Itch Management: General Principles.
Misery, Laurent
2016-01-01
Like pain, itch is a challenging condition that needs to be managed. Within this setting, the first principle of itch management is to get an appropriate diagnosis to perform an etiology-oriented therapy. In several cases it is not possible to treat the cause, the etiology is undetermined, there are several causes, or the etiological treatment is not effective enough to alleviate itch completely. This is also why there is need for symptomatic treatment. In all patients, psychological support and associated pragmatic measures might be helpful. General principles and guidelines are required, yet patient-centered individual care remains fundamental. PMID:27578069
Phraseology in Planned Languages.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fiedler, Sabine
1999-01-01
A comprehensive phraseological study of Esperanto, based on detailed test analyses, participant observation and surveys, reveals both similarities and differences in comparison to ethnic or national languages. Relatively high level of metalinguistic consciousness and creativity were observed, coupled with widely differing attitudes towards the…
Archimedes' Principle in General Coordinates
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ridgely, Charles T.
2010-01-01
Archimedes' principle is well known to state that a body submerged in a fluid is buoyed up by a force equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by the body. Herein, Archimedes' principle is derived from first principles by using conservation of the stress-energy-momentum tensor in general coordinates. The resulting expression for the force is…
The Principle of General Tovariance
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Heunen, C.; Landsman, N. P.; Spitters, B.
2008-06-01
We tentatively propose two guiding principles for the construction of theories of physics, which should be satisfied by a possible future theory of quantum gravity. These principles are inspired by those that led Einstein to his theory of general relativity, viz. his principle of general covariance and his equivalence principle, as well as by the two mysterious dogmas of Bohr's interpretation of quantum mechanics, i.e. his doctrine of classical concepts and his principle of complementarity. An appropriate mathematical language for combining these ideas is topos theory, a framework earlier proposed for physics by Isham and collaborators. Our principle of general tovariance states that any mathematical structure appearing in the laws of physics must be definable in an arbitrary topos (with natural numbers object) and must be preserved under so-called geometric morphisms. This principle identifies geometric logic as the mathematical language of physics and restricts the constructions and theorems to those valid in intuitionism: neither Aristotle's principle of the excluded third nor Zermelo's Axiom of Choice may be invoked. Subsequently, our equivalence principle states that any algebra of observables (initially defined in the topos Sets) is empirically equivalent to a commutative one in some other topos.
Generalized Edgeworth-Pareto principle
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Noghin, V. D.
2015-12-01
The general multicriteria choice problem with m individual preference relations and an asymmetric collective preference relation is considered. The concept of a k-effective alternative is introduced, which coincides with an effective alternative for k = 1 and represents a weakly effective alternative for k = m. For the other integer values of k, it lies somewhere in between. In terms of the general multicriteria choice problem, the Pareto axiom and the exclusion axiom for dominated alternatives are stated. Assuming that these axioms hold, a generalized Edgeworth-Pareto principle is established, which was earlier introduced by the author in the special case k = 1. The results are extended to a fuzzy collective preference relation and to a fuzzy set of initial alternatives.
General principles of antimicrobial therapy.
Leekha, Surbhi; Terrell, Christine L; Edson, Randall S
2011-02-01
Antimicrobial agents are some of the most widely, and often injudiciously, used therapeutic drugs worldwide. Important considerations when prescribing antimicrobial therapy include obtaining an accurate diagnosis of infection; understanding the difference between empiric and definitive therapy; identifying opportunities to switch to narrow-spectrum, cost-effective oral agents for the shortest duration necessary; understanding drug characteristics that are peculiar to antimicrobial agents (such as pharmacodynamics and efficacy at the site of infection); accounting for host characteristics that influence antimicrobial activity; and in turn, recognizing the adverse effects of antimicrobial agents on the host. It is also important to understand the importance of antimicrobial stewardship, to know when to consult infectious disease specialists for guidance, and to be able to identify situations when antimicrobial therapy is not needed. By following these general principles, all practicing physicians should be able to use antimicrobial agents in a responsible manner that benefits both the individual patient and the community. PMID:21282489
Quantum mechanics and the generalized uncertainty principle
Bang, Jang Young; Berger, Micheal S.
2006-12-15
The generalized uncertainty principle has been described as a general consequence of incorporating a minimal length from a theory of quantum gravity. We consider a simple quantum mechanical model where the operator corresponding to position has discrete eigenvalues and show how the generalized uncertainty principle results for minimum uncertainty wave packets.
General Biology Needs Well-Defined Principles
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lewis, Ralph W.
1973-01-01
General biology courses should be planned and taught in colleges according to widely accepted theories and laws of biology. A list of 24 such principles is provided around which general biology courses could be structured. (PS)
23 CFR 660.509 - General principles.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-04-01
... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false General principles. 660.509 Section 660.509 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS SPECIAL PROGRAMS (DIRECT FEDERAL) Defense Access Roads § 660.509 General principles. (a) State and local...
23 CFR 660.509 - General principles.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-04-01
... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false General principles. 660.509 Section 660.509 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS SPECIAL PROGRAMS (DIRECT FEDERAL) Defense Access Roads § 660.509 General principles. (a) State and local...
23 CFR 660.509 - General principles.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-04-01
... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false General principles. 660.509 Section 660.509 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS SPECIAL PROGRAMS (DIRECT FEDERAL) Defense Access Roads § 660.509 General principles. (a) State and local...
23 CFR 660.509 - General principles.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-04-01
... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false General principles. 660.509 Section 660.509 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS SPECIAL PROGRAMS (DIRECT FEDERAL) Defense Access Roads § 660.509 General principles. (a) State and local...
23 CFR 660.509 - General principles.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false General principles. 660.509 Section 660.509 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS SPECIAL PROGRAMS (DIRECT FEDERAL) Defense Access Roads § 660.509 General principles. (a) State and local...
39 CFR 268.1 - General principles.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General principles. 268.1 Section 268.1 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION PRIVACY OF INFORMATION-EMPLOYEE RULES OF CONDUCT § 268.1 General principles. In order to conduct its business, the Postal Service has the need to collect various types of...
Deriving and applying generally applicable safety principles
Spray, S.D.
1998-08-01
The nuclear detonation safety of modern nuclear weapons depends on a coordinated safety theme incorporating three general safety principles: isolation, inoperability, and incompatibility. The success of this approach has encouraged them to study whether these and/or other principles might be useful in other applications. Not surprisingly, no additional first-principles (based on physical laws) have been identified. However, a more widely applicable definition and application of the principle-based approach has been developed, resulting in a selection of strategies that are basically subsets and varied combinations of the more general principles above. However, identification of principles to be relied on is only one step in providing a safe design. As one other important example, coordinating overall architecture and strategy is essential: the authors term this a safety theme.
Action principle for the generalized harmonic formulation of general relativity
Brown, J. David
2011-10-15
An action principle for the generalized harmonic formulation of general relativity is presented. The action is a functional of the spacetime metric and the gauge source vector. An action principle for the Z4 formulation of general relativity has been proposed recently by Bona, Bona-Casas, and Palenzuela. The relationship between the generalized harmonic action and the Bona, Bona-Casas, and Palenzuela action is discussed in detail.
29 CFR 2.11 - General principles.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
... 29 Labor 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false General principles. 2.11 Section 2.11 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor GENERAL REGULATIONS Audiovisual Coverage of Administrative Hearings § 2.11 General... involve administrative hearings. If such administrative hearings are held, we encourage their...
29 CFR 2.11 - General principles.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true General principles. 2.11 Section 2.11 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor GENERAL REGULATIONS Audiovisual Coverage of Administrative Hearings § 2.11 General... involve administrative hearings. If such administrative hearings are held, we encourage their...
The Maximum Entropy Principle for Generalized Entropies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tsukada, Makoto
2008-03-01
It is well known that Gibbs states and the Gaussian distribution are characterized by the maximum entropy principle. In this paper we discuss probability distributions which maximize generalized entropies including Rényi's and Tsal-lis's.
31 CFR 29.321 - General principle.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... CERTAIN DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA RETIREMENT PROGRAMS Split Benefits Service Performed After June 30, 1997 § 29.321 General principle. Any service performed after June 30, 1997, may never be credited toward...
12 CFR 330.3 - General principles.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
... Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System in Regulation D (12 CFR 204.8(a)(2)), or in any... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false General principles. 330.3 Section 330.3 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY...
21 CFR 102.5 - General principles.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-04-01
... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false General principles. 102.5 Section 102.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... words “containing (or contains) _ percent (or %) ___” or “_ percent (or %) ___” with the first...
18 CFR 358.2 - General principles.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false General principles. 358.2 Section 358.2 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY STANDARDS OF CONDUCT FOR TRANSMISSION PROVIDERS STANDARDS OF CONDUCT § 358.2...
39 CFR 602.1 - General principles.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
... Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCUREMENT SYSTEM FOR THE U.S. POSTAL SERVICE: INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS OTHER THAN PATENTS INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS OTHER THAN PATENTS § 602.1 General principles. It is the policy of the Postal Service to secure full ownership rights for its intellectual...
39 CFR 602.1 - General principles.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCUREMENT SYSTEM FOR THE U.S. POSTAL SERVICE: INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS OTHER THAN PATENTS INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS OTHER THAN PATENTS § 602.1 General principles. It is the policy of the Postal Service to secure full ownership rights for its intellectual...
Teaching General Principles and Applications of Dendrogeomorphology.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Butler, David R.
1987-01-01
Tree-ring analysis in geomorphology can be incorporated into a number of undergraduate methods in order to reconstruct the history of a variety of geomorphic processes. Discusses dendrochronology, general principles of dendrogeomorphology, field sampling methods, laboratory techniques, and examples of applications. (TW)
5 CFR 551.202 - General principles.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-01-01
... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false General principles. 551.202 Section 551.202 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY... preclude exemption under another category. For example, an engineering technician who fails to meet...
5 CFR 551.202 - General principles.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-01-01
... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false General principles. 551.202 Section 551.202 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY... preclude exemption under another category. For example, an engineering technician who fails to meet...
5 CFR 551.202 - General principles.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General principles. 551.202 Section 551.202 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY... preclude exemption under another category. For example, an engineering technician who fails to meet...
5 CFR 551.202 - General principles.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-01-01
... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false General principles. 551.202 Section 551.202 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY... preclude exemption under another category. For example, an engineering technician who fails to meet...
5 CFR 551.202 - General principles.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false General principles. 551.202 Section 551.202 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY... preclude exemption under another category. For example, an engineering technician who fails to meet...
Generalized convective quasi-equilibrium principle
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yano, Jun-Ichi; Plant, Robert S.
2016-03-01
A generalization of Arakawa and Schubert's convective quasi-equilibrium principle is presented for a closure formulation of mass-flux convection parameterization. The original principle is based on the budget of the cloud work function. This principle is generalized by considering the budget for a vertical integral of an arbitrary convection-related quantity. The closure formulation includes Arakawa and Schubert's quasi-equilibrium, as well as both CAPE and moisture closures as special cases. The formulation also includes new possibilities for considering vertical integrals that are dependent on convective-scale variables, such as the moisture within convection. The generalized convective quasi-equilibrium is defined by a balance between large-scale forcing and convective response for a given vertically-integrated quantity. The latter takes the form of a convolution of a kernel matrix and a mass-flux spectrum, as in the original convective quasi-equilibrium. The kernel reduces to a scalar when either a bulk formulation is adopted, or only large-scale variables are considered within the vertical integral. Various physical implications of the generalized closure are discussed. These include the possibility that precipitation might be considered as a potentially-significant contribution to the large-scale forcing. Two dicta are proposed as guiding physical principles for the specifying a suitable vertically-integrated quantity.
21 CFR 104.5 - General principles.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false General principles. 104.5 Section 104.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... product shall bear nutrition labeling in accordance with §§ 101.2 and 101.9 of this chapter and all...
21 CFR 104.5 - General principles.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-04-01
... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false General principles. 104.5 Section 104.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... product shall bear nutrition labeling in accordance with §§ 101.2 and 101.9 of this chapter and all...
21 CFR 104.5 - General principles.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-04-01
... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false General principles. 104.5 Section 104.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... product shall bear nutrition labeling in accordance with §§ 101.2 and 101.9 of this chapter and all...
General Quantum Interference Principle and Duality Computer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Long, Gui-Lu
2006-05-01
In this article, we propose a general principle of quantum interference for quantum system, and based on this we propose a new type of computing machine, the duality computer, that may outperform in principle both classical computer and the quantum computer. According to the general principle of quantum interference, the very essence of quantum interference is the interference of the sub-waves of the quantum system itself. A quantum system considered here can be any quantum system: a single microscopic particle, a composite quantum system such as an atom or a molecule, or a loose collection of a few quantum objects such as two independent photons. In the duality computer, the wave of the duality computer is split into several sub-waves and they pass through different routes, where different computing gate operations are performed. These sub-waves are then re-combined to interfere to give the computational results. The quantum computer, however, has only used the particle nature of quantum object. In a duality computer, it may be possible to find a marked item from an unsorted database using only a single query, and all NP-complete problems may have polynomial algorithms. Two proof-of-the-principle designs of the duality computer are presented: the giant molecule scheme and the nonlinear quantum optics scheme. We also propose thought experiment to check the related fundamental issues, the measurement efficiency of a partial wave function.
Gravitational tests of the generalized uncertainty principle
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Scardigli, Fabio; Casadio, Roberto
2015-09-01
We compute the corrections to the Schwarzschild metric necessary to reproduce the Hawking temperature derived from a generalized uncertainty principle (GUP), so that the GUP deformation parameter is directly linked to the deformation of the metric. Using this modified Schwarzschild metric, we compute corrections to the standard general relativistic predictions for the light deflection and perihelion precession, both for planets in the solar system and for binary pulsars. This analysis allows us to set bounds for the GUP deformation parameter from well-known astronomical measurements.
Lorentz invariance violation and generalized uncertainty principle
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tawfik, Abdel Nasser; Magdy, H.; Ali, A. Farag
2016-01-01
There are several theoretical indications that the quantum gravity approaches may have predictions for a minimal measurable length, and a maximal observable momentum and throughout a generalization for Heisenberg uncertainty principle. The generalized uncertainty principle (GUP) is based on a momentum-dependent modification in the standard dispersion relation which is conjectured to violate the principle of Lorentz invariance. From the resulting Hamiltonian, the velocity and time of flight of relativistic distant particles at Planck energy can be derived. A first comparison is made with recent observations for Hubble parameter in redshift-dependence in early-type galaxies. We find that LIV has two types of contributions to the time of flight delay Δ t comparable with that observations. Although the wrong OPERA measurement on faster-than-light muon neutrino anomaly, Δ t, and the relative change in the speed of muon neutrino Δ v in dependence on redshift z turn to be wrong, we utilize its main features to estimate Δ v. Accordingly, the results could not be interpreted as LIV. A third comparison is made with the ultra high-energy cosmic rays (UHECR). It is found that an essential ingredient of the approach combining string theory, loop quantum gravity, black hole physics and doubly spacial relativity and the one assuming a perturbative departure from exact Lorentz invariance. Fixing the sensitivity factor and its energy dependence are essential inputs for a reliable confronting of our calculations to UHECR. The sensitivity factor is related to the special time of flight delay and the time structure of the signal. Furthermore, the upper and lower bounds to the parameter, a that characterizes the generalized uncertainly principle, have to be fixed in related physical systems such as the gamma rays bursts.
Sedimentation equilibrium and the generalized Archimedes' principle.
Parola, Alberto; Buzzaccaro, Stefano; Secchi, Eleonora; Piazza, Roberto
2013-03-21
The buoyancy concept is critically re-examined for applications to dispersions of nano-particles, such as colloids, proteins, or macromolecules. It is shown that when the size of the buoyant particle is not too different (say, at most a factor of ten) from the size of the dispersed particles, new intriguing phenomena emerge, leading to the violation of the Archimedes' principle. The resulting buoyancy force depends not only on the volume of the particle and on the mass density of the dispersion, but also on the relative size of the particles, on their geometry, and on the interactions between the buoyant particle and the fluid. Explicit expressions for such a generalized Archimedes' principle are obtained and the results are tested against targeted experiments in colloidal dispersions. PMID:23534662
Responsible gambling: general principles and minimal requirements.
Blaszczynski, Alex; Collins, Peter; Fong, Davis; Ladouceur, Robert; Nower, Lia; Shaffer, Howard J; Tavares, Hermano; Venisse, Jean-Luc
2011-12-01
Many international jurisdictions have introduced responsible gambling programs. These programs intend to minimize negative consequences of excessive gambling, but vary considerably in their aims, focus, and content. Many responsible gambling programs lack a conceptual framework and, in the absence of empirical data, their components are based only on general considerations and impressions. This paper outlines the consensus viewpoint of an international group of researchers suggesting fundamental responsible gambling principles, roles of key stakeholders, and minimal requirements that stakeholders can use to frame and inform responsible gambling programs across jurisdictions. Such a framework does not purport to offer value statements regarding the legal status of gambling or its expansion. Rather, it proposes gambling-related initiatives aimed at government, industry, and individuals to promote responsible gambling and consumer protection. This paper argues that there is a set of basic principles and minimal requirements that should form the basis for every responsible gambling program. PMID:21359586
A review of the generalized uncertainty principle
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nasser Tawfik, Abdel; Magied Diab, Abdel
2015-12-01
Based on string theory, black hole physics, doubly special relativity and some ‘thought’ experiments, minimal distance and/or maximum momentum are proposed. As alternatives to the generalized uncertainty principle (GUP), the modified dispersion relation, the space noncommutativity, the Lorentz invariance violation, and the quantum-gravity-induced birefringence effects are summarized. The origin of minimal measurable quantities and the different GUP approaches are reviewed and the corresponding observations are analysed. Bounds on the GUP parameter are discussed and implemented in the understanding of recent PLANCK observations of cosmic inflation. The higher-order GUP approaches predict minimal length uncertainty with and without maximum momenta. Possible arguments against the GUP are discussed; for instance, the concern about its compatibility with the equivalence principles, the universality of gravitational redshift and the free fall and law of reciprocal action are addressed.
A review of the generalized uncertainty principle.
Tawfik, Abdel Nasser; Diab, Abdel Magied
2015-12-01
Based on string theory, black hole physics, doubly special relativity and some 'thought' experiments, minimal distance and/or maximum momentum are proposed. As alternatives to the generalized uncertainty principle (GUP), the modified dispersion relation, the space noncommutativity, the Lorentz invariance violation, and the quantum-gravity-induced birefringence effects are summarized. The origin of minimal measurable quantities and the different GUP approaches are reviewed and the corresponding observations are analysed. Bounds on the GUP parameter are discussed and implemented in the understanding of recent PLANCK observations of cosmic inflation. The higher-order GUP approaches predict minimal length uncertainty with and without maximum momenta. Possible arguments against the GUP are discussed; for instance, the concern about its compatibility with the equivalence principles, the universality of gravitational redshift and the free fall and law of reciprocal action are addressed. PMID:26512022
Dilaton cosmology, noncommutativity, and generalized uncertainty principle
Vakili, Babak
2008-02-15
The effects of noncommutativity and of the existence of a minimal length on the phase space of a dilatonic cosmological model are investigated. The existence of a minimum length results in the generalized uncertainty principle (GUP), which is a deformed Heisenberg algebra between the minisuperspace variables and their momenta operators. I extend these deformed commutating relations to the corresponding deformed Poisson algebra. For an exponential dilaton potential, the exact classical and quantum solutions in the commutative and noncommutative cases, and some approximate analytical solutions in the case of GUP, are presented and compared.
Generalized uncertainty principle: Approaches and applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tawfik, A.; Diab, A.
2014-11-01
In this paper, we review some highlights from the String theory, the black hole physics and the doubly special relativity and some thought experiments which were suggested to probe the shortest distances and/or maximum momentum at the Planck scale. Furthermore, all models developed in order to implement the minimal length scale and/or the maximum momentum in different physical systems are analyzed and compared. They entered the literature as the generalized uncertainty principle (GUP) assuming modified dispersion relation, and therefore are allowed for a wide range of applications in estimating, for example, the inflationary parameters, Lorentz invariance violation, black hole thermodynamics, Saleker-Wigner inequalities, entropic nature of gravitational laws, Friedmann equations, minimal time measurement and thermodynamics of the high-energy collisions. One of the higher-order GUP approaches gives predictions for the minimal length uncertainty. A second one predicts a maximum momentum and a minimal length uncertainty, simultaneously. An extensive comparison between the different GUP approaches is summarized. We also discuss the GUP impacts on the equivalence principles including the universality of the gravitational redshift and the free fall and law of reciprocal action and on the kinetic energy of composite system. The existence of a minimal length and a maximum momentum accuracy is preferred by various physical observations. The concern about the compatibility with the equivalence principles, the universality of gravitational redshift and the free fall and law of reciprocal action should be addressed. We conclude that the value of the GUP parameters remain a puzzle to be verified.
Space flight operations communications phraseology and techniques
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Noneman, S. R.
1986-01-01
Communications are a critical link in space flight operations. Specific communications phraseology and techniques have been developed to allow rapid and clear transfer of information. Communications will be clear and brief through the use of procedural words and phrases. Communications protocols standardize the required information transferred. The voicing of letters and numbers is discussed. The protocols used in air-to-ground communications are given. A glossary of communications terminology is presented in the appendix.
[General principles in psychotherapy of personality disorders].
Bohus, Martin; Doering, Stephan; Schmitz, Bernt; Herpertz, Sabine C
2009-01-01
S2 guidelines for diagnostics and treatment of personality disorders have been developed under the umbrella of the AWMF Germany. Following the current trend to manualized axis I treatment programs, within the recent years specific treatment programs have also been developed for some personality disorders like borderline personality disorder, antisocial personality disorder and avoidant personality disorder. The superiority of these treatment programs compared to unspecific approaches is meanwhile proven on a robust empirical basis. The S2 guidelines task force extracted the principles of these manualized treatment programs to provide the framework for a general clinically oriented concept for the treatment of personality disorders. The intention was to develop a concept which gets beyond the school oriented therapeutic approaches in order to provide the platform for further developments of general and specific treatments for personality disorders. PMID:19350475
14 CFR Sec. 2-1 - Generally accepted accounting principles.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Generally accepted accounting principles... AIR CARRIERS General Accounting Provisions Sec. 2-1 Generally accepted accounting principles. (a) The accounting provisions contained in this part are based on generally accepted accounting principles...
14 CFR Sec. 2-1 - Generally accepted accounting principles.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Generally accepted accounting principles... AIR CARRIERS General Accounting Provisions Sec. 2-1 Generally accepted accounting principles. (a) The accounting provisions contained in this part are based on generally accepted accounting principles...
34 CFR 76.530 - General cost principles.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
... Be Met by the State and Its Subgrantees? Allowable Costs § 76.530 General cost principles. Both 34 CFR 74.27 and 34 CFR 80.22 reference the general cost principles that apply to grants, subgrants...
34 CFR 76.530 - General cost principles.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... Be Met by the State and Its Subgrantees? Allowable Costs § 76.530 General cost principles. Both 34 CFR 74.27 and 34 CFR 80.22 reference the general cost principles that apply to grants, subgrants...
34 CFR 76.530 - General cost principles.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
... Be Met by the State and Its Subgrantees? Allowable Costs § 76.530 General cost principles. Both 34 CFR 74.27 and 34 CFR 80.22 reference the general cost principles that apply to grants, subgrants...
34 CFR 76.530 - General cost principles.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
... Be Met by the State and Its Subgrantees? Allowable Costs § 76.530 General cost principles. Both 34 CFR 74.27 and 34 CFR 80.22 reference the general cost principles that apply to grants, subgrants...
Rowlands' Duality Principle: A Generalization of Noether's Theorem?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Karam, Sabah E.
This paper will examine a physical principle that has been used in making valid predictions and generalizes established conservation laws. In a previous paper it was shown how Rowlands' zero-totality condition could be viewed as a generalization of Newton's third law of motion. In this paper it will be argued that Rowlands' Duality Principle is a generalization of Noether's Theorem and that the two principles taken together are truly foundational principles that have tamed Metaphysics.
Action principle combining electromagnetism and general relativity
Moyer, H.G.
1987-03-01
The stationary action problem for a single, classical, point particle in external gravitational and electromagnetic fields is written in optimal control format. The relativistic interval is the independent variable and time, space, and action are the five dependent variables. A general metric is used for the space-time manifold so that the equations are manifestly covariant. The form of the system equations guarantees that the particle moves with unit speed with respect to interval. The Lagrangian is a function of the metric tensor and the electromagnetic four-potential, but not of particle parameters such as electric charge q and mass m. The Hamiltonian is not identically zero, unlike those derived in many earlier analyses. A constant of the motion is found that is identified with q/mc/sup 2/. An explanation is presented for the classical inequality mgreater than or equal to0. The trajectories can reduce to geodesics and even further to those governed by Fermat's principle of stationary time.
Principle of least action; some possible generalizations
Broucke, R.
1982-08-01
In this article we draw the attention to an important variational principle in dynamics: the Maupertuis-Jacobi Least Action Principle (MJLAP). This principle compares varied paths with the same energy h. We give two new proofs of the MJLAP (Sections 3 and 8) as well as a new unified variational principle which contains both Hamilton's Principle (HP) and the MJLAP as particular cases (Sections 4 and 9). The article also shows several new methods for the construction of a Lagrangian for a conservative dynamical system. As an example, we illustrate the theory with the classical Harmonic Oscillator Problem (Section 10). Our method is based on the theory of changes of independent variables in a dynamical system. It indirectly shows how a change of independent variable affects the self-adjointness of a dynamical system (Sections 5, 6, 7). Our new Lagrangians contain an arbitrary constant ..cap alpha.., whose meaning needs to be studied, eventually in relation to the concepts of quantification or gauge transformations. The two important values of the constant ..cap alpha.. are 1 (Hamilton's principle) and 1/2 (Maupertuis-Jacobi Least Action Principle).
Incorporation of generalized uncertainty principle into Lifshitz field theories
Faizal, Mir; Majumder, Barun
2015-06-15
In this paper, we will incorporate the generalized uncertainty principle into field theories with Lifshitz scaling. We will first construct both bosonic and fermionic theories with Lifshitz scaling based on generalized uncertainty principle. After that we will incorporate the generalized uncertainty principle into a non-abelian gauge theory with Lifshitz scaling. We will observe that even though the action for this theory is non-local, it is invariant under local gauge transformations. We will also perform the stochastic quantization of this Lifshitz fermionic theory based generalized uncertainty principle.
A General Conditional Large Deviation Principle
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
La Cour, Brian R.; Schieve, William C.
2015-10-01
Given a sequence of Borel probability measures on a Hausdorff space which satisfy a large deviation principle (LDP), we consider the corresponding sequence of measures formed by conditioning on a set B. If the large deviation rate function I is good and effectively continuous, and the conditioning set has the property that (1) and (2) for all , then the sequence of conditional measures satisfies a LDP with the good, effectively continuous rate function , where if and otherwise.
23 CFR 627.5 - General principles and procedures.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-04-01
... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false General principles and procedures. 627.5 Section 627.5 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS VALUE ENGINEERING § 627.5 General principles and procedures. (a) State VE programs. State transportation departments must establish programs...
32 CFR 1633.7 - General principles of classification.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General principles of classification. 1633.7 Section 1633.7 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM ADMINISTRATION OF CLASSIFICATION § 1633.7 General principles of classification. (a) Each classified registrant...
Oncologic reconstruction: General principles and techniques.
Ho, Adelyn L; Lyonel Carre, Antoine; Patel, Ketan M
2016-06-01
Halsted's principle of radical mastectomy influenced cancer treatment for decades. Randomized controlled trials resulted in a paradigm shift to less radical surgery and the use of adjuvant therapies. Oncologic reconstruction performed by plastic surgeons has evolved, ranging from skin grafts and local flaps for smaller defects to pedicled flaps and free flaps for larger and more complex defects. Immediate reconstruction facilitates resection is oncologically safe and contributes to meaningful improvements in quality of life. J. Surg. Oncol. 2016;113:852-864. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26939879
Generalization of the ERIT principle and method.
Ruggiero,A.G.
2007-11-04
The paper describes the generalization of the method to produce secondary particles with a low-energy and low-intensity primary beam circulating in a Storage Ring with the Emittance-Recovery by Internal-Target (ERIT).
Generalization of the ERIT Principle and Method
Ruggiero,A.
2008-02-01
The paper describes the generalization of the method to produce secondary particles with a low-energy and low-intensity primary beam circulating in a Storage Ring with the Emittance-Recovery by Internal-Target (ERIT).
21 CFR 101.13 - general principles.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
1996-04-01
... content claims FOOD AND DRUGS FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES--CONTINUED FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOOD LABELING General Provisions Sec. 101.13 Nutrient content claims... supplements). (b) A claim that expressly or implicitly characterizes the level of a nutrient (nutrient...
21 CFR 502.5 - General principles.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS COMMON OR USUAL NAMES FOR NONSTANDARDIZED ANIMAL FOODS § 502.5 General..., what it is in a way that distinguishes it from different foods. (b) The common or usual name of a...
43 CFR 24.3 - General jurisdictional principles.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-10-01
... enactment of Federal fish and wildlife conservation statutes has generally been associated with the... FISH AND WILDLIFE POLICY: STATE-FEDERAL RELATIONSHIPS § 24.3 General jurisdictional principles. (a) In general the States possess broad trustee and police powers over fish and wildlife within their...
43 CFR 24.3 - General jurisdictional principles.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-10-01
... enactment of Federal fish and wildlife conservation statutes has generally been associated with the... FISH AND WILDLIFE POLICY: STATE-FEDERAL RELATIONSHIPS § 24.3 General jurisdictional principles. (a) In general the States possess broad trustee and police powers over fish and wildlife within their...
43 CFR 24.3 - General jurisdictional principles.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-10-01
... enactment of Federal fish and wildlife conservation statutes has generally been associated with the... FISH AND WILDLIFE POLICY: STATE-FEDERAL RELATIONSHIPS § 24.3 General jurisdictional principles. (a) In general the States possess broad trustee and police powers over fish and wildlife within their...
43 CFR 24.3 - General jurisdictional principles.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-10-01
... enactment of Federal fish and wildlife conservation statutes has generally been associated with the... FISH AND WILDLIFE POLICY: STATE-FEDERAL RELATIONSHIPS § 24.3 General jurisdictional principles. (a) In general the States possess broad trustee and police powers over fish and wildlife within their...
Generalized Principles of Unchanging Total Concentration
Kottke, Peter A.; Fedorov, Andrei G.
2008-01-01
We consider transport of multiple reacting species under the continuum assumption in situations such as those that frequently arise in electroanalytical chemistry. Under certain limitations, it has been shown that the total species concentration (as defined by Oldham and Feldberg1) of such a system is uniform and constant. In this work, we extend the limits of the previous analysis to enable greater applicability. This is accomplished by using either of two new dependent variables, which are generalizations of the concept of total concentration. Then conditions are determined under which the dependent variable will be uniform, and constant in time. From a practical viewpoint, the described formalism allows one to simplify the multispecies transport problem formulation by eliminating one equation from the system of governing equations. PMID:16853140
The Generalized Uncertainty Principle and the Friedmann equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Majumder, Barun
2011-12-01
The Generalized Uncertainty Principle (or GUP) affects the dynamics in Plank scale. So the known equations of physics are expected to get modified at that very high energy regime. Very recently authors in Ali et al. (Phys. Lett. B 678:497, 2009) proposed a new Generalized Uncertainty Principle (or GUP) with a linear term in Plank length. In this article, the proposed GUP is expressed in a more general form and the effect is studied for the modification of the Friedmann equations of the FRW universe. In the midway the known entropy-area relation get some new correction terms, the leading order term being proportional to sqrt{Area}.
29 CFR 780.138 - Application of the general principles.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Application of the general principles. 780.138 Section 780.138 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF...
Gauge theories under incorporation of a generalized uncertainty principle
Kober, Martin
2010-10-15
There is considered an extension of gauge theories according to the assumption of a generalized uncertainty principle which implies a minimal length scale. A modification of the usual uncertainty principle implies an extended shape of matter field equations like the Dirac equation. If there is postulated invariance of such a generalized field equation under local gauge transformations, the usual covariant derivative containing the gauge potential has to be replaced by a generalized covariant derivative. This leads to a generalized interaction between the matter field and the gauge field as well as to an additional self-interaction of the gauge field. Since the existence of a minimal length scale seems to be a necessary assumption of any consistent quantum theory of gravity, the gauge principle is a constitutive ingredient of the standard model, and even gravity can be described as gauge theory of local translations or Lorentz transformations, the presented extension of gauge theories appears as a very important consideration.
An Investigation of Crosslinguistic Transfer in EFL Learners' Phraseology
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Liao, Ern-Huei
2010-01-01
The problem. The purpose of this study is to investigate positive and negative cross-linguistic transfer on EFL learners' phraseological competence in collocations and its relationship to learners' linguistic proficiency. Method. A quantitative study was conducted. Two instruments, multiple choice test and grammaticality judgment test, were…
A generalization of Fermat's principle for classical and quantum systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Elsayed, Tarek A.
2014-09-01
The analogy between dynamics and optics had a great influence on the development of the foundations of classical and quantum mechanics. We take this analogy one step further and investigate the validity of Fermat's principle in many-dimensional spaces describing dynamical systems (i.e., the quantum Hilbert space and the classical phase and configuration space). We propose that if the notion of a metric distance is well defined in that space and the velocity of the representative point of the system is an invariant of motion, then a generalized version of Fermat's principle will hold. We substantiate this conjecture for time-independent quantum systems and for a classical system consisting of coupled harmonic oscillators. An exception to this principle is the configuration space of a charged particle in a constant magnetic field; in this case the principle is valid in a frame rotating by half the Larmor frequency, not the stationary lab frame.
“Stringy” coherent states inspired by generalized uncertainty principle
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ghosh, Subir; Roy, Pinaki
2012-05-01
Coherent States with Fractional Revival property, that explicitly satisfy the Generalized Uncertainty Principle (GUP), have been constructed in the context of Generalized Harmonic Oscillator. The existence of such states is essential in motivating the GUP based phenomenological results present in the literature which otherwise would be of purely academic interest. The effective phase space is Non-Canonical (or Non-Commutative in popular terminology). Our results have a smooth commutative limit, equivalent to Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle. The Fractional Revival time analysis yields an independent bound on the GUP parameter. Using this and similar bounds obtained here, we derive the largest possible value of the (GUP induced) minimum length scale. Mandel parameter analysis shows that the statistics is Sub-Poissonian. Correspondence Principle is deformed in an interesting way. Our computational scheme is very simple as it requires only first order corrected energy values and undeformed basis states.
Generalized Franck-Condon principle for resonant photoemission
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sałek, Paweł; Gel'mukhanov, Faris; Ågren, Hans; Björneholm, Olle; Svensson, Svante
1999-10-01
A generalized Franck-Condon (GFC) principle for resonant x-ray Raman scattering and for resonant photoemission in particular is derived and numerically investigated. The GFC amplitudes differ from ordinary FC amplitudes by the presence of photon and photoelectron phase factors which describe the coupling-or interference-of the x-ray photons or Auger electrons with the nuclear motion. With the GFC amplitudes, a Kramers-Heisenberg relation is obtained for vibronic transitions that corrects the so-called lifetime-vibrational interference formula. For resonant photoemission in the soft-x-ray region involving typical bound potential surfaces, the generalization gives a contribution to the FC factors that can amount to 20%. For core excitation above the dissociation threshold, the GFC principle relates to Doppler effects on the ejected photoelectron both for the so-called ``molecular'' and ``atomic'' bands. The role of the GFC principle in direct photoionization is briefly discussed.
23 CFR 627.5 - General principles and procedures.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... project meeting the project criteria in 23 CFR 627.1(a), the STDs shall fulfill the value engineering... Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS VALUE ENGINEERING § 627.5 General principles and procedures. (a) State VE programs. State...
2 CFR 200.49 - Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP).
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-01-01
... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP). 200.49 Section 200.49 Grants and Agreements Office of Management and Budget Guidance for Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET GUIDANCE Reserved UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE...
Preoperative Medical Evaluation: Part 1: General Principles and Cardiovascular Considerations
Becker, Daniel E
2009-01-01
A thorough assessment of a patient's medical status is standard practice when dental care is provided. Although this is true for procedures performed under local anesthesia alone, the information gathered may be viewed somewhat differently if the dentist is planning to use sedation or general anesthesia as an adjunct to dental treatment. This article is the first of a 2-part sequence and will address general principles and cardiovascular considerations. A second article will address pulmonary, metabolic, and miscellaneous disorders. PMID:19769423
Quaternionic quantization principle in general relativity and supergravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kober, Martin
2016-01-01
A generalized quantization principle is considered, which incorporates nontrivial commutation relations of the components of the variables of the quantized theory with the components of the corresponding canonical conjugated momenta referring to other space-time directions. The corresponding commutation relations are formulated by using quaternions. At the beginning, this extended quantization concept is applied to the variables of quantum mechanics. The resulting Dirac equation and the corresponding generalized expression for plane waves are formulated and some consequences for quantum field theory are considered. Later, the quaternionic quantization principle is transferred to canonical quantum gravity. Within quantum geometrodynamics as well as the Ashtekar formalism, the generalized algebraic properties of the operators describing the gravitational observables and the corresponding quantum constraints implied by the generalized representations of these operators are determined. The generalized algebra also induces commutation relations of the several components of the quantized variables with each other. Finally, the quaternionic quantization procedure is also transferred to 𝒩 = 1 supergravity. Accordingly, the quantization principle has to be generalized to be compatible with Dirac brackets, which appear in canonical quantum supergravity.
Quantum black hole in the generalized uncertainty principle framework
Bina, A.; Moslehi, A.; Jalalzadeh, S.
2010-01-15
In this paper we study the effects of the generalized uncertainty principle (GUP) on canonical quantum gravity of black holes. Through the use of modified partition function that involves the effects of the GUP, we obtain the thermodynamical properties of the Schwarzschild black hole. We also calculate the Hawking temperature and entropy for the modification of the Schwarzschild black hole in the presence of the GUP.
Some General Principles in Cryogenic Design, Implementation, and Testing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dipirro, Michael James
2015-01-01
Brief Course Description: In 2 hours only the most basic principles of cryogenics can be presented. I will concentrate on the differences between a room temperature thermal analysis and cryogenic thermal analysis, namely temperature dependent properties. I will talk about practical materials for thermal contact and isolation. I will finish by describing the verification process and instrumentation used that is unique to cryogenic (in general less than 100K) systems.
Generalized uncertainty principle in Bianchi type I quantum cosmology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vakili, B.; Sepangi, H. R.
2007-07-01
We study a quantum Bianchi type I model in which the dynamical variables of the corresponding minisuperspace obey the generalized Heisenberg algebra. Such a generalized uncertainty principle has its origin in the existence of a minimal length suggested by quantum gravity and sting theory. We present approximate analytical solutions to the corresponding Wheeler DeWitt equation in the limit where the scale factor of the universe is small and compare the results with the standard commutative and noncommutative quantum cosmology. Similarities and differences of these solutions are also discussed.
Constraining the generalized uncertainty principle with cold atoms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gao, Dongfeng; Zhan, Mingsheng
2016-07-01
Various theories of quantum gravity predict the existence of a minimum length scale, which implies the Planck-scale modifications of the Heisenberg uncertainty principle to a so-called generalized uncertainty principle (GUP). Previous studies of the GUP focused on its implications for high-energy physics, cosmology, and astrophysics. Here the application of the GUP to low-energy quantum systems, and particularly cold atoms, is studied. Results from the 87Rb atom recoil experiment are used to set upper bounds on parameters in three different GUP proposals. A 1014-level bound on the Ali-Das-Vagenas proposal is found, which is the second best bound so far. A 1026-level bound on Maggiore's proposal is obtained, which turns out to be the best available bound on it.
Sub-Planckian black holes and the Generalized Uncertainty Principle
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carr, Bernard; Mureika, Jonas; Nicolini, Piero
2015-07-01
The Black Hole Uncertainty Principle correspondence suggests that there could exist black holes with mass beneath the Planck scale but radius of order the Compton scale rather than Schwarzschild scale. We present a modified, self-dual Schwarzschild-like metric that reproduces desirable aspects of a variety of disparate models in the sub-Planckian limit, while remaining Schwarzschild in the large mass limit. The self-dual nature of this solution under M ↔ M -1 naturally implies a Generalized Uncertainty Principle with the linear form . We also demonstrate a natural dimensional reduction feature, in that the gravitational radius and thermodynamics of sub-Planckian objects resemble that of (1 + 1)-D gravity. The temperature of sub-Planckian black holes scales as M rather than M -1 but the evaporation of those smaller than 10-36 g is suppressed by the cosmic background radiation. This suggests that relics of this mass could provide the dark matter.
A South African perspective on children's rights: general principles.
Klinck, M E; Iuris, B; Louw, D A; Peens, B J
2000-01-01
South Africa has made rapid progress in the field of human and especially children's rights. This is in sharp contrast with it's apartheid history where even the basic principles of human rights were negated. In this article an overview will be given of the general principles on which the realization of children's rights in South Africa are based. More specifically information on the population, economic status, political climate and recent developments in this field is presented. This is followed by a discussion on the social-economic nature of children's rights, the courts as enforcement mechanisms, and the contents of the best interest standard as described both in convention on the rights of the child and the South African Constitution. PMID:10876302
General cognitive principles for learning structure in time and space.
Goldstein, Michael H; Waterfall, Heidi R; Lotem, Arnon; Halpern, Joseph Y; Schwade, Jennifer A; Onnis, Luca; Edelman, Shimon
2010-06-01
How are hierarchically structured sequences of objects, events or actions learned from experience and represented in the brain? When several streams of regularities present themselves, which will be learned and which ignored? Can statistical regularities take effect on their own, or are additional factors such as behavioral outcomes expected to influence statistical learning? Answers to these questions are starting to emerge through a convergence of findings from naturalistic observations, behavioral experiments, neurobiological studies, and computational analyses and simulations. We propose that a small set of principles are at work in every situation that involves learning of structure from patterns of experience and outline a general framework that accounts for such learning. PMID:20395164
Minisuperspace dynamics in a generalized uncertainty principle framework
Battisti, Marco Valerio; Montani, Giovanni
2008-01-03
The minisuperspace dynamics of the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) and of the Taub Universes in the context of a Generalized Uncertainty Principle is analyzed in detail. In particular, the motion of the wave packets is investigated and, in both the models, the classical singularity appear to be probabilistic suppressed. Moreover, the FRW wave packets approach the Planckian region in a stationary way and no evidences for a Big-Bounce, as predicted in Loop Quantum Cosmology, appear. On the other hand, the Taub wave packets provide the right behavior in predicting an isotropic Universe.
Factorization in the quantum mechanics with the generalized uncertainty principle
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chung, Won Sang
2015-07-01
In this paper, we discuss the quantum mechanics with the generalized uncertainty principle (GUP) where the commutation relation is given by [x̂,p̂] = iℏ(1 + αp̂ + βp̂2). For this algebra, we obtain the eigenfunction of the momentum operator. We also study the GUP corrected quantum particle in a box. Finally, we apply the factorization method to the harmonic oscillator in the presence of a minimal observable length and obtain the energy eigenvalues by applying the perturbation method.
A general maximum entropy framework for thermodynamic variational principles
Dewar, Roderick C.
2014-12-05
Minimum free energy principles are familiar in equilibrium thermodynamics, as expressions of the second law. They also appear in statistical mechanics as variational approximation schemes, such as the mean-field and steepest-descent approximations. These well-known minimum free energy principles are here unified and extended to any system analyzable by MaxEnt, including non-equilibrium systems. The MaxEnt Lagrangian associated with a generic MaxEnt distribution p defines a generalized potential Ψ for an arbitrary probability distribution p-hat, such that Ψ is a minimum at (p-hat) = p. Minimization of Ψ with respect to p-hat thus constitutes a generic variational principle, and is equivalent to minimizing the Kullback-Leibler divergence between p-hat and p. Illustrative examples of min–Ψ are given for equilibrium and non-equilibrium systems. An interpretation of changes in Ψ is given in terms of the second law, although min–Ψ itself is an intrinsic variational property of MaxEnt that is distinct from the second law.
Generalized Uncertainty Principle and Thermostatistics: A Semiclassical Approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abbasiyan-Motlaq, Mohammad; Pedram, Pouria
2016-04-01
We present an exact treatment of the thermodynamics of physical systems in the framework of the generalized uncertainty principle (GUP). Our purpose is to study and compare the consequences of two GUPs that one implies a minimal length while the other predicts a minimal length and a maximal momentum. Using a semiclassical method, we exactly calculate the modified internal energies and heat capacities in the presence of generalized commutation relations. We show that the total shift in these quantities only depends on the deformed algebra not on the system under study. Finally, the modified internal energy for an specific physical system such as ideal gas is obtained in the framework of two different GUPs.
An interesting consequence of the general principle of relativity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grøn, Øyvind; Jemterud, Torkild
2016-04-01
We show that Einstein's general theory of relativity, together with the assumption that the principle of relativity encompasses rotational motion, predicts that in a flat Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) universe model with dust and Lorentz Invariant Vacuum Energy (LIVE), the density parameter of vacuum energy must have the value Ω_{Λ 0}=0.737. The physical mechanism connecting the relativity of rotational motion with the energy density of dark energy is the inertial dragging effect. The predicted value is necessary in order to have perfect inertial dragging, which is required for rotational motion to be relative. If one accepts that due to the impossibility of defining motion for a single particle in an otherwise empty universe, the universe must be constructed so that all types of motion are relative, then this solves the so-called cosmological constant problem.
Entropy principle, non-regular processes, and generalized exploitation procedures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Triani, V.; Cimmelli, V. A.
2012-06-01
The classical Coleman-Noll approach to the exploitation of the entropy principle regards the classical balances of mass, linear and angular momentum and energy as differential constraints for the entropy inequality, and presupposes that the second law of thermodynamics is a restriction on the constitutive equations describing the material properties [B. D. Coleman and W. Noll, "The thermodynamics of elastic materials with heat conduction and viscosity," Arch. Rational Mech. Anal. 13, 167-178 (1963), 10.1007/BF01262690]. In 1996, Muschik and Ehrentraut proved that this presupposition may be confirmed by a rigorous proof, provided that an amendment to the classical second law of thermodynamics, which asserts that, except in equilibria, reversible process directions in state space do not exist, is postulated ["An amendment to the second law," J. Non-Equilib. Thermodyn. 21, 175-192 (1996), 10.1515/jnet.1996.21.2.175]. In their paper, the authors considered regular processes only. In a recent article [V. Triani and V. A. Cimmelli, "Interpretation of second law of thermodynamics in the presence of interfaces," Continuum. Mech. Thermodyn. 24, 165-174 (2012), 10.1007/s00161-011-0231-8], we proved that the result above remains valid in the presence of interfaces across which the unknown fields suffer jump discontinuities. Here, we show that the same conclusions achieved by Muschik and Ehrentraut and Triani and Cimmelli hold when the classical Coleman-Noll and Liu ["Method of Lagrange multipliers for exploitation of the entropy principle," Arch. Rational Mech. Anal. 46, 131-148 (1972), 10.1007/BF00250688] procedures for the exploitation of the second law, are generalized by considering also the gradients of the fundamental balance equations as constraints for the entropy inequality.
General principles and stages of optimal AFCS design
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Platonov, A.; Zaitsev, Ie.
2014-11-01
The goal of the paper is a discussion of general principle and stages of the optimal analog feedback communication systems (AFCS) design. Previous research devoted to the analysis of particularities of AFCS functioning gave necessary analytical basis for transition to practical design of optimal AFCS. This is new class of communication systems (CS) transmitting the signals, under given bit error rate (BER), with bit rate equal to the capacity of the forward channel and power-bandwidth efficiency attaining the theoretical limit. In the paper, we describe the ordered sequence of the stages of transition from the abstract results to designing of the pre-commercial versions of optimal AFCS considering them as the basic communication link "sensor node (SN)" - "base station" (BS) of the wireless sensor network (WSN). We also show that verified theoretical results enable analytically argued decision making at different stages of designing of the high quality and energy efficient WSN communication links. This facilitates optimisation of the project works schedule, distribution of the tasks and resources for their realization, reduce the time and cost of design.
Modeling of space environment impact on nanostructured materials. General principles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Voronina, Ekaterina; Novikov, Lev
2016-07-01
In accordance with the resolution of ISO TC20/SC14 WG4/WG6 joint meeting, Technical Specification (TS) 'Modeling of space environment impact on nanostructured materials. General principles' which describes computer simulation methods of space environment impact on nanostructured materials is being prepared. Nanomaterials surpass traditional materials for space applications in many aspects due to their unique properties associated with nanoscale size of their constituents. This superiority in mechanical, thermal, electrical and optical properties will evidently inspire a wide range of applications in the next generation spacecraft intended for the long-term (~15-20 years) operation in near-Earth orbits and the automatic and manned interplanetary missions. Currently, ISO activity on developing standards concerning different issues of nanomaterials manufacturing and applications is high enough. Most such standards are related to production and characterization of nanostructures, however there is no ISO documents concerning nanomaterials behavior in different environmental conditions, including the space environment. The given TS deals with the peculiarities of the space environment impact on nanostructured materials (i.e. materials with structured objects which size in at least one dimension lies within 1-100 nm). The basic purpose of the document is the general description of the methodology of applying computer simulation methods which relate to different space and time scale to modeling processes occurring in nanostructured materials under the space environment impact. This document will emphasize the necessity of applying multiscale simulation approach and present the recommendations for the choice of the most appropriate methods (or a group of methods) for computer modeling of various processes that can occur in nanostructured materials under the influence of different space environment components. In addition, TS includes the description of possible
Training the endoscopy trainer: From general principles to specific concepts
Coderre, Sylvain; Anderson, John; Rostom, Alaa; McLaughlin, Kevin
2010-01-01
Endoscopy instruction has progressed a great deal in recent years, evolving from the age-old dictum of ‘see one, do one’ to the current skillful application of sound educational principles. Some of these educational principles are generic and applicable to the teaching of any content at all levels, while others are quite specific to technical skills training. The present review summarizes these important principles under the following headings: creating a learner-centred curriculum; delivering an achievable learning task; and moving from theory to practice. The present article challenges national gastroenterology organizations to embrace these concepts in structured, outcome-based educational programs. PMID:21165376
12 CFR 621.3 - Application of generally accepted accounting principles.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Application of generally accepted accounting principles. 621.3 Section 621.3 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM ACCOUNTING AND REPORTING REQUIREMENTS General Rules § 621.3 Application of generally accepted accounting principles. Each institution shall: (a) Prepare...
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
National Communication Association, Annandale, VA.
This Proceedings from the NCA 2001 Summer Conference deals with the General Education Strand. This strand explored five major issues in establishing and maintaining oral communication as a vital general education component. The five issues covered in the strand were: (1) principles of general education; (2) communication as general education and…
Thermodynamics of Black Holes and the Symmetric Generalized Uncertainty Principle
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dutta, Abhijit; Gangopadhyay, Sunandan
2016-06-01
In this paper, we have investigated the thermodynamics of Schwarzschild and Reissner-Nordström black holes using the symmetric generalised uncertainty principle which contains correction terms involving momentum and position uncertainty. The mass-temperature relationship and the heat capacity for these black holes have been computed using which the critical and remnant masses have been obtained. The entropy is found to satisfy the area law upto leading order logarithmic corrections and corrections of the form A 2 (which is a new finding in this paper) from the symmetric generalised uncertainty principle.
General rule for boundary conditions from the action principle
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Steiner, Roee
2016-03-01
We construct models where initial and boundary conditions can be found from the fundamental rules of physics, without the need to assume them, they will be derived from the action principle. Those constraints are established from physical viewpoint, and it is not in the form of Lagrange multipliers. We show some examples from the past and some new examples that can be useful, where constraint can be obtained from the action principle. Those actions represent physical models. We show that it is possible to use our rule to get those constraints directly.
Path Integral for Dirac oscillator with generalized uncertainty principle
Benzair, H.; Boudjedaa, T.; Merad, M.
2012-12-15
The propagator for Dirac oscillator in (1+1) dimension, with deformed commutation relation of the Heisenberg principle, is calculated using path integral in quadri-momentum representation. As the mass is related to momentum, we then adapt the space-time transformation method to evaluate quantum corrections and this latter is dependent from the point discretization interval.
2 CFR Appendix A to Part 230 - General Principles
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
... Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET CIRCULARS AND GUIDANCE Reserved COST PRINCIPLES FOR... allocable to a particular cost objective, such as a grant, contract, project, service, or other activity, in..., project, service, or other direct activity of an organization. However, a cost may not be assigned to...
Use of Alumenontos to Introduce General Paleontologic and Biostratigraphic Principles.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hageman, Steven James
1989-01-01
Describes exercises in which tabs from aluminum beverage cans are used to introduce principles of classification, biostratigraphy, and evolution. Provides diagrams which represent dorsal and ventral views of species and a table which graphs units of time in relation to species duration. (RT)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Malmivuo, Jaakko
2010-04-01
Though the principle of reciprocity was invented by Hermann von Helmholtz already over 150 years ago, and though it is a very powerful tool in solving various important problems in bioelectromagnetism, it is not generally used. In impedance tomography the measurement sensitivity distribution has generally been misunderstood. This can be easily demonstrated with the principle of reciprocity. Some other applications of the principle of reciprocity are also discussed.
26 CFR 1.338-1 - General principles; status of old target and new target.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-04-01
... 26 Internal Revenue 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false General principles; status of old target and new target. 1.338-1 Section 1.338-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Effects on Corporation § 1.338-1 General principles; status of old target and...
43 CFR 419.3 - What general principles govern implementation of the TROA?
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-10-01
... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What general principles govern implementation of the TROA? 419.3 Section 419.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRUCKEE RIVER OPERATING AGREEMENT § 419.3 What general principles govern implementation of the...
12 CFR 621.3 - Application of generally accepted accounting principles.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-01-01
... management and the Farm Credit Administration, in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Application of generally accepted accounting principles. 621.3 Section 621.3 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM...
12 CFR 621.3 - Application of generally accepted accounting principles.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
... management and the Farm Credit Administration, in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Application of generally accepted accounting principles. 621.3 Section 621.3 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM...
12 CFR 621.3 - Application of generally accepted accounting principles.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-01-01
... management and the Farm Credit Administration, in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Application of generally accepted accounting principles. 621.3 Section 621.3 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM...
12 CFR 621.3 - Application of generally accepted accounting principles.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-01-01
... management and the Farm Credit Administration, in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Application of generally accepted accounting principles. 621.3 Section 621.3 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM...
Supersymmetry breaking as a new source for the generalized uncertainty principle
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Faizal, Mir
2016-06-01
In this letter, we will demonstrate that the breaking of supersymmetry by a non-anticommutative deformation can be used to generate the generalized uncertainty principle. We will analyze the physical reasons for this observation, in the framework of string theory. We also discuss the relation between the generalized uncertainty principle and the Lee-Wick field theories.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Belonogov, G. G.; And Others
1995-01-01
Discusses the development of phraseological machine translation based on the theory that in natural languages, phraseological units cannot always be reduced to words. Describes the phraseological translation process of computer software and machine dictionary systems that translate Russian into English and English into Russian. (JMV)
A generalized energy principle for a magnetorotational instability model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tassi, Emanuele; Morrison, Phil; Tronko, Natalia
2012-03-01
We study the equilibria of the Magnetorotational Instability system by using the noncanonical Hamiltonian approach [1], since it provides variational principles for equilibria that can be used to assess stability. We show that a reduced system of equations derived in [2] is an infinite-dimensional noncanonical Hamiltonian system. The noncanonical Poisson bracket is identified and shown to obey the Jacobi identity, and families of Casimir invariants are obtained. Explicit sufficient conditions for the energy stability of two classes of equilibria are identified by means of the Energy-Casimir method. Comparison between the stability conditions obtained in the two cases indicates that the presence of an equilibirum magnetic field along the direction of the ignorable coordinate does not introduce destabilizing effects. An analogy is found and physically interpreted between terms of the MRI perturbation energy and terms appearing in the energy principle stability analysis of CRMHD for tokamaks [3].[4pt] [1] P. J. Morrison, Rev. Mod. Phys., 70, 467 (1998).[0pt] [2] K. Julien and E. Knobloch, Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc., 386A,1607 (2010).[0pt] [3] R.D. Hazeltine, et. al, Phys. Fluids 28, 2466 (1985).
General principles for integrating geoheritage conservation in protected area management
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gordon, John E.; Crofts, Roger
2015-04-01
Development of more integrated approaches to the management of protected areas requires not only the protection of geosites, but also the effective application of geoconservation principles that apply more widely to the sustainable management of natural systems. Key guiding principles include: working with natural processes; managing natural systems and processes in a spatially integrated manner; accepting the inevitability of natural change; considering the responses of geomorphological processes to the effects of global climate change; recognising the sensitivity of natural systems and managing them within the limits of their capacity to absorb change; basing conservation management of active systems on a sound understanding of the underlying physical processes; making provision for managing visitors at sensitive sites; and acknowledging the interdependency of geodiversity and biodiversity management. As well as recognising the value of geoheritage in its own right, a more integrated approach to conservation across the full range of IUCN Protected Area Management Categories would benefit both biodiversity and geodiversity, through application of the concept of 'conserving nature's stage' and adopting an ecosystem approach.
General principles regarding the use of adult stem cells.
de Paula, I Carrasco
2008-02-01
With only a few, almost inevitable exceptions, biomedical research has developed within the last 50 years under the tutelage of ethical standards of notable precision. In the vast world of scientific investigation, few disciplines can boast of having realized documents of such ethical rigour, and respect for the integrity and intrinsic value of the human person has been one of the cardinal principles of the researcher. Research is intrinsic to the medical profession; the reward of research is knowledge and its techniques are ordered towards maintenance of human health. Since this end concerns human beings, it demands an extremely rigorous ethical approach. Ethical aspects are present from the first moments of the experimental project and occur on three levels: choice of the objectives, selection and use of the appropriate means for the study, and application of resultant new discoveries. Today, our moral attention cannot be reduced to a cost-benefit analysis. Biomedical sciences and medicine have overlapping areas of interest that can be sources of tension: the good of the subject versus scientific utility; profit versus complexity of research; liberty versus ethical and juridical bonds; the public versus the private; and the individual versus the community. Here, I attempt to formulate some essential principles that should guarantee humane measures for research on humans. PMID:18181949
Physical anthropology: the search for general processes and principles.
Lasker, G W
1970-02-01
Physical anthropology consists of two interdependent types of study: (1) the biological history of man and (2) general biological processes in man (such as mechanisms of evolution and growth). Popular interest may focus on the former, the fascinating story of the origin of man and of specific people, but the latter affords physical anthropology potential practical value in respect to medicine, dentistry, public health, and population policy. The study of general processes is the study of human beings in particular situations, not for what we can learn about these particular populations but for the sake of generalization about mankind anywhere in comparable situations. This is, of course, the purpose of experimental science in general, but in anthropology the method is usually comparative. Long ago the study of the growth of the two sexes and of children in different countries was started on a comparative basis as was the study of the so-called secular change in adult stature. By 1911 Franz Boas had compared the changes in stature and head form of children of several different immigrant groups in the United States. There have since been comparative studies of the amount and distribution of body fat (but not yet adequate comparative measurements of the relation of tissue components to diet and to diseases). Demographic patterns, inbreeding, outbreeding, and their effects are other general problems. The Human Adaptability Project of the International Biological Program promises studies of human response to heat, cold, altitude, and other conditions on a wide international basis. If supported, these could turn physical anthropology's search in a useful direction. The functional biology of people of even out-of-the-way communities will be compared with each other. These studies can yield general statements concerning human response to types of ecological situation including such sociocultural conditions as those of hunting-gathering tribes and urban slums. PMID:19681215
[Guidelines: general principles and clinical application in nephrology].
Feriozzi, S; Minutolo, R; Zoccali, C
2014-01-01
Clinical practice guidelines (GL) are multiplying and spreading throughout the scientific world. Nephrology is no exception and GL are more often recalled in the daily activity. Therefore, it can be useful to propose an excursus on the issue, to report the most important principles on the base of GL and moreover, to remember that GL are the synthesis between the scientific evidences published in literature and the critical analysis performed by an international committee of experts. Not all GL have the same clinical value. As a matter of fact, GL have a different strength of recommendation and grading according to the clinical evidences published. The number and methodological accuracy of the available studies on a specific subject are crucial to define the quality, the grading and the strength of GL. GL must also be shared with a wide number of specialists and other interested people such as patient organizations as well as health political institutions. Although the knowledge of GL is widespread, their practical use is still limited. The spreading of the knowledge regarding how GL are arranged, their appropriate reading about procedures and/or treatments to be done or not, it will convert GL into a reliable tool for daily clinical practice. Therefore it is not a confused and incomprehensible set of rules imposed by some scientific organizations. PMID:24777916
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Tatar, Erdal; Oktay, Munir
2007-01-01
This paper serves to review previously reported studies on students' misunderstandings about the energy conservation principle (the first law of thermodynamics). Generally, studies in literature highlighted students' misunderstandings about the energy conservation principle stem from preliminaries about energy concept in daily life. Since prior…
Effect of the Generalized Uncertainty Principle on post-inflation preheating
Chemissany, Wissam; Das, Saurya; Ali, Ahmed Farag; Vagenas, Elias C. E-mail: saurya.das@uleth.ca E-mail: evagenas@academyofathens.gr
2011-12-01
We examine effects of the Generalized Uncertainty Principle, predicted by various theories of quantum gravity to replace the Heisenberg's uncertainty principle near the Planck scale, on post inflation preheating in cosmology, and show that it can predict either an increase or a decrease in parametric resonance and a corresponding change in particle production. Possible implications are considered.
Laboratory Test Utilization Management: General Principles and Applications in Hematopathology.
Reichard, Kaaren K; Wood, Adam J
2016-03-01
As the cost of health care continues to rise and reimbursement rates decrease, there is a growing demand and need to cut overall costs, enhance quality of services, and maintain as a top priority the needs and safety of the patient. In this article, we provide an introduction to test utilization and outline a general approach to creating an efficient, cost-effective test utilization strategy. We also present and discuss 2 test utilization algorithms that are evidence-based and may be of clinical utility as we move toward the future of doing the necessary tests at the right time. PMID:26940264
A generalized Poisson solver for first-principles device simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bani-Hashemian, Mohammad Hossein; Brück, Sascha; Luisier, Mathieu; VandeVondele, Joost
2016-01-01
Electronic structure calculations of atomistic systems based on density functional theory involve solving the Poisson equation. In this paper, we present a plane-wave based algorithm for solving the generalized Poisson equation subject to periodic or homogeneous Neumann conditions on the boundaries of the simulation cell and Dirichlet type conditions imposed at arbitrary subdomains. In this way, source, drain, and gate voltages can be imposed across atomistic models of electronic devices. Dirichlet conditions are enforced as constraints in a variational framework giving rise to a saddle point problem. The resulting system of equations is then solved using a stationary iterative method in which the generalized Poisson operator is preconditioned with the standard Laplace operator. The solver can make use of any sufficiently smooth function modelling the dielectric constant, including density dependent dielectric continuum models. For all the boundary conditions, consistent derivatives are available and molecular dynamics simulations can be performed. The convergence behaviour of the scheme is investigated and its capabilities are demonstrated.
A generalized Poisson solver for first-principles device simulations.
Bani-Hashemian, Mohammad Hossein; Brück, Sascha; Luisier, Mathieu; VandeVondele, Joost
2016-01-28
Electronic structure calculations of atomistic systems based on density functional theory involve solving the Poisson equation. In this paper, we present a plane-wave based algorithm for solving the generalized Poisson equation subject to periodic or homogeneous Neumann conditions on the boundaries of the simulation cell and Dirichlet type conditions imposed at arbitrary subdomains. In this way, source, drain, and gate voltages can be imposed across atomistic models of electronic devices. Dirichlet conditions are enforced as constraints in a variational framework giving rise to a saddle point problem. The resulting system of equations is then solved using a stationary iterative method in which the generalized Poisson operator is preconditioned with the standard Laplace operator. The solver can make use of any sufficiently smooth function modelling the dielectric constant, including density dependent dielectric continuum models. For all the boundary conditions, consistent derivatives are available and molecular dynamics simulations can be performed. The convergence behaviour of the scheme is investigated and its capabilities are demonstrated. PMID:26827208
Earth Science Principles Pertinent to the General Education Programs in Junior High Schools
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Henson, Kenneth Tyrone
1970-01-01
Presents the procedures, and findings of a study designed to identify principles in astronomy, geology, meterology, oceanography and physical geography pertinent to general education programs in junior high schools. (LC)
A generalized optimization principle for asymmetric branching in fluidic networks
Stephenson, David
2016-01-01
When applied to a branching network, Murray’s law states that the optimal branching of vascular networks is achieved when the cube of the parent channel radius is equal to the sum of the cubes of the daughter channel radii. It is considered integral to understanding biological networks and for the biomimetic design of artificial fluidic systems. However, despite its ubiquity, we demonstrate that Murray’s law is only optimal (i.e. maximizes flow conductance per unit volume) for symmetric branching, where the local optimization of each individual channel corresponds to the global optimum of the network as a whole. In this paper, we present a generalized law that is valid for asymmetric branching, for any cross-sectional shape, and for a range of fluidic models. We verify our analytical solutions with the numerical optimization of a bifurcating fluidic network for the examples of laminar, turbulent and non-Newtonian fluid flows. PMID:27493583
Entropy of the Randall-Sundrum brane world with the generalized uncertainty principle
Kim, Wontae; Park, Young-Jai; Kim, Yong-Wan
2006-11-15
By introducing the generalized uncertainty principle, we calculate the entropy of the bulk scalar field on the Randall-Sundrum brane background without any cutoff. We obtain the entropy of the massive scalar field proportional to the horizon area. Here, we observe that the mass contribution to the entropy exists in contrast to all previous results of the usual black hole cases with the generalized uncertainty principle.
25 CFR 42.1 - What general principles apply to this part?
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-04-01
... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What general principles apply to this part? 42.1 Section 42.1 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR EDUCATION STUDENT RIGHTS § 42.1 What general principles apply to this part? (a) This part applies to every Bureau-funded school. The regulations in this part govern student rights...
25 CFR 42.1 - What general principles apply to this part?
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-04-01
... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What general principles apply to this part? 42.1 Section 42.1 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR EDUCATION STUDENT RIGHTS § 42.1 What general principles apply to this part? (a) This part applies to every Bureau-funded school. The regulations in this part govern student rights...
25 CFR 42.1 - What general principles apply to this part?
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-04-01
... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What general principles apply to this part? 42.1 Section 42.1 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR EDUCATION STUDENT RIGHTS § 42.1 What general principles apply to this part? (a) This part applies to every Bureau-funded school. The regulations in this part govern student rights...
25 CFR 42.1 - What general principles apply to this part?
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What general principles apply to this part? 42.1 Section 42.1 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR EDUCATION STUDENT RIGHTS § 42.1 What general principles apply to this part? (a) This part applies to every Bureau-funded school. The regulations in this part govern student rights...
25 CFR 42.1 - What general principles apply to this part?
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-04-01
... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true What general principles apply to this part? 42.1 Section 42.1 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR EDUCATION STUDENT RIGHTS § 42.1 What general principles apply to this part? (a) This part applies to every Bureau-funded school. The regulations in this part govern student rights...
Generalized energy principle for flute perturbations in axisymmetric mirror machines
Lansky, I.M.; Ryutov, D.D.
1993-01-20
Axial symmetry is a very desirable property of the mirror devices both for fusion and neutron source applications. The main obstacle to be circumvented in the development of such systems, is the flute instability of axisymmetric mirrors. In recent years there appeared a number of proposals, devoted to the stabilization of the flute perturbations in the framework of axisymmetric magnetic configurations, which are based on the combining of the MHD unstable central cell with various types of end-cell stabilizers. In the present paper we concentrate ourselves just on this scheme, including long solenoid with a uniform field, conjugated with the end stabilizing anchor, intended to provide MHD stability of the system as a whole. The attractive feature of such a configuration is that it allows to exploit finite larmor radius (FLR) effects for the stabilization of the flute perturbations. As is well known, FLR effects, being strong, stabilize all flute modes, except the one with azimuthal number m = 1, corresponding to the ``rigid`` displacement of the plasma column (the ``global`` mode). Consequently, in the conditions when FLR effects dominate, the anchor has to stabilize the ``global` mode only. Bearing in mind a favorable influence of FLR effects we, however, don`t restrict our paper by discussion of only ``global`` mode stability and consider a general case of an arbitrary azimuthal mode.
The dynamics of angular homeostasis: I. General principles.
Murphy, E A; Berger, K R
1987-02-01
A general model is proposed casting aspects of ontogeny in quantitative terms amenable to genetic analysis. Its primordial construct is a chain of cells (termed a "pursuer") growing under the influence of a signal towards a fixed structure termed a "target." There is provision for graduated correction of the direction of growth of the pursuer. The determinants of scale include the size of the cells and the distance from the target. The minimum number of parameters is two: the initial angle of growth; and the force of the correction of errors of direction. Both are potentially of genetic interest. The impact of variation in these factors on the path of growth is studied. These findings are readily translated into biological terms, notably in congenital defects of the heart. Besides the primordial purposes, there are other objectives to the process. Some membranes require free edges, or large curvatures, or circular arrays. These secondary qualities require that the cells never reach the target. The target then becomes simply a construction point: that is, while remaining a center of attraction, it is no longer a true goal. If, because of undercorrection, the cell line misses the target at the first pass, it assumes a permanent orbit about it. The orbit rapidly comes to lie on a circle, with a radius independent of the initial angle of growth but related to the cell size and the restoration constant. From this property, several kinds of structures other than a simple bridge may result, especially when a series of lines of growth together form a tissue: a cusp, a free-floating membrane, or a circular membrane to fill a gap. PMID:3812596
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Vincent, Benet
2013-01-01
This study demonstrates an approach based on findings from phraseology which can be used to identify potentially useful phrases in a text by starting with continuous or discontinuous sequences of very frequent words. These combinations are then searched in a corpus of academic texts to find their common collocates and ascertain whether the…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gyllstad, Henrik; Wolter, Brent
2016-01-01
The present study investigates whether two types of word combinations (free combinations and collocations) differ in terms of processing by testing Howarth's Continuum Model based on word combination typologies from a phraseological tradition. A visual semantic judgment task was administered to advanced Swedish learners of English (n = 27) and…
Concgramming: A Computer Driven Approach to Learning the Phraseology of English
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Greaves, Chris; Warren, Martin
2007-01-01
This study introduces a new computer-based methodology, "concgramming", that has as its primary aim the automatic identification of the phraseological profile and hence the "aboutness", of a text or corpus. It is argued that this methodology can be employed by language learners and teachers to raise awareness of the importance of the…
Discovering the Hidden Treasure on the Internet: Using Google to Uncover the Veil of Phraseology
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Shei, Chi-Chiang
2008-01-01
Formulaic speech has been notoriously difficult to define and identify despite its crucial importance to native-like fluency and idiomaticity. In this article, I introduce a way of identifying phraseological units in a running text. I am interested in recurrent fragments like "charged with crimes against humanity" in texts which involve multiple…
Adverbials of Result: Phraseology and Functions in the Problem-Solution Pattern
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Charles, Maggie
2011-01-01
This paper combines the use of corpus techniques with discourse analysis in order to investigate adverbials of result in the writing of advanced academic student writers. It focuses in detail on the phraseology and functions of "thus," "therefore," "then," "hence," "so" and "consequently." Two corpora of native-speaker theses are examined: 190,000…
Uncovering the Extent of the Phraseological Tendency: Towards a Systematic Analysis of Concgrams
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cheng, Winnie; Greaves, Chris; Sinclair, John McH.; Warren, Martin
2009-01-01
This paper offers an analytical procedure for identifying phraseological variation within "concgrams" (Cheng et al. 2006), which are sets of words that co-occur regardless of constituency variation (e.g. AB and A * B), positional variation (e.g. AB and BA), or both. It argues that examining concgrams takes us closer to more fully appreciating and…
76 FR 69333 - Derivatives Clearing Organization General Provisions and Core Principles
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2011-11-08
... 77576 (Dec. 13, 2010) (Core Principles A, H, N, and R (General Regulations)); and 75 FR 63113 (Oct. 14... in Sec. 1.3, which serves as the general definition section for all of the Commission's regulations... the CEA and Sec. 1.3(d) of the Commission's regulations. The Commission is adopting Sec. 39.1...
Generalized Fermat's principle and action for light rays in a curved spacetime
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Frolov, Valeri P.
2013-09-01
We start with formulation of the generalized Fermat’s principle for light propagation in a curved spacetime. We apply Pontryagin’s minimum principle of the optimal control theory and obtain an effective Hamiltonian for null geodesics in a curved spacetime. We explicitly demonstrate that dynamical equations for this Hamiltonian correctly reproduce null geodesic equations. Other forms of the action for light rays in a curved spacetime are also discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hazoglou, Michael J.; Walther, Valentin; Dixit, Purushottam D.; Dill, Ken A.
2015-08-01
There has been interest in finding a general variational principle for non-equilibrium statistical mechanics. We give evidence that Maximum Caliber (Max Cal) is such a principle. Max Cal, a variant of maximum entropy, predicts dynamical distribution functions by maximizing a path entropy subject to dynamical constraints, such as average fluxes. We first show that Max Cal leads to standard near-equilibrium results—including the Green-Kubo relations, Onsager's reciprocal relations of coupled flows, and Prigogine's principle of minimum entropy production—in a way that is particularly simple. We develop some generalizations of the Onsager and Prigogine results that apply arbitrarily far from equilibrium. Because Max Cal does not require any notion of "local equilibrium," or any notion of entropy dissipation, or temperature, or even any restriction to material physics, it is more general than many traditional approaches. It also applicable to flows and traffic on networks, for example.
Hazoglou, Michael J; Walther, Valentin; Dixit, Purushottam D; Dill, Ken A
2015-08-01
There has been interest in finding a general variational principle for non-equilibrium statistical mechanics. We give evidence that Maximum Caliber (Max Cal) is such a principle. Max Cal, a variant of maximum entropy, predicts dynamical distribution functions by maximizing a path entropy subject to dynamical constraints, such as average fluxes. We first show that Max Cal leads to standard near-equilibrium results—including the Green-Kubo relations, Onsager's reciprocal relations of coupled flows, and Prigogine's principle of minimum entropy production—in a way that is particularly simple. We develop some generalizations of the Onsager and Prigogine results that apply arbitrarily far from equilibrium. Because Max Cal does not require any notion of "local equilibrium," or any notion of entropy dissipation, or temperature, or even any restriction to material physics, it is more general than many traditional approaches. It also applicable to flows and traffic on networks, for example. PMID:26254635
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sob'yanin, Denis Nikolaevich
2012-06-01
A principle of hierarchical entropy maximization is proposed for generalized superstatistical systems, which are characterized by the existence of three levels of dynamics. If a generalized superstatistical system comprises a set of superstatistical subsystems, each made up of a set of cells, then the Boltzmann-Gibbs-Shannon entropy should be maximized first for each cell, second for each subsystem, and finally for the whole system. Hierarchical entropy maximization naturally reflects the sufficient time-scale separation between different dynamical levels and allows one to find the distribution of both the intensive parameter and the control parameter for the corresponding superstatistics. The hierarchical maximum entropy principle is applied to fluctuations of the photon Bose-Einstein condensate in a dye microcavity. This principle provides an alternative to the master equation approach recently applied to this problem. The possibility of constructing generalized superstatistics based on a statistics different from the Boltzmann-Gibbs statistics is pointed out.
[The General Principles of Suicide Prevention Policy from the perspective of clinical psychiatry].
Cho, Yoshinori; Inagaki, Masatoshi
2014-01-01
In view of the fact that the suicide rate in Japan has remained high since 1998, the Basic Act on Suicide Prevention was implemented in 2006 with the objective of comprehensively promoting suicide prevention measures on a national scale. Based on this Basic Act, in 2007, the Japanese government formulated the General Principles of Suicide Prevention Policy as a guideline for recommended suicide prevention measures. These General Principles were revised in 2012 in accordance with the initial plan of holding a review after five years. The Basic Act places an emphasis on the various social factors that underlie suicides and takes the perspective that suicide prevention measures are also social measures. The slogan of the revised General Principles is "Toward Realization of a Society in which Nobody is Driven to Commit Suicide". The General Principles list various measures that are able to be used universally. These contents would be sufficient if the objective of the General Principles were "realization of a society that is easy to live in"; however, the absence of information on the effectiveness and order of priority for each measure may limit the specific effectiveness of the measures in relation to the actual prevention of suicide. In addition, considering that nearly 90% of suicide victims are in a state at the time of committing suicide in which a psychiatric disorder would be diagnosed, it would appear from a psychiatric standpoint that measures related to mental health, including expansion of psychiatric services, should be the top priority in suicide prevention measures. However, this is not the case in the General Principles, in either its original or revised form. Revisions to the General Principles related to clinical psychiatry provide more detailed descriptions of measures for individuals who unsuccessfully attempt suicide and identify newly targeted mental disorders other than depression; however, the overall proportion of contents relating to
The entropy of the noncommutative acoustic black hole based on generalized uncertainty principle
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Anacleto, M. A.; Brito, F. A.; Passos, E.; Santos, W. P.
2014-10-01
In this paper we investigate statistical entropy of a 3-dimensional rotating acoustic black hole based on generalized uncertainty principle. In our results we obtain an area entropy and a correction term associated with the noncommutative acoustic black hole when λ introduced in the generalized uncertainty principle takes a specific value. However, in this method, it is not needed to introduce the ultraviolet cut-off and divergences are eliminated. Moreover, the small mass approximation is not necessary in the original brick-wall model.
Generalization of Lieb's variational principle to Bogoliubov–Hartree–Fock theory
Bach, Volker Breteaux, Sébastien Menge, Edmund; Knörr, Hans Konrad
2014-01-15
In its original formulation, Lieb's variational principle holds for fermion systems with purely repulsive pair interactions. As a generalization we prove for both fermion and boson systems with semi-bounded Hamiltonian that the infimum of the energy over quasifree states coincides with the infimum over pure quasifree states. In particular, the Hamiltonian is not assumed to preserve the number of particles. To shed light on the relation between our result and the usual formulation of Lieb's variational principle in terms of one-particle density matrices, we also include a characterization of pure quasifree states by means of their generalized one-particle density matrices.
Kull; Pfirsch
2000-05-01
The time-dependent Hartree-Fock equations are derived from a variational principle for the general N-body action of a Slater determinant of single-electron orbitals. The variational principle generalizes commonly used variational treatments based on reduced two-body actions. The self-consistent field equations are found to contain time-dependent corrections to the standard mean-field interactions. Their physical significance is discussed and a time-dependent phase shift to the Slater determinant is obtained that properly accounts for the total interaction energy in the mean-field approach. PMID:11031657
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liang, Li-Fu; Liu, Zong-Min; Guo, Qing-Yong
2009-03-01
The fluid-solid coupling theory, an interdisciplinary science between hydrodynamics and solid mechanics, is an important tool for response analysis and direct design of structures in naval architecture and ocean engineering. By applying the corresponding relations between generalized forces and generalized displacements, convolutions were performed between the basic equations of elasto-dynamics in the primary space and corresponding virtual quantities. The results were integrated and then added algebraically. In light of the fact that body forces and surface forces are both follower forces, the generalized quasi-complementary energy principle with two kinds of variables for an initial value problem is established in non-conservative systems. Using the generalized quasi-complementary energy principle to deal with the fluid-solid coupling problem and to analyze the dynamic response of structures, a method for using two kinds of variables simultaneously for calculation of force and displacement was derived.
26 CFR 1.338-1 - General principles; status of old target and new target.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-04-01
... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Effects on Corporation § 1.338-1 General principles; status... income tax purposes, referred to as the deemed asset sale and the income tax consequences thereof as the... Revenue Bulletin by the Internal Revenue Service. See § 601.601(d)(2)(ii) of this chapter. See,...
49 CFR Appendix E to Part 238 - General Principles of Reliability-Based Maintenance Programs
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-10-01
... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false General Principles of Reliability-Based Maintenance Programs E Appendix E to Part 238 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PASSENGER EQUIPMENT SAFETY STANDARDS Pt. 238, App. E Appendix E to Part...
The Basic Principles and Methods of the Music Curriculum for the General Education School.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kabalevskii, Dmitrii
1988-01-01
Delineates the foundations of Dmitri Kabalevskii's music curriculum for general education in the Soviet Union. Stresses teaching music as part of life itself. Bases teaching principles and methods on the song, dance, and march, termed "The Three Whales." Offers extensive lesson plans focusing on first grade music activities. (CH)
Generalization of the diffusion equation by using the maximum entropy principle
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jumarie, Guy
1985-06-01
By using the so-called maximum entropy principle in information theory, one derives a generalization of the Fokker-Planck-Kolmogorov equation which applies when the n first transition moments of the process are proportional to Δt, while the other ones can be neglected.
Using Domain-General Principles to Explain Children's Causal Reasoning Abilities
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
McClelland, James L.; Thompson, Richard M.
2007-01-01
A connectionist model of causal attribution is presented, emphasizing the use of domain-general principles of processing and learning previously employed in models of semantic cognition. The model categorizes objects dependent upon their observed 'causal properties' and is capable of making several types of inferences that 4-year-old children have…
21 CFR 570.20 - General principles for evaluating the safety of food additives.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-04-01
... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false General principles for evaluating the safety of food additives. 570.20 Section 570.20 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES Food...
20 CFR 604.3 - Able and available requirement-general principles.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-04-01
... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Able and available requirement-general principles. 604.3 Section 604.3 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS FOR ELIGIBILITY FOR UNEMPLOYMENT COMPENSATION § 604.3 Able and available...
49 CFR Appendix E to Part 238 - General Principles of Reliability-Based Maintenance Programs
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-10-01
... Maintenance Programs E Appendix E to Part 238 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... STANDARDS Pt. 238, App. E Appendix E to Part 238—General Principles of Reliability-Based Maintenance... reliability beyond the design reliability. (e) When a maintenance program is developed, it includes tasks...
Victim Injury and Social Distance: A National Test of a General Principle of Conflict.
Rennison, Callie Marie; Jacques, Scott; Allen, Andrea
2016-01-01
Our inquiry focuses on why some violent offenses but not others result in injury to the victim. Building on existing theory nested in the paradigm of pure sociology, we propose and test a general principle of conflict: Victim injury varies directly with social distance. This principle predicts that offenders are more likely to harm victims with whom they are less well acquainted and less similar culturally. We test three hypotheses derived from this principle with data from the National Crime Victimization Survey and find little support for the theory. Rather, findings suggest exactly the opposite of that predicted: As social distance between offender and victim increases, the odds of victim injury decreases. Recommendations of additional research are made. PMID:27302957
Li Zhongheng
2009-10-15
We derive new formulas for the spectral energy density and total energy density of massless particles in a general spherically symmetric static metric from a generalized uncertainty principle. Compared with blackbody radiation, the spectral energy density is strongly damped at high frequencies. For large values of r, the spectral energy density diminishes when r grows, but at the event horizon, the spectral energy density vanishes and therefore thermodynamic quantities near a black hole, calculated via the generalized uncertainty principle, do not require any cutoff parameter. We find that the total energy density can be expressed in terms of Hurwitz zeta functions. It should be noted that at large r (low local temperature), the difference between the total energy density and the Stefan-Boltzmann law is too small to be observed. However, as r approaches an event horizon, the effect of the generalized uncertainty principle becomes more and more important, which may be observable. As examples, the spectral energy densities in the background metric of a Schwarzschild black hole and of a Schwarzschild black hole plus quintessence are discussed. It is interesting to note that the maximum of the distribution shifts to higher frequencies when the quintessence equation of state parameter w decreases.
Maximum Principle for General Controlled Systems Driven by Fractional Brownian Motions
Han Yuecai; Hu Yaozhong; Song Jian
2013-04-15
We obtain a maximum principle for stochastic control problem of general controlled stochastic differential systems driven by fractional Brownian motions (of Hurst parameter H>1/2). This maximum principle specifies a system of equations that the optimal control must satisfy (necessary condition for the optimal control). This system of equations consists of a backward stochastic differential equation driven by both fractional Brownian motions and the corresponding underlying standard Brownian motions. In addition to this backward equation, the maximum principle also involves the Malliavin derivatives. Our approach is to use conditioning and Malliavin calculus. To arrive at our maximum principle we need to develop some new results of stochastic analysis of the controlled systems driven by fractional Brownian motions via fractional calculus. Our approach of conditioning and Malliavin calculus is also applied to classical system driven by standard Brownian motions while the controller has only partial information. As a straightforward consequence, the classical maximum principle is also deduced in this more natural and simpler way.
Covariant energy–momentum and an uncertainty principle for general relativity
Cooperstock, F.I.; Dupre, M.J.
2013-12-15
We introduce a naturally-defined totally invariant spacetime energy expression for general relativity incorporating the contribution from gravity. The extension links seamlessly to the action integral for the gravitational field. The demand that the general expression for arbitrary systems reduces to the Tolman integral in the case of stationary bounded distributions, leads to the matter-localized Ricci integral for energy–momentum in support of the energy localization hypothesis. The role of the observer is addressed and as an extension of the special relativistic case, the field of observers comoving with the matter is seen to compute the intrinsic global energy of a system. The new localized energy supports the Bonnor claim that the Szekeres collapsing dust solutions are energy-conserving. It is suggested that in the extreme of strong gravity, the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle be generalized in terms of spacetime energy–momentum. -- Highlights: •We present a totally invariant spacetime energy expression for general relativity incorporating the contribution from gravity. •Demand for the general expression to reduce to the Tolman integral for stationary systems supports the Ricci integral as energy–momentum. •Localized energy via the Ricci integral is consistent with the energy localization hypothesis. •New localized energy supports the Bonnor claim that the Szekeres collapsing dust solutions are energy-conserving. •Suggest the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle be generalized in terms of spacetime energy–momentum in strong gravity extreme.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Akhmet, M. U.
2007-12-01
In this paper we introduce a new type of differential equations with piecewise constant argument (EPCAG), more general than EPCA [K.L. Cooke, J. Wiener, Retarded differential equations with piecewise constant delays, J. Math. Anal. Appl. 99 (1984) 265-297; J. Wiener, Generalized Solutions of Functional Differential Equations, World Scientific, Singapore, 1993]. The Reduction Principle [V.A. Pliss, The reduction principle in the theory of the stability of motion, Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR Ser. Mat. 27 (1964) 1297-1324 (in Russian); V.A. Pliss, Integral Sets of Periodic Systems of Differential Equations, Nauka, Moskow, 1977 (in Russian)] is proved for EPCAG. The structure of the set of solutions is specified. We establish also the existence of global integral manifolds of quasilinear EPCAG in the so-called critical case and investigate the stability of the zero solution.
General Principles of Radiation Protection in Fields of Diagnostic Medical Exposure
2016-01-01
After the rapid development of medical equipment including CT or PET-CT, radiation doses from medical exposure are now the largest source of man-made radiation exposure. General principles of radiation protection from the hazard of ionizing radiation are summarized as three key words; justification, optimization, and dose limit. Because medical exposure of radiation has unique considerations, diagnostic reference level is generally used as a reference value, instead of dose limits. In Korea, medical radiation exposure has increased rapidly. For medical radiation exposure control, Korea has two separate control systems. Regulation is essential to control medical radiation exposure. Physicians and radiologists must be aware of the radiation risks and benefits associated with medical exposure, and understand and implement the principles of radiation protection for patients. The education of the referring physicians and radiologists is also important. PMID:26908991
A generalization of the Boltzmann superposition principle to polymer networks undergoing scission
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Moacanin, J.; Landel, R. F.; Aklonis, J. J.
1976-01-01
Methods reported by Moacanin et al. (1975) and Moacanin and Aklonis (1971) are generalized with the objective to include strains (or stress) applied in an arbitrary manner to linearly viscoelastic materials. An imposition of changes in both the strain and the density of elastically effective chains in discrete increments is considered. In accordance with the Boltzmann superposition principle, each strain increment may be treated as a new independent experiment which adds linearly to the total response of the system.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Contreras, Ernesto; Villalba, Fabián D.; Bargueño, Pedro
2016-06-01
In this work we construct several black-hole metrics which are consistent with the generalized uncertainty principle logarithmic correction to the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy formula. After preserving the event horizon at the usual position, a singularity at the Planck scale is found. Finally, these geometries are shown to be realized by certain model of non-linear electrodynamics, which resembles previously studied regular black-hole solutions.
75 FR 10205 - Codex Alimentarius Commission: Meeting of the Codex Committee on General Principles
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2010-03-05
...The Office for Food Safety, U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), is sponsoring a public meeting on March 23, 2010. The objective of the public meeting is to provide information and receive public comments on agenda items and draft United States positions that will be discussed at the 26th session of the Codex Committee on General Principles (CCGP) of the Codex Alimentarius Commission......
Variational principle of Bogoliubov and generalized mean fields in many-particle interacting systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kuzemsky, A. L.
2015-07-01
The approach to the theory of many-particle interacting systems from a unified standpoint, based on the variational principle for free energy is reviewed. A systematic discussion is given of the approximate free energies of complex statistical systems. The analysis is centered around the variational principle of Bogoliubov for free energy in the context of its applications to various problems of statistical mechanics. The review presents a terse discussion of selected works carried out over the past few decades on the theory of many-particle interacting systems in terms of the variational inequalities. It is the purpose of this paper to discuss some of the general principles which form the mathematical background to this approach and to establish a connection of the variational technique with other methods, such as the method of the mean (or self-consistent) field in the many-body problem. The method is illustrated by applying it to various systems of many-particle interacting systems, such as Ising, Heisenberg and Hubbard models, superconducting (SC) and superfluid systems, etc. This work proposes a new, general and pedagogical presentation, intended both for those who are interested in basic aspects and for those who are interested in concrete applications.
Covariant energy-momentum and an uncertainty principle for general relativity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cooperstock, F. I.; Dupre, M. J.
2013-12-01
We introduce a naturally-defined totally invariant spacetime energy expression for general relativity incorporating the contribution from gravity. The extension links seamlessly to the action integral for the gravitational field. The demand that the general expression for arbitrary systems reduces to the Tolman integral in the case of stationary bounded distributions, leads to the matter-localized Ricci integral for energy-momentum in support of the energy localization hypothesis. The role of the observer is addressed and as an extension of the special relativistic case, the field of observers comoving with the matter is seen to compute the intrinsic global energy of a system. The new localized energy supports the Bonnor claim that the Szekeres collapsing dust solutions are energy-conserving. It is suggested that in the extreme of strong gravity, the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle be generalized in terms of spacetime energy-momentum.
Gavin, J.; Montgomery, J.C.
1982-10-01
The principle of stimulus generalization provided the underlying argument for a test of hypotheses regarding the association of community and job satisfactions and a critique of related theory and research. Two-stage least squares (2SLS) analysis made possible the examination of reciprocal causation, a notion inherent in the theoretical argument. Data were obtained from 276 employees of a Western U.S. coal mine as part of a work attitudes survey. The 2SLS analysis indicated a significant impact of community satisfaction on job satisfaction and an effect of borderline significance of job on community satisfaction. Theory-based correlational comparisons were made on groups of employees residing in four distinct communities, high and low tenure groups, males and females, and different levels in the mine's hierarchy. The pattern of correlations was generally consistent with predictions, but significance tests for differences yielded equivocal support. When considered in the context of previous studies, the data upheld a reciprocal causal model and the explanatory principle of stimulus generalization for understanding the relation of community and job satisfactions. Sample characteristics necessitate cautious interpretation and the model per se might best be viewed as a heuristic framework for more definitive research.
Generalized uncertainty principle in f(R) gravity for a charged black hole
Said, Jackson Levi; Adami, Kristian Zarb
2011-02-15
Using f(R) gravity in the Palatini formularism, the metric for a charged spherically symmetric black hole is derived, taking the Ricci scalar curvature to be constant. The generalized uncertainty principle is then used to calculate the temperature of the resulting black hole; through this the entropy is found correcting the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy in this case. Using the entropy the tunneling probability and heat capacity are calculated up to the order of the Planck length, which produces an extra factor that becomes important as black holes become small, such as in the case of mini-black holes.
Lifespan of rotating black hole in the frame of generalized uncertainty principle
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
He, Tangmei; Zhang, Jingyi; Yang, Jinbo; Tan, Hongwei
2016-01-01
In this paper, the lifespan under the generalized uncertainty principle (GUP) of rotating black hole is derived through the corrected radiation energy flux and the first law of the thermodynamics of black hole. The radiation energy flux indicates that there exist the highest temperature and the minimum mass both of which are relevant to the initial mass of the black hole in the final stage of the radiation. The lifespan of rotating black hole includes three terms: the dominant term is just the lifespan in the flat spacetime; the other two terms are individually induced by the rotation and the GUP.
First-principles generalized gradient approximation + U study of cubic CuAl2O4
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Qi-Jun; Liu, Zheng-Tang
2011-08-01
We have investigated the electronic, magnetic, mechanical, and optical properties in cubic CuAl2O4 by a first-principles ultrasoft pseudopotential of the plane-wave within the density-functional theory (DFT) plus the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) + U (Hubbard parameter) formalism. We find the polarized hole dz2 character induced the dz2 magnetic orbital ordering and the p-d hybridization results in the covalent bonding between Cu and O. The origins of electrons transitions in dielectric function are consistent with electronic structure aroused by crystal-field and Janhn-Teller effect.
General chemistry students' understanding of climate science principles relating to chemistry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Versprille, A. N.; Towns, M.; Mahaffy, P.; Martin, B.; McKenzie, L. C.; Kirchhoff, M.
2012-12-01
As part of the NSF funded Visualizing the Chemistry of Climate Science project, we are developing the chemistry of climate science inventory for use in general chemistry courses. The U.S. Climate Change Science Program (CCSP), which integrates federal research on climate and global change, has set out a climate literacy framework, Climate Literacy: the Essential Principles of Climate Science (US Climate Change Science Program, 2009). Developed by collaboration among NOAA, NASA, AAAS, and a distinguished group of scientists and educators, this Framework defines a set of essential principles and scientific thinking skills that a climate literate person should understand. We have based our interview protocol on misconceptions identified in the research literature and the essential principles of climate change outlined in the CCSP document that pertain to chemistry. We have interviewed 24 undergraduates to elicit their understanding of the Earth's energy system, global warming, climate change, greenhouse gases, climate, and weather. Our analysis and findings indicate that the fundamental science necessary to understand the Earth's energy system and climate change are not well understood by the undergraduates in this sample. Details of the interviews, analysis, and synthesis of findings will be shared.
Ethical principles and the rationing of health care: a qualitative study in general practice
Berney, Lee; Kelly, Moira; Doyal, Len; Feder, Gene; Griffiths, Chris; Jones, Ian Rees
2005-01-01
Background Researching sensitive topics, such as the rationing of treatments and denial of care, raises a number of ethical and methodological problems. Aim To describe the methods and findings from a number of focus group discussions that examined how GPs apply ethical principles when allocating scarce resources. Design of study A small-scale qualitative study involving purposive sampling, semi-structured interviews and focus groups. Setting Twenty-four GPs from two contrasting areas of London: one relatively affluent and one relatively deprived. Method Initial interviews asked GPs to identify key resource allocation issues. The interviews were transcribed and themes were identified. A number of case studies, each illustrative of an ethical issue related to rationing, were written up in the form of vignettes. In focus group discussions, GPs were given a number of these vignettes to debate. Results With respect to the ethical basis for decision making, the findings from this part of the study emphasised the role of social and psychological factors, the influence of the quality of the relationship between GPs and patients and confusion among GPs about their role in decision making. Conclusion The use of vignettes developed from prior interviews with GPs creates a non-threatening environment to discuss sensitive or controversial issues. The acceptance by GPs of general moral principles does not entail clarity of coherence of the application of these principles in practice. PMID:16105371
Tawfik, A.
2013-07-01
We investigate the impacts of Generalized Uncertainty Principle (GUP) proposed by some approaches to quantum gravity such as String Theory and Doubly Special Relativity on black hole thermodynamics and Salecker-Wigner inequalities. Utilizing Heisenberg uncertainty principle, the Hawking temperature, Bekenstein entropy, specific heat, emission rate and decay time are calculated. As the evaporation entirely eats up the black hole mass, the specific heat vanishes and the temperature approaches infinity with an infinite radiation rate. It is found that the GUP approach prevents the black hole from the entire evaporation. It implies the existence of remnants at which the specific heat vanishes. The same role is played by the Heisenberg uncertainty principle in constructing the hydrogen atom. We discuss how the linear GUP approach solves the entire-evaporation-problem. Furthermore, the black hole lifetime can be estimated using another approach; the Salecker-Wigner inequalities. Assuming that the quantum position uncertainty is limited to the minimum wavelength of measuring signal, Wigner second inequality can be obtained. If the spread of quantum clock is limited to some minimum value, then the modified black hole lifetime can be deduced. Based on linear GUP approach, the resulting lifetime difference depends on black hole relative mass and the difference between black hole mass with and without GUP is not negligible.
Drugs Are Not Enough: Some Principles of Psychopharmacology for General Medical Practice
Ross, W. Donald
1963-01-01
There is no necessary antagonism between the judicious use of drugs and a psychotherapeutic approach to patients in general medical practice. A table is presented with a simple pragmatic classification of types of drugs for altering emotional and mental states. Three general principles are given for the use of such drugs, illustrated by examples of the use and misuse of tranquillizers. Some differentiation is made between sedatives and tranquillizers and between different types of tranquillizers, particularly with reference to the need to consider depressive features in patients. Suggestions are made for the use of drugs for mild depressions and for depressions accompanying organic disease. One may have to take an “experimental” approach to new drugs to determine which to them are of value in relation to the particular emotional states of one's own patients. ImagesFig. 1 PMID:14060167
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Yi Jiao; Feng, Qing Yi; Chai, Li He
As one of the most important financial markets and one of the main parts of economic system, the stock market has become the research focus in economics. The stock market is a typical complex open system far from equilibrium. Many available models that make huge contribution to researches on market are strong in describing the market however, ignoring strong nonlinear interactions among active agents and weak in reveal underlying dynamic mechanisms of structural evolutions of market. From econophysical perspectives, this paper analyzes the complex interactions among agents and defines the generalized entropy in stock markets. Nonlinear evolutionary dynamic equation for the stock markets is then derived from Maximum Generalized Entropy Principle. Simulations are accordingly conducted for a typical case with the given data, by which the structural evolution of the stock market system is demonstrated. Some discussions and implications are finally provided.
Nai, Jianwei; Tian, Yu; Guan, Xin; Guo, Lin
2013-10-30
Designing a general route for rational synthesis of a series or families of nanomaterials for emerging applications has become more and more fascinating and vital in the view of nanoscience and nanotechnology. Herein, we explore a general strategy for fabricating uniform nanocages of metal hydroxides (MHs) and metal oxides (MOs). A template-assisted route inspired by Pearson's hard and soft acid-base (HSAB) principle was employed for synthesizing MH nanocages via meticulous selection of the coordinating etchant as well as optimization of the reaction conditions. The concept of "coordinating etching" is successfully achieved in this work. This unique route shows potential in designing well-defined and high-quality MH nanocages with varying components, shell thicknesses, shapes, and sizes at room temperature. Consequently, porous MO nanocages can be obtained readily just through appropriate thermal treament of the respective MH nanocages. The overall strategy present in this work extends the application of the HSAB principle in nanoscience and offers a unqiue clue for rational fabrication of hollow (porous) and/or amorphous structures on the nanoscale, where these nanocages may present promising potential for various applications. PMID:23724779
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
McAlpine, Janice; Myles, Johanne
2003-01-01
Proposes a new type of English-as-a-Second-Language dictionary--in electronic form--that presents typical phraseology rather than words in isolation. Online, without the constraints of space and linear organization, the dictionary can treat the multiword lexical units and common collocational patterns that cohere around a node word and illustrate…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Charles, Maggie
2006-01-01
This study investigates the phraseological patterning that occurs in reporting clauses used to make references to others' research. It examines finite reporting clauses with "that"-clause complement and draws upon two corpora of theses written by native speakers in contrasting disciplines: approximately 190,000 words in politics/international…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McCoy, B.
2011-12-01
General studies science classes at many universities, such as physical science, Earth science, or astronomy, stress memorization and repetition of concepts. This approach leaves students with little appreciation for how science is used to explain phenomena from general principles. We present a novel instructional technique for an Earth science class in which the students are instructed in the use of a general problem solving strategy, adapted from a quantitative problem solving strategy developed by physics education research, in order to train the students in how to apply general principles. Using the Epistemological Beliefs Assessment for Physical Science, we have found that explicit training in problem solving significantly improves students' epistemology.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McInroe, Benjamin; Astley, Henry; Gong, Chaohui; Kawano, Sandy; Schiebel, Perrin; Choset, Howie; Goldman, Daniel I.
The transition from aquatic to terrestrial life presented new challenges to early walkers, necessitating robust locomotion on complex, flowable substrates (e.g. sand, mud). Locomotion on such substrates is sensitive to limb morphology and kinematics. Although early walker morphologies are known, principles of appendage control remain elusive. To reveal limb control strategies that facilitated the invasion of land, we study both robotic and mathematical models. Robot experiments show that an active tail is critical for robust locomotion on granular media, enabling locomotion even with poor foot placement and limited ability to lift the body. Using a granular resistive force theory model, we construct connection vector fields that reveal how appendage coordination and terrain inclination impact locomotor performance. This model replicates experimental results, showing that moving limbs/tail in phase is most effective (suggesting a locomotor template). Varying limb trajectories and contacts, we find gaits for which tail use can be neutral or harmful, suggesting limb-tail coordination to be a nontrivial aspect of locomotion. Our findings show that robot experiments coupled with geometric mechanics provide a general framework to reveal principles of robust terrestrial locomotion. This work was supported by NSF PoLS.
Seifert, Michael D.; Wald, Robert M.
2007-04-15
We present a general method for the analysis of the stability of static, spherically symmetric solutions to spherically symmetric perturbations in an arbitrary diffeomorphism covariant Lagrangian field theory. Our method involves fixing the gauge and solving the linearized gravitational field equations to eliminate the metric perturbation variables in terms of the matter variables. In a wide class of cases--which include f(R) gravity, the Einstein-aether theory of Jacobson and Mattingly, and Bekenstein's TeVeS theory--the remaining perturbation equations for the matter fields are second order in time. We show how the symplectic current arising from the original Lagrangian gives rise to a symmetric bilinear form on the variables of the reduced theory. If this bilinear form is positive definite, it provides an inner product that puts the equations of motion of the reduced theory into a self-adjoint form. A variational principle can then be written down immediately, from which stability can be tested readily. We illustrate our method in the case of Einstein's equation with perfect fluid matter, thereby rederiving, in a systematic manner, Chandrasekhar's variational principle for radial oscillations of spherically symmetric stars. In a subsequent paper, we will apply our analysis to f(R) gravity, the Einstein-aether theory, and Bekenstein's TeVeS theory.
Galilean and Lorentz Transformations in a Space with Generalized Uncertainty Principle
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tkachuk, V. M.
2016-07-01
We consider a space with Generalized Uncertainty Principle (GUP) which can be obtained in the frame of the deformed commutation relations. In the space with GUP we have found transformations relating coordinates and times of moving and rest frames of reference in the first order over the parameter of deformation. In the non-relativistic case we find the deformed Galilean transformation which is rotation in Euclidian space-time. This transformation is similar to the Lorentz one but written for Euclidean space-time where the speed of light is replaced by some velocity related to the parameter of deformation. We show that for relativistic particle in the space with GUP the coordinates of the rest and moving frames of reference satisfy the Lorentz transformation with some effective speed of light.
From general policy to legal rule: aspirations and limitations of the precautionary principle.
Marchant, Gary E
2003-01-01
The rapid spread of the precautionary principle (PP) demonstrates the need to explicitly address the role of precaution in environmental decision making. Unfortunately, the PP in its current form is limited by the vagueness of, and variations in, the many formulations of the PP. This ambiguity in the meaning of the PP would not be so serious if the PP were limited to a general aspirational policy, but in every jurisdiction that has adopted the PP it has been transformed rapidly into a binding legal rule. As a legal rule, the ambiguity of the PP results in arbitrary application by regulatory agencies and reviewing courts and limits the capability of reviewing courts to perform their function in overseeing agency actions. To improve the explicit application of precaution, we must go beyond the current form of the PP and attempt to define the factors that weigh in favor of more or less precaution for specific risks. PMID:14594635
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Feng, Z. W.; Li, H. L.; Zu, X. T.; Yang, S. Z.
2016-04-01
We investigate the thermodynamics of Schwarzschild-Tangherlini black hole in the context of the generalized uncertainty principle (GUP). The corrections to the Hawking temperature, entropy and the heat capacity are obtained via the modified Hamilton-Jacobi equation. These modifications show that the GUP changes the evolution of the Schwarzschild-Tangherlini black hole. Specially, the GUP effect becomes susceptible when the radius or mass of the black hole approaches the order of Planck scale, it stops radiating and leads to a black hole remnant. Meanwhile, the Planck scale remnant can be confirmed through the analysis of the heat capacity. Those phenomena imply that the GUP may give a way to solve the information paradox. Besides, we also investigate the possibilities to observe the black hole at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), and the results demonstrate that the black hole cannot be produced in the recent LHC.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zeng, Daxing; Lu, Wenjuan; Huang, Zhen
2015-09-01
Compared with the parallel mechanisms, the mobility analysis of the general multi-loop spatial mechanisms(GMSMs) is more difficult to obtain correct results. The reason is that its multi-loop is formed through several times of closings and there also exists motion coupling even strong coupling, where the over-constraints are concealed. However, the mobility analysis for this kind of mechanisms has been paid few attentions. A new systemic methodology for analyzing mobility is proposed for GMSMs also based on the screw theory. The key issue for mobility analysis is to recognize the over-constraint. Firstly, three theorems are given and point out: the reason and site of over-constraint occurrence, calculating the number of over-constraints by the screw theory, and how to analyze the over-constraints for a single-loop mechanism as well. Then, three closing forms for GMSMs are proposed including rigid closure, movable closure and dynamic closure, and for the three different forms the different analysis methods are also given. Especially, for the most difficult issue of GMSMs with the multi-loop closure in many times and the inevitable motion coupling, two important methods are proposed: "recognizing over-constraints by analyzing relative movement" and "recognizing over-constraints by virtual loop". The two methods are well used to solve the issue. Above-mentioned principles are not only systematic and effective but also unified. They provide a theoretical basis for the general multi-loop spatial mechanisms.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stephenson, David; Patronis, Alexander; Holland, David M.; Lockerby, Duncan A.
2015-11-01
Murray's law states that the volumetric flow rate is proportional to the cube of the radius in a cylindrical channel optimized to require the minimum work to drive and maintain the fluid. However, application of this principle to the biomimetic design of micro/nano fabricated networks requires optimization of channels with arbitrary cross-sectional shape (not just circular) and smaller than is valid for Murray's original assumptions. We present a generalized law for symmetric branching that (a) is valid for any cross-sectional shape, providing that the shape is constant through the network; (b) is valid for slip flow and plug flow occurring at very small scales; and (c) is valid for networks with a constant depth, which is often a requirement for lab-on-a-chip fabrication procedures. By considering limits of the generalized law, we show that the optimum daughter-parent area ratio Γ, for symmetric branching into N daughter channels of any constant cross-sectional shape, is Γ=N-2 /3 for large-scale channels, and Γ=N-4 /5 for channels with a characteristic length scale much smaller than the slip length. Our analytical results are verified by comparison with a numerical optimization of a two-level network model based on flow rate data obtained from a variety of sources, including Navier-Stokes slip calculations, kinetic theory data, and stochastic particle simulations.
Background, Principles, Implementation, and General Experiences of the North Karelia Project.
Puska, Pekka; Vartiainen, Erkki; Nissinen, Aulikki; Laatikainen, Tiina; Jousilahti, Pekka
2016-06-01
The extremely high mortality of cardiovascular diseases in the 1960s in Finland, particularly in the Eastern Province of North Karelia and especially that of coronary heart disease in men, caused great concern among the local population. Action to reduce the problem was demanded in a petition signed in 1971 by the representatives of the population. In response, the North Karelia Project was launched in 1972 to carry out a comprehensive preventive project, first only in North Karelia as a national pilot (1972 to 1977), and thereafter continuing in North Karelia but at the same time transferring the experiences to a national level. The intervention was based on the at-that-time relatively new scientific information on the main causal risk factors. A comprehensive population-based intervention was carried out, aiming especially at the reduction of the high levels of serum cholesterol, blood pressure, and tobacco use, emphasizing general dietary changes and smoking reduction. A comprehensive monitoring and evaluation program was designed and implemented to learn from the experience in preparation for national and international use. Presented here are the background, principles, and general experiences of this project, which has made major contributions both to the contemporary public health work for the prevention and control of heart disease and noncommunicable diseases and for research in the area. PMID:27242083
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Panther Bishoff, Jennifer
In recent years, higher education has undergone many changes. The advent of assessment, accountability, and a newfound focus on teaching have required faculty to examine how they are teaching. Administrators and faculty are beginning to recognize that learning is not a "one size fits all" enterprise. To this end, Chickering and Gamson developed an inventory that examined faculty utilization of the Seven Principles of Good Practice in Undergraduate Education. The seven principles included by the authors included faculty-student interaction, cooperative learning, active learning, giving prompt feedback, emphasizing time on task, communicating high expectations, and respecting diverse talents and ways of learning. It was determined by Chickering and Gamson, as well as many other researchers, that these seven principles were hallmarks of successful undergraduate education. Community colleges are important institutions to study, as many students begin their higher education at two-year colleges. Most students are also required to take one or more science classes for their general education requirements; therefore, many students must take at least one general chemistry course. Both community colleges and chemistry are rarely studied in literature, which makes this study important. Community college general chemistry instructors were surveyed using an online version of Chickering and Gamson's Faculty Inventory for the Seven Principles of Good Practice in Undergraduate Education. Responses were analyzed, and it was discovered that not only did instructors utilize the principles to a different extent, but there were also differences between genders as well as between the specific actions related to each principle.
Karabulut, Nevzat
2008-07-01
Electrocardiogram-gated coronary multislice computerized tomography (CT) angiography is a rapidly improving technology allowing noninvasive imaging of coronary arteries. After the initial promising results obtained with four-section CT scanners, progressively higher temporal and spatial resolutions have been achieved by increasing gantry rotation speed and the number of detector rows and by reducing individual detector size. This review presents an overview of the general principles, technique and emerging applications and artifacts of coronary multislice CT angiography. The diagnostic performance of this new technology allows it to be used to evaluate the presence of coronary plaques and stenosis, coronary bypass graft patency, and the origin and course of congenital coronary anomalies. As it visualizes coronary artery wall in addition to lumen and provides volumetric data of heart and great vessels, it readily demonstrates plaque remodeling, ostial lesions and other cardiac and extracardiac abnormalities. The high negative predictive value of coronary CT angiography makes it a valuable tool in the evaluation of patients with low or intermediate pretest probability for coronary artery disease. However, improvements in spatial and temporal resolution are still needed in the imaging of small coronary stents, in the detection and characterization of noncalcified plaques, and to overcome image degradation by arrhythmias, higher heart rates, and calcium-related artifacts. PMID:18611837
Sun, Bo; Zhang, Ping; Zhao, Xian-Geng
2008-02-28
The electronic structure and properties of PuO2 and Pu2O3 have been studied from first principles by the all-electron projector-augmented-wave method. The local density approximation+U and the generalized gradient approximation+U formalisms have been used to account for the strong on-site Coulomb repulsion among the localized Pu 5f electrons. We discuss how the properties of PuO2 and Pu2O3 are affected by the choice of U as well as the choice of exchange-correlation potential. Also, oxidation reaction of Pu2O3, leading to formation of PuO2, and its dependence on U and exchange-correlation potential have been studied. Our results show that by choosing an appropriate U, it is promising to correctly and consistently describe structural, electronic, and thermodynamic properties of PuO2 and Pu2O3, which enable the modeling of redox process involving Pu-based materials possible. PMID:18315070
General principles of irradiation therapy as applied to head and neck cancer.
Harwood, A R; Keane, T J
1982-04-01
The general principles of irradiation therapy as applied to head and neck cancer are illustrated by discussion of typical radiation treatment planning for an early glottic carcinoma, carcinoma of the larynx with subglottic extension, a paranasal sinus carcinoma, and a localized tonsillar carcinoma. Each example shows how with modern techniques and careful planning radiation therapy can be directed homogeneously to any desired volume containing tumor but limiting the complications produced in the normal tissues. Homogeneous distribution of the dose of irradiation within the tumor is essential to avoid "cold" spots producing tumor recurrence and "hot" spots producing normal tissue complications. Improvements in technique of irradiation have halved the recurrence rate in T1 glottic cancer and reduced neck node recurrences in T1 supraglottic cancer from 19% to 3%. Techniques of implantation and the concept of therapeutic ratio are also discussed. The concepts of pre vs postoperative irradiation are discussed and the Toronto approach of delayed combined irradiation and surgery, which represents in our view the optimal combination of irradiation and surgery, is reviewed. PMID:7077732
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pisias, Nicklas G.; Murray, Richard W.; Scudder, Rachel P.
2013-10-01
Multivariate statistical treatments of large data sets in sedimentary geochemical and other fields are rapidly becoming more popular as analytical and computational capabilities expand. Because geochemical data sets present a unique set of conditions (e.g., the closed array), application of generic off-the-shelf applications is not straightforward and can yield misleading results. We present here annotated MATLAB scripts (and specific guidelines for their use) for Q-mode factor analysis, a constrained least squares multiple linear regression technique, and a total inversion protocol, that are based on the well-known approaches taken by Dymond (1981), Leinen and Pisias (1984), Kyte et al. (1993), and their predecessors. Although these techniques have been used by investigators for the past decades, their application has been neither consistent nor transparent, as their code has remained in-house or in formats not commonly used by many of today's researchers (e.g., FORTRAN). In addition to providing the annotated scripts and instructions for use, we discuss general principles to be considered when performing multivariate statistical treatments of large geochemical data sets, provide a brief contextual history of each approach, explain their similarities and differences, and include a sample data set for the user to test their own manipulation of the scripts.
Takeshima, Tadashi
2014-01-01
Japan's national suicide prevention efforts following the 1998 surge in the number of suicide deaths can be divided into three stages: the first stage administrated mainly by the health ministry (1998-2005), the second and transitional stage when it was upgraded to a full governmental issue (2005-2006), and the third and present stage following the promulgation of the Basic Act for Suicide Prevention in 2006. In June 2007, the General Principles for Suicide Prevention Policy (GPSP), a guideline on how the national government should act to promote suicide prevention, was announced, urging local governments to tackle the problem of suicide. The GPSP was set to be revised after around five years from its publication, and, thus, a revised GPSP was published in August of 2012. Based on the five years of challenges, the revised GPSP states that suicide prevention strategies should move on to more practical and community-oriented ones. The National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry (NCNP), through its Center for Suicide Prevention, played a coordinating role in putting forward a proposal for the revision, working with 29 academic societies including the Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology (JSPN). In February 2013, by further developing the relationships with academic societies, etc., which were forged in the above-mentioned process, NCNP set up the Preparatory Committee for the Evidence-based Suicide Prevention Consortium in order to contribute to suicide prevention strategies from an academic perspective. Meanwhile, in the World Health Organization's 66th World Health Assembly held in May 2013, the Comprehensive Mental Health Action Plan 2013-2020 was approved. Its core principle is "no health without mental health", and it has the following four objectives: (1) to strengthen effective leadership and governance for mental health; (2) to provide comprehensive, integrated, and responsive mental health and social care services in community-based settings; (3) to
Bodnar, Richard J; Stellar, James R; Kraft, Tamar T; Loiacono, Ilyssa; Bajnath, Adesh; Rotella, Francis M; Barrientos, Alicia; Aghanori, Golshan; Olsson, Kerstin; Coke, Tricia; Huang, Donald; Luger, Zeke; Mousavi, Seyed Ali Reza; Dindyal, Trisha; Naqvi, Naveen; Kim, Jung-Yo
2013-01-01
In a large (250 registrants) general education lecture course, neuroscience principles were taught by two professors as co-instructors, starting with simple brain anatomy, chemistry, and function, proceeding to basic brain circuits of pleasure and pain, and progressing with fellow expert professors covering relevant philosophical, artistic, marketing, and anthropological issues. With this as a base, the course wove between fields of high relevance to psychology and neuroscience, such as food addiction and preferences, drug seeking and craving, analgesic pain-inhibitory systems activated by opiates and stress, neuroeconomics, unconscious decision-making, empathy, and modern neuroscientific techniques (functional magnetic resonance imaging and event-related potentials) presented by the co-instructors and other Psychology professors. With no formal assigned textbook, all lectures were PowerPoint-based, containing links to supplemental public-domain material. PowerPoints were available on Blackboard several days before the lecture. All lectures were also video-recorded and posted that evening. The course had a Facebook page for after-class conversation and one of the co-instructors communicated directly with students on Twitter in real time during lecture to provide momentary clarification and comment. In addition to graduate student Teaching Assistants (TAs), to allow for small group discussion, ten undergraduate students who performed well in a previous class were selected to serve as discussion leaders. The Discussion Leaders met four times at strategic points over the semester with groups of 20-25 current students, and received one credit of Independent Study, thus creating a course within a course. The course grade was based on weighted scores from two multiple-choice exams and a five-page writing assignment in which each student reviewed three unique, but brief original peer-review research articles (one page each) combined with expository writing on the first
Bodnar, Richard J.; Stellar, James R.; Kraft, Tamar T.; Loiacono, Ilyssa; Bajnath, Adesh; Rotella, Francis M.; Barrientos, Alicia; Aghanori, Golshan; Olsson, Kerstin; Coke, Tricia; Huang, Donald; Luger, Zeke; Mousavi, Seyed Ali Reza; Dindyal, Trisha; Naqvi, Naveen; Kim, Jung-Yo
2013-01-01
In a large (250 registrants) general education lecture course, neuroscience principles were taught by two professors as co-instructors, starting with simple brain anatomy, chemistry, and function, proceeding to basic brain circuits of pleasure and pain, and progressing with fellow expert professors covering relevant philosophical, artistic, marketing, and anthropological issues. With this as a base, the course wove between fields of high relevance to psychology and neuroscience, such as food addiction and preferences, drug seeking and craving, analgesic pain-inhibitory systems activated by opiates and stress, neuroeconomics, unconscious decision-making, empathy, and modern neuroscientific techniques (functional magnetic resonance imaging and event-related potentials) presented by the co-instructors and other Psychology professors. With no formal assigned textbook, all lectures were PowerPoint-based, containing links to supplemental public-domain material. PowerPoints were available on Blackboard several days before the lecture. All lectures were also video-recorded and posted that evening. The course had a Facebook page for after-class conversation and one of the co-instructors communicated directly with students on Twitter in real time during lecture to provide momentary clarification and comment. In addition to graduate student Teaching Assistants (TAs), to allow for small group discussion, ten undergraduate students who performed well in a previous class were selected to serve as discussion leaders. The Discussion Leaders met four times at strategic points over the semester with groups of 20–25 current students, and received one credit of Independent Study, thus creating a course within a course. The course grade was based on weighted scores from two multiple-choice exams and a five-page writing assignment in which each student reviewed three unique, but brief original peer-review research articles (one page each) combined with expository writing on the first
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lofstedt, Ragnar E.; Fischhoff, Baruch; Fischhoff, Ilya R.
2002-01-01
Precautionary principles have been proposed as a fundamental element of sound risk management. Their advocates see them as guiding action in the face of uncertainty, encouraging the adoption of measures that reduce serious risks to health, safety, and the environment. Their opponents may reject the very idea of precautionary principles, find…
2 CFR Appendix A to Part 225 - General Principles for Determining Allowable Costs
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
... appendix and other appendices to 2 CFR part 225 as “Federal awards”). The principles are for the purpose of... is outside the scope of 2 CFR part 225. 2. Policy guides. a. The application of these principles is... (including subawards) except those with (1) publicly-financed educational institutions subject to, 2 CFR...
Magnetic force microscopy: General principles and application to longitudinal recording media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rugar, D.; Mamin, H. J.; Guethner, P.; Lambert, S. E.; Stern, J. E.; McFadyen, I.; Yogi, T.
1990-08-01
This paper discusses the principles of magnetic force microscopy (MFM) and its application to magnetic recording studies. We use the ac detection method which senses the force gradient acting on a small magnetic tip due to fields emanating from the domain structure in the sample. Tip fabrication procedures are described for two types of magnetic tips: etched tungsten wires with a sputter-deposited magnetic coating and etched nickel wires. The etched nickel wires are shown to have an apex radius on the order of 30 nm and a taper half-angle of approximately 3°. Lorentz-mode transmission electron microscopy of the nickel tips reveals that the final 20 μm is essentially single domain with magnetization approximately parallel with the tip axis. Images of written bit transitions are presented for several types of magnetic media, including CoPtCr, CoSm, and CoCr thin films, as well as γ-Fe2O3 particulate media. In general, the written magnetization patterns are seen with high contrast and with resolution better than 100 nm. A number of magnetic recording applications are discussed, including the investigation of overwrite behavior and the writing characteristics in CoSm media at high data density. Computer calculations were performed to simulate the MFM response to written magnetic transitions. By including the extended geometry of the tip, the nonparallel orientation of the cantilever, and the finite width of the magnetic transitions, good agreement with experiment was obtained. The model calculations correctly predict the experimentally observed change in image contrast that occurs as a function of tip orientation. Computer calculations showing the dependence of resolution on tip geometry are also presented.
Striedter, Georg F.; Belgard, T. Grant; Chen, Chun-Chun; Davis, Fred P.; Finlay, Barbara L.; Güntürkün, Onur; Hale, Melina E.; Harris, Julie A.; Hecht, Erin E.; Hof, Patrick R.; Hofmann, Hans A.; Holland, Linda Z.; Iwaniuk, Andrew N.; Jarvis, Erich D.; Karten, Harvey J.; Katz, Paul S.; Kristan, William B.; Macagno, Eduardo R.; Mitra, Partha P.; Moroz, Leonid L.; Preuss, Todd M.; Ragsdale, Clifton W.; Sherwood, Chet C.; Stevens, Charles F.; Stüttgen, Maik C.; Tsumoto, Tadaharu; Wilczynski, Walter
2014-01-01
Efforts to understand nervous system structure and function have received new impetus from the federal Brain Research through Advancing Innovative Neurotechnologies (BRAIN) Initiative. Comparative analyses can contribute to this effort by leading to the discovery of general principles of neural circuit design, information processing, and gene-structure-function relationships that are not apparent from studies on single species. We here propose to extend the comparative approach to nervous system ‘maps’ comprising molecular, anatomical, and physiological data. This research will identify which neural features are likely to generalize across species, and which are unlikely to be broadly conserved. It will also suggest causal relationships between genes, development, adult anatomy, physiology, and, ultimately, behavior. These causal hypotheses can then be tested experimentally. Finally, insights from comparative research can inspire and guide technological development. To promote this research agenda, we recommend that teams of investigators coalesce around specific research questions and select a set of ‘reference species’ to anchor their comparative analyses. These reference species should be chosen not just for practical advantages, but also with regard for their phylogenetic position, behavioral repertoire, well-annotated genome, or other strategic reasons. We envision that the nervous systems of these reference species will be mapped in more detail than those of other species. The collected data may range from the molecular to the behavioral, depending on the research question. To integrate across levels of analysis and across species, standards for data collection, annotation, archiving, and distribution must be developed and respected. To that end, it will help to form networks or consortia of researchers and centers for science, technology, and education that focus on organized data collection, distribution, and training. These activities could be
Kinugawa, Tohru
2014-02-15
This paper presents a simple but nontrivial generalization of Abel's mechanical problem, based on the extended isochronicity condition and the superposition principle. There are two primary aims. The first one is to reveal the linear relation between the transit-time T and the travel-length X hidden behind the isochronicity problem that is usually discussed in terms of the nonlinear equation of motion (d{sup 2}X)/(dt{sup 2}) +(dU)/(dX) =0 with U(X) being an unknown potential. Second, the isochronicity condition is extended for the possible Abel-transform approach to designing the isochronous trajectories of charged particles in spectrometers and/or accelerators for time-resolving experiments. Our approach is based on the integral formula for the oscillatory motion by Landau and Lifshitz [Mechanics (Pergamon, Oxford, 1976), pp. 27–29]. The same formula is used to treat the non-periodic motion that is driven by U(X). Specifically, this unknown potential is determined by the (linear) Abel transform X(U) ∝ A[T(E)], where X(U) is the inverse function of U(X), A=(1/√(π))∫{sub 0}{sup E}dU/√(E−U) is the so-called Abel operator, and T(E) is the prescribed transit-time for a particle with energy E to spend in the region of interest. Based on this Abel-transform approach, we have introduced the extended isochronicity condition: typically, τ = T{sub A}(E) + T{sub N}(E) where τ is a constant period, T{sub A}(E) is the transit-time in the Abel type [A-type] region spanning X > 0 and T{sub N}(E) is that in the Non-Abel type [N-type] region covering X < 0. As for the A-type region in X > 0, the unknown inverse function X{sub A}(U) is determined from T{sub A}(E) via the Abel-transform relation X{sub A}(U) ∝ A[T{sub A}(E)]. In contrast, the N-type region in X < 0 does not ensure this linear relation: the region is covered with a predetermined potential U{sub N}(X) of some arbitrary choice, not necessarily obeying the Abel-transform relation. In discussing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kinugawa, Tohru
2014-02-01
This paper presents a simple but nontrivial generalization of Abel's mechanical problem, based on the extended isochronicity condition and the superposition principle. There are two primary aims. The first one is to reveal the linear relation between the transit-time T and the travel-length X hidden behind the isochronicity problem that is usually discussed in terms of the nonlinear equation of motion {d^2X}/{dt^2} + {dU}/{dX} = 0 with U(X) being an unknown potential. Second, the isochronicity condition is extended for the possible Abel-transform approach to designing the isochronous trajectories of charged particles in spectrometers and/or accelerators for time-resolving experiments. Our approach is based on the integral formula for the oscillatory motion by Landau and Lifshitz [Mechanics (Pergamon, Oxford, 1976), pp. 27-29]. The same formula is used to treat the non-periodic motion that is driven by U(X). Specifically, this unknown potential is determined by the (linear) Abel transform X(U) ∝ A[T(E)], where X(U) is the inverse function of U(X), A = (1/sqrt{π })int 0E {dU}/sqrt{E-U} is the so-called Abel operator, and T(E) is the prescribed transit-time for a particle with energy E to spend in the region of interest. Based on this Abel-transform approach, we have introduced the extended isochronicity condition: typically, τ = TA(E) + TN(E) where τ is a constant period, TA(E) is the transit-time in the Abel type [A-type] region spanning X > 0 and TN(E) is that in the Non-Abel type [N-type] region covering X < 0. As for the A-type region in X > 0, the unknown inverse function XA(U) is determined from TA(E) via the Abel-transform relation XA(U) ∝ A[TA(E)]. In contrast, the N-type region in X < 0 does not ensure this linear relation: the region is covered with a predetermined potential UN(X) of some arbitrary choice, not necessarily obeying the Abel-transform relation. In discussing the isochronicity problem, there has been no attempt of N-type regions that are
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ghosh, Rahul; Chattopadhyay, Surajit; Debnath, Ujjal
2012-02-01
This work is motivated by the work of Kim et al. (Mod. Phys. Lett. A 23:3049, 2008), which considered the equation of state parameter for the new agegraphic dark energy based on generalized uncertainty principle coexisting with dark matter without interaction. In this work, we have considered the same dark energy interacting with dark matter in emergent, intermediate and logamediate scenarios of the universe. Also, we have investigated the statefinder, kerk and lerk parameters in all three scenarios under this interaction. The energy density and pressure for the new agegraphic dark energy based on generalized uncertainty principle have been calculated and their behaviors have been investigated. The evolution of the equation of state parameter has been analyzed in the interacting and non-interacting situations in all the three scenarios. The graphical analysis shows that the dark energy behaves like quintessence era for logamediate expansion and phantom era for emergent and intermediate expansions of the universe.
Liu Molin; Gui Yuanxing; Liu Hongya
2008-12-15
In this paper, we study the quantum statistical entropy in a 5D Ricci-flat black string solution, which contains a 4D Schwarzschild-de Sitter black hole on the brane, by using the improved thin-layer method with the generalized uncertainty principle. The entropy is the linear sum of the areas of the event horizon and the cosmological horizon without any cutoff and any constraint on the bulk's configuration rather than the usual uncertainty principle. The system's density of state and free energy are convergent in the neighborhood of horizon. The small-mass approximation is determined by the asymptotic behavior of metric function near horizons. Meanwhile, we obtain the minimal length of the position {delta}x, which is restrained by the surface gravities and the thickness of layer near horizons.
Khitrov, N K; Sarkisov, D S; Romadanova, N B
1994-01-01
The paper considers the current trends in the development of biological and medical sciences: their subject, tasks, methods, and place of General Human Pathology among other subjects, its value for the clinical discipline. It defines and analyzes the most topical and disputable directions of General Human Pathology, primarily including those which form the bases for the pathology theory. Arguments are advanced for the necessity of introducing the subject General Pathology of Man into the curriculum of higher medical educational establishments at various faculties. Consideration is given to the specific features of this subject teaching at the faculty training researchers and research pedagogical personnel, at the Pharmaceutical and Higher Nurse Training Faculties of the I. M. Sechenov Moscow Medical Academy. A proposal is given to consider and to discuss the most important problems of General Pathology and its teaching, which are listed in the paper. PMID:7524869
Ethics in medical research: General principles with special reference to psychiatry research
Avasthi, Ajit; Ghosh, Abhishek; Sarkar, Sidharth; Grover, Sandeep
2013-01-01
Ethics is an understanding of the nature of conflicts arising from moral imperatives and how best we may deal with them. Ethics in medical research deals with the conflicts of interest across various levels. Guidelines have been proposed for standardized ethical practice throughout the globe. The four fundamental principles of ethics which are being underscored are autonomy, non-maleficence, beneficence, and justice. Some special ethical issues have particular relevance to psychiatric research arising primarily from the specific vulnerabilities of those with mental illness and the risks posed by some research methodologies. Accordingly, sensitivity is required in the design of psychiatric research. It is suggested that though the value of published guidelines and the help that may be available from research ethics committees is quite great, the primary responsibility for maintaining high standards of practice in research rests with research workers themselves. PMID:23440168
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hill Clarvis, M.; Allan, A.; Hannah, D. M.
2013-12-01
Climate change has significant ramifications for water law and governance, yet, there is strong evidence that legal regulations have often failed to protect environments or promote sustainable development. Scholars have increasingly suggested that the preservation and restoration paradigms of legislation and regulation are no longer adequate for climate change related challenges in complex and cross-scale social-ecological systems. This is namely due to past assumptions of stationarity, uniformitarianism and the perception of ecosystem change as predictable and reversible. This paper reviews the literature on law and resilience and then presents and discusses a set of practical examples of legal mechanisms from the water resources management sector, identified according to a set of guiding principles from the literature on adaptive capacity, adaptive governance as well as adaptive and integrated water resources management. It then assesses the aptness of these different measures according to scientific evidence of increased uncertainty and changing ecological baselines. A review of the best practice examples demonstrates that there are a number of best practice examples attempting to integrate adaptive elements of flexibility, iterativity, connectivity and subsidiarity into a variety of legislative mechanisms, suggesting that there is not as significant a tension between resilience and the law as many scholars have suggested. However, while many of the mechanisms may indeed be suitable for addressing challenges relating to current levels of change and uncertainty, analysis across a broader range of uncertainty highlights challenges relating to more irreversible changes associated with greater levels of warming. Furthermore the paper identifies a set of pre-requisites that are fundamental to the successful implementation of such mechanisms, namely monitoring and data sharing, financial and technical capacity, particularly in nations that are most at risk with the
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kataev, A. L.; Mikhailov, S. V.
2015-01-01
We discuss generalizations of the Brodsky-Lepage-Mackenzie optimization procedure for renormalization group invariant quantities. In this respect, we discuss in detail the features and construction of the {β } -expansion presentation instead of the standard perturbative series with regard to the Adler D function and Bjorken polarized sum rules obtained in the order of O (αs4) . Based on the {β } expansion, we analyze different schemes of optimization, including the corrected principle of maximal conformality, numerically illustrating their results. We suggest our scheme for the series optimization and apply it to both the above quantities.
General proof of the entropy principle for self-gravitating fluid in static spacetimes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fang, Xiongjun; Gao, Sijie
2014-08-01
We show that for any perfect fluid in a static spacetime, if the Einstein constraint equation is satisfied and the temperature of the fluid obeys Tolman's law, then the other components of Einstein's equation are implied by the assumption that the total entropy of the fluid achieves an extremum for fixed total particle number and for all variations of metric with certain boundary conditions. Conversely, one can show that the extrema of the total entropy of the fluid are implied by Einstein's equation. Compared to previous works on this issue, we do not require spherical symmetry for the spacetime. Our results suggest a general and solid connection between thermodynamics and general relativity.
21 CFR 312.22 - General principles of the IND submission.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... likelihood that the investigations will yield data capable of meeting statutory standards for marketing... manufacturer's IND or marketing application should follow the same general format, but ordinarily may, if authorized by the manufacturer, refer to the manufacturer's IND or marketing application in providing...
Extending the generality of leaf economic design principles in the cycads, an ancient lineage.
Zhang, Yong-Jiang; Cao, Kun-Fang; Sack, Lawren; Li, Nan; Wei, Xue-Mei; Goldstein, Guillermo
2015-04-01
Cycads are the most ancient lineage of living seed plants, but the design of their leaves has received little study. We tested whether cycad leaves are governed by the same fundamental design principles previously established for ferns, conifers and angiosperms, and characterized the uniqueness of this relict lineage in foliar trait relationships. Leaf structure, photosynthesis, hydraulics and nutrient composition were studied in 33 cycad species from nine genera and three families growing in two botanical gardens. Cycads varied greatly in leaf structure and physiology. Similarly to other lineages, light-saturated photosynthetic rate per mass (Am ) was related negatively to leaf mass per area and positively to foliar concentrations of chlorophyll, nitrogen (N), phosphorus and iron, but unlike angiosperms, leaf photosynthetic rate was not associated with leaf hydraulic conductance. Cycads had lower photosynthetic N use efficiency and higher photosynthetic performance relative to hydraulic capacity compared with other lineages. These findings extend the relationships shown for foliar traits in angiosperms to the cycads. This functional convergence supports the modern synthetic understanding of leaf design, with common constraints operating across lineages, even as they highlight exceptional aspects of the biology of this key relict lineage. PMID:25622799
The effect of generalized uncertainty principle on square well, a case study
Ma, Meng-Sen; Zhao, Ren
2014-08-15
According to a special case (β = 0) of the generalized uncertainty relation we derive the energy eigenvalues of the infinite potential well. It is shown that the obtained energy levels are different from the usual result with some correction terms. And the correction terms of the energy eigenvalues are independent of other parameters except α. But the eigenstates will depend on another two parameters besides α.
A Z{sub 3} generalization of Pauli's principle, quark algebra and the Lorentz invariance
Kerner, Richard
2012-09-24
The fundamental difference between bosons and fermions is that they obey two alternative representations of the Z{sub 2} group, resulting in symmetric or anti-symmetric binary commutation relations. Our aim is to explore possibilities offered by ternary Z{sub 3} generalization commutation relations. This leads to cubic and ternary algebras which are a direct generalization of usual commutation relations, with Z{sub 3}-grading replacing the usual Z{sub 2}-grading. Properties and structure of such algebras are discussed, with special interest in a low-dimensional one, with two generators. Invariant cubic forms on such algebras are introduced, and it is shown how the SL(2,C) group arises naturally as the symmetry group preserving these forms. In the case of lowest dimension, with only two generators, it is shown how the cubic combinations of elements of the same Z{sub 3} grade behave like Lorentz spinors, while binary products of elements of this algebra with an element of the conjugate algebra behave like Lorentz vectors. The wave equation generalizing the Dirac operator to the Z{sub 3}-graded case is introduced, whose diagonalization leads to a third-order equation. The solutions of this equation cannot propagate because their exponents always contain non-oscillating real damping factor. We show how certain cubic products can propagate nevertheless. The model suggests the origin of the color SU(3) symmetry obeyed by quark states.
Haberland, M; Kim, S
2015-01-01
When millions of years of evolution suggest a particular design solution, we may be tempted to abandon traditional design methods and copy the biological example. However, biological solutions do not often translate directly into the engineering domain, and even when they do, copying eliminates the opportunity to improve. A better approach is to extract design principles relevant to the task of interest, incorporate them in engineering designs, and vet these candidates against others. This paper presents the first general framework for determining whether biologically inspired relationships between design input variables and output objectives and constraints are applicable to a variety of engineering systems. Using optimization and statistics to generalize the results beyond a particular system, the framework overcomes shortcomings observed of ad hoc methods, particularly those used in the challenging study of legged locomotion. The utility of the framework is demonstrated in a case study of the relative running efficiency of rotary-kneed and telescoping-legged robots. PMID:25643176
Major Upgrade of the Reactor Dosimetry Interpretation Methodology Used at the CEA General Principle
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Destouches, C.; Gregoire, G.; Beretz, D.; Bourganel, S.; Chiron, M.
2009-08-01
, this paper lists the main improvements of the neutron calculation codes and of the international nuclear data libraries. The principle of the new interpretation process is then detailed and a derivation process for the associated uncertainties is exposed. The paper finally analyzes the improvements expected from the refined process.
Management of animal health emergencies: general principles and legal and international obligations.
Marabelli, R; Ferri, G; Bellini, S
1999-04-01
The Eighth Round of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade led to the creation of the World Trade Organization and to the adoption of the Sanitary and Phytosanitary (SPS) Agreement, thus considerably changing the rules of international trade in animals and animal products. Animal health measures may result in trade restrictions, but governments accept that these restrictions may sometimes be necessary and appropriate to ensure food safety and animal health protection. The SPS Agreement acknowledges the rights of governments to adopt measure to protect human, animal and plant health. To ensure effective animal health protection, without unjustifiable discrimination, the operational procedures of Veterinary Services must be standardised, especially those concerning disease notification, epidemiological information, certification for international trade and management of animal health emergencies. Veterinary Services must be further supported by a proper legislative framework and adequate financial resources. PMID:10190200
Rodeghiero, F
2008-01-01
The haemostatic system has a central role in controlling the amount and the duration of menstrual bleeding, thus abnormally prolonged or profuse bleeding does occur in most women affected by inherited bleeding disorders. Whereas irregular, premenarchal or postmenopausal uterine bleeding is unusual in inherited or acquired heamorrhagic disorders, severe acute bleeding and menorrhagia at menarche and chronic menorrhagia during the entire reproductive life are common manifestations. Prevalence and morbidity of menorrhagia in inherited bleeding disorders have been poorly investigated. It can be estimated that 40% to 60% of currently menstruating women with type 1 or 2 and more than 60% of women with type 3 VWD complain of menorrhagia with a significant impact on their quality of life. Menorrhagia may be particularly distressing in adolescents because of their delicate emotional equilibrium. Similar epidermiology has been described in other inherited disorders like factor XI deficiency, platelet functional defects and in carriers of haemophilia A and B. Women presenting with ''isolated'' menorrhagia, that is without significant additional bleeding symptoms, a situation reported by up to 15% of healthy women, do not demand investigation to exclude an occult bleeding disorder. A multidisciplinary approach is required for diagnosis and treatment. Gynaecological supervision is always required to exclude organic causes unmasked by the bleeding disorder. Treatment options are similar to those for menorrhagia in general with the addition of desmopressin and replacement therapy and the exclusion of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. The therapeutic plan should take into consideration the patient's preferences, age and severity of bleeding. Iron supplementation is of paramount importance. Remedies used in clinical practice for menorrhagia in general (tranexamic acid, combined oral contraceptives [COC], levonorgestrel intrauterine system [LNG-IUS]) are first tried. In case of
Receptor-mediated tumor targeting with radiopeptides. Part 1. General principles and methods.
Eberle, Alex N; Mild, Gabriele
2009-01-01
Radiolabeled peptides have become important tools for preclinical cancer research, and in nuclear oncology they serve as diagnostic and more recently also as therapeutic agents. In the latter application, radiolabeled peptides represent a distinct sector of the molecular targeting approach, which in many areas of therapy implements the old "magic bullet" concept by specifically directing the therapeutic agent to the site of action. Although in the past few years the development of receptor-mediated targeting for therapy has been confined to some radiolabeled antibodies and to somatostatin/SRIF, research into an increasing number of radiolabeled peptides and their receptors expressed by different tumors will soon lead to a wider use of peptide radiopharmaceuticals. In a consecutive series of six reviews we present a comprehensive overview of the literature on receptor-mediated tumor targeting with the different radiopeptides currently studied. Part 1 summarizes the concepts and methods of radiopeptide targeting, the selection of radioisotopes, chelators, the criteria of peptide ligand development and some general aspects of diagnostic and therapeutic application of peptide radiopharmaceuticals. PMID:19519167
Teoludzka, Anna; Bartholomew, Terence P
2010-12-01
Most Australian jurisdictions do not have legislation that stipulates an age by which a minor can make their own medical treatment decisions. Instead, they rely on Gillick v West Norfolk and Wisbech Area Health Authority [1986] AC 112, an English common law decision that recommends individual assessments of "maturity". This study explores how medical practitioners in the State of Queensland understand and apply this legal authority when faced with a young person wishing to make a contentious medical treatment decision. Almost 200 doctors made decisions about a hypothetical patient's competence and confidentiality, and detailed their reasoning in an open-ended format. The data indicate that the vagaries of existing legal criteria allow for a range of philosophical perspectives and idiosyncratic heuristics to play a role in assessment practices, and that particular combinations of patient age and gender made these cognitive shortcuts more likely to occur. A notable proportion of such processes are not consistent with legal guidelines, and this has implications for general practitioners' vulnerability to litigation as well as young patients' treatment trajectories. PMID:21355438
Werner, Gerhard
2009-04-01
In this theoretical and speculative essay, I propose that insights into certain aspects of neural system functions can be gained from viewing brain function in terms of the branch of Statistical Mechanics currently referred to as "Modern Critical Theory" [Stanley, H.E., 1987. Introduction to Phase Transitions and Critical Phenomena. Oxford University Press; Marro, J., Dickman, R., 1999. Nonequilibrium Phase Transitions in Lattice Models. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK]. The application of this framework is here explored in two stages: in the first place, its principles are applied to state transitions in global brain dynamics, with benchmarks of Cognitive Neuroscience providing the relevant empirical reference points. The second stage generalizes to suggest in more detail how the same principles could also apply to the relation between other levels of the structural-functional hierarchy of the nervous system and between neural assemblies. In this view, state transitions resulting from the processing at one level are the input to the next, in the image of a 'bucket brigade', with the content of each bucket being passed on along the chain, after having undergone a state transition. The unique features of a process of this kind will be discussed and illustrated. PMID:19124060
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Douglas, M. M.; Bunn, S. E.; Davies, P. M.
2005-05-01
The tropical rivers of northern Australia are internationally recognised for their high ecological and cultural values. They have largely unmodified flow regimes and are comparatively free of the impacts associated with intensive land use. However, there is growing demand for agricultural development and existing pressures, such as weeds and feral animals, threaten their ecological integrity. Using the international literature to provide a conceptual framework and drawing on limited published and unpublished data on rivers in northern Australia, we have derived five general principles about food webs and related ecosystem processes that both characterise tropical rivers of northern Australia and have important implications for their management. These are: (1) Seasonal hydrology is a strong driver of ecosystem processes and food web structure; (2) Hydrological connectivity is largely intact and underpins important terrestrial-aquatic food web subsidies; (3) River and wetland food webs are strongly dependent on algal production; (4) A few common macroconsumers species have a strong influence on benthic food webs; (5) Omnivory is widespread and food chains are short. These principles have implications for the management and protection of tropical rivers and wetlands of northern Australia and provide a framework for the formation of testable hypotheses in future research programs.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Noor Mohammad, S.
2011-09-01
Nanowires, nanotubes, and nanodots (quantum dots) are nanomaterials (NMTs). While nanodots are miniaturized nanowires, nanotubes are hollow nanowires. A universal model for basic science of the synthesis and characteristics of NMTs must be established. To achieve this goal, a general hypothesis has been presented. This hypothesis makes use of the concept of droplets from seeds, the fundamentals of the adhesive properties of droplets, and a set of droplet characteristics. Fundamentals underlying the droplet formation from nanoparticle seeds under various physicochemical and thermodynamic conditions have been articulated. A model of thermodynamic imbalance of seeds at the growth temperature has been formulated. The dependence of thermodynamic imbalance on parameters such as surface energy, temperature, seed dimension, etc. has been described. The role of thermodynamic imbalance of seeds and of the foreign element catalytic agent (FECA) on NMT growth has been examined. Three different NMT growths, namely, FECA-free NMT growth; FECA-mediated non-eutectic NMT growth; and FECA-mediated eutectic NMT growth, have been considered. FECA-free NMT growth, and non-eutectic but FECA-mediated NMT growth, have been assumed to involve nanopores, grains, and grain boundaries in the seed. The basic science of all the NMT growths utilizes the concept of the creation of tiny component droplets (CODs). Extensive evidential (experimental and theoretical) demonstration of the hypothesis has been put forth. Both theoretical and experimental results lend support to the hypothesis. Calculated results address the roles of both the FECA-mediated and FECA-free droplets for NMT growths. The basics of multiple nucleation and biphasic structures have been spelled out. Possible relationship between the activation energy and the precursor decomposition on the droplet surface at the lowest possible temperature has been elucidated. The differences between the eutectic and no-eutectic seeds, the
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Quay, Richard H., Comp.
A bibliography of approximately 160 materials authored, coauthored, or edited by Earl J. McGrath from 1931 through 1980 on principle and practice in general education is presented. Specific topics include the following: student enrollments at church-related colleges; values and American higher education; careers, values, and general education; the…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lu, Wenjuan; Zeng, Daxing; Huang, Zhen
2016-01-01
The pre-research on mobility analysis presented a unified-mobility formula and a methodology based on reciprocal screw theory by HUANG, which focused on classical and modern parallel mechanisms. However its range of application needs to further extend to general multi-loop spatial mechanism. This kind of mechanism is not only more complex in structure but also with strong motion coupling among loops, making the mobility analysis even more complicated, and the relevant research has long been ignored. It is focused on how to apply the new principle for general spatial mechanism to those various multi-loop spatial mechanisms, and some new meaningful knowledge is further found. Several typical examples of the general multi-loop spatial mechanisms with motion couple even strong motion couple are considered. These spatial mechanisms include different closing way: over-constraint appearing in rigid closure, in movable closure, and in dynamic closure as well; these examples also include two different new methods to solve this kind of issue: the way to recognize over-constraints by analyzing relative movement between two connected links and by constructing a virtual loop to recognize over-constraints. In addition, over-constraint determination tabulation is brought to analyze the motion couple. The researches above are all based upon the screw theory. All these multi-loop spatial mechanisms with different kinds of structures can completely be solved by following the directions and examples, and the new mobility theory based on the screw theory is also proved to be valid. This study not only enriches and develops the theory and makes the theory more universal, but also has a special meaning for innovation in mechanical engineering.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, Bo; Zhang, Ping; Zhao, Xian-Geng
2008-02-01
The electronic structure and properties of PuO2 and Pu2O3 have been studied from first principles by the all-electron projector-augmented-wave method. The local density approximation+U and the generalized gradient approximation+U formalisms have been used to account for the strong on-site Coulomb repulsion among the localized Pu 5f electrons. We discuss how the properties of PuO2 and Pu2O3 are affected by the choice of U as well as the choice of exchange-correlation potential. Also, oxidation reaction of Pu2O3, leading to formation of PuO2, and its dependence on U and exchange-correlation potential have been studied. Our results show that by choosing an appropriate U, it is promising to correctly and consistently describe structural, electronic, and thermodynamic properties of PuO2 and Pu2O3, which enable the modeling of redox process involving Pu-based materials possible.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mejjaoli, Hatem; Trimèche, Khalifa
2016-06-01
In this paper, we prove various mathematical aspects of the qualitative uncertainty principle, including Hardy's, Cowling-Price's theorem, Morgan's theorem, Beurling, Gelfand-Shilov, Miyachi theorems.
Equivalence principles and electromagnetism
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ni, W.-T.
1977-01-01
The implications of the weak equivalence principles are investigated in detail for electromagnetic systems in a general framework. In particular, it is shown that the universality of free-fall trajectories (Galileo weak equivalence principle) does not imply the validity of the Einstein equivalence principle. However, the Galileo principle plus the universality of free-fall rotation states does imply the Einstein principle.
Grigoryan, Gevorg; Moore, David T.; DeGrado, William F.
2013-01-01
Signal transduction across biological membranes is central to life. This process generally happens through communication between different domains and hierarchical coupling of information. Here, we review structural and thermodynamic principles behind transmembrane (TM) signal transduction and discuss common themes. Communication between signaling domains can be understood in terms of thermodynamic and kinetic principles, and complex signaling patterns can arise from simple wiring of thermodynamically coupled domains. We relate this to functions of several signal transduction systems: the M2 proton channel from influenza A virus, potassium channels, integrin receptors, and bacterial kinases. We also discuss key features in the structural rearrangements responsible for signal transduction in these systems. PMID:21548783
Badalamente, Marie; Coffelt, Laureen; Elfar, John; Gaston, Glenn; Hammert, Warren; Huang, Jerry; Lattanza, Lisa; Macdermid, Joy; Merrell, Greg; Netscher, David; Panthaki, Zubin; Rafijah, Greg; Trczinski, Douglas; Graham, Brent
2013-02-01
Measurement is a fundamental cornerstone in all aspects of scientific discovery, including clinical research. To be useful, measurement instruments must meet several key criteria, the most important of which are satisfactory reliability, validity, and responsiveness. Part 1 of this article reviews the general concepts of measurement instruments and describes the measurement of general health, pain, and patient satisfaction. PMID:23351912
Barten, M; Noordhuizen, J P M; Lipman, L J A
2008-10-01
An increasing number of Dutch dairy farmers have diversified their activities, often opening their farm up to visitors (tourist accommodation, farm shop, contact with livestock, etc). It is essential to prevent these visitors from having accidents or becoming ill, which could result in financial claims and might harm the reputation of the agricultural sector. This article describes how the hazard analysis critical control points concept and principles (HACCP) can be applied to these activities and integrated with on-farm operational herd health and production management programmes. PMID:18947047
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mark, W. D.
1988-01-01
For a given set of forces transmitted by the gears, each of the three components of the generalized transmission error of spiral bevel gears is shown to be stationary with respect to small independent variations in the positions of the endpoints of the lines of tooth contact about their true values. The tangential generalized transmission error component is shown to take on a minimum value at the true endpoint positions. A computational procedure based on the method of steepest descent is described for computing the true line of contact endpoint positions and the three components of the generalized transmission error. A method for computing the Fourier series coefficients of the tooth meshing harmonics of the three generalized transmission error components also is provided.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Dan; Meng, Jingjing; Niu, Yuan; Zhao, Hongmin; Liang, Chunjun
2015-05-01
To understand the low-loss mechanism of organic-inorganic perovskites, the electronic structures of nine halide perovskites were investigated by first principle methods. We provide evidence that spatial separation significantly influences the recombination rate of electrons and holes. For AMPbI3-1, AMPbI3-2, FMPbI3-1, FMPbI3-2, and FAPbI3, the considerable remaining charge density localized at the organic cations in addition to a part of charge density of CBM localized at Pb atoms, leading to very few hopping with the surrounding inorganic matrix and further reducing the recombination rate of the carrier. Excellent optical absorption properties were found for all calculated APbI3 perovskites.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Murali, D.; Posselt, M.; Schiwarth, M.
2015-08-01
Modeling of nanostructure evolution in solids requires comprehensive data on the properties of defects such as the vacancy and foreign atoms. Since most processes occur at elevated temperatures, not only the energetics of defects in the ground state, but also their temperature-dependent free energies must be known. The first-principles calculation of contributions of phonon and electron excitations to free formation, binding, and migration energies of defects is illustrated in the case of bcc Fe. First of all, the ground-state properties of the vacancy, the foreign atoms Cu, Y, Ti, Cr, Mn, Ni, V, Mo, Si, Al, Co, O, and the O-vacancy pair are determined under constant volume (CV) as well as zero-pressure (ZP) conditions, and relations between the results of both kinds of calculations are discussed. Second, the phonon contribution to defect free energies is calculated within the harmonic approximation using the equilibrium atomic positions determined in the ground state under CV and ZP conditions. In most cases, the ZP-based free formation energy decreases monotonously with temperature, whereas for CV-based data both an increase and a decrease were found. The application of a quasiharmonic correction to the ZP-based data does not modify this picture significantly. However, the corrected data are valid under zero-pressure conditions at higher temperatures than in the framework of the purely harmonic approach. The difference between CV- and ZP-based data is mainly due to the volume change of the supercell since the relative arrangement of atoms in the environment of the defects is nearly identical in the two cases. A simple transformation similar to the quasiharmonic approach is found between the CV- and ZP-based frequencies. Therefore, it is not necessary to calculate these quantities and the corresponding defect free energies separately. In contrast to ground-state energetics, the CV- and ZP-based defect free energies do not become equal with increasing supercell
General principles for the formation and proliferation of a wall-free (L-form) state in bacteria
Mercier, Romain; Kawai, Yoshikazu; Errington, Jeff
2014-01-01
The peptidoglycan cell wall is a defining structural feature of the bacterial kingdom. Curiously, some bacteria have the ability to switch to a wall-free or ‘L-form’ state. Although known for decades, the general properties of L-forms are poorly understood, largely due to the lack of systematic analysis of L-forms in the molecular biology era. Here we show that inhibition of peptidoglycan precursor synthesis promotes the generation of L-forms from both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. We show that the L-forms generated have in common a mechanism of proliferation involving membrane blebbing and tubulation, which is dependent on an altered rate of membrane synthesis. Crucially, this mode of proliferation is independent of the essential FtsZ based division machinery. Our results suggest that the L-form mode of proliferation is conserved across the bacterial kingdom, reinforcing the idea that it could have been used in primitive cells, and opening up its use in the generation of synthetic cells. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.04629.001 PMID:25358088
Rosenbloom, Daniel I. S.; Elliott, Oliver; Hill, Alison L.; Henrich, Timothy J.; Siliciano, Janet M.; Siliciano, Robert F.
2015-01-01
Limiting dilution assays are widely used in infectious disease research. These assays are crucial for current human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 cure research in particular. In this study, we offer new tools to help investigators design and analyze dilution assays based on their specific research needs. Limiting dilution assays are commonly used to measure the extent of infection, and in the context of HIV they represent an essential tool for studying latency and potential curative strategies. Yet standard assay designs may not discern whether an intervention reduces an already miniscule latent infection. This review addresses challenges arising in this setting and in the general use of dilution assays. We illustrate the major statistical method for estimating frequency of infectious units from assay results, and we offer an online tool for computing this estimate. We recommend a procedure for customizing assay design to achieve desired sensitivity and precision goals, subject to experimental constraints. We consider experiments in which no viral outgrowth is observed and explain how using alternatives to viral outgrowth may make measurement of HIV latency more efficient. Finally, we discuss how biological complications, such as probabilistic growth of small infections, alter interpretations of experimental results. PMID:26478893
Rosenbloom, Daniel I S; Elliott, Oliver; Hill, Alison L; Henrich, Timothy J; Siliciano, Janet M; Siliciano, Robert F
2015-12-01
Limiting dilution assays are widely used in infectious disease research. These assays are crucial for current human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 cure research in particular. In this study, we offer new tools to help investigators design and analyze dilution assays based on their specific research needs. Limiting dilution assays are commonly used to measure the extent of infection, and in the context of HIV they represent an essential tool for studying latency and potential curative strategies. Yet standard assay designs may not discern whether an intervention reduces an already miniscule latent infection. This review addresses challenges arising in this setting and in the general use of dilution assays. We illustrate the major statistical method for estimating frequency of infectious units from assay results, and we offer an online tool for computing this estimate. We recommend a procedure for customizing assay design to achieve desired sensitivity and precision goals, subject to experimental constraints. We consider experiments in which no viral outgrowth is observed and explain how using alternatives to viral outgrowth may make measurement of HIV latency more efficient. Finally, we discuss how biological complications, such as probabilistic growth of small infections, alter interpretations of experimental results. PMID:26478893
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lall, U.
2013-12-01
Many countries, including the USA, China, and India are experiencing chronic groundwater depletion. In part this unsustainable water use results from climatic factors that reduce surface water availability and also the recharge to the aquifer system. However, a more critical factor is uncontrolled use for agriculture and energy and mineral processing. Interestingly in places such as India endowments have been politically created that lead to ever increasing use, through the provision of free energy for pumping. Reversing the situation is considered politically challenging, and the concept of metering and payment for what is essentially economic use of water is also considered difficult to apply. In this talk I use the Indian situation as a general example and discuss the role central planning strategies for demand and resource management can play recognizing the private action by millions of users as an inevitable tool that needs to be leveraged without necessarily the high transaction costs that come with monitoring and fee collection for monitored use. Specifically, targeting and stimulating potential cropping strategies and on farm water and energy management emerge as a choice in a difficult management environment. In a broader development context, I argue that the role of private sector aggregators in developing farm to market procurement strategies can play a role in both improving rural economies and providing a trajectory for more efficient water use through technology and crop choice.
Lawson, Chris A
2014-07-01
Three experiments with 81 3-year-olds (M=3.62years) examined the conditions that enable young children to use the sample size principle (SSP) of induction-the inductive rule that facilitates generalizations from large rather than small samples of evidence. In Experiment 1, children exhibited the SSP when exemplars were presented sequentially but not when exemplars were presented simultaneously. Results from Experiment 3 suggest that the advantage of sequential presentation is not due to the additional time to process the available input from the two samples but instead may be linked to better memory for specific individuals in the large sample. In addition, findings from Experiments 1 and 2 suggest that adherence to the SSP is mediated by the disparity between presented samples. Overall, these results reveal that the SSP appears early in development and is guided by basic cognitive processes triggered during the acquisition of input. PMID:24439115
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
André, Frédéric; Vaillon, Rodolphe
2012-08-01
The k-moment method is generalized by applying the maximum entropy principle to get several estimates of the k-distribution function on any kind of spectral interval as a function of the first two moments of the absorption coefficient. Corresponding formulations of the blackbody weighted band averaged transmission function of a gaseous uniform path are obtained. Different constraints involving the first and second order positive, first order negative and logarithmic moments are introduced together with a physical meaning whenever it is possible. Different sets of these constraints are considered to get maximum entropy estimates of the distributions functions: the Dirac, exponential, Gamma, inverse Gaussian and reciprocal inverse Gaussian k-distribution functions. Analytical formulas are provided for each of these distributions and for their associated transmission function, as a function of the mean and variance of the absorption coefficient. The methodology can be applied considering any spectral interval: narrow, wide, the full spectrum, continuous or not. Thus the resulting associated transmission and cumulative k-distribution functions can be utilized in the frame of a large variety of gas radiation models. Hence the k-moment method using the maximum entropy principle is assessed in the frame of the NBKM and full spectrum SLMB gas radiation models. A series of test cases implying comparisons with reference Line-by-Line results exhibits which maximum entropy k-distributions are likely to give the best estimations of narrow band or total emitted intensities, curves-of-growth of the total emission function and full spectrum cumulative k-distribution functions. In particular, the inverse Gaussian and Gamma k-distributions seem most of the time to perform very well.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hewitt, Paul G.
2004-01-01
Some teachers have difficulty understanding Bernoulli's principle particularly when the principle is applied to the aerodynamic lift. Some teachers favor using Newton's laws instead of Bernoulli's principle to explain the physics behind lift. Some also consider Bernoulli's principle too difficult to explain to students and avoid teaching it…
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bebout, Brad M.; Bucaria, Robin
2006-01-01
Microbial mats are living examples of the most ancient biological communities on Earth. As Earth's earliest ecosystems, they are centrally important to understanding the history of life on our planet and are useful models for the search for life elsewhere. As relatively compact (but complete) ecosystems, microbial mats are also extremely useful for educational activities. Mats may be used to demonstrate a wide variety of concepts in general and microbial ecology, including the biogeochemical cycling of elements, photosynthesis and respiration, and the origin of the Earth's present oxygen containing atmosphere. Microbial mats can be found in a number of common environments accessible to teachers, and laboratory microbial mats can be constructed using materials purchased from biological supply houses. With funding from NASA's Exobiology program, we have developed curriculum and web-based activities centered on the use of microbial mats as tools for demonstrating general principles in ecology, and the scientific process. Our web site (http://microbes.arc.nasa.gov) includes reference materials, lesson plans, and a "Web Lab", featuring living mats maintained in a mini-aquarium. The site also provides information as to how research on microbial mats supports NASA's goals, and various NASA missions. A photo gallery contains images of mats, microscopic views of the organisms that form them, and our own research activities. An animated educational video on the web site uses computer graphic and video microscopy to take students on a journey into a microbial mat. These activities are targeted to a middle school audience and are aligned with the National Science Standards.
Guiding Principles for Evaluators.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Shadish, William R., Ed.; And Others
1995-01-01
The 12 articles (including an index) of this theme issue are devoted to documenting and critiquing the American Evaluation Association's "Guiding Principles for Evaluators," a code of ethics and standards. The development of these principles is traced, and their strengths and weaknesses are analyzed at general and specific levels. (SLD)
7 CFR 3430.31 - Guiding principles.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
... ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS-GENERAL AWARD ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS Pre-award: Application Review and Evaluation § 3430.31 Guiding principles. The guiding principle for Federal assistance application review...
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bebout, B. M.; Bucaria, R.
2004-12-01
Microbial mats are living examples of the most ancient biological communities on Earth. As Earth's earliest ecosystems, they are centrally important to understanding the history of life on our planet and are useful models for the search for life elsewhere. As relatively small (but complete) ecosystems, microbial mats are also extremely useful for educational activities. Mats may be used to demonstrate a wide variety of concepts in general and microbial ecology, including the biogeochemical cycling of elements, photosynthesis and respiration, and the and the origin of the Earth's present oxygen containing atmosphere. Microbial mats can be found in a number of common environments accessible to teachers, and laboratory microbial mats can even be constructed using materials purchased from biological supply houses. With funding from NASA's Exobiology program, provided as a supplement to our research funding, we are developing curriculum and web-based activities centered on the use of microbial mats as tools for demonstrating general principles in ecology, and the scientific process. A web site with useful background information and links is now on-line. The curriculum, now in the pilot phase, is an integrated module having Science, Math and Language Art threads. A "Web Lab", featuring living mats maintained in a mini-aquarium, and complete with remotely-operable instrumentation not commonly available in classrooms, will be available to classrooms over the Internet. Using that system, the responses of the mat community to changes in environmental parameters, (e.g., light, pH, flow, and temperature) can be monitored using microsensors. Students will be able to develop hypotheses and propose experiments in the Web Lab to test them. Data from these experiments will be posted in real time and students will be able to collect the data, analyze it, and post results and conclusions back to the web page in a true implementation of the scientific inquiry process. The web site
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
MacBeath, John; Swaffield, Sue; Frost, David
2009-01-01
This article provides an overview of the "Carpe Vitam: Leadership for Learning" project, accounting for its provenance and purposes, before focusing on the principles for practice that constitute an important part of the project's legacy. These principles framed the dialogic process that was a dominant feature of the project and are presented,…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lamport, Leslie
2012-08-01
Buridan's principle asserts that a discrete decision based upon input having a continuous range of values cannot be made within a bounded length of time. It appears to be a fundamental law of nature. Engineers aware of it can design devices so they have an infinitessimal probability of not making a decision quickly enough. Ignorance of the principle could have serious consequences.
Principles of Tendon Transfer.
Wilbur, Danielle; Hammert, Warren C
2016-08-01
Tendon transfers provide a substitute, either temporary or permanent, when function is lost due to neurologic injury in stroke, cerebral palsy or central nervous system lesions, peripheral nerve injuries, or injuries to the musculotendinous unit itself. This article reviews the basic principles of tendon transfer, which are important when planning surgery and essential for an optimal outcome. In addition, concepts for coapting the tendons during surgery and general principles to be followed during the rehabilitation process are discussed. PMID:27387072
The genetic difference principle.
Farrelly, Colin
2004-01-01
In the newly emerging debates about genetics and justice three distinct principles have begun to emerge concerning what the distributive aim of genetic interventions should be. These principles are: genetic equality, a genetic decent minimum, and the genetic difference principle. In this paper, I examine the rationale of each of these principles and argue that genetic equality and a genetic decent minimum are ill-equipped to tackle what I call the currency problem and the problem of weight. The genetic difference principle is the most promising of the three principles and I develop this principle so that it takes seriously the concerns of just health care and distributive justice in general. Given the strains on public funds for other important social programmes, the costs of pursuing genetic interventions and the nature of genetic interventions, I conclude that a more lax interpretation of the genetic difference principle is appropriate. This interpretation stipulates that genetic inequalities should be arranged so that they are to the greatest reasonable benefit of the least advantaged. Such a proposal is consistent with prioritarianism and provides some practical guidance for non-ideal societies--that is, societies that do not have the endless amount of resources needed to satisfy every requirement of justice. PMID:15186680
48 CFR 49.113 - Cost principles.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-10-01
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cost principles. 49.113 Section 49.113 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TERMINATION OF CONTRACTS General Principles 49.113 Cost principles. The cost principles and procedures in...
48 CFR 49.113 - Cost principles.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-10-01
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cost principles. 49.113 Section 49.113 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TERMINATION OF CONTRACTS General Principles 49.113 Cost principles. The cost principles and procedures in...