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Sample records for phrase structure grammar

  1. Slavic in Head-Driven Phrase Structure Grammar.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borsley, Robert D., Ed.; Przepiorkowski, Adam, Ed.

    The collection of essays on the properties of Slavic languages in the context of the theory of head-driven phrase structure grammar (HPSG) includes: "Typological Similarities in HPSG" (Tania Avgustinova, Wojciech Skut, Hans Uszkoreit); "Auxiliaries, Verbs and Complementizers in Polish" (Robert D. Borsley); "An Architecture for Phonology" (Tilman…

  2. Slavic in Head-Driven Phrase Structure Grammar.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borsley, Robert D., Ed.; Przepiorkowski, Adam, Ed.

    The collection of essays on the properties of Slavic languages in the context of the theory of head-driven phrase structure grammar (HPSG) includes: "Typological Similarities in HPSG" (Tania Avgustinova, Wojciech Skut, Hans Uszkoreit); "Auxiliaries, Verbs and Complementizers in Polish" (Robert D. Borsley); "An Architecture for Phonology" (Tilman…

  3. Studies in Generalized Phrase Structure Grammar. Working Papers in Linguistics #31.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geis, Michael L., Ed.

    A group of syntactic studies, primarily concerning English and German, within the framework of generalized phrase structure grammar include: "English Adverb Placement in Generalized Phrase Structure Grammar" (Belinda L. Brodie), concerning the placement of modal, evaluative, temporal, and verb phrase adverbs; "Syntactic Conditions on Two Types of…

  4. Phrase Structure, Possessives, and Definiteness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyons, Christopher

    Definiteness and indefiniteness are usually seen as essentially a matter of lexical semantics, in that whether a noun phrase (NP) is definite or indefinite depends on the choice of determiner. It may be more accurate to say that the position of the determiners within phrase structure configurations may correlate with the definite/indefinite…

  5. On directionality of phrase structure building.

    PubMed

    Chesi, Cristiano

    2015-02-01

    Minimalism in grammatical theorizing (Chomsky in The minimalist program. MIT Press, Cambridge, 1995) led to simpler linguistic devices and a better focalization of the core properties of the structure building engine: a lexicon and a free (recursive) phrase formation operation, dubbed Merge, are the basic components that serve in building syntactic structures. Here I suggest that by looking at the elementary restrictions that apply to Merge (i.e., selection and licensing of functional features), we could conclude that a re-orientation of the syntactic derivation (from bottom-up/right-left to top-down/left-right) is necessary to make the theory simpler, especially for long-distance (filler-gap) dependencies, and is also empirically more adequate. If the structure building operations would assemble lexical items in the order they are pronounced (Phillips in Order and structure. PhD thesis, MIT, 1996; Chesi in Phases and cartography in linguistic computation: Toward a cognitively motivated computational model of linguistic competence. PhD thesis, Università di Siena, 2004; Chesi in Competence and computation: Toward a processing friendly minimalist grammar. Unipress, Padova, 2012), on-line performance data could better fit the grammatical model, without resorting to external "performance factors." The phase-based, top-down (and, as a consequence, left-right) Minimalist Grammar here discussed goes in this direction, ultimately showing how strong Islands (Huang in Logical relations in Chinese and the theory of grammar. PhD thesis, MIT, 1982) and intervention effects (Gordon et al. in J Exp Psychol Learn Mem Cogn 27:1411-1423, 2001, Gordon et al. in J Mem Lang 51:97-114, 2004) could be better explained in structural terms assuming this unconventional derivational direction. PMID:25408515

  6. Can Intonational Phrase Structure Be Primed (Like Syntactic Structure)?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tooley, Kristen M.; Konopka, Agnieszka E.; Watson, Duane G.

    2014-01-01

    In 3 experiments, we investigated whether intonational phrase structure can be primed. In all experiments, participants listened to sentences in which the presence and location of intonational phrase boundaries were manipulated such that the recording included either no intonational phrase boundaries, a boundary in a structurally dispreferred…

  7. Phrase Structure and Directionality in Irish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ernst, Thomas

    1992-01-01

    Evidence from Irish is presented to show that a language may be marked so that Spec position is located on one side of the head, and all nonspecifiers, at both levels of phrase structure, occur on the other. It is concluded that Irish requires adjuncts to conform to head-initiality. (Contains 50 references.) (LB)

  8. On Directionality of Phrase Structure Building

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chesi, Cristiano

    2015-01-01

    Minimalism in grammatical theorizing (Chomsky in "The minimalist program." MIT Press, Cambridge, 1995) led to simpler linguistic devices and a better focalization of the core properties of the structure building engine: a lexicon and a free (recursive) phrase formation operation, dubbed Merge, are the basic components that serve in…

  9. On Directionality of Phrase Structure Building

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chesi, Cristiano

    2015-01-01

    Minimalism in grammatical theorizing (Chomsky in "The minimalist program." MIT Press, Cambridge, 1995) led to simpler linguistic devices and a better focalization of the core properties of the structure building engine: a lexicon and a free (recursive) phrase formation operation, dubbed Merge, are the basic components that serve in…

  10. Advanced English; Lessons in Grammar.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Joe Darwin

    This grammar text was prepared especially for advanced students of English in the Somali Republic. The material consists for the most part of explanations and exercises in English generative--transformational grammar. Chapters treat the following aspects of English grammar: (1) the phrase structure of simple sentences; (2) the English noun phrase;…

  11. Gender and Heritage Spanish Bilingual Grammars: A Study of Code-Mixed Determiner Phrases and Copula Constructions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valenzuela, Elena; Faure, Ana; Ramirez-Trujillo, Alma P.; Barski, Ewelina; Pangtay, Yolanda; Diez, Adriana

    2012-01-01

    The study examined heritage speaker grammars and to what extent they diverge with respect to grammatical gender from adult L2 learners. Results from a preference task involving code-mixed Determiner Phrases (DPs) and code-mixed copula constructions show a difference between these two types of operations. Heritage speakers patterned with the…

  12. Gender and Heritage Spanish Bilingual Grammars: A Study of Code-Mixed Determiner Phrases and Copula Constructions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valenzuela, Elena; Faure, Ana; Ramirez-Trujillo, Alma P.; Barski, Ewelina; Pangtay, Yolanda; Diez, Adriana

    2012-01-01

    The study examined heritage speaker grammars and to what extent they diverge with respect to grammatical gender from adult L2 learners. Results from a preference task involving code-mixed Determiner Phrases (DPs) and code-mixed copula constructions show a difference between these two types of operations. Heritage speakers patterned with the…

  13. Can Intonational Phrase Structure be Primed (like Syntactic Structure)?

    PubMed Central

    Tooley, Kristen M.; Konopka, Agnieszka E.; Watson, Duane G.

    2013-01-01

    In three experiments, we investigated whether intonational phrase structure can be primed. In all experiments, participants listened to sentences in which the presence and location of intonational phrase boundaries was manipulated such that the recording either included no intonational phrase boundaries, a boundary in a structurally dispreferred location, in a preferred location, or in both locations. In Experiment 1, participants repeated the sentences to test whether they would reproduce the prosodic structure they had just heard. Experiments 2 and 3 used a prime-target paradigm to evaluate whether the intonational phrase structure heard in the prime sentence might influence that of a novel target sentence. Experiment 1 showed that participants did repeat back sentences that they just heard with the original intonational phrase structure, yet Experiments 2 and 3 found that exposure to intonational phrase boundaries on prime trials did not influence how a novel target sentence was prosodically phrased. These results suggest that speakers may retain the intonational phrasing of a sentence, but this effect is not long-lived and does not generalize across unrelated sentences. Furthermore, these findings provide no evidence that intonational phrase structure is formulated during a planning stage that is separate from other sources of linguistic information. PMID:24188467

  14. The Syntactic Structure of Chinese Nominal Phrases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Honglei

    2012-01-01

    The DP Hypothesis proposes that nominal phrases can be analyzed as consisting of Determiner Phrase (DP) on top of Noun Phrase (NP); however, there is a debate on whether this hypothesis works for all languages. Given that previous studies on Chinese leave this question unresolved, this dissertation investigates new empirical evidence to test…

  15. The Syntactic Structure of Chinese Nominal Phrases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Honglei

    2012-01-01

    The DP Hypothesis proposes that nominal phrases can be analyzed as consisting of Determiner Phrase (DP) on top of Noun Phrase (NP); however, there is a debate on whether this hypothesis works for all languages. Given that previous studies on Chinese leave this question unresolved, this dissertation investigates new empirical evidence to test…

  16. The Grammars of English and French.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lampach, Stanley

    This contrastive grammar based on modern linguistic theory considers noun and verb phrases as the primary morphological and syntactical structure of language. A section on the noun phrase examines: (1) types of noun phrase constructions; (2) gender and number; (3) elements, expansion, and substitutes of the noun phrase. The material on the verb…

  17. Portmanteau Constructions, Phrase Structure, and Linearization.

    PubMed

    Chan, Brian Hok-Shing

    2015-01-01

    In bilingual code-switching which involves language-pairs with contrasting head-complement orders (i.e., head-initial vs. head-final), a head may be lexicalized from both languages with its complement sandwiched in the middle. These so-called "portmanteau" sentences (Nishimura, 1985, 1986; Sankoff et al., 1990, etc.) have been attested for decades, but they had never received a systematic, formal analysis in terms of current syntactic theory before a few recent attempts (Hicks, 2010, 2012). Notwithstanding this lack of attention, these structures are in fact highly relevant to theories of linearization and phrase structure. More specifically, they challenge binary-branching (Kayne, 1994, 2004, 2005) as well as the Antisymmetry hypothesis (ibid.). Not explained by current grammatical models of code-switching, including the Equivalence Constraint (Poplack, 1980), the Matrix Language Frame Model (Myers-Scotton, 1993, 2002, etc.), and the Bilingual Speech Model (Muysken, 2000, 2013), the portmanteau construction indeed looks uncommon or abnormal, defying any systematic account. However, the recurrence of these structures in various datasets and constraints on them do call for an explanation. This paper suggests an account which lies with syntax and also with the psycholinguistics of bilingualism. Assuming that linearization is a process at the Sensori-Motor (SM) interface (Chomsky, 2005, 2013), this paper sees that word order is not fixed in a syntactic tree but it is set in the production process, and much information of word order rests in the processor, for instance, outputting a head before its complement (i.e., head-initial word order) or the reverse (i.e., head-final word order). As for the portmanteau construction, it is the output of bilingual speakers co-activating two sets of head-complement orders which summon the phonetic forms of the same word in both languages. Under this proposal, the underlying structure of a portmanteau construction is as simple as an XP in which a head X merges with its complement YP and projects an XP (i.e., X YP ? [XP X YP]). PMID:26733894

  18. Portmanteau Constructions, Phrase Structure, and Linearization

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Brian Hok-Shing

    2015-01-01

    In bilingual code-switching which involves language-pairs with contrasting head-complement orders (i.e., head-initial vs. head-final), a head may be lexicalized from both languages with its complement sandwiched in the middle. These so-called “portmanteau” sentences (Nishimura, 1985, 1986; Sankoff et al., 1990, etc.) have been attested for decades, but they had never received a systematic, formal analysis in terms of current syntactic theory before a few recent attempts (Hicks, 2010, 2012). Notwithstanding this lack of attention, these structures are in fact highly relevant to theories of linearization and phrase structure. More specifically, they challenge binary-branching (Kayne, 1994, 2004, 2005) as well as the Antisymmetry hypothesis (ibid.). Not explained by current grammatical models of code-switching, including the Equivalence Constraint (Poplack, 1980), the Matrix Language Frame Model (Myers-Scotton, 1993, 2002, etc.), and the Bilingual Speech Model (Muysken, 2000, 2013), the portmanteau construction indeed looks uncommon or abnormal, defying any systematic account. However, the recurrence of these structures in various datasets and constraints on them do call for an explanation. This paper suggests an account which lies with syntax and also with the psycholinguistics of bilingualism. Assuming that linearization is a process at the Sensori-Motor (SM) interface (Chomsky, 2005, 2013), this paper sees that word order is not fixed in a syntactic tree but it is set in the production process, and much information of word order rests in the processor, for instance, outputting a head before its complement (i.e., head-initial word order) or the reverse (i.e., head-final word order). As for the portmanteau construction, it is the output of bilingual speakers co-activating two sets of head-complement orders which summon the phonetic forms of the same word in both languages. Under this proposal, the underlying structure of a portmanteau construction is as simple as an XP in which a head X merges with its complement YP and projects an XP (i.e., X YP → [XP X YP]). PMID:26733894

  19. Creation Myths of Generative Grammar and the Mathematics of Syntactic Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pullum, Geoffrey K.

    Syntactic Structures (Chomsky [6]) is widely believed to have laid the foundations of a cognitive revolution in linguistic science, and to have presented (i) the first use in linguistics of powerful new ideas regarding grammars as generative systems, (ii) a proof that English was not a regular language, (iii) decisive syntactic arguments against context-free phrase structure grammar description, and (iv) a demonstration of how transformational rules could provide a formal solution to those problems. None of these things are true. This paper offers a retrospective analysis and evaluation.

  20. The Structure of Jarai Clauses and Noun Phrases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Joshua Martin

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation provides a syntactic account for the Jarai noun phrase and for the three regions of the Jarai clause: the operator domain, the inflectional domain, and the theta domain. Within the noun phrase, I argue that demonstrative-final word order involves phrasal movement of the demonstrative's complement into Spec,D, where it…

  1. The Dependency Structure of Coordinate Phrases: A Corpus Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Temperley, David

    2005-01-01

    Hudson (1990) proposes that each conjunct in a coordinate phrase forms dependency relations with heads or dependents outside the coordinate phrase (the "multi-head" view). This proposal is tested through corpus analysis of Wall Street Journal text. For right-branching constituents (such as direct-object NPs), a short-long preference for conjunct…

  2. Development and Validation of a Diagnostic Grammar Test for Japanese Learners of English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koizumi, Rie; Sakai, Hideki; Ido, Takahiro; Ota, Hiroshi; Hayama, Megumi; Sato, Masatoshi; Nemoto, Akiko

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on the development and validation of the English Diagnostic Test of Grammar (EDiT Grammar) for Japanese learners of English. From among the many aspects of grammar, this test focuses on the knowledge of basic English noun phrases (NPs), especially their internal structures, because previous research has indicated the…

  3. English Grammars and English Grammar.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Robert L.

    This book presents an overview of the history of the English language and of English grammars; describes and evaluates traditional grammar, transformational-generative grammar, tagmemic grammar, and stratificational grammar; and proposes sector analysis as a practical way of describing both the structure of English and the native speaker's…

  4. Children's Knowledge of Hierarchical Phrase Structure: Quantifier Floating in Japanese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suzuki, Takaaki; Yoshinaga, Naoko

    2013-01-01

    The interpretation of floating quantifiers in Japanese requires knowledge of hierarchical phrase structure. However, the input to children is insufficient or even misleading, as our analysis indicates. This presents an intriguing question on learnability: do children interpret floating quantifiers based on a structure-dependent rule which is not…

  5. Children's Knowledge of Hierarchical Phrase Structure: Quantifier Floating in Japanese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suzuki, Takaaki; Yoshinaga, Naoko

    2013-01-01

    The interpretation of floating quantifiers in Japanese requires knowledge of hierarchical phrase structure. However, the input to children is insufficient or even misleading, as our analysis indicates. This presents an intriguing question on learnability: do children interpret floating quantifiers based on a structure-dependent rule which is not…

  6. Multi-Dimensional Contributions to Garden Path Strength: Dissociating Phrase Structure from Case Marking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bornkessel, Ina; McElree, Brian; Schlesewsky, Matthias; Friederici, Angela D.

    2004-01-01

    Psycholinguistic investigations of reanalysis phenomena have typically focused on revisions of phrase structure. Here, we identify a further subcomponent of syntactic reanalysis, namely the revision of case marking. This aspect of reanalysis was isolated by examining German subject-object ambiguities that require a revision towards a…

  7. Implicit Acquisition of Grammars with Crossed and Nested Non-Adjacent Dependencies: Investigating the Push-Down Stack Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Udden, Julia; Ingvar, Martin; Hagoort, Peter; Petersson, Karl M.

    2012-01-01

    A recent hypothesis in empirical brain research on language is that the fundamental difference between animal and human communication systems is captured by the distinction between finite-state and more complex phrase-structure grammars, such as context-free and context-sensitive grammars. However, the relevance of this distinction for the study…

  8. Implicit Acquisition of Grammars with Crossed and Nested Non-Adjacent Dependencies: Investigating the Push-Down Stack Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Udden, Julia; Ingvar, Martin; Hagoort, Peter; Petersson, Karl M.

    2012-01-01

    A recent hypothesis in empirical brain research on language is that the fundamental difference between animal and human communication systems is captured by the distinction between finite-state and more complex phrase-structure grammars, such as context-free and context-sensitive grammars. However, the relevance of this distinction for the study…

  9. Information Structure of Native English-Speaking ESOL Teachers in Grammar Explanations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malupa-Kim, Miralynn Faigao

    2011-01-01

    The Problem: The purpose of this study was to identify and analyze the information structure of native-English speaking (NES) ESOL teachers in giving explanations in a grammar class at an Intensive English Program (IEP) at a university in southern California Method: This mixed-method study employed a sequential-exploratory design. Six grammar…

  10. (In)Flexibility of Constituency in Japanese in Multi-Modal Categorial Grammar with Structured Phonology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kubota, Yusuke

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation proposes a theory of categorial grammar called Multi-Modal Categorial Grammar with Structured Phonology. The central feature that distinguishes this theory from the majority of contemporary syntactic theories is that it decouples (without completely segregating) two aspects of syntax--hierarchical organization (reflecting…

  11. On the structure of context-sensitive grammars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Book, R. V.

    1973-01-01

    Consideration of the problem of explaining the use of context in generating noncontext-free languages. A number of existing results regarding the constraints placed on the form of the rules (i.e., on the context) of context-sensitive grammars are reviewed and interpreted. Three types of constraints are considered - namely, constraints which do not restrict the weak generative capacity of the class of grammars (i.e., all the context-sensitive languages are generated by grammars with these constraints), constraints which restrict the weak generative capacity to the extent that all context-sensitive languages are not generated but some noncontext-free languages are generated, and constraints which restrict the weak generative capacity to such an extent that only context-free languages are generated.

  12. Determiner Phrase and Definiteness in Old High German

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraiss, Andrew M.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the status of nominal functional categories in the Old High German (OHG) "Isidor" and "Tatian" translations and Otfrid's "Evangelienbuch" and the structure of the extended nominal group, including the Noun Phrase (NP) and the functional phrases Determiner Phrase (DP), Case Phrase (KP) and Number Phrase (NumP), which govern…

  13. Determiner Phrase and Definiteness in Old High German

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraiss, Andrew M.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the status of nominal functional categories in the Old High German (OHG) "Isidor" and "Tatian" translations and Otfrid's "Evangelienbuch" and the structure of the extended nominal group, including the Noun Phrase (NP) and the functional phrases Determiner Phrase (DP), Case Phrase (KP) and Number Phrase (NumP), which govern…

  14. A REFERENCE GRAMMAR OF MODERN TURKISH. URALIC AND ALTAIC SERIES, VOLUME 19.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SWIFT, LLOYD B.

    THIS REFERENCE GRAMMAR IS WRITTEN FOR THE LINGUIST OF THE LINGUISTICALLY-ORIENTED INTERMEDIATE STUDENT OF MODERN TURKISH. THE EXAMPLES OF USAGE IN THE TEXT HAVE BEEN SELECTED FROM THE COLLOQUIAL SPEECH OF EDUCATED TURKS. THE ENGLISH GLOSSES OF TURKISH WORDS OR PHRASES ARE LITERAL, TO SHOW THE TURKISH STRUCTURE, WITH PARENTHETICAL ADDITIONS TO…

  15. The Alsea Noun Phrase.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckley, Eugene

    1989-01-01

    The structure of the noun phrase (NP) in Alsea, an extinct language of the Oregon coast, is examined with particular attention to the behavior of a clitic occurring in second position within the NP. A presentation of the basic facts includes the following: referential(s) and the deictics, possessive pronouns, third-person possessive, the ergative,…

  16. Symbols, Relations, and Structural Complexity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reich, Peter A.

    This paper discusses an alternate formalism for context-free phrase structure grammar. The author feels that if a grammar is stated completely explicitly it can be represented in the form of a relational network of the type proposed by Lamb. He discusses some formal properties of such networks and makes some revisions to Lamb's formulation which…

  17. Predicting location and structure of beta-sheet regions using stochastic tree grammars

    SciTech Connect

    Mamitsuke, Hiroshi; Abe, Naoki

    1994-12-31

    We describe and demonstrate the effectiveness of a method of predicting protein secondary structures, {Beta}-sheet regions in particular, using a class of stochastic tree grammars as representational language for their amino acid sequence patterns. The family of stochastic tree grammars we use, the Stochastic Ranked Node Rewriting Grammars (SRNRG), is one of the rare families of stochastic grammars that are expressive enough to capture the kind of long-distance dependencies exhibited by the sequences of {Beta}-sheet regions, and at the same time enjoy relatively efficient processing. We applied our method on real data obtained from the HSSP database and the results obtained are encouraging: Using an SRNRG trained by data of a particular protein, our method was actually able to predict the location and structure of {Beta}-sheet regions in a number of different proteins, whose sequences are less than 25 percent homologous to the training sequences. The learning algorithm we use is an extension of the {open_quote}Inside-Outside{close_quote} algorithm for stochastic context free grammars, but with a number of significant modifications. First, we restricted the grammars used to be members of the {open_quote}linear{close_quote} subclass of SPLNRG, and devised simpler and faster algorithms for this subclass. Secondly, we reduced the alphabet size (i.e. the number of amino acids) by clustering them using their physicochemical properties, gradually through the iterations of the learning algorithm. Finally, we parallelized. our parsing algorithm to run on a highly parallel computer, a 32-processor CM-5, and were able to obtain a nearly linear speed-up. We emphasize that our prediction method already goes beyond what is possible by the homology-based approaches. We also stress that our method can predict the structure as well as the location of {Beta}-sheet regions, which was not possible by previous inverse protein folding methods.

  18. PP Extraction and Extraposition in Functional Discourse Grammar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van de Velde, Freek

    2012-01-01

    This article inquires into the nature of "attributive" prepositional phrases from a Functional Discourse Grammar (FDG) perspective. On the basis of the observation that such prepositional phrases can easily be separated from their host noun phrases by extraposition or extraction, it is argued that they do not belong to the noun phrase…

  19. Case Grammar in Philippine Languages. Preliminary Draft.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Alan M.

    This paper presents evidence from Philippine languages which suggests a number of modifications in the theory of case grammar. Philippine languages and adjacent related languages mark the case relationship between the verb and one noun phrase in the sentence by a particle on the noun phrase and an affix on the verb, a phenomenon which in recent…

  20. Czech Grammar.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cernik, Jiri

    The grammar is designed to be used as a reference for addressing structural problems in Czech. The guide is organized into 11 chapters. The first describes the pronunciation of written Czech and explains spelling conventions. Aspects of the language covered here include the alphabet, arrangement of words in the dictionary, vowels, diphthongs,…

  1. Auditory Temporal Structure Processing in Dyslexia: Processing of Prosodic Phrase Boundaries Is Not Impaired in Children with Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geiser, Eveline; Kjelgaard, Margaret; Christodoulou, Joanna A.; Cyr, Abigail; Gabrieli, John D. E.

    2014-01-01

    Reading disability in children with dyslexia has been proposed to reflect impairment in auditory timing perception. We investigated one aspect of timing perception--"temporal grouping"--as present in prosodic phrase boundaries of natural speech, in age-matched groups of children, ages 6-8 years, with and without dyslexia. Prosodic phrase…

  2. Deriving a probabilistic syntacto-semantic grammar for biomedicine based on domain-specific terminologies

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Jung-Wei; Friedman, Carol

    2011-01-01

    Biomedical natural language processing (BioNLP) is a useful technique that unlocks valuable information stored in textual data for practice and/or research. Syntactic parsing is a critical component of BioNLP applications that rely on correctly determining the sentence and phrase structure of free text. In addition to dealing with the vast amount of domain-specific terms, a robust biomedical parser needs to model the semantic grammar to obtain viable syntactic structures. With either a rule-based or corpus-based approach, the grammar engineering process requires substantial time and knowledge from experts, and does not always yield a semantically transferable grammar. To reduce the human effort and to promote semantic transferability, we propose an automated method for deriving a probabilistic grammar based on a training corpus consisting of concept strings and semantic classes from the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS), a comprehensive terminology resource widely used by the community. The grammar is designed to specify noun phrases only due to the nominal nature of the majority of biomedical terminological concepts. Evaluated on manually parsed clinical notes, the derived grammar achieved a recall of 0.644, precision of 0.737, and average cross-bracketing of 0.61, which demonstrated better performance than a control grammar with the semantic information removed. Error analysis revealed shortcomings that could be addressed to improve performance. The results indicated the feasibility of an approach which automatically incorporates terminology semantics in the building of an operational grammar. Although the current performance of the unsupervised solution does not adequately replace manual engineering, we believe once the performance issues are addressed, it could serve as an aide in a semi-supervised solution. PMID:21549857

  3. Deriving a probabilistic syntacto-semantic grammar for biomedicine based on domain-specific terminologies.

    PubMed

    Fan, Jung-Wei; Friedman, Carol

    2011-10-01

    Biomedical natural language processing (BioNLP) is a useful technique that unlocks valuable information stored in textual data for practice and/or research. Syntactic parsing is a critical component of BioNLP applications that rely on correctly determining the sentence and phrase structure of free text. In addition to dealing with the vast amount of domain-specific terms, a robust biomedical parser needs to model the semantic grammar to obtain viable syntactic structures. With either a rule-based or corpus-based approach, the grammar engineering process requires substantial time and knowledge from experts, and does not always yield a semantically transferable grammar. To reduce the human effort and to promote semantic transferability, we propose an automated method for deriving a probabilistic grammar based on a training corpus consisting of concept strings and semantic classes from the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS), a comprehensive terminology resource widely used by the community. The grammar is designed to specify noun phrases only due to the nominal nature of the majority of biomedical terminological concepts. Evaluated on manually parsed clinical notes, the derived grammar achieved a recall of 0.644, precision of 0.737, and average cross-bracketing of 0.61, which demonstrated better performance than a control grammar with the semantic information removed. Error analysis revealed shortcomings that could be addressed to improve performance. The results indicated the feasibility of an approach which automatically incorporates terminology semantics in the building of an operational grammar. Although the current performance of the unsupervised solution does not adequately replace manual engineering, we believe once the performance issues are addressed, it could serve as an aide in a semi-supervised solution. PMID:21549857

  4. Necessity of Grammar Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Jianyun

    2009-01-01

    Grammar is often misunderstood in the language teaching field. The misconception lies in the view that grammar is a collection of arbitrary rules about static structures in the language. Further questionable claims are that the structures do not have to be thought, learners will acquire them on their own, or if the structures are taught, the…

  5. Teaching Grammar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, William J.

    2013-01-01

    Grammar is a component in all language skills: reading, writing, speaking, and listening. Teachers need to know rules of grammar (teacher knowledge) as well as techniques that help students use grammar effectively and effortlessly (teaching knowledge). Using reflective practice to help teachers become comfortable with teaching grammar, this…

  6. Teaching Grammar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, William J.

    2013-01-01

    Grammar is a component in all language skills: reading, writing, speaking, and listening. Teachers need to know rules of grammar (teacher knowledge) as well as techniques that help students use grammar effectively and effortlessly (teaching knowledge). Using reflective practice to help teachers become comfortable with teaching grammar, this…

  7. New Structural Patterns in Moribund Grammar: Case Marking in Heritage German.

    PubMed

    Yager, Lisa; Hellmold, Nora; Joo, Hyoun-A; Putnam, Michael T; Rossi, Eleonora; Stafford, Catherine; Salmons, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Research treats divergences between monolingual and heritage grammars in terms of performance-'L1 attrition,' e.g., lexical retrieval-or competence-'incomplete acquisition', e.g., lack of overt tense markers (e.g., Polinsky, 1995; Sorace, 2004; Montrul, 2008; Schmid, 2010). One classic difference between monolingual and Heritage German is reduction in morphological case in the latter, especially loss of dative marking. Our evidence from several Heritage German varieties suggests that speakers have not merely lost case, but rather developed innovative structures to mark it. More specifically, Heritage German speakers produce dative forms in line with established patterns of Differential Object Marking (Bossong, 1985, 1991; Aissen, 2003), suggesting a reallocated mapping of case. We take this as evidence for innovative reanalysis in heritage grammars (Putnam and Sánchez, 2013). Following Kamp and Reyle (1993) and Wechsler (2011, 2014), the dative adopts a more indexical discourse function, forging a tighter connection between morphosyntax and semantic properties. Moribund grammars deploy linguistic resources in novel ways, a finding which can help move us beyond simple narratives of 'attrition' and 'incomplete acquisition.' PMID:26635649

  8. New Structural Patterns in Moribund Grammar: Case Marking in Heritage German

    PubMed Central

    Yager, Lisa; Hellmold, Nora; Joo, Hyoun-A; Putnam, Michael T.; Rossi, Eleonora; Stafford, Catherine; Salmons, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Research treats divergences between monolingual and heritage grammars in terms of performance—‘L1 attrition,’ e.g., lexical retrieval—or competence—‘incomplete acquisition’, e.g., lack of overt tense markers (e.g., Polinsky, 1995; Sorace, 2004; Montrul, 2008; Schmid, 2010). One classic difference between monolingual and Heritage German is reduction in morphological case in the latter, especially loss of dative marking. Our evidence from several Heritage German varieties suggests that speakers have not merely lost case, but rather developed innovative structures to mark it. More specifically, Heritage German speakers produce dative forms in line with established patterns of Differential Object Marking (Bossong, 1985, 1991; Aissen, 2003), suggesting a reallocated mapping of case. We take this as evidence for innovative reanalysis in heritage grammars (Putnam and Sánchez, 2013). Following Kamp and Reyle (1993) and Wechsler (2011, 2014), the dative adopts a more indexical discourse function, forging a tighter connection between morphosyntax and semantic properties. Moribund grammars deploy linguistic resources in novel ways, a finding which can help move us beyond simple narratives of ‘attrition’ and ‘incomplete acquisition.’ PMID:26635649

  9. A Phrase Flipper for the Assistance of Writers of Abstracts and Other Texts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craven, Timothy C.

    1995-01-01

    FlipPhr is a MicroSoft Windows application program that rearranges ("flips") phrases or other expressions in accordance with rules in a grammar. The flipping may be invoked with a single keystroke from within various Windows application programs that allow cutting and pasting of text. The user may modify the grammar to provide for different kinds…

  10. Gramatica generadora (Generative Grammar)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cruset, Jose

    1975-01-01

    Discusses the difficulty of describing the linguistic approach to the study of language to a non-linguist. Points out certain differences between traditional grammar, structural analysis and contemporary language analysis and gives a short description of the notion of generative grammar. (Text is in Spanish.) (TL)

  11. The emergence of grammar: Systematic structure in a new language

    PubMed Central

    Sandler, Wendy; Meir, Irit; Padden, Carol; Aronoff, Mark

    2005-01-01

    This report contains a linguistic description of a language created spontaneously without any apparent external influence in a stable existing community. We describe the syntactic structure of Al-Sayyid Bedouin Sign Language, a language that has arisen in the last 70 years in an isolated endogamous community with a high incidence of nonsyndromic, genetically recessive, profound prelingual neurosensory deafness. In the space of one generation from its inception, systematic grammatical structure has emerged in the language. Going beyond a conventionalized list of words for actions, objects, people, characteristics, and so on, a systematic way of marking the grammatical relations among those elements has appeared in the form of highly regular word order. These systematic structures cannot be attributed to influence from other languages, because the particular word orders that appear in Al-Sayyid Bedouin Sign Language differ from those found both in the ambient spoken languages in the community and in the other sign language found predominantly in the surrounding area. Therefore, the emerging grammatical structures should be regarded as an independent development within the language. PMID:15699343

  12. When global structure "Explains Away" local grammar: a Bayesian account of rule-induction in tone sequences.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Colin; Gerken, Louann

    2011-09-01

    While many constraints on learning must be relatively experience-independent, past experience provides a rich source of guidance for subsequent learning. Discovering structure in some domain can inform a learner's future hypotheses about that domain. If a general property accounts for particular sub-patterns, a rational learner should not stipulate separate explanations for each detail without additional evidence, as the general structure has "explained away" the original evidence. In a grammar-learning experiment using tone sequences, manipulating learners' prior exposure to a tone environment affects their sensitivity to the grammar-defining feature, in this case consecutive repeated tones. Grammar-learning performance is worse if context melodies are "smooth" -- when small intervals occur more than large ones -- as Smoothness is a general property accounting for a high rate of repetition. We present an idealized Bayesian model as a "best case" benchmark for learning repetition grammars. When context melodies are Smooth, the model places greater weight on the small-interval constraint, and does not learn the repetition rule as well as when context melodies are not Smooth, paralleling the human learners. These findings support an account of abstract grammar-induction in which learners rationally assess the statistical evidence for underlying structure based on a generative model of the environment. PMID:21257161

  13. Group Grammar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Karen

    2015-01-01

    In this article Karen Adams demonstrates how to incorporate group grammar techniques into a classroom activity. In the activity, students practice using the target grammar to do something they naturally enjoy: learning about each other.

  14. Auditory Temporal Structure Processing in Dyslexia: Processing of Prosodic Phrase Boundaries Is Not Impaired in Children with Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geiser, Eveline; Kjelgaard, Margaret; Christodoulou, Joanna A.; Cyr, Abigail; Gabrieli, John D. E.

    2014-01-01

    Reading disability in children with dyslexia has been proposed to reflect impairment in auditory timing perception. We investigated one aspect of timing perception--"temporal grouping"--as present in prosodic phrase boundaries of natural speech, in age-matched groups of children, ages 6-8 years, with and without dyslexia. Prosodic phrase…

  15. The grammar of visual narrative: Neural evidence for constituent structure in sequential image comprehension

    PubMed Central

    Cohn, Neil; Jackendoff, Ray; Holcomb, Phillip J.; Kuperberg, Gina R.

    2014-01-01

    Constituent structure has long been established as a central feature of human language. Analogous to how syntax organizes words in sentences, a narrative grammar organizes sequential images into hierarchic constituents. Here we show that the brain draws upon this constituent structure to comprehend wordless visual narratives. We recorded neural responses as participants viewed sequences of visual images (comics strips) in which blank images either disrupted individual narrative constituents or fell at natural constituent boundaries. A disruption of either the first or the second narrative constituent produced a left-lateralized anterior negativity effect between 500-700ms. Disruption of the second constituent also elicited a posteriorly-distributed positivity (P600) effect. These neural responses are similar to those associated with structural violations in language and music. These findings provide evidence that comprehenders use a narrative structure to comprehend visual sequences and that the brain engages similar neurocognitive mechanisms to build structure across multiple domains. PMID:25241329

  16. The grammar of visual narrative: Neural evidence for constituent structure in sequential image comprehension.

    PubMed

    Cohn, Neil; Jackendoff, Ray; Holcomb, Phillip J; Kuperberg, Gina R

    2014-09-18

    Constituent structure has long been established as a central feature of human language. Analogous to how syntax organizes words in sentences, a narrative grammar organizes sequential images into hierarchic constituents. Here we show that the brain draws upon this constituent structure to comprehend wordless visual narratives. We recorded neural responses as participants viewed sequences of visual images (comics strips) in which blank images either disrupted individual narrative constituents or fell at natural constituent boundaries. A disruption of either the first or the second narrative constituent produced a left-lateralized anterior negativity effect between 500 and 700ms. Disruption of the second constituent also elicited a posteriorly-distributed positivity (P600) effect. These neural responses are similar to those associated with structural violations in language and music. These findings provide evidence that comprehenders use a narrative structure to comprehend visual sequences and that the brain engages similar neurocognitive mechanisms to build structure across multiple domains. PMID:25241329

  17. Specific alignment of structured RNA: stochastic grammars and sequence annealing

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, Robert K.; Pachter, Lior; Holmes, Ian

    2008-01-01

    Motivation: Whole-genome screens suggest that eukaryotic genomes are dense with non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs). We introduce a novel approach to RNA multiple alignment which couples a generative probabilistic model of sequence and structure with an efficient sequence annealing approach for exploring the space of multiple alignments. This leads to a new software program, Stemloc-AMA, that is both accurate and specific in the alignment of multiple related RNA sequences. Results: When tested on the benchmark datasets BRalibase II and BRalibase 2.1, Stemloc-AMA has comparable sensitivity to and better specificity than the best competing methods. We use a large-scale random sequence experiment to show that while most alignment programs maximize sensitivity at the expense of specificity, even to the point of giving complete alignments of non-homologous sequences, Stemloc-AMA aligns only sequences with detectable homology and leaves unrelated sequences largely unaligned. Such accurate and specific alignments are crucial for comparative-genomics analysis, from inferring phylogeny to estimating substitution rates across different lineages. Availability: Stemloc-AMA is available from http://biowiki.org/StemLocAMA as part of the dart software package for sequence analysis. Contact: lpachter@math.berkeley.edu; ihh@berkeley.edu Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:18796475

  18. Essentials of Gwari Grammar. Occasional Publication No. 27.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyman, Larry M.; Magaji, Daniel J.

    This book is intended as a practical introduction to the study of the Gwari language. Therefore, the descriptive analysis of the grammar of Gwari is made without recourse to technical language. The book is divided into 5 sections, dealing with: (1) phonology; (2) the noun phrase; (3) the verb phrase; (4) the sentence; and (5) vocabulary, in the…

  19. New Ways in Teaching Grammar. New Ways in TESOL Series: Innovative Classroom Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennington, Martha C., Ed.

    This book includes 85 ideas for the teaching of grammar, contributed by teachers of English as a Second Language from varied countries. The ideas are organized in 10 sections that include specific aspects of grammar and grammar topics at the discourse level. These include: noun phrases and clauses (adjectives and nouns, articles, subject-verb…

  20. Grammar Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Kim

    2004-01-01

    The mere mention of a grammar lesson can set students' eyes rolling. The fun activities described in this article can turn those blank looks into smiles. Here, the author presents grammar games namely: (1) noun tennis; (2) the minister's cat; (3) kids take action; (4) what's my adverb?; (5) and then I saw...; and (6) grammar sing-along.

  1. Phrase-Level Parallelism Effect on Noun Phrase Number Agreement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scherre, Maria Mata Pereira

    2001-01-01

    Examines the role of phrase-level parallelism on noun phrase number agreement and demonstrates Puerto Rican Spanish and Brazilian Portuguese exhibit more similarities than differences with regard to this constraint. Claims the phrase-level parallelism effect on noun phrase number agreement is embedded in a universal principle of linguistic use:…

  2. Scratching Below the Surface Structure: Exploring the Usefulness of Story Grammars.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, Phyllis A.; Dickinson, David K.

    1982-01-01

    Examines the story recall of normal and dyslexic readers in relation to story grammar categories and suggests that dyslexic students do not have significant deficiencies in use of such categories. Discusses the results in light of the need for considering multiple processing levels and as indicating that story grammars may be of limited diagnostic…

  3. Searching the ASRS Database Using QUORUM Keyword Search, Phrase Search, Phrase Generation, and Phrase Discovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGreevy, Michael W.; Connors, Mary M. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    To support Search Requests and Quick Responses at the Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS), four new QUORUM methods have been developed: keyword search, phrase search, phrase generation, and phrase discovery. These methods build upon the core QUORUM methods of text analysis, modeling, and relevance-ranking. QUORUM keyword search retrieves ASRS incident narratives that contain one or more user-specified keywords in typical or selected contexts, and ranks the narratives on their relevance to the keywords in context. QUORUM phrase search retrieves narratives that contain one or more user-specified phrases, and ranks the narratives on their relevance to the phrases. QUORUM phrase generation produces a list of phrases from the ASRS database that contain a user-specified word or phrase. QUORUM phrase discovery finds phrases that are related to topics of interest. Phrase generation and phrase discovery are particularly useful for finding query phrases for input to QUORUM phrase search. The presentation of the new QUORUM methods includes: a brief review of the underlying core QUORUM methods; an overview of the new methods; numerous, concrete examples of ASRS database searches using the new methods; discussion of related methods; and, in the appendices, detailed descriptions of the new methods.

  4. Mining Quality Phrases from Massive Text Corpora

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jialu; Shang, Jingbo; Wang, Chi; Ren, Xiang; Han, Jiawei

    2015-01-01

    Text data are ubiquitous and play an essential role in big data applications. However, text data are mostly unstructured. Transforming unstructured text into structured units (e.g., semantically meaningful phrases) will substantially reduce semantic ambiguity and enhance the power and efficiency at manipulating such data using database technology. Thus mining quality phrases is a critical research problem in the field of databases. In this paper, we propose a new framework that extracts quality phrases from text corpora integrated with phrasal segmentation. The framework requires only limited training but the quality of phrases so generated is close to human judgment. Moreover, the method is scalable: both computation time and required space grow linearly as corpus size increases. Our experiments on large text corpora demonstrate the quality and efficiency of the new method. PMID:26705375

  5. Evaluation of several lightweight stochastic context-free grammars for RNA secondary structure prediction

    PubMed Central

    Dowell, Robin D; Eddy, Sean R

    2004-01-01

    Background RNA secondary structure prediction methods based on probabilistic modeling can be developed using stochastic context-free grammars (SCFGs). Such methods can readily combine different sources of information that can be expressed probabilistically, such as an evolutionary model of comparative RNA sequence analysis and a biophysical model of structure plausibility. However, the number of free parameters in an integrated model for consensus RNA structure prediction can become untenable if the underlying SCFG design is too complex. Thus a key question is, what small, simple SCFG designs perform best for RNA secondary structure prediction? Results Nine different small SCFGs were implemented to explore the tradeoffs between model complexity and prediction accuracy. Each model was tested for single sequence structure prediction accuracy on a benchmark set of RNA secondary structures. Conclusions Four SCFG designs had prediction accuracies near the performance of current energy minimization programs. One of these designs, introduced by Knudsen and Hein in their PFOLD algorithm, has only 21 free parameters and is significantly simpler than the others. PMID:15180907

  6. Knowing Chinese character grammar.

    PubMed

    Myers, James

    2016-02-01

    Chinese character structure has often been described as representing a kind of grammar, but the notion of character grammar has hardly been explored. Patterns in character element reduplication are particularly grammar-like, displaying discrete combinatoriality, binarity, phonology-like final prominence, and potentially the need for symbolic rules (X→XX). To test knowledge of these patterns, Chinese readers were asked to judge the acceptability of fake characters varying both in grammaticality (obeying or violating reduplication constraints) and in lexicality (of the reduplicative configurations). While lexical knowledge was important (lexicality improved acceptability and grammatical configurations were accepted more quickly when also lexical), grammatical knowledge was important as well, with grammaticality improving acceptability equally for lexical and nonlexical configurations. Acceptability was also higher for more frequent reduplicative elements, suggesting that the reduplicative configurations were decomposed. Chinese characters present an as-yet untapped resource for exploring fundamental questions about the nature of the human capacity for grammar. PMID:26684059

  7. Translation of Binominal Phrases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spilka, Irene

    1977-01-01

    A study of four classes of binomial phrases in French and English; expression of quantity, genitives, nominalization and characterization. By comparing English and French definiteness and determination markers, a set of equivalencies for each of the two noun markers is established, and a limited set of rules is provided. (AMH)

  8. Korean Phrase Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peace Corps, Washington, DC.

    This is a brief guide to Korean pronunciation and phrases, prepared for U.S. Navy personnel. Expressions are grouped according to the following headings: (1) emergency expressions; (2) general expressions; (3) personal needs; (4) location and terrain; (5) roads and transportation; (6) communications; (7) letters, numbers, size, time, etc.; (8)…

  9. Mungbam Grammar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lovegren, Jesse Stuart James

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation is an attempt to state what is known at present about the grammar of Mungbam (ISO 693-3 [mij]). Mungbam is a Niger-Congo language spoken in the Northwest Region of Cameroon. The dissertation is a descriptive grammar, covering the phonetics, phonology morphology and syntax of the language. Source data are texts and elicited data…

  10. Mungbam Grammar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lovegren, Jesse Stuart James

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation is an attempt to state what is known at present about the grammar of Mungbam (ISO 693-3 [mij]). Mungbam is a Niger-Congo language spoken in the Northwest Region of Cameroon. The dissertation is a descriptive grammar, covering the phonetics, phonology morphology and syntax of the language. Source data are texts and elicited data…

  11. Processing Elided Verb Phrases with Flawed Antecedents: the Recycling Hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Arregui, Ana; Clifton, Charles; Frazier, Lyn; Moulton, Keir

    2006-01-01

    Traditional syntactic accounts of verb phrase ellipsis (e.g. “Jason laughed. Sam did [ ] too.”) categorize as ungrammatical many sentences that language users find acceptable (they “undergenerate”); semantic accounts overgenerate. We propose that a processing theory, together with a syntactic account, does a better job of describing and explaining the data on verb phrase-ellipsis. Five acceptability judgment experiments supported a “VP recycling hypothesis,” which claims that when a syntactically-matching antecedent is not available, the listener/reader creates one using the materials at hand. Experiments 1 and 2 used verb phrase ellipsis sentences with antecedents ranging from perfect (a verb phrase in matrix verb phrase position) to impossible (a verb phrase containing only a deverbal word). Experiments 3 and 4 contrasted antecedents in verbal versus nominal gerund subjects. Experiment 5 explored the possibility that speakers are particularly likely to go beyond the grammar and produce elided constituents without perfect matching antecedents when the antecedent needed is less marked than the antecedent actually produced. This experiment contrasted active (unmarked) and passive antecedents to show that readers seem to honor such a tendency. PMID:17710192

  12. Adaptation to aphasia: grammar, prosody and interaction.

    PubMed

    Rhys, Catrin S; Ulbrich, Christiane; Ordin, Mikhail

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates recurrent use of the phrase very good by a speaker with non-fluent agrammatic aphasia. Informal observation of the speaker's interaction reveals that she appears to be an effective conversational partner despite very severe word retrieval difficulties that result in extensive reliance on variants of the phrase very good. The question that this paper addresses using an essentially conversation analytic framework is: What is the speaker achieving through these variants of very good and what are the linguistic and interactional resources that she draws on to achieve these communicative effects? Tokens of very good in the corpus were first analyzed in a bottom-up fashion, attending to sequential position, structure and participant orientation. This revealed distinct uses that were subsequently subjected to detailed acoustic analysis in order to investigate specific prosodic characteristics within and across the interactional variants. We identified specific clusters of prosodic cues that were exploited by the speaker to differentiate interactional uses of very good. The analysis thus shows how, in the adaptation to aphasia, the speaker exploits the rich interface between prosody, grammar and interaction both to manage the interactional demands of conversation and to communicate propositional content. PMID:23237417

  13. Reference Grammar and Pedagogical Grammars.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenbaum, Sidney

    1987-01-01

    Distinguishes between four types of English grammar (reference, pedagogical, theoretical, and teach-yourself) according to mode of use and shows how four factors enter into a typology of grammars: mode of use, language of the user, level of the user, and aims of use. (Author/CB)

  14. Probabilistic Techniques for Phrase Extraction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feng, Fangfang; Croft, W. Bruce

    2001-01-01

    This study proposes a probabilistic model for automatically extracting English noun phrases for indexing or information retrieval. The technique is based on a Markov model, whose initial parameters are estimated by a phrase lookup program with a phrase dictionary, then optimized by a set of maximum entropy parameters. (Author/LRW)

  15. Drama Grammar: Towards a Performative Postmethod Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Even, Susanne

    2011-01-01

    This article presents the original concept of drama grammar, the synthesis of grammar instruction and drama pedagogy, which integrates both structural and communicative paradigms through a dialectic combination of acting and linguistic analysis. Based on the principles of drama pedagogy, drama grammar makes use of techniques from the performing…

  16. Drama Grammar: Towards a Performative Postmethod Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Even, Susanne

    2011-01-01

    This article presents the original concept of drama grammar, the synthesis of grammar instruction and drama pedagogy, which integrates both structural and communicative paradigms through a dialectic combination of acting and linguistic analysis. Based on the principles of drama pedagogy, drama grammar makes use of techniques from the performing…

  17. Creative Grammar and Art Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunliffe, Leslie

    2011-01-01

    The grammar of creative practices is described by George Steiner as the "articulate organisation of perception, reflection and experience, the nerve structure of consciousness when it communicates with itself and with others." Steiner's description of creative grammar is consistent with Lev Vygotsky's comment that "art is the social within us, and…

  18. Interpretation Tasks for Grammar Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Rod

    1995-01-01

    The traditional approach to grammar teaching provides learners with opportunities to produce specific grammatical structures. This article explores an alternative approach, one based on interpreting input. The rationale for the approach is discussed, as are the principles for designing interpretation tasks for grammar teaching. (Contains 35…

  19. Intonational Phrase Structure Processing at Different Stages of Syntax Acquisition: ERP Studies in 2-, 3-, and 6-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mannel, Claudia; Friederici, Angela D.

    2011-01-01

    This study explored the electrophysiology underlying intonational phrase processing at different stages of syntax acquisition. Developmental studies suggest that children's syntactic skills advance significantly between 2 and 3 years of age. Here, children of three age groups were tested on phrase-level prosodic processing before and after this…

  20. The Role of Grammar Teaching in Writing in Second Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Li-Li

    2008-01-01

    "Grammar is the sound, structure, and meaning system of language. All languages have grammar, and each language has its own grammar" (Beverly, 2007, p.1). People who speak the same language are able to communicate with each other because they all know the grammar system and structure of that language, that is, the meaningful rules of grammar.…

  1. Generic noun phrases in mother-child conversations.

    PubMed

    Pappas, A; Gelman, S A

    1998-02-01

    Generic noun phrases (e.g. Tigers are fierce) are of interest for their semantic properties: they capture 'essential' properties, are timeless, and are context-free. The present study examines use of generic noun phrases by preschool children and their mothers. Mother-child pairs were videotaped while looking through a book of animal pictures. Each page depicted either a single instance of a particular category (e.g. one crab) or multiple instances of a particular category (e.g. many crabs). The results indicated a striking difference in how generics vs. non-generics were distributed, both in the speech of mothers and in the speech of preschool children. Whereas the form of non-generic noun phrases was closely linked to the structure of the page (i.e. singular noun phrases were used more often when a single instance was presented; plural noun phrases were used more often when multiple instances were presented), the form of generic noun phrases was independent of the information depicted (e.g. plural noun phrases were as frequent when only one instance was presented as when multiple instances were presented). We interpret the data as providing evidence that generic noun phrases differ in their semantics and conceptual organization from non-generic noun phrases, both in the input to young children and in children's own speech. Thus, this simple linguistic device may provide input to, and a reflection of, children's early developing notion of 'kinds'. PMID:9604567

  2. On the Factor Structure of the Grammar Section of University of Tehran English Proficiency Test (UTEPT)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salehi, Mohammad; Rezaee, Abbas Ali

    2009-01-01

    The study was conducted with 3,385 participants who took an English language proficiency test as a partial requirement for entering a PhD program in different fields of education. This test has three sections which are grammar, vocabulary and reading comprehension. To determine the construct validity of the test, a series of analyses were done.…

  3. A Quanititative Grammar of Meaning and Structure: A Methodology for Language Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marzano, Robert J.

    A system of quantitative techniques for describing the English language from a number of perspectives, intended for the language analyst, is presented. The grammar combines an emerging knowledge of semantics with existing detailed knowledge of syntax. The primary unit of analysis is the predication, a group of related concepts expressed as a…

  4. The Teaching of Grammar: The Relationship of Structure to Communication. ACTFL Master Lecture Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgs, Theodore V.

    Teaching grammar for its own sake is largely counterproductive when the goal of instruction is to have students communicate spontaneously, fluently, and accurately in the target language. The ideal foreign language program is one providing the best possible environment for language acquisition to take place. Explicit teaching about the language…

  5. Non-Segmental Phonology: Noun-Phrase Tonicity in English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andre, Edgar

    1977-01-01

    A study of tonic placement in various types of English noun phrases used as elements of clause structure. The notion of nominal compound is broadened; reflection of grammatical relationships by stress and tendencies concerning tonic placement in noun phrases as these are related to the Headword are noted. (AMH)

  6. THAI, REFERENCE GRAMMAR.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NOSS, RICHARD B.

    A REFERENCE GRAMMAR FOR THE THAI LANGUAGE IS PROVIDED. THE MAIN STRUCTURAL FEATURES OF STANDARD SPOKEN THAI ARE OUTLINED AND ELABORATED BY SUBCLASSIFICATION AND EXAMPLE. IN ADDITION, AN INDEX OF MINOR FORM-CLASS MEMBERS IS PROVIDED. THE APPROACH TO CLASSIFICATION OF GRAMMATICAL FEATURES FOLLOWS CURRENT TECHNIQUES OF AMERICAN DESCRIPTIVE…

  7. Language Switching in the Production of Phrases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarlowski, Andrzej; Wodniecka, Zofia; Marzecova, Anna

    2013-01-01

    The language switching task has provided a useful insight into how bilinguals produce language. So far, however, the studies using this method have been limited to lexical access. The present study provides empirical evidence on language switching in the production of simple grammar structures. In the reported experiment, Polish-English unbalanced…

  8. The neurophysiology of language processing shapes the evolution of grammar: evidence from case marking.

    PubMed

    Bickel, Balthasar; Witzlack-Makarevich, Alena; Choudhary, Kamal K; Schlesewsky, Matthias; Bornkessel-Schlesewsky, Ina

    2015-01-01

    Do principles of language processing in the brain affect the way grammar evolves over time or is language change just a matter of socio-historical contingency? While the balance of evidence has been ambiguous and controversial, we identify here a neurophysiological constraint on the processing of language that has a systematic effect on the evolution of how noun phrases are marked by case (i.e. by such contrasts as between the English base form she and the object form her). In neurophysiological experiments across diverse languages we found that during processing, participants initially interpret the first base-form noun phrase they hear (e.g. she…) as an agent (which would fit a continuation like … greeted him), even when the sentence later requires the interpretation of a patient role (as in … was greeted). We show that this processing principle is also operative in Hindi, a language where initial base-form noun phrases most commonly denote patients because many agents receive a special case marker ("ergative") and are often left out in discourse. This finding suggests that the principle is species-wide and independent of the structural affordances of specific languages. As such, the principle favors the development and maintenance of case-marking systems that equate base-form cases with agents rather than with patients. We confirm this evolutionary bias by statistical analyses of phylogenetic signals in over 600 languages worldwide, controlling for confounding effects from language contact. Our findings suggest that at least one core property of grammar systematically adapts in its evolution to the neurophysiological conditions of the brain, independently of socio-historical factors. This opens up new avenues for understanding how specific properties of grammar have developed in tight interaction with the biological evolution of our species. PMID:26267884

  9. The Neurophysiology of Language Processing Shapes the Evolution of Grammar: Evidence from Case Marking

    PubMed Central

    Bickel, Balthasar; Witzlack-Makarevich, Alena; Choudhary, Kamal K.; Schlesewsky, Matthias; Bornkessel-Schlesewsky, Ina

    2015-01-01

    Do principles of language processing in the brain affect the way grammar evolves over time or is language change just a matter of socio-historical contingency? While the balance of evidence has been ambiguous and controversial, we identify here a neurophysiological constraint on the processing of language that has a systematic effect on the evolution of how noun phrases are marked by case (i.e. by such contrasts as between the English base form she and the object form her). In neurophysiological experiments across diverse languages we found that during processing, participants initially interpret the first base-form noun phrase they hear (e.g. she…) as an agent (which would fit a continuation like … greeted him), even when the sentence later requires the interpretation of a patient role (as in … was greeted). We show that this processing principle is also operative in Hindi, a language where initial base-form noun phrases most commonly denote patients because many agents receive a special case marker ("ergative") and are often left out in discourse. This finding suggests that the principle is species-wide and independent of the structural affordances of specific languages. As such, the principle favors the development and maintenance of case-marking systems that equate base-form cases with agents rather than with patients. We confirm this evolutionary bias by statistical analyses of phylogenetic signals in over 600 languages worldwide, controlling for confounding effects from language contact. Our findings suggest that at least one core property of grammar systematically adapts in its evolution to the neurophysiological conditions of the brain, independently of socio-historical factors. This opens up new avenues for understanding how specific properties of grammar have developed in tight interaction with the biological evolution of our species. PMID:26267884

  10. Grammar Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sipe, Rebecca Bowers

    2006-01-01

    As a new faculty member, the author was invited by colleagues to help protect a resource they believed was essential to their instructional program. The importance of teaching grammar in a didactic fashion as a precursor to student writing constituted an unchallenged belief in the department. Faculty members were committed to the notion that…

  11. Holistic Grammar.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierstorff, Don K.

    1981-01-01

    Parodies holistic approaches to education. Explains an educational approach which simultaneously teaches grammar and arithmetic. Lauds the advantages of the approach as high student attrition, ease of grading, and focus on developing the reptilian portion of the brain. Points out common errors made by students. (AYC)

  12. Grammar Myths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Roger

    2015-01-01

    This paper looks at the continued survival of "myths" about English grammar, for example, the statement that in negative and interrogative sentences "any" should be used instead of "some". It is based on a survey of 195 Hong Kong students majoring in English, in five different cohorts, which found that such myths are…

  13. Great, No, Realistic Expectations: Grammar and Cognitive Levels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson, Tate

    1987-01-01

    Argues against direct formal grammar instruction in middle school. Notes that even students with high IQ's frequently score low on cognitive development measures, with children in the concrete stage of thinking usually unable to identify simple subjects and verb phrases. Recommends that until students achieve a level of formal reasoning they…

  14. A Grammar Sketch of the Kaki Ae Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clifton, John M.

    Kaki Ae is a non-Austronesian language spoken by about 300 people on the south coast of Papua New Guinea, at best distantly related to any other language in that area. A brief grammar sketch of the language is presented, including discussion of the phonology, sentences, phrases, words, and morpheme categories. Kaki Ae phonemics include 11…

  15. Grammar. English Language Arts Concept Paper Number 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shinkle, Carl R.

    Noting that issues surrounding grammar instruction are a source of controversy within the English language arts curriculum, this concept paper examines the usefulness of formal instruction in naming parts of speech, diagramming sentences, naming types of phrases and clauses, and naming sentence types. Following an introduction that defines…

  16. Evolution of Universal Grammar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowak, Martin A.; Komarova, Natalia L.; Niyogi, Partha

    2001-01-01

    Universal grammar specifies the mechanism of language acquisition. It determines the range of grammatical hypothesis that children entertain during language learning and the procedure they use for evaluating input sentences. How universal grammar arose is a major challenge for evolutionary biology. We present a mathematical framework for the evolutionary dynamics of grammar learning. The central result is a coherence threshold, which specifies the condition for a universal grammar to induce coherent communication within a population. We study selection of grammars within the same universal grammar and competition between different universal grammars. We calculate the condition under which natural selection favors the emergence of rule-based, generative grammars that underlie complex language.

  17. Space Grammar, Analysability, and the English Passive.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langacker, Ronald W.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses alternatives to a number of assumptions fundamental to established linguistic theory which lead to a coherent view of linguistic structure that treats grammar as a symbolic phenomenon and emphasizes importance of analyzability to grammatical structure. Outlines descriptive framework called Space Grammar and its approach to semantic…

  18. An Experiment in Teaching Grammar in Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smoot, W. Scott

    2001-01-01

    Describes how the author, in his seventh-grade English class, taught "little grammar" (sentence structure, parts of speech, and usage) and "big grammar" (such as essay structure, points of an argument, and rhetorical devices) through reading meaningful texts drawn from their history class. Discusses successes and difficulties with this approach,…

  19. Grammar! A Conference Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Lid, Ed.; Boaks, Peter, Ed.

    Papers from a conference on the teaching of grammar, particularly in second language instruction, include: "Grammar: Acquisition and Use" (Richard Johnstone); "Grammar and Communication" (Brian Page); "Linguistic Progression and Increasing Independence" (Bernardette Holmes); "La grammaire? C'est du bricolage!" ("Grammar? That's Hardware!") (Barry…

  20. Constraining Multiple Grammars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopp, Holger

    2014-01-01

    This article offers the author's commentary on the Multiple Grammars (MG) language acquisition theory proposed by Luiz Amaral and Tom Roeper in the present issue. Multiple Grammars advances the claim that optionality is a constitutive characteristic of any one grammar, with interlanguage grammars being perhaps the clearest examples of a…

  1. Constraining Multiple Grammars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopp, Holger

    2014-01-01

    This article offers the author's commentary on the Multiple Grammars (MG) language acquisition theory proposed by Luiz Amaral and Tom Roeper in the present issue. Multiple Grammars advances the claim that optionality is a constitutive characteristic of any one grammar, with interlanguage grammars being perhaps the clearest examples of a…

  2. Extracting noun phrases for all of MEDLINE.

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, N. A.; He, Q.; Powell, K.; Schatz, B. R.

    1999-01-01

    A natural language parser that could extract noun phrases for all medical texts would be of great utility in analyzing content for information retrieval. We discuss the extraction of noun phrases from MEDLINE, using a general parser not tuned specifically for any medical domain. The noun phrase extractor is made up of three modules: tokenization; part-of-speech tagging; noun phrase identification. Using our program, we extracted noun phrases from the entire MEDLINE collection, encompassing 9.3 million abstracts. Over 270 million noun phrases were generated, of which 45 million were unique. The quality of these phrases was evaluated by examining all phrases from a sample collection of abstracts. The precision and recall of the phrases from our general parser compared favorably with those from three other parsers we had previously evaluated. We are continuing to improve our parser and evaluate our claim that a generic parser can effectively extract all the different phrases across the entire medical literature. PMID:10566444

  3. Mapping text with phrase nets.

    PubMed

    van Ham, Frank; Wattenberg, Martin; Viégas, Fernanda B

    2009-01-01

    We present a new technique, the phrase net, for generating visual overviews of unstructured text. A phrase net displays a graph whose nodes are words and whose edges indicate that two words are linked by a user-specified relation. These relations may be defined either at the syntactic or lexical level; different relations often produce very different perspectives on the same text. Taken together, these perspectives often provide an illuminating visual overview of the key concepts and relations in a document or set of documents. PMID:19834186

  4. Basic Grammar and Freshman Composition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kearns, Michael S.

    If college freshmen know something about syntax, have practiced combining and breaking down sentences, and have learned to think in terms of deep structures and surface structures, they may be better able to understand and relieve the discomfort caused by a garbled key sentence structure. Grammar instruction in freshman composition provides a…

  5. Something Old, Something New--An Eclectic Grammar for Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Donnell, Roy C.

    Formal grammar study is important in schools above the elementary level because it can lead to improved understanding of the nature and functions of language. Although newer grammars, based on structural linguistics and transformational-generative grammar, have not met the needs of the schools, their potential should not be ignored with a return…

  6. Zeitschriftenschau. Schwerpunkt: Grammatikunterricht (Survey of Journals. Focus: Teaching Grammar)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schrand, Heinrich

    1975-01-01

    Reviews eight articles (1972-74) on teaching grammar, dealing with, e.g., the manner of presenting new structures, ranking of grammatical rules, development of a practical theory of grammar, and the effectiveness of traditional grammar teaching. Special teaching examples deal with English second conditional and question formation. (Text is in…

  7. Grammar as a Programming Language. Artificial Intelligence Memo 391.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, Neil

    Student projects that involve writing generative grammars in the computer language, "LOGO," are described in this paper, which presents a grammar-running control structure that allows students to modify and improve the grammar interpreter itself while learning how a simple kind of computer parser works. Included are procedures for programing a…

  8. Zeitschriftenschau. Schwerpunkt: Grammatikunterricht (Survey of Journals. Focus: Teaching Grammar)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schrand, Heinrich

    1975-01-01

    Reviews eight articles (1972-74) on teaching grammar, dealing with, e.g., the manner of presenting new structures, ranking of grammatical rules, development of a practical theory of grammar, and the effectiveness of traditional grammar teaching. Special teaching examples deal with English second conditional and question formation. (Text is in…

  9. Grammar-Guided Writing for AAC Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunnicutt, Sheri; Magnuson, Tina

    2007-01-01

    A method of grammar-guided writing has been devised to guide graphic sign users through the construction of text messages for use in e-mail and other applications with a remote receiver. The purpose is to promote morphologically and syntactically correct sentences. The available grammatical structures in grammar-guided writing are the highest…

  10. ADJECTIVES AS NOUN PHRASES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ROSS, JOHN ROBERT

    THIS ANALYSIS OF UNDERLYING SYNTACTIC STRUCTURE IS BASED ON THE ASSUMPTION THAT THE PARTS OF SPEECH CALLED "VERBS" AND "ADJECTIVES" ARE TWO SUBCATEGORIES OF ONE MAJOR LEXICAL CATEGORY, "PREDICATE." FROM THIS ASSUMPTION, THE HYPOTHESIS IS ADVANCED THAT, IN LANGUAGES EXHIBITING THE COPULA, THE DEEP STRUCTURE OF SENTENCES CONTAINING PREDICATE…

  11. Phrase versus Phase: Family Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrara, Margaret M.

    2011-01-01

    Parents and their roles in schools, public or private, often become the bed of heated discussions. "Parent involvement" is yesterday's buzz word; today, it is "family involvement." The phrase "parent involvement" connotes an image of parents being involved in their children's education. Family involvement is a more encompassing concept, embracing…

  12. Phrase versus Phase: Family Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrara, Margaret M.

    2011-01-01

    Parents and their roles in schools, public or private, often become the bed of heated discussions. "Parent involvement" is yesterday's buzz word; today, it is "family involvement." The phrase "parent involvement" connotes an image of parents being involved in their children's education. Family involvement is a more encompassing concept, embracing…

  13. Evolution of universal grammar.

    PubMed

    Nowak, M A; Komarova, N L; Niyogi, P

    2001-01-01

    Universal grammar specifies the mechanism of language acquisition. It determines the range of grammatical hypothesis that children entertain during language learning and the procedure they use for evaluating input sentences. How universal grammar arose is a major challenge for evolutionary biology. We present a mathematical framework for the evolutionary dynamics of grammar learning. The central result is a coherence threshold, which specifies the condition for a universal grammar to induce coherent communication within a population. We study selection of grammars within the same universal grammar and competition between different universal grammars. We calculate the condition under which natural selection favors the emergence of rule-based, generative grammars that underlie complex language. PMID:11141560

  14. A composite method based on formal grammar and DNA structural features in detecting human polymerase II promoter region.

    PubMed

    Datta, Sutapa; Mukhopadhyay, Subhasis

    2013-01-01

    An important step in understanding gene regulation is to identify the promoter regions where the transcription factor binding takes place. Predicting a promoter region de novo has been a theoretical goal for many researchers for a long time. There exists a number of in silico methods to predict the promoter region de novo but most of these methods are still suffering from various shortcomings, a major one being the selection of appropriate features of promoter region distinguishing them from non-promoters. In this communication, we have proposed a new composite method that predicts promoter sequences based on the interrelationship between structural profiles of DNA and primary sequence elements of the promoter regions. We have shown that a Context Free Grammar (CFG) can formalize the relationships between different primary sequence features and by utilizing the CFG, we demonstrate that an efficient parser can be constructed for extracting these relationships from DNA sequences to distinguish the true promoter sequences from non-promoter sequences. Along with CFG, we have extracted the structural features of the promoter region to improve upon the efficiency of our prediction system. Extensive experiments performed on different datasets reveals that our method is effective in predicting promoter sequences on a genome-wide scale and performs satisfactorily as compared to other promoter prediction techniques. PMID:23437045

  15. Syntactic Functions in Functional Discourse Grammar and Role and Reference Grammar: An Evaluative Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Christopher S.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to compare the treatment of syntactic functions, and more particularly those traditionally labelled as Subject and Object, in Functional Discourse Grammar and Role and Reference Grammar. Relevant aspects of the overall structure of the two theories are briefly described. The concept of alignment between levels of the…

  16. Teaching and Research: Options in Grammar Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Rod

    1998-01-01

    Reviews research that addresses how grammar can best be taught in terms of four theoretically motivated instructional options: (1) structured input; (2) explicit instruction; (3) production practice; (4) negative feedback. (Author/JL)

  17. Efficient Grammar Induction Algorithm with Parse Forests from Real Corpora

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurihara, Kenichi; Kameya, Yoshitaka; Sato, Taisuke

    The task of inducing grammar structures has received a great deal of attention. The reasons why researchers have studied are different; to use grammar induction as the first stage in building large treebanks or to make up better language models. However, grammar induction has inherent computational complexity. To overcome it, some grammar induction algorithms add new production rules incrementally. They refine the grammar while keeping their computational complexity low. In this paper, we propose a new efficient grammar induction algorithm. Although our algorithm is similar to algorithms which learn a grammar incrementally, our algorithm uses the graphical EM algorithm instead of the Inside-Outside algorithm. We report results of learning experiments in terms of learning speeds. The results show that our algorithm learns a grammar in constant time regardless of the size of the grammar. Since our algorithm decreases syntactic ambiguities in each step, our algorithm reduces required time for learning. This constant-time learning considerably affects learning time for larger grammars. We also reports results of evaluation of criteria to choose nonterminals. Our algorithm refines a grammar based on a nonterminal in each step. Since there can be several criteria to decide which nonterminal is the best, we evaluate them by learning experiments.

  18. On the Formal Componential Structure of the Transformational-Generative Model of Grammar.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brew, P. J.

    1970-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship that exists between the syntactic and phonological components of the transformational-generative model insofar as their formal structures are concerned. It is demonstrated that the number and importance of the structural similarities between the syntax and the phonology make it necessary to provide for them in…

  19. The Accessibility of Universal Grammar in the Acquisition of Structure-Dependency in Persian Learners of English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadeghi, Sima

    2006-01-01

    To what extent does Universal Grammar (UG) constrain second language (L2) acquisition? This is not only an empirical question, but one which is currently investigable. In this context, L2 acquisition is emerging as an important new domain of psycholinguistic research. Three logical possibilities have been articulated regarding the role of UG in L2…

  20. Tree-bank grammars

    SciTech Connect

    Charniak, E.

    1996-12-31

    By a {open_quotes}tree-bank grammar{close_quotes} we mean a context-free grammar created by reading the production rules directly from hand-parsed sentences in a tree bank. Common wisdom has it that such grammars do not perform well, though we know of no published data on the issue. The primary purpose of this paper is to show that the common wisdom is wrong. In particular, we present results on a tree-bank grammar based on the Penn Wall Street Journal tree bank. To the best of our knowledge, this grammar outperforms all other non-word-based statistical parsers/grammars on this corpus. That is, it outperforms parsers that consider the input as a string of tags and ignore the actual words of the corpus.

  1. Conceptual Reference Points: A Cognitive Grammar Account of Pronominal Anaphora Constraints.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Hoek, Karen

    1995-01-01

    Presents an analysis of the constraints on pronominal anaphora in English within the framework of cognitive grammar in terms of semantic distinctions between pronouns and full noun phrases. Semantic notions of prominence and conceptual interconnection are used to develop a model of "conceptual reference points." The analysis provides problematic…

  2. Conceptual Reference Points: A Cognitive Grammar Account of Pronominal Anaphora Constraints.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Hoek, Karen

    1995-01-01

    Presents an analysis of the constraints on pronominal anaphora in English within the framework of cognitive grammar in terms of semantic distinctions between pronouns and full noun phrases. Semantic notions of prominence and conceptual interconnection are used to develop a model of "conceptual reference points." The analysis provides problematic…

  3. Is Grammar Spared in Autism Spectrum Disorder? Data from Judgments of Verb Argument Structure Overgeneralization Errors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ambridge, Ben; Bannard, Colin; Jackson, Georgina H.

    2015-01-01

    Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) aged 11-13 (N = 16) and an IQ-matched typically developing (TD) group aged 7-12 (N = 16) completed a graded grammaticality judgment task, as well as a standardized test of cognitive function. In a departure from previous studies, the judgment task involved verb argument structure overgeneralization…

  4. The Emergence of Linguistic Structure: Paul Hopper's Emergent Grammar Hypothesis Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, T.

    1997-01-01

    Proposes that one theorist's challenge to the discipline of linguistics, which claims that linguistic structure is temporal and the study of language is a political activity, reflects the influence of philosophical deconstructivism that has heavily influenced other disciplines. The deconstructivist view of language is contrasted with competence…

  5. Vocabulary and Grammar Knowledge in Second Language Reading Comprehension: A Structural Equation Modeling Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Dongbo

    2012-01-01

    Using structural equation modeling analysis, this study examined the contribution of vocabulary and grammatical knowledge to second language reading comprehension among 190 advanced Chinese English as a foreign language learners. Vocabulary knowledge was measured in both breadth (Vocabulary Levels Test) and depth (Word Associates Test);…

  6. Is Grammar Spared in Autism Spectrum Disorder? Data from Judgments of Verb Argument Structure Overgeneralization Errors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ambridge, Ben; Bannard, Colin; Jackson, Georgina H.

    2015-01-01

    Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) aged 11-13 (N = 16) and an IQ-matched typically developing (TD) group aged 7-12 (N = 16) completed a graded grammaticality judgment task, as well as a standardized test of cognitive function. In a departure from previous studies, the judgment task involved verb argument structure overgeneralization…

  7. Phrase Units as Determinants of Visual Processing in Music Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloboda, John A.

    1977-01-01

    Keyboard musicians sight-read passages of music in which the amount of information about the presence of phrase units was systematically varied. Results suggest a clear analogy between the cognition of music and language, in that knowledge of abstract structure is of importance in the organization of immediate visual processing of text. (Editor/RK)

  8. Effects of Noun Phrase Type on Sentence Complexity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Peter C.; Hendrick, Randall; Johnson, Marcus

    2004-01-01

    A series of self-paced reading time experiments was performed to assess how characteristics of noun phrases (NPs) contribute to the difference in processing difficulty between object- and subject-extracted relative clauses. Structural semantic characteristics of the NP in the embedded clause (definite vs. indefinite and definite vs. generic) did…

  9. Is grammar spared in autism spectrum disorder? Data from judgments of verb argument structure overgeneralization errors.

    PubMed

    Ambridge, Ben; Bannard, Colin; Jackson, Georgina H

    2015-10-01

    Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) aged 11-13 (N = 16) and an IQ-matched typically developing (TD) group aged 7-12 (N = 16) completed a graded grammaticality judgment task, as well as a standardized test of cognitive function. In a departure from previous studies, the judgment task involved verb argument structure overgeneralization errors (e.g., *Lisa fell the cup off the shelf) of the type sometimes observed amongst typically developing children, as well as grammatical control sentences with the same verbs (e.g., The cup fell off the shelf). The ASD group showed a smaller dispreference for ungrammatical sentences (relative to the control sentences) than did the TD group. These findings are indicative of a subtle grammatical impairment in even relatively high-functioning children with ASD. PMID:26048042

  10. Swahili Learners' Reference Grammar. African Language Learners' Reference Grammar Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Katrina Daly; Schleicher, Antonia Folarin

    This reference grammar is written for speakers of English who are learning Swahili. Because many language learners are not familiar with the grammatical terminology, this book explains the basic terminology and concepts of English grammar that are necessary for understanding the grammar of Swahili. It assumes no formal knowledge of English grammar…

  11. The Grammar Gallimaufry: Teaching Students to Challenge the Grammar Gods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    House, Jeff

    2009-01-01

    How a person teaches grammar depends on what he or she believes it does. Some see grammar as a set of rules, inherited from wise forefathers. For them, teaching grammar means making students aware of, and then holding them to, these rules. Others see grammar as an expression of style, an invitation to the writer to explore how to create a…

  12. The Grammar Gallimaufry: Teaching Students to Challenge the Grammar Gods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    House, Jeff

    2009-01-01

    How a person teaches grammar depends on what he or she believes it does. Some see grammar as a set of rules, inherited from wise forefathers. For them, teaching grammar means making students aware of, and then holding them to, these rules. Others see grammar as an expression of style, an invitation to the writer to explore how to create a…

  13. A Marathi Reference Grammar.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berntsen, Maxine; Nimbkar, Jai

    This Marathi reference grammar designed for adult students is based on the model of transformational grammar developed by Zellig Harris, and may be of interest to linguists as well. The basic grammatical facts of Marathi are set forth in eleven chapters: (1) the Marathi sound system, (2) the Devenagari script, (3) nouns, pronouns, and adjectives,…

  14. Informal Pedagogical Grammar.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohammed, Abdulmoneim Mahmoud

    1996-01-01

    Discusses the consensus among language teachers that the teaching of grammar helps second language learners develop linguistic competence as part of communicative competence. The article argues that pedagogical grammar can be made less formal by keeping metalinguistic terms, concepts, and analysis at a minimal level. (45 references) (Author/CK)

  15. A Grammar of Belep

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCracken, Chelsea Leigh

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation is a description of the grammar of Belep [yly], an Austronesian language variety spoken by about 1600 people in and around the Belep Isles in New Caledonia. The grammar begins with a summary of the cultural and linguistic background of Belep speakers, followed by chapters on Belep phonology and phonetics, morphology and word…

  16. Grammar Instruction and Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lacina, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Much of the research literature from the past 25 years has supported the importance of teaching grammar in the context of writing instruction (Calkins, 1980; DiStefano & Killion, 1984; Weaver, 1996,1998). Unlike other content areas, practice does not make perfect when learning grammar. While isolated drill and practice of grammatical concepts may…

  17. Grammar and Teaching ESL

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrissey, Glenda; Young, Barbara N.

    2005-01-01

    The variety of theories relating to teaching ESL learners leads to contradictory ideas about teaching a second language. This paper focuses on the continuing importance of grammar in teaching and the current resurgence in interest in returning to grammar as an important component in the classroom.

  18. A Papago Grammar.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zepeda, Ofelia

    A Papago grammar, intented to help Papago and other junior high, high school and college students learn and appreciate the language and give linguists an overview of the language, contains background information on the language and the book, two grammar units, a unit of five conversations in Papago, and a section of supplementary material. Text…

  19. Grammar Instruction and Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lacina, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Much of the research literature from the past 25 years has supported the importance of teaching grammar in the context of writing instruction (Calkins, 1980; DiStefano & Killion, 1984; Weaver, 1996,1998). Unlike other content areas, practice does not make perfect when learning grammar. While isolated drill and practice of grammatical concepts may…

  20. Rethinking Grammar and Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Jane Tucker; Redmond, Mary Lynn

    1993-01-01

    This article examines several recent views on grammar, then revisits some of the perpetual problem areas in teaching grammar, such as the deductive-inductive debate, the use of the first- or second-language for grammatical presentations, and the explicit-implicit controversy. (12 references) (VWL)

  1. A Grammar of Belep

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCracken, Chelsea Leigh

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation is a description of the grammar of Belep [yly], an Austronesian language variety spoken by about 1600 people in and around the Belep Isles in New Caledonia. The grammar begins with a summary of the cultural and linguistic background of Belep speakers, followed by chapters on Belep phonology and phonetics, morphology and word…

  2. The minimalist grammar of action

    PubMed Central

    Pastra, Katerina; Aloimonos, Yiannis

    2012-01-01

    Language and action have been found to share a common neural basis and in particular a common ‘syntax’, an analogous hierarchical and compositional organization. While language structure analysis has led to the formulation of different grammatical formalisms and associated discriminative or generative computational models, the structure of action is still elusive and so are the related computational models. However, structuring action has important implications on action learning and generalization, in both human cognition research and computation. In this study, we present a biologically inspired generative grammar of action, which employs the structure-building operations and principles of Chomsky's Minimalist Programme as a reference model. In this grammar, action terminals combine hierarchically into temporal sequences of actions of increasing complexity; the actions are bound with the involved tools and affected objects and are governed by certain goals. We show, how the tool role and the affected-object role of an entity within an action drives the derivation of the action syntax in this grammar and controls recursion, merge and move, the latter being mechanisms that manifest themselves not only in human language, but in human action too. PMID:22106430

  3. Phonology without universal grammar

    PubMed Central

    Archangeli, Diana; Pulleyblank, Douglas

    2015-01-01

    The question of identifying the properties of language that are specific human linguistic abilities, i.e., Universal Grammar, lies at the center of linguistic research. This paper argues for a largely Emergent Grammar in phonology, taking as the starting point that memory, categorization, attention to frequency, and the creation of symbolic systems are all nonlinguistic characteristics of the human mind. The articulation patterns of American English rhotics illustrate categorization and systems; the distribution of vowels in Bantu vowel harmony uses frequencies of particular sequences to argue against Universal Grammar and in favor of Emergent Grammar; prefix allomorphy in Esimbi illustrates the Emergent symbolic system integrating phonological and morphological generalizations. The Esimbi case has been treated as an example of phonological opacity in a Universal Grammar account; the Emergent analysis resolves the pattern without opacity concerns. PMID:26388791

  4. Phonology without universal grammar.

    PubMed

    Archangeli, Diana; Pulleyblank, Douglas

    2015-01-01

    The question of identifying the properties of language that are specific human linguistic abilities, i.e., Universal Grammar, lies at the center of linguistic research. This paper argues for a largely Emergent Grammar in phonology, taking as the starting point that memory, categorization, attention to frequency, and the creation of symbolic systems are all nonlinguistic characteristics of the human mind. The articulation patterns of American English rhotics illustrate categorization and systems; the distribution of vowels in Bantu vowel harmony uses frequencies of particular sequences to argue against Universal Grammar and in favor of Emergent Grammar; prefix allomorphy in Esimbi illustrates the Emergent symbolic system integrating phonological and morphological generalizations. The Esimbi case has been treated as an example of phonological opacity in a Universal Grammar account; the Emergent analysis resolves the pattern without opacity concerns. PMID:26388791

  5. Hierarchical phrase-based grammatical analysis of language samples from Cantonese-speaking children with and without autism.

    PubMed

    Leung, Man-Tak; Li, Hong-Lan

    2015-01-01

    The present study made a reference to Zhu Dexi's phrase-based grammar approach to analyse Cantonese utterances hierarchically into 14 syntactic structures (SS). A total of 68 speech samples from Cantonese-speaking children with and without Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) were collected. The mean length of utterance in words (MLUw), the number of syntactic structures (NOSS), the number of different syntactic structures (NODSS) and the flexibility of syntactic structures (FSS) of the samples were calculated. Comparisons among four groups of typically developing (TD) children revealed that all the indexes show developmental changes across age stages. Comparisons between ASD subjects and their age-matched (AM) and MLUw-matched (MM) normal peers were done. MLUw, NOSS and NODSS and FSS could be used to distinguish autistic children from their AM normal peers, but only FSS could be used to distinguish ASD from MM groups qualitatively and quantitatively. The lack of production of SP, V1O/SV2 and Coord1Coord2 with low FSS may be one of the factors that will affect ASD children's further syntactic development. PMID:26114755

  6. xREI: a phylo-grammar visualization webserver.

    PubMed

    Barquist, Lars; Holmes, Ian

    2008-07-01

    Phylo-grammars, probabilistic models combining Markov chain substitution models with stochastic grammars, are powerful models for annotating structured features in multiple sequence alignments and analyzing the evolution of those features. In the past, these methods have been cumbersome to implement and modify. xrate provides means for the rapid development of phylo-grammars (using a simple file format) and automated parameterization of those grammars from training data (via the Expectation Maximization algorithm). xREI (pron. 'X-ray') is an intuitive, flexible AJAX (Asynchronous Javascript And XML) web interface to xrate providing grammar visualization tools as well as access to xrate's training and annotation functionality. It is hoped that this application will serve as a valuable tool to those developing phylo-grammars, and as a means for the exploration and dissemination of such models. xREI is available at http://harmony.biowiki.org/xrei/ PMID:18522975

  7. Exploring story grammar structure in the book reading interactions of African American mothers and their preschool children: a pilot investigation

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Yvette R.; Rothstein, Susan E.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to identify the book reading behaviors and book reading styles of middle class African American mothers engaged in a shared book reading activity with their preschool children. To this end, the mothers and their children were videotaped reading one of three books, Julius, Grandfather and I, or Somewhere in Africa. Both maternal and child behaviors were coded for the frequency of occurrence of story grammar elements contained in their stories and maternal behaviors were also coded for their use of narrative eliciting strategies. In addition, mothers were queried about the quality and quantity of book reading/story telling interactions in the home environment. The results suggest that there is a great deal of individual variation in how mothers use the story grammar elements and narrative eliciting strategies to engage their children in a shared book reading activity. Findings are discussed in terms of suggestions for additional research and practical applications are offered on ways to optimally engage African American preschool children and African American families from diverse socioeconomic backgrounds in shared book reading interactions. PMID:24926276

  8. A Grammar of Northern Mao (Mawes Aas'e)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahland, Michael Bryan

    2012-01-01

    Northern Mao is an endangered Afroasiatic-Omotic language of western Ethiopia with fewer than 5,000 speakers. This study is a comprehensive grammar of the language, written from a functional/typological perspective which embraces historical change as an explanation for synchronic structure. The grammar introduces the Northern Mao people, aspects…

  9. The Grammar of Fantasy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodari, Gianni

    1996-01-01

    Presents 10 short excerpts (translated from Italian) from Gianni Rodari's book "The Grammar of Fantasy: An Introduction to the Art of Inventing Stories." Addresses creative invention, the motif of the fantastic, word choice, recasting fairy tales, and comic effects. (PA)

  10. Dependency Grammar: Classification and Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debusmann, Ralph; Kuhlmann, Marco

    Syntactic representations based on word-to-word dependencies have a long tradition in descriptive linguistics [29]. In recent years, they have also become increasingly used in computational tasks, such as information extraction [5], machine translation [43], and parsing [42]. Among the purported advantages of dependency over phrase structure representations are conciseness, intuitive appeal, and closeness to semantic representations such as predicate-argument structures. On the more practical side, dependency representations are attractive due to the increasing availability of large corpora of dependency analyses, such as the Prague Dependency Treebank [19].

  11. Effective Grammar Teaching: Lessons from Confident Grammar Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petraki, Eleni; Hill, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    Learning the grammar of a language is an integral part of learning a second or foreign language. Studies on teacher beliefs, teacher language awareness (TLA) and grammar teaching have reported that the majority of English language teachers recognise the importance of teaching grammar (Borg, 2001; Borg & Burns, 2008). At the same time, many…

  12. Effective Grammar Teaching: Lessons from Confident Grammar Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petraki, Eleni; Hill, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    Learning the grammar of a language is an integral part of learning a second or foreign language. Studies on teacher beliefs, teacher language awareness (TLA) and grammar teaching have reported that the majority of English language teachers recognise the importance of teaching grammar (Borg, 2001; Borg & Burns, 2008). At the same time, many…

  13. Closure properties of Watson-Crick grammars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zulkufli, Nurul Liyana binti Mohamad; Turaev, Sherzod; Tamrin, Mohd Izzuddin Mohd; Azeddine, Messikh

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we define Watson-Crick context-free grammars, as an extension of Watson-Crick regular grammars and Watson-Crick linear grammars with context-free grammar rules. We show the relation of Watson-Crick (regular and linear) grammars to the sticker systems, and study some of the important closure properties of the Watson-Crick grammars. We establish that the Watson-Crick regular grammars are closed under almost all of the main closure operations, while the differences between other Watson-Crick grammars with their corresponding Chomsky grammars depend on the computational power of the Watson-Crick grammars which still need to be studied.

  14. Grammar and the Spoken Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Ronald; McCarthy, Michael

    1995-01-01

    Argues that second language teaching that aims to foster speaking skills and natural spoken interaction should be based upon the grammar of spoken language, not on grammars that mainly reflect written norms. Using evidence from a mini-corpus of conversational English, it is shown that popular pedagogical grammars are deficient in conversational…

  15. Our Ambivalence toward Teaching Grammar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gribbin, Bill

    2005-01-01

    A persistent question throughout the years is to teach grammar or not to teach, along with how much to teach and when. Very few teachers exactly teach grammar and few students know what grammar is. The myth of English teacher as judge of grammatical correctness that forces two reactions, one cynical and other more predictable are discussed.

  16. Teaching Grammar: What Really Works

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benjamin, Amy; Berger, Joan

    2010-01-01

    In this book, the authors share procedures for teaching grammar effectively and dynamically, in ways that appeal to students and teachers alike. Ideal for teachers just beginning their work in grammar instruction, this book includes day-by-day units and reproducibles to help them embed grammar lessons into writing instruction. Using visuals,…

  17. Teaching Grammar: What Really Works

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benjamin, Amy; Berger, Joan

    2010-01-01

    In this book, the authors share procedures for teaching grammar effectively and dynamically, in ways that appeal to students and teachers alike. Ideal for teachers just beginning their work in grammar instruction, this book includes day-by-day units and reproducibles to help them embed grammar lessons into writing instruction. Using visuals,…

  18. The Necessity of Grammar Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Fengjuan

    2010-01-01

    Mastering grammar is the foundation in the proficiency of a language. Grammar teaching is also an essential part of language teaching. However, with the communicative approach was introduced into China, many foreign language teachers gradually make little of grammar teaching. In terms of the theory of linguistics, this paper specifically explores…

  19. La gramatica comunicativa (Communicative Grammar).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zierer, Ernesto

    This paper explains the main concepts of communicative grammar and provides a detailed view of how communicative grammar analyses language at various levels. Language is discussed in terms of communication; the central elements in the analysis are those that carry information. Communicative grammar seeks to describe the process of the linguistic…

  20. Generalized augmented transition network grammars for generation from semantic networks

    SciTech Connect

    Shapiro, S.C.

    1982-01-01

    The augmented transition network (ATN) is a formalism for writing parsing grammars which has been much used in artificial intelligence and computational linguistics. A few researchers have also used ATNs for writing grammars for generating sentences. Previously, however, either generation ATNs did not have the same semantics as parsing ATNs, or they required an auxiliary mechanism to determine the syntactic structure of the sentence to be generated. This paper reports a generalization of the ATN formalism which allows ATN grammars to be written to parse labelled directed graphs. Specifically, an ATN grammar can be written to parse a semantic network and generate a surface string as its analysis. An example is given of a combined parsing-generating grammar which parses surface sentences, builds and queries a semantic network knowledge representation, and generates surface sentences in response. 8 references.

  1. Zipf's law holds for phrases, not words.

    PubMed

    Williams, Jake Ryland; Lessard, Paul R; Desu, Suma; Clark, Eric M; Bagrow, James P; Danforth, Christopher M; Dodds, Peter Sheridan

    2015-01-01

    With Zipf's law being originally and most famously observed for word frequency, it is surprisingly limited in its applicability to human language, holding over no more than three to four orders of magnitude before hitting a clear break in scaling. Here, building on the simple observation that phrases of one or more words comprise the most coherent units of meaning in language, we show empirically that Zipf's law for phrases extends over as many as nine orders of rank magnitude. In doing so, we develop a principled and scalable statistical mechanical method of random text partitioning, which opens up a rich frontier of rigorous text analysis via a rank ordering of mixed length phrases. PMID:26259699

  2. Prosodic phrasing is central to language comprehension.

    PubMed

    Frazier, Lyn; Carlson, Katy; Clifton, Charles

    2006-06-01

    Words, like musical notes, are grouped together into phrases by their rhythmic and durational properties as well as their tonal pitch. This 'prosodic phrasing' affects the understanding of sentences. Many processing studies of prosody have investigated sentences with a single, grammatically required prosodic boundary, which might be interpreted strictly locally, as a signal to end the current syntactic unit. Recent results suggest, however, that the global pattern of prosodic phrasing is what matters in sentence comprehension, not just the occurrence or size of a single local boundary. In this article we claim that the impact of prosodic boundaries depends on the other prosodic choices a speaker has made. We speculate that prosody serves to hold distinct linguistic representations together in memory. PMID:16651019

  3. Cortical tracking of hierarchical linguistic structures in connected speech.

    PubMed

    Ding, Nai; Melloni, Lucia; Zhang, Hang; Tian, Xing; Poeppel, David

    2016-01-01

    The most critical attribute of human language is its unbounded combinatorial nature: smaller elements can be combined into larger structures on the basis of a grammatical system, resulting in a hierarchy of linguistic units, such as words, phrases and sentences. Mentally parsing and representing such structures, however, poses challenges for speech comprehension. In speech, hierarchical linguistic structures do not have boundaries that are clearly defined by acoustic cues and must therefore be internally and incrementally constructed during comprehension. We found that, during listening to connected speech, cortical activity of different timescales concurrently tracked the time course of abstract linguistic structures at different hierarchical levels, such as words, phrases and sentences. Notably, the neural tracking of hierarchical linguistic structures was dissociated from the encoding of acoustic cues and from the predictability of incoming words. Our results indicate that a hierarchy of neural processing timescales underlies grammar-based internal construction of hierarchical linguistic structure. PMID:26642090

  4. Implicit Learning of Recursive Context-Free Grammars

    PubMed Central

    Rohrmeier, Martin; Fu, Qiufang; Dienes, Zoltan

    2012-01-01

    Context-free grammars are fundamental for the description of linguistic syntax. However, most artificial grammar learning experiments have explored learning of simpler finite-state grammars, while studies exploring context-free grammars have not assessed awareness and implicitness. This paper explores the implicit learning of context-free grammars employing features of hierarchical organization, recursive embedding and long-distance dependencies. The grammars also featured the distinction between left- and right-branching structures, as well as between centre- and tail-embedding, both distinctions found in natural languages. People acquired unconscious knowledge of relations between grammatical classes even for dependencies over long distances, in ways that went beyond learning simpler relations (e.g. n-grams) between individual words. The structural distinctions drawn from linguistics also proved important as performance was greater for tail-embedding than centre-embedding structures. The results suggest the plausibility of implicit learning of complex context-free structures, which model some features of natural languages. They support the relevance of artificial grammar learning for probing mechanisms of language learning and challenge existing theories and computational models of implicit learning. PMID:23094021

  5. Grammar and Grammaring: Toward Modes for English Grammar Teaching in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nan, Chengyu

    2015-01-01

    The value of grammar instruction in foreign language learning and teaching has been a focus of debate for quite some time, which has resulted in different views on grammar and grammar teaching as well as different teaching approaches based on different perspectives or in different language learning contexts. To explore some modes for grammar…

  6. Yes, We Still Need Universal Grammar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lidz, Jeffrey; Gleitman, Lila R.

    2004-01-01

    In a recent paper [Lidz, J., Gleitman, H., & Gleitman, L. (2003). Understanding how input matters: Verb learning and the footprint of universal grammar. "Cognition," 87, 151-178], we provided cross-linguistic evidence in favor of the following linked assertions: (i) Verb argument structure is a correlate of verb meaning; (ii) However, argument…

  7. Linguistic Models, Pedagogical Grammars, and ESL Composition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saksena, Anuradha

    1984-01-01

    Examines the negative consequences of using pedagogical grammars of English dominated by theoretical models which affect English as a second language composition. Limitations of these "models" include: lack of broad vocabulary, semantically "empty" verbs, and an emphasis on the use of awkward grammatical structures, which are regarded as more…

  8. Yes, We Still Need Universal Grammar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lidz, Jeffrey; Gleitman, Lila R.

    2004-01-01

    In a recent paper [Lidz, J., Gleitman, H., & Gleitman, L. (2003). Understanding how input matters: Verb learning and the footprint of universal grammar. "Cognition," 87, 151-178], we provided cross-linguistic evidence in favor of the following linked assertions: (i) Verb argument structure is a correlate of verb meaning; (ii) However, argument…

  9. A BINI GRAMMAR, PART 1--PHONOLOGY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WESCOTT, ROGER W.

    A PHONOLOGY OF BINI GRAMMAR (A LANGUAGE OF WESTERN NIGERIA) HAS BEEN DESIGNED FOR A HIGHLY HETEROGENEOUS AUDIENCE. THE VOLUME IS AIMED AT (1) AREA SPECIALISTS INTERESTED IN LANGUAGE OR CULTURE STUDIES OF AFRICA, (2) ETHNOGRAPHERS FOCUSING ON THE SOCIAL STRUCTURE OF THE EDO-SPEAKING PEOPLES, (3) HISTORIANS WORKING ON THE BENIN PROJECT OF IBADAN…

  10. A BINI GRAMMAR, PART 1--PHONOLOGY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WESCOTT, ROGER W.

    A PHONOLOGY OF BINI GRAMMAR (A LANGUAGE OF WESTERN NIGERIA) HAS BEEN DESIGNED FOR A HIGHLY HETEROGENEOUS AUDIENCE. THE VOLUME IS AIMED AT (1) AREA SPECIALISTS INTERESTED IN LANGUAGE OR CULTURE STUDIES OF AFRICA, (2) ETHNOGRAPHERS FOCUSING ON THE SOCIAL STRUCTURE OF THE EDO-SPEAKING PEOPLES, (3) HISTORIANS WORKING ON THE BENIN PROJECT OF IBADAN…

  11. Perspectives on Spoken Grammar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goh, Christine

    2009-01-01

    English language teachers' opinions on the pedagogic relevance of spoken grammar are beginning to be reported, yet the voices of teachers in East Asia are rarely heard. In this article, the views of teachers from China and Singapore expressed in an online discussion are compared. The discussion, which was part of a taught postgraduate course,…

  12. Studies in Inuktitut Grammar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beach, Matthew David

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation addresses a number of issues about the grammar of Eastern Canadian Inuktitut. Inuktitut is a dialect within the Inuit dialect continuum which is a group of languages/dialects within the Eskimo-Aleut language family. (Eastern Canadian Inuktitut has an ISO 693-3 language code of "ike".) Typologically, it is an ergative language…

  13. A Grammar of Kurtop

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyslop, Gwendolyn

    2011-01-01

    Kurtop is a Tibeto-Burman language spoken by approximately 15,000 people in Northeastern Bhutan. This dissertation is the first descriptive grammar of the language, based on extensive fieldwork and community-driven language documentation in Bhutan. When possible, analyses are presented in typological and historical/comparative perspectives and…

  14. A Grammar of Bih

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Tam Thi Minh

    2013-01-01

    Bih is a Chamic (Austronesian) language spoken by approximately 500 people in the Southern highlands of Vietnam. This dissertation is the first descriptive grammar of the language, based on extensive fieldwork and community-based language documentation in Vietnam and written from a functional/typological perspective. The analysis in this work is…

  15. A GUJARATI REFERENCE GRAMMAR.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CARDONA, GEORGE

    THIS REFERENCE GRAMMAR WAS WRITTEN TO FILL THE NEED FOR AN UP-TO-DATE ANALYSIS OF THE MODERN LANGUAGE SUITABLE FOR LANGUAGE LEARNERS AS WELL AS LINGUISTS. THE AUTHOR LISTS IN THE INTRODUCTION THOSE STUDIES PREVIOUS TO THIS ONE WHICH MAY BE OF INTEREST TO THE READER. INCLUDED IN HIS ANALYSIS OF THE LANGUAGE ARE MAJOR CHAPTERS ON--(1) PHONOLOGY, (2)…

  16. Multiple Grammars and MOGUL

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Truscott, John

    2014-01-01

    Optionality is a central phenomenon in second language acquisition (SLA), for which any adequate theory must account. Amaral and Roeper (this issue; henceforth A&R) offer an appealing approach to it, using Roeper's Multiple Grammars Theory, which was created with first language in mind but which extends very naturally to SLA. They include…

  17. Principled Grammar Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batstone, Rob; Ellis, Rod

    2009-01-01

    A key aspect of the acquisition of grammar for second language learners involves learning how to make appropriate connections between grammatical forms and the meanings which they typically signal. We argue that learning form/function mappings involves three interrelated principles. The first is the Given-to-New Principle, where existing world…

  18. Studies in Inuktitut Grammar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beach, Matthew David

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation addresses a number of issues about the grammar of Eastern Canadian Inuktitut. Inuktitut is a dialect within the Inuit dialect continuum which is a group of languages/dialects within the Eskimo-Aleut language family. (Eastern Canadian Inuktitut has an ISO 693-3 language code of "ike".) Typologically, it is an ergative language…

  19. Hualapai Reference Grammar.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watahomigie, Lucille J.; And Others

    A first and modest beginning toward a grammar of the Hualapai language, a Pai branch of the Yuman language family, this reference book is intended for use by: the Hualapai people to reaffirm the vitality of their language; the Hualapai teachers in their preparation of language materials for teaching; younger Haulapais to find the regularity and…

  20. A Grammar of Kurtop

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyslop, Gwendolyn

    2011-01-01

    Kurtop is a Tibeto-Burman language spoken by approximately 15,000 people in Northeastern Bhutan. This dissertation is the first descriptive grammar of the language, based on extensive fieldwork and community-driven language documentation in Bhutan. When possible, analyses are presented in typological and historical/comparative perspectives and…

  1. Existential Grammar for Composition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merchant, Frank

    The teaching of grammar has been in sad decline since medieval times, when it included the whole skill of creating in language. Our textbook community has moved through a series of ineffective fashions, from those of Fries to post-Chomsky. All have presumed to replace prescriptive rules with realistic explanations. But all have fallen, like the…

  2. Teaching Grammar for Proficiency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgs, Theodore V.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses a foreign language pedagogy that facilitates teaching for communication and teaching grammar, which is defined as a system for converting meaning into language. The teacher is advised to do in the classroom only what cannot be done elsewhere. Four instructional tactics are described. (SED)

  3. Principled Grammar Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batstone, Rob; Ellis, Rod

    2009-01-01

    A key aspect of the acquisition of grammar for second language learners involves learning how to make appropriate connections between grammatical forms and the meanings which they typically signal. We argue that learning form/function mappings involves three interrelated principles. The first is the Given-to-New Principle, where existing world…

  4. Stars in the teaching of astrophysics at grammar schools.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Å tefl, V.

    The paper subjects to theoretical analysis the topic "Stars" of the teaching programme of astrophysics at grammar schools. Diagrams express the relations among parameters of stars, sources of energy, structure and evolution of stars.

  5. Building Phrase Structure from Items and Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinney-Bock, Katherine S.

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation aims to revisit foundational issues in syntactic theory regarding cyclicity and displacement. I take narrow syntax to operate over domains ("phases") more local than in current Minimalism. To do this, I define a notion of "phase overlap" which involves the sharing of grammatical features across two independent…

  6. Without Specifiers: Phrase Structure and Events

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lohndal, Terje

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation attempts to unify two reductionist hypotheses: that there is no relational difference between specifiers and complements, and that verbs do not have thematic arguments. I argue that these two hypotheses actually bear on each other and that we get a better theory if we pursue both of them. The thesis is centered around the…

  7. Building Phrase Structure from Items and Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinney-Bock, Katherine S.

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation aims to revisit foundational issues in syntactic theory regarding cyclicity and displacement. I take narrow syntax to operate over domains ("phases") more local than in current Minimalism. To do this, I define a notion of "phase overlap" which involves the sharing of grammatical features across two independent…

  8. Without Specifiers: Phrase Structure and Events

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lohndal, Terje

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation attempts to unify two reductionist hypotheses: that there is no relational difference between specifiers and complements, and that verbs do not have thematic arguments. I argue that these two hypotheses actually bear on each other and that we get a better theory if we pursue both of them. The thesis is centered around the…

  9. Developing Syntactic Sensitivity in Reading through Phrase-Cued Texts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasinski, Timothy V.

    1994-01-01

    This article focuses on the value of developing the skills involved in grouping text into syntactically appropriate units with students having reading problems. It suggests use of phrase-cued texts (in which phrase boundaries are explicitly marked) to move from word-by-word reading to reading in meaningful phrases. (DB)

  10. Mathematical formula recognition using graph grammar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavirotte, Stephane; Pottier, Loic

    1998-04-01

    This paper describes current results of Ofr, a system for extracting and understanding mathematical expressions in documents. Such a tool could be really useful to be able to re-use knowledge in scientific books which are not available in electronic form. We currently also study use of this system for direct input of formulas with a graphical tablet for computer algebra system softwares. Existing solutions for mathematical recognition have problems to analyze 2D expressions like vectors and matrices. This is because they often try to use extended classical grammar to analyze formulas, relatively to baseline. But a lot of mathematical notations do not respect rules for such a parsing and that is the reason why they fail to extend text parsing technic. We investigate graph grammar and graph rewriting as a solution to recognize 2D mathematical notations. Graph grammar provide a powerful formalism to describe structural manipulations of multi-dimensional data. The main two problems to solve are ambiguities between rules of grammar and construction of graph.

  11. A Comparative Study on the Effectiveness of Two Song-Teaching Methods: Holistic vs. Phrase-by-Phrase

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Persellin, Diane; Bateman, Laura

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to compare the effectiveness of two song-teaching methods: holistic and phrase-by-phrase. Thirty-two first-grade children (n = 32) from two music classes in an urban elementary school were taught two folksongs. The first class (n = 16) was taught one song through the phrase-by-phrase method and another song through the…

  12. Phrase frequency effects in language production.

    PubMed

    Janssen, Niels; Barber, Horacio A

    2012-01-01

    A classic debate in the psychology of language concerns the question of the grain-size of the linguistic information that is stored in memory. One view is that only morphologically simple forms are stored (e.g., 'car', 'red'), and that more complex forms of language such as multi-word phrases (e.g., 'red car') are generated on-line from the simple forms. In two experiments we tested this view. In Experiment 1, participants produced noun+adjective and noun+noun phrases that were elicited by experimental displays consisting of colored line drawings and two superimposed line drawings. In Experiment 2, participants produced noun+adjective and determiner+noun+adjective utterances elicited by colored line drawings. In both experiments, naming latencies decreased with increasing frequency of the multi-word phrase, and were unaffected by the frequency of the object name in the utterance. These results suggest that the language system is sensitive to the distribution of linguistic information at grain-sizes beyond individual words. PMID:22479370

  13. Phrase Frequency Effects in Language Production

    PubMed Central

    Janssen, Niels; Barber, Horacio A.

    2012-01-01

    A classic debate in the psychology of language concerns the question of the grain-size of the linguistic information that is stored in memory. One view is that only morphologically simple forms are stored (e.g., ‘car’, ‘red’), and that more complex forms of language such as multi-word phrases (e.g., ‘red car’) are generated on-line from the simple forms. In two experiments we tested this view. In Experiment 1, participants produced noun+adjective and noun+noun phrases that were elicited by experimental displays consisting of colored line drawings and two superimposed line drawings. In Experiment 2, participants produced noun+adjective and determiner+noun+adjective utterances elicited by colored line drawings. In both experiments, naming latencies decreased with increasing frequency of the multi-word phrase, and were unaffected by the frequency of the object name in the utterance. These results suggest that the language system is sensitive to the distribution of linguistic information at grain-sizes beyond individual words. PMID:22479370

  14. Grammar Dilemma: Teaching Grammar as a Resource for Making Meaning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liamkina, Olga; Ryshina-Pankova, Marianna

    2012-01-01

    Adopting a functional perspective that views grammar as a rich resource for making contextualized meanings in a culture- and language-specific way, the article reconsiders the role of explicit grammar instruction in developing communicative abilities of second language learners. It draws on two distinct but complementary research frameworks,…

  15. Grammar Dilemma: Teaching Grammar as a Resource for Making Meaning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liamkina, Olga; Ryshina-Pankova, Marianna

    2012-01-01

    Adopting a functional perspective that views grammar as a rich resource for making contextualized meanings in a culture- and language-specific way, the article reconsiders the role of explicit grammar instruction in developing communicative abilities of second language learners. It draws on two distinct but complementary research frameworks,…

  16. Abstract Expression Grammar Symbolic Regression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korns, Michael F.

    This chapter examines the use of Abstract Expression Grammars to perform the entire Symbolic Regression process without the use of Genetic Programming per se. The techniques explored produce a symbolic regression engine which has absolutely no bloat, which allows total user control of the search space and output formulas, which is faster, and more accurate than the engines produced in our previous papers using Genetic Programming. The genome is an all vector structure with four chromosomes plus additional epigenetic and constraint vectors, allowing total user control of the search space and the final output formulas. A combination of specialized compiler techniques, genetic algorithms, particle swarm, aged layered populations, plus discrete and continuous differential evolution are used to produce an improved symbolic regression sytem. Nine base test cases, from the literature, are used to test the improvement in speed and accuracy. The improved results indicate that these techniques move us a big step closer toward future industrial strength symbolic regression systems.

  17. A Pedagogical Grammar of Tboli.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forsberg, Vivian M.

    1992-01-01

    Tboli is a language spoken by people living in southwestern Mindanao, Philippines, in the province of South Cotabato. The pedagogical grammar of Tboli has been written to help non-Tboli interested in learning to speak Tboli. A discussion of spelling and pronunciation includes the alphabet and spelling rules. Other forms of grammar described are…

  18. Teachers' Perceptions about Grammar Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thu, Tran Hoang

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates English as a second language (ESL) teachers' beliefs in grammar teaching. A 32-item questionnaire was administered to 11 ESL teachers in a language school in California. The results show that the participants generally believe that the formal study of grammar is essential to the eventual mastery of a foreign or second…

  19. Paperback Grammar for Handbook Haters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Dorothy

    1967-01-01

    Students will respond better to grammar instruction if the traditional heavy handbooks are replaced with light-weight paperbacks, each full of practical suggestions and clear examples. Several inexpensive paperbacks are available for instruction in grammar and usage, spelling, vocabulary, reading comprehension, and writing. Unlike the conventional…

  20. Interpretation-Based Grammar Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Rod

    1993-01-01

    In contrast to the usual approach to teaching grammar, this article argues for a comprehension-based approach. Based on a model of second-language acquisition, it examines a number of possible goals for grammar instruction (e.g., to promote "intake" of new grammatical features by helping learners notice input features and comprehend the meaning).…

  1. A Reference Grammar of Bena

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Michelle Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation is a grammar of Rena (ISO bez), a Bantu language spoken in southwestern Tanzania by approximately 600,000 people. Bena is largely undocumented, and though aspects of Bena grammar have been described, there is no usable, detailed treatment of the Bena language. Therefore the goal of this dissertation is provide the first detailed…

  2. A Reference Grammar of Bena

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Michelle Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation is a grammar of Rena (ISO bez), a Bantu language spoken in southwestern Tanzania by approximately 600,000 people. Bena is largely undocumented, and though aspects of Bena grammar have been described, there is no usable, detailed treatment of the Bena language. Therefore the goal of this dissertation is provide the first detailed…

  3. Parallel functional category deficits in clauses and nominal phrases: The case of English agrammatism

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Honglei; Yoshida, Masaya; Thompson, Cynthia K.

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with agrammatic aphasia exhibit restricted patterns of impairment of functional morphemes, however, syntactic characterization of the impairment is controversial. Previous studies have focused on functional morphology in clauses only. This study extends the empirical domain by testing functional morphemes in English nominal phrases in aphasia and comparing patients’ impairment to their impairment of functional morphemes in English clauses. In the linguistics literature, it is assumed that clauses and nominal phrases are structurally parallel but exhibit inflectional differences. The results of the present study indicated that aphasic speakers evinced similar impairment patterns in clauses and nominal phrases. These findings are consistent with the Distributed Morphology Hypothesis (DMH), suggesting that the source of functional morphology deficits among agrammatics relates to difficulty implementing rules that convert inflectional features into morphemes. Our findings, however, are inconsistent with the Tree Pruning Hypothesis (TPH), which suggests that patients have difficulty building complex hierarchical structures. PMID:26379370

  4. Re-Examining the Content Validation of a Grammar Test: The (Im)Possibility of Distinguishing Vocabulary and Structural Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alderson, J. Charles; Kremmel, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    "Vocabulary and structural knowledge" (Grabe, 1991, p. 379) appears to be a key component of reading ability. However, is this component to be taken as a unitary one or is structural knowledge a separate factor that can therefore also be tested in isolation in, say, a test of syntax? If syntax can be singled out (e.g. in order to…

  5. Interacting effects of syllable and phrase position on consonant articulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byrd, Dani; Lee, Sungbok; Riggs, Daylen; Adams, Jason

    2005-12-01

    The complexities of how prosodic structure, both at the phrasal and syllable levels, shapes speech production have begun to be illuminated through studies of articulatory behavior. The present study contributes to an understanding of prosodic signatures on articulation by examining the joint effects of phrasal and syllable position on the production of consonants. Articulatory kinematic data were collected for five subjects using electromagnetic articulography (EMA) to record target consonants (labial, labiodental, and tongue tip), located in (1) either syllable final or initial position and (2) either at a phrase edge or phrase medially. Spatial and temporal characteristics of the consonantal constriction formation and release were determined based on kinematic landmarks in the articulator velocity profiles. The results indicate that syllable and phrasal position consistently affect the movement duration; however, effects on displacement were more variable. For most subjects, the boundary-adjacent portions of the movement (constriction release for a preboundary coda and constriction formation for a postboundary onset) are not differentially affected in terms of phrasal lengthening-both lengthen comparably.

  6. Sequential processing during noun phrase production.

    PubMed

    Bürki, Audrey; Sadat, Jasmin; Dubarry, Anne-Sophie; Alario, F-Xavier

    2016-01-01

    This study examined whether the brain operations involved during the processing of successive words in multi word noun phrase production take place sequentially or simultaneously. German speakers named pictures while ignoring a written distractor superimposed on the picture (picture-word interference paradigm) using the definite determiner and corresponding German noun. The gender congruency and the phonological congruency (i.e., overlap in first phonemes) between target and distractor were manipulated. Naming responses and EEG were recorded. The behavioural performance replicated both the phonology and the gender congruency effects (i.e., shorter naming latencies for gender congruent than incongruent and for phonologically congruent than incongruent trials). The phonological and gender manipulations also influenced the EEG data. Crucially, the two effects occurred in different time windows and over different sets of electrodes. The phonological effect was observed substantially earlier than the gender congruency effect. This finding suggests that the processing of determiners and nouns during determiner noun phrase production occurs at least partly sequentially. PMID:26407338

  7. Grammar Structures and Deaf and Hard of Hearing Students: A Review of Past Performance and a Report of New Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cannon, Joanna E.; Kirby, Susannah

    2013-01-01

    Results of a study are presented that suggest the grammatical structures of English some deaf and hard of hearing students struggle to acquire. A review of the literature from the past 40 years is presented, exploring particular lexical and morphosyntactic areas in which deaf and hard of hearing children have traditionally exhibited difficulty.…

  8. When Global Structure "Explains Away" Local Grammar: A Bayesian Account of Rule-Induction in Tone Sequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, Colin; Gerken, LouAnn

    2011-01-01

    While many constraints on learning must be relatively experience-independent, past experience provides a rich source of guidance for subsequent learning. Discovering structure in some domain can inform a learner's future hypotheses about that domain. If a general property accounts for particular sub-patterns, a rational learner should not…

  9. Grammar Structures and Deaf and Hard of Hearing Students: A Review of Past Performance and a Report of New Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cannon, Joanna E.; Kirby, Susannah

    2013-01-01

    Results of a study are presented that suggest the grammatical structures of English some deaf and hard of hearing students struggle to acquire. A review of the literature from the past 40 years is presented, exploring particular lexical and morphosyntactic areas in which deaf and hard of hearing children have traditionally exhibited difficulty.…

  10. Processing Dutch sentence structures.

    PubMed

    Frazier, L

    1993-03-01

    This paper summarizes existing research on syntactic processing of Dutch sentences by adult native speakers of the language, with an eye to the implications of this work for a general theory of the human sentence processing mechanism (HSPM). The principles underlying the assignment of phrase structure and the binding of traces seem to be the same as those proposed for languages like English or Italian. For example, no delays of analysis exist in parsing the constituents of a phrase even if the phrase is head-final. Also, the obligatory topicalization of a constituent which is required in the highest clause of a Dutch sentence does not appear to result in trace postulation principles distinct from those operative in languages where topicalization is optional. The studies reviewed also address questions concerning the complexity of the dependency between a moved constituent and its trace as measured by the length of a path vs. the length of a chain, the processing of subject gaps following an overt complementizer, the complexity of interpreting an adjunct moved from an obligatory position, and the processing of discontinuous words. Though the studies do not pose a problem for pre-existing views of the HSPM, they do highlight certain areas of parsing theory which remain seriously underdeveloped. Foremost, perhaps, is the specification of the principles governing the architecture of the processing system, which ultimately should explain how the organization of the HSPM and its subcomponents results from acquiring the grammar of any particular language. PMID:8366479

  11. Automating 3D reconstruction using a probabilistic grammar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Hanwei; Xu, Jun; Xu, Chenxi; Pan, Ming

    2015-10-01

    3D reconstruction of objects from point clouds with a laser scanner is still a laborious task in many applications. Automating 3D process is an ongoing research topic and suffers from the complex structure of the data. The main difficulty is due to lack of knowledge of real world objects structure. In this paper, we accumulate such structure knowledge by a probabilistic grammar learned from examples in the same category. The rules of the grammar capture compositional structures at different levels, and a feature dependent probability function is attached for every rule. The learned grammar can be used to parse new 3D point clouds, organize segment patches in a hierarchal way, and assign them meaningful labels. The parsed semantics can be used to guide the reconstruction algorithms automatically. Some examples are given to explain the method.

  12. Grammar structures and deaf and hard of hearing students: a review of past performance and a report of new findings.

    PubMed

    Cannon, Joanna E; Kirby, Susannah

    2013-01-01

    Results of a study are presented that suggest the grammatical structures of English some deaf and hard of hearing students struggle to acquire. A review of the literature from the past 40 years is presented, exploring particular lexical and morphosyntactic areas in which deaf and hard of hearing children have traditionally exhibited difficulty. Twenty-six participants from an urban day school for the deaf used the LanguageLinks software, produced by Laureate Learning Systems, for 10 minutes daily for 9 weeks. The descriptive analysis of the results expands on findings reported by Cannon, Easterbrooks, Gagne, and Beal-Alvarez (2011). The results indicated that many participants struggled with regular noun singular/plural; accusative first- and second-person singular; noun/verb agreement copular "be"; accusative third-person number/ gender; locative pronominals; auxiliary "be"/regular past "-ed;" and prenominal determiners plural. PMID:24133956

  13. The Journalism Writing Course: Evaluation of Hybrid versus Online Grammar Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Jensen; Jones, Khristen

    2015-01-01

    This study examined introductory journalism writing courses and compared hybrid (part online/part classroom) versus online grammar instruction. The hybrid structure allowed for grammar topics to be taught online, with a pretest following, and then reviewing missed/difficult pretest concepts in class prior to a posttest. The quasi-experimental…

  14. A Diversity of Grammars: Breaking the Boundaries of "The Well Made Box."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sidler, Michelle

    In his 1976 article, "Grammars of Style: New Options in Composition," Winston Weathers calls for a Grammar B, an alternate set of conventions which govern the construction of whole compositions. He urges compositionists to look beyond the "well-made box" and consider other options for compositional patterns and discourse structures. Fields such as…

  15. A Deeper Look at the Grammar and Some Implications of "Ser" and "Estar" + Locative in Spanish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franco, Fabiola; Steinmetz, Donald

    1985-01-01

    Argues that the explanation of the use of "ser" and "estar" with locatives presented in the March 1984 issue of "Hispania" derives so directly from a theory of universal grammar because it is indicative of the explanatory adequacy of Case Grammar or of other, comparable theories of the deeper levels of linguistic structure. (SED)

  16. The Journalism Writing Course: Evaluation of Hybrid versus Online Grammar Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Jensen; Jones, Khristen

    2015-01-01

    This study examined introductory journalism writing courses and compared hybrid (part online/part classroom) versus online grammar instruction. The hybrid structure allowed for grammar topics to be taught online, with a pretest following, and then reviewing missed/difficult pretest concepts in class prior to a posttest. The quasi-experimental…

  17. Tzotzil Grammar. Summer Institute of Linguistics; Publications in Linguistics and Related Fields. Publication Number 18.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowan, Marion M.

    This grammar deals only with the speech form of Tzotzil currently in use by 65,000 speakers in the area around Huixtan, Chiapas, Mexico. The grammar is framed in terms of a theory which depends upon Pike's hierarchical structures and Lamb's stratificational model. It presents a description of the syntactic component of Tzotzil, with a few…

  18. Technology Helps Students Learn Grammar.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowen, Candace Perkins

    1999-01-01

    Describes several recent approaches on college campuses that use technology (including both Web sites and CD-ROM virtual environments) to help journalism students learn grammar. Notes successes and problems. (SR)

  19. A SKETCH OF MALAGASY GRAMMAR.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GARVEY, CATHERINE J.

    THE RESULTS OF A PROGRAM TO BUILD A MALAGASY GRAMMAR, BASED MAINLY ON THE MERINA DIALECT, ARE PRESENTED. INCLUDED ARE SECTIONS OF PHONOLOGY, MORPHOLOGY, AND SYNTAX. (AN ACCOMPANYING MALAGASY INTRODUCTORY COURSE IS ED 010 482.) (GD)

  20. 20 CFR 201.1 - Words and phrases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Words and phrases. 201.1 Section 201.1 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT DEFINITIONS § 201.1 Words and phrases. For the purposes of the regulations in this chapter, except where...

  1. 20 CFR 201.1 - Words and phrases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Words and phrases. 201.1 Section 201.1 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT DEFINITIONS § 201.1 Words and phrases. For the purposes of the regulations in this chapter, except where...

  2. 20 CFR 201.1 - Words and phrases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Words and phrases. 201.1 Section 201.1 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT DEFINITIONS § 201.1 Words and phrases. For the purposes of the regulations in this chapter, except where...

  3. 20 CFR 300.1 - Words and phrases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Words and phrases. 300.1 Section 300.1 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT DEFINITIONS § 300.1 Words and phrases. For the purposes of the regulations in this part, except where...

  4. 20 CFR 300.1 - Words and phrases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Words and phrases. 300.1 Section 300.1 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT DEFINITIONS § 300.1 Words and phrases. For the purposes of the regulations in this part, except where...

  5. 20 CFR 201.1 - Words and phrases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Words and phrases. 201.1 Section 201.1 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT DEFINITIONS § 201.1 Words and phrases. For the purposes of the regulations in this chapter, except where...

  6. 20 CFR 201.1 - Words and phrases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Words and phrases. 201.1 Section 201.1 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT DEFINITIONS § 201.1 Words and phrases. For the purposes of the regulations in this chapter, except where...

  7. 20 CFR 300.1 - Words and phrases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Words and phrases. 300.1 Section 300.1 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT DEFINITIONS § 300.1 Words and phrases. For the purposes of the regulations in this part, except where...

  8. 20 CFR 300.1 - Words and phrases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Words and phrases. 300.1 Section 300.1 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT DEFINITIONS § 300.1 Words and phrases. For the purposes of the regulations in this part, except where...

  9. Prosodic Phrasing and Modifier Attachment in Standard Arabic Sentence Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdelghany, Hala

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation investigates the syntax-prosody interface in Standard Arabic, focusing on the ambiguity of a modifier (relative clause or adjective phrase) in relation to the two nouns in a complex noun phrase. Ambiguity resolution tendencies for this construction differ across languages, contrary to otherwise universal parsing tendencies. One…

  10. Generative Graph Grammar of Neo-Vai?e?ika Formal Ontology (NVFO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavva, Rajesh; Singh, Navjyoti

    NLP applications for Sanskrit so far work within computational paradigm of string grammars. However, to compute 'meanings', as in traditional ?? bdabodha prakriy?-s, there is a need to develop suitable graph grammars. Ontological structures are fundamentally graphs. We work within the formal framework of Neo-Vai?e?ika Formal Ontology (NVFO) to propose a generative graph grammar. The proposed formal grammar only produces well-formed graphs that can be readily interpreted in accordance with Vai?e? ika Ontology. We show that graphs not permitted by Vai?e? ika ontology are not generated by the proposed grammar. Further, we write Interpreter of these graphical structures. This creates computational environment which can be deployed for writing computational applications of Vai?e? ika ontology. We illustrate how this environment can be used to create applications like computing ?? bdabodha of sentences.

  11. Cognitive biases, linguistic universals, and constraint-based grammar learning.

    PubMed

    Culbertson, Jennifer; Smolensky, Paul; Wilson, Colin

    2013-07-01

    According to classical arguments, language learning is both facilitated and constrained by cognitive biases. These biases are reflected in linguistic typology-the distribution of linguistic patterns across the world's languages-and can be probed with artificial grammar experiments on child and adult learners. Beginning with a widely successful approach to typology (Optimality Theory), and adapting techniques from computational approaches to statistical learning, we develop a Bayesian model of cognitive biases and show that it accounts for the detailed pattern of results of artificial grammar experiments on noun-phrase word order (Culbertson, Smolensky, & Legendre, 2012). Our proposal has several novel properties that distinguish it from prior work in the domains of linguistic theory, computational cognitive science, and machine learning. This study illustrates how ideas from these domains can be synthesized into a model of language learning in which biases range in strength from hard (absolute) to soft (statistical), and in which language-specific and domain-general biases combine to account for data from the macro-level scale of typological distribution to the micro-level scale of learning by individuals. PMID:23703887

  12. Grammatikunterricht, eine unzeitgemaesse Beschaeftigung? (Teaching Grammar--An Old-Fashioned Practice?)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Norbert

    1977-01-01

    Recommends introducting appropriate grammar instruction following pattern drill on various structures. Examples given (from French) are: partitive articles, certain perfect tense forms, and personal pronouns. This makes possible instruction entirely in the target language. For grammatical models, distributive structuralism and…

  13. Grammatikunterricht, eine unzeitgemaesse Beschaeftigung? (Teaching Grammar--An Old-Fashioned Practice?)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Norbert

    1977-01-01

    Recommends introducting appropriate grammar instruction following pattern drill on various structures. Examples given (from French) are: partitive articles, certain perfect tense forms, and personal pronouns. This makes possible instruction entirely in the target language. For grammatical models, distributive structuralism and…

  14. Inflection in action: Semantic motor system activation to noun- and verb-containing phrases is modulated by the presence of overt grammatical markers.

    PubMed

    Pulvermüller, Friedemann; Cook, Clare; Hauk, Olaf

    2012-04-01

    A recent breakthrough in understanding brain-language mechanisms is the discovery of local motor cortex activations that index specific meaning features of words, phrases and sentences. The words "talk" and "walk" activate different parts of the motor cortex, reflecting the body part relationship of actions the linguistic items are typically used to speak about. It has been suggested that such semantic motor mapping can be explained by behaviorist theories, based on conditioning mechanisms also effective in Pavlov's dog when it salivates to bell sounds. In contrast, a neurobiological approach to language predicts modulation of semantic activation by grammatical, including inflectional-morphological, information. Here, we test these competing predictions by putting action words into different phrasal contexts invoking morphosyntactic and morphophonological processes and demonstrate that semantic motor mappings are modulated by grammatical sentence properties, especially the presence of overtly realized inflectional affixes on nouns or verbs embedded in grammatical phrases. Mechanistic neuroscience theories taking into account both meaning and grammar, including morphology and syntax, are required to explain these observations. A direct comparison between phrases containing nouns and verbs revealed a tendency towards greater activation to noun phrases in left-inferior premotor cortex and posterior Broca's region (BA 44), thus questioning previous suggestions that left inferiorfrontal areas might be dedicated to verb processing per se. PMID:22206964

  15. Normative topographic ERP analyses of speed of speech processing and grammar before and after grammatical treatment.

    PubMed

    Yoder, Paul J; Molfese, Dennis; Murray, Micah M; Key, Alexandra P F

    2013-01-01

    Typically developing (TD) preschoolers and age-matched preschoolers with specific language impairment (SLI) received event-related potentials (ERPs) to four monosyllabic speech sounds prior to treatment and, in the SLI group, after 6 months of grammatical treatment. Before treatment, the TD group processed speech sounds faster than the SLI group. The SLI group increased the speed of their speech processing after treatment. Posttreatment speed of speech processing predicted later impairment in comprehending phrase elaboration in the SLI group. During the treatment phase, change in speed of speech processing predicted growth rate of grammar in the SLI group. PMID:24219693

  16. A Relationship: Word Alignment, Phrase Table, and Translation Quality

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Lidia S.

    2014-01-01

    In the last years, researchers conducted several studies to evaluate the machine translation quality based on the relationship between word alignments and phrase table. However, existing methods usually employ ad-hoc heuristics without theoretical support. So far, there is no discussion from the aspect of providing a formula to describe the relationship among word alignments, phrase table, and machine translation performance. In this paper, on one hand, we focus on formulating such a relationship for estimating the size of extracted phrase pairs given one or more word alignment points. On the other hand, a corpus-motivated pruning technique is proposed to prune the default large phrase table. Experiment proves that the deduced formula is feasible, which not only can be used to predict the size of the phrase table, but also can be a valuable reference for investigating the relationship between the translation performance and phrase tables based on different links of word alignment. The corpus-motivated pruning results show that nearly 98% of phrases can be reduced without any significant loss in translation quality. PMID:24883402

  17. Evaluation of negation phrases in narrative clinical reports.

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, W. W.; Bridewell, W.; Hanbury, P.; Cooper, G. F.; Buchanan, B. G.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Automatically identifying findings or diseases described in clinical textual reports requires determining whether clinical observations are present or absent. We evaluate the use of negation phrases and the frequency of negation in free-text clinical reports. METHODS: A simple negation algorithm was applied to ten types of clinical reports (n=42,160) dictated during July 2000. We counted how often each of 66 negation phrases was used to mark a clinical observation as absent. Physicians read a random sample of 400 sentences, and precision was calculated for the negation phrases. We measured what proportion of clinical observations were marked as absent. RESULTS: The negation algorithm was triggered by sixty negation phrases with just seven of the phrases accounting for 90% of the negations. The negation phrases received an overall precision of 97%, with "not" earning the lowest precision of 63%. Between 39% and 83% of all clinical observations were identified as absent by the negation algorithm, depending on the type of report analyzed. The most frequently used clinical observations were negated the majority of the time. CONCLUSION: Because clinical observations in textual patient records are frequently negated, identifying accurate negation phrases is important to any system processing these reports. PMID:11825163

  18. Lexical Preactivation in Basic Linguistic Phrases.

    PubMed

    Fruchter, Joseph; Linzen, Tal; Westerlund, Masha; Marantz, Alec

    2015-10-01

    Many previous studies have shown that predictable words are read faster and lead to reduced neural activation, consistent with a model of reading in which words are activated in advance of being encountered. The nature of such preactivation, however, has typically been studied indirectly through its subsequent effect on word recognition. Here, we use magnetoencephalography to study the dynamics of prediction within serially presented adjective-noun phrases, beginning at the point at which the predictive information is first available to the reader. Using corpus transitional probability to estimate the predictability of a noun, we found an increase in activity in the left middle temporal gyrus in response to the presentation of highly predictive adjectives (i.e., adjectives that license a strong noun prediction). Moreover, we found that adjective predictivity and expected noun frequency interacted, such that the response to the highly predictive adjectives (e.g., stainless) was modulated by the frequency of the expected noun (steel). These results likely reflect preactivation of nouns in highly predictive contexts. The fact that the preactivation process was modulated by the frequency of the predicted item is argued to provide support for a frequency-sensitive lexicon. PMID:25961637

  19. Expressive Timing Facilitates the Neural Processing of Phrase Boundaries in Music: Evidence from Event-Related Potentials

    PubMed Central

    Istók, Eva; Friberg, Anders; Huotilainen, Minna; Tervaniemi, Mari

    2013-01-01

    The organization of sound into meaningful units is fundamental to the processing of auditory information such as speech and music. In expressive music performance, structural units or phrases may become particularly distinguishable through subtle timing variations highlighting musical phrase boundaries. As such, expressive timing may support the successful parsing of otherwise continuous musical material. By means of the event-related potential technique (ERP), we investigated whether expressive timing modulates the neural processing of musical phrases. Musicians and laymen listened to short atonal scale-like melodies that were presented either isochronously (deadpan) or with expressive timing cues emphasizing the melodies’ two-phrase structure. Melodies were presented in an active and a passive condition. Expressive timing facilitated the processing of phrase boundaries as indicated by decreased N2b amplitude and enhanced P3a amplitude for target phrase boundaries and larger P2 amplitude for non-target boundaries. When timing cues were lacking, task demands increased especially for laymen as reflected by reduced P3a amplitude. In line, the N2b occurred earlier for musicians in both conditions indicating general faster target detection compared to laymen. Importantly, the elicitation of a P3a-like response to phrase boundaries marked by a pitch leap during passive exposure suggests that expressive timing information is automatically encoded and may lead to an involuntary allocation of attention towards significant events within a melody. We conclude that subtle timing variations in music performance prepare the listener for musical key events by directing and guiding attention towards their occurrences. That is, expressive timing facilitates the structuring and parsing of continuous musical material even when the auditory input is unattended. PMID:23383088

  20. What Is an "Ideal" Pedagogical Grammar?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nadkarni, Mangesh V.

    1987-01-01

    Questions the validity of two assumptions behind the search for the "best" pedagogical (English as a second language) grammar: (1) that there is one ideal pedagogical grammar; and (2) that the success of a pedagogical grammar depends primarily on the linguistic theoretical assumptions incorporated in it. (Author/CB)

  1. SPECIFICATION AND UTILIZATION OF A TRANSFORMATIONAL GRAMMAR.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LIEBERMAN, D.; AND OTHERS

    SCIENTIFIC REPORT NO. 1 OF THIS PROJECT CONTAINS FOUR PARTS. THE FIRST, BY P. ROSENBAUM AND D. LOCHAK, PRESENTS AND EXPLAINS THE "IBM CORE GRAMMAR OF ENGLISH" AND GIVES A SET OF 66 DERIVATIONS CONSTRUCTED IN TERMS OF THE CORE GRAMMAR. PART II, "DESIGN OF A GRAMMAR TESTER" BY D. LIEBERMAN, SUMMARIZES THE DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS OF THE TESTER AND…

  2. The Philosophical Significance of Universal Grammar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinzen, Wolfram

    2012-01-01

    Throughout its long history, the project of a science of grammar has always been an inherently philosophical one, in which the study of grammar was taken to have special epistemological significance. I ask why 20th and 21st century inquiry into Universal Grammar (UG) has largely lost this dimension, a fact that I argue is partially responsible for…

  3. Integrating Grammar in Adult TESOL Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borg, Simon; Burns, Anne

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the beliefs and practices about the integration of grammar and skills teaching reported by 176 English language teachers from 18 countries. Teachers completed a questionnaire which elicited beliefs about grammar teaching generally as well as specific beliefs and reported practices about the integration of grammar and skills…

  4. Teaching Grammar as a Liberating Force

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cullen, Richard

    2008-01-01

    The idea of grammar as a "liberating force" comes from a paper by Henry Widdowson (1990) in which grammar is depicted as a resource which liberates the language user from an over-dependency on lexis and context for the expression of meaning. In this paper, I consider the implications for second language teaching of the notion of grammar as a…

  5. Integrating Grammar in Adult TESOL Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borg, Simon; Burns, Anne

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the beliefs and practices about the integration of grammar and skills teaching reported by 176 English language teachers from 18 countries. Teachers completed a questionnaire which elicited beliefs about grammar teaching generally as well as specific beliefs and reported practices about the integration of grammar and skills…

  6. Teaching Grammar in the Context of Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, Constance

    1996-01-01

    Suggests that students will not automatically make use of grammatical concepts, syntactic constructions, and language conventions no matter how they are taught such concepts. Argues that teaching "grammar" in the context of writing works better than teaching grammar as a formal system. Offers three examples of extended grammar minilessons. (RS)

  7. Teaching Grammar as a Liberating Force

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cullen, Richard

    2008-01-01

    The idea of grammar as a "liberating force" comes from a paper by Henry Widdowson (1990) in which grammar is depicted as a resource which liberates the language user from an over-dependency on lexis and context for the expression of meaning. In this paper, I consider the implications for second language teaching of the notion of grammar as a…

  8. A Construction Grammar for the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holme, Randal

    2010-01-01

    Construction grammars (Lakoff, Women, fire and dangerous things: What categories reveal about the Mind, University of Chicago Press, 1987; Langacker, Foundations of cognitive grammar: Theoretical pre-requisites, Stanford University Press, 1987; Croft, Radical construction grammar: Syntactic theory in typological perspective, Oxford University…

  9. A Construction Grammar for the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holme, Randal

    2010-01-01

    Construction grammars (Lakoff, Women, fire and dangerous things: What categories reveal about the Mind, University of Chicago Press, 1987; Langacker, Foundations of cognitive grammar: Theoretical pre-requisites, Stanford University Press, 1987; Croft, Radical construction grammar: Syntactic theory in typological perspective, Oxford University…

  10. On Anaphora and the Binding Principles in Categorial Grammar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrill, Glyn; Valentín, Oriol

    In type logical categorial grammar the analysis of an expression is a resource-conscious proof. Anaphora represents a particular challenge to this approach in that the antecedent resource is multiplied in the semantics. This duplication, which corresponds logically to the structural rule of contraction, may be treated lexically or syntactically. Furthermore, anaphora is subject to constraints, which Chomsky (1981) formulated as Binding Principles A, B, and C. In this paper we consider English anaphora in categorial grammar including reference to the binding principles. We invoke displacement calculus, modal categorial calculus, categorial calculus with limited contraction, and entertain addition of negation as failure.

  11. A Syntactical Analysis of Some First-Grade Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gammon, Elizabeth Macken

    Two widely used first-grade reading series, Ginn and Scott-Foresman, were analyzed in terms of six phrase-structure grammars in an attempt to discover frequencies for sentence types. The six grammars were noun phrase, verb phrase, verbal modifier, statements without verbs, interrogative, and statements with verbs. Categorial grammars were written…

  12. Can Individuals with Down Syndrome Improve Their Grammar?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sepulveda, Esther Moraleda; Lopez-Villasenor, Miguel Lazaro; Heinze, Elena Garayzabal

    2013-01-01

    Morphosyntax constitutes one of the most complex areas of language. It takes into account the structure of the word and that of the sentence, and its development allows one to establish adequately agreements both within the nominal phrase and in the rest of the sentence. Morphosyntax is particularly impaired in individuals with Down syndrome. To…

  13. Can Individuals with Down Syndrome Improve Their Grammar?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sepulveda, Esther Moraleda; Lopez-Villasenor, Miguel Lazaro; Heinze, Elena Garayzabal

    2013-01-01

    Morphosyntax constitutes one of the most complex areas of language. It takes into account the structure of the word and that of the sentence, and its development allows one to establish adequately agreements both within the nominal phrase and in the rest of the sentence. Morphosyntax is particularly impaired in individuals with Down syndrome. To…

  14. Delta's Key to the Next Generation TOEFL[R] Test: Essential Grammar for the iBT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    Although the TOEFL iBT does not have a discrete grammar section, knowledge of English sentence structure is important throughout the test. Essential Grammar for the iBT reviews the skills that are fundamental to success on tests. Content includes noun and verb forms, clauses, agreement, parallel structure, punctuation, and much more. The book may…

  15. Delta's Key to the Next Generation TOEFL[R] Test: Essential Grammar for the iBT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    Although the TOEFL iBT does not have a discrete grammar section, knowledge of English sentence structure is important throughout the test. Essential Grammar for the iBT reviews the skills that are fundamental to success on tests. Content includes noun and verb forms, clauses, agreement, parallel structure, punctuation, and much more. The book may…

  16. Identifying synonymy between relational phrases using word embeddings.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Nhung T H; Miwa, Makoto; Tsuruoka, Yoshimasa; Tojo, Satoshi

    2015-08-01

    Many text mining applications in the biomedical domain benefit from automatic clustering of relational phrases into synonymous groups, since it alleviates the problem of spurious mismatches caused by the diversity of natural language expressions. Most of the previous work that has addressed this task of synonymy resolution uses similarity metrics between relational phrases based on textual strings or dependency paths, which, for the most part, ignore the context around the relations. To overcome this shortcoming, we employ a word embedding technique to encode relational phrases. We then apply the k-means algorithm on top of the distributional representations to cluster the phrases. Our experimental results show that this approach outperforms state-of-the-art statistical models including latent Dirichlet allocation and Markov logic networks. PMID:26004792

  17. "Survival of the Fittest" - How the Phrase Has Survived.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Boyd

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the origin and intended meaning of the phrase "survival of the fittest." Traces the concept of "fitness" in a neo-Darwinian sense and outlines the use of the term in other contexts. (Author/MA)

  18. Upending the Grammar of the Conventional Religious School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aron, Isa

    2014-01-01

    This article provides an overview and analysis of a relatively new phenomenon: congregational schools that have altered the conventional grammar of schooling, either through their structural arrangements or through their curricular approaches. Five pre-bar/bat mitzvah models are discussed: family schools, schools as communities,…

  19. What Artificial Grammar Learning Reveals about the Neurobiology of Syntax

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petersson, Karl-Magnus; Folia, Vasiliki; Hagoort, Peter

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we examine the neurobiological correlates of syntax, the processing of structured sequences, by comparing FMRI results on artificial and natural language syntax. We discuss these and similar findings in the context of formal language and computability theory. We used a simple right-linear unification grammar in an implicit artificial…

  20. SWAHILI GRAMMAR AND SYNTAX. DUQUESNE STUDIES, AFRICAN SERIES 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LOOGMAN, ALFONS

    THIS COMPREHENSIVE STUDY OF SWAHILI, ONE OF THE BANTU LANGUAGES IN THE NIGER-CONGO GROUP, IS BASED ON THE AUTHOR'S 37 YEARS OF WRITING AND TEACHING EXPERIENCE IN EAST AFRICA. THE STUDY IS INTENDED TO PRESENT THE SWAHILI LANGUAGE IN TERMS OF ITS OWN STRUCTURE, RATHER THAN IN TERMS OF LATIN OR ENGLISH GRAMMARS. A PRELIMINARY SECTION IN PART ONE…

  1. Upending the Grammar of the Conventional Religious School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aron, Isa

    2014-01-01

    This article provides an overview and analysis of a relatively new phenomenon: congregational schools that have altered the conventional grammar of schooling, either through their structural arrangements or through their curricular approaches. Five pre-bar/bat mitzvah models are discussed: family schools, schools as communities,…

  2. Language Curriculum. Based on Concept Formation and Transformational Grammar.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamel, Clara A.

    The language curriculum initiated at the Rhode Island School for the Deaf consists of two stated innovations in teaching methods, which are language development through concept formation and application of transformational grammar. Description of the teaching method reveals that aurally handicapped pupils learn to analyze sentence structure by…

  3. What Artificial Grammar Learning Reveals about the Neurobiology of Syntax

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petersson, Karl-Magnus; Folia, Vasiliki; Hagoort, Peter

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we examine the neurobiological correlates of syntax, the processing of structured sequences, by comparing FMRI results on artificial and natural language syntax. We discuss these and similar findings in the context of formal language and computability theory. We used a simple right-linear unification grammar in an implicit artificial…

  4. Semantic change in English intensifiers that have developed from a prepositional phrase and a noun phrase.

    PubMed

    Ohashi, Hiroshi

    2007-12-01

    In the advance of research in grammaticalization, there has been some inquiry into the development of English intensifiers. While most studies focus on the process of semantic shift from adverbs or adjectives that are the primary sources of intensifiers, little attention has been drawn to minor members of the category that have developed from a prepositional phrase or noun phrase. However, it is of great interest from the viewpoint of semantic change in general as well as that of grammaticalization and subjectification to examine what factors are engaged in the development of these intensifiers. This paper examines the development of indeed, a lot, a great/good deal, big time and all X wants/likes, and found that such mechanisms as metaphor, metonymy, conversational implicature, reanalysis, and the speaker's intention of producing illocutionary forces contribute to the semantic change of these intensifiers. Furthermore, as a theoretical implication of this study, it is observed that during the semantic shift that is regarded as a case of grammaticalization, most items have undergone subjectification, which gives support to the claim by E. C. Traugott, among others, that subjectification is found to take place concomitantly with PMID:18170960

  5. The evolutionary dynamics of grammar acquisition.

    PubMed

    Komarova, N L; Niyogi, P; Nowak, M A

    2001-03-01

    Grammar is the computational system of language. It is a set of rules that specifies how to construct sentences out of words. Grammar is the basis of the unlimited expressibility of human language. Children acquire the grammar of their native language without formal education simply by hearing a number of sample sentences. Children could not solve this learning task if they did not have some pre-formed expectations. In other words, children have to evaluate the sample sentences and choose one grammar out of a limited set of candidate grammars. The restricted search space and the mechanism which allows to evaluate the sample sentences is called universal grammar. Universal grammar cannot be learned; it must be in place when the learning process starts. In this paper, we design a mathematical theory that places the problem of language acquisition into an evolutionary context. We formulate equations for the population dynamics of communication and grammar learning. We ask how accurate children have to learn the grammar of their parents' language for a population of individuals to evolve and maintain a coherent grammatical system. It turns out that there is a maximum error tolerance for which a predominant grammar is stable. We calculate the maximum size of the search space that is compatible with coherent communication in a population. Thus, we specify the conditions for the evolution of universal grammar. PMID:11237569

  6. Cognitive Grammar and SLA Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archard, Michel

    1997-01-01

    Seeks to (1) show that the particular form of the model used to represent linguistic production has important consequences for the goals and practices of second-language acquisition research, and (2) that the theoretical model of Cognitive Grammar represents a valid framework for the investigation of second-language acquisition. (Author/VWL)

  7. Readings in Applied Transformational Grammar.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lester, Mark, Ed.

    This volume contains nineteen essays, dealing with various aspects of transformational grammar, by scholars such as Noam Chomsky, Eric H. Lenneberg, and Leon Jakobovits. These essays have been reprinted from sources such as "College English" and "Language Learning" and are intended for the most part for a nontechnical audience. The anthology is…

  8. Transformational Grammar and Cognitive Psycholinguistics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lester, Mark

    1973-01-01

    An overview of Noam Chomsky's theories about transformational grammar and phonology is given. Since Chomsky was interested in characterizing what it is to know a language, the ways in which we demonstrate knowledge of our native language are discussed in detail. Particular emphasis is placed on describing how the transformational approach actually…

  9. A Lifetime of Grammar Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Rod

    2012-01-01

    The author has worked as a language teacher, teacher educator, and second language acquisition (SLA) researcher for over forty years. During this time grammar has figured largely in his thinking, in part because it has traditionally been so central to language pedagogy and in part because he became fascinated with how the human mind grapples with…

  10. A Lifetime of Grammar Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Rod

    2012-01-01

    The author has worked as a language teacher, teacher educator, and second language acquisition (SLA) researcher for over forty years. During this time grammar has figured largely in his thinking, in part because it has traditionally been so central to language pedagogy and in part because he became fascinated with how the human mind grapples with…

  11. Grammar Texts and Consumerist Subtexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sokolik, M. E.

    2007-01-01

    While several checklists exist for the evaluation of ESL/EFL textbooks, none includes suggestions for looking for specific biases, especially those found in the content of examples and sample sentences. Growing awareness in publishing has reduced problems in the presentation of gender-based and racial biases in most ESL/EFL grammar textbooks, but…

  12. A REFERENCE GRAMMAR OF BENGALI.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    RAY, PUNYA SLOKA; AND OTHERS

    A REFERENCE GRAMMAR WAS PRODUCED FOR THE BENGALI LANGUAGE. THE WORK CONTAINS CHAPTERS ON--(1) SOCIAL AND HISTORICAL BACKGROUND, (2) HISTORY OF THE LANGUAGE, (3) SOURCES OF LEXICAL ITEMS, (4) ORTHOGRAPHY, (5) PHONOLOGY, (6) NOUN INFLECTIONS, (7) VERBS, (8) POSTPOSITIONS, (9) ENCLITICS, (10) NUMERALS, (11) NEGATION, (12) FORMATIVE AFFIXES IN…

  13. A Reference Grammar of Pashto.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tegey, Habibullah; Robson, Barbara

    This grammar of Pashto was designed to accompany a set of beginning- and intermediate-level instructional materials for teaching the Pashto language to English speakers, but can be used separately as a reference by readers who are not learning the language. Introductory sections in English and Pashto describe the content and organization. The…

  14. Essentials of Asheninka Perene Grammar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mihas, Elena

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this dissertation is to present a preliminary grammatical account of Asheninka Perene an endangered Arawak language of Southeastern Peru. The description and analysis of the language is based on the 29-week field research conducted in an area of the Southwest Amazonian high jungle. Interesting issues of Asheninka Perene grammar…

  15. Learnable Classes of Categorial Grammars.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanazawa, Makoto

    Learnability theory is an attempt to illuminate the concept of learnability using a mathematical model of learning. Two models of learning of categorial grammars are examined here: the standard model, in which sentences presented to the learner are flat strings of words, and one in which sentences are presented in the form of functor-argument…

  16. A Grammar of Inupiaq Morphosyntax

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lanz, Linda A.

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation is a reference grammar of the Malimiut Coastal dialect of Inupiaq (ISO: ESI, ESK, IPK), an Eskimo-Aleut language of northwestern Alaska spoken by the Inupiat people. It complements existing descriptions of Inupiaq by filling gaps in documentation. With approximately 2000 speakers, mainly above 50 years of age, Inupiaq is…

  17. Prosody and Grammar in Kabardian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Applebaum, Ayla Ayda Bozkurt

    2013-01-01

    This study provides a systematic phonetic analysis of the basic entities of Kabardian prosodic units above the word and investigates the predictability of prosodic units from grammatical and discourse factors. This dissertation is the first extensive description of Kabardian prosody and grammar based on natural data. This study proposes that…

  18. A Reference Grammar of Kashmiri.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kachru, Braj B.

    This study was developed for two pedagogical purposes--first, to provide a skeleton grammar of the Kashmiri language which could be used by teachers of Kashmiri to develop teaching materials for both Indian and non-Indian learners of Kashmiri; and second, to provide an introductory reference manual of Kashmiri for students of the language. The…

  19. A Grammar of Inupiaq Morphosyntax

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lanz, Linda A.

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation is a reference grammar of the Malimiut Coastal dialect of Inupiaq (ISO: ESI, ESK, IPK), an Eskimo-Aleut language of northwestern Alaska spoken by the Inupiat people. It complements existing descriptions of Inupiaq by filling gaps in documentation. With approximately 2000 speakers, mainly above 50 years of age, Inupiaq is…

  20. The French Noun Phrase in Preschool Children with SLI: Morphosyntactic and Error Analyses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Royle, Phaedra; Stine, Isabelle

    2013-01-01

    We studied spontaneous speech noun-phrase production in eight French-speaking children with SLI (aged 5;0 to 5; 1) and controls matched on age (4;10 to 5;11) or MLU (aged 3;2 to 4;1). Results showed that children with SLI prefer simple DP structures to complex ones while producing more substitution and omission errors than controls. The three…

  1. The French Noun Phrase in Preschool Children with SLI: Morphosyntactic and Error Analyses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Royle, Phaedra; Stine, Isabelle

    2013-01-01

    We studied spontaneous speech noun-phrase production in eight French-speaking children with SLI (aged 5;0 to 5; 1) and controls matched on age (4;10 to 5;11) or MLU (aged 3;2 to 4;1). Results showed that children with SLI prefer simple DP structures to complex ones while producing more substitution and omission errors than controls. The three…

  2. Grammar on the Information Superhighway: Proceed with Caution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perrin, Robert

    2003-01-01

    Describes six categories of websites on grammar. Considers the advantages and disadvantages that Internet grammar provides. Presents an annotated list of 15 web sites on grammar. Suggests adopting a positive but cautious approach to grammar on the Internet. Concludes that grammar on the Internet is a potentially helpful resource to use in addition…

  3. Grammar Teaching Revisited: EFL Teachers between Grammar Abstinence and Formal Grammar Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nazari, Ahmad; Allahyar, Negah

    2012-01-01

    The study of English language teachers' cognitions and its relationship to teachers' classroom practices have recently been the focus of language teaching and teacher education (Borg, 2006 & 2010). However, rarely have the studies delved into teachers' knowledge about grammar (reviewed by Borg, 2001) or investigated the relationships between…

  4. A Comparison of Verbal Statement, Symbolic Notation and Figural Representation of Grammar Concepts. Technical Report No. 64.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fredrick, Wayne C.; And Others

    Seventy-two grade 8 students were randomly assigned to one of four experimental groups. One group studied five programed lessons in structural grammar, written without use of symbols or diagrams. A second group studied the same content presented with a symbolic notation to represent the grammar concepts. A third group studied the same content…

  5. Congruent embodied representations for visually presented actions and linguistic phrases describing actions.

    PubMed

    Aziz-Zadeh, Lisa; Wilson, Stephen M; Rizzolatti, Giacomo; Iacoboni, Marco

    2006-09-19

    The thesis of embodied semantics holds that conceptual representations accessed during linguistic processing are, in part, equivalent to the sensory-motor representations required for the enactment of the concepts described . Here, using fMRI, we tested the hypothesis that areas in human premotor cortex that respond both to the execution and observation of actions-mirror neuron areas -are key neural structures in these processes. Participants observed actions and read phrases relating to foot, hand, or mouth actions. In the premotor cortex of the left hemisphere, a clear congruence was found between effector-specific activations of visually presented actions and of actions described by literal phrases. These results suggest a key role of mirror neuron areas in the re-enactment of sensory-motor representations during conceptual processing of actions invoked by linguistic stimuli. PMID:16979559

  6. Defense et illustration de la grammaire philologique (An Example and a Defense of Philological Grammar)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dupont, Louis

    1972-01-01

    Author cites philological grammar" as one of three ways of treating language. The other two approaches to language are traditional grammar and linguistic grammar or transformational generative grammar. Philological grammar stresses the art of reading. (DS)

  7. Software Review: "Mastering German Grammar"--A Personal German Grammar Tutor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corkhill, Alan

    1996-01-01

    Reviews a computer software program, "Mastering German Grammar," for teaching and reinforcing a comprehensive range of grammar topics. It is noted that the program is a no-frills, user-friendly personal tutor with easy to locate and call up grammar topics. (CK)

  8. Varieties of Crossing Dependencies: Structure Dependence and Mild Context Sensitivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stabler, Edward P.

    2004-01-01

    Four different kinds of grammars that can define crossing dependencies in human language are compared here: (1) "context sensitive rewrite" grammars with rules that depend on context; (2) "matching" grammars with constraints that filter the generative structure of the language; (3) "copying" grammars which can copy structures of unbounded size;…

  9. Zipf’s law holds for phrases, not words

    PubMed Central

    Ryland Williams, Jake; Lessard, Paul R.; Desu, Suma; Clark, Eric M.; Bagrow, James P.; Danforth, Christopher M.; Sheridan Dodds, Peter

    2015-01-01

    With Zipf’s law being originally and most famously observed for word frequency, it is surprisingly limited in its applicability to human language, holding over no more than three to four orders of magnitude before hitting a clear break in scaling. Here, building on the simple observation that phrases of one or more words comprise the most coherent units of meaning in language, we show empirically that Zipf’s law for phrases extends over as many as nine orders of rank magnitude. In doing so, we develop a principled and scalable statistical mechanical method of random text partitioning, which opens up a rich frontier of rigorous text analysis via a rank ordering of mixed length phrases. PMID:26259699

  10. Zipf’s law holds for phrases, not words

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryland Williams, Jake; Lessard, Paul R.; Desu, Suma; Clark, Eric M.; Bagrow, James P.; Danforth, Christopher M.; Sheridan Dodds, Peter

    2015-08-01

    With Zipf’s law being originally and most famously observed for word frequency, it is surprisingly limited in its applicability to human language, holding over no more than three to four orders of magnitude before hitting a clear break in scaling. Here, building on the simple observation that phrases of one or more words comprise the most coherent units of meaning in language, we show empirically that Zipf’s law for phrases extends over as many as nine orders of rank magnitude. In doing so, we develop a principled and scalable statistical mechanical method of random text partitioning, which opens up a rich frontier of rigorous text analysis via a rank ordering of mixed length phrases.

  11. System, method and apparatus for generating phrases from a database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGreevy, Michael W. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A phrase generation is a method of generating sequences of terms, such as phrases, that may occur within a database of subsets containing sequences of terms, such as text. A database is provided and a relational model of the database is created. A query is then input. The query includes a term or a sequence of terms or multiple individual terms or multiple sequences of terms or combinations thereof. Next, several sequences of terms that are contextually related to the query are assembled from contextual relations in the model of the database. The sequences of terms are then sorted and output. Phrase generation can also be an iterative process used to produce sequences of terms from a relational model of a database.

  12. System, Method and Apparatus for Discovering Phrases in a Database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGreevy, Michael W. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A phrase discovery is a method of identifying sequences of terms in a database. First, a selection of one or more relevant sequences of terms. such as relevant text, is provided. Next, several shorter sequences of terms, such as phrases, are extracted from the provided relevant sequences of terms. The extracted sequences of terms are then reduced through a culling process. A gathering process then emphasizes the more relevant of the extracted and culled sequences of terms and de-emphasizes the more generic of the extracted and culled sequences of terms. The gathering process can also include iteratively retrieving additional selections of relevant sequences (e.g.. text). extracting and culling additional sequences of terms (e.g.. phrases). emphasizing and de-emphasizing extracted and culled sequences of terms and accumulating all gathered sequences of terms. The resulting gathered sequences of terms are then output.

  13. Kent Sakoda Discusses Pidgin Grammar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sakoda, Kent; Tamura, Eileen H.

    2008-01-01

    For a number of years, Kent Sakoda has been teaching at the University of Hawai'i at Manoa in the Department of Second Language Studies. His course, "Pidgin and Creole English in Hawai'i," is popular among students on campus. He has also taught at Hawai'i Pacific University. Because of his expertise on the grammar of Pidgin (Hawai'i Creole),…

  14. Product Grammars for Alignment and Folding.

    PubMed

    Höner Zu Siederdissen, Christian; Hofacker, Ivo L; Stadler, Peter F

    2015-01-01

    We develop a theory of algebraic operations over linear and context-free grammars that makes it possible to combine simple "atomic" grammars operating on single sequences into complex, multi-dimensional grammars. We demonstrate the utility of this framework by constructing the search spaces of complex alignment problems on multiple input sequences explicitly as algebraic expressions of very simple one-dimensional grammars. In particular, we provide a fully worked frameshift-aware, semiglobal DNA-protein alignment algorithm whose grammar is composed of products of small, atomic grammars. The compiler accompanying our theory makes it easy to experiment with the combination of multiple grammars and different operations. Composite grammars can be written out in L(A)T(E)X for documentation and as a guide to implementation of dynamic programming algorithms. An embedding in Haskell as a domain-specific language makes the theory directly accessible to writing and using grammar products without the detour of an external compiler. Software and supplemental files available here: http://www.bioinf. uni-leipzig.de/Software/gramprod/. PMID:26357262

  15. Lexical Noun Phrases in Texts Written by Deaf Children and Adults with Different Proficiency Levels in Sign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Beijsterveldt, Liesbeth Maria; van Hell, Janet

    2010-01-01

    We report an analysis of lexical noun phrases (NPs) in narrative and expository texts written by Dutch deaf individuals from a bimodal bilingual perspective. Texts written by Dutch deaf children and adults who are either proficient in Sign Language of the Netherlands (SLN) or low-proficient in SLN were compared on structures that either overlap in…

  16. An MEG Study of Temporal Characteristics of Semantic Integration in Japanese Noun Phrases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiguchi, Hirohisa; Asakura, Nobuhiko

    Many studies of on-line comprehension of semantic violations have shown that the human sentence processor rapidly constructs a higher-order semantic interpretation of the sentence. What remains unclear, however, is the amount of time required to detect semantic anomalies while concatenating two words to form a phrase with very rapid stimuli presentation. We aimed to examine the time course of semantic integration in concatenating two words in phrase structure building, using magnetoencephalography (MEG). In the MEG experiment, subjects decided whether two words (a classifier and its corresponding noun), presented each for 66ms, form a semantically correct noun phrase. Half of the stimuli were matched pairs of classifiers and nouns. The other half were mismatched pairs of classifiers and nouns. In the analysis of MEG data, there were three primary peaks found at approximately 25ms (M1), 170ms (M2) and 250ms (M3) after the presentation of the target words. As a result, only the M3 latencies were significantly affected by the stimulus conditions. Thus, the present results indicate that the semantic integration in concatenating two words starts from approximately 250ms.

  17. Artificial grammar learning in individuals with severe aphasia.

    PubMed

    Zimmerer, Vitor C; Cowell, Patricia E; Varley, Rosemary A

    2014-01-01

    One factor in syntactic impairment in aphasia might be damage to general structure processing systems. In such a case, deficits would be evident in the processing of syntactically structured non-linguistic information. To explore this hypothesis, we examined performances on artificial grammar learning (AGL) tasks in which the grammar was expressed in non-linguistic visual forms. In the first experiment, AGL behavior of four aphasic participants with severe syntactic impairment, five aphasic participants without syntactic impairment, and healthy controls was examined. Participants were trained on sequences of nonsense stimuli with the structure A(n)B(n). Data were analyzed at an individual level to identify different behavioral profiles and account for heterogeneity in aphasic as well as healthy groups. Healthy controls and patients without syntactic impairment were more likely to learn configurational (item order) than quantitative (counting) regularities. Quantitative regularities were only detected by individuals who also detected the configurational properties of the stimulus sequences. By contrast, two individuals with syntactic impairment learned quantitative regularities, but showed no sensitivity towards configurational structure. They also failed to detect configurational structure in a second experiment in which sequences were structured by the grammar A(+)B(+). We discuss the potential relationship between AGL and processing of word order as well as the potential of AGL in clinical practice. PMID:24184437

  18. What exactly is Universal Grammar, and has anyone seen it?

    PubMed Central

    Dąbrowska, Ewa

    2015-01-01

    Universal Grammar (UG) is a suspect concept. There is little agreement on what exactly is in it; and the empirical evidence for it is very weak. This paper critically examines a variety of arguments that have been put forward as evidence for UG, focussing on the three most powerful ones: universality (all human languages share a number of properties), convergence (all language learners converge on the same grammar in spite of the fact that they are exposed to different input), and poverty of the stimulus (children know things about language which they could not have learned from the input available to them). I argue that these arguments are based on premises which are either false or unsubstantiated. Languages differ from each other in profound ways, and there are very few true universals, so the fundamental crosslinguistic fact that needs explaining is diversity, not universality. A number of recent studies have demonstrated the existence of considerable differences in adult native speakers’ knowledge of the grammar of their language, including aspects of inflectional morphology, passives, quantifiers, and a variety of more complex constructions, so learners do not in fact converge on the same grammar. Finally, the poverty of the stimulus argument presupposes that children acquire linguistic representations of the kind postulated by generative grammarians; constructionist grammars such as those proposed by Tomasello, Goldberg and others can be learned from the input. We are the only species that has language, so there must be something unique about humans that makes language learning possible. The extent of crosslinguistic diversity and the considerable individual differences in the rate, style and outcome of acquisition suggest that it is more promising to think in terms of a language-making capacity, i.e., a set of domain-general abilities, rather than an innate body of knowledge about the structural properties of the target system. PMID:26157406

  19. Nigel: a systemic grammar for text generation

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, W.C.; Matthiessen, C.M.

    1983-02-01

    Programming a computer to write text which meets a prior need is a challenging research task. As part of such research, Nigel, a large programmed grammar of English, has been created in the framework of systemic linguistics begun by Halliday. In addition to specifying function and structures of English, Nigel has a novel semantic stratum which specifies the situations in which each grammatical feature should be used. The report consists of three papers on Nigel: an introductory overview, the script of a demonstration of its use in generation, and an exposition of how Nigel relates to the systemic framework. Although the effort to develop Nigel is significant both as computer science research and as linguistic inquiry the outlook of the report is oriented to its linguistic significance.

  20. Applying an exemplar model to the artificial-grammar task: inferring grammaticality from similarity.

    PubMed

    Jamieson, Randall K; Mewhort, D J K

    2009-03-01

    We present three artificial-grammar experiments. The first used position constraints, and the second used sequential constraints. The third varied both the amount of training and the degree of sequential constraint. Increasing both the amount of training and the redundancy of the grammar benefited participants' ability to infer grammatical status; nevertheless, they were unable to describe the grammar. We applied a multitrace model of memory to the task. The model used a global measure of similarity to assess the grammatical status of the probe and captured performance both in our experiments and in three classic studies from the literature. The model shows that retrieval is sensitive to structure in memory, even when individual exemplars are encoded sparsely. The work ties an understanding of performance in the artificial-grammar task to the principles used to understand performance in episodic-memory tasks. PMID:18609412

  1. Adaptation to Aphasia: Grammar, Prosody and Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhys, Catrin S.; Ulbrich, Christiane; Ordin, Mikhail

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates recurrent use of the phrase "very good" by a speaker with non-fluent agrammatic aphasia. Informal observation of the speaker's interaction reveals that she appears to be an effective conversational partner despite very severe word retrieval difficulties that result in extensive reliance on variants of the phrase "very…

  2. Phonological Phrase Boundaries Constrain Lexical Access I. Adult Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christophe, A.; Peperkamp, S.; Pallier, C.; Block, E.; Mehler, J.

    2004-01-01

    We tested the effect of local lexical ambiguities while manipulating the type of prosodic boundary at which the ambiguity occurred, using French sentences and participants. We observed delayed lexical access when a local lexical ambiguity occurred within a phonological phrase (consistent with previous research; e.g., '[un chat grincheux],'…

  3. Bilingual Medical Phrase Book (In English and Laotian).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thuy, Vuong G.

    This phrase book offers Laotian refugees and immigrants with limited English proficiency a short-cut, word-for-word bilingual reference tool for dealing with medical problems and situations in English-language environments. Seven chapters deal with different issues of the medical encounter and five appendixes present specialized terms and…

  4. Phonological Phrase Boundaries Constrain Lexical Access II. Infant Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gout, A.; Christophe, A.; Morgan, J. L.

    2004-01-01

    The location of phonological phrase boundaries was shown to affect lexical access by English-learning infants of 10 and 13 months of age. Experiments 1 and 2 used the head-turn preference procedure: infants were familiarized with two bisyllabic words, then presented with sentences that either contained the familiarized words or contained both…

  5. 20 CFR 300.1 - Words and phrases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Words and phrases. 300.1 Section 300.1 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT... language or context indicates otherwise: (a) The term “act” means the Railroad Unemployment Insurance...

  6. Verbs and Noun Phrases--Two Tendencies in Philosophical Essays.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koskela, Merja

    Noun phrases are often used in academic writing to express the abstract character of the topics discussed. Nouns, especially nominalizations, make it possible to express complicated ideas in a condensed and compact manner, whereas the corresponding verbs make texts easier to understand and more dynamic. In this paper, a case study is presented…

  7. Reading and Grammar Learning through Mobile Phones

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Shudong; Smith, Simon

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes an ongoing language-learning project, three years into its development. We examine both the feasibility and the limitations of developing English reading and grammar skills through the interface of mobile phones. Throughout the project, reading and grammar materials were regularly sent to students' mobile phones. Students…

  8. Grammar Revisited in the English Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    Pupils need to study grammar that is useful and functional. How much stress should the language arts place upon pupils understanding the eight parts of speech in traditional grammar? Good teaching emphasizes proceeding from the concrete to the semi-concrete in teaching-learning situations, then the abstract phase of learning needs to be…

  9. Making a Case for Rhetorical Grammar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Micciche, Laura R.

    2004-01-01

    Rhetorical grammar analysis encourages students to view writing as a material social practice in which meaning is actively made, rather than passively relayed or effortlessly produced. The study of rhetorical grammar can demonstrate to students that language does purposeful, consequential work in the world--work that can be learned and applied.

  10. Inquires into the Teaching of German Grammar.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lalande, John F. II

    1990-01-01

    Reports on a descriptive study of German education at several Illinois high schools. Data collected through interviews, questionnaires, and the videotaping of classroom instruction are presented and analyzed. The implications of the data are discussed with regard to teaching German grammar, students attitudes toward learning grammar, and the use…

  11. Research into Practice: Grammar Learning and Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsen-Freeman, Diane

    2015-01-01

    This selective review of the second language acquisition and applied linguistics research literature on grammar learning and teaching falls into three categories: where research has had little impact (the non-interface position), modest impact (form-focused instruction), and where it potentially can have a large impact (reconceiving grammar).…

  12. Grammar-Based Teaching: A Practitioner's Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azar, Betty

    2007-01-01

    This article addresses the role of grammar in second language instruction from the point of view of a longtime practitioner. It outlines the basic methods and assumptions underlying Grammar-Based Teaching (GBT), which the author sees as an effective, ever-evolving, and widespread pedagogical practice. The article discusses the importance of…

  13. Research into Practice: Grammar Learning and Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsen-Freeman, Diane

    2015-01-01

    This selective review of the second language acquisition and applied linguistics research literature on grammar learning and teaching falls into three categories: where research has had little impact (the non-interface position), modest impact (form-focused instruction), and where it potentially can have a large impact (reconceiving grammar).…

  14. Inquires into the Teaching of German Grammar.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lalande, John F. II

    1990-01-01

    Reports on a descriptive study of German education at several Illinois high schools. Data collected through interviews, questionnaires, and the videotaping of classroom instruction are presented and analyzed. The implications of the data are discussed with regard to teaching German grammar, students attitudes toward learning grammar, and the use…

  15. Can the Grammar of Schooling Be Changed?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arbelaiz, Asuncion Martinez; Correa Gorospe, Jose Miguel

    2009-01-01

    In this article we propose that the grammar of schooling [Tyack, D., & Tobin, W. (1994). "The 'grammar' of schooling: Why has it been so hard to change?" "American Educational Research Journal, 31"(3), 453-479.] is responsible not only for the well-known and world-wide difficulties in integrating ICT into formal educational settings, but also for…

  16. Romanian Grammar Workbook for Peace Corps Volunteers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peace Corps (Moldova).

    Designed as a reference tool for continued language learning beyond the beginning level, this workbook provides explanations and sets of exercises for learning, practicing, and understanding the major points of Romanian grammar. The manual contains 11 units on certain grammar problems for use with a tutor or under self-guided learning…

  17. Studies in French Grammar and Phonology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benguerel, Andre-Pierre; Grundstrom, Allan W.

    The monograph contains two papers. The first presents a generative grammar for verbal forms in French. It consists of an ordered set of rewrite rules and a set of tables. It generates all existing verbal forms without generating any non-existing ones. The departure from an ordinary generative grammar lies in the use of a tabular form for…

  18. Functionally Organized Grammars Can Improve Language Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez, Karin Vilar

    2001-01-01

    Compares the treatment of one specific communicative function--the expression of concessive relation--in six recent grammar books of German as a foreign language. Shows that the presentation of grammar in these books is deficient, because in each of them only a part of the existing means for the realization of this function is commented on. (VWL)

  19. Studying Grammar in the Technological Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    2012-01-01

    When being a student in grade school as well as in high school (1934-1946), grammar was heavily emphasized in English/language arts classes, particularly in grades four through the senior year in high school. Evidently, teachers and school administrators then saw a theoretical way to assist pupils in writing achievement. Grammar and writing were…

  20. Flexible Processing and the Design of Grammar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sag, Ivan A.; Wasow, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    We explore the consequences of letting the incremental and integrative nature of language processing inform the design of competence grammar. What emerges is a view of grammar as a system of local monotonic constraints that provide a direct characterization of the signs (the form-meaning correspondences) of a given language. This…

  1. Propelling Students into Active Grammar Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jurhill, Dennis A.

    2011-01-01

    "O! this learning, what a thing it is." -W. Shakespeare, "The Taming of the Shrew." The aim of this action research was to find out if active grammar involvement amongst students might lead to better results. My approach was to activate my students during grammar instruction by using cooperative learning: that is a form of learning in which…

  2. Studies in French Grammar and Phonology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benguerel, Andre-Pierre; Grundstrom, Allan W.

    The monograph contains two papers. The first presents a generative grammar for verbal forms in French. It consists of an ordered set of rewrite rules and a set of tables. It generates all existing verbal forms without generating any non-existing ones. The departure from an ordinary generative grammar lies in the use of a tabular form for…

  3. Chamorro Reference Grammar. Pali Language Texts: Micronesia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topping, Donald M.; Dungca, Bernadita C.

    This detailed reference grammar of Chamorro, the native Malayo-Polynesian language spoken in Guam and the other Mariana Islands (Saipan, Rota, Tinian), differs from earlier grammars of the language in that: (1) it includes new data; (2) it offers a different interpretation of some of the data based on more recent linguistic concepts; and (3) it is…

  4. A Prototype Grammar Kit in Prolog.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahn, Kenneth M.

    1984-01-01

    Presents a prototype of a computerized grammar kit written in PROLOG and designed for children interested in exploring language. PROLOG's advantages for building parsers, generators, translators, and question-answering systems are discussed, and a scenario of a child working on a grammar project using the kit and implementation issues are…

  5. Towards a Pedagogy of Grammar Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Jack C.; Reppen, Randi

    2014-01-01

    Grammar can be viewed both as knowledge and as ability. When viewed as knowledge, the focus is on rules for sentence formation. When viewed as ability, the focus is on how grammar is used as a resource in the creation of spoken and written texts. Twelve principles are proposed as the basis for a pedagogy that focusses on acquiring learning to use…

  6. Flexible Processing and the Design of Grammar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sag, Ivan A.; Wasow, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    We explore the consequences of letting the incremental and integrative nature of language processing inform the design of competence grammar. What emerges is a view of grammar as a system of local monotonic constraints that provide a direct characterization of the signs (the form-meaning correspondences) of a given language. This…

  7. Multiple Grammars and the Logic of Learnability in Second Language Acquisition.

    PubMed

    Roeper, Tom W

    2016-01-01

    The core notion of modern Universal Grammar is that language ability requires abstract representation in terms of hierarchy, movement operations, abstract features on words, and fixed mapping to meaning. These mental structures are a step toward integrating representational knowledge of all kinds into a larger model of cognitive psychology. Examining first and second language at once provides clues as to how abstractly we should represent this knowledge. The abstract nature of grammar allows both the formulation of many grammars and the possibility that a rule of one grammar could apply to another grammar. We argue that every language contains Multiple Grammars which may reflect different language families. We develop numerous examples of how the same abstract rules can apply in various languages and develop a theory of how language modules (case-marking, topicalization, and quantification) interact to predict L2 acquisition paths. In particular we show in depth how Germanic Verb-second operations, based on Verb-final structure, can apply in English. The argument is built around how and where V2 from German can apply in English, seeking to explain the crucial contrast: "nothing" yelled out Bill/(*)"nothing" yelled Bill out in terms of the necessary abstractness of the V2 rule. PMID:26869945

  8. Multiple Grammars and the Logic of Learnability in Second Language Acquisition

    PubMed Central

    Roeper, Tom W.

    2016-01-01

    The core notion of modern Universal Grammar is that language ability requires abstract representation in terms of hierarchy, movement operations, abstract features on words, and fixed mapping to meaning. These mental structures are a step toward integrating representational knowledge of all kinds into a larger model of cognitive psychology. Examining first and second language at once provides clues as to how abstractly we should represent this knowledge. The abstract nature of grammar allows both the formulation of many grammars and the possibility that a rule of one grammar could apply to another grammar. We argue that every language contains Multiple Grammars which may reflect different language families. We develop numerous examples of how the same abstract rules can apply in various languages and develop a theory of how language modules (case-marking, topicalization, and quantification) interact to predict L2 acquisition paths. In particular we show in depth how Germanic Verb-second operations, based on Verb-final structure, can apply in English. The argument is built around how and where V2 from German can apply in English, seeking to explain the crucial contrast: “nothing” yelled out Bill/*“nothing” yelled Bill out in terms of the necessary abstractness of the V2 rule. PMID:26869945

  9. Metrical Presentation Boosts Implicit Learning of Artificial Grammar

    PubMed Central

    Selchenkova, Tatiana; François, Clément; Schön, Daniele; Corneyllie, Alexandra; Perrin, Fabien; Tillmann, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigated whether a temporal hierarchical structure favors implicit learning. An artificial pitch grammar implemented with a set of tones was presented in two different temporal contexts, notably with either a strongly metrical structure or an isochronous structure. According to the Dynamic Attending Theory, external temporal regularities can entrain internal oscillators that guide attention over time, allowing for temporal expectations that influence perception of future events. Based on this framework, it was hypothesized that the metrical structure provides a benefit for artificial grammar learning in comparison to an isochronous presentation. Our study combined behavioral and event-related potential measurements. Behavioral results demonstrated similar learning in both participant groups. By contrast, analyses of event-related potentials showed a larger P300 component and an earlier N2 component for the strongly metrical group during the exposure phase and the test phase, respectively. These findings suggests that the temporal expectations in the strongly metrical condition helped listeners to better process the pitch dimension, leading to improved learning of the artificial grammar. PMID:25372147

  10. Metamodel-Driven Evolution with Grammar Inference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryant, Barrett R.; Liu, Qichao; Mernik, Marjan

    2010-10-01

    Domain-specific modeling (DSM) has become one of the most popular techniques for incorporating model-driven engineering (MDE) into software engineering. In DSM, domain experts define metamodels to describe the essential problems in a domain. A model conforms to a schema definition represented by a metamodel in a similar manner to a programming language conforms to a grammar. Metamodel-driven evolution is when a metamodel undergoes evolutions to incorporate new concerns in the domain. However, this results in losing the ability to use existing model instances. Grammar inference is the problem of inferring a grammar from sample strings which the grammar should generate. This paper describes our work in solving the problem of metamodel-driven evolution with grammar inference, by inferring the metamodel from model instances.

  11. Cognitive Adequacy in Structural-Functional Theories of Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Christopher S.

    2008-01-01

    This paper discusses the role played by cognition in three linguistic theories which may be labelled as "structural-functional": Functional (Discourse) Grammar, Role and Reference Grammar and Systemic Functional Grammar. It argues that if we are to achieve true cognitive adequacy, we must go well beyond the grammar itself to include the processes…

  12. Cognitive Adequacy in Structural-Functional Theories of Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Christopher S.

    2008-01-01

    This paper discusses the role played by cognition in three linguistic theories which may be labelled as "structural-functional": Functional (Discourse) Grammar, Role and Reference Grammar and Systemic Functional Grammar. It argues that if we are to achieve true cognitive adequacy, we must go well beyond the grammar itself to include the processes…

  13. Computerized Grammar Checkers 2000: Capabilities, Limitations, and Pedagogical Possibilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vernon, Alex

    2000-01-01

    Suggests grammar checkers remain troublesome and inaccurate. Reviews the literature of grammar checker technology in composition. Analyzes the current grammar checking capability of the most popular word-processing programs in the United States, Microsoft 2000 and Corel 9.0 (2000). Concludes by suggesting uses of grammar checkers for composition…

  14. What English Teachers Need to Know about Grammar.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murdick, William

    1996-01-01

    Suggests that English teachers need to know that grammar is a difficult subject; know what children know about grammar; know that grammatical error is complex; and know more about language than just grammar. Concludes with the advice of Noam Chomsky--that grammar should be taught for its own intrinsic interest. (RS)

  15. Pourquoi les exercices de grammaire? (Why Grammar Exercises?)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bastuji, Jacqueline

    1977-01-01

    Recent theories and experiementation running the gamut from the absolute necessity of grammar to its uselessness in teaching a language form the basis of this article. Topics covered are: a typology of the grammar exercise; explicit grammar and linguistic competence; grammar exercises responding to real needs. (Text is in French.) (AMH)

  16. An Analysis of Spoken Grammar: The Case for Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mumford, Simon

    2009-01-01

    Corpus-based grammars, notably "Cambridge Grammar of English," give explicit information on the forms and use of native-speaker grammar, including spoken grammar. Native-speaker norms as a necessary goal in language teaching are contested by supporters of English as a Lingua Franca (ELF); however, this article argues for the inclusion of selected…

  17. Grammatical Relations in Universal Grammar. Work Papers Volume 23.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frantz, Donald G.

    Relational Grammar, which has evolved from transformational grammar, relies on a "universal grammar" approach. By closely studying this approach, linguists will be able to understand Relational Grammar (RG) well enough to be able to participate in its further development. The basic assumptions of RG are that "subject-of,""direct object-of" and…

  18. Developing rich and quickly accessed knowledge of an artificial grammar.

    PubMed

    Sallas, Bill; Mathews, Robert C; Lane, Sean M; Sun, Ron

    2007-12-01

    In contrast to prior research, our results demonstrate that it is possible to acquire rich, highly accurate, and quickly accessed knowledge of an artificial grammar. Across two experiments, we trained participants by using a string-edit task and highlighting relatively low-level (letters), medium-level (chunks), or high-level (structural; i.e., grammar diagram) information to increase the efficiency of grammar acquisition. In both experiments, participants who had structural information available during training generated more highly accurate strings during a cued generation test than did those in other conditions, with equivalent speed. Experiment 2 revealed that structural information enhanced acquisition only when relevant features were highlighted during the task using animation. We suggest that two critical components for producing enhanced performance from provided model-based knowledge involve (1) using the model to acquire experience-based knowledge, rather than using a representation of the model to generate responses, and (2) receiving that knowledge precisely when it is needed during training. PMID:18265626

  19. XRate: a fast prototyping, training and annotation tool for phylo-grammars

    PubMed Central

    Klosterman, Peter S; Uzilov, Andrew V; Bendaña, Yuri R; Bradley, Robert K; Chao, Sharon; Kosiol, Carolin; Goldman, Nick; Holmes, Ian

    2006-01-01

    Background Recent years have seen the emergence of genome annotation methods based on the phylo-grammar, a probabilistic model combining continuous-time Markov chains and stochastic grammars. Previously, phylo-grammars have required considerable effort to implement, limiting their adoption by computational biologists. Results We have developed an open source software tool, xrate, for working with reversible, irreversible or parametric substitution models combined with stochastic context-free grammars. xrate efficiently estimates maximum-likelihood parameters and phylogenetic trees using a novel "phylo-EM" algorithm that we describe. The grammar is specified in an external configuration file, allowing users to design new grammars, estimate rate parameters from training data and annotate multiple sequence alignments without the need to recompile code from source. We have used xrate to measure codon substitution rates and predict protein and RNA secondary structures. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that xrate estimates biologically meaningful rates and makes predictions whose accuracy is comparable to that of more specialized tools. PMID:17018148

  20. Grammar in Art

    PubMed Central

    Segel, Edward; Boroditsky, Lera

    2010-01-01

    Jakobson (1959) reports: “The Russian painter Repin was baffled as to why Sin had been depicted as a woman by German artists: he did not realize that ‘sin’ is feminine in German (die Sünde), but masculine in Russian (rpex).” Does the grammatical gender of nouns in an artist's native language indeed predict the gender of personifications in art? In this paper we analyzed works in the ARTstor database (a digital art library containing over a million images) to measure this correspondence. This analysis provides a measure of artists’ real-world behavior. Our results show a clear correspondence between grammatical gender in language and personified gender in art. Grammatical gender predicted personified gender in 78% of the cases, significantly more often than if the two factors were independent. This analysis offers a new window on an age-old question about the relationship between linguistic structure and patterns in culture and cognition. PMID:21833297

  1. Grammar disruption in a patient with Neuro-Sweet syndrome.

    PubMed

    Mariën, Peter; Tops, Wim; Crols, Roel; Jonkers, Roel; De Deyn, Peter P; Verhoeven, Jo

    2012-06-01

    This paper for the first time reports detailed neurolinguistic findings in a patient with Neuro-Sweet syndrome. In this patient the presenting symptoms of central nervous system (CNS) involvement primarily consisted of a selective grammar deficit restricted to spontaneous speech. On MRI a left prefrontal ischemic stroke (superior part BA 6) and two small subcortical left parietal infarctions were found. Neurolinguistic analyses, however, did not reveal a profile consistent with any observations of agrammatism caused by structural damage to the language areas critically involved in grammatical processing. It is hypothesized that selectively distorted grammar might reflect disruption of the frontosubcortical network involved in language processing. Prefrontal neurobehavioral abnormalities associated with functional disruption of the inferior medial frontal regions as demonstrated by SPECT, additionally suggest that agrammatic symptoms may be linked to a higher-level cognitive disorder following encephalopathic CNS involvement. PMID:21879995

  2. ANTLR Tree Grammar Generator and Extensions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craymer, Loring

    2005-01-01

    A computer program implements two extensions of ANTLR (Another Tool for Language Recognition), which is a set of software tools for translating source codes between different computing languages. ANTLR supports predicated- LL(k) lexer and parser grammars, a notation for annotating parser grammars to direct tree construction, and predicated tree grammars. [ LL(k) signifies left-right, leftmost derivation with k tokens of look-ahead, referring to certain characteristics of a grammar.] One of the extensions is a syntax for tree transformations. The other extension is the generation of tree grammars from annotated parser or input tree grammars. These extensions can simplify the process of generating source-to-source language translators and they make possible an approach, called "polyphase parsing," to translation between computing languages. The typical approach to translator development is to identify high-level semantic constructs such as "expressions," "declarations," and "definitions" as fundamental building blocks in the grammar specification used for language recognition. The polyphase approach is to lump ambiguous syntactic constructs during parsing and then disambiguate the alternatives in subsequent tree transformation passes. Polyphase parsing is believed to be useful for generating efficient recognizers for C++ and other languages that, like C++, have significant ambiguities.

  3. Modelling dynamics with context-free grammars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Huerta, Juan-M.; Jiménez-Hernández, Hugo; Herrera-Navarro, Ana-M.; Hernández-Díaz, Teresa; Terol-Villalobos, Ivan

    2014-03-01

    This article presents a strategy to model the dynamics performed by vehicles in a freeway. The proposal consists on encode the movement as a set of finite states. A watershed-based segmentation is used to localize regions with high-probability of motion. Each state represents a proportion of a camera projection in a two-dimensional space, where each state is associated to a symbol, such that any combination of symbols is expressed as a language. Starting from a sequence of symbols through a linear algorithm a free-context grammar is inferred. This grammar represents a hierarchical view of common sequences observed into the scene. Most probable grammar rules express common rules associated to normal movement behavior. Less probable rules express themselves a way to quantify non-common behaviors and they might need more attention. Finally, all sequences of symbols that does not match with the grammar rules, may express itself uncommon behaviors (abnormal). The grammar inference is built with several sequences of images taken from a freeway. Testing process uses the sequence of symbols emitted by the scenario, matching the grammar rules with common freeway behaviors. The process of detect abnormal/normal behaviors is managed as the task of verify if any word generated by the scenario is recognized by the grammar.

  4. Eliminating the phrase "elective abortion": why language matters.

    PubMed

    Janiak, Elizabeth; Goldberg, Alisa B

    2016-02-01

    The phrase "elective abortion" is often used to describe induced abortions performed for reasons other than a direct, immediate threat to maternal physical health. We argue that the term "elective abortion" is variably defined, misrepresents the complexity and multiplicity of indications for abortion and perpetuates stigma. In practice, restricting access to abortion at the legal, regulatory or institutional level based on subjective perceptions of patient need constrains health care providers' ability to act according to their best clinical judgments and limits patient access to care. The phrase "elective abortion" should be eliminated from scientific and medical discourse to prevent further damage to the public understanding of the variety of indications for which women require expeditious and equitable access to induced abortion. PMID:26480889

  5. Terminal context in context-sensitive grammars.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Book, R. V.

    1972-01-01

    Investigation of the conditions whereunder context-sensitive grammars generate context-free languages. The obtained results indicate that, if every noncontext-free rewriting rule of a context-sensitive grammar has as left context a string of terminal symbols and the left context is at least as long as the right context, then the language generated is context-free. Likewise, if every noncontext-free rewriting rule of a context-sensitive grammar has strings of terminal symbols as left and right contexts, then the language generated is also context-free.

  6. Flexible processing and the design of grammar.

    PubMed

    Sag, Ivan A; Wasow, Thomas

    2015-02-01

    We explore the consequences of letting the incremental and integrative nature of language processing inform the design of competence grammar. What emerges is a view of grammar as a system of local monotonic constraints that provide a direct characterization of the signs (the form-meaning correspondences) of a given language. This "sign-based" conception of grammar has provided precise solutions to the key problems long thought to motivate movement-based analyses, has supported three decades of computational research developing large-scale grammar implementations, and is now beginning to play a role in computational psycholinguistics research that explores the use of underspecification in the incremental computation of partial meanings. PMID:25385276

  7. On the Visualization of German Grammar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clausing, Gerhard

    1975-01-01

    Shows the advantages of using visual representations of certain systematic aspects of a grammar. Simplified diagrams prove useful as mnemonic and explanation devices in the foreign language classroom. Two examples are given for teaching German to speakers of English. (TL)

  8. "The Grammar of Hitting and Breaking" Revisted

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruhl, C.

    1972-01-01

    Paper presented at the 1971 Summer Meeting of the Linguistic Society of America, Buffalo, New York. Assesses an analysis made by Charles Fillmore on the grammar of the English verbs hit'' and break''. (VM)

  9. Grammar and Style Checkers, Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schick, James B. M.

    1990-01-01

    Critiques current examples of computerized grammar and style checkers. Examines the relative strengths and weaknesses of each program. Concludes that programs are not an adequate substitute for knowing the applicable rule of English. (RW)

  10. Learning simple and complex artificial grammars in the presence of a semantic reference field: effects on performance and awareness

    PubMed Central

    Van den Bos, Esther; Poletiek, Fenna H.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated whether the negative effect of complexity on artificial grammar learning could be compensated by adding semantics. Participants were exposed to exemplars from a simple or a complex finite state grammar presented with or without a semantic reference field. As expected, performance on a grammaticality judgment test was higher for the simple grammar than for the complex grammar. For the simple grammar, the results also showed that participants presented with a reference field and instructed to decode the meaning of each exemplar (decoding condition) did better than participants who memorized the exemplars without semantic referents (memorize condition). Contrary to expectations, however, there was no significant difference between the decoding condition and the memorize condition for the complex grammar. These findings indicated that the negative effect of complexity remained, despite the addition of semantics. To clarify how the presence of a reference field influenced the learning process, its effects on the acquisition of two types of knowledge (first- and second-order dependencies) and on participants' awareness of their knowledge were examined. The results tentatively suggested that the reference field enhanced the learning of second-order dependencies. In addition, participants in the decoding condition realized when they had knowledge relevant to making a grammaticality judgment, whereas participants in the memorize condition demonstrated some knowledge of which they were unaware. These results are in line with the view that the reference field enhanced structure learning by making certain dependencies more salient. Moreover, our findings stress the influence of complexity on artificial grammar learning. PMID:25745408

  11. Learning English Grammar with a Corpus: Experimenting with Concordancing in a University Grammar Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vannestal, Maria Estling; Lindquist, Hans

    2007-01-01

    Corpora have been used for pedagogical purposes for more than two decades but empirical studies are relatively rare, particularly in the context of grammar teaching. The present study focuses on students' attitudes towards grammar and how these attitudes are affected by the introduction of concordancing. The principal aims of the project were to…

  12. Overcoming the Grammar Deficit: The Role of Information Technology in Teaching German Grammar to Undergraduates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Christopher

    1998-01-01

    Examines how application of computer-assisted language learning (CALL) and information technology can be used to overcome "grammar deficit" seen in many British undergraduate German students. A combination of explicit, implicit, and exploratory grammar teaching approaches uses diverse resources, including word processing packages, electronic…

  13. Conceptualisations of "Grammar Teaching": L1 English Teachers' Beliefs about Teaching Grammar for Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Annabel Mary

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on an investigation of L1 English teachers' conceptual and evaluative beliefs about teaching grammar, one strand of a larger Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC)-funded investigation into the impact of contextualised grammar teaching [RES-062-23-0775]. Thirty-one teachers in English secondary schools were interviewed…

  14. Conceptualisations of "Grammar Teaching": L1 English Teachers' Beliefs about Teaching Grammar for Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Annabel Mary

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on an investigation of L1 English teachers' conceptual and evaluative beliefs about teaching grammar, one strand of a larger Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC)-funded investigation into the impact of contextualised grammar teaching [RES-062-23-0775]. Thirty-one teachers in English secondary schools were interviewed…

  15. Overcoming the Grammar Deficit: The Role of Information Technology in Teaching German Grammar to Undergraduates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Christopher

    1998-01-01

    Examines how application of computer-assisted language learning (CALL) and information technology can be used to overcome "grammar deficit" seen in many British undergraduate German students. A combination of explicit, implicit, and exploratory grammar teaching approaches uses diverse resources, including word processing packages, electronic…

  16. Learning English Grammar with a Corpus: Experimenting with Concordancing in a University Grammar Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vannestal, Maria Estling; Lindquist, Hans

    2007-01-01

    Corpora have been used for pedagogical purposes for more than two decades but empirical studies are relatively rare, particularly in the context of grammar teaching. The present study focuses on students' attitudes towards grammar and how these attitudes are affected by the introduction of concordancing. The principal aims of the project were to…

  17. A stochastic context free grammar based framework for analysis of protein sequences

    PubMed Central

    Dyrka, Witold; Nebel, Jean-Christophe

    2009-01-01

    Background In the last decade, there have been many applications of formal language theory in bioinformatics such as RNA structure prediction and detection of patterns in DNA. However, in the field of proteomics, the size of the protein alphabet and the complexity of relationship between amino acids have mainly limited the application of formal language theory to the production of grammars whose expressive power is not higher than stochastic regular grammars. However, these grammars, like other state of the art methods, cannot cover any higher-order dependencies such as nested and crossing relationships that are common in proteins. In order to overcome some of these limitations, we propose a Stochastic Context Free Grammar based framework for the analysis of protein sequences where grammars are induced using a genetic algorithm. Results This framework was implemented in a system aiming at the production of binding site descriptors. These descriptors not only allow detection of protein regions that are involved in these sites, but also provide insight in their structure. Grammars were induced using quantitative properties of amino acids to deal with the size of the protein alphabet. Moreover, we imposed some structural constraints on grammars to reduce the extent of the rule search space. Finally, grammars based on different properties were combined to convey as much information as possible. Evaluation was performed on sites of various sizes and complexity described either by PROSITE patterns, domain profiles or a set of patterns. Results show the produced binding site descriptors are human-readable and, hence, highlight biologically meaningful features. Moreover, they achieve good accuracy in both annotation and detection. In addition, findings suggest that, unlike current state-of-the-art methods, our system may be particularly suited to deal with patterns shared by non-homologous proteins. Conclusion A new Stochastic Context Free Grammar based framework has been introduced allowing the production of binding site descriptors for analysis of protein sequences. Experiments have shown that not only is this new approach valid, but produces human-readable descriptors for binding sites which have been beyond the capability of current machine learning techniques. PMID:19814800

  18. Application of Montague grammar to English-Japanese machine translation

    SciTech Connect

    Nishida, T.; Doshita, S.

    1983-01-01

    English-Japanese machine translation requires a large amount of structural transformation in both grammatical and conceptual level. In order to make the control structure clearer and more understandable, this paper proposes a model based on Montague grammar. The translation process is modelled as a data flow computation process. Formal description tools are developed and a prototype system is constructed. Various problems which arise in this modelling and their solutions are described. Results of experiments are shown and the extent to which initial goals are achieved is discussed. 14 references.

  19. Experimental investigations of weak definite and weak indefinite noun phrases

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Natalie M.; Gegg-Harrison, Whitney M.; Carlson, Greg N.; Tanenhaus, Michael K.

    2013-01-01

    Definite noun phrases typically refer to entities that are uniquely identifiable in the speaker and addressee’s common ground. Some definite noun phrases (e.g. the hospital in Mary had to go the hospital and John did too) seem to violate this uniqueness constraint. We report six experiments that were motivated by the hypothesis that these “weak definite” interpretations arise in “incorporated” constructions. Experiments 1-3 compared nouns that seem to allow for a weak definite interpretation (e.g. hospital, bank, bus, radio) with those that do not (e.g. farm, concert, car, book). Experiments 1 and 2 used an instruction-following task and picture-judgment task, respectively, to demonstrate that a weak definite need not uniquely refer. In Experiment 3 participants imagined scenarios described by sentences such as The Federal Express driver had to go to the hospital/farm. The imagined scenarios following weak definite noun phrases were more likely to include conventional activities associated with the object, whereas following regular nouns, participants were more likely to imagine scenarios that included typical activities associated with the subject; similar effects were observed with weak indefinites. Experiment 4 found that object-related activities were reduced when the same subject and object were used with a verb that does not license weak definite interpretations. In Experiment 5, a science fiction story introduced an artificial lexicon for novel concepts. Novel nouns that shared conceptual properties with English weak definite nouns were more likely to allow weak reference in a judgment task. Experiment 6 demonstrated that familiarity for definite articles and anti- familiarity for indefinite articles applies to the activity associated with the noun, consistent with predictions made by the incorporation analysis. PMID:23685208

  20. Experimental investigations of weak definite and weak indefinite noun phrases.

    PubMed

    Klein, Natalie M; Gegg-Harrison, Whitney M; Carlson, Greg N; Tanenhaus, Michael K

    2013-08-01

    Definite noun phrases typically refer to entities that are uniquely identifiable in the speaker and addressee's common ground. Some definite noun phrases (e.g., the hospital in Mary had to go the hospital and John did too) seem to violate this uniqueness constraint. We report six experiments that were motivated by the hypothesis that these "weak definite" interpretations arise in "incorporated" constructions. Experiments 1-3 compared nouns that seem to allow for a weak definite interpretation (e.g., hospital, bank, bus, radio) with those that do not (e.g., farm, concert, car, book). Experiments 1 and 2 used an instruction-following task and picture-judgment task, respectively, to demonstrate that a weak definite need not uniquely refer. In Experiment 3 participants imagined scenarios described by sentences such as The Federal Express driver had to go to the hospital/farm. Scenarios following weak definite noun phrases were more likely to include conventional activities associated with the object, whereas following regular nouns, participants were more likely to imagine scenarios that included typical activities associated with the subject; similar effects were observed with weak indefinites. Experiment 4 found that object-related activities were reduced when the same subject and object were used with a verb that does not license weak definite interpretations. In Experiment 5, a science fiction story introduced an artificial lexicon for novel concepts. Novel nouns that shared conceptual properties with English weak definite nouns were more likely to allow weak reference in a judgment task. Experiment 6 demonstrated that familiarity for definite articles and anti-familiarity for indefinite articles applies to the activity associated with the noun, consistent with predictions made by the incorporation analysis. PMID:23685208

  1. System, method and apparatus for conducting a phrase search

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGreevy, Michael W. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A phrase search is a method of searching a database for subsets of the database that are relevant to an input query. First, a number of relational models of subsets of a database are provided. A query is then input. The query can include one or more sequences of terms. Next, a relational model of the query is created. The relational model of the query is then compared to each one of the relational models of subsets of the database. The identifiers of the relevant subsets are then output.

  2. Learning Complex Grammar in the Virtual Classroom: A Comparison of Processing Instruction, Structured Input, Computerized Visual Input Enhancement, and Traditional Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Victoria

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of processing instruction (PI) and structured input (SI) on the acquisition of the subjunctive in adjectival clauses by 92 second-semester distance learners of Spanish. Computerized visual input enhancement (VIE) was combined with PI and SI in an attempt to increase the salience of the targeted grammatical form…

  3. An approach to multiscale modelling with graph grammars

    PubMed Central

    Ong, Yongzhi; Streit, Katarína; Henke, Michael; Kurth, Winfried

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Functional–structural plant models (FSPMs) simulate biological processes at different spatial scales. Methods exist for multiscale data representation and modification, but the advantages of using multiple scales in the dynamic aspects of FSPMs remain unclear. Results from multiscale models in various other areas of science that share fundamental modelling issues with FSPMs suggest that potential advantages do exist, and this study therefore aims to introduce an approach to multiscale modelling in FSPMs. Methods A three-part graph data structure and grammar is revisited, and presented with a conceptual framework for multiscale modelling. The framework is used for identifying roles, categorizing and describing scale-to-scale interactions, thus allowing alternative approaches to model development as opposed to correlation-based modelling at a single scale. Reverse information flow (from macro- to micro-scale) is catered for in the framework. The methods are implemented within the programming language XL. Key Results Three example models are implemented using the proposed multiscale graph model and framework. The first illustrates the fundamental usage of the graph data structure and grammar, the second uses probabilistic modelling for organs at the fine scale in order to derive crown growth, and the third combines multiscale plant topology with ozone trends and metabolic network simulations in order to model juvenile beech stands under exposure to a toxic trace gas. Conclusions The graph data structure supports data representation and grammar operations at multiple scales. The results demonstrate that multiscale modelling is a viable method in FSPM and an alternative to correlation-based modelling. Advantages and disadvantages of multiscale modelling are illustrated by comparisons with single-scale implementations, leading to motivations for further research in sensitivity analysis and run-time efficiency for these models. PMID:25134929

  4. A new variant of Petri net controlled grammars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jan, Nurhidaya Mohamad; Turaev, Sherzod; Fong, Wan Heng; Sarmin, Nor Haniza

    2015-10-01

    A Petri net controlled grammar is a Petri net with respect to a context-free grammar where the successful derivations of the grammar can be simulated using the occurrence sequences of the net. In this paper, we introduce a new variant of Petri net controlled grammars, called a place-labeled Petri net controlled grammar, which is a context-free grammar equipped with a Petri net and a function which maps places of the net to productions of the grammar. The language consists of all terminal strings that can be obtained by parallelly applying multisets of the rules which are the images of the sets of the input places of transitions in a successful occurrence sequence of the Petri net. We study the effect of the different labeling strategies to the computational power and establish lower and upper bounds for the generative capacity of place-labeled Petri net controlled grammars.

  5. An extended grammar system for learning and recognizing complex visual events.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhang; Tan, Tieniu; Huang, Kaiqi

    2011-02-01

    For a grammar-based approach to the recognition of visual events, there are two major limitations that prevent it from real application. One is that the event rules are predefined by domain experts, which means huge manual cost. The other is that the commonly used grammar can only handle sequential relations between subevents, which is inadequate to recognize more complex events involving parallel subevents. To solve these problems, we propose an extended grammar approach to modeling and recognizing complex visual events. First, motion trajectories as original features are transformed into a set of basic motion patterns of a single moving object, namely, primitives (terminals) in the grammar system. Then, a Minimum Description Length (MDL) based rule induction algorithm is performed to discover the hidden temporal structures in primitive stream, where Stochastic Context-Free Grammar (SCFG) is extended by Allen's temporal logic to model the complex temporal relations between subevents. Finally, a Multithread Parsing (MTP) algorithm is adopted to recognize interesting complex events in a given primitive stream, where a Viterbi-like error recovery strategy is also proposed to handle large-scale errors, e.g., insertion and deletion errors. Extensive experiments, including gymnastic exercises, traffic light events, and multi-agent interactions, have been executed to validate the effectiveness of the proposed approach. PMID:21193807

  6. Grammar and the Lexicon. Working Papers in Linguistics 16.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University of Trondheim Working Papers in Linguistics, 1993

    1993-01-01

    In this volume, five working papers are presented. "Minimal Signs and Grammar" (Lars Hellan) proposes that a significant part of the "production" of grammar is incremental, building larger and larger constructs, with lexical objects called minimal signs as the first steps. It also suggests that the basic lexical information in grammar is…

  7. Does Intensive Explicit Grammar Instruction Make All the Difference?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macaro, Ernesto; Masterman, Liz

    2006-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of explicit grammar instruction on grammatical knowledge and writing proficiency in first-year students of French at a UK university. Previous research suggests that explicit grammar instruction results in gains in explicit knowledge and its application in specific grammar-related tasks, but there is less…

  8. Pedagogical Grammar. Interlanguage Studies Bulletin, Vol. 1., No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Michael Sharwood

    Pedagogical grammar is the presentation of grammatical information for teaching purposes. Two important distinctions are relevant here: reference books versus teaching grammars programmed into a course, and generalized versus specialized grammars, (depending on the extent to which they have been designed to meet specific teaching/learning…

  9. Are Preservice Teachers Literate in Grammar and Usage?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belk, Jo Ann; Thompson, Richard

    This paper presents an instrument, the Grammar Inventory for Teachers (GIFT), that may be used to determine preservice teachers' knowledge and use of correct grammar. The paper explains that communication skills are critical characteristics of effective teachers, and preservice teachers must be competent in their knowledge and use of grammar in…

  10. Case Grammar and the Elementary School Language Arts Curriculum?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, Pose

    This paper provides a brief introduction to the principles underlying Charles Fillmore's case grammar, contrasts it with other approaches to grammar, and suggests ways in which case grammar could be used in the language arts curriculum. Examples of the transparencies to which the text refers are included. (AA)

  11. Communicating Grammatically: Evaluating a Learner Strategy Website for Spanish Grammar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Andrew D.; Pinilla-Herrera, Angela; Thompson, Jonathan R.; Witzig, Lance E.

    2011-01-01

    After a brief introduction to language learner strategies and grammar strategies as a subcategory, it is pointed out that research on the use of grammar strategies by learners of a second language (L2) has been limited. The article then describes the construction of a website with strategies for learning and performing Spanish grammar, with a…

  12. Web Exclusive--The Case for Not Teaching Grammar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwagerman, Sean

    2012-01-01

    The value of grammar instruction in improving students' writing has been debated for at least 150 years, and is showing no signs of tiring. But would teaching grammar actually improve writing? In fact, study after study has shown that the study of grammar does not translate to improved student writing. Indeed, the basic skills of writing are not…

  13. Pupils' Word Choices and the Teaching of Grammar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyse, Dominic

    2006-01-01

    The idea that formal grammar teaching leads to improvements in school pupils' writing has been a popular one. However, the robust and extensive evidence base shows that this is not the case. Despite this, policy initiatives have continued to suggest that grammar teaching does improve pupils' writing: the "Grammar for Writing" resource is the most…

  14. Pupils' Word Choices and the Teaching of Grammar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyse, Dominic

    2006-01-01

    The idea that formal grammar teaching leads to improvements in school pupils' writing has been a popular one. However, the robust and extensive evidence base shows that this is not the case. Despite this, policy initiatives have continued to suggest that grammar teaching does improve pupils' writing: the "Grammar for Writing" resource is the most…

  15. Difficulties in Teaching and Learning Grammar in an EFL Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Mekhlafi, Abdu Mohammed; Nagaratnam, Ramani Perur

    2011-01-01

    The role of grammar instruction in an ESL/EFL context has been for decades a major issue for students and teachers alike. Researchers have debated whether grammar should be taught in the classroom and students, for their part, have generally looked upon grammar instruction as a necessary evil at best, and an avoidable burden at worst. The paper…

  16. Spoken Grammar and Its Role in the English Language Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilliard, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    This article addresses key issues and considerations for teachers wanting to incorporate spoken grammar activities into their own teaching and also focuses on six common features of spoken grammar, with practical activities and suggestions for teaching them in the language classroom. The hope is that this discussion of spoken grammar and its place…

  17. Ways of Knowing: Writing with Grammar in Mind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myhill, Debra

    2005-01-01

    In the international context of concerns about standards in writing, this article addresses the role of grammar in the teaching of writing. It considers both current and historical perspectives on the teaching of grammar and offers a critique of research which attempts to determine the impact of grammar teaching on writing, but which does not…

  18. Playful Explicitness with Grammar: A Pedagogy for Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myhill, Debra; Jones, Susan; Watson, Annabel; Lines, Helen

    2013-01-01

    The place of grammar within the teaching of writing has long been contested and successive research studies have indicated no correlation between grammar teaching and writing attainment. However, a recent study has shown a significant positive impact on writing outcomes when the grammar input is intrinsically linked to the demands of the writing…

  19. Web Exclusive--The Case for Not Teaching Grammar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwagerman, Sean

    2012-01-01

    The value of grammar instruction in improving students' writing has been debated for at least 150 years, and is showing no signs of tiring. But would teaching grammar actually improve writing? In fact, study after study has shown that the study of grammar does not translate to improved student writing. Indeed, the basic skills of writing are not…

  20. Playful Explicitness with Grammar: A Pedagogy for Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myhill, Debra; Jones, Susan; Watson, Annabel; Lines, Helen

    2013-01-01

    The place of grammar within the teaching of writing has long been contested and successive research studies have indicated no correlation between grammar teaching and writing attainment. However, a recent study has shown a significant positive impact on writing outcomes when the grammar input is intrinsically linked to the demands of the writing…

  1. When Is a Verb? Using Functional Grammar to Teach Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fearn, Leif; Farnan, Nancy

    2007-01-01

    While evidence shows that grammar study focused on identification, description, and definition (IDD) fails to enhance writing performance, the grammar most students study remains focused on the IDD tradition. We taught a functional grammar that featured what words do in sentences, rather than what words are called and how they are defined, to two…

  2. Grammar in the Labyrinth: Resources on the World Wide Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Nancy, Ed.; Pipkin, Gloria, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    Notes and discusses resources on the World Wide Web that deal with grammar and that may be useful to teachers. Lists traditional grammar websites, including online handbooks and style guides, but warns that the isolated teaching of grammar has little impact on student writing. Concludes that websites are needed that actually show teachers how to…

  3. Artificial Grammar Learning of Melody Is Constrained by Melodic Inconsistency: Narmour's Principles Affect Melodic Learning

    PubMed Central

    Rohrmeier, Martin; Cross, Ian

    2013-01-01

    Considerable evidence suggests that people acquire artificial grammars incidentally and implicitly, an indispensable capacity for the acquisition of music or language. However, less research has been devoted to exploring constraints affecting incidental learning. Within the domain of music, the extent to which Narmour's (1990) melodic principles affect implicit learning of melodic structure was experimentally explored. Extending previous research (Rohrmeier, Rebuschat & Cross, 2011), the identical finite-state grammar is employed having terminals (the alphabet) manipulated so that melodies generated systematically violated Narmour's principles. Results indicate that Narmour-inconsistent melodic materials impede implicit learning. This further constitutes a case in which artificial grammar learning is affected by prior knowledge or processing constraints. PMID:23874388

  4. Associations between lexicon and grammar at the end of the second year in Finnish children.

    PubMed

    Stolt, Suvi; Haataja, Leena; Lapinleimu, Helena; Lehtonen, Liisa

    2009-09-01

    ABSTRACTThe emergence of grammar in relation to lexical growth was analyzed in a sample of Finnish children (N=181) at 2 ; 0. The Finnish version of the Communicative Development Inventory was used to gather information on both language domains. The onset of grammar occurred in close association with vocabulary growth. The acquisition of the nominal and verbal inflections of Finnish differed when analyzed in relation to the lexicon in which they are used: the strongest growth in the acquisition of case form types occurred when the nominal lexicon size was roughly between 50 and 250 words, whereas verb inflectional types were acquired actively from the beginning of the verb lexicon acquisition. The findings extend the previous findings of the close association between lexicon and grammar (e.g. Bates & Goodman, 1999). The results suggest that different grammatical structures display different degrees and types of lexical dependency. PMID:19000335

  5. Artificial grammar learning of melody is constrained by melodic inconsistency: Narmour's principles affect melodic learning.

    PubMed

    Rohrmeier, Martin; Cross, Ian

    2013-01-01

    Considerable evidence suggests that people acquire artificial grammars incidentally and implicitly, an indispensable capacity for the acquisition of music or language. However, less research has been devoted to exploring constraints affecting incidental learning. Within the domain of music, the extent to which Narmour's (1990) melodic principles affect implicit learning of melodic structure was experimentally explored. Extending previous research (Rohrmeier, Rebuschat & Cross, 2011), the identical finite-state grammar is employed having terminals (the alphabet) manipulated so that melodies generated systematically violated Narmour's principles. Results indicate that Narmour-inconsistent melodic materials impede implicit learning. This further constitutes a case in which artificial grammar learning is affected by prior knowledge or processing constraints. PMID:23874388

  6. Segmentation of remotely sensed images by MDL-principled polygon map grammar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, HePing; Foerstner, Wolfgang

    1994-08-01

    Polygon map grammar -- a generic structure model of polygon maps -- has been developed to an operational level for landuse mapping from remotely sensed images. This grammar enables us to simulate stochastic structures of polygon maps, and thus to simulate ideal and real images of landuse fields. These images provide fully controlled cases for testing image segmentation algorithms. We have developed a general segmentation algorithm which cascades an information-preserving smoothing filter, an edge-preserving smoothing filter, and explicit MDL-based region merging. With both simulated and real images, this algorithm proved to be objective and robust, yielding good results. Using crack edges a mechanism exists and is developed to vectorize raster segmented image to a polygon map data structure -- polyplex. With this data structure, the high-level structure model -- polygon map grammar -- is used to predict missing edges that are not caused by image intensity but are truly not detectable by remote sensors. This paper describes a complete case of this grammar and its application, and a number of basic general mechanisms.

  7. The Equivalence of Tree Adjoining Grammars and Monadic Linear Context-Free Tree Grammars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kepser, Stephan; Rogers, James

    It has been observed quite early after the introduction of Tree Adjoining Grammars that the adjoining operation seems to be a special case of the more general deduction step in a context-free tree grammar (CFTG) derivation. TAGs look like special cases of a subclass of CFTGs, namely monadic linear CFTGs. More than a decade ago it was shown that the two grammar formalisms are indeed weakly equivalent, i.e., define the same classes of string languages. This paper now closes the remaining gap showing the strong equivalence for so-called non-strict TAGs, a variant of TAGs where the restrictions for head and foot nodes are slightly generalised.

  8. Commitment-Based Learning of Hidden Linguistic Structures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akers, Crystal Gayle

    2012-01-01

    Learners must simultaneously learn a grammar and a lexicon from observed forms, yet some structures that the grammar and lexicon reference are unobservable in the acoustic signal. Moreover, these "hidden" structures interact: the grammar maps an underlying form to a particular interpretation. Learning one structure depends on learning…

  9. Commitment-Based Learning of Hidden Linguistic Structures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akers, Crystal Gayle

    2012-01-01

    Learners must simultaneously learn a grammar and a lexicon from observed forms, yet some structures that the grammar and lexicon reference are unobservable in the acoustic signal. Moreover, these "hidden" structures interact: the grammar maps an underlying form to a particular interpretation. Learning one structure depends on learning…

  10. Interface Problems: Structural Constraints on Interpretation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frazier, Lyn; Clifton, Charles; Rayner, Keith; Deevy, Patricia; Koh, Sungryong; Bader, Markus

    2005-01-01

    Five experiments investigated the interpretation of quantified noun phrases in relation to discourse structure. They demonstrated, using questionnaire and on-line reading techniques, that readers in English prefer to give a quantified noun phrase in (VP-external) subject position a presuppositional interpretation, in which the noun phrase limits…

  11. El Sistema de Formas en Colores for Teaching Grammar in Spanish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nailon, James

    2010-01-01

    Sistema de formas en colores (SFC) is a symbols-based system for teaching Spanish grammatical structures and concepts within a communicative context in the elementary school. The (ACTFL) Standards for Foreign Language Learning: Preparing for the 21st Century states that, "While grammar and vocabulary are essential tools for communication, it is…

  12. Pre-Service English as a Foreign Language Teachers' Belief Development about Grammar Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Çapan, Seyit Ahmet

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to investigate pre-service English as Foreign Language (EFL) teachers' beliefs about grammar instruction in a foreign language (FL) context through their initial teaching practices. Analyses of semi-structured interviews and classroom observations apart from pre-and post-test results of participants' responses to a belief…

  13. Content Validation of the Comprehension of Written Grammar Assessment for Deaf and Hard of Hearing Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cannon, Joanna E.; Hubley, Anita M.

    2014-01-01

    Content validation is a crucial, but often neglected, component of good test development. In the present study, content validity evidence was collected to determine the degree to which elements (e.g., grammatical structures, items, picture responses, administration, and scoring instructions) of the Comprehension of Written Grammar (CWG) test are…

  14. El Sistema de Formas en Colores for Teaching Grammar in Spanish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nailon, James

    2010-01-01

    Sistema de formas en colores (SFC) is a symbols-based system for teaching Spanish grammatical structures and concepts within a communicative context in the elementary school. The (ACTFL) Standards for Foreign Language Learning: Preparing for the 21st Century states that, "While grammar and vocabulary are essential tools for communication, it is…

  15. Foreign Language Aptitude and Its Relationship with Grammar: A Critical Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skehan, Peter

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a critical overview of research studies which link foreign language aptitude to grammar. It starts by covering fundamental issues--of the structure of aptitude and its measurement. It is argued that the concept of aptitude needs to be updated, and that clear linkages to second language acquisition processes need to be…

  16. Ecriture automatique: A New Approach to Teaching Grammar-Review and Composition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fassiotto, Marie-Jose; Riggs, Larry

    1986-01-01

    Describes a method whereby students of French apply small increments of grammar and vocabulary immediately in daily 15-minute writing sessions in which they write brief, structurally sound compositions and focus on language use rather than on translation of ideas from English to French. (MSE)

  17. Commentary to "Multiple Grammars and Second Language Representation," by Luiz Amaral and Tom Roeper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pérez-Leroux, Ana T.

    2014-01-01

    In this commentary, the author defends the Multiple Grammars (MG) theory proposed by Luiz Amaral and Tom Roepe (A&R) in the present issue. Topics discussed include second language acquisition, the concept of developmental optionality, and the idea that structural decisions involve the lexical dimension. The author states that A&R's…

  18. Foreign Language Aptitude and Its Relationship with Grammar: A Critical Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skehan, Peter

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a critical overview of research studies which link foreign language aptitude to grammar. It starts by covering fundamental issues--of the structure of aptitude and its measurement. It is argued that the concept of aptitude needs to be updated, and that clear linkages to second language acquisition processes need to be…

  19. Content Validation of the Comprehension of Written Grammar Assessment for Deaf and Hard of Hearing Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cannon, Joanna E.; Hubley, Anita M.

    2014-01-01

    Content validation is a crucial, but often neglected, component of good test development. In the present study, content validity evidence was collected to determine the degree to which elements (e.g., grammatical structures, items, picture responses, administration, and scoring instructions) of the Comprehension of Written Grammar (CWG) test are…

  20. On the (Un)-Ambiguity of Adjectival Modification in Spanish Determiner Phrases: Informing Debates on the Mental Representations of L2 Syntax

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothman, Jason; Judy, Tiffany; Guijarro-Fuentes, Pedro; Pires, Acrisio

    2010-01-01

    This study contributes to a central debate within contemporary generative second language (L2) theorizing: the extent to which adult learners are (un)able to acquire new functional features that result in a L2 grammar that is mentally structured like the native target (see White, 2003). The adult acquisition of L2 nominal phi-features is explored,…

  1. MEDLINE Abstracts Classification Based on Noun Phrases Extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz-Rico, Fernando; Vicedo, José-Luis; Rubio-Sánchez, María-Consuelo

    Many algorithms have come up in the last years to tackle automated text categorization. They have been exhaustively studied, leading to several variants and combinations not only in the particular procedures but also in the treatment of the input data. A widely used approach is representing documents as Bag-Of-Words (BOW) and weighting tokens with the TFIDF schema. Many researchers have thrown into precision and recall improvements and classification time reduction enriching BOW with stemming, n-grams, feature selection, noun phrases, metadata, weight normalization, etc. We contribute to this field with a novel combination of these techniques. For evaluation purposes, we provide comparisons to previous works with SVM against the simple BOW. The well known OHSUMED corpus is exploited and different sets of categories are selected, as previously done in the literature. The conclusion is that the proposed method can be successfully applied to existing binary classifiers such as SVM outperforming the mixture of BOW and TFIDF approaches.

  2. Visual Phrase Learning and its Application in Computed Tomographic Colonography

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shijun; McKenna, Matthew; Wei, Zhuoshi; Liu, Jiamin; Liu, Peter; Summers, Ronald M.

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we propose a visual phrase learning scheme to learn an optimal visual composite of anatomical components/parts from CT colonography images for computer-aided detection. The key idea is to utilize the anatomical parts of human body from medical images and associate them with biological targets of interest (organs, cancers, lesions, etc.) for joint detection and recognition. These anatomical parts of the human body are not necessarily near each other regarding their physical locations, and they serve more like a human body navigation system for detection and recognition. To show the effectiveness of the proposed learning scheme, we applied it to two subproblems in computed tomographic colonography: teniae detection and classification of colorectal polyp candidates. Experimental results showed its efficacy. PMID:24505672

  3. Frases en ingles para defenderse (Phrases for Getting Along in English).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butovsky, Lillian; McHugh, John

    This book of Spanish-English phrases intended for Spanish-speaking immigrants is divided into two main sections. Part One contains the grammatical section, a pronunciation guide, and basic words and phrases a newly arrived Spanish-speaking person would need to get along in an English speaking environment. Grammatical notes in Part One indicate…

  4. A Bidirectional Study on the Acquisition of Plural Noun Phrase Interpretation in English and Spanish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ionin, Tania; Montrul, Silvina; Crivos, Monica

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates how learners interpret definite plural noun phrases (e.g., "the tigers") and bare (article-less) plural noun phrases (e.g., "tigers") in their second language. Whereas Spanish allows definite plurals to have both generic and specific readings, English requires definite plurals to have specific, nongeneric readings. Generic…

  5. The On-Line Processing of Verb-Phrase Ellipsis in Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poirier, Josee; Shapiro, Lewis P.; Love, Tracy; Grodzinsky, Yosef

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the on-line processing of verb-phrase ellipsis (VPE) constructions in two brain injured populations: Broca's and Anomic aphasics. VPE constructions are built from two simple clauses; the first is the antecedent clause and the second is the ellipsis clause. The ellipsis clause is missing its verb and object (i.e., its verb phrase…

  6. Blue Car, Red Car: Developing Efficiency in Online Interpretation of Adjective-Noun Phrases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernald, Anne; Thorpe, Kirsten; Marchman, Virginia A.

    2010-01-01

    Two experiments investigated the development of fluency in interpreting adjective-noun phrases in 30- and 36-month-old English-learning children. Using online processing measures, children's gaze patterns were monitored as they heard the familiar adjective-noun phrases (e.g. "blue car") in visual contexts where the adjective was either informative…

  7. A Bidirectional Study on the Acquisition of Plural Noun Phrase Interpretation in English and Spanish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ionin, Tania; Montrul, Silvina; Crivos, Monica

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates how learners interpret definite plural noun phrases (e.g., "the tigers") and bare (article-less) plural noun phrases (e.g., "tigers") in their second language. Whereas Spanish allows definite plurals to have both generic and specific readings, English requires definite plurals to have specific, nongeneric readings. Generic…

  8. 7 CFR 15f.4 - What do certain words and phrases in these regulations mean?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false What do certain words and phrases in these regulations mean? 15f.4 Section 15f.4 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture ADJUDICATIONS UNDER....4 What do certain words and phrases in these regulations mean? Agency means the USDA agency,...

  9. 7 CFR 15f.4 - What do certain words and phrases in these regulations mean?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false What do certain words and phrases in these regulations mean? 15f.4 Section 15f.4 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture ADJUDICATIONS UNDER....4 What do certain words and phrases in these regulations mean? Agency means the USDA agency,...

  10. 7 CFR 15f.4 - What do certain words and phrases in these regulations mean?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false What do certain words and phrases in these regulations mean? 15f.4 Section 15f.4 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture ADJUDICATIONS UNDER....4 What do certain words and phrases in these regulations mean? Agency means the USDA agency,...

  11. 7 CFR 15f.4 - What do certain words and phrases in these regulations mean?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false What do certain words and phrases in these regulations mean? 15f.4 Section 15f.4 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture ADJUDICATIONS UNDER....4 What do certain words and phrases in these regulations mean? Agency means the USDA agency,...

  12. 7 CFR 15f.4 - What do certain words and phrases in these regulations mean?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What do certain words and phrases in these regulations mean? 15f.4 Section 15f.4 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture ADJUDICATIONS UNDER....4 What do certain words and phrases in these regulations mean? Agency means the USDA agency,...

  13. 43 CFR 1810.1 - Rules of construction; words and phrases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Rules of construction; words and phrases... General Rules § 1810.1 Rules of construction; words and phrases. Except where the context of the... regulations of this chapter: (a) Words importing the singular include and apply to the plural also; (b)...

  14. 43 CFR 1810.1 - Rules of construction; words and phrases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Rules of construction; words and phrases... General Rules § 1810.1 Rules of construction; words and phrases. Except where the context of the... regulations of this chapter: (a) Words importing the singular include and apply to the plural also; (b)...

  15. 43 CFR 1810.1 - Rules of construction; words and phrases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Rules of construction; words and phrases... General Rules § 1810.1 Rules of construction; words and phrases. Except where the context of the... regulations of this chapter: (a) Words importing the singular include and apply to the plural also; (b)...

  16. 43 CFR 1810.1 - Rules of construction; words and phrases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Rules of construction; words and phrases... General Rules § 1810.1 Rules of construction; words and phrases. Except where the context of the... regulations of this chapter: (a) Words importing the singular include and apply to the plural also; (b)...

  17. Blue Car, Red Car: Developing Efficiency in Online Interpretation of Adjective-Noun Phrases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernald, Anne; Thorpe, Kirsten; Marchman, Virginia A.

    2010-01-01

    Two experiments investigated the development of fluency in interpreting adjective-noun phrases in 30- and 36-month-old English-learning children. Using online processing measures, children's gaze patterns were monitored as they heard the familiar adjective-noun phrases (e.g. "blue car") in visual contexts where the adjective was either informative…

  18. Phrase Length Matters: The Interplay between Implicit Prosody and Syntax in Korean "Garden Path" Sentences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hwang, Hyekyung; Steinhauer, Karsten

    2011-01-01

    In spoken language comprehension, syntactic parsing decisions interact with prosodic phrasing, which is directly affected by phrase length. Here we used ERPs to examine whether a similar effect holds for the on-line processing of written sentences during silent reading, as suggested by theories of "implicit prosody." Ambiguous Korean sentence…

  19. An "Alms-Basket" of "Bric-a-Brac": "Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase and Fable".

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunge, Charles A.

    1999-01-01

    Describes the development and history of "Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase and Fable," a reference source first published in 1870 that includes the etymology of phrases, allusions and words. Discusses reviews that reflected and shaped its status as a standard reference book, describes the current edition, and considers its enduring value. (LRW)

  20. Terminator Detection by Support Vector Machine Utilizing aStochastic Context-Free Grammar

    SciTech Connect

    Francis-Lyon, Patricia; Cristianini, Nello; Holbrook, Stephen

    2006-12-30

    A 2-stage detector was designed to find rho-independent transcription terminators in the Escherichia coli genome. The detector includes a Stochastic Context Free Grammar (SCFG) component and a Support Vector Machine (SVM) component. To find terminators, the SCFG searches the intergenic regions of nucleotide sequence for local matches to a terminator grammar that was designed and trained utilizing examples of known terminators. The grammar selects sequences that are the best candidates for terminators and assigns them a prefix, stem-loop, suffix structure using the Cocke-Younger-Kasaami (CYK) algorithm, modified to incorporate energy affects of base pairing. The parameters from this inferred structure are passed to the SVM classifier, which distinguishes terminators from non-terminators that score high according to the terminator grammar. The SVM was trained with negative examples drawn from intergenic sequences that include both featureless and RNA gene regions (which were assigned prefix, stem-loop, suffix structure by the SCFG), so that it successfully distinguishes terminators from either of these. The classifier was found to be 96.4% successful during testing.

  1. A Computer System for Transformational Grammar.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Joyce

    A comprehensive system for transformational grammar has been designed and is being implemented on the IBM 360/67 computer. The system deals with the transformational model of syntax, along the lines of Chomsky's "Aspects of the Theory of Syntax." The major innovations include a full and formal description of the syntax of a transformational…

  2. Multiple Grammars: Old Wine in Old Bottles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorace, Antonella

    2014-01-01

    Amaral and Roeper (this issue; henceforth A&R) argue that all speakers -- regardless of whether monolingual or bilingual -- have multiple grammars in their mental language representations. They further claim that this simple assumption can explain many things: optionality in second language (L2) language behaviour, multilingualism, language…

  3. BIBLIOGRAPHY AND GLOSSARY FOR CHINESE GRAMMAR.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LIU, LILLIAN; WANG, W. S-Y

    THIS BIBLIOGRAPHY LISTS 937 TITLES IN THE FIELD OF CHINESE GRAMMAR FROM AMERICAN AND FOREIGN BOOKS, MAGAZINES, AND JOURNALS. THE AUTHORS AND TITLES ARE LISTED IN PINYIN SYSTEM TRANSCRIPTION WITH A TRANSLATION OF THE TITLE IN ENGLISH AND WITH CHINESE LOGOGRAPHS AFTER THE SOURCE CITATION FOR THOSE ENTRIES ORGINALLY WRITTEN IN CHINESE. ENTRIES ARE…

  4. Grammar Schools: Brief Flowering of Social Mobility?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    Grammar schools are increasingly remembered, especially by right-wing ideologues, as the agents of a "brief flowering" of post-war social mobility. This article presents statistical, documentary and interview evidence of secondary education in the eleven plus era, and finds nothing to justify the claim that selective schools produced a general…

  5. Epilogue: Dynamic Morphosyntax in Functional Discourse Grammar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Velasco, Daniel Garcia; Hengeveld, Kees; Mackenzie, J. Lachlan

    2012-01-01

    This epilogue addresses the most important topics and challenges for the Morphosyntactic Level in Functional Discourse Grammar that have been raised in the articles in this Special Issue. We begin by exploring the differences between the Morphosyntactic Level in FDG and the treatment of morphosyntactic phenomena in other linguistic frameworks. We…

  6. Case Study #1: Grammar, Tasks, and Attention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanaka, Daniel Jiro

    1999-01-01

    This action research investigated the problem of college students' participation in German class, examining how to engage students in focusing on form when grammar and accuracy held no interest for them. The action research showed how collaborative work could inform a teacher's perception of classroom events, leading to definable changes and…

  7. Using Technology for Teaching Arabic Language Grammar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arrabtah, Adel; Nusour, Tayseer

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of using technology such as CD-ROM, computers, and internet to teach Arabic language grammar to students at Princess Alia University College at Al-Balqa University. The sample of the study consisted of 122 third year female students; (64) for the experimental group and (58) for the control group. The subjects of…

  8. Grammar and the English National Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paterson, Laura Louise

    2010-01-01

    In 1998 the regulatory body for the National Curriculum, the Qualifications and Curriculum Authority, acknowledged that there was "widespread uncertainty" over the grammar requirements of the English Curriculum. In this paper I argue that the QCA still has not addressed this uncertainty. I analyse the 1999 and 2011 Primary English Curricula,…

  9. Using Technology for Teaching Arabic Language Grammar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arrabtah, Adel; Nusour, Tayseer

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of using technology such as CD-ROM, computers, and internet to teach Arabic language grammar to students at Princess Alia University College at Al-Balqa University. The sample of the study consisted of 122 third year female students; (64) for the experimental group and (58) for the control group. The subjects of…

  10. What Research Tells Us about Teaching Grammar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Michael W.; Wilhelm, Jeff

    2006-01-01

    The authors offer research studies and other documented evidence that teaching grammar without a meaningful context does not improve student writing, largely because that approach does not address the root causes of errors. Several resources that support this position and offer more productive strategies are summarized, including the authors'…

  11. Grammatikstunde ohne Schrecken (Grammar Class without Fright)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarnowski, Margrit von

    1975-01-01

    Reports on a 6th grade English (as a second language) grammar class, introducing formation of questions with "to do," following with written use of a worksheet. Success of the class hour is attributed to use of a blackboard picture and active student participation. (Text is in German.) (IFS/WGA)

  12. Case Study #1: Grammar, Tasks, and Attention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanaka, Daniel Jiro

    1999-01-01

    This action research investigated the problem of college students' participation in German class, examining how to engage students in focusing on form when grammar and accuracy held no interest for them. The action research showed how collaborative work could inform a teacher's perception of classroom events, leading to definable changes and…

  13. Grammar Schools: Brief Flowering of Social Mobility?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    Grammar schools are increasingly remembered, especially by right-wing ideologues, as the agents of a "brief flowering" of post-war social mobility. This article presents statistical, documentary and interview evidence of secondary education in the eleven plus era, and finds nothing to justify the claim that selective schools produced a general…

  14. Grammar and the English National Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paterson, Laura Louise

    2010-01-01

    In 1998 the regulatory body for the National Curriculum, the Qualifications and Curriculum Authority, acknowledged that there was "widespread uncertainty" over the grammar requirements of the English Curriculum. In this paper I argue that the QCA still has not addressed this uncertainty. I analyse the 1999 and 2011 Primary English Curricula,…

  15. Grammar and Parsing and a Transition Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juffs, Alan

    2006-01-01

    The article by Clahsen and Felser (CF) on grammatical processing in language learning is a timely and much-needed synthesis of research on this topic. It correctly identifies both morphological processing and syntactic processing as key areas that require attention. This commentary raises two issues: the relationship between the grammar and the…

  16. Epilogue: Dynamic Morphosyntax in Functional Discourse Grammar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Velasco, Daniel Garcia; Hengeveld, Kees; Mackenzie, J. Lachlan

    2012-01-01

    This epilogue addresses the most important topics and challenges for the Morphosyntactic Level in Functional Discourse Grammar that have been raised in the articles in this Special Issue. We begin by exploring the differences between the Morphosyntactic Level in FDG and the treatment of morphosyntactic phenomena in other linguistic frameworks. We…

  17. What Research Tells Us about Teaching Grammar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Michael W.; Wilhelm, Jeff

    2006-01-01

    The authors offer research studies and other documented evidence that teaching grammar without a meaningful context does not improve student writing, largely because that approach does not address the root causes of errors. Several resources that support this position and offer more productive strategies are summarized, including the authors'…

  18. A Reference Grammar of the Kanuri Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchison, John P.

    This study presents a grammatical analysis of the Kanuri language as it is spoken in Yerwa, the capital of Borno State in Nigeria. The material is organized in such a way as to be useful to students of the Kanuri language, to linguists, and to Kanuri people interested in the grammar of their language. The text is organized in pedagogical order…

  19. Education and the Grammar of Assent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Suzy

    2015-01-01

    John Henry Newman is probably known best for "The Idea of a University." In his most philosophical work, "An Essay in Aid of a Grammar of Assent," however, he undertakes a detailed investigation of different ways of knowing and understanding in a manner that is of clear pertinence for philosophical enquiry into education. He…

  20. A BRIEF HINDI REFERENCE GRAMMAR. PRELIMINARY VERSION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GUMPERZ, JOHN J.; MISRA, VIDYA NIWAS

    THIS BRIEF OUTLINE OF HINDI PHONOLOGY AND GRAMMAR IS INTENDED FOR FIRST AND SECOND YEAR STUDENTS OF HINDI WHO HAVE SOME PREVIOUS KNOWLEDGE OF THE ORAL AND WRITTEN LANGUAGE BUT WHO MAY HAVE HAD NO PREVIOUS TRAINING IN LINGUISTIC TERMINOLOGY. THE AUTHORS HAVE THEREFORE EMPHASIZED SIMPLICITY AND READABILITY RATHER THAN EXHAUSTIVENESS OR ORIGINALITY…

  1. English Grammar for Students of German.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zorach, Cecile

    This grammar is a self-study manual intended to aid native speakers of English who are beginning the study of German. It is designed to supplement the German textbook. The common grammatical terms that are necessary for learning to speak and write German are explained in English and illustrated by examples from German and English. The process of…

  2. Spelling and Grammar Checkers: Are They Intrusive?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Figueredo, Lauren; Varnhagen, Connie K.

    2006-01-01

    Spelling and grammar checkers help to make surface errors more apparent; do they influence the way in which people revise the content of their writing? We investigated whether the presence of checkers distracts students from making content revisions. Twenty-five freshmen, 20 English majors and 20 graduate students revised two essays on a computer,…

  3. What Is a Rule of Grammar?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lardiere, Donna

    2014-01-01

    This article offers commentary on the Multiple Grammars (MG) language acquisition theory proposed by Luiz Amaral and Tom Roeper in this issue. It argues that more precise definitions are needed for the terms "rule," "simple," and "productive." Topics discussed include Amaral and Roeper's verb second (V2) rule,…

  4. Multiple Grammars and Second Language Representation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amaral, Luiz; Roeper, Tom

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an extension of the Multiple Grammars Theory (Roeper, 1999) to provide a formal mechanism that can serve as a generative-based alternative to current descriptive models of interlanguage. The theory extends historical work by Kroch and Taylor (1997), and has been taken into a computational direction by Yang (2003). The proposal…

  5. Education and the Grammar of Assent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Suzy

    2015-01-01

    John Henry Newman is probably known best for "The Idea of a University." In his most philosophical work, "An Essay in Aid of a Grammar of Assent," however, he undertakes a detailed investigation of different ways of knowing and understanding in a manner that is of clear pertinence for philosophical enquiry into education. He…

  6. Learning grammar rules of building parts from precise models and noisy observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dehbi, Y.; Plümer, L.

    The automatic interpretation of dense three-dimensional (3D) point clouds is still an open research problem. The quality and usability of the derived models depend to a large degree on the availability of highly structured models which represent semantics explicitly and provide a priori knowledge to the interpretation process. The usage of formal grammars for modelling man-made objects has gained increasing interest in the last few years. In order to cope with the variety and complexity of buildings, a large number of fairly sophisticated grammar rules are needed. As yet, such rules mostly have to be designed by human experts. This article describes a novel approach to machine learning of attribute grammar rules based on the Inductive Logic Programming paradigm. Apart from syntactic differences, logic programs and attribute grammars are basically the same language. Attribute grammars extend context-free grammars by attributes and semantic rules and provide a much larger expressive power. Our approach to derive attribute grammars is able to deal with two kinds of input data. On the one hand, we show how attribute grammars can be derived from precise descriptions in the form of examples provided by a human user as the teacher. On the other hand, we present the acquisition of models from noisy observations such as 3D point clouds. This includes the learning of geometric and topological constraints by taking measurement errors into account. The feasibility of our approach is proven exemplarily by stairs, and a generic framework for learning other building parts is discussed. Stairs aggregate an arbitrary number of steps in a manner which is specified by topological and geometric constraints and can be modelled in a recursive way. Due to this recursion, they pose a special challenge to machine learning. In order to learn the concept of stairs, only a small number of examples were required. Our approach represents and addresses the quality of the given observations and the derived constraints explicitly, using concepts from uncertain projective geometry for learning geometric relations and the Wakeby distribution together with decision trees for topological relations.

  7. Learning a generative probabilistic grammar of experience: a process-level model of language acquisition.

    PubMed

    Kolodny, Oren; Lotem, Arnon; Edelman, Shimon

    2015-03-01

    We introduce a set of biologically and computationally motivated design choices for modeling the learning of language, or of other types of sequential, hierarchically structured experience and behavior, and describe an implemented system that conforms to these choices and is capable of unsupervised learning from raw natural-language corpora. Given a stream of linguistic input, our model incrementally learns a grammar that captures its statistical patterns, which can then be used to parse or generate new data. The grammar constructed in this manner takes the form of a directed weighted graph, whose nodes are recursively (hierarchically) defined patterns over the elements of the input stream. We evaluated the model in seventeen experiments, grouped into five studies, which examined, respectively, (a) the generative ability of grammar learned from a corpus of natural language, (b) the characteristics of the learned representation, (c) sequence segmentation and chunking, (d) artificial grammar learning, and (e) certain types of structure dependence. The model's performance largely vindicates our design choices, suggesting that progress in modeling language acquisition can be made on a broad front-ranging from issues of generativity to the replication of human experimental findings-by bringing biological and computational considerations, as well as lessons from prior efforts, to bear on the modeling approach. PMID:24977647

  8. Combined Grammar for the Modeling of Building Interiors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, S.; Peter, M.; Fritsch, D.; Philipp, D.; Baier, P.; Dibak, C.

    2013-11-01

    As spatial grammars have proven successful and efficient to deliver LOD3 models, the next challenge is their extension to indoor applications, leading to LOD4 models. Therefore, a combined indoor grammar for the automatic generation of indoor models from erroneous and incomplete observation data is presented. In building interiors where inaccurate observation data is available, the grammar can be used to make the reconstruction process robust, and verify the reconstructed geometries. In unobserved building interiors, the grammar can generate hypotheses about possible indoor geometries matching the style of the rest of the building. The grammar combines concepts from L-systems and split grammars. It is designed in such way that it can be derived from observation data fully automatically. Thus, manual predefinitions of the grammar rules usually required to tune the grammar to a specific building style, become obsolete. The potential benefit of using our grammar as support for indoor modeling is evaluated based on an example where the grammar has been applied to automatically generate an indoor model from erroneous and incomplete traces gathered by foot-mounted MEMS/IMU positioning systems.

  9. Diagnostic grammar and assessment: translating criteria into questions.

    PubMed

    Robins, L N

    1989-02-01

    There has been concern about whether standardized psychiatric interviews make valid diagnoses. Agreements between the Diagnostic Interview Schedule (DIS), as an example of a standardized interview, with independent assessments by a clinician are reasonably high in most studies, but the clinical assessment is itself of uncertain validity. Using predictive ability is an alternative way of judging validity. Data are presented to show that the DIS is almost as good at prediction as a clinician's assessment, but here too there are problems. Because prediction is probabilistic (i.e. the same disorder can have multiple outcomes, and different disorders can share outcomes), it is not possible to say how good prediction has to be to demonstrate perfect validity. Across varied methods of validity assessment, some disorders are regularly found more validly diagnosed than others, suggesting that part of the source of invalidity lies in the diagnostic grammar of the systems whose criteria standardized interviews evaluate. Sources of invalidity inherent in the content and structure of a variety of diagnoses in DSM-III and its heir, DSM-III-R, are reviewed and illustrated, in part with results from the Epidemiological Catchment Area study. The relationship between diagnostic criteria and standardized interviews is symbiotic. While attempts to adhere closely to existing diagnostic criteria contribute to the diagnostic accuracy of standardized interviews, the exercise of translating official diagnostic criteria into standardized questions highlights problems in the system's diagnostic grammar, enabling standardized interviews to contribute to improvements in diagnostic nosology. PMID:2727211

  10. Asymptotic distribution of motifs in a stochastic context-free grammar model of RNA folding.

    PubMed

    Poznanovi?, Svetlana; Heitsch, Christine E

    2014-12-01

    We analyze the distribution of RNA secondary structures given by the Knudsen-Hein stochastic context-free grammar used in the prediction program Pfold. Our main theorem gives relations between the expected number of these motifs--independent of the grammar probabilities. These relations are a consequence of proving that the distribution of base pairs, of helices, and of different types of loops is asymptotically Gaussian in this model of RNA folding. Proof techniques use singularity analysis of probability generating functions. We also demonstrate that these asymptotic results capture well the expected number of RNA base pairs in native ribosomal structures, and certain other aspects of their predicted secondary structures. In particular, we find that the predicted structures largely satisfy the expected relations, although the native structures do not. PMID:24384698

  11. ClusType: Effective Entity Recognition and Typing by Relation Phrase-Based Clustering

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Xiang; El-Kishky, Ahmed; Wang, Chi; Tao, Fangbo; Voss, Clare R.; Ji, Heng; Han, Jiawei

    2015-01-01

    Entity recognition is an important but challenging research problem. In reality, many text collections are from specific, dynamic, or emerging domains, which poses significant new challenges for entity recognition with increase in name ambiguity and context sparsity, requiring entity detection without domain restriction. In this paper, we investigate entity recognition (ER) with distant-supervision and propose a novel relation phrase-based ER framework, called ClusType, that runs data-driven phrase mining to generate entity mention candidates and relation phrases, and enforces the principle that relation phrases should be softly clustered when propagating type information between their argument entities. Then we predict the type of each entity mention based on the type signatures of its co-occurring relation phrases and the type indicators of its surface name, as computed over the corpus. Specifically, we formulate a joint optimization problem for two tasks, type propagation with relation phrases and multi-view relation phrase clustering. Our experiments on multiple genres—news, Yelp reviews and tweets—demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of ClusType, with an average of 37% improvement in F1 score over the best compared method. PMID:26705503

  12. It's Not Just the "Heavy NP": Relative Phrase Length Modulates the Production of Heavy-NP Shift

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stallings, Lynne M.; MacDonald, Maryellen C.

    2011-01-01

    Heavy-NP shift is the tendency for speakers to place long direct object phrases at the end of a clause rather than next to the verb. Though some analyses have focused on length of the direct object phrase alone, results from two experiments demonstrate that the length of the direct object relative to that of other phrases, and not the length of…

  13. Using attribute grammars for the genetic selection of back-propagation networks for character recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Browse, Roger A.; Hussain, Talib S.; Smillie, Matthew B.

    1999-03-01

    Determining exactly which neural network architecture, with which parameters, will provide the best solution to a classification task is often based upon the intuitions and experience of the implementers of neural network solutions. The research presented in this paper is centered on the development of automated methods for the selection of appropriate networks, as applied to character recognition. The Network Generating Attribute Grammar Encoding system is a compact and general method for the specification of commonly accepted network architectures that can be easily expanded to include novel architectures, or that can be easily restricted to a small subset of some known architecture. Within this system, the context-free component of the attribute grammar specifies a class of basic architectures by using the non-terminals to represent network, layers and component structures. The inherited and synthesized attributes indicate the connections necessary to develop a functioning network from any parse tree that is generated from the grammar. The attribute grammar encoding is particularly conducive to the use of genetic algorithms as a strategy for searching the space of possible networks. The resultant parse trees are used as the genetic code, permitting a variety of different genetic manipulations. We apply this approach in the generation of backpropagation networks for recognition of characters from a set consisting of 20,000 examples of 26 letters.

  14. Grammar-based Automatic 3D Model Reconstruction from Terrestrial Laser Scanning Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Q.; Helmholz, P.; Belton, D.; West, G.

    2014-04-01

    The automatic reconstruction of 3D buildings has been an important research topic during the last years. In this paper, a novel method is proposed to automatically reconstruct the 3D building models from segmented data based on pre-defined formal grammar and rules. Such segmented data can be extracted e.g. from terrestrial or mobile laser scanning devices. Two steps are considered in detail. The first step is to transform the segmented data into 3D shapes, for instance using the DXF (Drawing Exchange Format) format which is a CAD data file format used for data interchange between AutoCAD and other program. Second, we develop a formal grammar to describe the building model structure and integrate the pre-defined grammars into the reconstruction process. Depending on the different segmented data, the selected grammar and rules are applied to drive the reconstruction process in an automatic manner. Compared with other existing approaches, our proposed method allows the model reconstruction directly from 3D shapes and takes the whole building into account.

  15. Grammar of Binding in the languages of the world: Innate or learned?

    PubMed

    Cole, Peter; Hermon, Gabriella; Yanti

    2015-08-01

    Languages around the world often appear to manifest nearly identical grammatical properties, but, at the same time, the grammatical differences can also be great, sometimes even seeming to support Joos's (1958) claim that "languages can differ from each other without limit and in unpredictable way" (p. 96). This state of affairs provides a puzzle for both nativist approaches to language like Generative Grammar that posit a fixed "Universal Grammar", and for approaches that minimize the contribution of innate grammatical structure. We approach this puzzling state of affairs by looking at one area of grammar, "Binding", the system of local and long distance anaphoric elements in a language. This is an area of grammar that has long been central to the Generative approach to language structure. We compare the anaphoric systems found in "familiar" (European-like) languages that contain dedicated classes of bound and free anaphors (pronouns and reflexives) with the anaphoric systems in endangered Austronesian languages of Indonesia, languages in which there is overlap or no distinction between pronouns and reflexives (Peranakan Javanese and Jambi Malay). What is of special interest about Jambi anaphora is not only that conservative dialects of Jambi Malay do not distinguish between pronouns and reflexives, but that Jambi anaphora appear to constitute a live snapshot of a unitary class of anaphora in the process of grammaticalization as a distinct system of pronouns and reflexives. We argue that the facts of Jambi anaphora cannot be explained by theories positing a Universal Grammar of Binding. Thus, these facts provide evidence that complex grammatical systems like Binding cannot be innate. Our results from Austronesian languages are confirmed by data from signed and creole languages. Our conclusion is that the human language learning capacity must include the ability to model the full complexity found in the syntax of the world's languages. From the perspective of child language acquisition, these conclusions suggest that Universal Grammar does not provide a general solution to the problem of poverty of the stimulus, and the solution to that problem must reside at least in part in special properties of the grammar construction tools available to the language learner rather than simply in a fixed set of grammatical rules hard wired into the brains of speakers. PMID:25988914

  16. Hilft es die Regel zu wissen um sie anzuwenden? Das Verhaltnis von Melatlinguistischem Bewusstsein und grammatischer Kompetenz (Is Knowledge of Grammar Rules Helpful in Their Application? The Relationship between Metalinguistic Insight and Grammar Competency in the Study of German as a Foreign Language).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schultz, Renate A.

    2002-01-01

    Examines to what extent, if at all, grammar instruction fosters or accelerates language acquisition. Presents a study investigating the acquisition of syntactic or morphological structures in 340 students learning German as a foreign language. The results are discussed. (AS)

  17. Improving DHH students' grammar through an individualized software program.

    PubMed

    Cannon, Joanna E; Easterbrooks, Susan R; Gagné, Phill; Beal-Alvarez, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if the frequent use of a targeted, computer software grammar instruction program, used as an individualized classroom activity, would influence the comprehension of morphosyntax structures (determiners, tense, and complementizers) in deaf/hard-of-hearing (DHH) participants who use American Sign Language (ASL). Twenty-six students from an urban day school for the deaf participated in this study. Two hierarchical linear modeling growth curve analyses showed that the influence of LanguageLinks: Syntax Assessment and Intervention (LL) resulted in statistically significant gains in participants' comprehension of morphosyntax structures. Two dependent t tests revealed statistically significant results between the pre- and postintervention assessments on the Diagnostic Evaluation of Language Variation-Norm Referenced. The daily use of LL increased the morphosyntax comprehension of the participants in this study and may be a promising practice for DHH students who use ASL. PMID:21734228

  18. [Assessing the progress of grammar acquisition in young children].

    PubMed

    Ptok, M; Ptok, A

    2008-05-01

    Children need to acquire approximately 50 words within their first 24 months. This enables them to start combining words to make short sentences, which is also the start of learning rules governing grammar. When children start to construct sentences, the mean length of their utterances correlates with their implicit grammar knowledge. Therefore, the mean length of utterance estimation can be used to assess and monitor the progress of grammar acquisition. PMID:18415069

  19. Recent Developments in Transformational Grammar.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Roderick A.

    1969-01-01

    In the years following the appearance of Noam Chomsky's book, "Syntactic Structures," in 1957, transformational grammarians modified and improved his initial model of language. The notion of a deep structure of meaning underlying a sentence's surface structure was revised to embody elements representing negation, command, and interrogation, and to…

  20. An incremental interactive algorithm for regular grammar inference

    SciTech Connect

    Parekh, R.; Honavar, V.

    1996-12-31

    Grammar inference, a problem with many applications in pattern recognition and language learning, is defined as follows: For an unknown grammar G, given a finite set of positive examples S{sup +} that belong to L(G), and possibly a finite set of negative examples S{sup -}, infer a grammar G* equivalent to G. Different restrictions on S{sup +} and S{sup -} and the interaction of the learner with the teacher or the environment give rise to different variants of this task. We present an interactive incremental algorithm for inference of a finite state automaton (FSA) corresponding to an unknown regular grammar.

  1. Impaired artificial grammar learning in agrammatism.

    PubMed

    Christiansen, Morten H; Louise Kelly, M; Shillcock, Richard C; Greenfield, Katie

    2010-09-01

    It is often assumed that language is supported by domain-specific neural mechanisms, in part based on neuropsychological data from aphasia. If, however, language relies on domain-general mechanisms, it would be expected that deficits in non-linguistic cognitive processing should co-occur with aphasia. In this paper, we report a study of sequential learning by agrammatic aphasic patients and control participants matched for age, socio-economic status and non-verbal intelligence. Participants were first exposed to strings derived from an artificial grammar after which they were asked to classify a set of new strings, some of which were generated by the same grammar whereas others were not. Although both groups of participants performed well in the training phase of the experiment, only the control participants were able to classify novel test items better than chance. The results show that breakdown of language in agrammatic aphasia is associated with an impairment in artificial grammar learning, indicating damage to domain-general neural mechanisms subserving both language and sequential learning. PMID:20605017

  2. Visual grammars and their neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mjolsness, Eric

    1992-07-01

    We exhibit a systematic way to derive neural nets for vision problems. It involves formulating a vision problem as Bayesian inference or decision on a comprehensive model of the visual domain given by a probabilistic grammar. A key feature of this grammar is the way in which it eliminates model information, such as object labels, as it produces an image; correspondence problems and other noise removal tasks result. The neural nets that arise most directly are generalized assignment networks. Also there are transformations which naturally yield improved algorithms such as correlation matching in scale space and the Frameville neural nets for high-level vision. Networks derived this way generally have objective functions with spurious local minima; such minima may commonly be avoided by dynamics that include deterministic annealing, for example recent improvements to Mean Field Theory dynamics. The grammatical method of neural net design allows domain knowledge to enter from all levels of the grammar, including `abstract' levels remote from the final image data, and may permit new kinds of learning as well.

  3. The Role of Chunks, Phrases, and Body Language in Understanding Coordinated Academic Lectures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khuwaileh, A. A.

    1999-01-01

    A crucial component of academic lectures is the use of chunks, phrases, and body language, and their role in facilitating understanding. This article examines the function and context of this component in the discourse of academic lectures. (Author/VWL)

  4. Increases in Individualistic Words and Phrases in American Books, 1960–2008

    PubMed Central

    Twenge, Jean M.; Campbell, W. Keith; Gentile, Brittany

    2012-01-01

    Cultural products such as song lyrics, television shows, and books reveal cultural differences, including cultural change over time. Two studies examine changes in the use of individualistic words (Study 1) and phrases (Study 2) in the Google Books Ngram corpus of millions of books in American English. Current samples from the general population generated and rated lists of individualistic words and phrases (e.g., “unique,” “personalize,” “self,” “all about me,” “I am special,” “I’m the best”). Individualistic words and phrases increased in use between 1960 and 2008, even when controlling for changes in communal words and phrases. Language in American books has become increasingly focused on the self and uniqueness in the decades since 1960. PMID:22808113

  5. The Interpretation of Phrases Used to Describe Uncertainty in Pathology Reports

    PubMed Central

    Galloway, Malcolm; Taiyeb, Taj

    2011-01-01

    Histopathological reports frequently contain phrases describing the degree of uncertainty of the diagnosis. We examined the interpretations of such terms by cellular pathologists, other doctors, and medical students. 203 respondents estimated the degree of certainty they would associate with the following phrases in a cellular pathology report: the features are indicative of; raise the possibility of; are compatible with; are probably those of; are diagnostic of; are in keeping with; and are suggestive of. For all phrases assessed other than “diagnostic of”, all groups showed a wide spread in the interpreted probability. For example, the probability associated with the term “in keeping with” by individual consultant pathologists ranged from 25 to 100%. This study demonstrates that pathologists vary widely in how they interpret the meaning of phrases describing probability that are commonly used in pathology reports. We suggest that this potential risk is highlighted during pathology training. PMID:21876845

  6. What artificial grammar learning reveals about the neurobiology of syntax.

    PubMed

    Petersson, Karl-Magnus; Folia, Vasiliki; Hagoort, Peter

    2012-02-01

    In this paper we examine the neurobiological correlates of syntax, the processing of structured sequences, by comparing FMRI results on artificial and natural language syntax. We discuss these and similar findings in the context of formal language and computability theory. We used a simple right-linear unification grammar in an implicit artificial grammar learning paradigm in 32 healthy Dutch university students (natural language FMRI data were already acquired for these participants). We predicted that artificial syntax processing would engage the left inferior frontal region (BA 44/45) and that this activation would overlap with syntax-related variability observed in the natural language experiment. The main findings of this study show that the left inferior frontal region centered on BA 44/45 is active during artificial syntax processing of well-formed (grammatical) sequence independent of local subsequence familiarity. The same region is engaged to a greater extent when a syntactic violation is present and structural unification becomes difficult or impossible. The effects related to artificial syntax in the left inferior frontal region (BA 44/45) were essentially identical when we masked these with activity related to natural syntax in the same subjects. Finally, the medial temporal lobe was deactivated during this operation, consistent with the view that implicit processing does not rely on declarative memory mechanisms that engage the medial temporal lobe. In the context of recent FMRI findings, we raise the question whether Broca's region (or subregions) is specifically related to syntactic movement operations or the processing of hierarchically nested non-adjacent dependencies in the discussion section. We conclude that this is not the case. Instead, we argue that the left inferior frontal region is a generic on-line sequence processor that unifies information from various sources in an incremental and recursive manner, independent of whether there are any processing requirements related to syntactic movement or hierarchically nested structures. In addition, we argue that the Chomsky hierarchy is not directly relevant for neurobiological systems. PMID:20943261

  7. Notions Catalog. Polish Functional Grammar.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woytak, Lidia

    The Polish notions catalog systematizes a variety of informational codes used in Polish, resulting in lists of notions, each presented from a structural perspective. Where applicable, they are accompanied by a morphological component, structural chart, semantic description, frequentative expressions, and related vocabulary items. The notions…

  8. LeadMine: a grammar and dictionary driven approach to entity recognition

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Chemical entity recognition has traditionally been performed by machine learning approaches. Here we describe an approach using grammars and dictionaries. This approach has the advantage that the entities found can be directly related to a given grammar or dictionary, which allows the type of an entity to be known and, if an entity is misannotated, indicates which resource should be corrected. As recognition is driven by what is expected, if spelling errors occur, they can be corrected. Correcting such errors is highly useful when attempting to lookup an entity in a database or, in the case of chemical names, converting them to structures. Results Our system uses a mixture of expertly curated grammars and dictionaries, as well as dictionaries automatically derived from public resources. We show that the heuristics developed to filter our dictionary of trivial chemical names (from PubChem) yields a better performing dictionary than the previously published Jochem dictionary. Our final system performs post-processing steps to modify the boundaries of entities and to detect abbreviations. These steps are shown to significantly improve performance (2.6% and 4.0% F1-score respectively). Our complete system, with incremental post-BioCreative workshop improvements, achieves 89.9% precision and 85.4% recall (87.6% F1-score) on the CHEMDNER test set. Conclusions Grammar and dictionary approaches can produce results at least as good as the current state of the art in machine learning approaches. While machine learning approaches are commonly thought of as "black box" systems, our approach directly links the output entities to the input dictionaries and grammars. Our approach also allows correction of errors in detected entities, which can assist with entity resolution. PMID:25810776

  9. 21 CFR 4.2 - How does FDA define key terms and phrases in this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false How does FDA define key terms and phrases in this subpart? 4.2 Section 4.2 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Combination Products § 4.2 How does FDA define key terms and phrases in this subpart? The terms listed in...

  10. 21 CFR 4.2 - How does FDA define key terms and phrases in this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false How does FDA define key terms and phrases in this subpart? 4.2 Section 4.2 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Combination Products § 4.2 How does FDA define key terms and phrases in this subpart? The terms listed in...

  11. Can individuals with Down syndrome improve their grammar?

    PubMed

    Sepúlveda, Esther Moraleda; López-Villaseñor, Miguel Lázaro; Heinze, Elena Garayzábal

    2013-01-01

    Morphosyntax constitutes one of the most complex areas of language. It takes into account the structure of the word and that of the sentence, and its development allows one to establish adequately agreements both within the nominal phrase and in the rest of the sentence. Morphosyntax is particularly impaired in individuals with Down syndrome. To improve their morphosyntactic skills, an intervention programme was designed and carried out with a total of 20 Spanish-speaking children with Down syndrome; half of them composed the experimental group and the other half the control group. The results obtained show that the children in the experimental group improved more than the children in the control group in the areas of syntax, morphology and semantics, but not in pragmatics, where both groups improved to the same extent. Overall, the results obtained support the effectiveness of the programme implemented as a clinical and educational tool for intervention in individuals with Down syndrome. PMID:23650890

  12. An articulatory examination of variable word-final flapping at phrase edges and interiors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukaya, Teruhiko; Byrd, Dani

    2003-04-01

    Formulations of flapping as a symbolic phonological rule suggest clear articulatory differences between flaps and stops and offer no overt explanation for why phrase boundaries should block the alternation. A current articulatory phonetic study of word-final coronals by de Jong (1998) explored the possibility that gradient changes in articulatory dimensions might give rise to quantal difference in the percept of these coronal stops. In particular, increased overlap between the coronal and the following vowel may result in spatial reduction of the coronal gesture via blending. We present results from an experiment with three speakers examining tongue tip movement and acoustic data for word-final [t], phrase internally and at phrase boundaries, with falling and level stress contours. The results confirm that flaps did not occur at phrase boundaries. Phrase-internally, flaps occurred for one subject invariantly and for another subject variably. While the acoustic durations of flaps were expectedly shorter, this did not correspond directly to their closing movement durations. There was also some tendency for flaps to have a shorter acceleration phase and no change in deceleration duration, arguing against an overlap account. Finally, the phrase boundary was associated with articulatory and acoustic lengthening, both incompatible with patterns seen for flapped tokens. [Work supported by USC Zumburge Grant and by NIH.

  13. The Role of Sustained Attention in the Production of Conjoined Noun Phrases: An Individual Differences Study

    PubMed Central

    Jongman, Suzanne R.; Meyer, Antje S.; Roelofs, Ardi

    2015-01-01

    It has previously been shown that language production, performed simultaneously with a nonlinguistic task, involves sustained attention. Sustained attention concerns the ability to maintain alertness over time. Here, we aimed to replicate the previous finding by showing that individuals call upon sustained attention when they plan single noun phrases (e.g., "the carrot") and perform a manual arrow categorization task. In addition, we investigated whether speakers also recruit sustained attention when they produce conjoined noun phrases (e.g., "the carrot and the bucket") describing two pictures, that is, when both the first and second task are linguistic. We found that sustained attention correlated with the proportion of abnormally slow phrase-production responses. Individuals with poor sustained attention displayed a greater number of very slow responses than individuals with better sustained attention. Importantly, this relationship was obtained both for the production of single phrases while performing a nonlinguistic manual task, and the production of noun phrase conjunctions in referring to two spatially separated objects. Inhibition and updating abilities were also measured. These scores did not correlate with our measure of sustained attention, suggesting that sustained attention and executive control are distinct. Overall, the results suggest that planning conjoined noun phrases involves sustained attention, and that language production happens less automatically than has often been assumed. PMID:26335441

  14. Grammar Instruction in Language Development: Rationale and Technique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohammed, Abdelmoneim M.

    1995-01-01

    Argues that the teaching of grammar supplements learners' natural tendency to formulate and test hypotheses about the language. Complicated linguistic analyses can impede this process. Pedagogical grammar can be made less formal by keeping the analysis and metalanguage to the minimum. (36 references) (Author/CK)

  15. Grammar Is Back, but When Will We Start Cooking?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vavra, Ed

    2003-01-01

    Suggests that the current "return" to grammar will fail unless educators can come to terms with definitions of fundamental grammatical concepts. Considers how educators cannot go back to teaching the traditional, because the traditional no longer exists. Argues that pedagogical grammar currently has too many cooks, all trying to prepare the same…

  16. How is Pedagogical Grammar Defined in Current TESOL Training Practice?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Wendy

    2003-01-01

    This article reports on the results of a survey of pedagogical grammar courses in MATESOL programs in the United States and Canada. An analysis of 39 self-reporting questionnaires and 23 course syllabi provides much-needed information about the content and emphasis of the courses and how pedagogical grammar is defined in current TESOL training…

  17. Concept-Based Grammar Teaching: An Academic Responds to Azar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Kent

    2007-01-01

    This response to Azar (this volume) intends to discuss from an academic's perspective the main points raised in her paper (i.e., grammar-based instruction and its relation to focus on form and error correction) and, to encourage a more concept-based approach to grammar instruction (CBT). A CBT approach to language development argues that the…

  18. Literary Texts and Grammar Instruction: Revisiting the Inductive Presentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paesani, Kate

    2005-01-01

    This article outlines an approach to explicit grammar instruction that uses literary texts as comprehensible, meaning-bearing input. In this approach, which employs strategies from the teaching of grammar and the teaching of reading, literary texts serve as the basis of the inductive presentation of new grammatical forms and as a springboard for…

  19. Grammar for College Writing: A Sentence-Composing Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killgallon, Don; Killgallon, Jenny

    2010-01-01

    Across America, in thousands of classrooms, from elementary school to high school, the time-tested sentence-composing approach has given students tools to become better writers. Now the authors present a much anticipated sentence-composing grammar worktext for college writing. This book presents a new and easier way to understand grammar: (1) Noun…

  20. Investigating Effects of Computer-Based Grammar Tutorials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolesnikova, Anna

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation study examined a broad question of whether computer-based grammar tutorials are effective and welcome tools to review grammar for language learners by investigating effects of three different modes of such tutorials on learners' knowledge and satisfaction. For this study, I developed experimental tutorials in three different…

  1. On the Equivalence of Formal Grammars and Machines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lund, Bruce

    1991-01-01

    Explores concepts of formal language and automata theory underlying computational linguistics. A computational formalism is described known as a "logic grammar," with which computational systems process linguistic data, with examples in declarative and procedural semantics and definite clause grammars. (13 references) (CB)

  2. Evaluating Pre-Primer Basal Readers Using Story Grammar.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Mary Jane

    1985-01-01

    The present study evaluated pre-primer basal reading materials using the Johnson and Mandler story grammar. Three stories from two widely used series were selected and rewritten in accord with the rules of the story grammar. First graders were studied under eight conditions, and conclusions were drawn. (Author/LMO)

  3. The Role of Grammar Knowledge for Identifying Language Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowley, Anne Toolan

    2010-01-01

    The focus of the study was an interest in discerning the relationship between grammar knowledge and its application for evaluating grammar development at different academic and professional stages. A 3-part questionnaire was completed by first and last semester Communication Sciences and Disorders (CSD) graduate students, and practicing…

  4. Environmental Peace Education in Foreign Language Learners' English Grammar Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arikan, Arda

    2009-01-01

    English language teachers create contexts to teach grammar so that meaningful learning occurs. In this study, English grammar is contextualized through environmental peace education activities to raise students' awareness of global issues. Two sources provided data to evaluate the success of this instructional process. Fourth-year pre-service…

  5. The Constituent Ordering Process in Functional Discourse Grammar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connolly, John H.

    2012-01-01

    An essential task for the morphosyntactic level within the grammatical component of Functional Discourse Grammar (FDG) is the handling of constituent ordering. This area of grammar, which is known as positional syntax, constitutes the subject of the present paper, in which the ordering of constituents is examined within the framework of a dynamic…

  6. Teacher Cognition in Grammar Teaching: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borg, Simon

    2003-01-01

    This paper reviews studies of teacher cognition in relation to the teaching of grammar in first, second, and foreign language classrooms. Teacher cognition encompasses a range of psychological constructs and these are reflected in the research reviewed here. Thus, in turn, I discuss studies of teachers' declarative knowledge about grammar, of…

  7. The Effect of Grammar Teaching on Writing Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Richard; Torgerson, Carole; Beverton, Sue; Freeman, Allison; Locke, Terry; Low, Graham; Robinson, Alison; Zhu, Die

    2006-01-01

    This article reports on the results of two international systematic research reviews which focus on different aspects of teaching grammar to improve the quality and accuracy of 5-16-year-olds' writing in English. The results show that there is little evidence to indicate that the teaching of formal grammar is effective; and that teaching…

  8. Towards a Rationale for Research into Grammar Teaching in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fontich, Xavier; Camps, Anna

    2014-01-01

    This article hopes to bring new insights to the debate about the effect of grammar knowledge on language use, especially writing. It raises the question of the need to look more closely at the following three questions: (1) What is the aim of grammar teaching?; (2) How capable are students of conceptualising about language and how is their…

  9. Current Issues in the Teaching of Grammar: An SLA Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Rod

    2006-01-01

    The study of how learners acquire a second language (SLA) has helped to shape thinking about how to teach the grammar of a second language. There remain, however, a number of controversial issues. This paper considers eight key questions relating to grammar pedagogy in the light of findings from SLA. As such, this article complements…

  10. Grammar Teaching and Learning in L2: Necessary, but Boring?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jean, Gladys; Simard, Daphnee

    2011-01-01

    This descriptive inquiry-based study targeted second language (L2) high school students' (n = 2321) and teachers' (n = 45) beliefs and perceptions about grammar instruction, specifically about grammatical accuracy, corrective feedback, and diverse forms of grammar teaching and learning. Results showed only slight discrepancies between students'…

  11. The Effectiveness of Incidental Teaching of Grammar to Iranian Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghabanchi, Z.

    2010-01-01

    This article reports the results of a study and a pilot study. The "study" considers the effectiveness of incidental teaching of grammar in a learning class of English As A Second Language by Persian speaking students. The "pilot study" examines the students' attitudes toward the incidental learning of grammar from the perspective of field…

  12. Exploring Tensions between Teachers' Grammar Teaching Beliefs and Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phipps, Simon; Borg, Simon

    2009-01-01

    This study examines tensions in the grammar teaching beliefs and practices of three practising teachers of English working in Turkey. The teachers were observed and interviewed over a period of 18 months; the observations provided insights into how they taught grammar, while the interviews explored the beliefs underpinning the teachers' classroom…

  13. Grammar Teaching and Learning in L2: Necessary, but Boring?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jean, Gladys; Simard, Daphnee

    2011-01-01

    This descriptive inquiry-based study targeted second language (L2) high school students' (n = 2321) and teachers' (n = 45) beliefs and perceptions about grammar instruction, specifically about grammatical accuracy, corrective feedback, and diverse forms of grammar teaching and learning. Results showed only slight discrepancies between students'…

  14. The Effectiveness of Incidental Teaching of Grammar to Iranian Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghabanchi, Z.

    2010-01-01

    This article reports the results of a study and a pilot study. The "study" considers the effectiveness of incidental teaching of grammar in a learning class of English As A Second Language by Persian speaking students. The "pilot study" examines the students' attitudes toward the incidental learning of grammar from the perspective of field…

  15. The Effect of Grammar Teaching on Writing Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Richard; Torgerson, Carole; Beverton, Sue; Freeman, Allison; Locke, Terry; Low, Graham; Robinson, Alison; Zhu, Die

    2006-01-01

    This article reports on the results of two international systematic research reviews which focus on different aspects of teaching grammar to improve the quality and accuracy of 5-16-year-olds' writing in English. The results show that there is little evidence to indicate that the teaching of formal grammar is effective; and that teaching…

  16. Towards More Context and Discourse in Grammar Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Celce-Murcia, Marianne

    2007-01-01

    This paper first discusses why the sentence-level drills still being used extensively in the teaching of grammar to second language learners have not been successful. What follows is a presentation of an innovative approach; namely, using context and discourse to present and practice grammar in more authentic and effective ways.

  17. Yemeni Teachers' Beliefs of Grammar Teaching and Classroom Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ezzi, Nemah Abdullah Ayash

    2012-01-01

    Beliefs of in-service English teachers about grammar learning/teaching and the influence of such beliefs on their classroom practices remain relatively unexplored. More precisely, this study explores English teachers' beliefs about grammar learning and teaching. It throws light on the teachers' actual practices in the classrooms of 7th -12th…

  18. Current Issues in the Teaching of Grammar: An SLA Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Rod

    2006-01-01

    The study of how learners acquire a second language (SLA) has helped to shape thinking about how to teach the grammar of a second language. There remain, however, a number of controversial issues. This paper considers eight key questions relating to grammar pedagogy in the light of findings from SLA. As such, this article complements…

  19. Exploring Tensions between Teachers' Grammar Teaching Beliefs and Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phipps, Simon; Borg, Simon

    2009-01-01

    This study examines tensions in the grammar teaching beliefs and practices of three practising teachers of English working in Turkey. The teachers were observed and interviewed over a period of 18 months; the observations provided insights into how they taught grammar, while the interviews explored the beliefs underpinning the teachers' classroom…

  20. Teacher Cognition in Grammar Teaching: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borg, Simon

    2003-01-01

    This paper reviews studies of teacher cognition in relation to the teaching of grammar in first, second, and foreign language classrooms. Teacher cognition encompasses a range of psychological constructs and these are reflected in the research reviewed here. Thus, in turn, I discuss studies of teachers' declarative knowledge about grammar, of…