

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryland Williams, Jake; Lessard, Paul R.; Desu, Suma; Clark, Eric M.; Bagrow, James P.; Danforth, Christopher M.; Sheridan Dodds, Peter

    2015-08-01

    With Zipf’s law being originally and most famously observed for word frequency, it is surprisingly limited in its applicability to human language, holding over no more than three to four orders of magnitude before hitting a clear break in scaling. Here, building on the simple observation that phrases of one or more words comprise the most coherent units of meaning in language, we show empirically that Zipf’s law for phrases extends over as many as nine orders of rank magnitude. In doing so, we develop a principled and scalable statistical mechanical method of random text partitioning, which opens up a rich frontier of rigorous text analysis via a rank ordering of mixed length phrases.

  17. Conceptualisations of "Grammar Teaching": L1 English Teachers' Beliefs about Teaching Grammar for Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Annabel Mary

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on an investigation of L1 English teachers' conceptual and evaluative beliefs about teaching grammar, one strand of a larger Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC)-funded investigation into the impact of contextualised grammar teaching [RES-062-23-0775]. Thirty-one teachers in English secondary schools were interviewed…

  18. Using Human Speech StructuresUsing Human Speech Structures to Model Reality:to Model Reality

    E-print Network

    McKay, Robert Ian

    of Distribution Algorithms,Estimation of Distribution Algorithms, Grammars and Genetic Programming1 Using Human Speech StructuresUsing Human Speech Structures to Model Reality:to Model Reality: Grammars in GeneticGrammars in Genetic ProgrammingProgramming Bob McKayBob McKay School of Information

  19. An approach to multiscale modelling with graph grammars

    PubMed Central

    Ong, Yongzhi; Streit, Katarína; Henke, Michael; Kurth, Winfried

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Functional–structural plant models (FSPMs) simulate biological processes at different spatial scales. Methods exist for multiscale data representation and modification, but the advantages of using multiple scales in the dynamic aspects of FSPMs remain unclear. Results from multiscale models in various other areas of science that share fundamental modelling issues with FSPMs suggest that potential advantages do exist, and this study therefore aims to introduce an approach to multiscale modelling in FSPMs. Methods A three-part graph data structure and grammar is revisited, and presented with a conceptual framework for multiscale modelling. The framework is used for identifying roles, categorizing and describing scale-to-scale interactions, thus allowing alternative approaches to model development as opposed to correlation-based modelling at a single scale. Reverse information flow (from macro- to micro-scale) is catered for in the framework. The methods are implemented within the programming language XL. Key Results Three example models are implemented using the proposed multiscale graph model and framework. The first illustrates the fundamental usage of the graph data structure and grammar, the second uses probabilistic modelling for organs at the fine scale in order to derive crown growth, and the third combines multiscale plant topology with ozone trends and metabolic network simulations in order to model juvenile beech stands under exposure to a toxic trace gas. Conclusions The graph data structure supports data representation and grammar operations at multiple scales. The results demonstrate that multiscale modelling is a viable method in FSPM and an alternative to correlation-based modelling. Advantages and disadvantages of multiscale modelling are illustrated by comparisons with single-scale implementations, leading to motivations for further research in sensitivity analysis and run-time efficiency for these models. PMID:25134929

  20. Commitment-Based Learning of Hidden Linguistic Structures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akers, Crystal Gayle

    2012-01-01

    Learners must simultaneously learn a grammar and a lexicon from observed forms, yet some structures that the grammar and lexicon reference are unobservable in the acoustic signal. Moreover, these "hidden" structures interact: the grammar maps an underlying form to a particular interpretation. Learning one structure depends on learning…

  1. A Constraint-based Grammar of Case: To Correctly Predict Case Phrases Occurring without Their Head Verb

    E-print Network

    's utterance in (1). (1) A: hanako-ga koinu-o sigatu-kara sodate-ru. Hanako-Nom puppy-Acc April-from raise-Nonpast `Hanako will raise a puppy from April.' B: [kame-6 sigatu-kara]-to sensei-ga it-ta [turtle-[Acc] FOCU-u. Hanako-Nom Malay-Nom child-GEN-time-since understand-Nonpast `Hanako understands Malay since her

  2. A SPARSE REPRESENTATION-BASED CLASSIFIER FOR IN-SET BIRD PHRASE VERIFICATION AND CLASSIFICATION WITH LIMITED TRAINING DATA

    E-print Network

    Alwan, Abeer

    A SPARSE REPRESENTATION-BASED CLASSIFIER FOR IN-SET BIRD PHRASE VERIFICATION AND CLASSIFICATION-set bird phrase verification and classification is studied. The database contains phrases segmented from, for in-set bird phrase verification using a limited number of training tokens (3 - 7) per phrase class

  3. Information Structure in Discourse 

    E-print Network

    Traat, Maarika

    The present dissertation proposes integrating Discourse Representation Theory (DRT), information structure (IS) and Combinatory Categorial Grammar (CCG) into a single framework. It achieves this by making two new ...

  4. An extended grammar system for learning and recognizing complex visual events.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhang; Tan, Tieniu; Huang, Kaiqi

    2011-02-01

    For a grammar-based approach to the recognition of visual events, there are two major limitations that prevent it from real application. One is that the event rules are predefined by domain experts, which means huge manual cost. The other is that the commonly used grammar can only handle sequential relations between subevents, which is inadequate to recognize more complex events involving parallel subevents. To solve these problems, we propose an extended grammar approach to modeling and recognizing complex visual events. First, motion trajectories as original features are transformed into a set of basic motion patterns of a single moving object, namely, primitives (terminals) in the grammar system. Then, a Minimum Description Length (MDL) based rule induction algorithm is performed to discover the hidden temporal structures in primitive stream, where Stochastic Context-Free Grammar (SCFG) is extended by Allen's temporal logic to model the complex temporal relations between subevents. Finally, a Multithread Parsing (MTP) algorithm is adopted to recognize interesting complex events in a given primitive stream, where a Viterbi-like error recovery strategy is also proposed to handle large-scale errors, e.g., insertion and deletion errors. Extensive experiments, including gymnastic exercises, traffic light events, and multi-agent interactions, have been executed to validate the effectiveness of the proposed approach. PMID:21193807

  5. Investigating the Usefulness of Lexical Phrases in Contemporary Coursebooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koprowski, Mark

    2005-01-01

    Over the past decade, lexical theory, corpus statistics, and psycholinguistic research have pointed to the pedagogical value of lexical phrases. In response, commercial publishers have been quick to import these insights into their materials in a bid to accommodate consumers and to profit from the "lexical chunk" phenomenon. Contemporary British…

  6. Phrase-based Image Captioning Remi Lebret1

    E-print Network

    Collobert, Ronan

    for images can also be easily obtained from some pre-trained convolutional neural networks. The model (generated from a previously trained Convolutional Neural Network) and phrases that are used to described sentences. These models lever- age the power of neural networks to transform image and sentence

  7. Processing Elided Verb Phrases with Flawed Antecedents: The Recycling Hypothesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arregui, Ana; Clifton, Charles, Jr.; Frazier, Lyn; Moulton, Keir

    2006-01-01

    Traditional syntactic accounts of verb phrase ellipsis (e.g., ''Jason laughed. Sam did [ ] too.'') categorize as ungrammatical many sentences that language users find acceptable (they ''undergenerate''); semantic accounts overgenerate. We propose that a processing theory, together with a syntactic account, does a better job of describing and…

  8. Current Research in Phrase-Based Statistical Machine Translation

    E-print Network

    Byrne, William

    Current Research in Phrase-Based Statistical Machine Translation and some links to ASR Bill Byrne Research in SMT­ 2/37 #12;Introduction Five Easy Problems in Statistical Machine Translation 2004 JHU to measure translation quality Cambridge University Engineering Department Current Research in SMT­ 4/37 #12

  9. Hierarchical Phrase-Based Translation Representations Gonzalo Iglesias Cyril Allauzen

    E-print Network

    Cortes, Corinna

    Hierarchical Phrase-Based Translation Representations Gonzalo Iglesias Cyril Allauzen William Byrne, U.K. {gi212,wjb31,ad465}@eng.cam.ac.uk Google Research, 76 Ninth Avenue, New York, NY 10011 {allauzen,riley}@google.com Abstract This paper compares several translation rep- resentations

  10. Current Research in Phrase-Based Statistical Machine Translation

    E-print Network

    Byrne, William

    Current Research in Phrase-Based Statistical Machine Translation and some links to ASR Bill Byrne Research in SMT­ 2/41 #12;Introduction Five Easy Problems in Statistical Machine Translation 2004 JHU Research in SMT­ 3/41 #12;Introduction Five Easy Problems in Statistical Machine Translation 2004 JHU

  11. Phonological Phrase Boundaries Constrain Lexical Access I. Adult Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christophe, A.; Peperkamp, S.; Pallier, C.; Block, E.; Mehler, J.

    2004-01-01

    We tested the effect of local lexical ambiguities while manipulating the type of prosodic boundary at which the ambiguity occurred, using French sentences and participants. We observed delayed lexical access when a local lexical ambiguity occurred within a phonological phrase (consistent with previous research; e.g., '[un chat grincheux],'…

  12. INTRODUCTION 1. The phrase `continuous cover forestry' has featured

    E-print Network

    1 INTRODUCTION 1. The phrase `continuous cover forestry' has featured increasingly in discussions about the future management of British forests. For example, The UK forestry standard (Forestry cover forestry system and to build them into the forest design'. `Continuous cover' is defined

  13. Mining Search-Phrase Definitions from Item Descriptions

    E-print Network

    Davulcu, Hasan

    . For example, a shoe store may subscribe to advertise its "NIKE Airmax 180" related information, this vendor would like to list its "NIKE Airmax 180" product and agrees to pay 50 information, such as "Nike stable lightweight shoes ..." and two or three word long popular search phrases

  14. Recognition Using Visual Phrases Ali Farhadi, Mohammad Amin Sadeghi

    E-print Network

    Erdem, Erkut

    their participant components. Change in Appearance A few postures One leg not visible ... #12;Characteristic to bicycle; bicycle next to car; person jumping; person next to car; dog lying on sofa; dog running; dog jumping; person running; and person drinking from a bottle #12; 8 Objects from Pascal 17 visual phrases

  15. QUANTITATIVE MODELING OF THE NEURAL REPRESENTATION OF NOUNS AND PHRASES

    E-print Network

    in Computer Science #12;August, 2011 Carnegie Mellon University #12;ABSTRACT Recent advances in brain imaging and grounded by the patterns of brain activity while people comprehend words and phrases. In this dissertation of this research is that the distributed pattern of brain activity encodes the meanings of linguistic concepts

  16. Phonological Phrase Boundaries Constrain Lexical Access II. Infant Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gout, A.; Christophe, A.; Morgan, J. L.

    2004-01-01

    The location of phonological phrase boundaries was shown to affect lexical access by English-learning infants of 10 and 13 months of age. Experiments 1 and 2 used the head-turn preference procedure: infants were familiarized with two bisyllabic words, then presented with sentences that either contained the familiarized words or contained both…

  17. Hyphens for Disambiguating Phrases: Effectiveness for Young and Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anema, Inge; Obler, Loraine K.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether hyphens that disambiguate phrasing in ambiguous sentences influence reading rate and reading comprehension for younger and older adults. Moreover, as working memory (WM) has been implicated in age-related changes in sentence comprehension for both auditory and written materials, we asked if it…

  18. SURFACE GRAMMATICAL ANALYSIS FOR THE EXTRACTION OF TERMINOLOGICAL NOUN PHRASES

    E-print Network

    SURFACE GRAMMATICAL ANALYSIS FOR THE EXTRACTION OF TERMINOLOGICAL NOUN PHRASES Didier BOURIGAULT is a software package for extracting terminology. A corpus of French language texts on any subject field is fed in, and LEXTER produces a list of likely terminological units to be submitted to an expert

  19. Learning Deterministic Context Free Grammars: The Omphalos Competition

    E-print Network

    Clark, Alexander

    Learning Deterministic Context Free Grammars: The Omphalos Competition Alexander Clark (alexc. This paper describes the winning entry to the Omphalos context free grammar learning competition. Our heuristics based on substitutability and frequency. The competition is discussed from the perspective

  20. A new variant of Petri net controlled grammars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jan, Nurhidaya Mohamad; Turaev, Sherzod; Fong, Wan Heng; Sarmin, Nor Haniza

    2015-10-01

    A Petri net controlled grammar is a Petri net with respect to a context-free grammar where the successful derivations of the grammar can be simulated using the occurrence sequences of the net. In this paper, we introduce a new variant of Petri net controlled grammars, called a place-labeled Petri net controlled grammar, which is a context-free grammar equipped with a Petri net and a function which maps places of the net to productions of the grammar. The language consists of all terminal strings that can be obtained by parallelly applying multisets of the rules which are the images of the sets of the input places of transitions in a successful occurrence sequence of the Petri net. We study the effect of the different labeling strategies to the computational power and establish lower and upper bounds for the generative capacity of place-labeled Petri net controlled grammars.

  1. CAD GRAMMARS Combining CAD and Automated Spatial Design

    E-print Network

    Reed, Chris

    University of Dundee Applied Computing Department, UK Abstract. Shape grammars are types of non-linear formal and PCB design. Graph grammars contain production rules with similar generational properties is the types of nodes and edges, and the information

  2. Exploring Shape Grammar Optimization as a Tool for Automated Design 

    E-print Network

    Cazamias, Jordan A

    2013-09-24

    requires tediously adjusting its many hard-coded parameters. This research serves to answer whether a sub-optimal shape grammar could instead be adjusted using grammar induction and optimization techniques. A general optimization framework for shape...

  3. Segmentation of remotely sensed images by MDL-principled polygon map grammar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, HePing; Foerstner, Wolfgang

    1994-08-01

    Polygon map grammar -- a generic structure model of polygon maps -- has been developed to an operational level for landuse mapping from remotely sensed images. This grammar enables us to simulate stochastic structures of polygon maps, and thus to simulate ideal and real images of landuse fields. These images provide fully controlled cases for testing image segmentation algorithms. We have developed a general segmentation algorithm which cascades an information-preserving smoothing filter, an edge-preserving smoothing filter, and explicit MDL-based region merging. With both simulated and real images, this algorithm proved to be objective and robust, yielding good results. Using crack edges a mechanism exists and is developed to vectorize raster segmented image to a polygon map data structure -- polyplex. With this data structure, the high-level structure model -- polygon map grammar -- is used to predict missing edges that are not caused by image intensity but are truly not detectable by remote sensors. This paper describes a complete case of this grammar and its application, and a number of basic general mechanisms.

  4. Associations between lexicon and grammar at the end of the second year in Finnish children.

    PubMed

    Stolt, Suvi; Haataja, Leena; Lapinleimu, Helena; Lehtonen, Liisa

    2009-09-01

    ABSTRACTThe emergence of grammar in relation to lexical growth was analyzed in a sample of Finnish children (N=181) at 2 ; 0. The Finnish version of the Communicative Development Inventory was used to gather information on both language domains. The onset of grammar occurred in close association with vocabulary growth. The acquisition of the nominal and verbal inflections of Finnish differed when analyzed in relation to the lexicon in which they are used: the strongest growth in the acquisition of case form types occurred when the nominal lexicon size was roughly between 50 and 250 words, whereas verb inflectional types were acquired actively from the beginning of the verb lexicon acquisition. The findings extend the previous findings of the close association between lexicon and grammar (e.g. Bates & Goodman, 1999). The results suggest that different grammatical structures display different degrees and types of lexical dependency. PMID:19000335

  5. Artificial grammar learning of melody is constrained by melodic inconsistency: Narmour's principles affect melodic learning.

    PubMed

    Rohrmeier, Martin; Cross, Ian

    2013-01-01

    Considerable evidence suggests that people acquire artificial grammars incidentally and implicitly, an indispensable capacity for the acquisition of music or language. However, less research has been devoted to exploring constraints affecting incidental learning. Within the domain of music, the extent to which Narmour's (1990) melodic principles affect implicit learning of melodic structure was experimentally explored. Extending previous research (Rohrmeier, Rebuschat & Cross, 2011), the identical finite-state grammar is employed having terminals (the alphabet) manipulated so that melodies generated systematically violated Narmour's principles. Results indicate that Narmour-inconsistent melodic materials impede implicit learning. This further constitutes a case in which artificial grammar learning is affected by prior knowledge or processing constraints. PMID:23874388

  6. Phrase Detectives: Utilizing Collective Intelligence for Internet-Scale Language Resource Creation

    E-print Network

    Poesio, Massimo

    resources that makes use of a highly distributed population of contributors with different levels Additional Key Words and Phrases: Web cooperation, resource creation, human language technology, games3 Phrase Detectives: Utilizing Collective Intelligence for Internet-Scale Language Resource

  7. Spoken Grammar and Its Role in the English Language Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilliard, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    This article addresses key issues and considerations for teachers wanting to incorporate spoken grammar activities into their own teaching and also focuses on six common features of spoken grammar, with practical activities and suggestions for teaching them in the language classroom. The hope is that this discussion of spoken grammar and its place…

  8. Web Exclusive--The Case for Not Teaching Grammar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwagerman, Sean

    2012-01-01

    The value of grammar instruction in improving students' writing has been debated for at least 150 years, and is showing no signs of tiring. But would teaching grammar actually improve writing? In fact, study after study has shown that the study of grammar does not translate to improved student writing. Indeed, the basic skills of writing are not…

  9. A Simple Statistical Class Grammar for Measuring Speech Recognition Performance

    E-print Network

    that are allowed. As a result, the "no grammar" test condition provides only a worst case recognition test pointA Simple Statistical Class Grammar for Measuring Speech Recognition Performance Alan Derr Richard will discuss our development of a new grammar that is to be used for evaluation of speech recognition systems

  10. Pupils' Word Choices and the Teaching of Grammar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyse, Dominic

    2006-01-01

    The idea that formal grammar teaching leads to improvements in school pupils' writing has been a popular one. However, the robust and extensive evidence base shows that this is not the case. Despite this, policy initiatives have continued to suggest that grammar teaching does improve pupils' writing: the "Grammar for Writing" resource is the most…

  11. Hypertextual Grammar Development * Luca Dini and Giampaolo Mazzini

    E-print Network

    . In any case, 24 #12;its extension to other grammar development plat- forms is quite unproblematicHypertextual Grammar Development * Luca Dini and Giampaolo Mazzini Centro per l'Elaborazione del-mail: {mazzini ,dini}~celi. sns. it Abstract We will present a new model of grammar documentation which exploits

  12. Communicating Grammatically: Evaluating a Learner Strategy Website for Spanish Grammar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Andrew D.; Pinilla-Herrera, Angela; Thompson, Jonathan R.; Witzig, Lance E.

    2011-01-01

    After a brief introduction to language learner strategies and grammar strategies as a subcategory, it is pointed out that research on the use of grammar strategies by learners of a second language (L2) has been limited. The article then describes the construction of a website with strategies for learning and performing Spanish grammar, with a…

  13. COMPILING TRACE & UNIFICATION GRAMMAR FOR PARSING AND Hans Ulrich Block

    E-print Network

    is less errorprone than programming in as- sembler. In the optimal case, the grammar writer shouldCOMPILING TRACE & UNIFICATION GRAMMAR FOR PARSING AND GENERATION Hans Ulrich Block Siemens AG This paper presents Trace & Unification Gram- mar (TUG), a declarative and reversible grammar formalism

  14. Case Grammar and the Elementary School Language Arts Curriculum?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, Pose

    This paper provides a brief introduction to the principles underlying Charles Fillmore's case grammar, contrasts it with other approaches to grammar, and suggests ways in which case grammar could be used in the language arts curriculum. Examples of the transparencies to which the text refers are included. (AA)

  15. This version: April 28, 2010 An experimental grammar for

    E-print Network

    Neumaier, Arnold

    This version: April 28, 2010 An experimental grammar for German mathematical text Peter Schodl://www.mat.univie.ac.at/neum/ Abstract This is a report on work in progress, for the FMathL project. It describes a preliminary grammar lexicon 22 III The grammar 23 7 Lexical productions 23 8 Global productions 25 9 Denition productions 26

  16. When Is a Verb? Using Functional Grammar to Teach Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fearn, Leif; Farnan, Nancy

    2007-01-01

    While evidence shows that grammar study focused on identification, description, and definition (IDD) fails to enhance writing performance, the grammar most students study remains focused on the IDD tradition. We taught a functional grammar that featured what words do in sentences, rather than what words are called and how they are defined, to two…

  17. The Semantics of Grammar Formalisms Seen as Computer Languages

    E-print Network

    The Semantics of Grammar Formalisms Seen as Computer Languages Fernando C. N. Pereira and Stuart M and Information Stanford University Abstract The design, implementation, and use of grammar for- ma- opment. By viewing grammar formalisms as just a spe- cial ease of computer languages, we can take

  18. Categorial Grammar: Logical Syntax, Semantics, and Processing Glyn V. Morrill

    E-print Network

    Categorial Grammar: Logical Syntax, Semantics, and Processing Glyn V. Morrill (Universitat Polit University of Toronto The title of this book, Categorial Grammar: Logical Syntax, Semantics, and Processing, indi- cates that this will be a book about categorial grammar. In the preface, however, several strains

  19. Difficulties in Teaching and Learning Grammar in an EFL Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Mekhlafi, Abdu Mohammed; Nagaratnam, Ramani Perur

    2011-01-01

    The role of grammar instruction in an ESL/EFL context has been for decades a major issue for students and teachers alike. Researchers have debated whether grammar should be taught in the classroom and students, for their part, have generally looked upon grammar instruction as a necessary evil at best, and an avoidable burden at worst. The paper…

  20. An Interactive Method For Extracting Grammar From Programs

    E-print Network

    Jalote, Pankaj

    1 An Interactive Method For Extracting Grammar From Programs Rahul Jain, Sanjeev Kumar Aggarwal The grammar of the language in which some given code is written is essential for developing automated tools for maintenance, reengineering, and program analysis. Frequently grammar is available for a language

  1. A Tableau Calculus for Regular Grammar Logics with Converse

    E-print Network

    Linh, Nguyen Anh

    A Tableau Calculus for Regular Grammar Logics with Converse Linh Anh Nguyen and Andrzej Szalas Institute of Informatics University of Warsaw CADE-22, Montreal, August 7, 2009 #12;Regular Grammar Logics The class REGc of regular grammar logics with converse contains a considerable number of common and useful

  2. Bottom-Up/Top-Down Image Parsing with Attribute Grammar

    E-print Network

    Zhu, Song Chun

    Bottom-Up/Top-Down Image Parsing with Attribute Grammar Feng Han and Song-Chun Zhu Abstract--This paper presents a simple attribute graph grammar as a generative representation for man-made scenes minimizing a description length (MDL). This simple grammar has one class of primitives as its terminal nodes

  3. This version: April 6, 2009 An experimental grammar for

    E-print Network

    Neumaier, Arnold

    This version: April 6, 2009 An experimental grammar for German mathematical text Peter Schodl://www.mat.univie.ac.at/neum/ Abstract This is a report on work in progress, for the FMathL project. It describes a preliminary grammar lexicon 20 III The grammar 21 7 Lexical productions 22 8 Global productions 24 9 Denition productions 25

  4. The XDG Grammar Development Kit Ralph Debusmann1

    E-print Network

    Debusmann, Ralph

    The XDG Grammar Development Kit Ralph Debusmann1 , Denys Duchier2 , and Joachim Niehren3 1 Saarland INRIA Futurs, Mostrare Project, Lille, France Abstract. Extensible Dependency Grammar (XDG) is a graph. 1 Introduction Declarative grammar formalisms have a long tradition for modeling and pro- cessing

  5. LEARNING SEMANTIC MODELS AND GRAMMAR RULES OF BUILDING PARTS

    E-print Network

    Behnke, Sven

    LEARNING SEMANTIC MODELS AND GRAMMAR RULES OF BUILDING PARTS Y. Dehbi, J. Schmittwilken, L. Plümer}@igg.uni-bonn.de KEY WORDS: Machine Learning, Inductive Logic Programming, Progol, Attribute Grammar, 3D Model and more attention. In this context models such as formal grammars play a major role in 3D geometric

  6. Review of the Cushing Grammar in the project seminar

    E-print Network

    Ladkin, Peter B.

    Review of the Cushing Grammar in the project seminar Computational Natural Language Systems Faculty y July 23, 2001 Contents 1 Introduction 1 2 The Cushing Grammar 1 2.1 The general idea of Cushing's grammar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2.2 Necessity of a review

  7. The XDG Grammar Development Kit Ralph Debusmann1

    E-print Network

    Duchier, Denys

    The XDG Grammar Development Kit Ralph Debusmann1 , Denys Duchier2 , and Joachim Niehren3 1 Saarland Futurs, Mostrare Project, Lille, France Abstract. Extensible dependency grammar (XDG) is a graph descrip development kit, the first XDG-based grammar development system, which we imple- mented in Mozart

  8. Playful Explicitness with Grammar: A Pedagogy for Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myhill, Debra; Jones, Susan; Watson, Annabel; Lines, Helen

    2013-01-01

    The place of grammar within the teaching of writing has long been contested and successive research studies have indicated no correlation between grammar teaching and writing attainment. However, a recent study has shown a significant positive impact on writing outcomes when the grammar input is intrinsically linked to the demands of the writing…

  9. Constructing VEGGIE: Machine Learning for Context-Sensitive Graph Grammars

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Kang

    . As databases can be modeled as graphs, a graph parsing and induction system can infer a grammar from the givenConstructing VEGGIE: Machine Learning for Context-Sensitive Graph Grammars Keven Ates, Kang Zhang University of Texas at Dallas atescomp@utd.edu, kzhang@utd.edu Abstract Context-sensitive graph grammar

  10. El Sistema de Formas en Colores for Teaching Grammar in Spanish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nailon, James

    2010-01-01

    Sistema de formas en colores (SFC) is a symbols-based system for teaching Spanish grammatical structures and concepts within a communicative context in the elementary school. The (ACTFL) Standards for Foreign Language Learning: Preparing for the 21st Century states that, "While grammar and vocabulary are essential tools for communication, it is…

  11. Commentary to "Multiple Grammars and Second Language Representation," by Luiz Amaral and Tom Roeper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pérez-Leroux, Ana T.

    2014-01-01

    In this commentary, the author defends the Multiple Grammars (MG) theory proposed by Luiz Amaral and Tom Roepe (A&R) in the present issue. Topics discussed include second language acquisition, the concept of developmental optionality, and the idea that structural decisions involve the lexical dimension. The author states that A&R's…

  12. Integrated grammar representation of genes, metabolites and morphology: The example of hordeomorphs

    E-print Network

    Kurth, Winfried

    of transparency, compatibility and interfacing of models. In the field of ontogenetic development of the structure part). Our new development: · The concept of Relational Growth Grammars (RGG) · corresponding new-oriented programming, - can be associated with Java classes - generalize the symbols in classical L-system strings

  13. Synergistic development of grammatical resources: a valence dictionary, an LFG grammar,

    E-print Network

    Synergistic development of grammatical resources: a valence dictionary, an LFG grammar, and an LFG structure bank for Polish Agnieszka Patejuk and Adam Przepiórkowski Institute of Computer Science, Polish Academy of Sciences E-mail: {aep,adamp}@ipipan.waw.pl Abstract The aim of this paper is to present

  14. Foreign Language Aptitude and Its Relationship with Grammar: A Critical Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skehan, Peter

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a critical overview of research studies which link foreign language aptitude to grammar. It starts by covering fundamental issues--of the structure of aptitude and its measurement. It is argued that the concept of aptitude needs to be updated, and that clear linkages to second language acquisition processes need to be…

  15. Pre-Service English as a Foreign Language Teachers' Belief Development about Grammar Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Çapan, Seyit Ahmet

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to investigate pre-service English as Foreign Language (EFL) teachers' beliefs about grammar instruction in a foreign language (FL) context through their initial teaching practices. Analyses of semi-structured interviews and classroom observations apart from pre-and post-test results of participants' responses to a belief…

  16. The Equivalence of Tree Adjoining Grammars and Monadic Linear Context-Free Tree Grammars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kepser, Stephan; Rogers, James

    It has been observed quite early after the introduction of Tree Adjoining Grammars that the adjoining operation seems to be a special case of the more general deduction step in a context-free tree grammar (CFTG) derivation. TAGs look like special cases of a subclass of CFTGs, namely monadic linear CFTGs. More than a decade ago it was shown that the two grammar formalisms are indeed weakly equivalent, i.e., define the same classes of string languages. This paper now closes the remaining gap showing the strong equivalence for so-called non-strict TAGs, a variant of TAGs where the restrictions for head and foot nodes are slightly generalised.

  17. Incremental Syntactic Language Models for Phrase-based Translation Lane Schwartz

    E-print Network

    Plotkin, Joshua B.

    Incremental Syntactic Language Models for Phrase-based Translation Lane Schwartz Air Force Research technique for in- corporating syntactic knowledge into phrase- based machine translation through incremen. This requirement makes it dif- ficult to incorporate them into phrase-based translation, which generates partial

  18. Incremental Constraint-based Parsing: An Efficient Approach for Head-final Languages 

    E-print Network

    Güngördü, Zelal

    In this dissertation, I provide a left-to-right incremental parsing approach for Headdriven Phrase Structure Grammar (HPSG; Pollard and Sag (1987, 1994)). HPSG is a lexicalized, constraint-based theory of grammar, which ...

  19. Terminator Detection by Support Vector Machine Utilizing aStochastic Context-Free Grammar

    SciTech Connect

    Francis-Lyon, Patricia; Cristianini, Nello; Holbrook, Stephen

    2006-12-30

    A 2-stage detector was designed to find rho-independent transcription terminators in the Escherichia coli genome. The detector includes a Stochastic Context Free Grammar (SCFG) component and a Support Vector Machine (SVM) component. To find terminators, the SCFG searches the intergenic regions of nucleotide sequence for local matches to a terminator grammar that was designed and trained utilizing examples of known terminators. The grammar selects sequences that are the best candidates for terminators and assigns them a prefix, stem-loop, suffix structure using the Cocke-Younger-Kasaami (CYK) algorithm, modified to incorporate energy affects of base pairing. The parameters from this inferred structure are passed to the SVM classifier, which distinguishes terminators from non-terminators that score high according to the terminator grammar. The SVM was trained with negative examples drawn from intergenic sequences that include both featureless and RNA gene regions (which were assigned prefix, stem-loop, suffix structure by the SCFG), so that it successfully distinguishes terminators from either of these. The classifier was found to be 96.4% successful during testing.

  20. Leveraging Recurrent Phrase Structure in Large-scale Ontology Translation

    E-print Network

    Daume III, Hal

    principles of organization via ontologies, thesauri, and controlled vocabularies. Machine translation a highly specific dictionary of terms. Such dictionaries are not readily available in all languages for all of domain- specific vocabularies. In the case of thesauri for digital archives, accuracy in translation

  1. Eliminating the phrase "elective abortion": why language matters.

    PubMed

    Janiak, Elizabeth; Goldberg, Alisa B

    2016-02-01

    The phrase "elective abortion" is often used to describe induced abortions performed for reasons other than a direct, immediate threat to maternal physical health. We argue that the term "elective abortion" is variably defined, misrepresents the complexity and multiplicity of indications for abortion and perpetuates stigma. In practice, restricting access to abortion at the legal, regulatory or institutional level based on subjective perceptions of patient need constrains health care providers' ability to act according to their best clinical judgments and limits patient access to care. The phrase "elective abortion" should be eliminated from scientific and medical discourse to prevent further damage to the public understanding of the variety of indications for which women require expeditious and equitable access to induced abortion. PMID:26480889

  2. Semantics for coordinated substitution grammars as implemented in Prolog

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, T.J.

    1987-01-01

    A solution is provided by the coordinate substitution grammars (CSubGs), a form of two-level grammar in which indices and their corresponding rules comprise a meta-level grammar used to instantiate rules in the base grammatical form. Through the use of these indices, all syntactic coordination can be concisely and descriptively represented in the grammar. It is demonstrate that the CSubGs can generate the recursively enumerable sets, although they can be constrained to generate only the context-free or indexed languages. A program was developed to translate the grammar rules into Prolog clauses, as is done with definite clause grammars. The remainder of the problem, determining how CSubGs and their indices can affect the natural-language semantics in a Prolog implementation, is investigated by studying grammars for various English-language constructs.

  3. Interface Problems: Structural Constraints on Interpretation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frazier, Lyn; Clifton, Charles; Rayner, Keith; Deevy, Patricia; Koh, Sungryong; Bader, Markus

    2005-01-01

    Five experiments investigated the interpretation of quantified noun phrases in relation to discourse structure. They demonstrated, using questionnaire and on-line reading techniques, that readers in English prefer to give a quantified noun phrase in (VP-external) subject position a presuppositional interpretation, in which the noun phrase limits…

  4. Learning grammar rules of building parts from precise models and noisy observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dehbi, Y.; Plümer, L.

    The automatic interpretation of dense three-dimensional (3D) point clouds is still an open research problem. The quality and usability of the derived models depend to a large degree on the availability of highly structured models which represent semantics explicitly and provide a priori knowledge to the interpretation process. The usage of formal grammars for modelling man-made objects has gained increasing interest in the last few years. In order to cope with the variety and complexity of buildings, a large number of fairly sophisticated grammar rules are needed. As yet, such rules mostly have to be designed by human experts. This article describes a novel approach to machine learning of attribute grammar rules based on the Inductive Logic Programming paradigm. Apart from syntactic differences, logic programs and attribute grammars are basically the same language. Attribute grammars extend context-free grammars by attributes and semantic rules and provide a much larger expressive power. Our approach to derive attribute grammars is able to deal with two kinds of input data. On the one hand, we show how attribute grammars can be derived from precise descriptions in the form of examples provided by a human user as the teacher. On the other hand, we present the acquisition of models from noisy observations such as 3D point clouds. This includes the learning of geometric and topological constraints by taking measurement errors into account. The feasibility of our approach is proven exemplarily by stairs, and a generic framework for learning other building parts is discussed. Stairs aggregate an arbitrary number of steps in a manner which is specified by topological and geometric constraints and can be modelled in a recursive way. Due to this recursion, they pose a special challenge to machine learning. In order to learn the concept of stairs, only a small number of examples were required. Our approach represents and addresses the quality of the given observations and the derived constraints explicitly, using concepts from uncertain projective geometry for learning geometric relations and the Wakeby distribution together with decision trees for topological relations.

  5. Grammar Schools: Brief Flowering of Social Mobility?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    Grammar schools are increasingly remembered, especially by right-wing ideologues, as the agents of a "brief flowering" of post-war social mobility. This article presents statistical, documentary and interview evidence of secondary education in the eleven plus era, and finds nothing to justify the claim that selective schools produced a general…

  6. Automatic Synthesis of Semantics for Contextfree Grammars

    E-print Network

    Krovi, Venkat

    Automatic Synthesis of Semantics for Context­free Grammars Juergen Haas Bharat Jayaraman Department hs; mi, where s is a sentence belonging to the language defined by the CFG and m is a semantic of a logic programming language) to compute the semantics for every sentence of the original DCG. Three

  7. Using Technology for Teaching Arabic Language Grammar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arrabtah, Adel; Nusour, Tayseer

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of using technology such as CD-ROM, computers, and internet to teach Arabic language grammar to students at Princess Alia University College at Al-Balqa University. The sample of the study consisted of 122 third year female students; (64) for the experimental group and (58) for the control group. The subjects of…

  8. Grammar and the English National Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paterson, Laura Louise

    2010-01-01

    In 1998 the regulatory body for the National Curriculum, the Qualifications and Curriculum Authority, acknowledged that there was "widespread uncertainty" over the grammar requirements of the English Curriculum. In this paper I argue that the QCA still has not addressed this uncertainty. I analyse the 1999 and 2011 Primary English Curricula,…

  9. What Is a Rule of Grammar?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lardiere, Donna

    2014-01-01

    This article offers commentary on the Multiple Grammars (MG) language acquisition theory proposed by Luiz Amaral and Tom Roeper in this issue. It argues that more precise definitions are needed for the terms "rule," "simple," and "productive." Topics discussed include Amaral and Roeper's verb second (V2) rule,…

  10. What Research Tells Us about Teaching Grammar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Michael W.; Wilhelm, Jeff

    2006-01-01

    The authors offer research studies and other documented evidence that teaching grammar without a meaningful context does not improve student writing, largely because that approach does not address the root causes of errors. Several resources that support this position and offer more productive strategies are summarized, including the authors'…

  11. Type Theory and Universal Grammar Aarne Ranta

    E-print Network

    Cooper, Robin

    Chalmers University of Technology and G¨oteborg University Abstract. The paper takes a look at the history undergo in them accidental variations. (Roger Bacon, 13th century) He who knows grammar in one language reasoning by means of a calculus ratiocinator. This proposal is from 1732, and advocates, like Descartes

  12. Multiple Grammars and Second Language Representation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amaral, Luiz; Roeper, Tom

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an extension of the Multiple Grammars Theory (Roeper, 1999) to provide a formal mechanism that can serve as a generative-based alternative to current descriptive models of interlanguage. The theory extends historical work by Kroch and Taylor (1997), and has been taken into a computational direction by Yang (2003). The proposal…

  13. IN GRAMMAR'S FALL, WE SINNED ALL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    TIBBETTS, A.M.

    THROUGH THEIR LOSS OF FAITH IN TRADITIONAL GRAMMAR, MEN HAVE "SINNED" AND CONTRIBUTED SLIGHTLY BUT IMPORTANTLY TO THE CREATION OF AN AMORAL AND RELATIVISTIC SOCIETY. PROMPTED BY THE SIN OF INTELLECTUAL PRIDE, SOME LINGUISTS SEEM TO ASSUME THAT GRAMMATICAL PROBLEMS CAN BE SOLVED BY RATIOCINATION ALONE. IGNORANCE OF THE PAST--ANOTHER SIN--AND…

  14. Multiple Grammars: Old Wine in Old Bottles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorace, Antonella

    2014-01-01

    Amaral and Roeper (this issue; henceforth A&R) argue that all speakers -- regardless of whether monolingual or bilingual -- have multiple grammars in their mental language representations. They further claim that this simple assumption can explain many things: optionality in second language (L2) language behaviour, multilingualism, language…

  15. A SHORT SKETCH OF TAJIK GRAMMAR.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    RASTORGUEVA, V.S.

    PART OF A SERIES OF FOUR RUSSIAN-ENGLISH TRANSLATIONS OF GRAMMARS OF IRANIAN LANGUAGES, THIS BOOKLET DESCRIBES THE TAJIK LANGUAGE OF THE INHABITANTS OF TAJIK SSR, AND IS THE FIRST TO APPEAR IN ENGLISH. (THE ORIGINAL TEXT WAS A SUPPLEMENT TO THE RAHIMI-USPENSKAYA "TAJIK-RUSSIAN DICTIONARY," MOSCOW, 1954.) ALL TAJIK FORMS ARE GIVEN IN CYRILLIC…

  16. Caught'Ya! Grammar with a Giggle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiester, Jane Bell

    Helping students in grades 3 through 11 to master the mechanics of language, this book describes the "Caught'ya" approach to teaching grammar, in which students correct error-filled sentences that form an ongoing humorous plot. The book notes that the sentences are presented 3 to 5 times a week at the start of class and take less than 10 minutes…

  17. Generation and Synchronous Tree-Adjoining Grammars

    E-print Network

    Generation and Synchronous Tree-Adjoining Grammars Stuart M. Shieber Aiken Computation Laboratory) have been proposed as a formalism for generation based on the intuition that the extended domain as an aid to generation from semantic representations. We demonstrate that this intuition can be made

  18. Generation and Synchronous TreeAdjoining Grammars

    E-print Network

    Shieber, Stuart

    Generation and Synchronous Tree­Adjoining Grammars Stuart M. Shieber Yves Schabes Aiken Computation) have been proposed as a formal­ ism for generation based on the intuition that the extended domain serving as an aid to generation from semantic representations. We demonstrate that this intuition can

  19. Coevolution of Birdsong Grammar without Imitation

    E-print Network

    Ikegami, Takashi

    the reproductive behavior of females [1][2]. These facts suggest that males with complex songs have been chosen of General Systems Studies, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, University of Tokyo, 3-8-1, Komaba, Meguro. The mating song of the male Bengalese finch can be de- scribed by a finite-state grammar and has the feature

  20. Visual Feature Learning in Artificial Grammar Classification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Grace Y.; Knowlton, Barbara J.

    2004-01-01

    The Artificial Grammar Learning task has been used extensively to assess individuals' implicit learning capabilities. Previous work suggests that participants implicitly acquire rule-based knowledge as well as exemplar-specific knowledge in this task. This study investigated whether exemplar-specific knowledge acquired in this task is based on the…

  1. Learning a generative probabilistic grammar of experience: a process-level model of language acquisition.

    PubMed

    Kolodny, Oren; Lotem, Arnon; Edelman, Shimon

    2015-03-01

    We introduce a set of biologically and computationally motivated design choices for modeling the learning of language, or of other types of sequential, hierarchically structured experience and behavior, and describe an implemented system that conforms to these choices and is capable of unsupervised learning from raw natural-language corpora. Given a stream of linguistic input, our model incrementally learns a grammar that captures its statistical patterns, which can then be used to parse or generate new data. The grammar constructed in this manner takes the form of a directed weighted graph, whose nodes are recursively (hierarchically) defined patterns over the elements of the input stream. We evaluated the model in seventeen experiments, grouped into five studies, which examined, respectively, (a) the generative ability of grammar learned from a corpus of natural language, (b) the characteristics of the learned representation, (c) sequence segmentation and chunking, (d) artificial grammar learning, and (e) certain types of structure dependence. The model's performance largely vindicates our design choices, suggesting that progress in modeling language acquisition can be made on a broad front-ranging from issues of generativity to the replication of human experimental findings-by bringing biological and computational considerations, as well as lessons from prior efforts, to bear on the modeling approach. PMID:24977647

  2. Diagnostic grammar and assessment: translating criteria into questions.

    PubMed

    Robins, L N

    1989-02-01

    There has been concern about whether standardized psychiatric interviews make valid diagnoses. Agreements between the Diagnostic Interview Schedule (DIS), as an example of a standardized interview, with independent assessments by a clinician are reasonably high in most studies, but the clinical assessment is itself of uncertain validity. Using predictive ability is an alternative way of judging validity. Data are presented to show that the DIS is almost as good at prediction as a clinician's assessment, but here too there are problems. Because prediction is probabilistic (i.e. the same disorder can have multiple outcomes, and different disorders can share outcomes), it is not possible to say how good prediction has to be to demonstrate perfect validity. Across varied methods of validity assessment, some disorders are regularly found more validly diagnosed than others, suggesting that part of the source of invalidity lies in the diagnostic grammar of the systems whose criteria standardized interviews evaluate. Sources of invalidity inherent in the content and structure of a variety of diagnoses in DSM-III and its heir, DSM-III-R, are reviewed and illustrated, in part with results from the Epidemiological Catchment Area study. The relationship between diagnostic criteria and standardized interviews is symbiotic. While attempts to adhere closely to existing diagnostic criteria contribute to the diagnostic accuracy of standardized interviews, the exercise of translating official diagnostic criteria into standardized questions highlights problems in the system's diagnostic grammar, enabling standardized interviews to contribute to improvements in diagnostic nosology. PMID:2727211

  3. Attribute grammar inversion and source-to-source translation

    SciTech Connect

    Yellin, D.M.

    1987-01-01

    This thesis investigates the idea of attribute grammar inversion and how this technique can be used to build source-to-source translators. An attribute grammar is a declarative formalism for specifying the translation from one language to another. The basis of an attribute grammar is a context-free grammar. This grammar specifies the source language. An attribute grammar augments the context-free grammar with attributes and semantic functions in order to define a translation from a source language to a target language. This thesis shows that given an attribute grammar specifying the translation T from language L1 to language L2, one can automatically construct the attribute grammar specifying the inverse translation T/sup -1/ from language L2 back to language L1. The INVERT system implements the inversion algorithm, employing several special techniques to help create efficient inverse specification. After discussing the theoretical and practical issues of attribute grammar inversion, it is demonstrated how the technique can be used to build source-to0source translators. To prove the feasibility of the inversion approach to source-to-source translation, it has been used to generate translators between the programming languages Pascal and C.

  4. Combined Grammar for the Modeling of Building Interiors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, S.; Peter, M.; Fritsch, D.; Philipp, D.; Baier, P.; Dibak, C.

    2013-11-01

    As spatial grammars have proven successful and efficient to deliver LOD3 models, the next challenge is their extension to indoor applications, leading to LOD4 models. Therefore, a combined indoor grammar for the automatic generation of indoor models from erroneous and incomplete observation data is presented. In building interiors where inaccurate observation data is available, the grammar can be used to make the reconstruction process robust, and verify the reconstructed geometries. In unobserved building interiors, the grammar can generate hypotheses about possible indoor geometries matching the style of the rest of the building. The grammar combines concepts from L-systems and split grammars. It is designed in such way that it can be derived from observation data fully automatically. Thus, manual predefinitions of the grammar rules usually required to tune the grammar to a specific building style, become obsolete. The potential benefit of using our grammar as support for indoor modeling is evaluated based on an example where the grammar has been applied to automatically generate an indoor model from erroneous and incomplete traces gathered by foot-mounted MEMS/IMU positioning systems.

  5. The Sentence-Composition Effect: Processing of Complex Sentences Depends on the Configuration of Common Noun Phrases versus Unusual Noun Phrases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Marcus L.; Lowder, Matthew W.; Gordon, Peter C.

    2011-01-01

    In 2 experiments, the authors used an eye tracking while reading methodology to examine how different configurations of common noun phrases versus unusual noun phrases (NPs) influenced the difference in processing difficulty between sentences containing object- and subject-extracted relative clauses. Results showed that processing difficulty was…

  6. On the (Un)-Ambiguity of Adjectival Modification in Spanish Determiner Phrases: Informing Debates on the Mental Representations of L2 Syntax

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothman, Jason; Judy, Tiffany; Guijarro-Fuentes, Pedro; Pires, Acrisio

    2010-01-01

    This study contributes to a central debate within contemporary generative second language (L2) theorizing: the extent to which adult learners are (un)able to acquire new functional features that result in a L2 grammar that is mentally structured like the native target (see White, 2003). The adult acquisition of L2 nominal phi-features is explored,…

  7. Phrase boundary effects on the temporal kinematics of sequential tongue tip consonants1

    PubMed Central

    Byrd, Dani; Lee, Sungbok; Campos-Astorkiza, Rebeka

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluates the effects of phrase boundaries on the intra- and intergestural kinematic characteristics of blended gestures, i.e., overlapping gestures produced with a single articulator. The sequences examined are the juncture geminate [d(#)d], the sequence [d(#)z], and, for comparison, the singleton tongue tip gesture in [d(#)b]. This allows the investigation of the process of gestural aggregation [Munhall, K. G., and Löfqvist, A. (1992). “Gestural aggregation in speech: laryngeal gestures,” J. Phonetics 20, 93–110] and the manner in which it is affected by prosodic structure. Juncture geminates are predicted to be affected by prosodic boundaries in the same way as other gestures; that is, they should display prosodic lengthening and lesser overlap across a boundary. Articulatory prosodic lengthening is also investigated using a signal alignment method of the functional data analysis framework [Ramsay, J. O., and Silverman, B. W. (2005). Functional Data Analysis, 2nd ed. (Springer-Verlag, New York)]. This provides the ability to examine a time warping function that characterizes relative timing difference (i.e., lagging or advancing) of a test signal with respect to a given reference, thus offering a way of illuminating local nonlinear deformations at work in prosodic lengthening. These findings are discussed in light of the ?-gesture framework of Byrd and Saltzman [(2003) “The elastic phrase: Modeling the dynamics of boundary-adjacent lengthening,” J. Phonetics 31, 149–180]. PMID:18537396

  8. Grammar-based Automatic 3D Model Reconstruction from Terrestrial Laser Scanning Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Q.; Helmholz, P.; Belton, D.; West, G.

    2014-04-01

    The automatic reconstruction of 3D buildings has been an important research topic during the last years. In this paper, a novel method is proposed to automatically reconstruct the 3D building models from segmented data based on pre-defined formal grammar and rules. Such segmented data can be extracted e.g. from terrestrial or mobile laser scanning devices. Two steps are considered in detail. The first step is to transform the segmented data into 3D shapes, for instance using the DXF (Drawing Exchange Format) format which is a CAD data file format used for data interchange between AutoCAD and other program. Second, we develop a formal grammar to describe the building model structure and integrate the pre-defined grammars into the reconstruction process. Depending on the different segmented data, the selected grammar and rules are applied to drive the reconstruction process in an automatic manner. Compared with other existing approaches, our proposed method allows the model reconstruction directly from 3D shapes and takes the whole building into account.

  9. Using attribute grammars for the genetic selection of back-propagation networks for character recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Browse, Roger A.; Hussain, Talib S.; Smillie, Matthew B.

    1999-03-01

    Determining exactly which neural network architecture, with which parameters, will provide the best solution to a classification task is often based upon the intuitions and experience of the implementers of neural network solutions. The research presented in this paper is centered on the development of automated methods for the selection of appropriate networks, as applied to character recognition. The Network Generating Attribute Grammar Encoding system is a compact and general method for the specification of commonly accepted network architectures that can be easily expanded to include novel architectures, or that can be easily restricted to a small subset of some known architecture. Within this system, the context-free component of the attribute grammar specifies a class of basic architectures by using the non-terminals to represent network, layers and component structures. The inherited and synthesized attributes indicate the connections necessary to develop a functioning network from any parse tree that is generated from the grammar. The attribute grammar encoding is particularly conducive to the use of genetic algorithms as a strategy for searching the space of possible networks. The resultant parse trees are used as the genetic code, permitting a variety of different genetic manipulations. We apply this approach in the generation of backpropagation networks for recognition of characters from a set consisting of 20,000 examples of 26 letters.

  10. Recent Developments in Transformational Grammar.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Roderick A.

    1969-01-01

    In the years following the appearance of Noam Chomsky's book, "Syntactic Structures," in 1957, transformational grammarians modified and improved his initial model of language. The notion of a deep structure of meaning underlying a sentence's surface structure was revised to embody elements representing negation, command, and interrogation, and to…

  11. Grammar of Binding in the languages of the world: Innate or learned?

    PubMed

    Cole, Peter; Hermon, Gabriella; Yanti

    2015-08-01

    Languages around the world often appear to manifest nearly identical grammatical properties, but, at the same time, the grammatical differences can also be great, sometimes even seeming to support Joos's (1958) claim that "languages can differ from each other without limit and in unpredictable way" (p. 96). This state of affairs provides a puzzle for both nativist approaches to language like Generative Grammar that posit a fixed "Universal Grammar", and for approaches that minimize the contribution of innate grammatical structure. We approach this puzzling state of affairs by looking at one area of grammar, "Binding", the system of local and long distance anaphoric elements in a language. This is an area of grammar that has long been central to the Generative approach to language structure. We compare the anaphoric systems found in "familiar" (European-like) languages that contain dedicated classes of bound and free anaphors (pronouns and reflexives) with the anaphoric systems in endangered Austronesian languages of Indonesia, languages in which there is overlap or no distinction between pronouns and reflexives (Peranakan Javanese and Jambi Malay). What is of special interest about Jambi anaphora is not only that conservative dialects of Jambi Malay do not distinguish between pronouns and reflexives, but that Jambi anaphora appear to constitute a live snapshot of a unitary class of anaphora in the process of grammaticalization as a distinct system of pronouns and reflexives. We argue that the facts of Jambi anaphora cannot be explained by theories positing a Universal Grammar of Binding. Thus, these facts provide evidence that complex grammatical systems like Binding cannot be innate. Our results from Austronesian languages are confirmed by data from signed and creole languages. Our conclusion is that the human language learning capacity must include the ability to model the full complexity found in the syntax of the world's languages. From the perspective of child language acquisition, these conclusions suggest that Universal Grammar does not provide a general solution to the problem of poverty of the stimulus, and the solution to that problem must reside at least in part in special properties of the grammar construction tools available to the language learner rather than simply in a fixed set of grammatical rules hard wired into the brains of speakers. PMID:25988914

  12. Reduction of Uncertainty in Human Sequential Learning: Evidence from Artificial Grammar Learning

    E-print Network

    Chater, Nick

    Reduction of Uncertainty in Human Sequential Learning: Evidence from Artificial Grammar Learning of the input. Early experiments in artificial grammar learning, for instance, show a sensitivity grammar learning (AGL) and artificial language learning (ALL) in infants and adults has revealed

  13. Experimental investigations of weak definite and weak indefinite noun phrases.

    PubMed

    Klein, Natalie M; Gegg-Harrison, Whitney M; Carlson, Greg N; Tanenhaus, Michael K

    2013-08-01

    Definite noun phrases typically refer to entities that are uniquely identifiable in the speaker and addressee's common ground. Some definite noun phrases (e.g., the hospital in Mary had to go the hospital and John did too) seem to violate this uniqueness constraint. We report six experiments that were motivated by the hypothesis that these "weak definite" interpretations arise in "incorporated" constructions. Experiments 1-3 compared nouns that seem to allow for a weak definite interpretation (e.g., hospital, bank, bus, radio) with those that do not (e.g., farm, concert, car, book). Experiments 1 and 2 used an instruction-following task and picture-judgment task, respectively, to demonstrate that a weak definite need not uniquely refer. In Experiment 3 participants imagined scenarios described by sentences such as The Federal Express driver had to go to the hospital/farm. Scenarios following weak definite noun phrases were more likely to include conventional activities associated with the object, whereas following regular nouns, participants were more likely to imagine scenarios that included typical activities associated with the subject; similar effects were observed with weak indefinites. Experiment 4 found that object-related activities were reduced when the same subject and object were used with a verb that does not license weak definite interpretations. In Experiment 5, a science fiction story introduced an artificial lexicon for novel concepts. Novel nouns that shared conceptual properties with English weak definite nouns were more likely to allow weak reference in a judgment task. Experiment 6 demonstrated that familiarity for definite articles and anti-familiarity for indefinite articles applies to the activity associated with the noun, consistent with predictions made by the incorporation analysis. PMID:23685208

  14. Experimental investigations of weak definite and weak indefinite noun phrases

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Natalie M.; Gegg-Harrison, Whitney M.; Carlson, Greg N.; Tanenhaus, Michael K.

    2013-01-01

    Definite noun phrases typically refer to entities that are uniquely identifiable in the speaker and addressee’s common ground. Some definite noun phrases (e.g. the hospital in Mary had to go the hospital and John did too) seem to violate this uniqueness constraint. We report six experiments that were motivated by the hypothesis that these “weak definite” interpretations arise in “incorporated” constructions. Experiments 1-3 compared nouns that seem to allow for a weak definite interpretation (e.g. hospital, bank, bus, radio) with those that do not (e.g. farm, concert, car, book). Experiments 1 and 2 used an instruction-following task and picture-judgment task, respectively, to demonstrate that a weak definite need not uniquely refer. In Experiment 3 participants imagined scenarios described by sentences such as The Federal Express driver had to go to the hospital/farm. The imagined scenarios following weak definite noun phrases were more likely to include conventional activities associated with the object, whereas following regular nouns, participants were more likely to imagine scenarios that included typical activities associated with the subject; similar effects were observed with weak indefinites. Experiment 4 found that object-related activities were reduced when the same subject and object were used with a verb that does not license weak definite interpretations. In Experiment 5, a science fiction story introduced an artificial lexicon for novel concepts. Novel nouns that shared conceptual properties with English weak definite nouns were more likely to allow weak reference in a judgment task. Experiment 6 demonstrated that familiarity for definite articles and anti- familiarity for indefinite articles applies to the activity associated with the noun, consistent with predictions made by the incorporation analysis. PMID:23685208

  15. System, method and apparatus for conducting a phrase search

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGreevy, Michael W. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A phrase search is a method of searching a database for subsets of the database that are relevant to an input query. First, a number of relational models of subsets of a database are provided. A query is then input. The query can include one or more sequences of terms. Next, a relational model of the query is created. The relational model of the query is then compared to each one of the relational models of subsets of the database. The identifiers of the relevant subsets are then output.

  16. Key-phrase based classification of public health web pages.

    PubMed

    Dolamic, Ljiljana; Boyer, Célia

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes and evaluates the public health web pages classification model based on key phrase extraction and matching. Easily extendible both in terms of new classes as well as the new language this method proves to be a good solution for text classification faced with the total lack of training data. To evaluate the proposed solution we have used a small collection of public health related web pages created by a double blind manual classification. Our experiments have shown that by choosing the adequate threshold value the desired value for either precision or recall can be achieved. PMID:23920907

  17. An incremental interactive algorithm for regular grammar inference

    SciTech Connect

    Parekh, R.; Honavar, V.

    1996-12-31

    Grammar inference, a problem with many applications in pattern recognition and language learning, is defined as follows: For an unknown grammar G, given a finite set of positive examples S{sup +} that belong to L(G), and possibly a finite set of negative examples S{sup -}, infer a grammar G* equivalent to G. Different restrictions on S{sup +} and S{sup -} and the interaction of the learner with the teacher or the environment give rise to different variants of this task. We present an interactive incremental algorithm for inference of a finite state automaton (FSA) corresponding to an unknown regular grammar.

  18. A cultural, customizable and prefabricated housing grammar for Casablanca

    E-print Network

    Akkar, Ghita

    2011-01-01

    Proposing an innovative design grammar linking prefabrication, customization and cultural adaptability, this thesis addresses the present day housing deficit and lack of architectural identity in Casablanca, Morocco. The ...

  19. What artificial grammar learning reveals about the neurobiology of syntax.

    PubMed

    Petersson, Karl-Magnus; Folia, Vasiliki; Hagoort, Peter

    2012-02-01

    In this paper we examine the neurobiological correlates of syntax, the processing of structured sequences, by comparing FMRI results on artificial and natural language syntax. We discuss these and similar findings in the context of formal language and computability theory. We used a simple right-linear unification grammar in an implicit artificial grammar learning paradigm in 32 healthy Dutch university students (natural language FMRI data were already acquired for these participants). We predicted that artificial syntax processing would engage the left inferior frontal region (BA 44/45) and that this activation would overlap with syntax-related variability observed in the natural language experiment. The main findings of this study show that the left inferior frontal region centered on BA 44/45 is active during artificial syntax processing of well-formed (grammatical) sequence independent of local subsequence familiarity. The same region is engaged to a greater extent when a syntactic violation is present and structural unification becomes difficult or impossible. The effects related to artificial syntax in the left inferior frontal region (BA 44/45) were essentially identical when we masked these with activity related to natural syntax in the same subjects. Finally, the medial temporal lobe was deactivated during this operation, consistent with the view that implicit processing does not rely on declarative memory mechanisms that engage the medial temporal lobe. In the context of recent FMRI findings, we raise the question whether Broca's region (or subregions) is specifically related to syntactic movement operations or the processing of hierarchically nested non-adjacent dependencies in the discussion section. We conclude that this is not the case. Instead, we argue that the left inferior frontal region is a generic on-line sequence processor that unifies information from various sources in an incremental and recursive manner, independent of whether there are any processing requirements related to syntactic movement or hierarchically nested structures. In addition, we argue that the Chomsky hierarchy is not directly relevant for neurobiological systems. PMID:20943261

  20. Impaired artificial grammar learning in agrammatism.

    PubMed

    Christiansen, Morten H; Louise Kelly, M; Shillcock, Richard C; Greenfield, Katie

    2010-09-01

    It is often assumed that language is supported by domain-specific neural mechanisms, in part based on neuropsychological data from aphasia. If, however, language relies on domain-general mechanisms, it would be expected that deficits in non-linguistic cognitive processing should co-occur with aphasia. In this paper, we report a study of sequential learning by agrammatic aphasic patients and control participants matched for age, socio-economic status and non-verbal intelligence. Participants were first exposed to strings derived from an artificial grammar after which they were asked to classify a set of new strings, some of which were generated by the same grammar whereas others were not. Although both groups of participants performed well in the training phase of the experiment, only the control participants were able to classify novel test items better than chance. The results show that breakdown of language in agrammatic aphasia is associated with an impairment in artificial grammar learning, indicating damage to domain-general neural mechanisms subserving both language and sequential learning. PMID:20605017

  1. LeadMine: a grammar and dictionary driven approach to entity recognition

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Chemical entity recognition has traditionally been performed by machine learning approaches. Here we describe an approach using grammars and dictionaries. This approach has the advantage that the entities found can be directly related to a given grammar or dictionary, which allows the type of an entity to be known and, if an entity is misannotated, indicates which resource should be corrected. As recognition is driven by what is expected, if spelling errors occur, they can be corrected. Correcting such errors is highly useful when attempting to lookup an entity in a database or, in the case of chemical names, converting them to structures. Results Our system uses a mixture of expertly curated grammars and dictionaries, as well as dictionaries automatically derived from public resources. We show that the heuristics developed to filter our dictionary of trivial chemical names (from PubChem) yields a better performing dictionary than the previously published Jochem dictionary. Our final system performs post-processing steps to modify the boundaries of entities and to detect abbreviations. These steps are shown to significantly improve performance (2.6% and 4.0% F1-score respectively). Our complete system, with incremental post-BioCreative workshop improvements, achieves 89.9% precision and 85.4% recall (87.6% F1-score) on the CHEMDNER test set. Conclusions Grammar and dictionary approaches can produce results at least as good as the current state of the art in machine learning approaches. While machine learning approaches are commonly thought of as "black box" systems, our approach directly links the output entities to the input dictionaries and grammars. Our approach also allows correction of errors in detected entities, which can assist with entity resolution. PMID:25810776

  2. A Simple Reconstruction of GPSG Stuart M. Shieber

    E-print Network

    Shieber, Stuart

    volume by Gazdar, Klein, Pullum, and Sag enti- tled Generalized Phrase Structure Grammar [2 of categories (a type of feature ~trueture [6]). The proposed axioms have be- come quite complex, culminating in the ambitious recent volume by Gazdar, Klein, Pullum, and Sag entitled Generalized Phrase Structure Grammar [2

  3. Computational Linguistics: Models, Resources, Applications Igor A. Bolshakov and Alexander Gelbukh (editors)

    E-print Network

    frameworks: meaning­text theory (MTT) (Mel'cuk 1974), and head-driven phrase structure grammar (HPSG) (Pollard and Sag 1994). These choices reflect primarily practical considerations. On the one hand, MTT can phrase structure grammar (Gazdar et al. 1985), and HPSG. The last several sections are devoted to MTT

  4. Sparing the Rod: What Teachers Need to Know about Grammar.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron, Deborah

    1997-01-01

    Opines that what teachers need to know about grammar is how to teach it without resorting either literally or figuratively to the "cane and the birch rod." Finds that teachers need to look again at the "what" and the "why": what grammar is and why it is taught. Also considers answers given by others. (PA)

  5. Incremental Parser Generation for Tree Adjoining Grammars* Anoop Sarkar

    E-print Network

    tables built so far. 1 LR Parser Generation Tree Adjoining Grammars (TAGs) are tree rewrit- ing systems) describes the construction of an LR parsing algorithm for TAGs 1. Parser generation here is takenIncremental Parser Generation for Tree Adjoining Grammars* Anoop Sarkar University of Pennsylvania

  6. The Constituent Ordering Process in Functional Discourse Grammar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connolly, John H.

    2012-01-01

    An essential task for the morphosyntactic level within the grammatical component of Functional Discourse Grammar (FDG) is the handling of constituent ordering. This area of grammar, which is known as positional syntax, constitutes the subject of the present paper, in which the ordering of constituents is examined within the framework of a dynamic…

  7. Towards a Rationale for Research into Grammar Teaching in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fontich, Xavier; Camps, Anna

    2014-01-01

    This article hopes to bring new insights to the debate about the effect of grammar knowledge on language use, especially writing. It raises the question of the need to look more closely at the following three questions: (1) What is the aim of grammar teaching?; (2) How capable are students of conceptualising about language and how is their…

  8. On the Equivalence of Formal Grammars and Machines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lund, Bruce

    1991-01-01

    Explores concepts of formal language and automata theory underlying computational linguistics. A computational formalism is described known as a "logic grammar," with which computational systems process linguistic data, with examples in declarative and procedural semantics and definite clause grammars. (13 references) (CB)

  9. Microsoft Natural Language Understanding System and Grammar Checker

    E-print Network

    , the grammar checker integrated in Microsoft Word 97 (also included in Office 97), which was releasedMicrosoft Natural Language Understanding System and Grammar Checker Steve Richardson Microsoft Research One Microsoft Way Redmond, WA 98052 steveri @microsoft.com The Natural Language Processing (NLP

  10. Concept-Based Grammar Teaching: An Academic Responds to Azar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Kent

    2007-01-01

    This response to Azar (this volume) intends to discuss from an academic's perspective the main points raised in her paper (i.e., grammar-based instruction and its relation to focus on form and error correction) and, to encourage a more concept-based approach to grammar instruction (CBT). A CBT approach to language development argues that the…

  11. Grammar Teaching and Learning in L2: Necessary, but Boring?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jean, Gladys; Simard, Daphnee

    2011-01-01

    This descriptive inquiry-based study targeted second language (L2) high school students' (n = 2321) and teachers' (n = 45) beliefs and perceptions about grammar instruction, specifically about grammatical accuracy, corrective feedback, and diverse forms of grammar teaching and learning. Results showed only slight discrepancies between students'…

  12. Rules of the Game: Grammar through Discovery 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Mary; And Others

    Designed to encourage students to discover that grammar merely represents the patterns that exist in language, this book presents lessons on 19 grammar points: nouns; pronouns; verbs; subjects; capitalization; end punctuation; commas; sentence fragments; run-on sentences; contractions; possessives; quotation marks; adjectives; adverbs;…

  13. Second Language Learners' Beliefs about Grammar Instruction and Error Correction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loewen, Shawn; Li, Shaofeng; Fei, Fei; Thompson, Amy; Nakatsukasa, Kimi; Ahn, Seongmee; Chen, Xiaoqing

    2009-01-01

    Learner beliefs are an important individual difference in second language (L2) learning. Furthermore, an ongoing debate surrounds the role of grammar instruction and error correction in the L2 classroom. Therefore, this study investigated the beliefs of L2 learners regarding the controversial role of grammar instruction and error correction. A…

  14. Where Is She? Gender Occurrences in Online Grammar Guides

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amare, Nicole

    2007-01-01

    This article examines seven online grammar guides for instances of linguistic sexism. The grammar sentences from .edu Websites were analyzed based on NCTE's "Guidelines for Gender-Fair Use of Language" (2002) using the criteria of generic he and man; titles, labels, and names; gender stereotypes; order of mention (firstness); and ratio of male to…

  15. Interactive Design of Probability Density Functions for Shape Grammars

    E-print Network

    Wonka, Peter

    for this grammar, which bias towards the generation of high-rise office buildings (far), downtown Haussmannian. (top) A direct application of the grammar leads to undesirable results. For example, office buildings) Mismatching roof and fac¸ade. Modern office buildings do not usually have old red tile roofs. (c) Too many

  16. Category: Genetic Programming] Genetic Programming for Grammar Induction

    E-print Network

    Ucoluk, Gokturk

    Category: Genetic Programming] Genetic Programming for Grammar Induction Emin Erkan Korkmaz. Various attempts have been car- ried out for automatically inferring di erent grammar classes approach is pre- sented where the aim is to formalize a control module for the genetic search which can use

  17. [Category: Genetic Programming] Genetic Programming for Grammar Induction

    E-print Network

    Fernandez, Thomas

    [Category: Genetic Programming] Genetic Programming for Grammar Induction Emin Erkan Korkmaz. Various attempts have been car­ ried out for automatically inferring different grammar classes. In this paper a new approach is pre­ sented where the aim is to formalize a control module for the genetic

  18. The Role of Grammar Knowledge for Identifying Language Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowley, Anne Toolan

    2010-01-01

    The focus of the study was an interest in discerning the relationship between grammar knowledge and its application for evaluating grammar development at different academic and professional stages. A 3-part questionnaire was completed by first and last semester Communication Sciences and Disorders (CSD) graduate students, and practicing…

  19. The Multiple Grammars Theory and the Nature of L2 Grammars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liceras, Juana M.

    2014-01-01

    This article offers the author's commentary on the Multiple Grammar (MG) language acquisition theory proposed by Luiz Amaral and Tom Roeper in the present issue and touches on other second language acquisition research. Topics discussed include the concept of second language (L2) optionality, a hypothesis regarding the acquisition of the…

  20. Rhetorical Grammar and the Grammar of Schooling: Teaching Powerful Verbs in the English National Literacy Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lefstein, Adam

    2009-01-01

    This article traces the trajectory of educational ideas through policy, curricular materials and enactment in the classroom. Specifically, I examine current English policy regarding the teaching of grammar in primary schools, and its enactment in a Year 3 (8-year olds) literacy lesson. While the policy advances a broadly rhetorical approach to…

  1. Dynamic Systems Theory and Universal Grammar: Holding up a Turbulent Mirror to Development in Grammars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plaza-Pust, Carolina

    2008-01-01

    Research over the last decades has shown that language development in its multiple forms is characterized by a succession of stable and unstable states. However, the variation observed is neither expected nor can it be accounted for on the basis of traditional learning concepts conceived of within the Universal Grammar (UG) paradigm. In this…

  2. Papers in Warlpiri Grammar: In Memory of Lothar Jagst. Work Papers of SIL-AAB, Series A, Volume 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swartz, Stephen M., Ed.

    Five papers on the grammar of Warlpiri, an Australian Aboriginal language, include: "A Tentative Description of Ngardilpa (Warlpiri) Verbs" (Lothar H. Jagst); "Syntactic Structure of Warlpiri Clauses" (Stephen M. Swartz); "A Preliminary Description of Propositional Particles in Warlpiri" (Mary Laughren); "Warlpiri Verb Roots and Preverbs" (David…

  3. Chargaff's "Grammar of Biology": New Fractal-like Rules

    E-print Network

    Yamagishi, Michel Eduardo Beleza

    2011-01-01

    Chargaff once said that "I saw before me in dark contours the beginning of a grammar of Biology". In linguistics, "grammar" is the set of natural language rules, but we do not know for sure what Chargaff meant by "grammar" of Biology. Nevertheless, assuming the metaphor, Chargaff himself started a "grammar of Biology" discovering the so called Chargaff's rules. In this work, we further develop his grammar. Using new concepts, we were able to discovery new genomic rules that seem to be invariant across a large set of organisms, and show a fractal-like property, since no matter the scale, the same pattern is observed (self-similarity). We hope that these new invariant genomic rules may be used in different contexts since short read data bias detection to genome assembly quality assessment.

  4. An "Alms-Basket" of "Bric-a-Brac": "Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase and Fable".

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunge, Charles A.

    1999-01-01

    Describes the development and history of "Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase and Fable," a reference source first published in 1870 that includes the etymology of phrases, allusions and words. Discusses reviews that reflected and shaped its status as a standard reference book, describes the current edition, and considers its enduring value. (LRW)

  5. Phrase Length Matters: The Interplay between Implicit Prosody and Syntax in Korean "Garden Path" Sentences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hwang, Hyekyung; Steinhauer, Karsten

    2011-01-01

    In spoken language comprehension, syntactic parsing decisions interact with prosodic phrasing, which is directly affected by phrase length. Here we used ERPs to examine whether a similar effect holds for the on-line processing of written sentences during silent reading, as suggested by theories of "implicit prosody." Ambiguous Korean sentence…

  6. Blue Car, Red Car: Developing Efficiency in Online Interpretation of Adjective-Noun Phrases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernald, Anne; Thorpe, Kirsten; Marchman, Virginia A.

    2010-01-01

    Two experiments investigated the development of fluency in interpreting adjective-noun phrases in 30- and 36-month-old English-learning children. Using online processing measures, children's gaze patterns were monitored as they heard the familiar adjective-noun phrases (e.g. "blue car") in visual contexts where the adjective was either informative…

  7. 21 CFR 4.2 - How does FDA define key terms and phrases in this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false How does FDA define key terms and phrases in this subpart? 4.2 Section 4.2...Requirements for Combination Products § 4.2 How does FDA define key terms and phrases in this subpart? The terms listed in...

  8. 21 CFR 4.2 - How does FDA define key terms and phrases in this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false How does FDA define key terms and phrases in this subpart? 4.2 Section 4.2...Requirements for Combination Products § 4.2 How does FDA define key terms and phrases in this subpart? The terms listed in...

  9. Planning in Sentence Production: Evidence for the Phrase as a Default Planning Scope

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Randi C.; Crowther, Jason E.; Knight, Meredith; Tamborello, Franklin P., II; Yang, Chin-Lung

    2010-01-01

    Controversy remains as to the scope of advanced planning in language production. Smith and Wheeldon (1999) found significantly longer onset latencies when subjects described moving-picture displays by producing sentences beginning with a complex noun phrase than for matched sentences beginning with a simple noun phrase. While these findings are…

  10. Frases en ingles para defenderse (Phrases for Getting Along in English).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butovsky, Lillian; McHugh, John

    This book of Spanish-English phrases intended for Spanish-speaking immigrants is divided into two main sections. Part One contains the grammatical section, a pronunciation guide, and basic words and phrases a newly arrived Spanish-speaking person would need to get along in an English speaking environment. Grammatical notes in Part One indicate…

  11. Large-Scale Supervised Models for Noun Phrase Bracketing David Vadas and James R. Curran

    E-print Network

    Curran, James R.

    Large-Scale Supervised Models for Noun Phrase Bracketing David Vadas and James R. Curran School to improve the output of the Bikel (2004) parser. Using a large corpus of manually anno- tated Penn Treebank (2004) parser, which outperforms the parser itself by 8.13% F-score. 1 Introduction Noun phrase (NP

  12. 43 CFR 1810.1 - Rules of construction; words and phrases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 false Rules of construction; words and phrases. 1810.1 Section 1810... § 1810.1 Rules of construction; words and phrases. Except where the context...the regulations of this chapter: (a) Words importing the singular include and...

  13. 7 CFR 15f.4 - What do certain words and phrases in these regulations mean?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false What do certain words and phrases in these regulations mean? 15f.4 Section...to What Programs Do They Apply? § 15f.4 What do certain words and phrases in these regulations mean? Agency...

  14. 43 CFR 1810.1 - Rules of construction; words and phrases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 false Rules of construction; words and phrases. 1810.1 Section 1810... § 1810.1 Rules of construction; words and phrases. Except where the context...the regulations of this chapter: (a) Words importing the singular include and...

  15. 7 CFR 15f.4 - What do certain words and phrases in these regulations mean?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What do certain words and phrases in these regulations mean? 15f.4 Section...to What Programs Do They Apply? § 15f.4 What do certain words and phrases in these regulations mean? Agency...

  16. 43 CFR 1810.1 - Rules of construction; words and phrases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 false Rules of construction; words and phrases. 1810.1 Section 1810... § 1810.1 Rules of construction; words and phrases. Except where the context...the regulations of this chapter: (a) Words importing the singular include and...

  17. 7 CFR 15f.4 - What do certain words and phrases in these regulations mean?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false What do certain words and phrases in these regulations mean? 15f.4 Section...to What Programs Do They Apply? § 15f.4 What do certain words and phrases in these regulations mean? Agency...

  18. 7 CFR 15f.4 - What do certain words and phrases in these regulations mean?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false What do certain words and phrases in these regulations mean? 15f.4 Section...to What Programs Do They Apply? § 15f.4 What do certain words and phrases in these regulations mean? Agency...

  19. 7 CFR 15f.4 - What do certain words and phrases in these regulations mean?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false What do certain words and phrases in these regulations mean? 15f.4 Section...to What Programs Do They Apply? § 15f.4 What do certain words and phrases in these regulations mean? Agency...

  20. 43 CFR 1810.1 - Rules of construction; words and phrases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 false Rules of construction; words and phrases. 1810.1 Section 1810... § 1810.1 Rules of construction; words and phrases. Except where the context...the regulations of this chapter: (a) Words importing the singular include and...

  1. Semi-Markov Phrase-based Monolingual Alignment Xuchen Yao and Benjamin Van Durme

    E-print Network

    Plotkin, Joshua B.

    Semi-Markov Phrase-based Monolingual Alignment Xuchen Yao and Benjamin Van Durme Johns Hopkins discriminative model for phrase-based monolingual alignment using a semi-Markov CRF. Our model achieves state- of-based alignment, largely due to the Markov nature of the underlying model: a state can only span one token each

  2. A Bidirectional Study on the Acquisition of Plural Noun Phrase Interpretation in English and Spanish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ionin, Tania; Montrul, Silvina; Crivos, Monica

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates how learners interpret definite plural noun phrases (e.g., "the tigers") and bare (article-less) plural noun phrases (e.g., "tigers") in their second language. Whereas Spanish allows definite plurals to have both generic and specific readings, English requires definite plurals to have specific, nongeneric readings. Generic…

  3. 20 CFR 345.302 - Definition of terms and phrases used in experience-rating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Definition of terms and phrases used in experience-rating. 345.302 Section 345...Definition of terms and phrases used in experience-rating. (a) Account...percent) rather than at the higher experience-based rate that their benefit...

  4. Making Grammar Instruction More Empowering: An Exploratory Case Study of Corpus Use in the Learning/Teaching of Grammar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Dilin

    2011-01-01

    Despite a long debate and the accompanying call for changes in the past few decades, grammar instruction in college English classes, according to some scholars, has remained largely "disempowering,""decontextualized," and "remedial" (Micciche, 2004, p. 718). To search for more effective and empowering grammar teaching, this study explores the use…

  5. Grammar, Writing, and Technology: A Sample Technology-Supported Approach to Teaching Grammar and Improving Writing for ESL Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hegelheimer, Volker; Fisher, David

    2006-01-01

    English language learners are frequently unable to benefit from the prevailing process-writing approaches due to a lack of grammar and vocabulary knowledge relevant to academic writing. This paper describes how the need for explicit grammar instruction as part of preparing students to write can be addressed by using a collection of learner texts…

  6. An Exploration of the Relationship between Vietnamese Students' Knowledge of L1 Grammar and Their English Grammar Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tran, Tammie M.

    2010-01-01

    The problem. This research study explores an important issue in the field of TESOL (Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages) and second language acquisition (SLA). Its purpose is to examine the relationship between Vietnamese students' L1 grammar knowledge and their English grammar proficiency. Furthermore, it investigates the extent to…

  7. Grammar for Writing? An Investigation of the Effects of Contextualised Grammar Teaching on Students' Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Susan; Myhill, Debra; Bailey, Trevor

    2013-01-01

    The role of grammar instruction in the teaching of writing is contested in most Anglophone countries, with several robust meta-analyses finding no evidence of any beneficial effect. However, existing research is limited in that it only considers isolated grammar instruction and offers no theorisation of an instructional relationship between…

  8. Auditory artificial grammar learning in macaque and marmoset monkeys.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Benjamin; Slater, Heather; Kikuchi, Yukiko; Milne, Alice E; Marslen-Wilson, William D; Smith, Kenny; Petkov, Christopher I

    2013-11-27

    Artificial grammars (AG) are designed to emulate aspects of the structure of language, and AG learning (AGL) paradigms can be used to study the extent of nonhuman animals' structure-learning capabilities. However, different AG structures have been used with nonhuman animals and are difficult to compare across studies and species. We developed a simple quantitative parameter space, which we used to summarize previous nonhuman animal AGL results. This was used to highlight an under-studied AG with a forward-branching structure, designed to model certain aspects of the nondeterministic nature of word transitions in natural language and animal song. We tested whether two monkey species could learn aspects of this auditory AG. After habituating the monkeys to the AG, analysis of video recordings showed that common marmosets (New World monkeys) differentiated between well formed, correct testing sequences and those violating the AG structure based primarily on simple learning strategies. By comparison, Rhesus macaques (Old World monkeys) showed evidence for deeper levels of AGL. A novel eye-tracking approach confirmed this result in the macaques and demonstrated evidence for more complex AGL. This study provides evidence for a previously unknown level of AGL complexity in Old World monkeys that seems less evident in New World monkeys, which are more distant evolutionary relatives to humans. The findings allow for the development of both marmosets and macaques as neurobiological model systems to study different aspects of AGL at the neuronal level. PMID:24285889

  9. A Stochastic Grammar of Images Song-Chun Zhu and David Mumford

    E-print Network

    Zhu, Song Chun

    literature. Finally the paper presents three case studies to illustrate the proposed grammar. Song-Chun ZhuA Stochastic Grammar of Images Song-Chun Zhu and David Mumford Abstract This exploratory paper quests for a stochastic and context sensitive grammar of images. The grammar should achieve the following

  10. Testing Grammars For Top-Down Parsers A.M. Paracha and F. Franek

    E-print Network

    Franek, Frantisek

    grammar used. Test cases should cover all possible valid and invalid input conditions. One of the major is specified by means of a formal grammar. A grammar is the main input for the test case generation processTesting Grammars For Top-Down Parsers A.M. Paracha and F. Franek Dept. of Computing and Software Mc

  11. A Realistic Look at the Function of Grammar in the Foreign Language Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heilenman, Laura K.

    The role of grammar in foreign language study should be shaped by realistic expectations of what academic study of a second language can accomplish. The temptation to emphasize grammar instruction above all else is reinforced by the patness of grammar instruction, by the measurability of student proficiency in grammar, and by the teacher's own…

  12. Workshop TAG+5, Paris, 25-27 May 2000 Engineering a Wide-Coverage Lexicalized Grammar

    E-print Network

    Weir, David

    Workshop TAG+5, Paris, 25-27 May 2000 Engineering a Wide-Coverage Lexicalized Grammar J. Carroll, N of a wide-coverage lexicalized grammar for English. In particular, we consider the way in which the design of the grammar and of its encoding was influenced by issues relating to the size of the grammar. 1. Introduction

  13. PARADIGM: Paraphrase Diagnostics through Grammar Matching Jonathan Weese and Juri Ganitkevitch

    E-print Network

    Plotkin, Joshua B.

    PARADIGM: Paraphrase Diagnostics through Grammar Matching Jonathan Weese and Juri Ganitkevitch- chronous grammars. We formulate two measures that evaluate these paraphrase grammars using gold standard a paraphrase grammar is able to synchronously parse the sentence pairs in the corpus. The second mea- sure

  14. The Effectiveness of Teaching Traditional Grammar on Writing Composition at the High School Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaeger, Gina

    2011-01-01

    Traditional grammar instruction is a challenging element of the English curriculum; both students and teachers struggle with the rules and dull nature of grammar. However, understanding grammar is important because students need to understand the language they speak in order to be effective communicators, and teachers provide grammar instruction…

  15. How do verbal short-term memory and working memory relate to the acquisition of vocabulary and grammar? A comparison between first and second language learners.

    PubMed

    Verhagen, Josje; Leseman, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies show that verbal short-term memory (VSTM) is related to vocabulary learning, whereas verbal working memory (VWM) is related to grammar learning in children learning a second language (L2) in the classroom. In this study, we investigated whether the same relationships apply to children learning an L2 in a naturalistic setting and to monolingual children. We also investigated whether relationships with verbal memory differ depending on the type of grammar skill investigated (i.e., morphology vs. syntax). Participants were 63 Turkish children who learned Dutch as an L2 and 45 Dutch monolingual children (mean age=5years). Children completed a series of VSTM and VWM tasks, a Dutch vocabulary task, and a Dutch grammar task. A confirmatory factor analysis showed that VSTM and VWM represented two separate latent factors in both groups. Structural equation modeling showed that VSTM, treated as a latent factor, significantly predicted vocabulary and grammar. VWM, treated as a latent factor, predicted only grammar. Both memory factors were significantly related to the acquisition of morphology and syntax. There were no differences between the two groups. These results show that (a) VSTM and VWM are differentially associated with language learning and (b) the same memory mechanisms are employed for learning vocabulary and grammar in L1 children and in L2 children who learn their L2 naturalistically. PMID:26340756

  16. A Note On Higher Order Grammar

    E-print Network

    Gluzberg, Victor

    2009-01-01

    Both syntax-phonology and syntax-semantics interfaces in Higher Order Grammar (HOG) are expressed as axiomatic theories in higher-order logic (HOL), i.e. a language is defined entirely in terms of provability in the single logical system. An important implication of this elegant architecture is that the meaning of a valid expression turns out to be represented not by a single, nor even by a few "discrete" terms (in case of ambiguity), but by a "continuous" set of logically equivalent terms. The note is devoted to precise formulation and proof of this observation.

  17. Diego Collado's Grammar of the Japanese Language

    E-print Network

    Spear, Richard L.

    1975-05-01

    from the Conjesion is on p. 23 where we find doco de qiqi marasitru mo, sono sata va mosanu 'although this is heard everywhere, I have heard nothing of it.' which parallels the Conjesion, p. 6, 1. 18; docu [sic] de qiqi marasitru mo; sono sata ga... is included in the title to the first section of the grammar, Antonius Nebrissensis. It is to this great Spanish humanist, 4 better known as Antonio Lebrija (1444-1522), that Collado turns for the model of his description. An examination of Lebrija...

  18. Recognizing noun phrases in medical discharge summaries: an evaluation of two natural language parsers.

    PubMed Central

    Spackman, K. A.; Hersh, W. R.

    1996-01-01

    We evaluated the ability of two natural language parsers, CLARIT and the Xerox Tagger, to identify simple, noun phrases in medical discharge summaries. In twenty randomly selected discharge summaries, there were 1909 unique simple noun phrases. CLARIT and the Xerox Tagger exactly identified 77.0% and 68.7% of the phrases, respectively, and partially identified 85.7% and 80.8% of the phrases. Neither system had been specially modified or tuned to the medical domain. These results suggest that it is possible to apply existing natural language processing (NLP) techniques to large bodies of medical text, in order to empirically identify the terminology used in medicine. Virtually all the noun phrases could be regarded as having special medical connotation and would be candidates for entry into a controlled medical vocabulary. PMID:8947647

  19. Grammar, Punctuation, and Capitalization: a Handbook for Technical Writers and Editors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccaskill, Mary K.

    1990-01-01

    Writing problems are addressed which are often encountered in technical documents and preferences are indicated (Langley's) when authorities do not agree. It is directed toward professional writers, editors, and proofreaders. Those whose profession lies in other areas (for example, research or management), but who have occasion to write or review others' writing will also find this information useful. A functional attitude toward grammar and punctuation is presented. Chapter 1 on grammar presents grammatical problems related to each part of speech. Chapter 2 on sentence structure concerns syntax, that is, effective arrangement of words, with emphasis on methods of revision to improve writing effectiveness. Chapter 3 addresses punctuation marks, presenting their function, situations when they are required or incorrect, and situations when they are appropriate but optional. Chapter 4 presents capitalization, which is mostly a matter of editorial style and preference rather than a matter of generally accepted rules. An index and glossary are included.

  20. ClusType: Effective Entity Recognition and Typing by Relation Phrase-Based Clustering

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Xiang; El-Kishky, Ahmed; Wang, Chi; Tao, Fangbo; Voss, Clare R.; Ji, Heng; Han, Jiawei

    2015-01-01

    Entity recognition is an important but challenging research problem. In reality, many text collections are from specific, dynamic, or emerging domains, which poses significant new challenges for entity recognition with increase in name ambiguity and context sparsity, requiring entity detection without domain restriction. In this paper, we investigate entity recognition (ER) with distant-supervision and propose a novel relation phrase-based ER framework, called ClusType, that runs data-driven phrase mining to generate entity mention candidates and relation phrases, and enforces the principle that relation phrases should be softly clustered when propagating type information between their argument entities. Then we predict the type of each entity mention based on the type signatures of its co-occurring relation phrases and the type indicators of its surface name, as computed over the corpus. Specifically, we formulate a joint optimization problem for two tasks, type propagation with relation phrases and multi-view relation phrase clustering. Our experiments on multiple genres—news, Yelp reviews and tweets—demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of ClusType, with an average of 37% improvement in F1 score over the best compared method. PMID:26705503

  1. Can Prosody Be Used to Discover Hierarchical Structure in Continuous Speech?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langus, Alan; Marchetto, Erika; Bion, Ricardo Augusto Hoffmann; Nespor, Marina

    2012-01-01

    We tested whether adult listeners can simultaneously keep track of variations in pitch and syllable duration in order to segment continuous speech into phrases and group these phrases into sentences. The speech stream was constructed so that prosodic cues signaled hierarchical structures (i.e., phrases embedded within sentences) and non-adjacent…

  2. Lexically Specified Derivational Control in Combinatory Categorial Grammar 

    E-print Network

    Baldridge, Jason

    This dissertation elaborates several refinements to the Combinatory Categorial Grammar (CCG) framework which are motivated by phenomena in parametrically diverse languages such as English, Dutch, Tagalog, Toba Batak and Turkish. I present Multi...

  3. Data and Models for Statistical Parsing with Combinatory Categorial Grammar 

    E-print Network

    Hockenmaier, Julia

    This dissertation is concerned with the creation of training data and the development of probability models for statistical parsing of English with Combinatory Categorial Grammar (CCG). Parsing, or syntactic analysis, ...

  4. Scalar implicatures and the grammar of plurality and disjunction

    E-print Network

    Ivlieva, Natalia

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation explores the role of scalar implicatures in the grammar of plurality and disjunction. I argue that scalar implicatures are relevant not only for the meaning of plurals and disjunctions, but also for their ...

  5. Teaching English Grammar in Initial Teacher Training: A Course Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeffcoate, Robert

    2000-01-01

    An English grammar course for preservice teachers in Britain, focusing on speech, morphology, and syntax was analyzed using pre/posttest data. All students improved knowledge and expressed satisfaction, but one-third failed to reach the required standard. (SK)

  6. SGML : a meta-language for shape grammar

    E-print Network

    Liew, Haldane

    2004-01-01

    A shape grammar develops a drawing through a series of transformations by repeatedly applying if-then rules. Although the rules can be designed, in principle, to construct any type of drawing, the drawings they construct ...

  7. Artificial grammar learning meets formal language theory: an overview

    PubMed Central

    Fitch, W. Tecumseh; Friederici, Angela D.

    2012-01-01

    Formal language theory (FLT), part of the broader mathematical theory of computation, provides a systematic terminology and set of conventions for describing rules and the structures they generate, along with a rich body of discoveries and theorems concerning generative rule systems. Despite its name, FLT is not limited to human language, but is equally applicable to computer programs, music, visual patterns, animal vocalizations, RNA structure and even dance. In the last decade, this theory has been profitably used to frame hypotheses and to design brain imaging and animal-learning experiments, mostly using the ‘artificial grammar-learning’ paradigm. We offer a brief, non-technical introduction to FLT and then a more detailed analysis of empirical research based on this theory. We suggest that progress has been hampered by a pervasive conflation of distinct issues, including hierarchy, dependency, complexity and recursion. We offer clarifications of several relevant hypotheses and the experimental designs necessary to test them. We finally review the recent brain imaging literature, using formal languages, identifying areas of convergence and outstanding debates. We conclude that FLT has much to offer scientists who are interested in rigorous empirical investigations of human cognition from a neuroscientific and comparative perspective. PMID:22688631

  8. Artificial grammar learning meets formal language theory: an overview.

    PubMed

    Fitch, W Tecumseh; Friederici, Angela D

    2012-07-19

    Formal language theory (FLT), part of the broader mathematical theory of computation, provides a systematic terminology and set of conventions for describing rules and the structures they generate, along with a rich body of discoveries and theorems concerning generative rule systems. Despite its name, FLT is not limited to human language, but is equally applicable to computer programs, music, visual patterns, animal vocalizations, RNA structure and even dance. In the last decade, this theory has been profitably used to frame hypotheses and to design brain imaging and animal-learning experiments, mostly using the 'artificial grammar-learning' paradigm. We offer a brief, non-technical introduction to FLT and then a more detailed analysis of empirical research based on this theory. We suggest that progress has been hampered by a pervasive conflation of distinct issues, including hierarchy, dependency, complexity and recursion. We offer clarifications of several relevant hypotheses and the experimental designs necessary to test them. We finally review the recent brain imaging literature, using formal languages, identifying areas of convergence and outstanding debates. We conclude that FLT has much to offer scientists who are interested in rigorous empirical investigations of human cognition from a neuroscientific and comparative perspective. PMID:22688631

  9. Normal ordering problem and the extensions of the Stirling grammar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, S.-M.; Mansour, T.; Schork, M.

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the connection between context-free grammars and normal ordered problem, and then to explore various extensions of the Stirling grammar. We present grammatical characterizations of several well known combinatorial sequences, including the generalized Stirling numbers of the second kind related to the normal ordered problem and the r-Dowling polynomials. Also, possible avenues for future research are described.

  10. Auto-extracting Paraphrases of Letter-word Phrases in Live Texts1 Zezhi ZHENG

    E-print Network

    Auto-extracting Paraphrases of Letter-word Phrases in Live Texts1 Zezhi ZHENG Dep. of Chinese, and segmented and tagged texts. In 2004, XU Yong et al presented an experiment of web based term definition

  11. Exact decoding of phrase-based translation models through Lagrangian relaxation

    E-print Network

    Chang, Yin-Wen, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2012-01-01

    This thesis describes two algorithms for exact decoding of phrase-based translation models, based on Lagrangian relaxation. Both methods recovers exact solutions, with certificates of optimality, on over 99% of test examples. ...

  12. Exploiting linguistically-enriched models of phrase-based statistical machine translation 

    E-print Network

    Guthmann, Noemie

    2006-01-01

    This thesis presents the design and implementation of linguistically-informed models for statistical phrase-based machine translation. Using Koehn’s Pharaoh (2004), a state-of-the-art SMT system, and Moses (Hoang, 2006), ...

  13. A Stochastic Parts Program and Noun Phrase Parser for Unrestricted Text Kenneth Ward Church

    E-print Network

    A Stochastic Parts Program and Noun Phrase Parser for Unrestricted Text Kenneth Ward Church Bell Laboratories 600 Mountain Ave. Murray Hill, N.J., USA 201-582-5325 alice!k-wc It is well-known that part

  14. Improving verb phrase anaphora translation in English to French statistical machine translation 

    E-print Network

    Leirvik, Austin

    2012-11-28

    This project investigates the translation of verb phrase anaphora within the source text of an English to French statistical machine translation system. VP anaphora is a common syntactic construction in English, although ...

  15. Assigning intonation elements and prosodic phrasing for English speech synthesis from high level linguistic input 

    E-print Network

    Black, Alan W; Taylor, Paul A

    This paper describes a method for generating intonation events and prosodic phrasing from a high level linguistic description. Specifically, the input consists of information normally available from linguistic processing: ...

  16. Empirical Study of Predictive Powers of Simple Attachment Schemes for Post-modifier Prepositional Phrases

    E-print Network

    that occurred. For instance in the sentence John eats his bananas in his backyard, potential at- tachment ambiguity lies in the fact that the PP in his backyard can attach to the noun phrase object his bananas

  17. Increases in Individualistic Words and Phrases in American Books, 1960–2008

    PubMed Central

    Twenge, Jean M.; Campbell, W. Keith; Gentile, Brittany

    2012-01-01

    Cultural products such as song lyrics, television shows, and books reveal cultural differences, including cultural change over time. Two studies examine changes in the use of individualistic words (Study 1) and phrases (Study 2) in the Google Books Ngram corpus of millions of books in American English. Current samples from the general population generated and rated lists of individualistic words and phrases (e.g., “unique,” “personalize,” “self,” “all about me,” “I am special,” “I’m the best”). Individualistic words and phrases increased in use between 1960 and 2008, even when controlling for changes in communal words and phrases. Language in American books has become increasingly focused on the self and uniqueness in the decades since 1960. PMID:22808113

  18. The Role of Chunks, Phrases, and Body Language in Understanding Coordinated Academic Lectures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khuwaileh, A. A.

    1999-01-01

    A crucial component of academic lectures is the use of chunks, phrases, and body language, and their role in facilitating understanding. This article examines the function and context of this component in the discourse of academic lectures. (Author/VWL)

  19. Increases in individualistic words and phrases in American books, 1960-2008.

    PubMed

    Twenge, Jean M; Campbell, W Keith; Gentile, Brittany

    2012-01-01

    Cultural products such as song lyrics, television shows, and books reveal cultural differences, including cultural change over time. Two studies examine changes in the use of individualistic words (Study 1) and phrases (Study 2) in the Google Books Ngram corpus of millions of books in American English. Current samples from the general population generated and rated lists of individualistic words and phrases (e.g., "unique," "personalize," "self," "all about me," "I am special," "I'm the best"). Individualistic words and phrases increased in use between 1960 and 2008, even when controlling for changes in communal words and phrases. Language in American books has become increasingly focused on the self and uniqueness in the decades since 1960. PMID:22808113

  20. Unagreement is an Illusion: Apparent person mismatches and nominal structure

    E-print Network

    Höhn, Georg F.K.

    2015-09-02

    1985, 187, (1))1 This poses a problem for the common view that ?-features on the verb, repre- sented by agreement morphology, are uninterpretable reflexes of the interpretable ?-features on the subject noun phrase. If las mujeres in the Spanish example... and Neeleman 2013, 317) cannot be quite correct. In addition to the controversial status of paradigms as a primitive of grammar (Bobaljik 2008), lack of a paradigmatic opposition turns out to be also empirically problematic as a predictor for quantificational...

  1. The Role of Sustained Attention in the Production of Conjoined Noun Phrases: An Individual Differences Study

    PubMed Central

    Jongman, Suzanne R.; Meyer, Antje S.; Roelofs, Ardi

    2015-01-01

    It has previously been shown that language production, performed simultaneously with a nonlinguistic task, involves sustained attention. Sustained attention concerns the ability to maintain alertness over time. Here, we aimed to replicate the previous finding by showing that individuals call upon sustained attention when they plan single noun phrases (e.g., "the carrot") and perform a manual arrow categorization task. In addition, we investigated whether speakers also recruit sustained attention when they produce conjoined noun phrases (e.g., "the carrot and the bucket") describing two pictures, that is, when both the first and second task are linguistic. We found that sustained attention correlated with the proportion of abnormally slow phrase-production responses. Individuals with poor sustained attention displayed a greater number of very slow responses than individuals with better sustained attention. Importantly, this relationship was obtained both for the production of single phrases while performing a nonlinguistic manual task, and the production of noun phrase conjunctions in referring to two spatially separated objects. Inhibition and updating abilities were also measured. These scores did not correlate with our measure of sustained attention, suggesting that sustained attention and executive control are distinct. Overall, the results suggest that planning conjoined noun phrases involves sustained attention, and that language production happens less automatically than has often been assumed. PMID:26335441

  2. Quelques problemes poses a la grammaire casuelle (Some Problems Regarding Case Grammar)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fillmore, Charles J.

    1975-01-01

    Discusses problems related to case grammar theory, including: the organizations of a case grammar; determination of semantic roles; definition and hierarchy of cases; cause-effect relations; and formalization and notation. (Text is in French.) (AM)

  3. Introduction NE Grammars Medical IE Terminology Conclusions Ekstrakcja informacji zloonych z tekstw

    E-print Network

    Introduction NE Grammars Medical IE Terminology Conclusions Ekstrakcja informacji zloonych z roku #12;Introduction NE Grammars Medical IE Terminology Conclusions Project Motivations and Goals domain (medical texts), testing methods of terminology extraction on Polish data. #12;Introduction NE

  4. The Prefix PO- and Aspect in Russian and Polish: A Cognitive Grammar Account

    E-print Network

    Christensen, Jason Heath

    2011-12-31

    This study examines the meanings of the prefix po- and verbal aspect in Russian and Polish in a Cognitive Grammar framework. The principles of Cognitive Grammar adopted in this study are based on Langacker (1991). This study follows Dickey's (2000...

  5. An Inheritance-Based Theory of the Lexicon in Combinatory Categorial Grammar 

    E-print Network

    McConville, Mark

    2008-01-01

    This thesis proposes an extended version of the Combinatory Categorial Grammar (CCG) formalism, with the following features: 1. grammars incorporate inheritance hierarchies of lexical types, defined over a simple, ...

  6. Using conceptual metaphor and functional grammar to explore how language used in physics affects student learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brookes, David T.; Etkina, Eugenia

    2007-06-01

    This paper introduces a theory about the role of language in learning physics. The theory is developed in the context of physics students and physicists talking and writing about the subject of quantum mechanics. We found that physicists’ language encodes different varieties of analogical models through the use of grammar and conceptual metaphor. We hypothesize that students categorize concepts into ontological categories based on the grammatical structure of physicists’ language. We also hypothesize that students overextend and misapply conceptual metaphors in physicists’ speech and writing. Using our theory, we will show how, in some cases, we can explain student difficulties in quantum mechanics as difficulties with language.

  7. A Case Study in Implementing DependencyBased Grammars Marie BOURDON, Lyne DA SYLVA, Michel GAGNON,

    E-print Network

    Gagnon, Michel

    A Case Study in Implementing Dependency­Based Grammars Marie BOURDON, Lyne DA SYLVA, Michel GAGNON,ldasylva,mgagnon,akharrat,sknoll,amaclachlan@machinasapiens.com http://www.machinasapiens.com Abstract In creating an English grammar check i ng sof t ware product , we implemented a large­coverage grammar based on the dependency grammar forma l i sm . Th i s i mp l

  8. Grammar Logics in Nested Sequent Calculus: Proof Theory and Decision Procedures

    E-print Network

    Goré, Rajeev

    -free grammar logics, using nested sequent calculus with deep inference, and show that, in the case whereGrammar Logics in Nested Sequent Calculus: Proof Theory and Decision Procedures Alwen Tiu Research University Abstract A grammar logic refers to an extension of the multi-modal logic K in which the modal

  9. A Case Study in Implementing Dependency-Based Grammars Made BOURDON, Lyne DA SYLVA, Michel GAGNON,

    E-print Network

    A Case Study in Implementing Dependency-Based Grammars Made BOURDON, Lyne DA SYLVA, Michel GAGNON grammar literature, led to inefficiency in the parser. By modifying the grammatical analysis in some cases,ldasylva,mgaguon,akharrat'sknoll,amaclachlan@machinasapiens.com http://www.machinasapiens.com Abstract In creating an English grammar checking software product, we

  10. FROM FIRST WORDS TO GRAMMAR IN CHILDREN WITH FOCAL BRAIN INJURY

    E-print Network

    WORDS TO GRAMMAR IN CHILDREN WITH FOCAL BRAIN INJURY In 1861, Paul Broca described a case of nonfluentFROM FIRST WORDS TO GRAMMAR IN CHILDREN WITH FOCAL BRAIN INJURY Elizabeth Bates University to grammar. Parent report and/or free speech data are reported for 53 infants and preschool children between

  11. Object Detection Grammars Pedro F. Felzenszwalb and David McAllester

    E-print Network

    McAllester, David

    process for deriving a bag of terminals from a nonterminal. As in the case of a context free grammar we in a derivation tree are ordered from left to right, in the case of a bag grammar the children are unorderedObject Detection Grammars Pedro F. Felzenszwalb and David McAllester February 11, 2010 1

  12. ON THE INSEPARABILITY OF GRAMMAR AND THE LEXICON: EVIDENCE FROM ACQUISITION, APHASIA AND

    E-print Network

    that the case for a modular distinction between grammar and the lexicon has been overstatedON THE INSEPARABILITY OF GRAMMAR AND THE LEXICON: EVIDENCE FROM ACQUISITION, APHASIA AND REAL Processes, 1997, 12(5/6), 507-584. #12;2 ON THE INSEPARABILITY OF GRAMMAR AND THE LEXICON: EVIDENCE FROM

  13. Practical Experience with Grammar Sharing in Multilingual NLP Michael Gamon, Carmen Lozano, Jessie Pinkham, Tom Reutter

    E-print Network

    grammar was taken as the starting point for each of the other three grarnmars. In each case, throughPractical Experience with Grammar Sharing in Multilingual NLP · Michael Gamon, Carmen Lozano,clozano,jessiep,treutter}@microsoft.corn Abstract In the Microsoft Natural Language Processing System (MSNLP), grammar sharing between English

  14. Unsupervised Learning of Event AND-OR Grammar and Semantics from Video Zhangzhang Sia

    E-print Network

    Zhu, Song Chun

    Unsupervised Learning of Event AND-OR Grammar and Semantics from Video Zhangzhang Sia , Mingtao@bit.edu.cn, {zyyao,sczhu}@stat.ucla.edu Abstract We study the problem of automatically learning event AND-OR grammar propose to learn the event grammar under the informa- tion projection and minimum description length

  15. Lexicalized Grammar Acquisition Yusuke Miyaot Takashi Ninomiyatt Jun'ichi Tsujiit

    E-print Network

    Lexicalized Grammar Acquisition Yusuke Miyaot Takashi Ninomiyatt Jun'ichi Tsujiit f , tsuj ii}@is s .u-tokyo ac jp Abstract This paper presents a formalization of automatic grammar acquisition that is based on lexicalized grammar for- malisms (e.g. LTAG and HPSG). We state the conditions

  16. A Cross-Linguistic Study of the Relationship between Grammar & Lexical Development

    E-print Network

    A Cross-Linguistic Study of the Relationship between Grammar & Lexical Development (Topic Area: Grammar) Antonella Devescovi1 Maria Cristina Caselli2 Daniela Marchione1 Judy Reilly3 Elizabeth Bates4 1 Grammar & Lexical Development Abstract The relationship between grammatical and lexical development

  17. MDL-BASED CONTEXT-FREE GRAPH GRAMMAR INDUCTION AND APPLICATIONS

    E-print Network

    Cook, Diane J.

    MDL-BASED CONTEXT-FREE GRAPH GRAMMAR INDUCTION AND APPLICATIONS ISTVAN JONYER Department Revised Accepted We present an algorithm for the inference of context-free graph grammars from examples. The algorithm builds on an earlier system for frequent substructure discovery, and is biased toward grammars

  18. Unsupervised Learning of Probabilistic Grammar-Markov Models for Object Categories

    E-print Network

    Yuille, Alan L.

    Unsupervised Learning of Probabilistic Grammar-Markov Models for Object Categories Long (Leo) Zhu, Yuanhao Chen, and Alan Yuille Abstract--We introduce a Probabilistic Grammar-Markov Model (PGMM) which couples probabilistic context-free grammars and Markov Random Fields. These PGMMs are generative models

  19. Attribute Grammar Evolution Marina de la Cruz Echeandia, Alfonso Ortega de la Puente,

    E-print Network

    Alfonseca, Manuel

    Attribute Grammar Evolution Marina de la Cruz Echeand´ia, Alfonso Ortega de la Puente, and Manuel.ortega, manuel.alfonseca}@uam.es Abstract. This paper describes Attribute Grammar Evolution (AGE), a new Automatic Evolutionary Programming algorithm that extends standard Grammar Evolution (GE) by replacing

  20. Course Objectives, Student Learning Outcomes, and Promotion Requirements Grammar 10 Objectives to teach

    E-print Network

    Sin, Peter

    Course Objectives, Student Learning Outcomes, and Promotion Requirements Grammar 10 Objectives singular -s in simple present & [has] in perfect tenses Grammar 10 Student Learning Outcomes to formally assess: At the end of Grammar 10, students will be able to demonstrate understanding of the following

  1. Unsupervised Learning of a Probabilistic Grammar for Object Detection and Parsing

    E-print Network

    Yuille, Alan L.

    Unsupervised Learning of a Probabilistic Grammar for Object Detection and Parsing Long Zhu;Unsupervised Learning of a Probabilistic Grammar for Object Detection and Parsing Long (Leo) Zhu Department grammar of an object from a set of training examples. Our approach is invariant to the scale and rotation

  2. Neural Correlates of Artificial Grammar Learning P. D. Skosnik,* F. Mirza,* D. R. Gitelman,,

    E-print Network

    Reber, Paul J.

    Neural Correlates of Artificial Grammar Learning P. D. Skosnik,* F. Mirza,* D. R. Gitelman,, T. B grammar learning (AGL) is a form of non- declarative memory that involves the nonconscious ac- quisition to an artificial grammar. Participants then made grammaticality judg- ments about novel grammatical

  3. Coling 2008: Proceedings of the workshop on Grammar Engineering Across Frameworks, pages 2532 Manchester, August 2008

    E-print Network

    Coling 2008: Proceedings of the workshop on Grammar Engineering Across Frameworks, pages 25­32 Manchester, August 2008 Multilingual Grammar Resources in Multilingual Application Development Marianne.Santaholma@eti.unige.ch Abstract Grammar development makes up a large part of the multilingual rule-based appli- cation development

  4. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON EVOLUTIONARY COMPUTATION, VOL. 11, NO. 1, FEBRUARY 2007 77 Christiansen Grammar Evolution: Grammatical

    E-print Network

    Alfonseca, Manuel

    Grammar Evolution: Grammatical Evolution With Semantics Alfonso Ortega, Marina de la Cruz, and Manuel Alfonseca, Member, IEEE Abstract--This paper describes Christiansen grammar evo- lution (CGE), a new evolutionary automatic programming algorithm that extends standard grammar evolution (GE) by replacing context

  5. The Association between Expressive Grammar Intervention and Social and Emergent Literacy Outcomes for Preschoolers with SLI

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington, Karla N.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether (a) expressive grammar intervention facilitated social and emergent literacy outcomes better than no intervention and (b) expressive grammar gains and/or initial expressive grammar level predicted social and emergent literacy outcomes. Method: This investigation was a follow-up to a recently published study exploring…

  6. Towards the Automatic Generation of Card Games through Grammar-Guided Genetic Programming

    E-print Network

    Togelius, Julian

    in a previously devised card game description language, a context-free grammar. The syntax of this language allows]. The language is defined as a context-free grammar, where each derivation is a syntacti- cally valid gameTowards the Automatic Generation of Card Games through Grammar-Guided Genetic Programming Jose M

  7. Evaluating and Extending the Coverage of HPSG Grammars: A Case Study for German

    E-print Network

    Dridan, Rebecca

    Evaluating and Extending the Coverage of HPSG Grammars: A Case Study for German Jeremy Nicholson, Valia Kordoni, Yi Zhang, Timothy Baldwin, Rebecca Dridan Dept of Computational Linguistics and DFKI GmbH In this work, we examine and attempt to extend the coverage of a German HPSG grammar. We use the grammar

  8. Generalized Multitext Grammars A revised and extended version of the ACL'04 paper

    E-print Network

    is possible with other synchronous formalisms. This paper investigates the generative capacity of GMTG, proves University 2 University of Padua Abstract Generalized Multitext Grammar (GMTG) is a synchronous grammar of the notational and intuitive simplicity of Context-Free Grammar (CFG). GMTG allows both synchronous

  9. The Role of Grammar in the Writing Curriculum: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myhill, Debra; Watson, Annabel

    2014-01-01

    For most Anglophone countries, the history of grammar teaching over the past 50 years is one of contestation, debate and dissent: and 50 years on we are no closer to reaching a consensus about the role of grammar in the English/Language Arts curriculum. The debate has been described through the metaphor of battle and grammar wars (Kamler, 1995;…

  10. Language Practice with Multimedia Supported Web-Based Grammar Revision Material

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baturay, Meltem Huri; Daloglu, Aysegul; Yildirim, Soner

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the perceptions of elementary-level English language learners towards web-based, multimedia-annotated grammar learning. WEBGRAM, a system designed to provide supplementary web-based grammar revision material, uses audio-visual aids to enrich the contextual presentation of grammar and allows learners to…

  11. The Non-Self-Embedding Property Generalized Fuzzy Context-Free Grammars

    E-print Network

    Theune, Mariët

    The Non-Self-Embedding Property for Generalized Fuzzy Context-Free Grammars Peter R.J. Asveld Dept. of Computer Science, Twente University of Technology P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede, the Netherlands e-mail: infprja@cs.utwente.nl Abstract. A fuzzy context-free K-grammar is a fuzzy context-free grammar

  12. Morphological Variability in Interlanguage Grammars: New Evidence from the Acquisition of Gender and Number in Italian Determiner Phrases and Direct Object Pronouns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santoro, Maurizio

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, I investigate the phenomenon of morphological variability in the production of Italian determiners, descriptive adjectives, and direct object pronouns by adult English learners of Italian to determine whether morphological errors are the result of computational or representational difficulties. Second language acquisitionists do…

  13. Inter-subject variability modulates phonological advance planning in the production of adjective-noun phrases

    PubMed Central

    Michel Lange, Violaine; Laganaro, Marina

    2014-01-01

    The literature on advance phonological planning in adjective-noun phrases (NPs) presents diverging results: while many experimental studies suggest that the entire NP is encoded before articulation, other results favor a span of encoding limited to the first word. Although cross-linguistic differences in the structure of adjective-NPs may account for some of these contrasting results, divergences have been reported even among similar languages and syntactic structures. Here we examined whether inter-individual differences account for variability in the span of phonological planning in the production of French NPs, where previous results indicated encoding limited to the first word. The span of phonological encoding is tested with the picture-word interference (PWI) paradigm using phonological distractors related to the noun or to the adjective of the NPs. In Experiment 1, phonological priming effects were limited to the first word in adjective NPs whichever the position of the adjective (pre-nominal or post-nominal). Crucially, phonological priming effects on the second word interacted with speakers' production speed suggesting different encoding strategies for participants. In Experiment 2, we tested this hypothesis further with a larger group of participants. Results clearly showed that slow and fast initializing participants presented different phonological priming patterns on the last element of adjective-NPs: while the first word was primed by a distractor for all speakers, only the slow speaker group presented a priming effect on the second element of the NP. These results show that the span of phonological encoding is modulated by inter-individual strategies: in experimental paradigms some speakers plan word by word whereas others encode beyond the initial word. We suggest that the diverging results reported in the literature on advance phonological planning may partly be reconciled in light of the present results. PMID:24550866

  14. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SOFTWARE ENGINEERING: SPECIAL ISSUE ON SOFTWARE LANGUAGE ENGINEERING 1 Grammar Recovery from Parse Trees and

    E-print Network

    Malloy, Brian

    . However, a grammar is not always available for a language, and in these cases, acquiring a grammar of a case study in which we recover and refactor a grammar from version 4.0.0 of the GNU C++ parserIEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SOFTWARE ENGINEERING: SPECIAL ISSUE ON SOFTWARE LANGUAGE ENGINEERING 1 Grammar

  15. Using Categorial Grammar to Label Translation Rules Jonathan Weese and Chris Callison-Burch and Adam Lopez

    E-print Network

    Plotkin, Joshua B.

    Using Categorial Grammar to Label Translation Rules Jonathan Weese and Chris Callison to the translation grammar. We introduce a labeling scheme based on categorial grammar, which allows syntactic the usage of synchronous context-free grammars (SCFGs) for machine translation. SCFGs model translation

  16. FORMAL SPECIFICATION OF NATURAL LANGUAGE SYNTAX The two-level grammar is investigated as a notation for giving formal

    E-print Network

    FORMAL SPECIFICATION OF NATURAL LANGUAGE SYNTAX ABSTRACT The two-level grammar is investigated-noun-modificatlon by relative clauses, is formalized using a two-level grammar. The principal advantages of two- level grammar a two-level grammar for natural language syntax, we can derive a parser automatically without writing

  17. Approved Module Information for LE1008, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Grammar & Meaning Module Code: LE1008

    E-print Network

    Neirotti, Juan Pablo

    Approved Module Information for LE1008, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Grammar & Meaning Module Code: LE introduces students to descriptive English grammar. Major topics discussed will include the identification of the basics of descriptive English grammar and will be able to analyse the grammar of English texts

  18. Proceedings of a Conference--"The Future of Grammar in American Schools" (Winchester, VA, August 10-11, 1990).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council of Teachers of English, Urbana, IL. Assembly for the Teaching of English Grammar.

    Providing alternatives to the way grammar is taught, this proceedings includes every paper (or summary) except one delivered at a conference on the future of grammar in American schools. Papers in the proceedings are: "Keynote: The Future of Grammar in American Schools" (Martha Kolln); "Approaches to Grammar: Teaching & Otherwise" (Kathy…

  19. Learning Cue Phrase Patterns from Radiology Reports Using a Genetic Algorithm

    SciTech Connect

    Patton, Robert M; Beckerman, Barbara G; Potok, Thomas E

    2009-01-01

    Various computer-assisted technologies have been developed to assist radiologists in detecting cancer; however, the algorithms still lack high degrees of sensitivity and specificity, and must undergo machine learning against a training set with known pathologies in order to further refine the algorithms with higher validity of truth. This work describes an approach to learning cue phrase patterns in radiology reports that utilizes a genetic algorithm (GA) as the learning method. The approach described here successfully learned cue phrase patterns for two distinct classes of radiology reports. These patterns can then be used as a basis for automatically categorizing, clustering, or retrieving relevant data for the user.

  20. Phase structure rewrite systems in information retrieval

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klingbiel, P. H.

    1985-01-01

    Operational level automatic indexing requires an efficient means of normalizing natural language phrases. Subject switching requires an efficient means of translating one set of authorized terms to another. A phrase structure rewrite system called a Lexical Dictionary is explained that performs these functions. Background, operational use, other applications and ongoing research are explained.