Science.gov

Sample records for phreatic water

  1. Effects of Land Use Change on Phreatic Water Recharge in the Loess Tableland of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Liping; Liu, Wenzhao

    2016-04-01

    A long-term located monitoring of soil water, combined with the hydrogen and oxygen stable isotope tracer techniques were used to invedtigated effects of land use change on phreatic water recharge in the Loess Tableland of China. Results showed that piston flow and preferential flow coexisted in the process of phreatic water recharge. The isotopic compositions of groundwater were different from those of deep soil water but similar to those of precipitation, which indicate that preferential flow may be the main groundwater recharge mechanism at present. The yield of cropland has greatly increased and a large area of cropland has been converted to apple orchards since 1980s, which are responsible to the excessively consumed soil water storage in deep soil layers and a decrease of deep percolation of rainwater in different degree. As a result, the phreatic water table has been declining continuously, and a profound change in the natural water cycle and water balance has occurred in the Loess Tableland. The land use structure adjustments need to be guided by policy controls to ensure the renewable capacity and sustainable utilization of phreatic water resources.

  2. Variation of Phreatic Evaporation of Bare Soil and Integration Application in Water Allocation in Shule Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Z.; Huang, P.; Gong, G.

    2011-12-01

    Phreatic evaporation is a key element in regional water balance, but it is hardly measured directly. Recently the development of some new technologies brings new dawn to phreatic evaporation measurement, such as eddy covariance, remote sensing ET and so on. But the new technologies have no ability to connect to groundwater yet. Conventional groundwater balance equipment was set up in Shule basin in northwestern China, with located E97°01', N45°13' , altitude 1520m, annual average precipitation 61.8mm and annual evaporation 2600mm (pan 20cm). The experiment field contains 45 lysimeters (65cm diameter). 11 different water table depths are set in the lysimeters, which are 0.5m, 0.75m, 1.0m, 1.25m, 1.5m, 2.0m, 2.5m, 3.0m, 4.0m, 5.0m and 6.0m. The water table in the lysimeter is controlled by Marriott Bottle System. The evaporation and percolation is measured for three different soil types (silt sandy soil, loam soil and clay soil) in the 11 different water table depths. Based on the data from 2006 to 2010, the influences of atmosphere evaporation capacity, phreatic water depth and soil textures are analyzed. Empirical formulae for estimating phreatic evaporation are regressed. The fitting precision of the different formulae are evaluated. The results show that, fitting effect of common empirical formulae is good in Shule river basin. For the different soil types, fitting effect of silt soil is the best, while that of clay soil is relatively low. At last, formulae fitted in other areas and phreatic evaporation tests are summarized. The reasons of difference of fitted coefficients lie in three aspects: the range of depth of groundwater, choice of the value of water evaporation, method to optimize coefficients. Physical meaning of the coefficients in empirical formulae is analyzed. The features, fitting effect and notes in application of formulae are evaluated. The results are applied in water requirement calculation of ecological conservation Dunhuang Xihu Nature

  3. Study on the law of Unsteady Phreatic Water Seepage Near by Canals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, P.; Tao, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Unsteady phreatic water seepage nearby canals is a classical problem in seepage mechanics. One of the classic solutions is use Boussinesq equation based on the assumption of Dupuit as the control equation, combine with the boundary conditions and initial conditions to solve it. The method can only used in the case of small hydraulic gradient. The paper take the unsteady phreatic water seepage nearby canals has larger hydraulic gradient as the research object, and establish a model suitable for this condition. Based on the first linearized Boussinesq equation and Laplace transform, the analytical solution of the model is obtained by flow integral and verified by sand tank experiment. The results showed that the free surface nearby canals is "parabolic" form changes to the "asymptotic" form when the canals water level rises. New solution is more realistic and calculate error of the original solution is larger at the beginning of canals water level variation. The law of unsteady phreatic water seepage nearby canals needs further study.

  4. Effect of quality of phreatic aquifer water and water upwelling on constructions. A case study of Ouargla

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saggaï, Sofiane; Bachi, Oum Elkheir; Saggaï, Ali

    2016-07-01

    In Ouargla's oasis, which is one of urban conglomerations of Algerian Sahara, the exploitation and/or the overexploitation of the deep aquifers of continental intercalary and of complex terminal that contain waters of mediocre quality (salty and hot), and the rejection of waters of drainage, urban residual waters and non-treated industrial waters are responsible, at the same time, of the degradation of the quality of waters of the groundwater and its upwelling. This situation has led to: (i) the deterioration of the environment and (ii) the deterioration of constructions (houses, roads, etc…). The present paper consists in giving in detail the causes of the water upwelling of phreatic aquifers in our regions, the quality of water of this aquifer and the influence of the quality of phreatic aquifer water on environment and constructions in Ouargla city by analyzing water samples of 10 points of this town.

  5. Detection of the water level in fractured phreatic aquifers using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) geophysical measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gev, Israel; Goldman, Mark; Rabinovich, Boris; Rabinovich, Michael; Issar, Arie

    1996-06-01

    Correlation of geophysical data collected using the NMR method in the Negev Desert, Israel, with hydrogeological data from nearby observation wells is presented. The experiment was conducted near Kibbutz Revivim in the Besor drainage system (Fig. 1). The objective of the survey was to detect groundwater layers in the Quaternary cover filling and Eocene fractured aquifers down to a depth of 100 m. The experiment was performed using a combination of two different geophysical techniques, namely the NMR and time domain electromagnetic (TDEM) methods. The geophysical results were verified by measuring the water level in three observation wells, two of which were drilled several months after the geophysical survey was carried out. The water level measured in these follow-up observation wells shortly after drilling did not coincide with the geophysical data. However, it settled over a period of time and finally stabilized at a depth very similar to that obtained from the NMR measurements. This phenomenon is caused by the fractured nature of the phreatic aquifer. Since the flow of water in such aquifers is confined by the fractures, the appearance of water in the well during or shortly after drilling is determined solely by the intersection of the well and the fracture. Our experiments showed that geophysical measurements in fractured phreatic aquifers may have a distinct advantage over direct borehole measurements, since the former average the depth to the water table over large areas (several thousand square meters) while the latter are limited by the area of the borehole cross-section (several tens of square centimeters).

  6. Evolution of isolated caves in porous limestone by mixing of phreatic water and surface water at the water table of unconfined aquifers: A model approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dreybrodt, W.; Romanov, D.; Kaufmann, G.

    2009-09-01

    SummaryWhen water from the surface, e.g. from a lake flows through porous carbonate rocks down along some region with high hydraulic conductivity and encounters the water table of a phreatic aquifer both waters mix by diffusion along their boundary. In a carbonate aquifer, where both surface and phreatic waters are saturated with respect to calcite, mixing corrosion causes renewed dissolution of the carbonate rock in the diffusional mixing zone extending from the boundary separating the phreatic water from the surface water encountering it. A numerical model is presented from which the initial change of porosity in such a diffusional mixing zone is obtained. The initial change of porosity dΦ/ dt/0 is proportional to |∇→m(x, y)|2 and d2Δ c eq( m)/ dm2. m( x, y) is the spatial distribution of the mixing ratio, m = V sur/( V sur + V phr), and the Vs assign the corresponding volumes of surface and phreatic water. d2Δ c eq/ dm2 is the second derivative of Δ c eq, the renewed dissolution capacity of the mixed solution. It has been calculated for three geochemical scenarios with differing CO 2 concentrations of surface and phreatic water by use of PHREEQC-2. The spatial distribution m( x, y) is obtained by using MODFLOW and MT3DMS in a modeling domain with constant hydraulic conductivity for various flow velocities of the phreatic aquifer. From the results the time scale of cave evolution is estimated. Passages of dimensions of about one meter in width and several 10 cm in height, extending in length along the border line, where surface and phreatic water meet, can be created in time scales of 10 000 years. These caves are horizontal with blind ending passages and resemble closely to the isolated caves observed in Central West Florida. For more realistic modeling we have used a geostatistical local distribution of hydraulic conductivities in the modeling domain. For a correlation length of 1% of the length of modeling domain the spatial distribution extends deeper

  7. Anthropogenic contamination of a phreatic drinking water winning: 3-dimensional reactive transport modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffioen, J.; van der Grift, B.; Maas, D.; van den Brink, C.; Zaadnoordijk, J. W.

    2003-04-01

    Groundwater is contaminated at the regional scale by agricultural activities and atmospheric deposition. A 3-D transport model was set-up for a phreatic drinking water winning, where the groundwater composition was monitored accurately. The winning is situated at an area with unconsolidated Pleistocene deposits. The land use is nature and agriculture. Annual mass-balances were determined using a wide range of historic data. The modelling approach for the unsaturated zone was either simple box models (Cl, NO_3 and SO_4) or 1-D transport modelling using HYDRUS (Cd). The modelling approach for the saturated zone used a multiple solute version of MT3D, where denitrification associated with pyrite oxidation and sorption of Cd were included. The solute transport calculations were performed for the period 1950--2030. The results obtained for the year 2000 were used as input concentration for the period 2000--2030. A comparison between the calculated and the measured concentrations of groundwater abstracted for Cl, NO_3 and SO_4 yields the following. First, the input at the surface is rather well estimated. Second, the redox reactivity of the first two aquifers is negligible around the winning, which is confirmed by respiration experiments using anaerobically sampled aquifer sediments. The reactivity of the third aquifer, which is a marine deposit and lies at least 30 meters below surface, is considerable. The discrepancies between modelled and measured output are explained by lack of knowledge about the subsurface reactivity and/or wrong estimates of surface loading and leaching from the unsaturated zone. The patterns for other hydrogeochemical variables such as Ca, HCO_3 may further constrain this lack of knowledge. The results for Cd indicate that Cd becomes strongly retarded, despite the low reactivity of the sandy sediments. The winning is rather insensitive to Cd contamination (but the surface water drainage network is not). Two major uncertainties for input of Cd

  8. A new analytical approach to estimate the hydraulic parameters of a coastal phreatic aquifer from tidally induced water table fluctuations and its application at the Niijima Island, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aichi, M.; Shiokari, M.; Tokunaga, T.

    2010-12-01

    A new perturbation solution of the Boussinesq equation for tidally induced water table fluctuations in a coastal phreatic aquifer was derived under the condition of multiple tidal constituents. Then, the obtained solution was applied to estimate hydraulic parameters of the Shiro-mama formation at the Niijima Island, Japan, by fitting the solution to the results of continuous measurements of water table fluctuations in the frequency space. The estimated hydraulic transmissivities from both the amplitudes and the phase-shifts were comparable and consistent with the results of analyses based on the Dupuit-Ghyben-Herzberg model, suggesting that the proposed approach performed well and the obtained values, i.e., transmissivity to be 0.12-1.7 m2/s were reasonable.

  9. Phreatic and Hydrothermal Explosions: A Laboratory Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheu, B.; Dingwell, D. B.

    2010-12-01

    Phreatic eruptions are amongst the most common eruption types on earth. They might be precursory to another type of volcanic eruption but often they stand on their one. Despite being the most common eruption type, they also are one of the most diverse eruptions, in appearance as well as on eruption mechanism. Yet steam is the common fuel behind all phreatic eruptions. The steam-driven explosions occur when water beneath the ground or on the surface is heated by magma, lava, hot rocks, or fresh volcanic deposits (such as ignimbrites, tephra and pyroclastic-flow deposits) and result in crater, tuff rings and debris avalanches. The intense heat of such material may cause water to boil and flash to steam, thereby generating an explosion of steam, water, ash, blocks, and bombs. Another wide and important field affected by phreatic explosions are hydrothermal areas; here phreatic explosions occur every few months creating explosion craters and resemble a significant hazard to hydrothermal power plants. Despite of their hazard potential, phreatic explosions have so far been overlooked by the field of experimental volcanology. A part of their hazard potential in owned by the fact that phreatic explosions are hardly predictable in occurrence time and size as they have manifold triggers (variances in groundwater and heat systems, earthquakes, material fatigue, water level, etc..) A new set of experiments has been designed to focus on this phreatic type of steam explosion, whereas classical phreatomagmatic experiments use molten fuel-coolant interaction (e.g., Zimanowski, et al., 1991). The violent transition of the superheated water to vapour adds another degree of explosivity to the dry magmatic fragmentation, driven mostly by vesicle bursting due to internal gas overpressure. At low water fractions the fragmentation is strongly enforced by the mixture of these two effects and a large fraction of fine pyroclasts are produced, whereas at high water fraction in the sample the

  10. Steady state phreatic surfaces in sloping aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LoáIciga, Hugo A.

    2005-08-01

    Steady state groundwater flow driven by constant recharge in an unconfined aquifer overlying sloping bedrock is shown to be represented, using the Dupuit approximation, by an ordinary differential equation of the Abel type y(x) · y'(x) + a · y(x) + x = 0, whose analytical solution is derived in this work. This article first investigates the case of zero saturated thickness at the upstream boundary, a flow system reminiscent of perched groundwater created by percolation of precipitation or irrigation in a sloping aquifer fully draining at its downstream boundary. A variant of this flow system occurs when the phreatic surface mounds and produces groundwater discharge toward the upstream boundary. This variant is a generalization of the classical groundwater flow problem involving two lakes connected by an aquifer, the latter being on sloping terrain in this instance. Analytical solutions for the phreatic surface's steady state geometry are derived for the case of monotonically declining hydraulic head as well as for the case of a mounded phreatic surface. These solutions are of practical interest in drainage studies, slope stability, and runoff formation investigations. It is shown that the flow factor a = -? tan β (where K, N, and tan β are the hydraulic conductivity, vertical recharge, and aquifer slope, respectively) has a commanding role on the phreatic surface's solutions. Two computational examples illustrate the implementation of this article's results.

  11. Steady state phreatic surfaces in sloping aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loáiciga, Hugo A.

    2005-08-01

    Steady state groundwater flow driven by constant recharge in an unconfined aquifer overlying sloping bedrock is shown to be represented, using the Dupuit approximation, by an ordinary differential equation of the Abel type y(x) . y'(x) + a . y(x) + x = 0, whose analytical solution is derived in this work. This article first investigates the case of zero saturated thickness at the upstream boundary, a flow system reminiscent of perched groundwater created by percolation of precipitation or irrigation in a sloping aquifer fully draining at its downstream boundary. A variant of this flow system occurs when the phreatic surface mounds and produces groundwater discharge toward the upstream boundary. This variant is a generalization of the classical groundwater flow problem involving two lakes connected by an aquifer, the latter being on sloping terrain in this instance. Analytical solutions for the phreatic surface's steady state geometry are derived for the case of monotonically declining hydraulic head as well as for the case of a mounded phreatic surface. These solutions are of practical interest in drainage studies, slope stability, and runoff formation investigations. It is shown that the flow factor a = -$\\sqrt{{\\rm K}/{\\rm N} tan β (where K, N, and tan β are the hydraulic conductivity, vertical recharge, and aquifer slope, respectively) has a commanding role on the phreatic surface's solutions. Two computational examples illustrate the implementation of this article's results.

  12. Hydrothermal alteration favoring phreatic eruption processes at Solfatara (Campi Flegrei)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, Klaus; Scheu, Bettina; Montanaro, Cristian; Aßbichler, Donjá; Isaia, Roberto; Dingwell, Donald B.

    2015-04-01

    Solfatara and Pisciarelli fumaroles are the main surface manifestations of the strong hydrothermal activity within the Campi Flegrei caldera system and pointing to a significant risk for phreatic eruptions in this densely populated area. Phreatic eruptions, triggered by various processes are hardly predictable in occurrence time and size. Despite their hazard potential, these eruptions, as well as the influence of hydrothermal alteration on their likelihood, magnitude and style, have so far been largely overlooked in experimental volcanology. The physical properties and the mechanical behavior of volcanic rocks are highly dependent on their original magmatic microstructure and on any eventual alteration of those microstructures due to hydrothermal reactions. We have therefore investigated the potential effects of hydrothermal alteration on rock microstructure and, as a consequence, on fragmentation dynamics. Rock samples from the vicinity of the Solfatara and Pisciarelli fumaroles have been characterized 1) geochemically (X-ray fluorescence, X-ray diffraction), 2) physically (density, porosity, permeability and elastic wave velocity) and 3) mechanically (uniaxial compressive strength, tensile strength). We furthermore have investigated the effects of hydrothermal alteration on fragmentation processes using a shock-tube apparatus, operating with Argon gas, water vapor and superheated water at temperatures up to 400°C and maximum pressures of 20 MPa. Fragmentation and ejection dynamics in the presence of three different energy sources within the pores have been investigated: overpressure by 1) Argon gas; or 2) water vapor and due to 3) steam flashing of superheated water. Fragmentation speed, fragmentation efficiency and fragmented particle ejection velocity were measured. Our results indicate on the one hand, that steam flashing provides the highest energy - resulting in increased fragmentation speed and particle ejection velocity and also a significant higher

  13. Effects of water extraction in a vulnerable phreatic aquifer: Consequences for groundwater contamination by pesticides, Sint-Jansteen area, The Netherlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaus, Irina

    Pesticides are a potential threat to the quality of extracted groundwater when the water-supply area is used for agricultural activities. This problem is discussed for the water-supply area of Sint-Jansteen, The Netherlands, where measured pesticide concentrations in the extracted water regularly exceed EU limits (0.1μg/L). Groundwater samples taken from the aquifer within the water-supply area show low contamination, but samples taken from the extracted water occasionally contain pesticides, making the water inadequate for drinking-water purposes. The more intense contamination of the extracted water is caused by the change in the natural groundwater flow pattern near the extraction wells. In this area, pesticide use cannot be avoided easily, and an approach is given to differentiate pesticide use in the area according to expected travel time toward the wells and the chemical characteristics of the pesticides. A groundwater flow model for the area is developed and the effects of groundwater extraction on the natural flow pattern are evaluated. Using particle tracking, the travel-time zones are determined. Combining these results and the degradation behavior of certain pesticides led to an optimal scheme to integrate agricultural activities and groundwater extraction in the area. This is illustrated for five different types of pesticides (atrazine, simazine, bentazone, MCPA, and mecoprop). Résumé Les pesticides sont une menace potentielle pour la qualité de l'eau souterraine prélevée lorsque la zone de captage est soumise à des activités agricoles. Ce problème est discuté dans le cas de la zone de captage de Sint-Jansteen (Pays-Bas), où les concentrations mesurées en pesticides dans les eaux pompées dépassent régulièrement les normes européennes (0,1μg/L). Les échantillons d'eau souterraine prélevés dans l'aquifère dans la zone de captage montrent une faible contamination, mais les échantillons d'eau pompée contiennent occasionnellement des

  14. Effects of water extraction in a vulnerable phreatic aquifer: Consequences for groundwater contamination by pesticides, Sint-Jansteen area, The Netherlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaus, Irina

    Pesticides are a potential threat to the quality of extracted groundwater when the water-supply area is used for agricultural activities. This problem is discussed for the water-supply area of Sint-Jansteen, The Netherlands, where measured pesticide concentrations in the extracted water regularly exceed EU limits (0.1μg/L). Groundwater samples taken from the aquifer within the water-supply area show low contamination, but samples taken from the extracted water occasionally contain pesticides, making the water inadequate for drinking-water purposes. The more intense contamination of the extracted water is caused by the change in the natural groundwater flow pattern near the extraction wells. In this area, pesticide use cannot be avoided easily, and an approach is given to differentiate pesticide use in the area according to expected travel time toward the wells and the chemical characteristics of the pesticides. A groundwater flow model for the area is developed and the effects of groundwater extraction on the natural flow pattern are evaluated. Using particle tracking, the travel-time zones are determined. Combining these results and the degradation behavior of certain pesticides led to an optimal scheme to integrate agricultural activities and groundwater extraction in the area. This is illustrated for five different types of pesticides (atrazine, simazine, bentazone, MCPA, and mecoprop). Résumé Les pesticides sont une menace potentielle pour la qualité de l'eau souterraine prélevée lorsque la zone de captage est soumise à des activités agricoles. Ce problème est discuté dans le cas de la zone de captage de Sint-Jansteen (Pays-Bas), où les concentrations mesurées en pesticides dans les eaux pompées dépassent régulièrement les normes européennes (0,1μg/L). Les échantillons d'eau souterraine prélevés dans l'aquifère dans la zone de captage montrent une faible contamination, mais les échantillons d'eau pompée contiennent occasionnellement des

  15. Recurrent patterns in fluid geochemistry data prior to phreatic eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rouwet, Dmitri; Sandri, Laura; Todesco, Micol; Tonini, Roberto; Pecoraino, Giovannella; Diliberto, Iole Serena

    2016-04-01

    Not all volcanic eruptions are magma-driven: the sudden evaporation and expansion of heated groundwater may cause phreatic eruptions, where the magma involvement is absent or negligible. Active crater lakes top some of the volcanoes prone to phreatic activity. This kind of eruption may occur suddenly, and without clear warning: on September 27, 2014 a phreatic eruption of Ontake, Japan, occurred without timely precursors, killing 57 tourists near the volcano summit. Phreatic eruptions can thus be as fatal as higher VEI events, due to the lack of recognised precursory signals, and because of their explosive and violent nature. In this study, we tackle the challenge of recognising precursors to phreatic eruptions, by analysing the records of two "phreatically" active volcanoes in Costa Rica, i.e. Poás and Turrialba, respectively with and without a crater lake. These volcanoes cover a wide range of time scales in eruptive behaviour, possibly culminating into magmatic activity, and have a long-term multi-parameter dataset mostly describing fluid geochemistry. Such dataset is suitable for being analysed by objective pattern recognition techniques, in search for recurrent schemes. The aim is to verify the existence and nature of potential precursory patterns, which will improve our understanding of phreatic events, and allow the assessment of the associated hazard at other volcanoes, such as Campi Flegrei or Vulcano, in Italy. Quantitative forecast of phreatic activity will be performed with BET_UNREST, a Bayesian Event Tree tool recently developed within the framework of FP7 EU VUELCO project. The study will combine the analysis of fluid geochemistry data with pattern recognition and phreatic eruption forecast on medium and short-term. The study will also provide interesting hints on the features that promote or hinder phreatic activity in volcanoes that host well-developed hydrothermal circulation.

  16. An analytical model for predicting transport in a coupled vadose/phreatic system

    SciTech Connect

    Tomasko, D.

    1997-05-01

    A simple analytical model is presented for predicting the transport of a contaminant in both the unsaturated (vadose) and saturated (phreatic) zones following a surficial spill. The model incorporates advection, dispersion, adsorption, and first-order decay in both zones and couples the transport processes at the water table. The governing equation is solved by using the method of Laplace transforms, with numerical inversion of the Laplace space equation for concentration. Because of the complexity of the functional form for the Laplace space solution, a numerical methodology using the real and imaginary parts of a Fourier series was implemented. To reduce conservatism in the model, dilution at the water table was also included. Verification of the model is demonstrated by its ability to reproduce the source history at the surface and to replicate appropriate one-dimensional transport through either the vadose or phreatic zone. Because of its simplicity and lack of detailed input data requirements, the model is recommended for scoping calculations.

  17. Geomicrobiology of Phreatic Caves Associated With Central Florida Springs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giannotti, A. L.; Tysall, T. N.; Franklin, R. B.; Mills, A. L.

    2005-05-01

    Phreatic (underwater) limestone caves are common in Florida in association with the numerous springs that issue from the karst landscape. Extensive microbial mats and diverse communities of invertebrates have been observed by cave divers, but, as ecosystems, the caves are not well studied. Four aphotic aquatic caves were identified in which to investigate relationships between microbial communities and their geochemical surroundings, and to evaluate the potential for chemolithoautotrophic microbial activity to support higher-order consumers. The caves were associated with the discharge sites of four different second-magnitude springs (flow: 0.3 to 3 m3 s-1) in central Florida in which communities containing microbial mats, isopods, amphiphods, and cave crayfish have been observed. Samples of bulk water and microbial mat were collected along the flow path in each cave; depths ranged from 0.5 to 15 m below the ground surface, and penetration distance extended up to 250 m from each cave entrance. Microscopic examination of the mats revealed the presence of sulfur-granule-containing, filamentous morphologies consistent with Thiothrix and Beggiatoa and an unidentified filamentous iron bacteria. The bacteria were found in all four springs, but H2S was detected in water samples from only one of the caves. In many cases, the morphology of the organisms changed along the flow path within an individual spring, although there was little change in the associated water chemistry (pH, dissolved oxygen, conductivity, total Fe, NH4+, NO3-, HS-, SO42-, PO4-, Cl-, Fl-, Ca2+, Na+, and Mg2+). The overall water chemistry of the four caves/springs was distinct (principal components analysis), and the major differences were due to Ca2+, K+, and Cl- concentrations, pH (range: 7.3 to 8.4), and sulfur and iron availability. Efforts to culture the dominant organisms in each set of mats (using media prepared with cave or spring water) and community-level genetic analyses (T-RFLP) demonstrated

  18. Strip-focused phreatic surface flow driven by evaporation: Analytical solution by the Riesenkampf function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kacimov, A. R.; Obnosov, Yu. V.

    2006-10-01

    Steady free-surface seepage in a homogeneous porous aquifer is studied by a conformal mapping of the inversed hodograph (angle) onto the domain in the Riesenkampf plane (slanted-face half-strip or trapezium). Seepage from the water table is caused by evaporation uniformly distributed with a horizontal coordinate. This distributed sink forms a regional trough on the phreatic surface with groundwater moving from the flanks to the trough center on the regional scale and from the water table to the soil surface locally. The free surfaces, streamlines of marked particles, travel times, and Darcian velocity are presented.

  19. Influence of hydrothermal alteration on phreatic eruption processes in Solfatara (Campi Flegrei)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, K.; Scheu, B.; Montanaro, C.; Isaia, R.; Dingwell, D. B.

    2014-12-01

    The strong hydrothermal activity exhibited at Campi Flegrei by the Solfatara and Pisciarelli fumaroles points to a significant risk for phreatic eruptions in this densely populated area. Phreatic eruptions, triggered by various processes are hardly predictable in occurrence time and size. Despite their hazard potential, these eruptions, as well as the influence of hydrothermal alteration on their likelihood, magnitude and style, have so far been largely overlooked in experimental volcanology. The physical properties and the mechanical behavior of volcanic rocks are highly dependent on their original magmatic microstructure and on any eventual alteration of those microstructures due to hydrothermal reactions. We have therefore investigated the potential effects of hydrothermal alteration on rock microstructure and, as a consequence, on fragmentation dynamics. Rock samples from the vicinity of the Solfatara fumaroles have been characterized 1) geochemically (X-ray fluorescence, X-ray diffraction), 2) physically (density, porosity, permeability and elastic wave velocity) and 3) mechanically (uniaxial compressive strength, tensile strength). We have investigated the effects of hydrothermal alteration on fragmentation processes using a shock-tube apparatus, operating with Argon gas, water vapor and superheated water at temperatures up to 400°C and maximum pressures of 20 MPa. The three different energy sources within the pores initiating fragmentation, have been investigated: overpressure by 1) Argon gas; or 2) water vapor and due to 3) steam flashing of water. Fragmentation speed, fragmentation efficiency and fragmented particle ejection velocity were measured. Our results indicate, that steam flashing provides the highest energy - resulting in increased particle ejection velocity and higher fragmentation efficiency. Based on our results, we aim to constrain the influence of hydrothermal alteration on the dynamics of phreatic explosions and the effect on the amount of

  20. Short-period volcanic gas precursors to phreatic eruptions: Insights from Poás Volcano, Costa Rica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    de Moor, Maarten; Aiuppa, Alessandro; Pacheco, Javier; Avard, Geoffroy; Kern, Christoph; Liuzzo, Marco; Martinez, Maria; Giudice, Gaetano; Fischer, Tobias P.

    2016-01-01

    Volcanic eruptions involving interaction with water are amongst the most violent and unpredictable geologic phenomena on Earth. Phreatic eruptions are exceptionally difficult to forecast by traditional geophysical techniques. Here we report on short-term precursory variations in gas emissions related to phreatic blasts at Poás volcano, Costa Rica, as measured with an in situ multiple gas analyzer that was deployed at the edge of the erupting lake. Gas emitted from this hyper-acid crater lake approaches magmatic values of SO2/CO2 1–6 days prior to eruption. The SO2 flux derived from magmatic degassing through the lake is measureable by differential optical absorption spectrometry (sporadic campaign measurements), which allows us to constrain lake gas output and input for the major gas species during eruptive and non-eruptive periods. We can further calculate power supply to the hydrothermal system using volatile mass balance and thermodynamics, which indicates that the magmatic heat flux into the shallow hydrothermal system increases from ∼27 MW during quiescence to ∼59 MW during periods of phreatic events. These transient pulses of gas and heat from the deeper magmatic system generate both phreatic eruptions and the observed short-term changes in gas composition, because at high gas flux scrubbing of sulfur by the hydrothermal system is both kinetically and thermodynamically inhibited whereas CO2gas is always essentially inert in hyperacid conditions. Thus, the SO2/CO2 of lake emissions approaches magmatic values as gas and power supply to the sub-limnic hydrothermal system increase, vaporizing fluids and priming the hydrothermal system for eruption. Our results suggest that high-frequency real-time gas monitoring could provide useful short-term eruptive precursors at volcanoes prone to phreatic explosions.

  1. Recharge characteristics of a phreatic aquifer as determined by storage accumulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ketchum, Neil J.; Donovan, Joseph J.; Avery, William H.

    2000-12-01

    The cumulative storage accumulation curve (CSAC) is a tool for saturated-volume fluctuation (SVF) analysis of transient recharge to shallow phreatic aquifers discharging only to springs. The method assumes that little underflow or phreatic evapotranspiration occurs. The CSAC is a modified water-table hydrograph that distinguishes storage increase caused by recharge from loss due to springflow-induced recession. Required for the analysis are water-table fluctuations at a single representative location within the catchment of a single spring and either direct measurements or robust interpolations of springflows at different aquifer stages. The method employs empirical manipulation of head observations, varying spring catchment area to minimize CSAC water-level changes in late portions of long recessions. Results include volumetric estimates of recharge integrated over individual events and instantaneous rates of recharge to the water table, at the temporal resolution of the water-level sampling interval. The analysis may also yield physically realistic information on spring catchment and recharge focusing. In a test case in West Virginia, USA, recharge estimates by this technique were consistent with integrated springflow time series but greater than estimates based on potential evapotranspiration. Results give insight into dynamic recharge behavior over time as well as an indication of recharge catchment size.

  2. Sources of the nitrate in phreatic groundwater in the western Kalahari

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heaton, T. H. E.

    1984-01-01

    Elevated levels of nitrate occur in phreatic groundwater in the western Kalahari, Namibia. Nitrate in water containing 0.4-3.1 meq NO -3l -1, of widespread occurrence, has δ 15N values in the range +4.9 to +8.0‰, suggesting natural derivation from the soil. The sporadic occurrence of very high levels of nitrate (> 4 meq NO -3l -1), which has δ 15N between +9.3 to +18.7‰, reflects pollution derived from animal waste. The importance of considering the possible isotopic effects of denitrification, and the significance of leaching in the nitrogen budget of the Kalahari soil, are also discussed.

  3. Determination of heterogeneities in the hydraulic properties of a phreatic aquifer from tidal level fluctuations: a case in Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carol, Eleonora S.; Kruse, Eduardo E.; Pousa, Jorge L.; Roig, Alejandro R.

    2009-11-01

    A well-known analytical solution of Jacob (1950) for groundwater flow due to tidal-wave propagation, together with field measurements along a complete tidal cycle and geological data, were used to evaluate the heterogeneities in the hydraulic properties of a phreatic aquifer located next to the River Ajo in the coastal plain environment of the southern sector of the Samborombon Bay wetland, Argentina. From the analysis of water-table fluctuations in a set of monitoring wells located along a riverbank-normal transect, it was possible to quantify the piecewise spatial variations of the hydraulic diffusivity of the phreatic aquifer. The results show the strong lateral variations of the sedimentary environment due to the influence of the different transport and deposition agents that characterize the coastal plain. The known thickness of the phreatic aquifer and the estimated range of the specific yield allowed the hydraulic conductivity to be identified as the most influential factor. [Jacob CE (1950) Flow of ground water. In: Rouse H (ed) Engineering Hydraulics. Wiley, New York

  4. Novel Microbial Diversity Retrieved by Autonomous Robotic Exploration of the World's Deepest Vertical Phreatic Sinkhole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahl, Jason W.; Fairfield, Nathaniel; Harris, J. Kirk; Wettergreen, David; Stone, William C.; Spear, John R.

    2010-03-01

    The deep phreatic thermal explorer (DEPTHX) is an autonomous underwater vehicle designed to navigate an unexplored environment, generate high-resolution three-dimensional (3-D) maps, collect biological samples based on an autonomous sampling decision, and return to its origin. In the spring of 2007, DEPTHX was deployed in Zacatón, a deep (˜318 m), limestone, phreatic sinkhole (cenote) in northeastern Mexico. As DEPTHX descended, it generated a 3-D map based on the processing of range data from 54 onboard sonars. The vehicle collected water column samples and wall biomat samples throughout the depth profile of the cenote. Post-expedition sample analysis via comparative analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed a wealth of microbial diversity. Traditional Sanger gene sequencing combined with a barcoded-amplicon pyrosequencing approach revealed novel, phylum-level lineages from the domains Bacteria and Archaea; in addition, several novel subphylum lineages were also identified. Overall, DEPTHX successfully navigated and mapped Zacatón, and collected biological samples based on an autonomous decision, which revealed novel microbial diversity in a previously unexplored environment.

  5. Novel microbial diversity retrieved by autonomous robotic exploration of the world's deepest vertical phreatic sinkhole.

    PubMed

    Sahl, Jason W; Fairfield, Nathaniel; Harris, J Kirk; Wettergreen, David; Stone, William C; Spear, John R

    2010-03-01

    The deep phreatic thermal explorer (DEPTHX) is an autonomous underwater vehicle designed to navigate an unexplored environment, generate high-resolution three-dimensional (3-D) maps, collect biological samples based on an autonomous sampling decision, and return to its origin. In the spring of 2007, DEPTHX was deployed in Zacatón, a deep (approximately 318 m), limestone, phreatic sinkhole (cenote) in northeastern Mexico. As DEPTHX descended, it generated a 3-D map based on the processing of range data from 54 onboard sonars. The vehicle collected water column samples and wall biomat samples throughout the depth profile of the cenote. Post-expedition sample analysis via comparative analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed a wealth of microbial diversity. Traditional Sanger gene sequencing combined with a barcoded-amplicon pyrosequencing approach revealed novel, phylum-level lineages from the domains Bacteria and Archaea; in addition, several novel subphylum lineages were also identified. Overall, DEPTHX successfully navigated and mapped Zacatón, and collected biological samples based on an autonomous decision, which revealed novel microbial diversity in a previously unexplored environment. PMID:20298146

  6. Computation of average seasonal groundwater flows in phreatic aquifer-river system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rastogi, A. K.

    1991-03-01

    A simplified approach to reduce a time-variant problem into a steady-state problem is considered by averaging the groundwater head over a seasonal period. This averaging is applicable to those areas (countries) where a year can be divided into three distinct monsoon, pre- and post-monsoon periods and where the annual watertable variation is not large compared with the saturated aquifer thickness. This scheme is applied to solve a two-dimensional problem using a standard finite difference technique of solution. The phreatic aquifer system considered is bounded by two reservoirs and an impervious base. It also contains a partially penetrating river near the centre of the aquifer. Periodic contribution to the phreatic aquifer from the higher head reservoir, groundwater recharge from river seepage, net-free surface flux and the total groundwater flow towards lower head reservoir are worked out. These terms aid in estimating the net volume of ground water that is available from the aquifer system in a particular seasonal period.

  7. The yearly amount and characteristics of deep-buried phreatic evaporation in hyper-arid areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, H.; Wang, W.; Zhan, H.; Qiu, F.; Wu, F.; Zhang, G.

    2015-12-01

    Water scarcity is the primary cause of land deterioration, so finding new available water resources is crucial to ecological restoration. We investigated a hyper-arid Gobi location in the Dunhuang Mogao Grottoes in this work wherein the burial depth of phreatic water is over 200 m. An air-conditioner was used in a closed greenhouse to condense and measure the yearly amount of phreatic evaporation (PE) from 2010 to 2015. The results show that the annual quantity of PE is 4.52 mm, and that the PE has sinusoidal characteristics. The average PE is 0.0183 mm d-1 from March to November. Accordingly, by monitoring the annual changes in soil-air temperature and humidity to a depth of 5.0 m, we analyzed the water migration mechanism in the heterothermozone (subsurface zone of variable temperature). The results show that, from March to November, the temperature and absolute humidity (AH) increase. This is due to the flow of solar heat entering the soil - the soil subsequently releases moisture and the soil is in a state of increasing AH so that evaporation occurs. From November to March, the temperature decreases. Now, the soil absorbs water vapor and AH is in a state of decline. Thus, it is temperature alternation in the heterothermozone - due to solar heat transfer - that provides the main driving power for PE. When it drives water vapor to move downwards in the heterothermozone, a small part is reversed upwards and evaporates. Solar radiation intensity dominates the annual sinusoidal PE characteristics.

  8. Estimating phreatic evaporation in irrigated areas using a stable isotope approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barthold, F. K.; Umirzakov, G.; Schneider, K.; Stulina, G.; Frede, H.; Breuer, L.

    2011-12-01

    Central Asia is characterized by continental arid climate conditions. Mean annual precipitation is 170 mm with a potential evapotranspiration rate of 1200 mm/a. In addition, many regions are affected by a non-sustainable use of the water resources. 90% of the water resources are used for irrigation purposes to grow e.g. cotton and wheat, especially in Uzbekistan. Large amounts of water are needed for cotton growth. Not only does the plant itself require large amounts of water but a substantial part of the water use is ascribed to the inefficient irrigation system and management. The irrigation infrastructure is old and not maintained well and irrigation management is inadequate. Groundwater level rise has been observed in irrigated areas as a result of the inefficient irrigation practices. Capillary raised groundwater is particularly prone to evaporation as it gets closer to the soil surface. The general objective of this study is to quantify the amount of groundwater (or phreatic) evaporation that is due to groundwater table rise on irrigated fields. In this study, we present an approach where we are using stable isotopes of water to estimate phreatic evaporation on irrigated fields. Our specific objective is to estimate phreatic evaporation (Ep) in relation to the groundwater level and varying soil types (sandy, loamy and clay loamy). We chose a stable water isotopes approach to estimate Ep. For this purpose, soil samples along a depth profile were sampled on sites with different groundwater levels and soil types. Samples were taken in 10 cm increments down to the groundwater level. Soil water was extracted using a cryogenic vacuum distillation and the extracted soil water was analyzed for its composition of stable water isotopes, δD and δ18O, using a Liquid Water Isotope Analyzer (Los Gatos Research, Inc.). Ep was calculated by fitting an exponential function to the experimental isotope soil profile. Our results show that in sandy and loamy soils, enrichment

  9. Determining vertical leakage from the Great Artesian Basin, Australia, through up-scaling field estimates of phreatic evapotranspiration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costelloe, J. F.; Matic, V.; Western, A. W.; Walker, J. P.; Tyler, M.

    2015-10-01

    Understanding the water balance of large groundwater systems is fundamental for the sustainable management of the resource. The vertical leakage (i.e. discharge to upper aquifers or the unconfined water table) component of the Great Artesian Basin (GAB) is an example of a poorly constrained but large component of the water balance of Australia's largest groundwater resource. Field estimates of phreatic evapotranspiration (ET) were made at discharge zones along the southwestern margin of the GAB using eddy covariance station and micro-lysimeter measurements, and inversion of chloride/isotope soil profile measurements. The field estimates were assigned to three major landforms associated with areas of increasingly higher evaporative discharge and progressively decreasing depths to the water table. These landforms were mapped using remote sensing and digital elevation data, with characteristically higher soil moisture, salt precipitation, and lower surface temperature compared to areas distal to discharge zones. Based on the field measurements, broad ranges of phreatic ET (0.5-10, 10-100 and 100-300 mm y-1) were assigned to the major land-types. The higher phreatic ET discharge zones mapped by supervised classification of satellite data are 8-28% of the total regional vertical leakage component estimated by numerical modelling of the GAB. In comparison, the higher discharge zones estimated by landform mapping are 73-251% of the total vertical leakage component estimated by modelling. The mapped distribution of the high discharge areas has important implications for modelling of the GAB. In the western sub-basin, most of the estimated recharge can be accounted for by phreatic ET in the high discharge zones located around the Basin margins, implying that vertical leakage rates distal to the margins are very low and that discharge may exceed current recharge. In contrast, the results for the eastern sub-basin suggest that vertical leakage rates around the South

  10. A simple model of a phreatic surface through an earth dam

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hromadka, T.V., II

    1984-01-01

    A simple numerical model for estimating a phreatic surface in an earthen dam is presented. The numerical approach is based upon the Complex Variable Boundary Element Method (CVBEM). By expanding the CVBEM approximation geometric functions into a first order Taylor series, the unknown phreatic surface location geometrics can be approximated without iteration by solving a single matrix system. The developed technique provides for the numerical solution of the inverse problem of locating the phreatic surface coordinates. A comparison of results produced from this simple approach to results produced from a finite element analog and an iterative CVBEM analog for an example problem is presented. ?? 1984.

  11. Dissolved gases in hydrothermal (phreatic) and geyser eruptions at Yellowstone National Park, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hurwitz, Shaul; Clor, Laura; McCleskey, R. Blaine; Nordstrom, D Kirk; Hunt, Andrew G.; Evans, William C.

    2016-01-01

    Multiphase and multicomponent fluid flow in the shallow continental crust plays a significant role in a variety of processes over a broad range of temperatures and pressures. The presence of dissolved gases in aqueous fluids reduces the liquid stability field toward lower temperatures and enhances the explosivity potential with respect to pure water. Therefore, in areas where magma is actively degassing into a hydrothermal system, gas-rich aqueous fluids can exert a major control on geothermal energy production, can be propellants in hazardous hydrothermal (phreatic) eruptions, and can modulate the dynamics of geyser eruptions. We collected pressurized samples of thermal water that preserved dissolved gases in conjunction with precise temperature measurements with depth in research well Y-7 (maximum depth of 70.1 m; casing to 31 m) and five thermal pools (maximum depth of 11.3 m) in the Upper Geyser Basin of Yellowstone National Park, USA. Based on the dissolved gas concentrations, we demonstrate that CO2 mainly derived from magma and N2 from air-saturated meteoric water reduce the near-surface saturation temperature, consistent with some previous observations in geyser conduits. Thermodynamic calculations suggest that the dissolved CO2 and N2 modulate the dynamics of geyser eruptions and are likely triggers of hydrothermal eruptions when recharged into shallow reservoirs at high concentrations. Therefore, monitoring changes in gas emission rate and composition in areas with neutral and alkaline chlorine thermal features could provide important information on the natural resources (geysers) and hazards (eruptions) in these areas.

  12. Mud plumbing system of an isolated phreatic eruption at Akita Yakeyama volcano, northern Honshu, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohba, T.; Taniguchi, H.; Miyamoto, T.; Hayashi, S.; Hasenaka, T.

    2007-03-01

    A small phreatic eruption occurred on 16 August 1997 at the flank of a dacite lava dome of Akita Yakeyama, northern Honshu, Japan. Air-falls and viscous mudflows were discharged from two craters. Mudflow effusion preceded discrete explosions, followed by a fine ash discharge. The air-fall deposit consists of an upper fine ash deposit and a lower ballistic-dominated, poorly sorted tephra in which ranges in grain size from fine ash to blocks of ca. 50 cm. Both air fall and mudflow deposits were composed of fine mud and coarse lithic fragments, which contained abundant liquid water. Lithic fragments comprise fresh dacite of the host lava dome and hydrothermally altered stratocone andesite. Intensely altered andesite fragments contain quartz, cristobalite, andalusite, pyrophyllite, 7 Å-kaolin, and anhydrite. Some mineral assemblages indicate hydrothermal temperatures greater than 300 °C. Rare sandstone fragments are likely to be lacustrine from ca. 1000 m depth. The surface morphology of the mudflow deposits indicates that the mud contained ca. 30 vol.% water. The cube-root similarity rules on crater size and the cloud shape of buried explosions provided energy of 3-5 × 10 9 J at depths of 6-10 m, based on the observed crater size (20 m) and fountain-like cloud shape. The depth estimate is consistent with the abundance of coarse dacite fragments derived from shallow lava in the explosion deposit. Thermodynamic energy release of ca. 1 × 10 11 J was calculated based on the following estimated parameters: product volume of 1 × 10 3 m 3, hydrothermal temperatures of 300-350 °C, and pressures of 11-24 MPa corresponding to the estimated source depth. The thermodynamic estimation represents the total energy released during the eruption, whereas the similarity rule yields an energy value as created by discrete explosions. Mud ascended from a hot aquifer at 1000 m depth, first effused as a mudflow, and was then expelled explosively from another crater. Explosivity depends

  13. Field experiments and numerical simulations of phreatic aquifer response to pond infiltration at the eastern Alps foothills, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teatini, Pietro; Comerlati, Andrea; Paiero, Giovanni; Martelli, Grazia; Carvalho, Tiago; Guetz, Anna; Fanzutti, Francesco; Affatato, Alessandro; Baradello, Luca; Nieto, Daniel; Bongiovanni, Stefano; Mattassi, Giorgio; Botti, Fabio

    2014-05-01

    A large volume of surficial fresh high-quality water flows every year from the eastern Alps foothills into the northern Adriatic sea through a number of rivers (e.g., the Tagliamento, Isonzo, Livenza rivers). Crossing a highly permeable plain just south of the Alpine range, the rivers naturally recharge along their course a thick phreatic aquifer mainly composed by gravel and fractured conglomerates. The river waters are distributed across the territory through a dense channel network used for irrigation during the hot season. From autumn to spring this water could be used to recharge the aquifer through a number of large infiltration ponds excavated in the early 2000s, but never used because of legislative limitation. Within the WARBO LIFE+ project, the Environmental Agency of the region has allowed to use the Mereto infiltration basin for recharging the aquifer, after detailed test for surficial water quality and compatibility with the groundwater. The pond is about 6 m deep and 45×7 m2 wide. The site, which is characterized by an elevation of 105 m above msl and a 50 m depth to the phreatic water table, has been accurately characterized by geophysical (geoelectrical, georadar, seismic) surveys and a number of 70 m deep boreholes drilled in the basin surroundings. The permeability evaluated through pumping tests in these boreholes is on the order of 10-4 m/s. Recharge started in December 2013 with an infiltration on the order of 720 m3/day. The collected data, i.e. the water volume flowed into the pond, its water level, and the piezometric evolution in the wellbores around the basin have been used for the calibration of a finite element three-dimensional variably-saturated flow model. The calibrated model will be used to manage the full-scale recharge project in the future.

  14. A Study of the King's Bowl Phreatic Explosion Crater as an Analog to Pits on Solar System Exploration Target Bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sears, D. W. G.; Hughes, S. S.; Kobs-Nawotniak, S. E.; Borg, C.; Kim, K. J.; Sears, H.; Skok, J. R.; Elphic, R. C.; Lim, D. S. S.; Heldmann, J. L.; Haberle, C. W.; Guy, H.; Kobayashi, L.; Garry, B.; Neish, C.

    2014-12-01

    The phreatic explosion crater King's Bowl (KB), at Craters of the Moon, Idaho, can serve as an analog to pits with similar morphologies on the Moon, Mars, and Vesta. These pits are associated with the release of water and are of interest to the planetary science and astrobiology research communities. KB crater was formed 2,220 ± 100 B.P. when a magmatic dike encountered subsurface water. The resulting explosion created an 85 m long, 30 m wide and 30 m deep crater and ejected blocks distances in excess of 100 m. Here we describe fieldwork and observations performed by the NASA SSERVI FINESSE (Field Investigations to Enable Solar System Science) team. Our objective is to utilize the distribution of ejecta blocks at King's Bowl to better understand the formation energetics associated with such pits and to quantify the amount of water necessary to produce them on other planetary bodies. We focused on the western KB ejecta field, and ran a westerly line, a line N45oW, and a line S45oW. Along these transects, we photographed and recorded the location, size and mass (when <18 kg) of every block > 20 cm. We collected photographs normal to the surface, every 10 m, to determine block number density. Thirdly, we walked in a raster pattern through the field cataloging blocks >20 cm. Finally, we mapped the perimeter of the crater. Initial results suggest similarities between KB ejecta distributions and ejecta of impact craters on Earth, asteroids, Phobos, Deimos, and the Moon. These similarities are; the radial extent of the ejecta, the decrease in number density with distance, the aspect ratio of the blocks, proximity of the largest blocks to the rim, and the size of the largest blocks relative to the crater diameter. This implies a similar physics of formation on differing bodies whether derived through impact or phreatic explosion. Further studies at KB crater will provide insight to the formation of phreatic explosion pits on other planetary bodies, most especially the

  15. Experimental constraints on phreatic eruption processes at Whakaari (White Island volcano)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, Klaus; Scheu, Bettina; Gilg, H. Albert; Heap, Michael J.; Kennedy, Ben M.; Lavallée, Yan; Letham-Brake, Mark; Dingwell, Donald B.

    2015-09-01

    Vigorous hydrothermal activity interspersed by sequences of phreatic and phreatomagmatic eruptions occur at Whakaari (White Island volcano), New Zealand. Here, we investigate the influence of sample type (hydrothermally altered cemented ash tuffs and unconsolidated ash/lapilli) and fragmentation mechanism (steam flashing versus gas expansion) on fragmentation and ejection velocities as well as on particle-size and shape. Our rapid decompression experiments show that fragmentation and ejection speeds of two ash tuffs, cemented by alunite and amorphous opal, increase with increasing porosity and that both are significantly enhanced in the presence of steam flashing. Ejection speeds of unconsolidated samples are higher than ejection speeds of cemented tuffs, as less energy is consumed by fragmentation. Fragmentation dominated by steam flashing results in increased fragmentation energy and a higher proportion of fine particles. Particle shape analyses before and after fragmentation reveal that both steam flashing and pure gas expansion produce platy or bladed particles from fracturing parallel to the decompression front. Neither fragmentation mechanisms nor sample type show a significant influence on the shape. Our results emphasize that, under identical pressure and temperature conditions, eruptions accompanied by the process of liquid water flashing to steam are significantly more violent than those driven simply by gas expansion. Therefore, phase changes during decompression and cementation are both important considerations for hazard assessment and modeling of eruptions in hydrothermally active environments.

  16. Phreatomagmatic and phreatic fall and surge deposits from explosions at Kilauea volcano, Hawaii, 1790 a.d.: Keanakakoi Ash Member

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McPhie, J.; Walker, G.P.L.; Christiansen, R.L.

    1990-01-01

    progressive degassing and cooling of the magma during deep withdrawal: throughout the phreatomagmatic phases magma vesiculation contributed to the explosive interaction with water by initiating the fragmentation process: thereafter, the principal role of the subsiding magma column was to supply heat for steam production that drove the phreatic explosions of the final phase. ?? 1990 Springer-Verlag.

  17. Assessment of hydraulic parameters in the phreatic aquifer of Settolo (Italy): a stochastic approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salandin, P.; Zovi, F.; Camporese, M.

    2012-12-01

    In this work we present and test against real field data an inversion approach for the identification of hydraulic parameters at the aquifer scale. Our test field is the alluvial phreatic aquifer of Settolo, located along the left bank of the Piave River in a piedmont area in Northeastern Italy, with an extension of approximately 6 km2 and exhibiting heterogeneities of the geological structures both at the local and intermediate scales. The area is characterized by the alluvial sediments (mainly gravel in a sandy matrix) deposited by the Piave River during the Last Glacial Maximum, being the subsurface, with an average aquifer thickness of 50 m, crossed by paleo-riverbeds that probably represent the main hydrogeological unit from which water is withdrawn. The interactions between watercourses and the aquifer, the recharge linked to the precipitation, as well as the dynamics of partially penetrating extraction wells must be properly reproduced for an effective protection and a sustainable exploitation of the water resources. In order to do so, in cooperation with Alto Trevigiano Servizi S.r.l., the local water resources management company, a careful site characterization is in progress since 2009, with a number of different measurements and scales involved. Besides surface ERT, water quality surveys, and a tracer test, we highlight here the role of 18 continuously monitored observation wells, available in the study area for the measurement of the water table dynamics and the calibration/validation of groundwater models. A preliminary comparison with the results of a three-dimensional Richards model demonstrated that the site can be properly described by means of a two-dimensional finite element solver of the nonlinear Dupuit-Boussinesq equation, saving CPU time and computer storage. Starting from an ensemble of randomly generated and spatially correlated hydraulic conductivity (K) fields, the fit between water table observations and model predictions is measured

  18. Phreatic activity on Dominica (Lesser Antilles) - constraints from field investigations and experimental volcanology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, K.; Scheu, B.; Rott, S.; Dingwell, D. B.; Gilg, H. A.

    2015-12-01

    Dominica has one of the highest concentrations of potentially active volcanoes worldwide. In addition to this activity, abundant geothermal manifestations are observed at the surface, especially in the southern part of the Island. The Boiling Lake - Valley of Desolation area is one of the most vigorous ones, hosting hot springs, mud pools, fumaroles, and steam vents. Intense alteration and many, predominantly phreatic explosive features, of varying scales characterize the whole area. The most prominent manifestation of such a phreatic eruption is the Boiling Lake, a high temperature volcanic crater lake and popular tourist attraction. Thus phreatic activity is one of the main volcanic hazards on the Island, to date largely unpredictable in time and magnitude. The conditions causing these eruptions, as well as their trigger mechanisms and magnitude need to be better understood. Field mapping, together with the determination of in situ physical (density, humidity, permeability) and mechanical (strength, stiffness) properties yield the characterization of 3 main active areas with high probabilities for phreatic events. Rapid decompression experiments on samples from these areas gave insights into the fragmentation and ejection behavior. These experiments were flanked by chemical analyses and laboratory characterization (porosity, granulometry). The results show that hydrothermal alteration likely plays a crucial role in determining the probability of explosive events. High temperature acidic fluids, which lead to an intense alteration of the host rock's mineralogy, change the rock properties favoring the formation of a low permeability layer above the vent and increasing the likelihood of the site experiencing a steam-blast eruption. The contribution of these results to constraining the conditions for and the dynamics involved in phreatic eruptions provides valuable input to hazard assessment of these frequently visited sites on Dominica and similar hydrothermally

  19. Seismic signature of a phreatic explosion: Hydrofracturing damage at Karthala volcano, Grande Comore Island, Indian Ocean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Savin, C.; Grasso, J.-R.; Bachelery, P.

    2005-01-01

    Karthala volcano is a basaltic shield volcano with an active hydrothermal system that forms the southern two-thirds of the Grande Comore Island, off the east coat of Africa, northwest of Madagascar. Since the start of volcano monitoring by the local volcano observatory in 1988, the July 11th, 1991 phreatic eruption was the first volcanic event seismically recorded on this volcano, and a rare example of a monitored basaltic shield. From 1991 to 1995 the VT locations, 0.5phreatic eruption is a typical pattern of the seismicity induced by controlled fluid injections such as those applied at geothermal fields, in oil and gas recovery, or for stress measurements. It suggests the 1991 phreatic eruption was driven by hydraulic fracturing induced by forced fluid flow. We propose that the extremely high LP and VT seismicity rates, relative to other effusive volcanoes, during the climax of the 1991 phreatic explosion, are due to the activation of the whole hydrothermal system, as roughly sized by the distribution of VT hypocenters. The seismicity rate in 1995 was still higher than the pre-eruption seismicity rate, and disagrees with the time pattern of thermo-elastic stress readjustment induced by single magma intrusions at basaltic volcanoes. We propose that it corresponds to the still ongoing relaxation of pressure heterogeneity within the hydrothermal system as suggested by the few LP events that still occurred in 1995. ?? Springer-Verlag 2005.

  20. Seismic signature of a phreatic explosion: hydrofracturing damage at Karthala volcano, Grande Comore Island, Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savin, Cécile; Grasso, Jean-Robert; Bachelery, Patrick

    2005-09-01

    Karthala volcano is a basaltic shield volcano with an active hydrothermal system that forms the southern two-thirds of the Grande Comore Island, off the east coat of Africa, northwest of Madagascar. Since the start of volcano monitoring by the local volcano observatory in 1988, the July 11th, 1991 phreatic eruption was the first volcanic event seismically recorded on this volcano, and a rare example of a monitored basaltic shield. From 1991 to 1995 the VT locations, 0.5phreatic eruption is a typical pattern of the seismicity induced by controlled fluid injections such as those applied at geothermal fields, in oil and gas recovery, or for stress measurements. It suggests the 1991 phreatic eruption was driven by hydraulic fracturing induced by forced fluid flow. We propose that the extremely high LP and VT seismicity rates, relative to other effusive volcanoes, during the climax of the 1991 phreatic explosion, are due to the activation of the whole hydrothermal system, as roughly sized by the distribution of VT hypocenters. The seismicity rate in 1995 was still higher than the pre-eruption seismicity rate, and disagrees with the time pattern of thermo-elastic stress readjustment induced by single magma intrusions at basaltic volcanoes. We propose that it corresponds to the still ongoing relaxation of pressure heterogeneity within the hydrothermal system as suggested by the few LP events that still occurred in 1995.

  1. Hydrothermal processes at Milos Island (Greek Cyclades) and the mechanisms of compaction-induced phreatic eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontaine, F. Jh.; Rabinowicz, M.; Boulègue, J.

    2003-05-01

    steam pockets can trigger phreatic eruptions that form the 15-20-m-large, 3-4-m-deep craters. When the fluid is water-like, the overpressures are too small to generate an eruption. The fluids percolate through the quartz aggregate, leading to the formation of 2-3-m-wide, 0.5-1-m-deep, bowl-like cavities. This model is consistent with field observations at Milos.

  2. DRASTIC-GIS model for assessing vulnerability to pollution of the phreatic aquiferous formations in Douala-Cameroon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Victorine Neh, Akenji; Ako Ako, Andrew; Richard Ayuk, Akoachere; Hosono, Takahiro

    2015-02-01

    The pollution potentials of the aquiferous formations in Douala was obtained by evaluating the aquifer vulnerability. Aquifer vulnerability is an intrinsic property of groundwater which gives the possibility of percolation and diffusion of contaminants from the ground surface into the subsurface. Aquifer vulnerability to pollution was evaluated for the phreatic aquifer in Douala using the DRASTIC method. DRASTIC is a groundwater quality model representing; Depth to Water, Net Recharge, Aquifer Media, Soil Media, Topography, Impact of vadose Zones, and Hydraulic Conductivity. From data, five thematic maps were generated and an intrinsic vulnerability map was developed based upon calculations of DRASTIC Indices (D.I). The D.I for the different inhabited quarters were; Bonamoussadi (BS) = 145, Bali (BA) = 138, Bonapriso (BP) = 140, Airport(AP) = 129, Ndogbong(ND) = 120, Bepanda(BE) = 130, Vallee Besengue (VB) = 134, New Bell (NB) = 125, Bonassama BM) = 128 and Rail(RA) = 167. ArcGIS quantile classification subdivided the area into four groups; very low, low, moderate and high ground water vulnerability risk zones covering about 30%, 30%, 20% and 20% of the study area respectively. An in-depth study is recommended to give a detailed perspective to the evolution and nature of actual pollution in the area.

  3. Hydrogeochemical characterization of the phreatic system of the coastal wetland located between Fiumi Uniti and Bevano rivers in the southern Po plain (Northern Italy).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marconi, V.; Dinelli, E.; Antonellini, M.; Capaccioni, B.; Balugani, E.; Gabbianelli, G.

    2009-04-01

    A hydrogeochemical study has been undertaken on the phreatic system of the coastal area included between Fiumi Uniti and Bevano rivers (in the southern part of the Po plain, near the city of Ravenna) within the framework of the CIRCLE-ERANET project WATERKNOW on the effects of climate change on the mediterranean catchments. It is one of the first attempt in the area to characterize the shallow groundwater water system and to investigate if the arsenic anomaly, known in deeper groundwater (about 100 µg/l according to recent Annual Groundwater Quality Reports of Emilia-Romagna Region), occurs also in the phreatic system. The coastal part of the Po plain consists of a low-lying and mechanically-drained farmland further from the sea and of a narrow belt of dunes and pine forests in the backshore area. The study area is recognized as a protected area at european (ZPS and SIC, site code number: IT 14070009), national and regional level (Po delta Park area). As a result of an intensive exploitation of coastal aquifers for agricultural, industrial, and civil uses, both the phreatic aquifer and the surface waters (drainage ditches and ponds) have been contaminated by seawater and by deeper groundwater. Samples representative of the top of the water table were collected in Summer 2008 in 22 auger-holes and in 3 shallow piezometers (6 m deep) documenting the deeper layers of the phreatic groundwater system. Temperature, electrical conductivity, pH and Eh of the groundwater and of the surface water were measured on site using portable instruments. Samples were filtered directly in the field, an aliquot was acidified with diluted HCl for metal analysis. Cations were determined by Flame Atomic Absorption (thermo S-series spectrometer), anions by ion chromatography (Dionex ICS-90), Fe, As, Si, B by ICP-OES (Thermo iCAP6000). The data collected in the field show that a fresh groundwater lens is still present at the top of the phreatic aquifer in the backshore area and that the

  4. Analysis of phreatic events at Ruapehu volcano, New Zealand using a new SOM approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carniel, Roberto; Jolly, Arthur D.; Barbui, Luca

    2013-03-01

    We apply Self-Organising Maps (SOM) to assess the low level seismic activity prior to small scale phreatic events at Ruapehu volcano New Zealand. The SOM approach allows an automatic pattern recognition, virtually independent from a priori knowledge. Volcanic tremor spectra are randomly presented to the network in a competitive iterative training process, followed by a hierarchical clusterization of the SOM nodes. Spectra are then projected, ordered by time, to clusters on the map. A coherent time evolution of the data through the clusters can highlight the existence of different regimes and the transitions between them. Two Ruapehu events were examined: a phreatic event on 4 October 2006 which displaced the crater lake producing a 4 m high wave on the lake edge, and the more energetic 25 September 2007 phreatic eruption. The SOM analysis provides a classification of tremor spectral patterns that clusters into three regimes that we label by colours. The pattern for both eruptions is consistent with a pre-eruption spectral pattern including enhanced spectral energy in the range of 4 to 6 Hz — labelled 'green tremor'. This gives way to spectra having broader energy between 2 and 6 Hz, the so called 'red tremor' just prior to the eruption. The post eruption pattern includes spectral peaks at generally lower frequencies of 2 to 4 Hz — the so called 'blue tremor'. Clusterization into only three groups yields highly non-unique solutions which cannot explain the variety of processes operating at Ruapehu over long time periods. Regardless, the approach highlights noteworthy similarities that may be explained by a pattern of slow pressurisation under a hydrothermal or magmatic seal - 'green' - followed by seal failure - 'red' - and subsequent de-pressurisation - 'blue' - for the two events studied. Although the application shown here is limited, we think it demonstrates the power of this classification approach.

  5. An observation-based model for a vapor-driven crack growth leading up to the phreatic eruption of Mt. Ontake in 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeda, Y.; Kato, A.; Terakawa, T.; Yamanaka, Y.; Horikawa, S.; Matsuhiro, K.; Okuda, T.

    2015-12-01

    At Mt. Ontake, central Japan, a phreatic eruption took place on 27 September 2014. The eruption was preceded for 25 s by a very long period (VLP) seismic event and for 450 s by an accelerated tilt change showing summit uplift. To deepen our understanding of the initiation of the phreatic eruption, we conducted waveform inversion and time series analyses of these preceding events. Our waveform inversion of the VLP event pointed to an SSE-NNW strike subvertical tensile crack at around 600 m beneath the eruptive vent region. This crack orientation was subparallel to alignments of volcano-tectonic earthquake hypocenters (Kato et al., 2015) and eruptive vents (Geospatial Information Authority of Japan, 2014) as well as one of the maximum shear directions of the regional stress field (Terakawa et al., 2015). These observations suggest that the VLP source crack was one of the preexisting faults along the maximum shear direction that opened due to passage of ascending gas from depth to the surface. Our waveform inversion of the tilt change pointed to an E-W to SE-NW strike subvertical tensile crack at around 1000 m below the surface. To investigate a background physics of the tilt change, we calculated the first and second order integrals of the tilt waveforms (I1(t) and I2(t), respectively, where t is time). The ratio I2(t)/I1(t) initially increased linearly with time and then reached an almost constant value. This time evolution is well modeled by a linear increase of the source crack volume V(t)=V0t/t0 (tt0), where V0 is constant, τ≈84 s, and t0/τ≈2. The initial linear growth of the crack volume may be explained by inflation of water vapor in the vertical crack under constant pressure and heat supply conditions. The latter exponential crack growth may be modeled by a force balance between an overpressure of 104-105 Pa and a viscous resistance of the water vapor near the crack tip (Lister and Kerr

  6. Preparatory and precursory processes leading up to the 2014 phreatic eruption of Mount Ontake, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Aitaro; Terakawa, Toshiko; Yamanaka, Yoshiko; Maeda, Yuta; Horikawa, Shinichiro; Matsuhiro, Kenjiro; Okuda, Takashi

    2015-07-01

    We analyzed seismicity linked to the 2014 phreatic eruption of Mount Ontake, Japan, on 27 September 2014. We first relocated shallow volcano tectonic (VT) earthquakes and long-period (LP) events from August to September 2014. By applying a matched-filter technique to continuous waveforms using these relocated earthquakes, we detected numerous additional micro-earthquakes beneath the craters. The relocated VT earthquakes aligned on a near-vertical plane oriented NNW-SSE, suggesting they occurred around a conduit related to the intrusion of magmatic-hydrothermal fluids into the craters. The frequency of VT earthquakes gradually increased from 6 September 2014 and reached a peak on 11 September 2014. After the peak, seismicity levels remained elevated until the eruption. b-values gradually increased from 1.2 to 1.7 from 11 to 16 September 2014 then declined gradually and dropped to 0.8 just before the eruption. During the 10-min period immediately preceding the phreatic eruption, VT earthquakes migrated in the up-dip direction as well as laterally along the NNW-SSE feature. The migrating seismicity coincided with an accelerated increase of pre-eruptive tremor amplitude and with an anomalous tiltmeter signal that indicated summit upheaval. Therefore, the migrating seismicity suggests that the vertical conduit was filled with pressurized fluids, which rapidly propagated to the surface during the final 10 min before the eruption.

  7. Reconstruction of a phreatic eruption on 27 September 2014 at Ontake volcano, central Japan, based on proximal pyroclastic density current and fallout deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeno, Fukashi; Nakada, Setsuya; Oikawa, Teruki; Yoshimoto, Mitsuhiro; Komori, Jiro; Ishizuka, Yoshihiro; Takeshita, Yoshihiro; Shimano, Taketo; Kaneko, Takayuki; Nagai, Masashi

    2016-05-01

    The phreatic eruption at Ontake volcano on 27 September 2014, which caused the worst volcanic disaster in the past half-century in Japan, was reconstructed based on observations of the proximal pyroclastic density current (PDC) and fallout deposits. Witness observations were also used to clarify the eruption process. The deposits are divided into three major depositional units (Units A, B, and C) which are characterized by massive, extremely poorly sorted, and multimodal grain-size distribution with 30-50 wt% of fine ash (silt-clay component). The depositional condition was initially dry but eventually changed to wet. Unit A originated from gravity-driven turbulent PDCs in the relatively dry, vent-opening phase. Unit B was then produced mainly by fallout from a vigorous moist plume during vent development. Unit C was derived from wet ash fall in the declining stage. Ballistic ejecta continuously occurred during vent opening and development. As observed in the finest population of the grain-size distribution, aggregate particles were formed throughout the eruption, and the effect of water in the plume on the aggregation increased with time and distance. Based on the deposit thickness, duration, and grain-size data, and by applying a scaling analysis using a depth-averaged model of turbulent gravity currents, the particle concentration and initial flow speed of the PDC at the summit area were estimated as 2 × 10-4-2 × 10-3 and 24-28 m/s, respectively. The tephra thinning trend in the proximal area shows a steeper slope than in similar-sized magmatic eruptions, indicating a large tephra volume deposited over a short distance owing to the wet dispersal conditions. The Ontake eruption provided an opportunity to examine the deposits from a phreatic eruption with a complex eruption sequence that reflects the effect of external water on the eruption dynamics.

  8. Phreatic activity in the Valley of Desolation, Dominica (Lesser Antilles) - constraints from field investigations and experimental volcanology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, Klaus; Scheu, Bettina; Montanaro, Cristian; Yilmaz, Tim; Aßbichler, Donja; Gilg, H. Albert; Dingwell, Donald B.

    2016-04-01

    Dominica has one of the highest concentrations of potentially active volcanoes worldwide, flanked by abundant surficial geothermal manifestations: The Boiling Lake - Valley of Desolation area represents one of the most vigorous ones, hosting hot springs, mud pools, fumaroles, and steam vents. Intense alteration, together with predominantly phreatic explosive features of varying scales, characterize the whole area. The last historic eruptions in Dominica occurred at the Valley of Desolation. Phreatic eruptions are also the most likely type of volcanic activity to occur in the near future at Dominica in general and the Valley of Desolation in particular. Phreatic eruptions are up to date largely unpredictable in time and magnitude, strongly asking for constraints of eruptive conditions as well as trigger mechanisms. We conducted sampling and field mapping, together with the determination of in situ physical (density, humidity, permeability) and mechanical (strength, stiffness) properties to characterize the main active surficial area which possesses a high probability for a phreatic event. Rapid decompression experiments performed on selected samples from this area give insight into the fragmentation and ejection behavior of steam driven eruptions. These experiments were flanked by chemical analyses and laboratory measurements as porosity and granulometry. The results indicate that advanced argillic alteration in the proximity of degassing vents significantly changes the rock properties, which in turn play a crucial role for the degassing of hydrothermal systems. High-temperature acidic fluids lead to an intense alteration of the host rocks, and thereby cause the formation of a kaolinite-rich, low permeable layer above the vent. In addition, alteration enhances slope instabilities causing landslides which may cover and clog the outgassing vents. Such processes increase the likelihood of the site experiencing a pressurization, which may result in a steam

  9. Estimation of total discharged mass from the phreatic eruption of Ontake Volcano, central Japan, on September 27, 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takarada, Shinji; Oikawa, Teruki; Furukawa, Ryuta; Hoshizumi, Hideo; Itoh, Jun'ichi; Geshi, Nobuo; Miyagi, Isoji

    2016-08-01

    The total mass discharged by the phreatic eruption of Ontake Volcano, central Japan, on September 27, 2014, was estimated using several methods. The estimated discharged mass was 1.2 × 106 t (segment integration method), 8.9 × 105 t (Pyle's exponential method), and varied from 8.6 × 103 to 2.5 × 106 t (Hayakawa's single isopach method). The segment integration and Pyle's exponential methods gave similar values. The single isopach method, however, gave a wide range of results depending on which contour was used. Therefore, the total discharged mass of the 2014 eruption is estimated at between 8.9 × 105 and 1.2 × 106 t. More than 90 % of the total mass accumulated within the proximal area. This shows how important it is to include a proximal area field survey for the total mass estimation of phreatic eruptions. A detailed isopleth mass distribution map was prepared covering as far as 85 km from the source. The main ash-fall dispersal was ENE in the proximal and medial areas and E in the distal area. The secondary distribution lobes also extended to the S and NW proximally, reflecting the effects of elutriation ash and surge deposits from pyroclastic density currents during the phreatic eruption. The total discharged mass of the 1979 phreatic eruption was also calculated for comparison. The resulting volume of 1.9 × 106 t (using the segment integration method) indicates that it was about 1.6-2.1 times larger than the 2014 eruption. The estimated average discharged mass flux rate of the 2014 eruption was 1.7 × 108 kg/h and for the 1979 eruption was 1.0 × 108 kg/h. One of the possible reasons for the higher flux rate of the 2014 eruption is the occurrence of pyroclastic density currents at the summit area.

  10. Structure and stratigraphy beneath a young phreatic vent: South Inyo Crater, Long Valley caldera, California

    SciTech Connect

    Eichelberger, J.C.; Vogel, T.A.; Younker, L.W.; Dan Miller, C.; Heiken, G.H.; Wohletz, K.H.

    1988-11-10

    An 861-m-long hole has been cored on a slanted trajectory that passed directly beneath South Inyo Crater in the west moat of Long valley Caldera, California. The purpose of the hole was to investigate the magmatic behavior that led to surface deformation and phreatic activity during the 600-year-old eruption of the Inyo vent chain. The hole was sited 216 m southwest of the crater, passed beneath its center at a depth of 566 m, and terminated 79 m northeast of the crater center at a depth of 810 m. Metamorphic basement was encountered at a depth of 779 m. The volcanic and sedimentary sequence consists solely of post-Bishop Tuff caldera fill, including 319 m of moat basalt and 342 m of early rhyolite, and is nearly 900 m thinner than in a Unocal Corporation well 900 m to the southeast. Apparently, a major fault lies between the two holes and forms part of the western structural boundary of the caldera, 3--4 km inboard of its topographic boundary. Breccia zones that intrude the caldera fill were intersected at 12.0--9.3 m and 1.2--0.8 m SW and 8.5--25.1 m NE of the crater center.

  11. Shallow pressure sources associated with the 2007 and 2014 phreatic eruptions of Mt. Ontake, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takagi, Akimichi; Onizawa, Shin'ya

    2016-07-01

    We modeled pressure sources under Mount Ontake volcano, Japan, on the basis of global navigation satellite system (GNSS) observations of ground deformation during the time period including the 2007 and 2014 phreatic eruptions. The total change in volume in two sources below sea level in the period including the 2007 eruption was estimated from GNSS network observations to be 6 × 106 m3. Additionally, data from a GNSS campaign survey yielded an estimated volume change of 0.28 × 106 m3 in a shallower source just beneath the volcanic vents. The 2007 eruption may have been activated by magmatic activity at depth. During the 2014 eruption, the volume change at depth was very small. However, tiltmeter data indicated inflation from a shallow source that began 7 min before the eruption, representing a volume change estimated to be 0.38 × 106 m3. We infer that the potential for subsurface hydrothermal activity may have remained high after the 2007 eruption.

  12. Precursory tilt changes of small phreatic eruptions of Meakan-dake volcano, Hokkaido, Japan, in November 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoyama, Hiroshi; Oshima, Hiromitsu

    2015-07-01

    Although forecasting an occurrence of phreatic eruption is very difficult, it has been reported that some precursory activities often precede these eruptions at several volcanoes. In this study, we observed seismic activities before and during the 2008 phreatic eruption at Meakan-dake volcano, eastern Hokkaido, Japan, by using broadband seismometers and surface mount-type tiltmeters. The precursory increase in seismicity began in late September about 2 months before the first eruption on November 18. After several rises and falls in seismicity in October and in early November, a small volcanic tremor was observed early on November 16. Although the original velocity seismogram of the tremor generally appeared to be spindle shaped, an outstanding ramp function appeared in the displacement seismogram obtained by simple integration. Since the ramp function appeared only in the horizontal components and continued for about 3 min, which is sufficiently longer than the natural period of the seismometer, we regarded the ramp function as an expression of the tilting motions of seismic stations that was quantitatively confirmed by the strong similarity between horizontal displacement seismograms and tilt data from co-located biaxial tiltmeter. Azimuthal distribution of three tilting vectors obtained from broadband seismograms was not consistent with a simple spherical source but rather strongly suggested a vertical dike under the crater. In this study, we confirmed that an almost vertical single dike effectively explains the observed tilting vectors. The estimated volume increase in the dike was 4-5 × 104 m3. The strike direction of the dike is highly consistent with the alignment of the hydrothermal area on and around the volcano. Our dike model also partially explains the changes in global navigation satellite system (GNSS) measurement and in groundwater levels reported in previous research. Since a similar deformation coincided with a volcanic tremor preceding the 2006

  13. Hydrothermal activity at Campi Flegrei caldera: rock mechanical properties and implications for outgassing and possible phreatic eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, K.; Montanaro, C.; Scheu, B.; Isaia, R.; Mangiacapra, A.; Gresse, M.; Vandemeulebrouck, J.; Moretti, R.; Dingwell, D. B.

    2015-12-01

    The Solfatara and Pisciarelli fumaroles are the main surface manifestations of the vigorous hydrothermal activity within the Campi Flegrei caldera system. The existing fault system appears to have a major control on outgassing and leads to a strong alteration of the volcanic products in both areas. Consistent with the volcanic history of the area, Solfatara and Pisciarelli are posited as having the highest probability for the opening of new vents, and in particular for possible phreatic activity within the Campi Flegrei system. Hydrothermal alteration deeply affects all the rocks exposed within Solfatara sector, including lava domes, breccias, as well as pyroclastic fallout ash beds and pyroclastic density current deposits. This results in changes of the volcanic rock's original microstructure and of their physical and mechanical properties, which in turn control both the outgassing and their fragmentation behaviors. Here, samples from the wall rocks in the vicinity of the Solfatara and Pisciarelli fumaroles have been subjected to geochemical, physical and mechanical properties characterization. In addition, surficial Solfatara crater floor deposits were characterized and their properties, in particular permeability, were mapped. Results show that hydrothermal alteration increases porosity and permeability of the crater wall samples favoring outgassing, while decreasing the rock strength. At the crater floor the outgassing occurs mainly along the crack system, which has also generated crusted hummocks. Elsewhere the fluid circulation in the subsoil is favored by the presence of coarse and sulfur-hardened levels, whereas their surfacing is hindered by compacted fine-grained, low permeability layers. Decompression experiments were performed to simulate a phreatic eruption at shallow depth. We used crater-wall samples representing the rocks in the proximity of high degassing areas. Changes in the fragmentation behavior and ejection dynamics, depending on the

  14. The 1997 phreatic eruption of Akita-Yakeyama volcano, northeast Japan: Insight into the hydrothermal processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nogami, K.; Hirabayashi, J.; Ohba, T.; Yoshiike, Y.

    2000-04-01

    A small-scale steam explosion occurred on Karanuma crater on the summit of Akita-Yakeyama volcano on August 16, 1997 after a dormancy of 46 years. Chemical compositions of the fumarolic gases at the summit and hot spring waters around the volcano were monitored before the eruption.Obvious changes in the composition and outlet temperatures of the fumarolic gases were not detected, neither before nor after the 1997 eruption. Hydrogen and oxygen isotopic ratios of the gas condensates and hot-spring waters at the Yunuma crater indicated that a hydrothermal reservoir, where the fumarolic gases separated from the hot-spring waters at 150circC, existed in a shallow place beneath the crater.Smectite, kaolinite and pyrophyllite were identified in the clay fraction of the volcanic ejecta. Although pyrophyllite should have been formed at about 1~km beneath the summit, it was not directly derived from the deep zone during the 1997 eruption but had been ejected by previous eruptions. The Cl/S values of the water leachates of the ejecta were about 0.7, which indicated that the volcanic gas which caused the eruption was rich in HCl. However, the fumarolic gases and the water samples collected from the summit area contained little chloride. The source of the water-soluble chloride might be high-temperature magmatic gases that have been estimated as the source of Cl-SO4 type thermal water. Such magmatic gases might have caused the 1997 eruption.

  15. Hydrothermal alteration of surficial rocks at Solfatara (Campi Flegrei): Petrophysical properties and implications for phreatic eruption processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, Klaus; Scheu, Bettina; Montanaro, Cristian; Yilmaz, Tim I.; Isaia, Roberto; Aßbichler, Donjá; Dingwell, Donald B.

    2016-06-01

    Solfatara crater is located within the Campi Flegrei caldera to the west of Naples (Italy). It is one of the largest fumarolic manifestations known, and the rocks hosting the hydrothermal system are affected by intense hydrothermal alteration. Alteration can result in changes of degassing behavior, and in the formation of a cap rock thereby increasing the probability of phreatic eruptions. Here, we investigate the effects of alunitic (solfataric) alteration on the mineralogy, the physical properties (porosity, density, permeability) and the mechanical properties (strength) of the rocks involved, as well as its influence on fragmentation and ejection behavior. Our results show that the pristine mineralogy of deposits from the vicinity of the Solfatara cryptodome and from Pisciarelli is almost completely replaced by amorphous silica and alunite. The differences in the degree of alteration among the samples series are reflected in the investigated properties and behavior as well as in the analysis of the experimentally generated particles. Alunitic alteration increases porosity and permeability, whereas it reduces density, elastic wave velocity and strength leading to higher fragmentation and ejection speeds for the sample series examined in this study. Our results also show that alteration results in the generation of a high fraction of fines (particle sizes < 10 μm) during fragmentation, mainly composed of alunite crystals. Due to their potential for inducing chronic disease, dispersion of such material should represent a serious health hazard on a local scale and the evaluation of precautions should be considered.

  16. Assessing the impact of dairy waste lagoons on groundwater quality using a spatial analysis of vadose zone and groundwater information in a coastal phreatic aquifer.

    PubMed

    Baram, S; Kurtzman, D; Ronen, Z; Peeters, A; Dahan, O

    2014-01-01

    Dairy waste lagoons are considered to be point sources of groundwater contamination by chloride (Cl(-)), different nitrogen-species and pathogens/microorganisms. The objective of this work is to introduce a methodology to assess the past and future impacts of such lagoons on regional groundwater quality. The method is based on a spatial statistical analysis of Cl(-) and total nitrogen (TN) concentration distributions in the saturated and the vadose (unsaturated) zones. The method provides quantitative data on the relation between the locations of dairy lagoons and the spatial variability in Cl(-) and TN concentrations in groundwater. The method was applied to the Beer-Tuvia region, Israel, where intensive dairy farming has been practiced for over 50 years above the local phreatic aquifer. Mass balance calculations accounted for the various groundwater recharge and abstraction sources and sinks in the entire region. The mass balances showed that despite the small surface area covered by the dairy lagoons in this region (0.8%), leachates from lagoons have contributed 6.0% and 12.6% of the total mass of Cl(-) and TN (mainly as NO3(-)-N) added to the aquifer. The chemical composition of the aquifer and vadose zone water suggested that irrigated agricultural activity in the region is the main contributor of Cl(-) and TN to the groundwater. A low spatial correlation between the Cl(-) and NO3(-)-N concentrations in the groundwater and the on-land location of the dairy farms strengthened this assumption, despite the dairy waste lagoon being a point source for groundwater contamination by Cl(-) and NO3(-)-N. Mass balance calculations, for the vadose zone of the entire region, indicated that drying of the lagoons would decrease the regional groundwater salinization process (11% of the total Cl(-) load is stored under lagoons). A more considerable reduction in the groundwater contamination by NO3(-)-N is expected (25% of the NO3(-)-N load is stored under lagoons). Results

  17. Recharging the phreatic aquifer in the upper Friuli plain, Italy, by a large infiltration basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieto, Daniel; Affatato, Alessandro; Carvalho, Tiago; Ziska Gutz, Anna; Carvalho, Jose Martin; Mattassi, Giorgio; Brandolin, Davide; Canali, Massimo; Bongiovanni, Stefano; Castelletto, Nicola; Teatini, Pietro

    2013-04-01

    Even though the Friuli Region, northern Italy, is one of Italy's rainiest areas with an average yearly rainfall that ranges between 1300 mm along the cost up to 3000 mm at the Alps foothills, the groundwater level is continuously decreasing over the last years. To cope with this reduction of water availability and increase the subsurface storage of high-quality surficial waters that usually are lost during winter flowing into the northern Adriatic Sea, an artificial recharge project is ongoing within the WARBO LIFE+ Project funded by EU. WARBO is aimed at implementing large-scale use of artificial recharge in Italy where water directives still strongly limit its application. The project involves regional authorities and public and private stakeholders operating in the field of water management and treatment with the aim of guaranteeing the future application of the defined methods and the development of specific experimental protocols to overcome the boundaries posed by the current legislation. In this context, the Mereto recharge site selected in the upper Fruili plain is emblematic. Here a large infiltration basin, about 6 m deep and 45×7 m2 wide, was built in the early 2000s but the use was prohibited by law soon after the construction. Only recently, within the WARBO Project, the possibility of implementing the recharge has been allowed. The site is characterized by an elevation of 105 m above msl and the depth to the water table averages 50 m. Below a few meter-thick organic soil, the aquifer is composed by coarse deposits with an estimated thickness of 225 m and an average vertical hydraulic conductivity equal to 10-4 m/s. A 0.1 m3/s infiltration flow has been preliminary estimated (corresponding to an infiltration rate of 60 cm/h), with the water availability that is guaranteed during winter period by an irrigation channel connected to the Tagliamento and Ledra River. The contribution describes the geophysical investigations and in-situ tests carried out to

  18. Ecohydrological factors affecting nitrate concentrations in a phreatic desert aquifer in northwestern China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gates, J.B.; Böhlke, J.K.; Edmunds, W.M.

    2008-01-01

    Aerobic conditions in desert aquifers commonly allow high nitrate (NO 3-) concentrations in recharge to persist for long periods of time, an important consideration for N-cycling and water quality. In this study, stable isotopes of NO3- (??15N NO3 and ??18ONO3) were used to trace NO3- cycling processes which affect concentrations in groundwater and unsaturated zone moisture in the arid Badain Jaran Oesert in northwestern China. Most groundwater NO3- appears to be depleted relative to Cl- in rainfall concentrated by evapotranspiration, indicating net N losses. Unsaturated zone NO 3- is generally higher than groundwater NO 3- in terms of both concentration (up to 15 476 ??M, corresponding to 3.6 mg NO3--N per kg sediment) and ratios with Cl-. Isotopic data indicate that the NO3- derives primarily from nitrification, with a minor direct contribution of atmospheric NO3- inferred for some samples, particularly in the unsaturated zone. Localized denitrification in the saturated zone is suggested by isotopic and geochemical indicators in some areas. Anthropogenic inputs appear to be minimal, and variability is attributed to environmental factors. In comparison to other arid regions, the sparseness of vegetation in the study area appears to play an important role in moderating unsaturated zone NO3- accumulation by allowing solute flushing and deterring extensive N2 fixation. ?? 2008 American Chemical Society.

  19. Monitoring system for phreatic eruptions and thermal behavior on Poás volcano hyperacidic lake, with permanent IR and HD cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramirez, C. J.; Mora-Amador, R. A., Sr.; Alpizar Segura, Y.; González, G.

    2015-12-01

    Monitoring volcanoes have been on the past decades an expanding matter, one of the rising techniques that involve new technology is the digital video surveillance, and the automated software that come within, now is possible if you have the budget and some facilities on site, to set up a real-time network of high definition video cameras, some of them even with special features like infrared, thermal, ultraviolet, etc. That can make easier or harder the analysis of volcanic phenomena like lava eruptions, phreatic eruption, plume speed, lava flows, close/open vents, just to mention some of the many application of these cameras. We present the methodology of the installation at Poás volcano of a real-time system for processing and storing HD and thermal images and video, also the process to install and acquired the HD and IR cameras, towers, solar panels and radios to transmit the data on a volcano located at the tropics, plus what volcanic areas are our goal and why. On the other hand we show the hardware and software we consider necessary to carry on our project. Finally we show some early data examples of upwelling areas on the Poás volcano hyperacidic lake and the relation with lake phreatic eruptions, also some data of increasing temperature on an old dome wall and the suddenly wall explosions, and the use of IR video for measuring plume speed and contour for use on combination with DOAS or FTIR measurements.

  20. Imaging the hydrothermal system beneath the Jigokudani valley, Tateyama volcano, Japan: implications for structures controlling repeated phreatic eruptions from an audio-frequency magnetotelluric survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seki, Kaori; Kanda, Wataru; Ogawa, Yasuo; Tanbo, Toshiya; Kobayashi, Tomokazu; Hino, Yuta; Hase, Hideaki

    2015-01-01

    This study focuses on the results of an audio-frequency magnetotelluric (AMT) survey across the Jigokudani valley, Tateyama volcano, Japan, to investigate the spatial relationship between the distribution of electrical resistivity and geothermal activity and to elucidate the geologic controls on both its phreatic eruption history and recent increase in phreatic activity. The AMT data were collected at eight locations across the Jigokudani valley in September 2013, with high quality data obtained from most sites, enabling the identification of an underground 2D resistivity structure from the transverse magnetic (TM) mode data. The data obtained during this study provided evidence of a large conductive region beneath the surface of the Jigokudani valley that is underlain by a resistive layer at depths below 500 m. The resistive layer is cut by a relatively conductive region that extends subvertically toward the shallow conductor. The shallow conductive region is divided into an uppermost slightly conductive section that is thought to be a lacustrine sediment layer of an extinct crater lake containing hydrothermal fluids and a lower section containing a mix of volcanic gases and hydrothermal fluids. The low permeability of the clay zone means that the uppermost clayey sediments allow the accumulation of gases in the lower section of the conductive region, suggesting the existence of a cap structure. The deep resistive layer likely consists of units similar to the granitic rocks that are widely exposed throughout the Jigokudani valley. We suggest that the relatively conductive zone that separates these granitic rocks represents a high-temperature volcanic gas conduit, given that the most active fumarole in the Jigokudani valley lies directly along the trajectory of this path.

  1. FIELD TEST OF CYCLODEXTRIN FOR ENHANCED IN-SITU FLUSHING OF MULTIPLE-COMPONENT IMMISCIBLE ORGANIC LIQUID CONTAMINATION: COMPARISON TO WATER FLUSHING

    EPA Science Inventory

    A pilot-scale field experiment was conducted to compare the remediation effectiveness of an enhanced-solubilization technique to that of water flushing for removal of multicomponent nonaqueous-phase organic liquid (NAPL) contaminants form a phreatic aquifer. This innovative remed...

  2. Water chemistry at Snowshoe Mountain, Colorado: mixed processes in a common bedrock

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoch, A.R.; Reddy, M.M.

    2001-01-01

    At Snowshoe Mountain the primary bedrock is quite homogeneous, but weathering processes vary as waters moves through the soils, vadose zone and phreatic zone of the subsurface. In the thin soil, physical degradation of tuff facilitates preferential dissolution of potassium ion from glass within the rock matrix, while other silicate minerals remain unaltered. In the vadose zone, in the upper few meters of fractured bedrock, dilute water infiltrates during spring snowmelt and summer storms, leading to preferential dissolution of augite exposed on fracture surfaces. Deeper yet, in the phreatic zone of the fractured bedrock, Pleistocene calcite fracture fillings dissolve, and dioctahedral and trioctahedral clays form as penetrative weathering alters feldspar and pyroxene. Alkalinity is generated and silica concentrations are buffered by mineral alteration reactions.

  3. Floodplain ecohydrology: Climatic, anthropogenic, and local physical controls on partitioning of water sources to riparian trees

    PubMed Central

    Singer, Michael Bliss; Sargeant, Christopher I; Piégay, Hervé; Riquier, Jérémie; Wilson, Rob J S; Evans, Cristina M

    2014-01-01

    Seasonal and annual partitioning of water within river floodplains has important implications for ecohydrologic links between the water cycle and tree growth. Climatic and hydrologic shifts alter water distribution between floodplain storage reservoirs (e.g., vadose, phreatic), affecting water availability to tree roots. Water partitioning is also dependent on the physical conditions that control tree rooting depth (e.g., gravel layers that impede root growth), the sources of contributing water, the rate of water drainage, and water residence times within particular storage reservoirs. We employ instrumental climate records alongside oxygen isotopes within tree rings and regional source waters, as well as topographic data and soil depth measurements, to infer the water sources used over several decades by two co-occurring tree species within a riparian floodplain along the Rhône River in France. We find that water partitioning to riparian trees is influenced by annual (wet versus dry years) and seasonal (spring snowmelt versus spring rainfall) fluctuations in climate. This influence depends strongly on local (tree level) conditions including floodplain surface elevation and subsurface gravel layer elevation. The latter represents the upper limit of the phreatic zone and therefore controls access to shallow groundwater. The difference between them, the thickness of the vadose zone, controls total soil moisture retention capacity. These factors thus modulate the climatic influence on tree ring isotopes. Additionally, we identified growth signatures and tree ring isotope changes associated with recent restoration of minimum streamflows in the Rhône, which made new phreatic water sources available to some trees in otherwise dry years. Key Points Water shifts due to climatic fluctuations between floodplain storage reservoirs Anthropogenic changes to hydrology directly impact water available to trees Ecohydrologic approaches to integration of hydrology afford new

  4. Water

    MedlinePlus

    ... www.girlshealth.gov/ Home Nutrition Nutrition basics Water Water Did you know that water makes up more ... to drink more water Other drinks How much water do you need? top Water is very important, ...

  5. Water

    MedlinePlus

    ... Shopping Tips Food Safety Common Questions Learn More Water Printer-friendly It’s important for your body to have plenty of fluids each day. Water helps you digest food, absorb nutrients from food, ...

  6. Water

    MedlinePlus

    ... water (like a lake) or to groundwater (the fresh water found under the Earth’s surface that supplies wells ... Too much harmful algae (say: AL-jay) in freshwater or seawater can make beaches unsafe for people. ...

  7. Chemistry of thermal waters and mineralogy of the new deposits at Mount St. Helens: a preliminary report

    SciTech Connect

    Dethier, D.P.; Frank, D.; Peavear, D.R.

    1980-12-01

    After May 18, 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens, Washington, interactions between the hot deposits and shallow ground water produced ephemeral phreatic eruptions and thermal ponds and streams. In early June water and sediment samples were collected from about 20 sites in the devastated zone to study the initial alteration of the new deposits, and the effects of the eruption on water chemistry. The levels of certain trace elements in thermal waters, and whether these mineralized waters were reaching the North Fork Toutle River in appreciable quantities were studied. Collection and analysis procedures, the mineralogy of the new deposits, and the chemistry of the thermal waters are discussed. Finally, the chemistry of water from different deposits is compared, alteration reactions suggested by the water chemistry, and the mineralogy of the deposits is discussed.

  8. Study Relating to the Spatial Distribution of Ground Water Quality for Different Elements using Legacy Data of RWS&S, Andhra Pradesh, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prakash, P.; Das, A. Kumar; Sandilya, C. V. S.

    2014-11-01

    The state of Andhra Pradesh, India falls in water stress4 area. The primary objective of this study is to examine the spatial distribution of different chemical elements with respect to its contamination level. About 70 % of drinking water needs in rural areas and 40 % drinking water needs in urban areas are met from groundwater resources. In the last decades, rapid population growth coupled with agricultural expansion due to subsidized power to agriculture has significantly increased demand on groundwater resources. Combined to this, the effect of Global warming has put stress on ground water which is resulting in declines in water levels and deterioration of ground water quality. This may be evidenced by the fact that the phreatic aquifer which was in use two decades ago, is existing no more now in some of the parts of the study area and the water is being drawn from deeper aquifers beyond phreatic aquifers. The study has been carried out for which one or more elements are contaminated and to study its spatial distribution.

  9. Sub-annual variability in historical water source use by Mediterranean riparian trees.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sargeant, Christopher; Singer, Michael

    2016-04-01

    The seasonal availability of water within a tree's rooting zone may be an important determinant for individual tree growth and overall forest health, particularly in riparian corridors of Mediterranean climate zones that are vulnerable to water stress. Here, we present a new method that combines dendro-isotopes and isotope-modelling for determining how water source use varies over 10 consecutive growing seasons (2000-2010) for co-occurring species P. nigra and F. excelsior, along the Rhône River, south-eastern France. We conducted highly resolved cellulose δ18O analysis of micro-slices within tree rings and back-calculated the δ18O signature of source water available at the time of growth using a biochemical fractionation model. We related these patterns to inferred seasonal hydrological partitioning through comparison with δ18O of waters from the vadose and phreatic zones, precipitation, and streamflow. The shallowly rooted Fraxinus displayed greater sub-annual source water variability, as well as greater isotopic enrichment, reflecting use of precipitation-derived vadose moisture. Its earlywood component was formed mainly from winter rainfall (depleted) whilst the latewood relied on growing season precipitation (enriched). In Populus, the sub-annual source water use was relatively depleted, suggesting use of hyporheic water and regional groundwater. From 2007, both species converged in their pattern of water source uptake which was attributed to a decline in phreatic water access for Populus. These results demonstrate that the seasonal variability in source water use can be identified retrospectively, a method which may prove important for anticipating the future consequences of climatic driven changes to the hydrological cycle.

  10. Water, vapour and heat transport in concrete cells for storing radioactive waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carme Chaparro, M.; Saaltink, Maarten W.

    2016-08-01

    Water is collected from a drain situated at the centre of a concrete cell that stores radioactive waste at 'El Cabril', which is the low and intermediate level radioactive waste disposal facility of Spain. This indicates flow of water within the cell. 2D numerical models have been made in order to reproduce and understand the processes that take place inside the cell. Temperature and relative humidity measured by sensors in the cells and thermo-hydraulic parameters from laboratory test have been used. Results show that this phenomenon is caused by capillary rise from the phreatic level, evaporation and condensation within the cell produced by temperature gradients caused by seasonal temperature fluctuations outside. At the centre of the cell, flow of gas and convection also play a role. Three remedial actions have been studied that may avoid the leakage of water from the drain.

  11. An examination of short-term variations in water quality at a karst spring in Kentucky

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, M.; Meiman, J.

    1996-01-01

    Water quality at many karst springs undergoes very high amplitude but relatively brief degradation following influxes of runoff. Accurately recording transient variations requires more rigorous sampling strategies than traditional methods. A pilot study to determine the usefulness of high-frequency, flow-dependent sampling strategies, combined with coincidental quantitative dye tracer tests, was implemented in the Big Spring Ground-Water Basin in Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky. Data recorded following two separate runoff events showed that the concentrations of two nonpoint source pollutants, fecal coliform bacteria and suspended sediment, greatly exceeded prerunoff event values for very short periods of time. A phreatic conduit segment, calculated at 17 million liters in volume, instantaneously propagated head changes, caused by direct runoff entering the aquifer, from the ground-water inputs to Big Spring. A significant delay between the initial increases in discharge and the arrival of direct runoff, as indicated by a steady decrease in specific conductance, represented the time required to displace this volume of phreatic water. The delay showed that sampling a karst spring only during peak discharge would be an unreliable sampling method. Runoff from two different subcatchments was tagged with tracer dye and the timing of the passage of the resultant dye clouds through Big Spring were compared to water quality variations. Distinct lag times between the arrival of direct runoff at Big Spring and the bacteria and suspended sediment waveforms were shown through the concurrent quantitative tracer tests to be related to the areal distribution of land-cover type within the basin.

  12. Water subsidies from mountains to deserts: their role in sustaining groundwater-fed oases in a sandy landscape.

    PubMed

    Jobbágy, E G; Nosetto, M D; Villagra, P E; Jackson, R B

    2011-04-01

    In arid regions throughout the world, shallow phreatic aquifers feed natural oases of much higher productivity than would be expected solely from local rainfall. In South America, the presence of well-developed Prosopis flexuosa woodlands in the Monte Desert region east of the Andes has puzzled scientists for decades. Today these woodlands provide crucial subsistence to local populations, including descendants of the indigenous Huarpes. We explore the vulnerability and importance of phreatic groundwater for the productivity of the region, comparing the contributions of local rainfall to that of remote mountain recharge that is increasingly being diverted for irrigated agriculture before it reaches the desert. We combined deep soil coring, plant measurements, direct water-table observations, and stable-isotopic analyses (2H and 18O) of meteoric, surface, and ground waters at three study sites across the region, comparing woodland stands, bare dunes, and surrounding shrublands. The isotopic composition of phreatic groundwaters (delta2H: -137 per thousand +/- 5 per thousand) closely matched the signature of water brought to the region by the Mendoza River (-137 per thousand +/- 6 per thousand), suggestin that mountain-river infiltration rather than in situ rainfall deep drainage (-39 per thousand +/- 19 per thousand) was the dominant mechanism of recharge. Similarly, chloride mass balances determined from deep soil profiles (> 6 m) suggested very low recharge rates. Vegetation in woodland ecosystems, where significant groundwater discharge losses, likely >100 mm/yr occurred, relied on regionally derived groundwater located from 6.5 to 9.5 m underground. At these locations, daily water-table fluctuations of 10 mm, and stable-isotopic measurements of plant water, indicated groundwater uptake rates of 200-300 mm/yr. Regional scaling suggests that groundwater evapotranspiration reaches 18-42 mm/yr across the landscape, accounting for 7 17% of the Mendoza River flow

  13. Southern Dobrogea coastal potable water sources and Upper Quaternary Black Sea level changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caraivan, Glicherie; Stefanescu, Diana

    2013-04-01

    Southern Dobrogea is a typical geologic platform unit, placed in the south-eastern part of Romania, with a Pre-Cambrian crystalline basement and a Paleozoic - Quaternary sedimentary cover. It is bordered to the north by the Capidava - Ovidiu fault and by the Black Sea to the east. A regional WNW - ESE and NNE - SSW fault system divides the Southern Dobrogea structure in several tectonic blocks. Four drinking water sources have been identified: surface water, phreatic water, medium depth Sarmatian aquifer, and deep Upper Jurassic - Lower Cretaceous aquifer. Surface water sources are represented by several springs emerged from the base of the loess cliff, and a few small rivers, barred by coastal beaches. The phreatic aquifer develops at the base of the loess deposits, on the impervious red clay, overlapping the Sarmatian limestones. The medium depth aquifer is located in the altered and karstified Sarmatian limestones, and discharges into the Black Sea. The Sarmatian aquifer is unconfined where covered by silty loess deposits, and locally confined, where capped by clayey loess deposits. The aquifer is supplied from the Pre-Balkan Plateau. The Deep Upper Jurassic - Lower Cretaceous aquifer, located in the limestone and dolomite deposits, is generally confined and affected by the regional WNW - ESE and NNE - SSW fault system. In the south-eastern Dobrogea, the deep aquifer complex is separated from the Sarmatian aquifer by a Senonian aquitard (chalk and marls). The natural boundary of the Upper Jurassic - Lower Cretaceous aquifer is the Capidava - Ovidiu Fault. The piezometric heads show that the Upper Jurassic - Lower Cretaceous aquifer is supplied from the Bulgarian territory, where the Upper Jurassic deposits crop out. The aquifer discharges into the Black Sea to the east and into Lake Siutghiol to the northeast. The cyclic Upper Quaternary climate changes induced drastic remodeling of the Black Sea level and the corresponding shorelines. During the Last Glacial

  14. Origin of water salinity in a lake and coastal aquifer system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djabri, L.; Rouabhia, A.; Hani, A.; Lamouroux, Ch.; Pulido-Bosch, A.

    2008-04-01

    The studied area is in the Algerian Northeast. A number of interacting factors at the site are able to modify salinity. The main influences are: (1) The lithology, (2) Fedzara Lake, (3) marine waters, and (4) a prolonged drought. (1) The lithology is very clearly delineated by the outcrop of metamorphic formations (gneiss, marbles, micaschists, and quartzites) and sedimentary formations (limestones, clay, sandstones, and sands). All these formations can influence the chemical composition of waters. (2) Fedzara Lake evacuates its salted waters via the Wadi Meboudja, which connects with the Wadi Seybouse and the phreatic surface. These lake waters might induce changes in salinity. (3) The marine waters represent the third source of salinity change. Over-pumping of water from wells and drillings can cause an imbalance to the fresh salted water interface. (4) The effects of a local prolonged drought of more than 10 years may increase water salinity. Over-pumping to augment water supply generates a fall in water levels and the drier atmosphere increases evapotranspiration. Both may contribute to increased salinity. Results of water analysis were used to observe the evolution of these various factors.

  15. Surface water and groundwater characteristics in the wetlands of the Ajó River (Argentina)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carol, E. S.; Dragani, W. C.; Kruse, E. E.; Pousa, J. L.

    2012-10-01

    Intertidal wetlands are complex hydrological environments in which surface water and groundwater interact periodically with tidal flows. This work analyzes how the tidal flow determines the hydrodynamics and salinity of surface water and groundwater at different depths in the intertidal wetland located in the marsh of the Ajó River. Water level and salinity measurements were obtained from the Ajó River, the channels discharging into the river and the phreatic aquifer. The results in the natural marsh indicate the presence of saline stratification and that the surface water-groundwater relationship varies with the tide. At low tide, the water table discharges into the surface watercourses, and when the high tide rises above the regional groundwater discharge level, the tidal flow contributes to the water table, which causes an increase in salinity in surface water and groundwater. When the high tide does not rise above the discharge level, the tidal flow only enters the groundwater at the mouth section and the salinity of the surface water and groundwater decreases from low tide to high tide. In the marsh areas excluded from the tidal cycle due to the presence of floodgates, the water table always discharges into the canals, and in the surface water and groundwater there is no presence of saline stratification. The results obtained make it possible to generate a conceptual model of hydrological behaviour which shows the hydrodynamic and hydrochemical complexity of intertidal wetlands.

  16. Water table controlled syndepositional alteration textures and fabrics in salt pan halite: Modern analogues and ancient examples

    SciTech Connect

    Holt, R.M. ); Powers, D.W.

    1991-03-01

    At the Devil's Golf Course, Death Valley, CA, vadose zone and phreatic zone alteration of subaqueously accumulated halite produces characteristic textures and fabrics that are recognizable in ancient salt pan halite (Late Permian Salado Formation) exposed in a shaft at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Water table depth and duration control fabric type. The crystal size of surficial halite is reduced by hygroscopic alteration. Efflorescent crusts extend the capillary fringe to the surface along vertical permeability pathways. When the water table is shallow, planar dissolution in the vadose zone removes all or most halite from successive thin depositional sequences and progressively disrupts strata consisting of clay or sulfate into irregular strata, stringers, isolated blebs, and, ultimately, 'blebby' laminae. With a deeper water table, point dissolution occurs along vertically oriented permeability pathways (e.g., polygonal margins) producing characteristic textures. Vertical pits, pipes, and macropores form first. Then the surface becomes slightly hummocky as point solution pathways to the water table widen and coalesce. A complex terrain of spires, hummocks, and columns develops and exhibits characteristic pods and lenses of fine halite surrounded by and containing solution lags of insoluble material. Relief is reduced by solution, and lenses and pods of fine halite become smaller and less common. Ultimately, halite is entirely removed leaving only insoluble material. Halite cements grow in the phreatic zone. Halite passively fills voids in more mechanically competent halite. Displacive halite cements dilate fabrics within less competent bedded halite. These textures can be integrated into an idealized lithologic sequence for ancient salt pan halite.

  17. Influence of water saturation on rock failure - Implications for volcanic environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheu, B.; Feneis, C.; Lavallee, Y.; Heap, M. J.; Dingwell, D. B.

    2011-12-01

    Water plays several important roles in the grand scheme of volcanism. As magmatic water, it influences magma generation transport and emplacement/eruption via its influence on the physicochemical properties of melts (e.g. rheology, diffusion, surface tension). As external water, it's role is manifold: (1) it is the driving force for the phreatic explosions which often are precursory to volcanic eruptions, (2) it may mix with magma and fuel phreatomagmatic eruptions, and (3) it has the ability to weaken and destabilize volcanic structures. Previous studies have shown that even small amounts of water may substantially weaken the strength of rocks. However the study of volcanic rocks is, in this respect, sparse. For this study we chose both volcanic rocks and volcanic host rocks (ranging from volcaniclastic sandstone to dacite) and compare their behaviour to that of Bentheim sandstone, an iconic rock type in rock mechanics. Two different experimental approaches are combined in this study. Firstly, we investigated the failure of rock specimens by rapid decompression using a shock-tube apparatus. Therein a rock sample is slowly pressurized with argon gas up to a maximum pressure of 50 MPa and then rapidly decompressed to atmospheric conditions. The decompression rates in this facility reach the order of 10 GPa/s and higher, allowing us to interpret these experiments as dynamic direct tensile strength tests. The experiments were carried out with varying degrees of water saturation in a temperature range from 20 to 300 °C. The degree of water saturation influences the fragmentation threshold (the minimum applied pressure required to fully fragment a sample) as well as the speed of the fragmentation process. Secondly, uniaxial compressive strength (UCS) tests and Brazilian tests were carried out to investigate, respectively, the compressive and (indirect) tensile strengths of dry and water-saturated samples. UCS tests were performed on 80 x 40mm cylinders under a strain

  18. Petrogenesis of cenozoic temperate water carbonates, South Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Noel, J.P.; Bone, Y.

    1988-01-01

    The Gambier Limestone is one of several extensive, shallow water, shelf carbonates of Eocene to Miocene age exposed along the southern margin of Australia. It is muddy to grainy bryozoan calcarenite, with accessory benthonic foraminifers and echinoids. The sediments, originally composed almost entirely of calcite or Mg-calcite, have been in vadose and phreatic environments for over 10 m.y., yet are virtually unlithified. The only cements of any consequence are epitaxial on echinoids. Numerous karst features, dolines, caves, speleothems, and surface karren attest to prolonged residence in the meteoric zone. The Gambier is presently one of the best freshwater aquifiers in Australia, with most flow intergranular and through sediments with over 30% porosity. Cementation is by minor intergranular pressure solution, which has developed under overburden of less than 100 m. The overlying Naracoorte Limestone (Miocene), a calcarenite of warmer water aspect, contains numerous aragonite molds and is cemented marblehard. The authors propose that such temperate-water calcite limestones are a better model for the meteoric diagenesis of calcite sediments of all ages than aragonite-rich tropical sediments. It is probable that many similar early and middle Paleozoic calcite limestones may have been in the meteoric zone for prolonged periods, yet contain little or no petrographic or geochemical record of such exposure.

  19. A new analytical solution of water table response to tidal fluctuations and its application to estimate aquifer properties at the Niijima Island, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aichi, Masaatsu; Shiokari, Megumi; Tokunaga, Tomochika

    A perturbation solution of the Boussinesq equation under the boundary condition of multi-tide at the coast was derived for evaluating the hydraulic parameters of phreatic aquifer from tidally induced fluctuation of water table. Then, the solution was applied to estimate the hydraulic parameters of the Shiro-mama formation at the Niijima Island, Japan, by fitting the solution to the results of continuous measurements of water table fluctuations. The estimated hydraulic transmissivities from both the amplitude and the phase were comparable and consistent with the results of analyses based on Dupuit-Ghyben-Herzberg model, suggesting that the obtained values, i.e., 0.12-1.7 m2/s were reasonable.

  20. Inference of Stream Network Fragmentation Patterns from Ground Water - Surface Water Interactions on the High Plains Aquifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandler, D. G.; Yang, X.; Steward, D. R.; Gido, K.

    2007-12-01

    Stream networks in the Great Plains integrate fluxes from precipitation as surface runoff in discrete events and groundwater as base flow. Changes in land cover and agronomic practices and development of ground water resources to support irrigated agriculture have resulted in profound changes in the occurrence and magnitude of stream flows, especially near the Ogallala aquifer, where precipitation is low. These changes have demonstrably altered the aquatic habitat of western Kansas, with documented changes in fish populations, riparian communities and groundwater quality due to stream transmission losses. Forecasting future changes in aquatic and riparian ecology and groundwater quality requires a large scale spatially explicit model of groundwater- surface water interaction. In this study, we combine historical data on land use, stream flow, production well development and groundwater level observations with groundwater elevation modeling to support a geospatial framework for assessing changes in refugia for aquatic species in four rivers in western Kansas between 1965 and 2005. Decreased frequency and duration of streamflow occurred in all rivers, but the extent of change depended on the geomorphology of the river basin and the extent of groundwater development. In the absence of streamflow, refugia for aquatic species were defined as the stream reaches below the phreatic surface of the regional aquifer. Changes in extent, location and degree of fragmentation of gaining reaches was found to be a strong predictor of surface water occurrence during drought and a robust hydrological template for the analysis of changes in recharge to alluvial and regional aquifers and riparian and aquatic habitat.

  1. Quality and management of hot water of intercalary continental, northern Sahara of Algeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tifrani, Ala Eddine; Nezli, Imed Eddine

    2016-07-01

    The Algerian Sahara is the biggest desert in the world, and it is known by that the main climatic characters which are the high temperature and the low precipitations. The northern Sahara is a part of this big area, located on the south-east of Algeria. Due to the rarely and insufficient precipitations (1 to 180 mm per year) the need for water is a rising problem, so the main source are the ground water. There are three ground water aquifers in the area, the phreatic table, the terminal complex and the intercalary continental, our study is focused on the intercalary continental which is the biggest non recharged aquifer in the world, many studies national and international estimated the reserve of the water around 6 million m3. Existing between 1000 and 2000 m depth, this depth gives the water a lot of characterization which need to be noted and updated for example the temperature (around 50°C), and the high mineralization, because of the vast area and the difference in depths between wells, which is a reason of variety, the main goal is the determination of chemical and physical setting of this water.

  2. Modeling sea-water intrusion with open boundary conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Padilla, F.; Cruz-Sanjulian, J.

    1997-07-01

    The present study concerns the application of a new numerical approach to describe the fresh-water/sea-water relationships in coastal aquifers. Essentially, a solution to the partial differential equation governing the regional motion of a phreatic surface and the resulting interface between fresh water and salt water is analyzed by a Galerkin finite-element formulation. A single-phase steady numerical model was applied to approximate, with simple triangular elements, the regional behavior of a coastal aquifer under appropriate sinks, sources, Neumann, outflow face, and open boundary conditions. On the one hand, outflow open boundaries at the coastline were not treated with other classical boundary conditions, but instead with a formal numerical approach for open boundaries inspired in this particular case by the Dupuit approximation of horizontal outflow at the boundary. The solution to this numerical model, together with the Ghyben-Herzberg principle, allows the correct simulation of fresh-water heads and the position of the salt-water interface for a steeply sloping coast. Although the solutions were precise and do not present classical numerical oscillations, this approach requires a previous solution with Dirichlet boundary conditions at the coastline in order to find a good convergence of the solution algorithm. On the other hand, the same precise results were obtained with a more restrictive open boundary condition, similar in a way to the outflow face approach, which required less computer time, did not need a prior numerical solution and could be extended to different coastline conditions. The steady-state problem was solved for different hypothetical coastal aquifers and fresh-water usage through three types of numerical tests.

  3. Sub-annual Fluctuations in Water Sources Utilised by Mediterranean RiparianTrees Determined Through Highly Resolved Oxygen Isotope Analysis of Tree-ring Cellulose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sargeant, C. I.; Singer, M. B.

    2014-12-01

    The sensitivity of trees to water availability within their rooting zones is a major determinant of tree and forest health. Yet, we have a poor understanding of subterranean water availability and its fluctuations due to climate. Such shortcomings limit our ability to predict how climatic variability will impact water availability to trees, and corresponding forest health. Understanding of water partitioning within the 'critical zone' of riparian areas are particularly lacking, especially in the vulnerable Mediterranean climate regimes. A substantial body of research uses isotope dendrochronology to assess riparian forest-water relations at annual (tree-ring) timescales, which integrate variability in seasonal hydrology. However, the sub-annual variations in water availability have been largely overlooked, which may have important ramifications for riparian ecohydrology. We present a new method for determining the sub-annual hydrologic variability within a floodplain forest using two co-occurring Mediterranean tree species along the Rhône River, southern France. We conducted oxygen isotope (δ18O) analysis of cellulose for 11 microslices within each tree ring to detect sub-annual patterns in δ18O that reflect the variability in hydrological partitioning. We back-calculated the seasonal time series of source waters used by the trees via a mechanistic model. Differences in rooting between the species allow us to constrain fluctuations in water availability and use between the vadose and phreatic zones. The two different species of streamside trees use distinct water sources and their seasonal patterns of water use are also fundamentally different. We develop strong links between these sub-annual patterns of δ18O signatures and the climatic characteristics of the hydrological year. We also present isotopic analyses of source waters from the vadose and phreatic zones, precipitation, and the Rhône to bolster our interpretations of water partitioning. This research

  4. The hydrogeological role of an aquitard in preventing drinkable water well contamination: a case study.

    PubMed

    Ponzini, G; Crosta, G; Giudici, M

    1989-11-01

    Groundwater pollution has become a worrisome phenomenon, mainly for aquifers underlying industrialized areas. In order to evaluate the risk of pollution, a model of the aquifer is needed. Herewith, we describe a quasi-tridimensional model, which we applied to a multilayered aquifer where a phreatic aquifer was coupled to a confined one by means of an aquitard. This hydrogeological scheme is often met in practice and, therefore, models a number of situations. Moreover, aquitards play and important role in the management of natural resources of this kind. The model we adopted contains some approximations: the flow within the aquifers is assumed to be horizontal, whereas leakage is assumed vertical. The effect of some wells drilled in these aquifers is also taken into account. In order to evaluate the leakage fluxes that correspond to different exploitation conditions, we numerically solve a system of quasilinear and time-dependent partial differential equations. This model has been calibrated by the hydrogeological data from a water supply station of the Milan Water Works, where water is polluted by some halocarbons. Our simulations account for several experimental facts, both from the hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical viewpoints. Maxima of computed downward leakage rates are found to correspond with measured pollutant concentration maxima. Other results show how the aquitard can help in minimizing the contamination of drinkable water. PMID:2620670

  5. A comparative molecular analysis of water-filled limestone sinkholes in north-eastern Mexico.

    PubMed

    Sahl, Jason W; Gary, Marcus O; Harris, J Kirk; Spear, John R

    2011-01-01

    Sistema Zacatón in north-eastern Mexico is host to several deep, water-filled, anoxic, karstic sinkholes (cenotes). These cenotes were explored, mapped, and geochemically and microbiologically sampled by the autonomous underwater vehicle deep phreatic thermal explorer (DEPTHX). The community structure of the filterable fraction of the water column and extensive microbial mats that coat the cenote walls was investigated by comparative analysis of small-subunit (SSU) 16S rRNA gene sequences. Full-length Sanger gene sequence analysis revealed novel microbial diversity that included three putative bacterial candidate phyla and three additional groups that showed high intra-clade distance with poorly characterized bacterial candidate phyla. Limited functional gene sequence analysis in these anoxic environments identified genes associated with methanogenesis, sulfate reduction and anaerobic ammonium oxidation. A directed, barcoded amplicon, multiplex pyrosequencing approach was employed to compare ∼100,000 bacterial SSU gene sequences from water column and wall microbial mat samples from five cenotes in Sistema Zacatón. A new, high-resolution sequence distribution profile (SDP) method identified changes in specific phylogenetic types (phylotypes) in microbial mats at varied depths; Mantel tests showed a correlation of the genetic distances between mat communities in two cenotes and the geographic location of each cenote. Community structure profiles from the water column of three neighbouring cenotes showed distinct variation; statistically significant differences in the concentration of geochemical constituents suggest that the variation observed in microbial communities between neighbouring cenotes are due to geochemical variation. PMID:20738374

  6. Petrogenesis of Cenozoic temperate water carbonates, south Australia: model for shallow-burial or meteoric diagenesis of Phanerozoic shallow water calcite sediments

    SciTech Connect

    James, N.P.; Bone, Y.

    1988-02-01

    The Gambier Limestone is one of several extensive, shallow water, shelf carbonates of Eocene to Miocene age exposed along the southern margin of Australia. It is a muddy to grainy bryozoan calcarenite, with accessory benthonic foraminifers and echinoids. The sediments, originally composed almost entirely of calcite or Mg-calcite, have been in vadose and phreatic environments for over 10 m.y., yet are virtually unlithified. The only cements of any consequence are epitaxial on echinoids. Numerous karst features, dolines, caves, speleothems, and surface karren attest to prolonged residence in the meteoric zone. The Gambier is presently one of the best freshwater aquifers in Australia, with most flow intergranular and through sediments with over 30% porosity. Cementation is by minor intergranular pressure solution, which has developed under overburden of less than 100 m. The overlying Naracoorte Limestone (Miocene), a calcarenite of warmer water aspect, contains numerous aragonite molds and is cemented marble-hard. The authors propose that such temperate-water calcite limestones are a better model for the meteoric diagenesis of calcite sediments of all ages than aragonite-rich tropical sediments. It is probable that many similar early and middle Paleozoic calcite limestones may have been in the meteoric zone for prolonged periods, yet contain little or no petrographic or geochemical record of such exposure.

  7. Water, Water Everywhere

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeler, Rusty

    2009-01-01

    Everybody knows that children love water and how great water play is for children. The author discusses ways to add water to one's playscape that fully comply with health and safety regulations and are still fun for children. He stresses the importance of creating water play that provides children with the opportunity to interact with water.

  8. Impact of switching crop type on water and solute fluxes in deep vadose zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turkeltaub, T.; Kurtzman, D.; Russak, E. E.; Dahan, O.

    2015-12-01

    Switching crop type and consequently changing irrigation and fertilization regimes lead to alterations in deep percolation and solute concentrations of pore water. Herein, observations from the deep vadose zone and model simulations demonstrate the changes in water, chloride, and nitrate fluxes under a commercial greenhouse following the change from tomato to lettuce cropping. The site, located above a phreatic aquifer, was monitored for 5 years. A vadose-zone monitoring system was implemented under the greenhouse and provided continuous data on both temporal variations in water content and chemical composition of the pore water at multiple depths in the deep vadose zone (up to 20 m). Following crop switching, a significant reduction in chloride concentration and dramatic increase in nitrate were observed across the unsaturated zone. The changes in chemical composition of the vadose-zone pore water appeared as sequential breakthroughs across the unsaturated zone, initiating at land surface and propagating down toward the water table. Today, 3 years after switching the crops, penetration of the impact exceeds 10 m depth. Variations in the isotopic composition of nitrate (18O and 15N) in water samples obtained from the entire vadose zone clearly support a fast leaching process and mobilization of solutes across the unsaturated zone following the change in crop type. Water flow and chloride transport models were calibrated to observations acquired during an enhanced infiltration experiment. Forward simulation runs were performed with the calibrated models, constrained to tomato and lettuce cultivation regimes as surface boundary conditions. Predicted chloride and nitrate concentrations were in agreement with the observed concentrations. The simulated water drainage and nitrogen leaching implied that the observed changes are an outcome of recommended agricultural management practices.

  9. Large-scale regionalization of water table depth in peatlands optimized for greenhouse gas emission upscaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bechtold, M.; Tiemeyer, B.; Laggner, A.; Leppelt, T.; Frahm, E.; Belting, S.

    2014-04-01

    Fluxes of the three main greenhouse gases (GHG) CO2, CH4 and N2O from peat and other organic soils are strongly controlled by water table depth. Information about the spatial distribution of water level is thus a crucial input parameter when upscaling GHG emissions to large scales. Here, we investigate the potential of statistical modeling for the regionalization of water levels in organic soils when data covers only a small fraction of the peatlands of the final map. Our study area is Germany. Phreatic water level data from 53 peatlands in Germany were compiled in a new dataset comprising 1094 dip wells and 7155 years of data. For each dip well, numerous possible predictor variables were determined using nationally available data sources, which included information about land cover, ditch network, protected areas, topography, peatland characteristics and climatic boundary conditions. We applied boosted regression trees to identify dependencies between predictor variables and dip well specific long-term annual mean water level (WL) as well as a transformed form of it (WLt). The latter was obtained by assuming a hypothetical GHG transfer function and is linearly related to GHG emissions. Our results demonstrate that model calibration on WLt is superior. It increases the explained variance of the water level in the sensitive range for GHG emissions and avoids model bias in subsequent GHG upscaling. The final model explained 45% of WLt variance and was built on nine predictor variables that are based on information about land cover, peatland characteristics, drainage network, topography and climatic boundary conditions. Their individual effects on WLt and the observed parameter interactions provide insights into natural and anthropogenic boundary conditions that control water levels in organic soils. Our study also demonstrates that a large fraction of the observed WLt variance cannot be explained by nationally available predictor variables and that predictors with

  10. Hydrologic connections and dynamics of water movement in the classical Karst (Kras) Aquifer: evidence from frequent chemical and stable isotope sampling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Doctor, Daniel H.

    2008-01-01

    A review of past research on the hydrogeology of the Classical Karst (Kras) region and new information obtained from a two- year study using environmental tracers are presented in this paper. The main problems addressed are 1) the sources of water to the Kras aquifer resurgence zone-including the famous Timavo springs-under changing flow regimes; 2) a quantification of the storage volumes of the karst massif corresponding to flow regimes defined by hydrograph recessions of the Timavo springs; and 3) changing dynamics between deep phreatic conduit flow and shallow phreatic and epiphreatic storage within the aquifer resurgence zone as determined through changes in chemical and isotopic composition at springs and wells. Particular focus was placed on addressing the long-standing question of the influence of the Soca River on the ground waters of the aquifer resurgence zone. The results indicate that the alluvial aquifer supplied by the sinking of the Soca River on the northwestern edge of the massif contributes approximately 75% of the mean annual outflow to the smaller springs of the aquifer resurgence zone, and as much as 53% to the mean annual outflow of the Timavo springs. As a whole, the Soca River is estimated to contribute 56% of the average outflow of the Kras aquifer resurgence. The proportions of Soca River water increase under drier conditions, and decrease under wetter conditions. Time series analysis of oxygen stable isotope records indicate that the transit time of Soca River water to the Timavo springs, Sardos spring, and well B-4 is on the order of 1-2 months, depending on hydrological conditions. The total baseflow storage of the Timavo springs is estimated to be 518 million m3, and represents 88.5% of the storage capacity estimated for all flow regimes of the springs. The ratio of baseflow storage volume to the average annual volume discharged at the Timavo springs is 0.54. The Reka River sinking in Slovenia supplies substantial allogenic recharge to

  11. Response of a sloping aquifer to constant replenishment and to stream varying water level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zissis, T. S.; Teloglou, I. S.; Terzidis, G. A.

    2001-03-01

    The problem of seepage from a stream into an adjacent unconfined aquifer of semi-infinite extent, underlain by an impermeable sloping bed was considered in this study as a problem of one-dimensional unsteady-state groundwater flow. It was assumed that the water level in the stream gradually rises to a certain height, according to a known exponential function of time, while the aquifer was assumed to be replenished at a constant rate from ground surface. Applying the Laplace transformation method derived an analytical solution to an extended and linearized form of the nonhomogeneous Boussinesq equation used to describe the phreatic surface in sloping aquifers. The comparison of the analytical solution with a numerical solution obtained by applying the finite difference Mac Cormack explicit computational scheme to the nonlinear Boussinesq equation illustrates the validity of the new analytical solution and the effectiveness of the linearization. Some nondimensional diagrams are also presented to show the variation of the water table height and the seepage rate as well as their sensitivity to various sets of parameter values.

  12. Hydrogeological and isotopic study of surface water and groundwater in the Eastern Haouz Plain. Western Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Mandour, Abdennabi; Rochdane, Samia; Reddy, Venkat; Himi, Mahjoub; Casas, Albert

    2014-05-01

    The Eastern Haouz area, characterized by a semi-arid climate, is part of the Haouz plain. The basin is built over a broad synclinal between the High Atlas and the Jebilets mountains. The compilation of geological, geophysical and hydrogeological data shows that this area is straddling two major basins of western Morocco. Map of the river system and the piezometric map show the same division line of surface water and groundwater. This division line oriented NNW-SSE is evidenced by the rise of the basement constituted by Paleozoic schists that outcrop near Tamelalt. Thus we can distinguish two main directions of groundwater flow feeding two watersheds (Tensift and Oum Rabiaa rivers) and two large reservoirs in the region of Marrakech. As a contribution to solve the water supply problem in the area, a hydrochemical study has been conducted, involving 40 groundwater samples for major ions and 20 stable isotope analyses. Hydrochemical results show the geological control on water quality. Samples from Paleozoic schists and Triassic sediments are relatively highly mineralisation and unsuitable for drinking as well as for irrigation. Conversely, groundwater from the alluvial plains is relatively less mineralised than other older geological formations; however, many of the samples are also non-potable. Apart of salinity problem, about 25% of the samples have higher nitrate content than the drinking water permissible limit. Stable isotope analysis show that groundwater recharge to the phreatic aquifer is controlled by local conditions. The small difference in the isotopic content of river water and a group of groundwater samples is interpreted as the evaporation effect during the recharge. On the other hand, the group of samples with relatively depleted stable isotopic content shows faster recharge conditions and less water-rock interaction. Finally, another group of samples is relatively enriched in stable isotope content and confirm an increase during the recharge

  13. Groundwater Dynamics under Water Saving Irrigation and Implications for Sustainable Water Management in an Oasis: Tarim River Basin of Western China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Z.; Hu, H.; Tian, F.; Yao, X.; Sivapalan, M.

    2014-02-01

    Water is essential for life. Specifically in the oases of inland arid basins, water is a critically limited resource, essential for the development of socio-economy and sustainability of eco-environmental systems. Due to the unique hydrological regime present in arid oases, a moderate groundwater table is the goal of sustainable water management. A shallow water table induces serious secondary salinization and collapse of agriculture, while a deep water table causes deterioration of natural vegetation. From the hydrological perspective, the exchange flux between unsaturated vadose zone and groundwater reservoir is a critical link to understand regional water table dynamics. This flux is substantially influenced by anthropogenic activities. In Tarim River Basin of western China, where agriculture consumes over 90% of available water resources, the exchange flux is influenced strongly by irrigation. Recently, mulched drip irrigation, a very advanced water-saving irrigation method, has been widely applied in the Tarim River Basin, which greatly impacted the exchange flux and thus the regional groundwater dynamics. Capitalizing on recent progress in evaporation measurement techniques, we can now close the water balance and directly quantify the exchange flux at the field scale, thus gain a better understanding of regional groundwater dynamics. In this study, comprehensive observations of water balance components in an irrigated cropland were implemented in 2011 and 2012 in a typical oasis within Tarim River Basin. The water balance analysis showed that the exchange flux and groundwater dynamics were significantly altered by the application of water-saving irrigation. The exchange flux is mostly downward (310.5 mm yr-1), especially during drip irrigation period and spring flush period, while the upward flux is trivial (-16.1 mm yr-1) due to the moderate groundwater table depth (annual average depth 2.9 m). Traditional secondary salinization caused by intense phreatic

  14. Groundwater dynamics under water-saving irrigation and implications for sustainable water management in an oasis: Tarim River basin of western China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Z.; Hu, H.; Tian, F.; Yao, X.; Sivapalan, M.

    2014-10-01

    groundwater table depth (annual average depth 2.9 m). Traditional secondary salinization caused by intense phreatic evaporation (fed by upward exchange flux) is alleviated. However, a new form of secondary salinization may be introduced unwittingly if there is lack of water for periodic flushing, especially when brackish water is used in the irrigation. Furthermore, the water saved via drip irrigation has been used in further growth of irrigated lands instead of supporting the ecological system. This could lead to an increased risk of eco-environmental degradation and calls for improved governance schemes. The insights gained from this study can be potentially applied to other arid inland areas (e.g., central Asia) which face similar water shortages and human development problems.

  15. Volumetric estimates of ancient water on Mount Sharp based on boxwork deposits, Gale Crater, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siebach, Kirsten L.; Grotzinger, John P.

    2014-01-01

    While the presence of water on the surface of early Mars is now well known, the volume, distribution, duration, and timing of the liquid water have proven difficult to determine. This study makes use of a distinctive boxwork-rich sedimentary layer on Mount Sharp to map fluid-based cementation from orbital imagery and estimate the minimum volume of water present when this sedimentary interval was formed. The boxwork structures on Mount Sharp are decameter-scale light-toned polygonal ridges that are unique compared to previous observations of Martian fractured terrain because they are parallel-sided ridges with dark central linear depressions. This texture and the sedimentary setting strongly imply that the ridges are early diagenetic features formed in the subsurface phreatic groundwater zone. High-resolution orbital imagery was used to map the volume of light-toned cemented ridges. Based on the cemented volume, a minimum of 5.25 × 105 m3 of cement was deposited within the fractures. Using a brine composition based on observations of other Martian cements and modeling the degree of evaporation, each volume of cement requires 800-6700 pore volumes of water, so the mapped boxwork ridge cements require a minimum of 0.43 km3 of water. This is a significant amount of groundwater that must have been present at the -3620 m level, 1050 m above the current floor of Gale Crater, providing both a new constraint on the possible origins of Mount Sharp and a possible future science target for the Curiosity rover where large volumes of water were present, and early mineralization could have preserved a once-habitable environment.

  16. Quantifying water sources to a semiarid riparian ecosystem, San Pedro River, Arizona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baillie, Matthew N.; Hogan, James F.; Ekwurzel, Brenda; Wahi, Arun K.; Eastoe, Christopher J.

    2007-09-01

    The Upper San Pedro River Basin (Southeastern Arizona, United States) contains one of the few desert riparian areas in the Southwest, a system that is dependent on both shallow groundwater to support phreatic vegetation and baseflow for aquatic plants and animals. Proper management decisions for sustaining this biodiversity hotspot require understanding the hydrology of the riparian system and its interaction with the basin aquifer. To meet this need and to assess whether the techniques used would be efficient for evaluating other semiarid riparian ecosystems, we addressed the following questions. What are the contributions of different water sources (e.g., local recharge during monsoon flood events versus inflow of basin groundwater) to riparian groundwater and river baseflow? How does the spatial variability in water sources relate to gaining and losing reaches along of the river? We first characterize the possible water sources to the riparian system using a suite of geochemical tracers. Results indicate that, of the possible sources, basin groundwater recharged along the Huachuca Mountains to the west and local recharge of monsoon floodwaters are the dominant riparian water sources. Then, using their geochemical composition, we quantify these sources using a two end-member mixing model. We find that riparian groundwater composition varies between gaining and losing reaches. Locally recharged monsoon floodwater comprises 60 to 85% of riparian groundwater in losing reaches whereas that of gaining reaches contains only 10% to 40%. Baseflow, sampled year round, also contains a significant component of monsoon floodwater ranging from 80% on the upstream end and decreasing to 55% after passing though several gaining reaches. These results highlight the significance of local recharge during monsoon flood events as a water source for desert riparian systems, a fact that should be addressed when constructing and calibrating hydrologic models used to evaluate these

  17. Water-rock interaction induced by contaminated groundwater in a karst aquifer, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panagopoulos, G.; Lambrakis, N.; Katagas, C.; Papoulis, D.; Tsolis-Katagas, P.

    2005-12-01

    The karst system of SW Trifilia is composed of a thick sequence of carbonate sediments, which have experienced two types of dolomitization and dedolomitization processes and comprise an extended aquifer. The application of fertilizers in the region have not only caused the degradation of the groundwater quality but also induced hydrochemical changes exerting major control on dolomitization processes. Factor analysis indicates high correlation coefficient between NH{4/+}, NO{3/-}, Ca2+ and Mg2+, which can be attributed to cation-exchange processes involving clay minerals. The application of a conservative mixing model showed that the calculated groundwater types indicate a cation-exchange process between NH{4/+}, derived from fertilizers, and between Ca2+ and Mg2+. Mg2+ released from smectite interlayers, exchanged for NH{4/+} in the groundwater and favor a dolomitization process through the partial replacement of Ca2+ in the lattice of calcite (dedolomite) contained in precursor dolomites. This recent stage dolomitization occurred near the water level and within the phreatic zone only and had not influenced the whole karst massif; it also resulted in low Mg/Ca values found in the zone characterized by intensive application of nitrogen-based fertilizers and the absence of overlying impermeable strata.

  18. Water, Water, Everywhere.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fahey, John A.

    2000-01-01

    The brain needs energy, oxygen, and water to operate. Access to the bathroom pass can become a major conflict between teachers and students and has great potential for disrupting classes. The classroom can be humanized by granting more bathroom passes and allowing water bottles. (MLH)

  19. Water, Water, Everywhere.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selinger, Ben

    1979-01-01

    Water is a major component in many consumer products. Azeotropic distillation of products such as detergents and foodstuffs to form a two-phase distillate is a simple experimental method to determine the percentage of water in the product. (Author/GA)

  20. Water, water everywhere

    SciTech Connect

    Pennisi, E.

    1993-02-20

    The first part of this article describes the current understanding of the dynamic interaction between protein folding and function and water, dependent on the polarity of water. The second part examines the role of water in converting organic matter into oil and coal by summarizing the history and result of experiments done over the last 13 years by Exxon researchers. Water under pressure and at high temperatures (300 C) can act as a solvent, a catalyst, and a reagent. Organic molecules can be fragmented by high temperature, but water and brine can also fragment them, sometimes more effectively. The actual mechanism by which water works is still a matter of active investigation, but the fact that it can be involved in oil formation could weak havoc on established ideas. Among the possibilities in the immediate future using hot water include the following: introducing hydrogen to coal for easier liquefaction and cost reduction; add hydrogen to low quality oil deposits for better quality and easier extraction; increasing the efficiency of isopropyl alcohol production; breaking down petroleum based wastes to reduce environmental contamination.

  1. Healthy Water

    MedlinePlus

    ... Water Systems, Water Fluoridation, Camping, Hiking, Travel… Global Water, Sanitation, & Hygiene (WASH) Community Systems, Household Treatment & Storage, Sanitation and Hygiene, Travelers’ Health… WASH-related ...

  2. Estimation of baseflow and water transfer in karst catchments in Mediterranean Turkey by nonlinear recession analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eris, Ebru; Wittenberg, Hartmut

    2015-11-01

    Because of water transfers through fissures, cavities, caves and phreatic channels of various sizes and unknown directions, the topographic watersheds of karst catchments have little significance for their aquifers. Most of the flow in the Manavgat River in South Anatolia has its origin outside of the surface watershed and is transferred through karst pathways. Previous investigations found evidence for this by groundwater tracing techniques. In this study, flow recession analysis and baseflow separation are applied to the time series of daily flows 1992-2008 from three gauging stations. Flow recessions were found corresponding to the nonlinear storage-baseflow relationship S = a·Qb, with b values around 0.5 as typical for unconfined groundwater, while the coefficient a showed marked seasonal variations with higher values in the rainy winter time and decreasing values towards the dry summer. For catchments which receive water transfers from other areas, the decrease of a is retarded. Flow recession is slower since more water is available. Baseflow separation by using the same nonlinear model revealed that direct flow, which is mainly surface flow, corresponds roughly to the surface catchments while baseflow, which accounts for most of the total flow, is highly influenced by transfers from karst sink areas outside the surface watersheds. The subsurface transfer was simulated by a nonlinear reservoir routing algorithm. Time series of monthly baseflow from catchments which receive transfer water were compared with those of sinkhole (loss) areas. The procedure allows inferring the origin area of the inflows and estimating the retention or lag time of the transfer.

  3. Water, Water Everywhere!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sible, Kathleen P.

    2000-01-01

    Describes how problems with water drainage on the playground, and the resulting puddles, provided a wealth of learning opportunities, children's fun, family-school communication, and challenges for one early childhood program. (KB)

  4. Drinking Water

    MedlinePlus

    We all need to drink water. How much you need depends on your size, activity level, and the weather where you live. The water you drink is a combination of surface water and groundwater. Surface water ...

  5. Water Works.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van De Walle, Carol

    1988-01-01

    Describes a two-day field trip, along with follow-up classroom activities and experiments which relate to water resources and water quality. Discusses how trips to a lake and water treatment facilities can enhance appreciation of water. (TW)

  6. Reconstructing water level in Hoyo Negro, Quintana Roo, Mexico, implications for early Paleoamerican and faunal access

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, S. V.; Reinhardt, E. G.; Rissolo, D.; Chatters, J. C.; Nava Blank, A.; Luna Erreguerena, P.

    2015-09-01

    The skeletal remains of a Paleoamerican (Naia; HN5/48) and extinct megafauna were found at -40 to -43 mbsl in a submerged dissolution chamber named Hoyo Negro (HN) in the Sac Actun Cave System, Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. The human remains were dated to between 12 and 13 Ka, making these remains the oldest securely dated in the Yucatan. Twelve sediment cores were used to reconstruct the Holocene flooding history of the now phreatic cave passages and cenotes (Ich Balam, Oasis) that connect to HN. Four facies were found: 1. bat guano and Seed (SF), 2. lime Mud (MF), 3. Calcite Rafts (CRF) and 4. Organic Matter/Calcite Rafts (OM/CRF) which were defined by their lithologic characteristics and ostracod, foraminifera and testate amoebae content. Basal radiocarbon ages (AMS) of aquatic sediments (SF) combined with cave bottom and ceiling height profiles determined the history of flooding in HN and when access was restricted for human and animal entry. Our results show that the bottom of HN was flooded at least by 9850 cal yr BP but likely earlier. We also found, that the pit became inaccessible for human and animal entry at ≈8100 cal yr BP, when water reaching the cave ceiling effectively prevented entry. Water level continued to rise between ≈6000 and 8100 cal yr BP, filling the cave passages and entry points to HN (Cenotes Ich Balam and Oasis). Analysis of cave facies revealed that both Holocene sea-level rise and cave ceiling height determined the configuration of airways and the deposition of floating and bat derived OM (guano and seeds). Calcite rafts, which form on the water surface, are also dependent on the presence of airways but can also form in isolated air domes in the cave ceiling that affect their loci of deposition on the cave bottom. These results indicated that aquatic cave sedimentation is transient in time and space, necessitating extraction of multiple cores to determine a limit after which flooding occurred.

  7. Water, Water Everywhere, But...

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Cliff

    Materials for teaching a unit on water pollution are provided in this teaching package. These materials include: (1) a student reading booklet; (2) a reference booklet listing a variety of popular chemical, biological, and physical tests which can be performed on a local waterway and providing information about the environmental effects and toxic…

  8. Water Conditioner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    A home use water treatment incorporates technology developed to purify water aboard Space Shuttle Orbiters. The General Ionics Model IQ Bacteriostatic Water Softener softens water and inhibits bacteria growth in the filtering unit. Ionics used NASA silver ion technology as a basis for development of a silver carbon dense enough to remain on top of the water softening resin bed.

  9. Spongy-like porosity in peritidal carbonates: An interaction of cyclic sea-level oscillations, fresh water supply and sediment texture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todaro, S.; Hollis, C.; Di Stefano, P.

    2016-03-01

    This paper focuses upon the analysis of a complex paleokarstic system recorded within uppermost Triassic peritidal cycles in northwestern Sicily. Besides documenting spectacular karstification at the Triassic/Jurassic boundary, it provides an example of stratabound 'spongy' or 'swiss-cheese' dissolution. On the base of field observations, microfacies analysis, transmitted-light and cathodoluminescence petrography and stable-isotope analyses we put forward an original model for the formation of this peculiar stratabound dissolution. It implies a complex interaction of several controlling factors at the interface between the marine and meteoric diagenetic realms during the relative cyclic oscillations of sea-level. The presence of a fresh water supply from an adjacent emerged area is the key for the periodic formation of a mixing water lens during the relative sea level lowstand that brought about the subaerial exposure of the platform. The resulting dissolution pattern in the subtidal unit of a specific cycle is strongly controlled by the textural features of the sediments. In the case of bioturbated wackestones the 'spongy' or 'swiss-cheese' pattern develops, while in mollusk-rich beds biomoldic porosity occurs. In well-sorted subtidal members, such as algal grainstones, the dissolution originates as randomly distributed vuggy porosity. During periodic flooding of the platform, a new subtidal unit is formed and the dissolution stops as fully marine phreatic conditions are re-established.

  10. Drinking Water

    MedlinePlus

    ... safest water supplies in the world, but drinking water quality can vary from place to place. It depends on the condition of the source water and the treatment it receives. Treatment may include ...

  11. Parasites: Water

    MedlinePlus

    ... Tropical Diseases Laboratory Diagnostic Assistance [DPDx] Parasites Home Water Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Parasites can live in natural water sources. When outdoors, treat your water before drinking ...

  12. Water Artists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szekely, George

    2003-01-01

    Discusses how experiences with water provide children with opportunities to be artists. Describes different types of water play for children. Believes that experiences with water introduce children to the principles of painting. (CMK)

  13. Configuration of water resources for a typical river basin in an arid region of China based on the ecological water requirements (EWRs) of desert riparian vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, Hongbo; Guo, Bin; Xu, Hailiang; Fu, Jinyi

    2014-11-01

    Desert riparian vegetation is a natural cover promoting the stability and development of inland river ecosystems in arid regions. Calculating the ecological water requirements (EWRs) of desert riparian vegetation is an important step in achieving reasonable water utilization. Therefore, this study examined the Tarim River, located in an extremely arid region of China, and collected relevant data on hydrology, weather and vegetation using remote sensing. Subsequently, we analyzed the spatial distribution of the desert riparian vegetation in four sections of the Tarim River and calculated the EWR of the desert riparian vegetation using the phreatic evaporation model; additionally, we determined the required runoffs at five hydrologic stations based on the water balance principle. Ultimately, the necessary protection ranges and goals for desert riparian vegetation were established according to the water resource variations in the Tarim River. Our research showed that the total area of desert riparian vegetation along the Tarim River is 16,285.3 km2; this distribution area gradually decreased as the distance from the river increased, and areas varied in the different river sections. The EWRs of desert riparian vegetation from Sections 1 to 5 are 5.698 × 108, 7.585 × 108, 4.900 × 108, 4.101 × 108 m3 and 1.078 × 108 m3, respectively. Therefore, the total EWR of the study region is 23.362 × 108 m3. In terms of the transpiration law of the "unimodal type", the peak value of EWR of natural vegetation occurs in July, and the decreasing trend appears in the other months. Based on the water balance principle, the required runoffs in Alar, Xinquman, Yingbaza, Wusiman and Qiala were determined to be 47.105 × 108, 35.174 × 108, 22.734 × 108, 15.775 × 108 and 7.707 × 108 m3, respectively. According to the water resource frequency and the EWR of the desert riparian vegetation along the Tarim River, we divided the region into three protection ranges: key protection (8

  14. Large-scale regionalization of water table depth in peatlands optimized for greenhouse gas emission upscaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bechtold, M.; Tiemeyer, B.; Laggner, A.; Leppelt, T.; Frahm, E.; Belting, S.

    2014-09-01

    Fluxes of the three main greenhouse gases (GHG) CO2, CH4 and N2O from peat and other soils with high organic carbon contents are strongly controlled by water table depth. Information about the spatial distribution of water level is thus a crucial input parameter when upscaling GHG emissions to large scales. Here, we investigate the potential of statistical modeling for the regionalization of water levels in organic soils when data covers only a small fraction of the peatlands of the final map. Our study area is Germany. Phreatic water level data from 53 peatlands in Germany were compiled in a new data set comprising 1094 dip wells and 7155 years of data. For each dip well, numerous possible predictor variables were determined using nationally available data sources, which included information about land cover, ditch network, protected areas, topography, peatland characteristics and climatic boundary conditions. We applied boosted regression trees to identify dependencies between predictor variables and dip-well-specific long-term annual mean water level (WL) as well as a transformed form (WLt). The latter was obtained by assuming a hypothetical GHG transfer function and is linearly related to GHG emissions. Our results demonstrate that model calibration on WLt is superior. It increases the explained variance of the water level in the sensitive range for GHG emissions and avoids model bias in subsequent GHG upscaling. The final model explained 45% of WLt variance and was built on nine predictor variables that are based on information about land cover, peatland characteristics, drainage network, topography and climatic boundary conditions. Their individual effects on WLt and the observed parameter interactions provide insight into natural and anthropogenic boundary conditions that control water levels in organic soils. Our study also demonstrates that a large fraction of the observed WLt variance cannot be explained by nationally available predictor variables and

  15. The role of water in cooling ignimbrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keating, Gordon N.

    2005-04-01

    A summary of observational literature on ignimbrites provides the basis for the development of a two-dimensional numerical model of ignimbrite cooling processes. Factors include emplacement conditions, post-emplacement processes, and the nature and timing of interactions with water during cooling. The model uses the multiphase finite element heat and mass transfer (FEHM) code, which has been enhanced to handle conditions up to 1500 °C. The instantaneous emplacement of a 750 °C ignimbrite with internal gas pressures of up to 0.5 MPa (lithostatic) has a great effect on the variably saturated substrate. A water table present within a few tens of meters of the base of the ignimbrite produces a region of high pressure and temperature that exists for about 20 years, driving vapor upward through the ignimbrite as diffuse flow and in gas escape structures and enhancing cooling at the base of the ignimbrite. Variations in initial gas pressure between atmospheric and lithostatic conditions have little effect on the thermal evolution. The results of the numerical modeling of 20- and 40-m-thick ignimbrites indicate that, even for moderate pore water saturations in the substrate, vaporization and resultant pressurization may exceed lithostatic confining pressures in the upper substrate and basal ignimbrite, and explosive pressure release may occur, resulting in the development of discrete fumarole conduits or phreatic explosions. The likelihood for explosive pressure release appears to be greater when the nominal ignimbrite thickness is on the order of the depth of a buried valley. The pressure buildup is enhanced by the geometry of the ignimbrite-substrate interface, especially at convex corners such as on the edges of a buried valley. The boiling zones at the top and bottom of a cooling ignimbrite involve the development of a heat-pipe, which provides an efficient means of transporting heat from the superheated tephra out tens of meters into the ambient environment. The

  16. Water Purifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The Floatron water purifier combines two space technologies - ionization for water purification and solar electric power generation. The water purification process involves introducing ionized minerals that kill microorganisms like algae and bacteria. The 12 inch unit floats in a pool while its solar panel collects sunlight that is converted to electricity. The resulting current energizes a specially alloyed mineral electrode below the waterline, causing release of metallic ions into the water. The electrode is the only part that needs replacing, and water purified by the system falls within EPA drinking water standards.

  17. Water tight.

    PubMed

    Postel, S

    1993-01-01

    Many cities worldwide have gone beyond the limits of their water supply. Growing urban populations increase their demand for water, thereby straining local water supplies and requiring engineers to seek our even more distant water sources. It is costly to build and maintain reservoirs, canals, pumping stations, pipes, sewers, and treatment plants. Water supply activities require much energy and chemicals, thereby contributing to environmental pollution. Many cities are beginning to manage the water supply rather than trying to keep up with demand. Pumping ground water for Mexico City's 18 million residents (500,000 people added/year) surpasses natural replenishment by 50% to 80%, resulting in falling water tables and compressed aquifers. Mexico City now ambitiously promotes replacement of conventional toilets with 1.6 gallon toilets (by late 1991, this had saved almost 7.4 billion gallons of water/year). Continued high rural-urban migration and high birth rates could negate any savings, however. Waterloo, Ontario, has also used conservation efforts to manage water demand. These efforts include retrofit kits to make plumbing fixtures more efficient, efficiency standards for plumbing fixtures, and reduction of water use outdoors. San Jose, California, has distributed water savings devices to about 220,000 households with a 90% cooperation rate. Boston, Massachusetts, not only promoted water saving devices but also repaired leaks and had an information campaign. Increasing water rates to actually reflect true costs also leads to water conservation, but not all cities in developing countries use water meters. All households in Edmonton, Alberta, are metered and its water use is 1/2 of that of Calgary, where only some households are metered. Tucson, Arizona, reduced per capita water use 16% by raising water rates and curbing water use on hot days. Bogor, Indonesia, reduced water use almost 30% by increasing water rates. In the US, more and more states are mandating use

  18. Branding water.

    PubMed

    Dolnicar, Sara; Hurlimann, Anna; Grün, Bettina

    2014-06-15

    Branding is a key strategy widely used in commercial marketing to make products more attractive to consumers. With the exception of bottled water, branding has largely not been adopted in the water context although public acceptance is critical to the implementation of water augmentation projects. Based on responses from 6247 study participants collected between 2009 and 2012, this study shows that (1) different kinds of water - specifically recycled water, desalinated water, tap water and rainwater from personal rainwater tanks - are each perceived very differently by the public, (2) external events out of the control of water managers, such as serious droughts or floods, had a minimal effect on people's perceptions of water, (3) perceptions of water were stable over time, and (4) certain water attributes are anticipated to be more effective to use in public communication campaigns aiming at increasing public acceptance for drinking purposes. The results from this study can be used by a diverse range of water stakeholders to increase public acceptance and adoption of water from alternative sources. PMID:24742528

  19. Water Underground

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Graaf, I. E. M.

    2014-12-01

    The world's largest accessible source of freshwater is hidden underground. However it remains difficult to estimate its volume, and we still cannot answer the question; will there be enough for everybody? In many places of the world groundwater abstraction is unsustainable: more water is used than refilled, leading to decreasing river discharges and declining groundwater levels. It is predicted that for many regions in the world unsustainable water use will increase in the coming decades, due to rising human water use under a changing climate. It would not take long before water shortage causes widespread droughts and the first water war begins. Improving our knowledge about our hidden water is the first step to prevent such large water conflicts. The world's largest aquifers are mapped, but these maps do not mention how much water these aquifers contain or how fast water levels decline. If we can add thickness and geohydrological information to these aquifer maps, we can estimate how much water is stored and its flow direction. Also, data on groundwater age and how fast the aquifer is refilled is needed to predict the impact of human water use and climate change on the groundwater resource. Ultimately, if we can provide this knowledge water conflicts will focus more on a fair distribution instead of absolute amounts of water.

  20. Branding water

    PubMed Central

    Dolnicar, Sara; Hurlimann, Anna; Grün, Bettina

    2014-01-01

    Branding is a key strategy widely used in commercial marketing to make products more attractive to consumers. With the exception of bottled water, branding has largely not been adopted in the water context although public acceptance is critical to the implementation of water augmentation projects. Based on responses from 6247 study participants collected between 2009 and 2012, this study shows that (1) different kinds of water – specifically recycled water, desalinated water, tap water and rainwater from personal rainwater tanks – are each perceived very differently by the public, (2) external events out of the control of water managers, such as serious droughts or floods, had a minimal effect on people's perceptions of water, (3) perceptions of water were stable over time, and (4) certain water attributes are anticipated to be more effective to use in public communication campaigns aiming at increasing public acceptance for drinking purposes. The results from this study can be used by a diverse range of water stakeholders to increase public acceptance and adoption of water from alternative sources. PMID:24742528

  1. Water resources management in karst aquifers - concepts and modeling approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauter, M.; Schmidt, S.; Abusaada, M.; Reimann, T.; Liedl, R.; Kordilla, J.; Geyer, T.

    2011-12-01

    Water resources management schemes generally imply the availability of a spectrum of various sources of water with a variability of quantity and quality in space and time, and the availability and suitability of storage facilities to cover various demands of water consumers on quantity and quality. Aquifers are generally regarded as suitable reservoirs since large volumes of water can be stored in the subsurface, water is protected from contamination and evaporation and the underground passage assists in the removal of at least some groundwater contaminants. Favorable aquifer properties include high vertical hydraulic conductivities for infiltration, large storage coefficients and not too large hydraulic gradients / conductivities. The latter factors determine the degree of discharge, i.e. loss of groundwater. Considering the above criteria, fractured and karstified aquifers appear to not really fulfill the respective conditions for storage reservoirs. Although infiltration capacity is relatively high, due to low storativity and high hydraulic conductivities, the small quantity of water stored is rapidly discharged. However, for a number of specific conditions, even karst aquifers are suitable for groundwater management schemes. They can be subdivided into active and passive management strategies. Active management options include strategies such as overpumping, i.e. the depletion of the karst water resources below the spring outflow level, the construction of subsurface dams to prevent rapid discharge. Passive management options include the optimal use of the discharging groundwater under natural discharge conditions. System models that include the superposition of the effect of the different compartments soil zone, epikarst, vadose and phreatic zone assist in the optimal usage of the available groundwater resources, while taking into account the different water reservoirs. The elaboration and implementation of groundwater protection schemes employing well

  2. Water resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simons, D. B.

    1975-01-01

    Applications of remote sensing technology to analysis of watersheds, snow cover, snowmelt, water runoff, soil moisture, land use, playa lakes, flooding, and water quality are summarized. Recommendations are given for further utilization of this technology.

  3. Water Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowen, H. J. M.

    1975-01-01

    Deals with water pollution in the following categories: a global view, self purification, local pollution, difficulties in chemical analysis, and remedies for water pollution. Emphasizes the extent to which man's activities have modified the cycles of certain elements. (GS)

  4. Water resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salomonson, V. V.; Rango, A.

    1973-01-01

    The application of ERTS-1 imagery to the conservation and control of water resources is discussed. The effects of exisiting geology and land use in the water shed area on the hydrologic cycle and the general characteristics of runoff are described. The effects of floods, snowcover, and glaciers are analyzed. The use of ERTS-1 imagery to map surface water and wetland areas to provide rapid inventorying over large regions of water bodies is reported.

  5. Water Resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salomonson, V. V.

    1973-01-01

    Uses of ERTS-1 imagery and data for water resources surveys and management are summarized. Areas discussed are: (1) land use and geology; (2) flood plain and flood inundation mapping; (3) snow cover mapping; (4) glacier observations; (5) data collection systems; (6) surface waters; (7) wetlands mapping; (8) water quality; (9) soil mapping; (10) phreatophyte and riparian vegetation mapping; and (11) evapotranspiration.

  6. Water Ways

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jahrling, Peter

    2007-01-01

    In many communities, schools are among the largest facilities and house the highest concentrations of daytime population. They create a huge demand for water. Even in regions with abundant water supplies, an increase in demand stresses local capacity, and water becomes more expensive. However, with the help of innovative products that reduce water…

  7. Optimization of water resources management using SWOT analysis: the case of Zakynthos Island, Ionian Sea, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diamantopoulou, P.; Voudouris, K.

    2008-03-01

    Zakynthos, an island of 408 km2 in the Ionian Sea, is completely dependent on its groundwater resources for fulfilling the demands of the water supplies. The use of groundwater resources has become particularly intensive during the last decades because of the intense urbanization, the tourist development and the irrigated land expansion that took place. The main aquifers are developed in limestones (karstic), sandstones of neogene deposits (confined) and alluvial deposits (phreatic). This paper focuses on the assessment of their hydrogeological characteristics and the groundwater quality. For this investigation, groundwater level measurements, drilling data, pumping tests and chemical analyses of groundwater samples were used. The average annual consumption that is abstracted from the aquifer systems, is 4.9 × 106 m3 year-1. The exploitable groundwater reserves were estimated to be 3.3 × 106 m3 year-1. In the last decades, the total abstractions exceed the natural recharge, due to the tourist development; therefore the aquifer systems are not used safely. The results of chemical analyses showed a deterioration of the groundwater quality. According to the analyses the shallow alluvial aquifer and the confined aquifer are polluted by nitrates at concentrations in excess of 25 mg L-1. High sulphate concentrations might be related to the dissolution of gypsum. Seawater intrusion phenomena are recorded in coastal parts of aquifer systems. The increased Cl- concentrations in karstic aquifer indicate signs of overexploitation. Strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) analysis was applied in order to evaluate the SWOT of the groundwater resources. Moreover, some recommendations are made to assist the rational management that aim at improving the sustainability of the groundwater resources of Zakynthos Island.

  8. Water Conditioner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The Aqualizer is designed to cleanse water with minimal use of chemicals by stabilizing the ions in the water. Its applications are both recreational and industrial. A non-electrical passive device, the Aqualizer operates on the principle of catalytic water conditioning. It consists of a stainless steel pipe length with a helical core and is offered in a variety of sizes depending on the quantity of water to be treated. The device is based on NASA silver ionization technology used to purify drinking water aboard the Apollo spacecraft.

  9. Water Filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    A compact, lightweight electrolytic water sterilizer available through Ambassador Marketing, generates silver ions in concentrations of 50 to 100 parts per billion in water flow system. The silver ions serve as an effective bactericide/deodorizer. Tap water passes through filtering element of silver that has been chemically plated onto activated carbon. The silver inhibits bacterial growth and the activated carbon removes objectionable tastes and odors caused by addition of chlorine and other chemicals in municipal water supply. The three models available are a kitchen unit, a "Tourister" unit for portable use while traveling and a refrigerator unit that attaches to the ice cube water line. A filter will treat 5,000 to 10,000 gallons of water.

  10. Water Purifiers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Technology developed to purify the water aboard manned spacecraft has led to a number of spinoff applications. One of them is the Ambassador line of bacteriostatic water treatment systems, which employ high grade, high absorption media to inhibit bacteria growth and remove the medicinal taste and odor of chlorine. Company President, Ray Ward, originally became interested in the technology because of the "rusty" taste of his water supply.

  11. Water Jetting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Hi-Tech Inc., a company which manufactures water jetting equipment, needed a high pressure rotating swivel, but found that available hardware for the system was unsatisfactory. They were assisted by Marshall, which had developed water jetting technology to clean the Space Shuttles. The result was a completely automatic water jetting system which cuts rock and granite and removes concrete. Labor costs have been reduced; dust is suppressed and production has been increased.

  12. Water Filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The Aquaspace H2OME Guardian Water Filter, available through Western Water International, Inc., reduces lead in water supplies. The filter is mounted on the faucet and the filter cartridge is placed in the "dead space" between sink and wall. This filter is one of several new filtration devices using the Aquaspace compound filter media, which combines company developed and NASA technology. Aquaspace filters are used in industrial, commercial, residential, and recreational environments as well as by developing nations where water is highly contaminated.

  13. Water underground

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Graaf, Inge

    2015-04-01

    The world's largest assessable source of freshwater is hidden underground, but we do not know what is happening to it yet. In many places of the world groundwater is abstracted at unsustainable rates: more water is used than being recharged, leading to decreasing river discharges and declining groundwater levels. It is predicted that for many regions of the world unsustainable water use will increase, due to increasing human water use under changing climate. It would not be long before shortage causes widespread droughts and the first water war begins. Improving our knowledge about our hidden water is the first step to stop this. The world largest aquifers are mapped, but these maps do not mention how much water they contain or how fast water levels decline. If we can add a third dimension to the aquifer maps, so a thickness, and add geohydrological information we can estimate how much water is stored. Also data on groundwater age and how fast it is refilled is needed to predict the impact of human water use and climate change on the groundwater resource.

  14. Water tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bjarke, Lisa J.

    1991-01-01

    Some of the uses of water tunnels are demonstrated through the description of the NASA Ames-Dryden Flow Visualization Facility. It is concluded that water tunnels are capable of providing a quick and inexpensive means of flow visualization and can aid in the understanding of complex fluid mechanics phenomena.

  15. Water Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    We all need clean water. People need it to grow crops and to operate factories, and for drinking and recreation. Fish and wildlife depend on ... and phosphorus make algae grow and can turn water green. Bacteria, often from sewage spills, can pollute ...

  16. Water Filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    A compact, lightweight electrolytic water filter generates silver ions in concentrations of 50 to 100 parts per billion in the water flow system. Silver ions serve as effective bactericide/deodorizers. Ray Ward requested and received from NASA a technical information package on the Shuttle filter, and used it as basis for his own initial development, a home use filter.

  17. Virginia's Waters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sevebeck, Kathryn P.; And Others

    This booklet describes the water resources in Virginia. Main sections included are: (1) "Introduction" (providing a general overview of the richness and diversity of Virginia's water resources both economic and recreational); (2) "River Basins" (illustrating the area drained by nine rivers and their tributaries); (3) "Bays" (including the…

  18. WATER TREATMENT

    DOEpatents

    Pitman, R.W.; Conley, W.R. Jr.

    1962-12-01

    An automated system for adding clarifying chemicals to water in a water treatment plant is described. To a sample of the floc suspension polyacrylamide or similar filter aid chemicals are added, and the sample is then put through a fast filter. The resulting filtrate has the requisite properties for monitoring in an optical turbidimeter to control the automated system. (AEC)

  19. Drinking Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    This encyclopedic entry deals with various aspects of microbiology as it relates to drinking water treatment. The use of microbial indicators for assessing fecal contamination is discussed as well as current national drinking water regulations (U.S. EPA) and guidelines proposed ...

  20. Ground water. [Water pollution control

    SciTech Connect

    Costle, D.M.

    1980-09-01

    There is growing evidence that the Nation's ground water is contaminated by a variety of sources. These include unprotected industrial, municipal, and radioactive disposal sites, petroleum exploration and mining activities, agricultural operations such as insecticide spraying, high de-icing salts and others. As of March 1980, more than 8000 chemical tests have been performed on well water, with chlorinated organic solvents found most frequently. Because 100 million Americans may be threatened by unfit drinking water, EPA has developed a new ground water strategy. It will enlist the help of State and local governments who already have programs under way and it will involve broad public debate and participation.

  1. Water Wars

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2012-09-11

    Sandia National Laboratories and Intel Corporation are cooperating on a project aimed at developing serious games to assist in resource planners in conducting open and participatory projects. Water Wars serves as a prototype game focused on water issues. Water Wars is a multi-player, online role-playing "serious game" combining large-scale simulation (e.g. SimCity), with strategy and interpersonal interaction (e.g. Diplomacy). The game is about water use set in present-day New Mexico. Players enact various stakeholder rolesmore » and compete for water while simultaneously cooperating to prevent environmental collapse. The gamespace utilizes immersive 3D graphics to bring the problem alive. The game integrates Intel's OpenSim visualization engine with Sandia developed agent-based and system dynamics models.« less

  2. Water Wars

    SciTech Connect

    Clark-Casey, Justin

    2012-09-11

    Sandia National Laboratories and Intel Corporation are cooperating on a project aimed at developing serious games to assist in resource planners in conducting open and participatory projects. Water Wars serves as a prototype game focused on water issues. Water Wars is a multi-player, online role-playing "serious game" combining large-scale simulation (e.g. SimCity), with strategy and interpersonal interaction (e.g. Diplomacy). The game is about water use set in present-day New Mexico. Players enact various stakeholder roles and compete for water while simultaneously cooperating to prevent environmental collapse. The gamespace utilizes immersive 3D graphics to bring the problem alive. The game integrates Intel's OpenSim visualization engine with Sandia developed agent-based and system dynamics models.

  3. Drinking Water FAQ

    MedlinePlus

    ... Water & Nutrition Camping, Hiking, Travel Drinking Water Treatment & Sanitation for Backcountry & Travel Use Emergency Disinfection of Drinking ... Drinking Water Healthy Swimming / Recreational Water Global Water, Sanitation, & Hygiene Other Uses of Water Water-related Emergencies & ...

  4. Phreatic flow on sloping soil layers from a finite source: An analytical solution

    SciTech Connect

    Filley, T.H.

    1991-09-01

    Sloping clay layers beneath percolation ponds can cause infiltrating wastewater to pond and move in directions not predicted by vertical infiltration equations. This report presents a method for estimating the potential of wastewater from percolation sumps located over sloping clay layers to interact with nearby groundwater resources. The analytical solution developed is for steady-state conditions and includes a procedure to estimate the time needed to reach steady state. The fundamental assumption used in the mathematical development requires that elevation-head gradients be much larger than pressure-head gradients. A method for testing the validity of this assumption is also included. An example calculation was performed for percolation sumps on the Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1 in Elk Hills, California. That analysis showed that, under the assumptions used, the sumps may have enabled oil field wastewater to reach groundwater resources within the adjacent San Joaquin Valley. 9 refs., 10 figs.

  5. Descent of tremor source locations before the 2014 phreatic eruption of Ontake volcano, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogiso, Masashi; Matsubayashi, Hirotoshi; Yamamoto, Tetsuya

    2015-12-01

    On 27 September 2014, Ontake volcano, in central Japan, suddenly erupted without precursory activity. We estimated and tracked the source locations of volcanic tremor associated with the eruption at high temporal resolution, using a method based on the spatial distribution of tremor amplitudes. Although the tremor source locations were not well constrained in depth, their epicenters were well located beneath the erupted crater and the summit. Tremor sources were seen to descend approximately 2 km over a period of several minutes prior to the beginning of the eruption. Detailed analysis of the time series of tremor amplitudes suggests that this descent is a robust feature. Our finding may be an important constraint for modeling the 2014 eruption of Ontake volcano as well as for monitoring activities on this and other volcanoes.

  6. 2014 Mount Ontake eruption: characteristics of the phreatic eruption as inferred from aerial observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaneko, Takayuki; Maeno, Fukashi; Nakada, Setsuya

    2016-05-01

    The sudden eruption of Mount Ontake on September 27, 2014, led to a tragedy that caused more than 60 fatalities including missing persons. In order to mitigate the potential risks posed by similar volcano-related disasters, it is vital to have a clear understanding of the activity status and progression of eruptions. Because the erupted material was largely disturbed while access was strictly prohibited for a month, we analyzed the aerial photographs taken on September 28. The results showed that there were three large vents in the bottom of the Jigokudani valley on September 28. The vent in the center was considered to have been the main vent involved in the eruption, and the vents on either side were considered to have been formed by non-explosive processes. The pyroclastic flows extended approximately 2.5 km along the valley at an average speed of 32 km/h. The absence of burned or fallen trees in this area indicated that the temperatures and destructive forces associated with the pyroclastic flow were both low. The distribution of ballistics was categorized into four zones based on the number of impact craters per unit area, and the furthest impact crater was located 950 m from the vents. Based on ballistic models, the maximum initial velocity of the ejecta was estimated to be 111 m/s. Just after the beginning of the eruption, very few ballistic ejecta had arrived at the summit, even though the eruption plume had risen above the summit, which suggested that a large amount of ballistic ejecta was expelled from the volcano several tens-of-seconds after the beginning of the eruption. This initial period was characterized by the escape of a vapor phase from the vents, which then caused the explosive eruption phase that generated large amounts of ballistic ejecta via sudden decompression of a hydrothermal reservoir.

  7. Water Pressure. Water in Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrett, Carly Sporer

    The Water in Africa Project was realized over a 2-year period by a team of Peace Corps volunteers. As part of an expanded, detailed design, resources were collected from over 90 volunteers serving in African countries, photos and stories were prepared, and standards-based learning units were created for K-12 students. This unit, "Water Pressure,"…

  8. Water Filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Seeking to find a more effective method of filtering potable water that was highly contaminated, Mike Pedersen, founder of Western Water International, learned that NASA had conducted extensive research in methods of purifying water on board manned spacecraft. The key is Aquaspace Compound, a proprietary WWI formula that scientifically blends various types of glandular activated charcoal with other active and inert ingredients. Aquaspace systems remove some substances; chlorine, by atomic adsorption, other types of organic chemicals by mechanical filtration and still others by catalytic reaction. Aquaspace filters are finding wide acceptance in industrial, commercial, residential and recreational applications in the U.S. and abroad.

  9. Water Purification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The Vision Catalyst Purifier employs the basic technology developed by NASA to purify water aboard the Apollo spacecraft. However, it also uses an "erosion" technique. The purifier kills bacteria, viruses, and algae by "catalytic corrosion." A cartridge contains a silver-impregnated alumina bed with a large surface area. The catalyst bed converts oxygen in a pool of water to its most oxidative state, killing over 99 percent of the bacteria within five seconds. The cartridge also releases into the pool low levels of ionic silver and copper through a controlled process of erosion. Because the water becomes electrochemically active, no electricity is required.

  10. The role of scenario analysis in water resources management in Yanqi Basin, Xinjiang, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, N.; Kinzelbach, W. K.; Li, W.; Dong, X.

    2011-12-01

    With the rapid increase of world population and food demand, the demand for water resources is also increasing. At the same time shifts in rain patterns due to global climate change make the water resources situation more uncertain. A global water crisis can therefore not be excluded. The socio-economic and environmental problems induced by such a water crisis are especially prominent in arid and semiarid regions. The Yanqi Basin in Xinjiang province is a typical case study in China's arid and semi-arid areas, where rainfall is scarce and evaporation is extremely high. Thus its water resources have been under great pressure to satisfy the increasing water demand of agriculture and urban and industrial expansion in the last decades. The development has been accompanied by a number of environmental problems. Yanqi Basin is an important cultivated area which is irrigated by water diverted from rivers. Because of the long-term flood irrigation and an inefficient drainage system, the groundwater level under the cultivated area rose, accelerating the phreatic evaporation and leading to increased soil salinization. Simultaneously, the water quantity and quality of Boston Lake have been impaired in past years because of the decreased river discharge and the increased salt flux contained in the drainage discharge. Thus the ecosystems depending on the inflow to and outflow from the lake suffered. The riverine forests in the downstream area were degraded due to declining groundwater levels, and aquatic life as well as downstream water users had to cope with deteriorating water quality. The big challenge for decision makers in the basin is how to balance the justified requirements of agriculture, industrial development and the ecosystem. In order to provide a scientific basis to the decision making process, a scenario analysis was adopted. Here several scenarios are proposed: the basic scenario, scenario 1, describes the status of the year 2008. A second scenario maximizes the

  11. Water Spout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenslade, Thomas B.

    2013-02-01

    During the AAPT summer meeting at Creighton University in 2011, Vacek Miglus and I took pictures of early apparatus at the Creighton physics department. The apparatus in the left-hand picture, shown with the spigot closed, appeared to be a liquid-level device: the water level was the same in both the narrow tube and the flaring glass vase. However, when I came back nine months later to give a talk about the apparatus, I realized that it was really an early Bernoulli effect demonstration. In the right-hand picture the spigot is open and water can be seen coming out of the spout. The water level in the narrow tube has fallen appreciably, thus showing that the pressure at this point has decreased, in agreement with the non-zero velocity of the water in the horizontal tube. The device was made ca. 1880 by E. S. Ritchie of Boston, MA. (Photos by Thomas B. Greenslade Jr.)

  12. WATER ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This review covers developments in water analysis from November 1996 to the end of October 1998, as found in the Chemical Abstracts Service CA Selects for gas chromatography, mass spectrometry, inorganic analytical chemistry, and pollution monitoring. In addition, because develop...

  13. Coconut Water

    MedlinePlus

    ... pregnancy and breast-feeding. Stay on the safe side and avoid use. High blood pressure: Coconut water might lower blood pressure. It can increase the effects of medications used to lower blood pressure. Discuss your use ...

  14. Coconut Water

    MedlinePlus

    ... potassium, sodium, and magnesium. Because of this electrolyte composition, there is a lot of interest in using ... dehydration. But some experts suggest that the electrolyte composition in coconut water is not adequate to be ...

  15. WATER QUALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This manual was develped to provide an overview of microfiltration and ultrafiltration technology for operators, administrators, engineers, scientists, educators, and anyone seeking an introduction to these processes. Chapters on theory, water quality, applications, design, equip...

  16. Water quality.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Steele, T.D.; Stefan, H.G.

    1979-01-01

    Significant contributions in the broad area of water quality over the quadrennium 1975-78 are highlighted. This summare is concerned primarily with physical and chemical aspects of water quality. The diversity of subject areas within the topic heading and the large volume of published research results necessitated the selection of representative contributions. Over 400 references are cited which are believed to be indicative of general trends in research and of the more important developments during this period.- from Authors

  17. Monitoring and Analysis of Transient Pore Water Pressures in Large Suspended Rock Slides near Poschiavo, CH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Palézieux, Larissa; Loew, Simon; Zwahlen, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Many mountain slopes in the Alps exhibit large compound rock slides or Deep Seated Gravitational Slope Deformations. Due to the basal rupture plane geometry and the cumulative displacement magnitude such landslide bodies are often strongly deformed, highly fractured and - at least locally - very permeable. This can lead to high infiltration rates and low phreatic groundwater tables. This is also the situation in the studied mountain slopes southwest of Poschiavo, where large suspended rockslides occur, with very little surface runoff at high elevations, and torrents developing only at the elevation of the basal rupture planes. Below the landslide toes, at altitudes below ca. 1700 m a.s.l., groundwater appears forming spring lines or distributed spring clusters. Within the scope of the design of a hydropower pump storage plant in the Poschiavo valley by Lagobianco SA (Repower AG), numerous cored and deep boreholes (of 50 to 300 m depth) have been drilled along the planned pressure tunnel alignement at elevations ranging from 963 to 2538 m a.s.l. in the years 2010 and 2012. In several boreholes Lugeon and transient pressure tests were executed and pore water pressure sensors installed in short monitoring sections at various depths. Most of these boreholes intersect deep rockslides in crystalline rocks and limestones, showing highly fragmented rock masses and cohesionless cataclastic shear zones of several tens of meters thickness. This study explores these borehole observations in landslides and adjacent stable slopes and links them to the general hydrologic and hydrogeologic framework. The analysis of the pore water pressure data shows significant variability in seasonal trends and short-term events (from snow melt and summer rain storms) and remarkable pressure differences over short horizontal and vertical distances. This reflects rock mass damage within landslide bodies and important sealing horizons at their base. Based on water balances, the estimated effective

  18. ESW 2009: Water, Water Everywhere

    NASA Video Gallery

    Water is all around us, and its importance to nearly every natural process on earth cannot be underestimated. It is vital to life, but it is also tightly coupled to climate, helping to carry heat f...

  19. Total Water Management - slides

    EPA Science Inventory

    Total Water Management (TWM) examines urban water systems in an interconnected manner. It encompasses reducing water demands, increasing water recycling and reuse, creating water supply assets from stormwater management, matching water quality to end-use needs, and achieving envi...

  20. Water availability, water quality water governance: the future ahead

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tundisi, J. G.; Matsumura-Tundisi, T.; Ciminelli, V. S.; Barbosa, F. A.

    2015-04-01

    The major challenge for achieving a sustainable future for water resources and water security is the integration of water availability, water quality and water governance. Water is unevenly distributed on Planet Earth and these disparities are cause of several economic, ecological and social differences in the societies of many countries and regions. As a consequence of human misuse, growth of urbanization and soil degradation, water quality is deteriorating continuously. Key components for the maintenance of water quantity and water quality are the vegetation cover of watersheds, reduction of the demand and new water governance that includes integrated management, predictive evaluation of impacts, and ecosystem services. Future research needs are discussed.

  1. Water Conservation and Water Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayanan, M.

    2014-12-01

    Water storage can be a viable part of the solution to water conservation. This means that we should include reservoirs. Regardless, one should evaluate all aspects of water conservation principles. Recent drought in California indicates that there is an urgent need to re-visit the techniques used to maintain the water supply-chain mechanism in the entire state. We all recognize the fact that fish and wildlife depend on the streams, rivers and wetlands for survival. It is a well-known fact that there is an immediate need to provide solid protection to all these resources. Laws and regulations should help meet the needs of natural systems. Farmers may be forced to drilling wells deeper than ever. But, they will be eventually depleting groundwater reserves. Needless to say that birds, fish and wildlife cannot access these groundwater table. California is talking a lot about conservation. Unfortunately, the conservation efforts have not established a strong visible hold. The Environmental Protection Agency has a plan called E2PLAN (Narayanan, 2012). It is EPA's plan for achieving energy and environmental performance, leadership, accountability, and carbon neutrality. In June 2011, the EPA published a comprehensive, multi-year planning document called Strategic Sustainability Performance Plan. The author has previously reported these in detail at the 2012 AGU fall meeting. References: Ziegler, Jay (15 JUNE 2014). The Conversation: Water conservation efforts aren't taking hold, but there are encouraging signs. THE SACRAMENTO BEE. California. Narayanan, Mysore. (2012). The Importance of Water Conservation in the 21st Century. 72nd AGU International Conference. Eos Transactions: American Geophysical Union, Vol. 92, No. 56, Fall Meeting Supplement, 2012. H31I - 1255.http://www.sacbee.com/2014/06/15/6479862/jay-ziegler-water-conservation.html#storylink=cpy

  2. Water Hyacinth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An important new reference book entitled the “Encyclopedia of Invasive Introduced Species” is being published by the University of California Press. We were invited to provide a chapter on water hyacinth, which is the world’s worst aquatic weed. In this chapter, we provide information on the origi...

  3. Water Spout

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    During the AAPT summer meeting at Creighton University in 2011, Vacek Miglus and I took pictures of early apparatus at the Creighton physics department. The apparatus in the left-hand picture, shown with the spigot closed, appeared to be a liquid-level device: the water level was the same in both the narrow tube and the flaring glass vase.…

  4. Water Filtration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobsen, Erica K.

    2004-01-01

    A water filtration column is devised by students using a two-liter plastic bottle containing gravel, sand, and activated charcoal, to test the filtration potential of the column. Results indicate that the filtration column eliminates many of the contaminating materials, but does not kill bacteria.

  5. Artificial groundwater recharge as integral part of a water resources system in a humid environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kupfersberger, Hans; Stadler, Hermann

    2010-05-01

    In Graz, Austria, artificial groundwater recharge has been operated as an integral part of the drinking water supply system for more than thirty years. About 180 l/s of high quality water from pristine creeks (i.e. no pre-treatment necessary) are infiltrated via sand and lawn basins and infiltration trenches into two phreatic aquifers to sustain the extraction of approximately 400 l/s. The remaining third of drinking water for roughly 300.000 people is provided by a remote supply line from the East alpine karst region Hochschwab. By this threefold model the water supply system is less vulnerable to external conditions. In the early 1980's the infiltration devices were also designed as a hydraulic barrier against riverbank infiltration from the river Mur, which at that time showed seriously impaired water quality due to upstream paper mills. This resulted into high iron and manganese groundwater concentrations which lead to clogging of the pumping wells. These problems have been eliminated in the meantime due to the onsite purification of paper mill effluents and the construction of many waste water treatment plants. The recharge system has recently been thoroughly examined to optimize the operation of groundwater recharge and to provide a basis for further extension. The investigations included (i) field experiments and laboratory analyses to improve the trade off between infiltration rate and elimination capacities of the sand filter basins' top layer, (ii) numerical groundwater modelling to compute the recovery rate of the recharged water, the composition of the origin of the pumped water, emergency scenarios due to the failure of system parts, the transient capture zones of the withdrawal wells and the coordination of recharge and withdrawal and (iii) development of an online monitoring setup combined with a decision support system to guarantee reliable functioning of the entire structure. Additionally, the depreciation, maintenance and operation costs of the

  6. Ground water contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    This book covers: Ground water contamination and basic concepts of water law; Federal law governing water contamination and remediation; Ground water flow and contaminant migration; Ground water cleanup under CERCLA; Technical methods of remediation and prevention of contamination; Liability for ground water contamination; State constraints on contamination of ground water; Water quantity versus water quality; Prevention of use of contaminated ground water as an alternative to remediation; Economic considerations in liability for ground water contamination; and Contamination, extraction, and injection issues.

  7. Bottled Water and Fluoride

    MedlinePlus

    ... Fluoridation Journal Articles for Community Water Fluoridation Bottled Water Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Consumers drink ... questions about bottled water and fluoride. Does bottled water contain fluoride? Bottled water products may contain fluoride, ...

  8. Environmental water requirements of groundwater dependent ecosystems: conflict between nature and man

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witczak, S.; Kania, J.; Rozanski, K.; Wachniew, P.; Zurek, A.; Dulinski, M.

    2012-04-01

    new pumping wells has been set up close to the northern border of Niepolomice Forest. There is a growing concern that exploitation of those wells may lead to lowering of water table in the Niepolomice Forest area and, as a consequence, trigger drastic changes of this unique groundwater dependent ecosystem. In order to quantify dynamics of groundwater flow in the area of the Niepolomice Forest and Wielkie Bloto fen, physicochemical parameters and concentrations of environmental tracers (stable isotopes of water, tritium, radiocarbon) were measured in wells located in the recharge area of the Bogucice Sands aquifer and in the newly established wellfield. Also, surface water appearances in the area of Wielkie Bloto fen were investigated. To detect potential discharge of deeper groundwater in the area of Wielkie Bloto fen a dedicated Geoprobe sampling of water from different levels of shallow phreatic aquifer was performed for chemical and isotope analyses. Appropriate modeling runs of the existing 3D flow and transport model of the Bogucice Sands aquifer were also made to investigate possible impact of the newly establish wellfield on the groundwater flow in the Niepolomice Forest area. The chemical and isotope data available to date indicate that in the recharge area, upstream of Wielkie Bloto fen groundwater is relatively young. Presence of appreciable amounts of tritium points to recharge in the past several decades. Radiocarbon content fluctuates between 48 and 65 pmc. In contrast, in the newly established wellfield tritium is absent while radiocarbon content drops to a few pmc. Significant age of groundwater in this area is confirmed by stable isotopes of water revealing characteristic shift towards more negative delta values indicating glacial origin of water. The work was carried out as part of the GENESIS project on groundwater systems (http:/www.thegenesisproject.eu) financed by the European Commission 7FP contract 226536 and the statutory funds of the AGH

  9. Environmental water requirements of groundwater dependent ecosystems: conflict between nature and man

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witczak, S.; Kania, J.; Rozanski, K.; Wachniew, P.; Zurek, A.; Dulinski, M.

    2012-04-01

    new pumping wells has been set up close to the northern border of Niepolomice Forest. There is a growing concern that exploitation of those wells may lead to lowering of water table in the Niepolomice Forest area and, as a consequence, trigger drastic changes of this unique groundwater dependent ecosystem. In order to quantify dynamics of groundwater flow in the area of the Niepolomice Forest and Wielkie Bloto fen, physicochemical parameters and concentrations of environmental tracers (stable isotopes of water, tritium, radiocarbon) were measured in wells located in the recharge area of the Bogucice Sands aquifer and in the newly established wellfield. Also, surface water appearances in the area of Wielkie Bloto fen were investigated. To detect potential discharge of deeper groundwater in the area of Wielkie Bloto fen a dedicated Geoprobe sampling of water from different levels of shallow phreatic aquifer was performed for chemical and isotope analyses. Appropriate modeling runs of the existing 3D flow and transport model of the Bogucice Sands aquifer were also made to investigate possible impact of the newly establish wellfield on the groundwater flow in the Niepolomice Forest area. The chemical and isotope data available to date indicate that in the recharge area, upstream of Wielkie Bloto fen groundwater is relatively young. Presence of appreciable amounts of tritium points to recharge in the past several decades. Radiocarbon content fluctuates between 48 and 65 pmc. In contrast, in the newly established wellfield tritium is absent while radiocarbon content drops to a few pmc. Significant age of groundwater in this area is confirmed by stable isotopes of water revealing characteristic shift towards more negative delta values indicating glacial origin of water. The work was carried out as part of the GENESIS project on groundwater systems (http:/www.thegenesisproject.eu) financed by the European Commission 7FP contract 226536 and the statutory funds of the AGH

  10. Water resources data, Louisiana, water year 2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baumann, Todd; Goree, B.B.; Lovelace, W.M.; Montogmery, P.A.; Resweber, J.C.; Ross, Garron B.; Ward, Aub N.; Walters, David J.

    2005-01-01

    Water resources data for the 2004 water year for Louisiana consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage, contents, and water quality of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground water. This report contains records for water discharge at 77 gaging stations; stage only for 86 gaging stations and 7 lakes; water quality for 60 surface-water stations (including 42 gaging stations) and 112 wells; and water levels for 304 observation wells. Also included are data for 158 crest-stage and flood-profile partial-record stations. Additional water data were collected at various sites not included in the systematic data-collection program, and are published as miscellaneous measurements. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Louisiana.

  11. Water Resources Data, Louisiana, Water Year 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goree, B.B.; Lovelace, W.M.; Montgomery, P.A.; Resweber, J.C.; Labbe, Charles K.; Walters, David J.

    2003-01-01

    Water resources data for the 2002 water year for Louisiana consists of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage, contents, and water quality of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground water. This report contains records for water discharge at 85 gaging stations; stage only for 79 gaging stations and 7 lakes; water quality for 52 surface-water stations (including 40 gaging stations) and 104 wells; and water levels for 300 observation wells. Also included are data for 143 crest-stage and flood-profile partial-record stations. Additional water data were collected at various sites not included in the systematic data-collection program, and are published as miscellaneous measurements. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Louisiana.

  12. Water Resources Data, Louisiana, Water Year 2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goree, B.B.; Lovelace, W.M.; Montgomery, P.A.; Resweber, J.C.; Sasser, D.C., Jr.; Walters, David J.

    2002-01-01

    Water resources data for the 2001 water year for Louisiana consists of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage, contents, and water quality of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground water. This report contains records for water discharge at 71 gaging stations; stage only for 73 gaging stations and 7 lakes; water quality for 66 surface-water stations (including 39 gaging stations) and 92 wells; and water levels for 205 observation wells. Also included are data for 166 crest-stage and flood-profile partial-record stations. Additional water data were collected at various sites not included in the systematic data-collection program, and are published as miscellaneous measurements. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Louisiana.

  13. Water resources data, Louisiana, water year 2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baumann, Todd; Goree, B.B.; Lovelace, W.M.; Montgomery, P.A.; Resweber, J.C.; Ross, Garron B.; Sasser, D.C., Jr.; Walters, D.J.

    2004-01-01

    Water resources data for the 2003 water year for Louisiana consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage, contents, and water quality of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground water. This report contains records for water discharge at 76 gaging stations; stage only for 86 gaging stations and 7 lakes; water quality for 56 surface-water stations (including 44 gaging stations) and 142 wells; and water levels for 313 observation wells. Also included are data for 158 crest-stage and flood-profile partial-record stations. Additional water data were collected at various sites not included in the systematic data-collection program, and are published as miscellaneous measurements. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating Federal and State agencies in Louisiana.

  14. Water Resources Data, Louisiana, Water Year 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goree, B.B.; Lovelace, W.M.; Montgomery, P.A.; Resweber, J.C.; Sasser, D.C., Jr.; Walters, David J.

    2001-01-01

    Water resources data for the 2000 water year for Louisiana consists of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage, contents, and water quality of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground water. This report contains records for water discharge at 66 gaging stations; stage only for 70 gaging stations and 7 lakes; water quality for 45 surface-water stations (including 25 gaging stations) and 108 wells; and water levels for 221 observation wells. Also included are data for 204 crest-stage and flood-profile partial-record stations. Additional water data were collected at various sites not included in the systematic data-collection program, and are published as miscellaneous measurements. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Louisiana.

  15. Water Wise: A Water Use Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Reclamation (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    This guide for elementary school students deals with the importance of and the uses of water, especially in the western United States. Topics covered include the importance of water as a resource; the need for conservation; water storage through dams and reservoirs; irrigation; the lack of water in the old West; the uses of water for cities and…

  16. Water Purification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Silver ionization water purification technology was originally developed for Apollo spacecraft. It was later used to cleanse swimming pools and has now been applied to industrial cooling towers and process coolers. Sensible Technologies, Inc. has added two other technologies to the system, which occupies only six square feet. It is manufactured in three capacities, and larger models are custom built on request. The system eliminates scale, corrosion, algae, bacteria and debris, and because of the NASA technology, viruses and waterborne bacteria are also destroyed. Applications include a General Motors cooling tower, amusement parks, ice manufacture and a closed-loop process cooling system.

  17. Principles of Water Quality

    SciTech Connect

    Waite, T.D.

    1984-01-01

    CONTENTS: Introduction to Water Quality Concepts. Natural Environmental Processes. Toxic Metals as Factors in Water Quality. Refractory Organic Compounds. Nutrients, Productivity, and Eutrophication. Microbes and Water Quality. Thermal Effects and Water Quality. Air Quality. Water Quality Interactions. Introduction to Water Quality Modeling. Water Quality Standards, and Management Approaches.

  18. Be Water Wise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birch, Sandra K.; Pettus, Alvin M.

    Various topics on water and water conservation are discussed, each general topic followed by a student activity. Topics include: (1) importance of water; (2) water in the environment; (3) getting water to and from homes (making water usable; treating wastewater; on-site systems, including water wells and septic tanks); (4) relationship between…

  19. Water, Ohio's Remarkable Resource.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groves, Carrie J.

    Information on water and water resources in Ohio is presented in seven sections. Water from Ohio streams, water storage, lakes in Ohio, and ground water are discussed in the first section ("Water, A Part of the Earth"). A brief discussion on the ecosystem is provided in the second section ("Water and Life"). Topics discussed in the third section…

  20. Water resources data, Arizona, water year 2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fisk, G.G.; Duet, N.R.; McGuire, E.H.; Angeroth, C.E.; Castillo, N.K.; Smith, C.F.

    2005-01-01

    The USGS Arizona Water Science Center water data report includes records on both surface water and ground water in the State for water year 2004. Specifically, it contains: (1) Discharge records for 206 streamflow-gaging stations and 21 crest-stage, partial-record streamflow stations; (2) stage and (or) content records for 8 lakes and reservoirs; (3) water-quality records for 20 streamflow-gaging stations; (4) ground-water levels and compaction values for 14 stations; and (5) water levels for 18 wells.

  1. Water Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Mike Morris, former Associate Director of STAC, formed pHish Doctor, Inc. to develop and sell a pH monitor for home aquariums. The monitor, or pHish Doctor, consists of a sensor strip and color chart that continually measures pH levels in an aquarium. This is important because when the level gets too high, ammonia excreted by fish is highly toxic; at low pH, bacteria that normally break down waste products stop functioning. Sales have run into the tens of thousands of dollars. A NASA Tech Brief Technical Support Package later led to a salt water version of the system and a DoE Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) grant for development of a sensor for sea buoys. The company, now known as Ocean Optics, Inc., is currently studying the effects of carbon dioxide buildup as well as exploring other commercial applications for the fiber optic sensor.

  2. Water resources data, Nebraska, water year 2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hitch, D. E., (compiler); Soensken, P.J.; Sebree, S.K.; Wilson, K.E.; Walczyk, V.C.; Drudik, R.A.; Miller, J.D.; Hull, S.H.

    2005-01-01

    The Nebraska water resources data report for water year 2004 includes records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; water elevation and/or contents of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and quality of ground water in wells. This report contains records of stream stage for 3 stations; stream discharge for 101 continuous and 5 crest-stage gaging stations, and 6 miscellaneous sites; stream water quality for 7 gaging stations and 40 miscellaneous sites; water elevation and/or contents for 2 lakes and 1 reservoir; ground-water levels for 74 observation wells; and ground-water quality for 200 wells. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System collected in and near Nebraska by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating Federal, State, and local agencies.

  3. Water Resources Data, Nebraska, Water Year 2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hitch, D.E.; Hull, S.H.; Walczyk, V.C.; Miller, J.D.; Drudik, R.A.

    2004-01-01

    The Nebraska water resources data report for water year 2003 includes records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; water elevation and/or contents of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and quality of ground water in wells. This report contains records of stream stage for 3 stations; stream discharge for 103 continuous and 5 crest-stage gaging stations, and 5 miscellaneous sites; stream water quality for 14 gaging stations and 5 miscellaneous sites; water elevation and/or contents for 2 lakes and 1 reservoir; ground-water levels for 40 observation wells; and ground-water quality for 132 wells. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System collected in and near Nebraska by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating local, State, and Federal agencies.

  4. Water resources data, Alaska, water year 2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meyer, D.F.; Best, H.R.; Host, R.H.; Murray, R.P.; Solin, G.L.

    2005-01-01

    Water resources data for the 2004 water year for Alaska consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stages of lakes; and water levels and water quality of ground water. This volume contains records for water discharge at 115 gaging stations; stage or contents only at 3 gaging stations; water quality at 39 gaging stations; and water levels for 26 observation wells. Also included are data for 55 crest-stage partial-record stations. Additional water data were collected at various sites not involved in the systematic data-collection program and are published as miscellaneous measurements and analyses. Some data collected during 2004 will be published in subsequent reports. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Alaska.

  5. Lead and tap water

    MedlinePlus

    Water contaminated with lead ... The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) monitors drinking water in the United States. It requires water suppliers to produce annual water quality reports. These reports include information about lead amounts, and they ...

  6. Lead and tap water

    MedlinePlus

    Water contaminated with lead ... The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) monitors drinking water and requires water suppliers to produce annual water quality reports. These reports, which include information about lead amounts, are available to consumers. For ...

  7. Why Do Eyes Water?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Help White House Lunch Recipes Why Do Eyes Water? KidsHealth > For Kids > Why Do Eyes Water? Print ... out of your nose. continue Why Do Eyes Water? Eyes water for lots of different reasons besides ...

  8. Water chemistry and poultry processing water quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study examined the influences of water chemistry on the quality of process water used in immersion chillers. During commercial poultry processing the bird carcasses come in direct contact with process water during washing and chilling operations. Contamination of the process water with bacteria...

  9. Water Resources Data, Arizona, Water Year 2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fisk, G.G.; Duet, N.R.; Evans, D.W.; Angeroth, C.E.; Castillo, N.K.; Longsworth, S.A.

    2004-01-01

    The Arizona District water data report includes records on both surface water and ground water in the State for water year 2003. Specifically, it contains: (1) discharge records for 203 streamflow-gaging stations, for 29 crest-stage, partial-record streamflow stations, and 50 miscellaneous sites; (2) stage and (or) content only records for 9 lakes and reservoirs; (3) water-quality records for 29 streamflow-gaging stations; (4) ground-water levels and compaction values for 14 stations; and (5) water levels for 19 wells.

  10. Everyone into the Water!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hennessey, Christina L.

    2007-01-01

    As the days grow longer and warmer with the approach of summer, everyone's thoughts turn to the outdoors and the clear blue of water sports. While recreational choices range from in-the-water activities like water polo to under-the-water sports like free diving, and on-the-water diversions like water skiing, this article focuses on print, video,…

  11. Testing the Waters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finks, Mason

    1993-01-01

    Provides information about home drinking water treatment systems to address concerns about the safety and quality of drinking water. Discusses water testing, filtration, product options and selection, water testing resources, water treatment device guidelines, water analysis terminology, and laboratory selection. (MCO)

  12. DISINFECTION OF WATER: DRINKING WATER, RECREATIONAL WATER, AND WASTEWATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    This chapter describes and categorizes the methodology used for disinfection of drinking water, recreational water and wastewater including wastewater sludges. It largely is a literature summary and references articles covering the years of 1939 through 1999, with a few reference...

  13. Geological Implications on the Different Products of Submarine Volcanism in Sangihe Waters : View from the Rov (Remotely Operated Vehicles)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Priyadi, B.; Basuki, N.; Abidin, H.; Permana, H.; Handayani, L.; Wirasantosa, S.; Nganro, N.; Djamaluddin, R.; Ch. Kusuma, L.; Ratna Setyawidati, N.; Makarim, S.; Solihudin, T.

    2010-12-01

    Index Satal 2010, a joint marine research of Indonesia - USA, was realized in June-August 2010 to explore the deep sea of the Sangihe - Talaud Waters of Indonesia. This research was conducted by RV Baruna Jaya-4 and RV Okeanos Explorer of NOAA. Beside conducting multi beam imagery, RV Okeanos Explorer produced photos and video of the selected sites through high definition cameras mounted on an ROV operated from onboard RV Okeanos Explorer. The following discussion were based on ROV observation concerning the occurrence of volcanic products in the dive sites. Two submarine volcanoes (Naung and Kawio Barat), indicate various textures of submarine volcanic products from which magmatic composition and eruption types can be inferred. Lava is mostly observed around Kawio Barat and reflecting slightly coarse grained, thick and less structured, and in some spots flow textures could be observed especially in rough morphology. The overlying lavas show finer grain size with relatively shinny surface and darker color and supposedly having less contents of silica as it forms pillow and sheeting joint structures. The rock composition is presumably basaltic and is related with the subduction systems of the Sangihe arc. The coarser lavas might be more andesitic in composition, hence they are originated from the more differentiated magma chamber. This phenomenon indicates a change of magmatic composition from more differentiated magma to the less differentiated one. Geologically, this observation may indicate new formation of magma that may be related with the increasing intensity of subduction activity. Volcanic products around Naung are observed as pyroclastic covers on basaltic lavas. Pyroclastics present as lapilli deposit in light to dark brown colors forming stratification of 2 cm to 30 cm thick and unconsolidated clastic materials. The occurrence of pebble-size fragments of igneous rocks associated with pyroclastics indicate a phreatic to phreato-magmatic explosions of the

  14. Smart Water: Energy-Water Optimization in Drinking Water Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project aims to develop and commercialize a Smart Water Platform – Sensor-based Data-driven Energy-Water Optimization technology in drinking water systems. The key technological advances rely on cross-platform data acquisition and management system, model-based real-time sys...

  15. Water, Water Everywhere: Phase Diagrams of Ordinary Water Substance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glasser, L.

    2004-01-01

    The full phase diagram of water in the form of a graphical representation of the three-dimensional (3D) PVT diagram using authentic data is presented. An interesting controversy regarding the phase behavior of water was the much-touted proposal of a solid phase of water, polywater, supposedly stable under atmospheric conditions.

  16. Water resources data, Kentucky, water year 2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McClain, Dennis L.; Moses, Clifford R.; Darnell, Roy S.

    2005-01-01

    Water resources data for the 2004 water year for Kentucky consist of records of stage, discharge, and water-quality of streams and lakes; and water levels of wells. This report includes daily discharge records for 131 stream-stations. It also includes water-quality data for 15 stations sampled at regular intervals, continuous temperature at 7 stations, and continuous water-quality at 11 stations. Ground-water levels are published for 8 recording and 22 partial record sites. Precipitation data at a regular interval are published for two sites. Additional water data were collected at various sites not involved in the systematic data-collection program and are published as miscellaneous measurements and analyses. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Kentucky.

  17. Water Resources Data, Kentucky, Water Year 2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McClain, D.L.; Brown, A.C.; Moses, C.R.; Darnell, R.S.

    2004-01-01

    Water resources data for the 2003 water year for Kentucky consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams and lakes; and water levels of wells. This report includes daily discharge records for 127 stream-gaging stations. It also includes water-quality data for eight stations sampled at regular intervals, continuous temperature at seven stations, and continuous water quality at nine stations. Ground-water levels are published for 8 recording and 16 partial-record sites. Precipitation data at regular intervals are published for one site. Additional water data were collected at various sites not involved in the systematic data-collection program and are published as miscellaneous measurement and analyses. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Kentucky.

  18. Water Resources Data, Kentucky, Water Year 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McClain, D.L.; Byrd, F.D.; Brown, A.C.; Moses, C.R.

    2003-01-01

    Water resources data for the 2002 water year for Kentucky consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams and lakes; and water levels of wells. This report includes daily discharge records for 120 streamgaging stations. It also includes water-quality data for eight stations sampled at regular intervals, continuous temperature at four stations, and continuous water quality at nine stations. Ground-water levels are published for 8 recording and 23 partial-record sites. Precipitation data at regular intervals are published for one site. Additional water data were collected at various sites not involved in the systematic data-collection program and are published as miscellaneous measurement and analyses. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Kentucky.

  19. Water Resources Data, Utah, Water Year 1989

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ReMillard, M.D.; Herbert, L.R.; Sandberg, G.W.; Birdwell, G.A.

    1990-01-01

    Water resources data for the 1989 water year for Utah consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents of lakes and reservoirs; and water quality of ground water. This report contains discharge records for 185 gaging stations; stage and contents for 22 lakes and reservoirs; water quality for 21 hydrologic stations and 217 wells; miscellaneous temperature measurements and field determinations for 147 stations; and water levels for 29 observations wells. Additional water data were collected at various sites not involved in the systematic data collection program, and are published as miscellaneous measurements. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Utah.

  20. Quasi 3D modeling of water flow and solute transport in vadose zone and groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yakirevich, A.; Kuznetsov, M.; Weisbrod, N.; Pachepsky, Y. A.

    2013-12-01

    The complexity of subsurface flow systems calls for a variety of concepts leading to the multiplicity of simplified flow models. One commonly used simplification is based on the assumption that lateral flow and transport in unsaturated zone is insignificant unless the capillary fringe is involved. In such cases the flow and transport in the unsaturated zone above groundwater level can be simulated as a 1D phenomenon, whereas through groundwater they are viewed as 2D or 3D phenomena. A new approach for a numerical scheme for 3D variably saturated flow and transport is presented. A Quasi-3D approach allows representing flow in the 'vadose zone - aquifer' system by a series of 1D Richards' equations solved in variably-saturated zone and by 3D-saturated flow equation in groundwater (modified MODFLOW code). The 1D and 3D equations are coupled at the phreatic surface in a way that aquifer replenishment is calculated using the Richards' equation, and solving for the moving water table does not require definition of the specific yield parameter. The 3D advection-dispersion equation is solved in the entire domain by the MT3D code. Using implicit finite differences approximation to couple processes in the vadose zone and groundwater provides mass conservation and increase of computational efficiency. The above model was applied to simulate the impact of irrigation on groundwater salinity in the Alto Piura aquifer (Northern Peru). Studies on changing groundwater quality in arid and semi-arid lands show that irrigation return flow is one of the major factors contributing to aquifer salinization. Existing mathematical models do not account explicitly for the solute recycling during irrigation on a daily scale. Recycling occurs throughout the unsaturated and saturated zones, as function of the solute mass extracted from pumping wells. Salt concentration in irrigation water is calculated at each time step as a function of concentration of both surface water and groundwater

  1. Water Pollution. Project COMPSEP.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lantz, H. B., Jr.

    This is an introductory program on water pollution. Examined are the cause and effect relationships of water pollution, sources of water pollution, and possible alternatives to effect solutions from our water pollution problems. Included is background information on water pollution, a glossary of pollution terminology, a script for a slide script…

  2. Global monthly water stress: 1. Water balance and water availability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Beek, L. P. H.; Wada, Yoshihide; Bierkens, Marc F. P.

    2011-07-01

    Surface fresh water (i.e., blue water) is a vital and indispensable resource for human water use in the agricultural, industrial, and domestic sectors. In this paper, global water availability is calculated by forcing the global hydrological model PCR-GLOBWB with daily global meteorological fields for the period 1958-2001. To represent blue water availability, a prognostic reservoir operation scheme was included in order to produce monthly time series of global river discharge modulated by reservoir operations. To specify green water availability for irrigated areas, actual transpiration from the model was used. Thus, the computed water availability reflects the climatic variability over 1958-2001 and is contrasted against the monthly water demand using the year 2000 as a benchmark in the companion paper. As the water that is withdrawn to meet demand directly interferes with blue water availability along the drainage network, this paper evaluates model performance for three regimes reflecting different degrees of human interference: natural discharge, discharge regulated by reservoirs, and modified discharge. In the case of modified discharge, the net blue water demand for the year 2000 is subtracted directly from the regulated discharge, taking water demand equal to consumptive water use. Results show that model simulations of monthly river discharge compare well with observations from most of the large rivers. Exceptions are basins subject to large extractions for irrigation purposes, where simulated discharge exceeds the observations even when water demand is taken into account. Including the prognostic reservoir operation scheme results in mixed performance, with a poorer approximation of peak flows but with a marginally better simulation of low flows and persistence. A comparison of simulated actual evapotranspiration with that from the ERA-40 reanalysis as a proxy for observed rates shows similar patterns over nonirrigated areas but substantial deviations

  3. Water safety and drowning

    MedlinePlus

    ... among people of all ages. Learning and practicing water safety is important to prevent drowning accidents. ... Water safety tips for all ages include: Learn CPR Never swim alone Never dive into water unless ...

  4. Water in diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... the cells and organs need water to function. Water serves as a lubricant. It makes up saliva and the fluids surrounding the joints. Water regulates the body temperature through perspiration . It also ...

  5. Ground Water Remediation Technologies

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA's Ground Water and Ecosystems Restoration Division (GWERD) conducts research and provides technical assistance to support the development of strategies and technologies to protect and restore ground water, surface water, and ecosystems impacted by man-made and natural...

  6. Aging Water Infrastructure

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Aging Water Infrastructure (AWI) research program is part of EPA’s larger effort called the Sustainable Water Infrastructure (SI) initiative. The SI initiative brings together drinking water and wastewater utility managers; trade associations; local watershed protection organ...

  7. Jumping of water striders on water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Eunjin; Son, Jaehak; Jablonski, Piotr; Kim, Ho-Young

    2012-11-01

    Small insects such as water striders, springtails, fishing spiders freely move on water by adopting various modes of locomotion, such as rowing, galloping, jumping and meniscus-climbing. As the physics of jumping have not yet been fully understood among those ways of semi-aquatic propulsion, here we present the results of a combined experimental and theoretical investigation of the dynamics of water striders leaping off water. We first image and analyze the trajectories of the legs and body of jumping water striders of three different species with a high-speed camera. We then theoretically compute the forces acting on the body by considering the capillary interaction between the flexible legs and deforming water meniscus. Our theory enables us to predict the maximum take-off speed for given leg lengths. The experimental measurements suggest that the water striders drive their legs near the optimal speed to gain the maximum take-off speed.

  8. Water Quality of Hills Water, Supply Water and RO Water Machine at Ulu Yam Selangor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngadiman, N.; ‘I Bahari, N.; Kaamin, M.; Hamid, N. B.; Mokhtar, M.; Sahat, S.

    2016-07-01

    The rapid development resulted in the deterioration of the quality of drinking water in Malaysia. Recognizing the importance of water quality, new alternatives for drinking water such as mineral water processing from reverse osmosis (RO) machine become more popular. Hence, the demand for mineral water, natural spring water or water from the hills or mountains rose lately. More consumers believed the quality of these spring water better than other source of drinking water. However, the quality of all the drinking water sources is to meet the required quality standard. Therefore, this paper aims to measure the quality of the waters from hills, from RO machine and the water supply in Ulu Yam, Selangor Batang Kali, Malaysia. The water quality was determined based on following parameters: ammoniacal nitrogen (NH3), iron (Fe), turbidity (NTU) and pH. The results show that the water from hills has better quality compared to water supply and water from RO machine. The value of NH3 ranged from 0.03 mg/L- 0.67 mg/L; Fe was from 0.03mg/L - 0.12 mg/L, turbidity at 0.42 NTU - 0.88 NTU and pH is at 6.60 - 0.71. Based on the studied parameters, all three types of water are fit for drinking and have met the required national drinking water quality standard.

  9. Recreational Water Illness (RWI): MRSA

    MedlinePlus

    ... Work: Healthy Swimming Policy & Recommendations Fast Facts Healthy Water Sites Healthy Water Drinking Water Healthy Swimming Global ... Unlikely to be Spread Through Swimming Pools. Healthy Water Sites Healthy Water Drinking Water Healthy Swimming Global ...

  10. Healthy Swimming/Recreational Water

    MedlinePlus

    ... Index of Water-Related Topics Featured Partners Healthy Water Sites Healthy Water Drinking Water Healthy Swimming Global WASH Other Uses of Water WASH-related Emergencies & Outbreaks Water, Sanitation, & Environmentally-related ...

  11. Water-heating dehumidifier

    DOEpatents

    Tomlinson, John J.

    2006-04-18

    A water-heating dehumidifier includes a refrigerant loop including a compressor, at least one condenser, an expansion device and an evaporator including an evaporator fan. The condenser includes a water inlet and a water outlet for flowing water therethrough or proximate thereto, or is affixed to the tank or immersed into the tank to effect water heating without flowing water. The immersed condenser design includes a self-insulated capillary tube expansion device for simplicity and high efficiency. In a water heating mode air is drawn by the evaporator fan across the evaporator to produce cooled and dehumidified air and heat taken from the air is absorbed by the refrigerant at the evaporator and is pumped to the condenser, where water is heated. When the tank of water heater is full of hot water or a humidistat set point is reached, the water-heating dehumidifier can switch to run as a dehumidifier.

  12. Kunming experiences water shortage

    SciTech Connect

    Sun Chaozhen

    1983-07-17

    This article examines a Chinese city's measures to plan the water supply and conserve water, and to ensure a regular supply of water to drink and use in production. The Kunming city government called an emergency mobilization meeting on water conservation. Kunming has suffered from a severe lack of rainfall over the past 2 years. In order to overcome the present water shortage, it was decided to publicize the importance of planning the water supply and water conservation; to set limits on the amount of water used and to crack down on large consumers of water; and to make further rational and scientific uses of water. The Kunming government has proposed saving 20% of the water now being consumed.

  13. 2010 Water & Aqueous Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Dor Ben-Amotz

    2010-08-13

    Water covers more than two thirds of the surface of the Earth and about the same fraction of water forms the total mass of a human body. Since the early days of our civilization water has also been in the focus of technological developments, starting from converting it to wine to more modern achievements. The meeting will focus on recent advances in experimental, theoretical, and computational understanding of the behavior of the most important and fascinating liquid in a variety of situations and applications. The emphasis will be less on water properties per se than on water as a medium in which fundamental dynamic and reactive processes take place. In the following sessions, speakers will discuss the latest breakthroughs in unraveling these processes at the molecular level: Water in Solutions; Water in Motion I and II; Water in Biology I and II; Water in the Environment I and II; Water in Confined Geometries and Water in Discussion (keynote lecture and poster winners presentations).

  14. Confined Water as Model of Supercooled Water.

    PubMed

    Cerveny, Silvina; Mallamace, Francesco; Swenson, Jan; Vogel, Michael; Xu, Limei

    2016-07-13

    Water in confined geometries has obvious relevance in biology, geology, and other areas where the material properties are strongly dependent on the amount and behavior of water in these types of materials. Another reason to restrict the size of water domains by different types of geometrical confinements has been the possibility to study the structural and dynamical behavior of water in the deeply supercooled regime (e.g., 150-230 K at ambient pressure), where bulk water immediately crystallizes to ice. In this paper we give a short review of studies with this particular goal. However, from these studies it is also clear that the interpretations of the experimental data are far from evident. Therefore, we present three main interpretations to explain the experimental data, and we discuss their advantages and disadvantages. Unfortunately, none of the proposed scenarios is able to predict all the observations for supercooled and glassy bulk water, indicating that either the structural and dynamical alterations of confined water are too severe to make predictions for bulk water or the differences in how the studied water has been prepared (applied cooling rate, resulting density of the water, etc.) are too large for direct and quantitative comparisons. PMID:26940794

  15. Water treatment technology for produced water.

    PubMed

    Szép, Angéla; Kohlheb, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Large amounts of produced water are generated during oil and gas production. Produced water, as it is known in the oil industry, is briny fluid trapped in the rock of oil reservoirs. The objective of this study was to test produced waters from a Montana USA oilfield using a mobile station to design a plant to cost efficiently treat the produced water for agricultural irrigation. We used combined physical and chemical treatment of produced water in order to comply with reuse and discharge limits. This mobile station consists of three stages: pretreatments, membrane filtration and post treatment. Two spiral-wound membrane units were employed and the rejections of various constituents were examined. The performance of two membranes, 20 kDa weight cut-off (MWCO) ultrafiltration and a polyamide-composite reverse osmosis membrane was investigated. The mobile station effectively decreased conductivity by 98%, COD by 100% and the SAR by 2.15 mgeqv(0.5) in the produced water tested in this study. Cost analysis showed that the treatment cost of produced water is less expensive than to dispose of it by injection and this treated water may be of great value in water-poor regions. We can conclude that the mobile station provided a viable and cost-effective result to beneficial use of produced water. PMID:21076224

  16. Sustainability and Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Virender A.

    2009-07-01

    World's population numbered 6.1 billion in 2000 and is currently increasing at a rate of about 77 million per year. By 2025, the estimated total world population will be of the order of 7.9 billion. Water plays a central role in any systematic appraisal of life sustaining requirements. Water also strongly influences economic activity (both production and consumption) and social roles. Fresh water is distributed unevenly, with nearly 500 million people suffering water stress or serious water scarcity. Two-thirds of the world's population may be subjected to moderate to high water stress in 2025. It is estimated that by 2025, the total water use will increase by to 40%. The resources of water supply and recreation may also come under stress due to changes in climate such as water balance for Lake Balaton (Hungary). Conventional urban water systems such as water supply, wastewater, and storm water management are also currently going through stress and require major rethinking. To maintain urban water systems efficiently in the future, a flexibility approach will allow incorporation of new technologies and adaptation to external changes (for example society or climate change). Because water is an essential resource for sustaining health, both the quantity and quality of available water supplies must be improved. The impact of water quality on human health is severe, with millions of deaths each year from water-borne diseases, while water pollution and aquatic ecosystem destruction continue to rise. Additionally, emerging contaminants such as endocrine disruptor chemicals (EDCs), pharmaceuticals, and toxins in the water body are also of a great concern. An innovative ferrate(VI) technology is highly effective in removing these contaminants in water. This technology is green, which addresses problems associated with chlorination and ozonation for treating pollutants present in water and wastewater. Examples are presented to demonstrate the applications of ferrate

  17. Water footprint of Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debrah, E. R.; Odai, S. N.; Annor, F. O.; Adjei, K. A.; van der Zaag, P.

    2009-04-01

    Water is used in almost all human endeavour. Unlike oil, water does not have a substitute. There are many factors that affect the water consumption pattern of people. These include climatic condition, income level and agricultural practices among others. The water footprint concept has been developed in order to have an indicator of water use in relation to its consumption by people. The water footprint of a country is defined as the volume of water needed for the production of the goods and services consumed by the inhabitants of the country (Chapagain and Hoekstra, 2008). Due to the bulky nature of water, it is not in its raw state a tradable commodity though it could be traded through the exchange of goods and services from one point to the other. Closely linked to the water footprint concept is the virtual water concept. Virtual water can be defined as the volume of water required to produce a commodity or service (Chapagain and Hoekstra, 2008 and Allan, 1999). The international trade of these commodities implies flows of virtual water over large distances. The water footprint of a nation can therefore be assessed by quantifying the use of domestic water resources, taking out the virtual water flow that leaves the country and adding the virtual water flow that enters the country to it. This research focuses on the assessment and analysis of the water footprints of Ghana considering only the consumptive component of the water footprint. In addition to livestock, 13 crops were considered, 4 of which were cash crops. Data was analysed for the year 2001 to 2005 The most recent framework for the analysis of water footprint is offered by Chapagain and Hoekstra. This was adopted for the study. The water footprint calculations show that the water footprint of Ghana is about 20011 Gm³/yr. Base on this the average water footprint of a Ghanaian is 823 m³/cap/yr. Not only agricultural crops but also other products require water for their manufacture, aluminium being a

  18. Cryptosporidium: A Guide to Water Filters

    MedlinePlus

    ... Healthy Water Healthy Swimming/Recreational Water Global Water, Sanitation, & Hygiene (WASH) Other Uses of Water Water-related ... Healthy Water Healthy Swimming/Recreational Water Global Water, Sanitation, & Hygiene (WASH) Other Uses of Water Water-related ...

  19. Save Our Water Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bromley, Albert W.

    The purpose of this booklet, developed as part of Project SOAR (Save Our American Resources), is to give Scout leaders some facts about the world's resources, the sources of water pollution, and how people can help in obtaining solutions. Among the topics discussed are the world's water resources, the water cycle, water quality, sources of water…

  20. Exploratorium: Exploring Water.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brand, Judith, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This issue of Exploratorium focuses on water and its varied uses in our environment. Articles include: (1) "Adventures with Water" (Eric Muller); (2) "Water: The Liquid of Life" (Karen E. Kalumuck); (3) "Water-Drop Projector" (Gorazd Planinsic); (4) "Waterways and Means" (Pearl Tesler); (5) "Explore Natural Phenomena in the Museum--and Just…

  1. Lifting China's water spell.

    PubMed

    Guan, Dabo; Hubacek, Klaus; Tillotson, Martin; Zhao, Hongyan; Liu, Weidong; Liu, Zhu; Liang, Sai

    2014-10-01

    China is a country with significant but unevenly distributed water resources. The water stressed North stays in contrast to the water abundant and polluted South defining China's current water environment. In this paper we use the latest available data sets and adopt structural decomposition analysis for the years 1992 to 2007 to investigate the driving forces behind the emerging water crisis in China. We employ four water indicators in China, that is, freshwater consumption, discharge of COD (chemical oxygen demand) in effluent water, cumulative COD and dilution water requirements for cumulative pollution, to investigate the driving forces behind the emerging crisis. The paper finds water intensity improvements can effectively offset annual freshwater consumption and COD discharge driven by per capita GDP growth, but that it had failed to eliminate cumulative pollution in water bodies. Between 1992 and 2007, 225 million tones of COD accumulated in Chinese water bodies, which would require 3.2-8.5 trillion m(3) freshwater, depending on the water quality of the recipient water bodies to dilute pollution to a minimum reusable standard. Cumulative water pollution is a key driver to pollution induced water scarcity across China. In addition, urban household consumption, export of goods and services, and infrastructure investment are the main factors contributing to accumulated water pollution since 2000. PMID:25226569

  2. Water and Something Else.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hougendobler, Nancy

    Prepared for middle or intermediate grades, this student booklet provides a study of water--the location of major oceans and rivers; the relationship of ancient civilizations to bodies of water; active metals found in sea water; chemical concentrations in water and their effects on marine life; and the concepts of evaporation, transpiration,…

  3. Potable water taste enhancement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    An analysis was conducted to determine the causes of and remedies for the unpalatability of potable water in manned spacecraft. Criteria and specifications for palatable water were established and a quantitative laboratory analysis technique was developed for determinig the amounts of volatile organics in good tasting water. Prototype spacecraft water reclamation systems are evaluated in terms of the essential palatability factors.

  4. Can Water Mean Health?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Maggie, Ed.

    1983-01-01

    This issue of UNICEF News explores the theme of connections between water and health in developing countries. The introductory article discusses prospects for improving health through water projects during the International Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation Decade (1981-90). Subsequent articles focus on (1) effects of a piped water supply on…

  5. Waves and Water Beetles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Vance A.

    1971-01-01

    Capillary and gravity water waves are related to the position, wavelength, and velocity of an object in flowing water. Water patterns are presented for ships and the whirling beetle with an explanation of how the design affects the objects velocity and the observed water wavelengths. (DS)

  6. Domestic wash water reclamation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, J. B., Jr.; Batten, C. E.; Wilkins, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    System consists of filtration unit, reverse-osmosis module, tanks, pumps, plumbing, and various gauges, meters, and valves. After water is used in washing machine or shower, it is collected in holding tank. Water is pumped through series of five particulate filters. Pressure tank supplies processed water to commode water closet.

  7. Hold the Water

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kravitz, Robert; Reichardt, Klaus

    2006-01-01

    Many facilities are considering no-water urinals because they are regarded as an effective way to conserve water. Water must be pumped by electricity, some estimate that as much as $300 per year per urinal can be saved in utility costs. The installation of no-water urinals can help buildings achieve credits toward Leadership in Energy and…

  8. Alabama Water Use, 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hutson, Susan S.; Littlepage, Thomas M.; Harper, Michael J.; Tinney, James O.

    2009-01-01

    Water is one of Alabama's most precious natural resources. It is a vital component of human existence and essential to the overall quality of life. Wise stewardship of this valuable resource depends on a continuing assessment of water availability and water use. Population growth in many parts of the State has resulted in increased competition for available water resources. This competition includes offstream uses, such as residential, agricultural, and industrial, and instream uses for maintenance of species habitat and diversity, navigation, power generation, recreation, and water quality. Accurate water-use information is required for sound management decisions within this competitive framework and is necessary for a more comprehensive understanding of the link between water use, water supply, and overall water availability. A study of water use during 2005 was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Alabama Department of Economic and Community Affairs, Office of Water Resources, Water Management Branch (ADECA-OWR), to provide water-use data for local and State water managers. The results of the study about the amount of water used, how it was used, and where it was used in Alabama have been published in 'Estimated use of water in Alabama in 2005' by Hutson and others, 2009, and is accessible on the Web at http://pubs.usgs.gov/sir/2009/5163 and available upon request as a CD-ROM through USGS and ADECA-OWR.

  9. Salt, Water, and Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Nathan J.

    Good nutrition for athletes demands plenty of water, since water is essential to such vital functions as muscle reactions. Dehydration can result from jet travel as well as from exercise and heat, making it a danger to traveling athletic teams. To avoid dehydration, water needs should be monitored by frequent weighing, and a clean water supply…

  10. Potable water supply

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sauer, R. L.; Calley, D. J.

    1975-01-01

    The history and evolution of the Apollo potable water system is reviewed. Its operation in the space environment and in the spacecraft is described. Its performance is evaluated. The Apollo potable water system satisfied the dual purpose of providing metabolic water for the crewmen and water for spacecraft cooling.

  11. WATER QUALITY CRITERIA DOCUMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background

    Water quality standards and criteria are the foundation for a wide range of programs under the Clean Water Act. Specifically, under section 304(a)(1) of the Clean Water Act it requires EPA to develop criteria for water quality that accurately re...

  12. New Folklore about Water.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeMaire, Peter; Waiveris, Charles

    1995-01-01

    Describes experiments designed to investigate the cooling rate of microwave-boiled water as compared to that of stove-boiled water. Concludes that within experimental limits, microwave-boiled water and stove-boiled water cool at the same rate. (JRH)

  13. Leptospirosis from water sources

    PubMed Central

    Wynwood, Sarah Jane; Graham, Glenn Charles; Weier, Steven Lance; Collet, Trudi Anne; McKay, David Brian; Craig, Scott Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    Leptospirosis outbreaks have been associated with many common water events including water consumption, water sports, environmental disasters, and occupational exposure. The ability of leptospires to survive in moist environments makes them a high-risk agent for infection following contact with any contaminated water source. Water treatment processes reduce the likelihood of leptospirosis or other microbial agents causing infection provided that they do not malfunction and the distribution networks are maintained. Notably, there are many differences in water treatment systems around the world, particularly between developing and developed countries. Detection of leptospirosis in water samples is uncommonly performed by molecular methods. PMID:25348115

  14. Water policy sinkhole

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, T.L.

    1983-10-01

    The pollution of both surface and ground waters and the withdrawal of ground water will present the US with a major water-quality and -supply problem unless changes are made in how we use water. If water is priced at market value instead of relying on federal subsidies, price signals could alter consumption patterns. Other changes that could help are removing restrictions on water transfers and allowing private ownership of waterways and appropriable rights to ground water. These steps, it is felt, would encourage responsible consumption and allocations. (DCK)

  15. Wash water recovery system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deckman, G.; Rousseau, J. (Editor)

    1973-01-01

    The Wash Water Recovery System (WWRS) is intended for use in processing shower bath water onboard a spacecraft. The WWRS utilizes flash evaporation, vapor compression, and pyrolytic reaction to process the wash water to allow recovery of potable water. Wash water flashing and foaming characteristics, are evaluated physical properties, of concentrated wash water are determined, and a long term feasibility study on the system is performed. In addition, a computer analysis of the system and a detail design of a 10 lb/hr vortex-type water vapor compressor were completed. The computer analysis also sized remaining system components on the basis of the new vortex compressor design.

  16. Vadose zone water fluxmeter

    DOEpatents

    Faybishenko, Boris A.

    2005-10-25

    A Vadose Zone Water Fluxmeter (WFM) or Direct Measurement WFM provides direct measurement of unsaturated water flow in the vadose zone. The fluxmeter is a cylindrical device that fits in a borehole or can be installed near the surface, or in pits, or in pile structures. The fluxmeter is primarily a combination of tensiometers and a porous element or plate in a water cell that is used for water injection or extraction under field conditions. The same water pressure measured outside and inside of the soil sheltered by the lower cylinder of the fluxmeter indicates that the water flux through the lower cylinder is similar to the water flux in the surrounding soil. The fluxmeter provides direct measurement of the water flow rate in the unsaturated soils and then determines the water flux, i.e. the water flow rate per unit area.

  17. Water Resources Data, Mississippi, Water Year 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morris, F., III; Turnipseed, D.P.; Storm, J.B.

    2003-01-01

    Water resources data for the 2002 water year for Mississippi consist of records of surface water and ground water in the State. Specifically, it contains: (1) Discharge records for 91 streamflow-gaging stations, stage records for 22 of these gaging stations, discharge records for 91 partial-record stations or miscellaneous streamflow sites, including 13 flood hydrograph partial-record stations, 78 crest-stage partial-record stations, and 0 special study and miscellaneous sites; (2) stage only at 9 gaging stations; (3) water-quality records for 13 streamflow-gaging stations, 7 stage-only stations, and 3 water-quality monitor stations, 0 partial-record stations or miscellaneous sites, 97 short-term study sites, and 39 wells; and (4) water-level records for 18 observation wells. Records obtained from water-resources investigations are also included in special sections of the report. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey, and cooperating local, State, and Federal agencies in Mississippi.

  18. Water, something peculiar.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Hylckama, T. E. A.

    1979-01-01

    Some chemical and physical properties of water are discussed and compared with those of other fluids. For instance, the boiling point is much higher than one would expect considering the molecular weight of water. The heat capacity is also much higher but the viscosity is not. The dielectric constant is exceptionally high. These and other properties of water can be explained by the geometry of the water molecule and the structure of water or ice. -Author

  19. Urban Water '88

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuidena, Floris C.; Hoogart, Hans

    The Symposium on Hydrological Processes and Water Management in Urban Areas (Urban Water '88) was held in Duisburg, West Germany, and The Netherlands, April 24-29, 1988. Six themes were discussed during the 3-day conference and 2-day study tour: urban hydrological cycle, functions and uses of water, concepts of urban drainage and flood protection, effects of urbanization on surface and groundwater, and the role of water in city planning and integrated water management in urban areas.

  20. Ground water and energy

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-11-01

    This national workshop on ground water and energy was conceived by the US Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Assessments. Generally, OEA needed to know what data are available on ground water, what information is still needed, and how DOE can best utilize what has already been learned. The workshop focussed on three areas: (1) ground water supply; (2) conflicts and barriers to ground water use; and (3) alternatives or solutions to the various issues relating to ground water. (ACR)

  1. Solvation in supercritical water

    SciTech Connect

    Cochran, H.D. ); Cummings, P.T.; Karaborni, S. . Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1991-01-01

    The aim of this work is to determine the solvation structure in supercritical water composed with that in ambient water and in simple supercritical solvents. Molecular dynamics studies have been undertaken of systems that model ionic sodium and chloride, atomic argon, and molecular methanol in supercritical aqueous solutions using the simple point charge model of Berendsen for water. Because of the strong interactions between water and ions, ionic solutes are strongly attractive in supercritical water, forming large clusters of water molecules around each ion. Methanol is found to be a weakly-attractive solute in supercritical water. The cluster of excess water molecules surrounding a dissolved ion or polar molecule in supercritical aqueous solutions is comparable to the solvent clusters surrounding attractive solutes in simple supercritical fluids. Likewise, the deficit of water molecules surrounding a dissolved argon atom in supercritical aqueous solutions is comparable to that surrounding repulsive solutes in simple supercritical fluids. The number of hydrogen bonds per water molecule in supercritical water was found to be about one third the number in ambient water. The number of hydrogen bonds per water molecule surrounding a central particle in supercritical water was only mildly affected by the identify of the central particle--atom, molecule, or ion. These results should be helpful in developing a qualitative understanding of important processes that occur in supercritical water. 29 refs., 6 figs.

  2. Water microbiology. Bacterial pathogens and water.

    PubMed

    Cabral, João P S

    2010-10-01

    Water is essential to life, but many people do not have access to clean and safe drinking water and many die of waterborne bacterial infections. In this review a general characterization of the most important bacterial diseases transmitted through water-cholera, typhoid fever and bacillary dysentery-is presented, focusing on the biology and ecology of the causal agents and on the diseases' characteristics and their life cycles in the environment. The importance of pathogenic Escherichia coli strains and emerging pathogens in drinking water-transmitted diseases is also briefly discussed. Microbiological water analysis is mainly based on the concept of fecal indicator bacteria. The main bacteria present in human and animal feces (focusing on their behavior in their hosts and in the environment) and the most important fecal indicator bacteria are presented and discussed (focusing on the advantages and limitations of their use as markers). Important sources of bacterial fecal pollution of environmental waters are also briefly indicated. In the last topic it is discussed which indicators of fecal pollution should be used in current drinking water microbiological analysis. It was concluded that safe drinking water for all is one of the major challenges of the 21st century and that microbiological control of drinking water should be the norm everywhere. Routine basic microbiological analysis of drinking water should be carried out by assaying the presence of Escherichia coli by culture methods. Whenever financial resources are available, fecal coliform determinations should be complemented with the quantification of enterococci. More studies are needed in order to check if ammonia is reliable for a preliminary screening for emergency fecal pollution outbreaks. Financial resources should be devoted to a better understanding of the ecology and behavior of human and animal fecal bacteria in environmental waters. PMID:21139855

  3. PREFACE: Water at interfaces Water at interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallo, P.; Rovere, M.

    2010-07-01

    This special issue is devoted to illustrating important aspects and significant results in the field of modeling and simulation of water at interfaces with solutes or with confining substrates, focusing on a range of temperatures from ambient to supercooled. Understanding the behavior of water, in contact with different substrates and/or in solutions, is of pivotal importance for a wide range of applications in physics, chemistry and biochemistry. Simulations of confined and/or interfacial water are also relevant for testing how different its behavior is with respect to bulk water. Simulations and modeling in this field are of particular importance when studying supercooled regions where water shows anomalous properties. These considerations motivated the organization of a workshop at CECAM in the summer of 2009 which aimed to bring together scientists working with computer simulations on the properties of water in various environments with different methodologies. In this special issue, we collected a variety of interesting contributions from some of the speakers of the workshop. We have roughly classified the contributions into four groups. The papers of the first group address the properties of interfacial and confined water upon supercooling in an effort to understand the relation with anomalous behavior of supercooled bulk water. The second group deals with the specific problem of solvation. The next group deals with water in different environments by considering problems of great importance in technological and biological applications. Finally, the last group deals with quantum mechanical calculations related to the role of water in chemical processes. The first group of papers is introduced by the general paper of Stanley et al. The authors discuss recent progress in understanding the anomalies of water in bulk, nanoconfined, and biological environments. They present evidence that liquid water may display 'polymorphism', a property that can be present in

  4. Paying for water.

    PubMed

    Middleton, J; Saunders, P

    1997-03-01

    Water has been taken for granted as an essential public health need since the Victorian sanitary revolution. Water has come back on to the public health agenda in the United Kingdom because of recent policy changes and their untoward environmental and social impacts; along with water privatization and tough new environmental directives, there have been serious water pollution incidents, water shortages, water debt and disconnection. Along with concern about protecting individual rights to a clean safe water supply, there is concern about the ability of national water resources to meet all our communities' needs, without unacceptable environmental damage. A national plan is needed for the conservation of water and protection of water resources and the environment; adequate central funds are needed to see that this happens. There should be greater emphasis on local water management and a key role for local authorities; there should be fair pricing, protection of water supplies for the poorest and most vulnerable, and a ban on water disconnection to domestic users, on public health grounds. More research is needed into the potential adverse health impact of people on prepayment meters disconnecting themselves. There is a place for water metering as the most rapidly deliverable means of controlling peak demand, reducing overall consumption and avoiding a large-scale environmentally damaging solution to supply more water. However, control of leakage offers the largest potential saving and is the most cost-effective means to protect existing water supply. We question whether private water companies, geared to maximizing profit and share dividends, can deliver a national plan for the protection and management of water resources, for the good of the environment and future generations. The public health lobby must become more actively engaged in the debate about the supply, protection and price of our most precious public health asset-water. PMID:9138226

  5. More water: better health.

    PubMed

    Cairncross, S

    1997-01-01

    This article discusses the role of clean water in preventing fecal-oral transmission of infections, skin and eye diseases, water-based diseases, and insect vector diseases. Improvements to water quality are not sufficient to reduce infection. There is a need to educate people about appropriate hygiene and hand washing with soap and cleanliness of storage and eating utensils. Access to clean water is also important. Access to water reduces the household burden for women and children in time and effort. Households farthest from a supply of clean water would benefit the most from access to a clean water supply in time, effort, and money saved. The World Bank found that just the time saved in water collection was sufficient to justify house connections to a public supply of water. Most people would gladly pay for a water supply to be connected to their house. Free water at standpipes does not interfere with the demand for house connections. It was found that when water sources were shifted to locations closer than 1 km, the shift resulted in an increase in the amount of water used. When round-trip water collection takes about 30 minutes, level of use remains constant. When a water supply is moved to within a few yards of the house or piped indoors, use doubles or triples. Fecal contamination of water causes high rates of diarrheal disease, which kills over 3 million children per year. Diseases, such as cholera and typhoid fever, are transmitted through water-fecal links as well as contaminated food, fingers, utensils, and even clothes. More water available in the home would prevent women from using a corner of their sari to wipe dishes, wipe faces, and wipe a child's bottom. Large storage tanks do not prevent the presence of parasitic worms or insect vectors in the water supply. PMID:12321042

  6. OVERVIEW OF USEPA'S WATER SUPPLY & WATER RESOURCES DIVISION PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) Water Supply and Water Resources Division (WSWRD) conducts a wide range of research on regulated and unregulated contaminants in drinking water, water distribution systems, homeland security, source water protection, and...

  7. Water-Borne Illnesses. Water in Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrett, Carly Sporer

    The Water in Africa Project was realized over a 2-year period by a team of Peace Corps volunteers. As part of an expanded, detailed design, resources were collected from over 90 volunteers serving in African countries, photos and stories were prepared, and standards-based learning units were created for K-12 students. This unit, "Water-Borne…

  8. Drainage water management for water quality protection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Land drainage has been central to the development of North America since colonial times. Increasingly, agricultural drainage is being targeted as a conduit for pollution, particularly nutrient pollution. The export of agricultural drainage water and associated pollutants to surface water can be mana...

  9. Water resources data, Kentucky. Water year 1991

    SciTech Connect

    McClain, D.L.; Byrd, F.D.; Brown, A.C.

    1991-12-31

    Water resources data for the 1991 water year for Kentucky consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams and lakes; and water-levels of wells. This report includes daily discharge records for 115 stream-gaging stations. It also includes water-quality data for 38 stations sampled at regular intervals. Also published are 13 daily temperature and 8 specific conductance records, and 85 miscellaneous temperature and specific conductance determinations for the gaging stations. Suspended-sediment data for 12 stations (of which 5 are daily) are also published. Ground-water levels are published for 23 recording and 117 partial sites. Precipitation data at a regular interval is published for 1 site. Additional water data were collected at various sites not involved in the systematic data-collection program and are published as miscellaneous measurement and analyses. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the US Geological Survey and cooperation State and Federal agencies in Kentucky.

  10. Water recovery in space.

    PubMed

    Tamponnet, C; Savage, C J; Amblard, P; Lasserre, J C; Personne, J C; Germain, J C

    1999-03-01

    In the absence of recycling, water represents over 90% of the life-support consumables for a manned spacecraft. In addition, over 90% of the waste water generated can be classified as moderately or slightly contaminated (e.g. shower water, condensate from the air-conditioning system, etc.). The ability to recover potable water from moderately contaminated waste water hence enables significant savings to be made in resupply costs. A development model of such a water-recovery system, based on membrane technology has been produced and tested using "real waste water" based on used shower water Results indicate some 95% recovery of potable water meeting ESA standards, with total elimination of microbial contaminants such as bacteria, spores and viruses. PMID:11725802

  11. Reactor water cleanup system

    DOEpatents

    Gluntz, Douglas M.; Taft, William E.

    1994-01-01

    A reactor water cleanup system includes a reactor pressure vessel containing a reactor core submerged in reactor water. First and second parallel cleanup trains are provided for extracting portions of the reactor water from the pressure vessel, cleaning the extracted water, and returning the cleaned water to the pressure vessel. Each of the cleanup trains includes a heat exchanger for cooling the reactor water, and a cleaner for cleaning the cooled reactor water. A return line is disposed between the cleaner and the pressure vessel for channeling the cleaned water thereto in a first mode of operation. A portion of the cooled water is bypassed around the cleaner during a second mode of operation and returned through the pressure vessel for shutdown cooling.

  12. Reactor water cleanup system

    DOEpatents

    Gluntz, D.M.; Taft, W.E.

    1994-12-20

    A reactor water cleanup system includes a reactor pressure vessel containing a reactor core submerged in reactor water. First and second parallel cleanup trains are provided for extracting portions of the reactor water from the pressure vessel, cleaning the extracted water, and returning the cleaned water to the pressure vessel. Each of the cleanup trains includes a heat exchanger for cooling the reactor water, and a cleaner for cleaning the cooled reactor water. A return line is disposed between the cleaner and the pressure vessel for channeling the cleaned water thereto in a first mode of operation. A portion of the cooled water is bypassed around the cleaner during a second mode of operation and returned through the pressure vessel for shutdown cooling. 1 figure.

  13. Water Microbiology. Bacterial Pathogens and Water

    PubMed Central

    Cabral, João P. S.

    2010-01-01

    Water is essential to life, but many people do not have access to clean and safe drinking water and many die of waterborne bacterial infections. In this review a general characterization of the most important bacterial diseases transmitted through water—cholera, typhoid fever and bacillary dysentery—is presented, focusing on the biology and ecology of the causal agents and on the diseases’ characteristics and their life cycles in the environment. The importance of pathogenic Escherichia coli strains and emerging pathogens in drinking water-transmitted diseases is also briefly discussed. Microbiological water analysis is mainly based on the concept of fecal indicator bacteria. The main bacteria present in human and animal feces (focusing on their behavior in their hosts and in the environment) and the most important fecal indicator bacteria are presented and discussed (focusing on the advantages and limitations of their use as markers). Important sources of bacterial fecal pollution of environmental waters are also briefly indicated. In the last topic it is discussed which indicators of fecal pollution should be used in current drinking water microbiological analysis. It was concluded that safe drinking water for all is one of the major challenges of the 21st century and that microbiological control of drinking water should be the norm everywhere. Routine basic microbiological analysis of drinking water should be carried out by assaying the presence of Escherichia coli by culture methods. Whenever financial resources are available, fecal coliform determinations should be complemented with the quantification of enterococci. More studies are needed in order to check if ammonia is reliable for a preliminary screening for emergency fecal pollution outbreaks. Financial resources should be devoted to a better understanding of the ecology and behavior of human and animal fecal bacteria in environmental waters. PMID:21139855

  14. Ground Water in Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gingerich, Stephen B.; Oki, Delwyn S.

    2000-01-01

    Ground water is one of Hawaii's most important natural resources. It is used for drinking water, irrigation, and domestic, commercial, and industrial needs. Ground water provides about 99 percent of Hawaii's domestic water and about 50 percent of all freshwater used in the State. Total ground water pumped in Hawaii was about 500 million gallons per day during 1995, which is less than 3 percent of the average total rainfall (about 21 billion gallons per day) in Hawaii. From this perspective, the ground-water resource appears ample; however, much of the rainfall runs off to the ocean in streams or returns to the atmosphere by evapotranspiration. Furthermore, ground-water resources can be limited because of water-quality, environmental, or economic concerns. Water beneath the ground surface occurs in two principal zones: the unsaturated zone and the saturated zone. In the unsaturated zone, the pore spaces in rocks contain both air and water, whereas in the saturated zone, the pore spaces are filled with water. The upper surface of the saturated zone is referred to as the water table. Water below the water table is referred to as ground water. Ground-water salinity can range from freshwater to that of seawater. Freshwater is commonly considered to be water with a chloride concentration less than 250 mg/L, and this concentration represents about 1.3 percent of the chloride concentration of seawater (19,500 mg/L). Brackish water has a chloride concentration between that of freshwater (250 mg/L) and saltwater (19,500 mg/L).

  15. Deuterium in Iceland waters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friedman, I.; Sigurgeirsson, T.; Gardarsson, O.

    1963-01-01

    From the deuterium analysis of 159 samples of water collected in Iceland from hot-water boreholes, cold and hot springs, rivers and rain, the geographical distribution of deuterium in surface waters is plotted. On the basis of the deuterium analysis, the water from boreholes near Reykjavik does not originate from local precipitation. The variation of deuterium content of these water wells with time suggests that these data can be used to determine the time of travel of recharge water to the various boreholes, as well as the surface recharge area. ?? 1963.

  16. Water gas furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Gallaro, C.

    1985-12-03

    A water gas furnace comprising an outer container to provide a housing in which coke is placed into its lower part. A water container is placed within the housing. The coke is ignited and heats the water in the container converting it into steam. The steam is ejected into the coke, which together with air, produces water gas. Preferably, pumice stones are placed above the coke. The water gas is accepted into the pores of the pumice stones, where the heated pumice stones ignite the water gas, producing heat. The heat is extracted by a heat exchanger provided about the housing.

  17. Federal water policy

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    The Federal Water Policy is a statement of the federal government's philosophy and goals for the nation's freshwater resources, and of the proposed ways of achieving them in cooperation with provincial governments. This document provides an overview of the policy, then presents details on the policy itself, the strategies for achievement of that policy, methods of applying it, and specific policy statements. These statements cover such topics as the management of toxic chemicals, water quality, ground water contamination, municipal water and sewer infrastructure, safe drinking water, wetlands preservation, hydroelectric development, navigation, native water rights, and Canada-US boundary management, among others.

  18. Water: Too Precious to Waste.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Geographic World, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Provides background information on many topics related to water. These include the water cycle, groundwater, fresh water, chemical wastes, water purification, river pollution, acid rain, and water conservation. Information is presented at an elementary level. (JM)

  19. Urban water interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gessner, M. O.; Hinkelmann, R.; Nützmann, G.; Jekel, M.; Singer, G.; Lewandowski, J.; Nehls, T.; Barjenbruch, M.

    2014-06-01

    Urban water systems consist of large-scale technical systems and both natural and man-made water bodies. The technical systems are essential components of urban infrastructure for water collection, treatment, storage and distribution, as well as for wastewater and runoff collection and subsequent treatment. Urban aquatic ecosystems are typically subject to strong human influences, which impair the quality of surface and ground waters, often with far-reaching impacts on downstream aquatic ecosystems and water users. The various surface and subsurface water bodies in urban environments can be viewed as interconnected compartments that are also extensively intertwined with a range of technical compartments of the urban water system. As a result, urban water systems are characterized by fluxes of water, solutes, gases and energy between contrasting compartments of a technical, natural or hybrid nature. Referred to as urban water interfaces, boundaries between and within these compartments are often specific to urban water systems. Urban water interfaces are generally characterized by steep physical and biogeochemical gradients, which promote high reaction rates. We hypothesize that they act as key sites of processes and fluxes with notable effects on overall system behaviour. By their very nature, urban water interfaces are heterogeneous and dynamic. Therefore, they increase spatial heterogeneity in urban areas and are also expected to contribute notably to the temporal dynamics of urban water systems, which often involve non-linear interactions and feedback mechanisms. Processes at and fluxes across urban water interfaces are complex and less well understood than within well-defined, homogeneous compartments, requiring both empirical investigations and new modelling approaches at both the process and system level. We advocate an integrative conceptual framework of the urban water system that considers interfaces as a key component to improve our fundamental

  20. Water-transporting proteins.

    PubMed

    Zeuthen, Thomas

    2010-04-01

    Transport through lipids and aquaporins is osmotic and entirely driven by the difference in osmotic pressure. Water transport in cotransporters and uniporters is different: Water can be cotransported, energized by coupling to the substrate flux by a mechanism closely associated with protein. In the K(+)/Cl(-) and the Na(+)/K(+)/2Cl(-) cotransporters, water is entirely cotransported, while water transport in glucose uniporters and Na(+)-coupled transporters of nutrients and neurotransmitters takes place by both osmosis and cotransport. The molecular mechanism behind cotransport of water is not clear. It is associated with the substrate movements in aqueous pathways within the protein; a conventional unstirred layer mechanism can be ruled out, due to high rates of diffusion in the cytoplasm. The physiological roles of the various modes of water transport are reviewed in relation to epithelial transport. Epithelial water transport is energized by the movements of ions, but how the coupling takes place is uncertain. All epithelia can transport water uphill against an osmotic gradient, which is hard to explain by simple osmosis. Furthermore, genetic removal of aquaporins has not given support to osmosis as the exclusive mode of transport. Water cotransport can explain the coupling between ion and water transport, a major fraction of transepithelial water transport and uphill water transport. Aquaporins enhance water transport by utilizing osmotic gradients and cause the osmolarity of the transportate to approach isotonicity. PMID:20091162

  1. Uranium Series Diagenesis in Corals Exposed to Fresh Water: Toward Better Prospecting for Closed System Samples for High Accuracy Dating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mey, J.; Fairbanks, R.; Mortlock, R.; Bradtmiller, L.

    2005-12-01

    A better understanding of U-series diagenesis in corals exposed to the vadose and phreatic freshwater environments is required to help prospect for closed-system samples needed for high-accuracy dates. Disequilibrium U-series are common in corals exposed to fresh water and a priori screening is generally insufficient to reject samples prior to dating. As a result, a vast number of U-series dates reported in the literature are open system and numerous authors have resorted to various correction models (Bender et al., 1979; Gallup et al., 1994; Thompson et al., 2003; Villemant and Feuillet, 2003; and Scholz et al., 2004). The majority of studies assumes or models continuous or episodic addition of 234U and/or 230Th over time and relies on the low solubility of 230Th and/or 234Th. Several recent studies emphasize progressive production of 234U via α-recoil (Thompson et al., 2003; Villemant and Feuillet, 2003), however the application of these models may lead to over-parameterization and are mainly idiosyncratic to host sample locations (Scholz et al., 2004). Already, some studies make model corrections to open system ages and draw critical conclusions about sea level change (e.g. Scholz et al., 2004; Thompson and Goldstein, 2005). Characteristic of all of these studies is a general correlation between the 234U/238U activity ratio and the 230Th/238U activity ratio between intra-reef samples. On Barbados, the largest activity ratio offsets appear in the youngest samples exposed to fresh water; just the opposite finding of most diagenesis models. Our measurements are consistent with the observations of Scholz et al. (2004) from the Red Sea. The greatest addition of 234U, 230Th, and 231Pa to the Barbados samples occurred during the first exposure to fresh water, in this case Marine Isotope State 3 (MIS3), when 234U, 230Th, and 231Pa are added to samples in similar proportions, but varying amounts. The bulk of reef sands and rubble is aragonite, which releases U

  2. Technology for Water Treatment (National Water Management)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The buildup of scale and corrosion is the most costly maintenance problem in cooling tower operation. Jet Propulsion Laboratory successfully developed a non-chemical system that not only curbed scale and corrosion, but also offered advantages in water conservation, cost savings and the elimination of toxic chemical discharge. In the system, ozone is produced by an on-site generator and introduced to the cooling tower water. Organic impurities are oxidized, and the dissolved ozone removes bacteria and scale. National Water Management, a NASA licensee, has installed its ozone advantage systems at some 200 cooling towers. Customers have saved money and eliminated chemical storage and discharge.

  3. Water Resources Research supports water economics submissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffin, Ronald C.

    2012-09-01

    AGU's international interdisciplinary journal Water Resources Research (WRR) publishes original contributions in hydrology; the physical, chemical, and biological sciences; and the social and policy sciences, including economics, systems analysis, sociology, and law. With the rising relevance of water economics and related social sciences, the editors of WRR continue to encourage submissions on economics and policy. WRR was originally founded in the mid 1960s by Walter Langbein and economist Allen Kneese. Several former WRR editors have been economists—including David Brookshire, Ron Cummings, and Chuck Howe—and many landmark articles in water economics have been published in WRR.

  4. Attracting Water Drops

    NASA Video Gallery

    Astronauts Cady Coleman and Ron Garan perform the Attracting Water Drops experiment from Chabad Hebrew Academy in San Diego, Calif. This research determines if a free-floating water drop can be att...

  5. Alternative disinfectant water treatments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alternative disinfestant water treatments are disinfestants not as commonly used by the horticultural industry. Chlorine products that produce hypochlorous acid are the main disinfestants used for treating irrigation water. Chlorine dioxide will be the primary disinfestant discussed as an alternativ...

  6. Primer on Water Quality

    MedlinePlus

    ... streams and ground water. After decades of use, pesticides are now widespread in streams and ground water, ... and guidelines established to protect human health. Some pesticides have not been used for 20 to 30 ...

  7. Water Safety (Recreational)

    MedlinePlus

    Playing in the water - whether swimming, boating or diving - can be fun. It can also be dangerous, especially for children. Being safe can ... injuries and drowning. To stay safe in the water Avoid alcohol when swimming or boating Wear a ...

  8. Water-based Screenprinting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kreneck, Lynwood

    1989-01-01

    Outlines the techniques for silkscreening using water-based inks, concentrating on the qualities of water-based printing that differ from oil-based printing. Includes a step-by-step description of the process illustrated with photographs. (LS)

  9. Analyzing water resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Report on water resources discusses problems in water measurement demand, use, and availability. Also discussed are sensing accuracies, parameter monitoring, and status of forecasting, modeling, and future measurement techniques.

  10. Water penetration study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lockwood, H. E.

    1973-01-01

    Nine film-filter combinations have been tested for effectiveness in recording water subsurface detail when exposed from an aerial platform over a typical water body. An experimental 2-layer positive color film, a 2-layer (minus blue layer) film, a normal 3-layer color film, a panchromatic black-and-white film, and an infrared film with selected filters were tested. Results have been tabulated to show the relative capability of each film-filter combination for: (1) image contrast in shallow water (0 to 5 feet); (2) image contrast at medium depth (5 to 10 feet); (3) image contrast in deep water (10 feet plus); (4) water penetration; maximum depth where detail was discriminated; (5) image color (the spectral range of the image); (6) vegetation visible above a water background; (7) specular reflections visible from the water surface; and (8) visual compatibility; ease of discriminating image detail. Recommendations for future recording over water bodies are included.

  11. GROUND WATER SAMPLING ISSUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Obtaining representative ground water samples is important for site assessment and
    remedial performance monitoring objectives. Issues which must be considered prior to initiating a ground-water monitoring program include defining monitoring goals and objectives, sampling point...

  12. A Simple Water Channel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, A. S.

    1976-01-01

    Describes a simple water channel, for use with an overhead projector. It is run from a water tap and may be used for flow visualization experiments, including the effect of streamlining and elementary building aerodynamics. (MLH)

  13. Healthy Water, Healthy People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Etgen, John

    2002-01-01

    Describes a hands-on activity, Hitting the Mark, which is found in the "Healthy Water, Healthy People Water Quality Educators Guide" in terms of its objectives, materials, background, procedures, activities, and assessment. (KHR)

  14. Source Water Quality Monitoring

    EPA Science Inventory

    Presentation will provide background information on continuous source water monitoring using online toxicity monitors and cover various tools available. Conceptual and practical aspects of source water quality monitoring will be discussed.

  15. Water Supplies: Microbiological Analysis

    EPA Science Inventory

    Producing high-quality drinking water that is free of harmful microorganisms and maintaining its purity through distribution systems are essential for public health. Drinking water quality standards and guidelines for microbial contaminants vary within and among countries but typ...

  16. Inland and coastal waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mouw, Colleen; Greb, Steven

    2012-09-01

    Workshop for Remote Sensing of Coastal and Inland Waters;Madison, Wisconsin, 20-22 June 2012 Coastal and inland water bodies, which have great value for recreation, food supply, commerce, transportation, and human health, have been experiencing external pressure from direct human activities and climate change. Given their societal and economic value, understanding issues of water quality, water quantity, and the impact of environmental change on the ecological and biogeochemical functioning of these water bodies is of interest to a broad range of communities. Remote sensing offers one of the most spatially and temporally comprehensive tools for observing these waters. While there has been some success with remotely observing these water bodies, many challenges still remain, including algorithm performance, atmospheric correction, the relationships between optical properties and biogeochemical parameters, sufficient spatial and spectral resolution, and a lack of uncertainty estimates over the wide range of environmental conditions encountered across these coastal and inland water bodies.

  17. Society and Water

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qutub, Musa Y.

    1972-01-01

    At a national symposium on Societal Problems of Water Resources at Western Illinois University, scientists discussed dams, canals, water pollution control and management programs, federal-state relations in resource planning, and their effects on how we live. (BL)

  18. Water Saving for Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zacharias, Ierotheos

    2013-04-01

    The project "Water Saving for Development (WaS4D)" is financed by European Territorial Cooperational Programme, Greece-Italy 2007-2013, and aims at developing issues on water saving related to improvement of individual behaviors and implementing innovative actions and facilities in order to harmonize policies and start concrete actions for a sustainable water management, making also people and stakeholders awake to water as a vital resource, strategic for quality of life and territory competitiveness. Drinkable water saving culture & behavior, limited water resources, water supply optimization, water resources and demand management, water e-service & educational e-tools are the key words of WaS4D. In this frame the project objectives are: • Definition of water need for domestic and other than domestic purposes: regional and territorial hydro-balance; • promotion of locally available resources not currently being used - water recycling or reuse and rainwater harvesting; • scientific data implementation into Informative Territorial System and publication of geo-referred maps into the institutional web sites, to share information for water protection; • participated review of the regulatory framework for the promotion of water-efficient devices and practices by means of the definition of Action Plans, with defined targets up to brief (2015) and medium (2020) term; • building up water e-services, front-office for all the water issues in building agricultural, industrial and touristic sectors, to share information, procedures and instruments for the water management; • creation and publication of a user friendly software, a game, to promote sustainability for houses also addressed to young people; • creation of water info point into physical spaces called "Water House" to promote education, training, events and new advisory services to assist professionals involved in water uses and consumers; • implementation of participatory approach & networking for a

  19. Exploding Water Drops

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reich, Gary

    2016-01-01

    Water has the unusual property that it expands on freezing, so that ice has a specific gravity of 0.92 compared to 1.0 for liquid water. The most familiar demonstration of this property is ice cubes floating in a glass of water. A more dramatic demonstration is the ice bomb shown in Fig. 1. Here a cast iron flask is filled with water and tightly…

  20. Intermediate water recovery system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deckman, G.; Anderson, A. R. (Editor)

    1973-01-01

    A water recovery system for collecting, storing, and processing urine, wash water, and humidity condensates from a crew of three aboard a spacecraft is described. The results of a 30-day test performed on a breadboard system are presented. The intermediate water recovery system produced clear, sterile, water with a 96.4 percent recovery rate from the processed urine. Recommendations for improving the system are included.

  1. Save water, save money

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey; Fairfax County, VA

    1977-01-01

    The United States uses huge quantities of water. In 1976, for example, it was estimated that for each person in the U.S., about 2,000 gallons of water were used daily in homes, offices, farms, and factories. This means that roughly 420 billion gallons of water were pumped, piped, or diverted each day—about 15 percent more than in 1970. By the year 2000, our daily water needs will probably exceed 800 billion gallons.

  2. Ground water: a review.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bredehoeft, J.D.

    1983-01-01

    There is growing documentation that a significant portion of the Nation's fresh ground water in the densely populated areas of the USA is contaminated. Because of the slow rates of ground-water movement, ground water once contaminated will remain so for decades, often longer. Cleanup of contaminated ground water is almost always expensive and often technically unfeasible; the expense is often prohibitive. -from Author

  3. AIRCRAFT DRINKING WATER RULE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Under the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA), any interstate carrier conveyance (ICC) that regularly serves drinking water to an average of at least 25 individuals daily, at least 60 days per year, is subject to the National Primary Drinking Water Regulations (NPDWR). An ICC is a car...

  4. Water, hydration, and health

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This review examines the current knowledge of water intake as it pertains to human health, including overall patterns of intake and some factors linked with intake, the complex mechanisms behind water homeostasis, and the effects of variation in water intake on health and energy intake, weight, huma...

  5. Quality of Drinking Water

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2009-01-01

    The quality of drinking water has been gaining a great deal of attention lately, especially as water delivery infrastructure continues to age. Particles of various metals such as lead and copper, and other substances like radon and arsenic could be entering drinking water supplies. Spilled-on-the-ground hydrocarbon-based substances are also…

  6. EPANET WATER QUALITY MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA NET represents a third generation of water quality modeling software developed by the U.S. EPA's Drinking Water Research Division, offering significant advances in the state of the art for network water quality analysis. PANET performs extended period simulation of hydraulic ...

  7. Water Chemistry Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hindin, Ervin

    1975-01-01

    Describes the purpose, content, and relevancy of courses dealing with natural and artificial aquatic environments, including surface water and ground water systems as well as water and waste treatment processes. Describes existing programs which are offered at the graduate level in this subject area. (MLH)

  8. Water treatment method

    DOEpatents

    Martin, Frank S.; Silver, Gary L.

    1991-04-30

    A method for reducing the concentration of any undesirable metals dissolved in contaminated water, such as waste water. The method involves uniformly reacting the contaminated water with an excess amount of solid particulate calcium sulfite to insolubilize the undesirable metal ions, followed by removal thereof and of the unreacted calcium sulfite.

  9. Total Water Management

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project will investigate total water management (TWM) as a way of improving water resource management and reducing waste streams. This project will also improve management of potable water, wastewater and wet-weather flow through combined management, reuse and recycling wil...

  10. Robotic Water Blast Cleaner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharpe, M. H.; Roberts, M. L.; Hill, W. E.; Jackson, C. H.

    1983-01-01

    Water blasting system under development removes hard, dense, extraneous material from surfaces. High pressure pump forces water at supersonic speed through nozzle manipulated by robot. Impact of water blasts away unwanted material from workpiece rotated on air bearing turntable. Designed for removing thermal-protection material, system is adaptable to such industrial processes as cleaning iron or steel castings.

  11. Indian Reserved Water Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bond, Frank M.

    1986-01-01

    Traces the distribution, ownership, and water usage associated with lands in the Colville Reservation in Washington State. Cites specific cases which addressed the reserved water rights doctrine. Assesses the impact of court decisions on insuring water rights for Indians living on the Colville Reservation. (ML)

  12. Water treatment method

    DOEpatents

    Martin, F.S.; Silver, G.L.

    1991-04-30

    A method is described for reducing the concentration of any undesirable metals dissolved in contaminated water, such as waste water. The method involves uniformly reacting the contaminated water with an excess amount of solid particulate calcium sulfite to insolubilize the undesirable metal ions, followed by removal thereof and of the unreacted calcium sulfite.

  13. Saving Water Saves Energy

    SciTech Connect

    McMahon, James E.; Whitehead, Camilla Dunham; Biermayer, Peter

    2006-06-15

    Hot water use in households, for showers and baths as wellas for washing clothes and dishes, is a major driver of household energyconsumption. Other household uses of water (such as irrigatinglandscaping) require additional energy in other sectors to transport andtreat the water before use, and to treat wastewater. In California, 19percent of total electricity for all sectors combined and 32 percent ofnatural gas consumption is related to water. There is a criticalinterdependence between energy and water systems: thermal power plantsrequire cooling water, and water pumping and treatment require energy.Energy efficiency can be increased by a number of means, includingmore-efficient appliances (e.g., clothes washers or dishwashers that useless total water and less heated water), water-conserving plumbingfixtures and fittings (e.g., showerheads, faucets, toilets) and changesin consumer behavior (e.g., lower temperature set points for storagewater heaters, shorter showers). Water- and energy-conserving activitiescan help offset the stress imposed on limited water (and energy) suppliesfrom increasing population in some areas, particularly in drought years,or increased consumption (e.g., some new shower systems) as a result ofincreased wealth. This paper explores the connections between householdwater use and energy, and suggests options for increased efficiencies inboth individual technologies and systems. Studies indicate that urbanwater use can be reduced cost-effectively by up to 30 percent withcommercially available products. The energy savings associated with watersavings may represent a large additional and largely untappedcost-effective opportunity.

  14. Water Celebration! A Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montana State Univ., Bozeman. Watercourse.

    A Water Celebration is a free one- to three-day event to entertain and educate communities about the importance of water. Celebrations organized for school children include classroom activities, exhibit areas, contests, games, and teacher networking opportunities. Celebrations for adults range from water conservation conventions to forums on wise…

  15. Wind power freshens water

    SciTech Connect

    Pavlor, V.; Sidorov, V.

    1981-01-01

    A wind-powered lighthouse water-freshening installation was installed at lighthouse locations along the Caspian Sea's coast and at one of the collective farms in the Moldavian SSR. From sea water containing up to 36 grams of salts per liter, fresh water with up to 1 gram per liter was produced. Output was 60 liters per hour.

  16. Irrigation water quality assessments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increasing demands on fresh water supplies by municipal and industrial users means decreased fresh water availability for irrigated agriculture in semi arid and arid regions. There is potential for agricultural use of treated wastewaters and low quality waters for irrigation but this will require co...

  17. PRINCIPLES OF WATER FILTRATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper reviews principles involved in the processes commonly used to filter drinking water for public water systems. he most common approach is to chemically pretreat water and filter it through a deep (2-1/2 to 3 ft) bed of granuu1ar media (coal or sand or combinations of th...

  18. Water Security Toolkit

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2012-09-11

    The Water Security Toolkit (WST) provides software for modeling and analyzing water distribution systems to minimize the potential impact of contamination incidents. WST wraps capabilities for contaminant transport, impact assessment, and sensor network design with response action plans, including source identification, rerouting, and decontamination, to provide a range of water security planning and real-time applications.

  19. Total Water Management - Report

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is a growing need for urban water managers to take a more holistic view of their water resource systems as population growth, urbanization, and current operations put different stresses on the environment and urban infrastructure. Total Water Management (TWM) is an approac...

  20. Water at a crossroads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2013-01-01

    Climate and water expert Pavel Kabat -- director and CEO of the International Institute for Applied System Analysis in Austria -- calls for a long-term system approach to water research, new partnerships with the developing world and a change in donor practices, to tackle water-climate issues. He talks to Nature Climate Change.

  1. Water Resource Adaptation Program

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Water Resource Adaptation Program (WRAP) contributes to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (U.S. EPA) efforts to provide water resource managers and decision makers with the tools needed to adapt water resources to demographic and economic development, and future clim...

  2. Water Quality Statistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodgson, Ted; Andersen, Lyle; Robison-Cox, Jim; Jones, Clain

    2004-01-01

    Water quality experiments, especially the use of macroinvertebrates as indicators of water quality, offer an ideal context for connecting statistics and science. In the STAR program for secondary students and teachers, water quality experiments were also used as a context for teaching statistics. In this article, we trace one activity that uses…

  3. Water Conservation Resource List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NJEA Review, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Alarmed by the growing water shortage, the New Jersey State Office of Dissemination has prepared this annotated list of free or inexpensive instructional materials for teaching about water conservation, K-l2. A tipsheet for home water conservation is appended. (Editor/SJL)

  4. Water Reuse Reconsidered

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Science and Technology, 1975

    1975-01-01

    The Second National Conference on Complete WateReuse stressed better planning, management, and use of water. The sessions covered: water reuse and its problems; water's interface with air and land, and modification of these interactions by the imposition of energy; and heavy metals in the environment and methods for their removal. (BT)

  5. Water in diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... than two-thirds of the weight of the human body. Without water, humans would die in a few days. All the cells and organs need water to function. Water serves as a lubricant. ... temperature through perspiration . It also helps prevent and ...

  6. Enceladus' Water Vapour Plumes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, Candice J.; Esposito, L.; Colwell, J.; Hendrix, A.; Matson, Dennis; Parkinson, C.; Pryor, W.; Shemansky, D.; Stewart, I.; Tew, J.; Yung, Y.

    2006-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on the discovery of Enceladus water vapor plumes is shown. Conservative modeling of this water vapor is also presented and also shows that Enceladus is the source of most of the water required to supply the neutrals in Saturn's system and resupply the E-ring against losses.

  7. Up Goes the Water

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damonte, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    Water is very important to plants. Plants need water to produce food and grow. Plants make their own food through a complex, sunlight-powered process called photosynthesis. Simply put, in photosynthesis, water absorbed by a plant's roots and carbon dioxide taken from the air by a plant's leaves combine to make the plant's food. This article…

  8. Energy-Water Nexus

    SciTech Connect

    Horak, W.

    2010-07-26

    Conclusions of this presentation are: (1) energy and water are interconnected; (2) new energy sources will place increased demands on water supplies; (3) existing energy sources will be subjected to increasing restrictions on their water use; and (4) integrated decision support tools will need to be developed to help policy makers decide which policies and advanced technologies can address these issues.

  9. Growing Water Pearls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milner-Bolotin, Marina

    2012-01-01

    Science teachers can find lesson ideas almost anywhere. For example, during a recent visit to a local dollar store, the author stumbled upon a flower vase filled with water pearls, also known as water beads and jelly beans. She bought several of the bags (search the web to find numerous online sources), and soon began experimenting. Water pearls…

  10. Developing Our Water Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volker, Adriaan

    1977-01-01

    Only very recently developed as a refined scientific discipline, hydrology has to cope with a complexity of problems concerning the present and future management of a vital natural resource, water. This article examines available water supplies and the problems and prospects of water resource development. (Author/MA)

  11. SURFACE WATER INTAKES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Safe Drinking Water Information System (SDWIS) GIS layer represents the locations of public water system (PWS) facilities in NY and NJ; every PWS has one or more facilities. Data for this layer came from the Safe Drinking Water Information System/Federal version (SDWIS/FED)...

  12. Water Access, Water Scarcity, and Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukheibir, Pierre

    2010-05-01

    This article investigates the approaches of the various discourses operating in the water sector and how they address the issues of scarcity and equitable access under projected climate change impacts. Little synergy exists between the different approaches dealing with these issues. Whilst being a sustainable development and water resources management issue, a holistic view of access, scarcity and the projected impacts of climate change is not prevalent in these discourses. The climate change discourse too does not adequately bridge the gap between these issues. The projected impacts of climate change are likely to exacerbate the problems of scarcity and equitable access unless appropriate adaptation strategies are adopted and resilience is built. The successful delivery of accessible water services under projected climate change impacts therefore lies with an extension of the adaptive water management approach to include equitable access as a key driver.

  13. NASA Water Resources Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toll, David L.

    2011-01-01

    With increasing population pressure and water usage coupled with climate variability and change, water issues are being reported by numerous groups as the most critical environmental problems facing us in the 21st century. Competitive uses and the prevalence of river basins and aquifers that extend across boundaries engender political tensions between communities, stakeholders and countries. In addition to the numerous water availability issues, water quality related problems are seriously affecting human health and our environment. The potential crises and conflicts especially arise when water is competed among multiple uses. For example, urban areas, environmental and recreational uses, agriculture, and energy production compete for scarce resources, not only in the Western U.S. but throughout much of the U.S. and also in numerous parts of the world. Mitigating these conflicts and meeting water demands and needs requires using existing water resources more efficiently. The NASA Water Resources Program Element works to use NASA products and technology to address these critical water issues. The primary goal of the Water Resources is to facilitate application of NASA Earth science products as a routine use in integrated water resources management for the sustainable use of water. This also includes the extreme events of drought and floods and the adaptation to the impacts from climate change. NASA satellite and Earth system observations of water and related data provide a huge volume of valuable data in both near-real-time and extended back nearly 50 years about the Earth's land surface conditions such as precipitation, snow, soil moisture, water levels, land cover type, vegetation type, and health. NASA Water Resources Program works closely to use NASA and Earth science data with other U.S. government agencies, universities, and non-profit and private sector organizations both domestically and internationally. The NASA Water Resources Program organizes its

  14. Water: The Strangest Liquid

    SciTech Connect

    Nilsson, Anders

    2009-02-24

    Water, H2O, is familiar to everyone - it shapes our bodies and our planet. But despite its abundance, water has remained a mystery, exhibiting many strange properties that are still not understood. Why does the liquid have an unusually large capacity to store heat? And why is it denser than ice? Now, using the intense X-ray beams from particle accelerators, investigations into water are leading to fundamental discoveries about the structure and arrangement of water molecules. This lecture will elucidate the many mysteries of water and discuss current studies that are revolutionizing the way we see and understand one of the most fundamental substances of life.

  15. Future water Cherenkov detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Bergevin, Marc

    2015-05-15

    In these proceedings a review of the current proposed large-scale Warer Cherenkov experiments is given. An argument is made that future water Cherenkov detectors would benefit in the investment in neutron detection technology. A brief overview will be given of proposed water Cherenkov experiments such as HYPER-K and MEMPHYS and other R and D experiments to demonstrate neutron capture in water Cherenkov detectors. Finally, innovation developed in the context of the now defunct LBNE Water R and D option to improve Water Cherenkov technology will be described.

  16. Water Quality Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    In the photo above, the cylindrical container being lowered into the water is a water quality probe developed by NASA's Langley Research Center for the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in an applications engineering project. It is part of a system- which also includes recording equipment in the helicopter-for on-the-spot analysis of water samples. It gives EPA immediate and more accurate information than the earlier method, in which samples are transported to a lab for analysis. Designed primarily for rapid assessment of hazardous spills in coastal and inland waters, the system provides a wide range of biological and chemical information relative to water pollution.

  17. Space Station Water Quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willis, Charles E. (Editor)

    1987-01-01

    The manned Space Station will exist as an isolated system for periods of up to 90 days. During this period, safe drinking water and breathable air must be provided for an eight member crew. Because of the large mass involved, it is not practical to consider supplying the Space Station with water from Earth. Therefore, it is necessary to depend upon recycled water to meet both the human and nonhuman water needs on the station. Sources of water that will be recycled include hygiene water, urine, and cabin humidity condensate. A certain amount of fresh water can be produced by CO2 reduction process. Additional fresh water will be introduced into the total pool by way of food, because of the free water contained in food and the water liberated by metabolic oxidation of the food. A panel of scientists and engineers with extensive experience in the various aspects of wastewater reuse was assembled for a 2 day workshop at NASA-Johnson. The panel included individuals with expertise in toxicology, chemistry, microbiology, and sanitary engineering. A review of Space Station water reclamation systems was provided.

  18. Par Pond water balance

    SciTech Connect

    Hiergesell, R.A.; Dixon, K.L.

    1996-06-01

    A water budget for the Par Pond hydrologic system was established in order to estimate the rate of groundwater influx to Par Pond. This estimate will be used in modeling exercises to predict Par Pond reservoir elevation and spillway discharge in the scenario where Savannah River water is no longer pumped and discharged into Par Pond. The principal of conservation of mass was used to develop the water budget, where water inflow was set equal to water outflow. Components of the water budget were identified, and the flux associated with each was determined. The water budget was considered balanced when inflow and outflow summed to zero. The results of this study suggest that Par Pond gains water from the groundwater system in the upper reaches of the reservoir, but looses water to the groundwater system near the dam. The rate of flux of groundwater from the water table aquifer into Par Pond was determined to be 13 cfs. The rate of flux from Par Pond to the water table aquifer near the dam was determined to be 7 cfs.

  19. Drinking water and cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Morris, R D

    1995-01-01

    Any and all chemicals generated by human activity can and will find their way into water supplies. The types and quantities of carcinogens present in drinking water at the point of consumption will differ depending on whether they result from contamination of the source water, arise as a consequence of treatment processes, or enter as the water is conveyed to the user. Source-water contaminants of concern include arsenic, asbestos, radon, agricultural chemicals, and hazardous waste. Of these, the strongest evidence for a cancer risk involves arsenic, which is linked to cancers of the liver, lung, bladder, and kidney. The use of chlorine for water treatment to reduce the risk of infectious disease may account for a substantial portion of the cancer risk associated with drinking water. The by-products of chlorination are associated with increased risk of bladder and rectal cancer, possibly accounting for 5000 cases of bladder cancer and 8000 cases of rectal cancer per year in the United States. Fluoridation of water has received great scrutiny but appears to pose little or no cancer risk. Further research is needed to identify and quantify risks posed by contaminants from drinking-water distribution pipes, linings, joints, and fixtures and by biologically active micropollutants, such as microbial agents. We need more cost-effective methods for monitoring drinking-water quality and further research on interventions to minimize cancer risks from drinking water. PMID:8741788

  20. The Mars water cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davies, D. W.

    1981-01-01

    A model has been developed to test the hypothesis that the observed seasonal and latitudinal distribution of water on Mars is controlled by the sublimation and condensation of surface ice deposits in the Arctic and Antarctic, and the meridional transport of water vapor. Besides reproducing the observed water vapor distribution, the model correctly reproduces the presence of a large permanent ice cap in the Arctic and not in the Antarctic. No permanent ice reservoirs are predicted in the temperate or equatorial zones. Wintertime ice deposits in the Arctic are shown to be the source of the large water vapor abundances observed in the Arctic summertime, and the moderate water vapor abundances in the northern temperate region. Model calculations suggest that a year without dust storms results in very little change in the water vapor distribution. The current water distribution appears to be the equilibrium distribution for present atmospheric conditions.

  1. Water harvest via dewing.

    PubMed

    Lee, Anna; Moon, Myoung-Woon; Lim, Hyuneui; Kim, Wan-Doo; Kim, Ho-Young

    2012-07-10

    Harvesting water from humid air via dewing can provide a viable solution to a water shortage problem where liquid-phase water is not available. Here we experimentally quantify the effects of wettability and geometry of the condensation substrate on the water harvest efficiency. Uniformly hydrophilic surfaces are found to exhibit higher rates of water condensation and collection than surfaces with lower wettability. This is in contrast to a fog basking method where the most efficient surface consists of hydrophilic islands surrounded by hydrophobic background. A thin drainage path in the lower portion of the condensation substrate is revealed to greatly enhance the water collection efficiency. The optimal surface conditions found in this work can be used to design a practical device that harvests water as its biological counterpart, a green tree frog, Litoria caerulea , does during the dry season in tropical northern Australia. PMID:22731870

  2. Geothermal Water Use: Life Cycle Water Consumption, Water Resource Assessment, and Water Policy Framework

    DOE Data Explorer

    Schroeder, Jenna N.

    2014-06-10

    This report examines life cycle water consumption for various geothermal technologies to better understand factors that affect water consumption across the life cycle (e.g., power plant cooling, belowground fluid losses) and to assess the potential water challenges that future geothermal power generation projects may face. Previous reports in this series quantified the life cycle freshwater requirements of geothermal power-generating systems, explored operational and environmental concerns related to the geochemical composition of geothermal fluids, and assessed future water demand by geothermal power plants according to growth projections for the industry. This report seeks to extend those analyses by including EGS flash, both as part of the life cycle analysis and water resource assessment. A regional water resource assessment based upon the life cycle results is also presented. Finally, the legal framework of water with respect to geothermal resources in the states with active geothermal development is also analyzed.

  3. Perceptions of water use

    PubMed Central

    Attari, Shahzeen Z.

    2014-01-01

    In a national online survey, 1,020 participants reported their perceptions of water use for household activities. When asked for the most effective strategy they could implement to conserve water in their lives, or what other Americans could do, most participants mentioned curtailment (e.g., taking shorter showers, turning off the water while brushing teeth) rather than efficiency improvements (e.g., replacing toilets, retrofitting washers). This contrasts with expert recommendations. Additionally, some participants are more likely to list curtailment actions for themselves, but list efficiency actions for other Americans. For a sample of 17 activities, participants underestimated water use by a factor of 2 on average, with large underestimates for high water-use activities. An additional ranking task showed poor discrimination of low vs. high embodied water content in food products. High numeracy scores, older age, and male sex were associated with more accurate perceptions of water use. Overall, perception of water use is more accurate than the perception of energy consumption and savings previously reported. Well-designed efforts to improve public understanding of household water use could pay large dividends for behavioral adaptation to temporary or long-term decreases in availability of fresh water. PMID:24591608

  4. The politics of water.

    PubMed

    Postel, S

    1993-01-01

    Water scarcity in some regions is a leading source of economic and political instability. Upstream countries have a clear advantage over downstream countries. Almost 40% of the world's population relies on river systems used by at least 2 countries. Water conflicts are most evident in the Middle East where population growth rates are among the world's highest and agricultural productivity depends almost exclusively on irrigation. Water scarcity is most critical in the Jordan River basin which Israel, Jordan, the occupied West Bank, and part of Syria share. Israel exceeds its renewable water supply by 15%. Even though Jordanians use less than 50% of the water/capita Israel uses, its population grows 3.4%/year of Israel's water supply is the Yarqon-Taninim aquifer whose recharge area is on the West Bank. Israel draws water from this aquifer for its own use, but does not let West Bank Arabs draw from it. Another water supply lies in the Golan Heights with Israel seized from Syria. Its other source is an overpumped coastal aquifer. 9 nations claim the Nile with Egypt being the last country to receive its waters. Egypt has very few of its own water sources plus is has rapid population growth. Turkey plans on constructing 22 dams, 19 hydropower stations, and 25 irrigation systems on the Euphrates river, resulting in a 35% reduction in water flow to Syria in normal years and even more in dry years. This project would also pollute the river with irrigation runoff. International cooperation is needed to address wait crisis. Israel could share its drip irrigation technology with others, such as it has done with the Islamic Central Asian republics. Ethiopia could store Nile water in its highlands which have a lower evaporation rate than that at Egypt's Aswan Dam, resulting in more available water. Perhaps the mutual gains possible from cooperation will unite long standing enemies toward peace. PMID:12286578

  5. Molecular water pumps.

    PubMed

    Zeuthen, T

    2000-01-01

    There is good evidence that cotransporters of the symport type behave as molecular water pumps, in which a water flux is coupled to the substrate fluxes. The free energy stored in the substrate gradients is utilized, by a mechanism within the protein, for the transport of water. Accordingly, the water flux is secondary active and can proceed uphill against the water chemical potential difference. The effect has been recognized in all symports studied so far (Table 1). It has been studied in details for the K+/Cl- cotransporter in the choroid plexus epithelium, the H+/lactate cotransporter in the retinal pigment epithelium, the intestinal Na+/glucose cotransporter (SGLT1) and the renal Na+/dicarboxylate cotransporter both expressed in Xenopus oocytes. The generality of the phenomenon among symports with widely different primary structures suggests that the property of molecular water pumps derives from a pattern of conformational changes common for this type of membrane proteins. Most of the data on molecular water pumps are derived from fluxes initiated by rapid changes in the composition of the external solution. There was no experimental evidence for unstirred layers in such experiments, in accordance with theoretical evaluations. Even the experimental introduction of unstirred layers did not lead to any measurable water fluxes. The majority of the experimental data supports a molecular model where water is cotransported: A well defined number of water molecules act as a substrate on equal footing with the non-aqueous substrates. The ratio of any two of the fluxes is constant, given by the properties of the protein, and is independent of the driving forces or other external parameters. The detailed mechanism behind the molecular water pumps is as yet unknown. It is, however, possible to combine well established phenomena for enzymes into a working model. For example, uptake and release of water is associated with conformational changes during enzymatic action; a

  6. Sustaining Waters: From Hydrology to Drinking Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toch, S.

    2003-04-01

    Around the world, disastrous effects of floods and droughts are painful evidence of our continuing struggle between human resource demands and the sustainability of our hydrologic systems. Too much or too little rainfall is often deemed the culprit in these water crises, focussing on water "lacks and needs" instead of exploring the mechanisms of the hydrologic functions and processes that sustain us. Applicable to regions around the world, this unified approach is about our human and environmental qualities with user friendly concepts and how-to guides backed up by real life experiences. From the poorest parts of Africa to Urban France to the wealthest state in the USA, examples from surface to groundwater to marine environments demonstrate how the links between vulerable natural areas, and the basins that they support are integral to the availability, adequacy and accessibility of our drinking water. Watershed management can be an effective means for crisis intervention and pollution control. This project is geared as a reference for groups, individuals and agencies concerned with watershed management, a supplement for interdisciplinary high school through university curriculam, for professional development in technical and field assistance, and for community awareness in the trade-offs and consequences of resource decisions that affect hydrologic systems. This community-based project demonstrates how our human resource demands can be managed within ecological constraints. An inter-disciplinary process is developed that specifically assesses risk to human health from resource use practices, and explores the similarities and interations between our human needs and those of the ecosystems in which we all must live together. Disastrous conditions worldwide have triggered reactions in crisis relief rather than crisis prevention. Through a unified management approach to the preservation of water quality, the flows of water that connect all water users can serve as a

  7. Water balance approach to determine upward water movement

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Shallow water tables can contribute water moving up into the root zone. The purpose of this study was to quantify upward moving water. Automated sensors were used to monitor soil water content and water table depth on sites in Central Iowa, which had varying shallow water tables. Tipping bucket rain...

  8. What's in Your Water? An Educator's Guide to Water Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Constabile, Kerry, Comp.; Craig, Heidi, Comp.; O'Laughlin, Laura, Comp.; Reiss, Anne Bei, Comp.; Spencer, Liz, Comp.

    This guide provides basic information on the Clean Water Act, watersheds, and testing for water quality, and presents four science lesson plans on water quality. Activities include: (1) "Introduction to Water Quality"; (2) "Chemical Water Quality Testing"; (3) "Biological Water Quality Testing"; and (4) "What Can We Do?" (YDS)

  9. Arsenic removal from water

    DOEpatents

    Moore, Robert C.; Anderson, D. Richard

    2007-07-24

    Methods for removing arsenic from water by addition of inexpensive and commonly available magnesium oxide, magnesium hydroxide, calcium oxide, or calcium hydroxide to the water. The hydroxide has a strong chemical affinity for arsenic and rapidly adsorbs arsenic, even in the presence of carbonate in the water. Simple and commercially available mechanical methods for removal of magnesium hydroxide particles with adsorbed arsenic from drinking water can be used, including filtration, dissolved air flotation, vortex separation, or centrifugal separation. A method for continuous removal of arsenic from water is provided. Also provided is a method for concentrating arsenic in a water sample to facilitate quantification of arsenic, by means of magnesium or calcium hydroxide adsorption.

  10. Water and wars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gleick, Peter H.

    In “Challenging the Rhetoric of Water Wars” (Eos, In Brief, September 5, 2000, p. 410) Randy Showstack reported on the speech given by Minister Kader Asmal upon receiving the 2000 Stockholm Water Prize. This prize was well deserved for the tremendous progress South Africa has made under Minister Asmal's leadership in addressing basic water needs after apartheid. Indeed, I was one of his nominators for this prize and am an ardent fan of his bold programs. But his remarks about water-related conflicts need to be qualified. In his speech, Minister Asmal noted that water scarcity is a “crisis of biblical proportion,” but also suggested “there is not a shred of evidence” to back up arguments that there are water “wars.”

  11. INTERGRATING SOURCE WATER PROTECTION AND DRINKING WATER TREATMENT: U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY'S WATER SUPPLY AND WATER RESOURCES DIVISION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Water Supply and Water Resources Division (WSWRD) is an internationally recognized water research organization established to assist in responding to public health concerns related to drinking water supplies. WSWRD has evolved from...

  12. INTEGRATING SOURCE WATER PROTECTION AND DRINKING WATER TREATMENT: U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY'S WATER SUPPLY AND WATER RESOURCES DIVISION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Water Supply and Water Resources Division (WSWRD) is an internationally recognized water research organization established to assist in responding to public health concerns related to drinking water supplies. WSWRD has evolved from...

  13. Fluoride and Water (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Fluoride and Water KidsHealth > For Parents > Fluoride and Water Print A ... to 19-year-olds continue Fluoride and the Water Supply For more than 60 years, water fluoridation ...

  14. Volatile halocarbons in water

    SciTech Connect

    Kroneld, R.

    1986-11-01

    Volatile halocarbons in drinking water have attracted increasing attention during recent years. These substances are also found in body fluids. All disinfectant chemicals used in water treatment seem to produce by-products. Of particular concern are the following substances from the use of various disinfectants according to US EPA: chlorine, bromine and iodine, and chlorine dioxide. The aim of the present study was to follow the formation and occurrence of volatile halocarbons in different types of water.

  15. The Mystery of Water

    SciTech Connect

    Nilsson, Anders

    2005-11-21

    Water is essential for our existence on this planet - critical to countless physical, biological, geological and chemical processes - it has defied scientific understanding. Exhibiting peculiar properties such as increased density upon melting and high surface tension, water is one of the most intriguing problems in condensed matter and chemical physics. Current research at SSRL, however, is illuminating the nature of H-bonding, presenting exciting new avenues of research and challenging existing models of water's structure.

  16. Water Purification Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    A water purification/recycling system developed by Photo-Catalytics, Inc. (PCI) for NASA is commercially available. The system cleanses and recycles water, using a "photo-catalysis" process in which light or radiant energy sparks a chemical reaction. Chemically stable semiconductor powders are added to organically polluted water. The powder absorbs ultraviolet light, and pollutants are oxidized and converted to carbon dioxide. Potential markets for the system include research and pharmaceutical manufacturing applications, as well as microchip manufacture and wastewater cleansing.

  17. Global water cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, Franklin; Goodman, Steven J.; Christy, John R.; Fitzjarrald, Daniel E.; Chou, Shi-Hung; Crosson, William; Wang, Shouping; Ramirez, Jorge

    1993-01-01

    This research is the MSFC component of a joint MSFC/Pennsylvania State University Eos Interdisciplinary Investigation on the global water cycle extension across the earth sciences. The primary long-term objective of this investigation is to determine the scope and interactions of the global water cycle with all components of the Earth system and to understand how it stimulates and regulates change on both global and regional scales. Significant accomplishments in the past year are presented and include the following: (1) water vapor variability; (2) multi-phase water analysis; (3) global modeling; and (4) optimal precipitation and stream flow analysis and hydrologic processes.

  18. Cooling water distribution system

    DOEpatents

    Orr, Richard

    1994-01-01

    A passive containment cooling system for a nuclear reactor containment vessel. Disclosed is a cooling water distribution system for introducing cooling water by gravity uniformly over the outer surface of a steel containment vessel using an interconnected series of radial guide elements, a plurality of circumferential collector elements and collector boxes to collect and feed the cooling water into distribution channels extending along the curved surface of the steel containment vessel. The cooling water is uniformly distributed over the curved surface by a plurality of weirs in the distribution channels.

  19. Water purification in Borexino

    SciTech Connect

    Giammarchi, M.; Balata, M.; Ioannucci, L.; Nisi, S.; Goretti, A.; Ianni, A.; Miramonti, L.

    2013-08-08

    Astroparticle Physics and Underground experiments searching for rare nuclear events, need high purity materials to act as detectors or detector shielding. Water has the advantage of being cheap, dense and easily available. Most of all, water can be purified to the goal of obatining a high level of radiopurity. Water Purification can be achieved by means of a combination of processes, including filtration, reverse osmosis, deionization and gas stripping. The Water Purification System for the Borexino experiment, will be described together with its main performances.

  20. Water Conservation Measures

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2010-12-31

    This software requires inputs of simple water fixture inventory information and calculates the water/energy and cost benefits of various retrofit opportunities. This tool includes water conservation measures for: Low-flow Toilets, Low-flow Urinals, Low-flow Faucets, and Low-flow Showheads. This tool calculates water savings, energy savings, demand reduction, cost savings, and building life cycle costs including: simple payback, discounted payback, net-present value, and savings to investment ratio. In addition this tool also displays the environmental benefits ofmore » a project.« less

  1. Energy—Water Interdependence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moran, E. H.; Tindall, J. A.; Campbell, A. A.

    2010-12-01

    ABSTRACT Energy and water security and sustainability have become a national and global priority. The continued security and economic health of any country depends on a sustainable supply of both energy and water because these two critical natural resources are inexorably linked. The production of energy requires large volumes of water while the treatment and distribution of water is equally dependent upon readily available, low-cost energy. In the U.S. and other countries, irrigated agriculture and thermoelectric generation withdrawals of fresh water are approximately equal however; they are growing due to increasing population. Within the U.S. electricity production requires about 190,000 million gallons of freshwater per day, accounting for over 40 percent of all daily freshwater withdrawals in the U.S. The indirect use of water (home lighting and electric appliances) is approximately equal to its direct use (watering lawns and taking showers). Current trends of water use and availability suggest that meeting future water and energy demands to support continued economic global development will require improved utilization and management of both energy and water resources. Primary concerns include: (1) Increasing populations require more food and energy; this may cause direct competition between the two largest water users for limited water resources (energy and agriculture); (2) Population growth and economic expansion projections indicate the U.S. alone will require an additional 393,000 MW of new generating capacity (equivalent to about 1,000 new 400 MW plants) by the year 2020 - other countries particularly India and China have similar trends; and (3) Potential environmental and ecological restrictions on the use of water for power generation such as the restrictions on cooling water withdrawals and cooling water use for nuclear power plants to protect aquatic species and habitat and the environment may reduce usable supplies. The U.S. and other Nation

  2. Water Injected Turbomachinery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, R. C.; Shouse, D. T.; Roquemore, W. M.

    2005-01-01

    From antiquity, water has been a source of cooling, lubrication, and power for energy transfer devices. More recent applications in gas turbines demonstrate an added facet, emissions control. Fogging gas turbine inlets or direct injection of water into gas turbine combustors, decreases NOx and increases power. Herein we demonstrate that injection of water into the air upstream of the combustor reduces NOx by factors up to three in a natural gas fueled Trapped Vortex Combustor (TVC) and up to two in a liquid JP-8 fueled (TVC) for a range in water/fuel and fuel/air ratios.

  3. Water Conservation Measures

    SciTech Connect

    Ian Metzger, Jesse Dean

    2010-12-31

    This software requires inputs of simple water fixture inventory information and calculates the water/energy and cost benefits of various retrofit opportunities. This tool includes water conservation measures for: Low-flow Toilets, Low-flow Urinals, Low-flow Faucets, and Low-flow Showheads. This tool calculates water savings, energy savings, demand reduction, cost savings, and building life cycle costs including: simple payback, discounted payback, net-present value, and savings to investment ratio. In addition this tool also displays the environmental benefits of a project.

  4. Method for desalinating water

    SciTech Connect

    Diggs, R.E.

    1982-08-10

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for removing contaminants from water having solid contaminants dissolved therein. Contaminated water flows across a grid and into a storage tank. The grid utilizes solar energy to heat that water to a predetermined temperature. A heat transfer structure which is dome-shaped and receives water from the storage tank and a preheater means utilizing solar energy heats the water to a further predetermined temperature. An evaporator means receives the heated water and exposes it to a vacuum condition so that the temperature of the water is above the saturation temperature. The water is thus vaporized, and solid contaminants dissolved therein are separated therefrom. The solids are deposited on a plurality of moving belts and are then moved into a solids removal system. The solids removal system comprises a plurality of trap door pairs upon which the solids are deposited and which are sequentially opened so that the vacuum conditions existing in the evaporator are not disturbed. Vapor transferring means removes the water vapor from the evaporator and transfers it to the heat transfer structure wherein it is condensed to form distillate which is free of solid contaminants. Distillate removal means then removes the distillate from the heat transfer structure to collection or usage means.

  5. Apparatus for desalinating water

    SciTech Connect

    Diggs, R.E.

    1980-04-22

    An apparatus and method is described for removing contaminants from water having solid contaminants dissolved therein. Contaminated water flows across a grid and into a storage tank. The grid utilizes solar energy to heat that water to a predetermined temperature. A heat transfer structure which is dome-shaped and receives water from the storage tank and a preheater means utilizing solar energy heats the water to a further predetermined temperature. An evaporator means receives the heated water and exposes it to a vacuum condition so that the temperature of the water is above the saturation temperature. The water is thus vaporized, and solid contaminants dissolved therein are separated therefrom. The solids are deposited on a plurality of moving belts and are then moved into a solids removal system. The solids removal system comprises a plurality of trap door pairs upon which the solids are deposited and which are sequentially opened so that the vacuum conditions existing in the evaporator are not disturbed. Vapor transferring means removes the water vapor from the evaporator and transfers it to the heat transfer structure wherein it is condensed to form distillate which is free of solid contaminants. Distillate removal means then removes the distillate from the heat transfer structure to collection or usage means.

  6. Air/Water Purification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    After 18 years of research into air/water pollution at Stennis Space Center, Dr. B. C. Wolverton formed his own company, Wolverton Environmental Services, Inc., to provide technology and consultation in air and water treatment. Common houseplants are used to absorb potentially harmful materials from bathrooms and kitchens. The plants are fertilized, air is purified, and wastewater is converted to clean water. More than 100 U.S. communities have adopted Wolverton's earlier water hyacinth and artificial marsh applications. Catfish farmers are currently evaluating the artificial marsh technology as a purification system.

  7. Water - an inexhaustible resource?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Divenah, C.; Esperou, E.

    2012-04-01

    We have chosen to present the topic "Water", by illustrating problems that will give better opportunities for interdisciplinary work between Natural Science (Physics, Chemistry, Biology and Geology) teachers at first, but also English teachers and maybe others. Water is considered in general, in all its shapes and states. The question is not only about drinking water, but we would like to demonstrate that water can both be a fragile and short-lived resource in some ways, and an unlimited energy resource in others. Water exists on Earth in three states. It participates in a large number of chemical and physical processes (dissolution, dilution, biogeochemical cycles, repartition of heat in the oceans and the atmosphere, etc.), helping to maintain the homeostasis of the entire planet. It is linked to living beings, for which water is the major compound. The living beings essentially organized themselves into or around water, and this fact is also valid for human kind (energy, drinking, trade…). Water can also be a destroying agent for living beings (tsunamis, mud flows, collapse of electrical dams, pollution...) and for the solid earth (erosion, dissolution, fusion). I) Water, an essential resource for the human kind After having highlighted the disparities and geopolitical problems, the pupils will study the chemistry of water with its components and their origins (isotopes, water trip). Then the ways to make it drinkable will be presented (filtration, decantation, iceberg carrying…) II) From the origin of water... We could manage an activity where different groups put several hypotheses to the test, with the goal to understand the origin(s?) of water on Earth. Example: Isotopic signature of water showing its extraterrestrial origin.. Once done, we'll try to determine the origin of drinking water, as a fossil resource. Another use of isotopes will allow them to evaluate the drinking water age, to realize how precious it can be. III) Water as a sustainable energy

  8. Deep Water, Shallow Water: Marine Animal Homes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soltow, Willow

    1984-01-01

    Examines the diversity of life in the oceans and ways in which teachers can explore ocean habitats with their students without leaving the classroom. Topic areas considered include: restricted habitats, people and marine habitats, pollution, incidental kills, and the commercial and recreational uses of marine waters. (JN)

  9. A Sense of Water. Water in Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abernathy-Tabor, Michelle

    The Water in Africa Project was realized over a 2-year period by a team of Peace Corps volunteers, World Wise Schools (WWS) classroom teachers, and WWS staff members. As part of an expanded, detailed design, resources were collected from over 90 volunteers serving in African countries, photos and stories were prepared, and standards-based learning…

  10. Water, water everywhere, and its remarkable chemistry.

    PubMed

    Barber, Jim

    2004-04-12

    Photosystem II (PSII), the multisubunit pigment-protein complex localised in the thylakoid membranes of oxygenic photosynthetic organisms, uses light energy to drive a series of remarkable reactions leading to the oxidation of water. The products of this oxidation are dioxygen, which is released to the atmosphere, and reducing equivalents destined to reduce carbon dioxide to organic molecules. The water oxidation occurs at catalytic sites composed of four manganese atoms (Mn(4)-cluster) and powered by the redox potential of an oxidised chlorophyll a molecule (P680(*+)). Gerald T (Jerry) Babcock and colleagues showed that electron/proton transfer processes from substrate water to P680(*+) involved a tyrosine residue (Y(Z)) and proposed an attractive reaction mechanism for the direct involvement of Y(Z) in the chemistry of water oxidation. The 'hydrogen-atom abstract/metalloradical' mechanism he formulated is an expression of his genius and a highlight of his many other outstanding contributions to photosynthesis research. A structural basis for Jerry's model is now being revealed by X-ray crystallography. PMID:15100024

  11. Water Availability and Management of Water Resources

    EPA Science Inventory

    One of the most pressing national and global issues is the availability of freshwater due to global climate change, energy scarcity issues and the increase in world population and accompanying economic growth. Estimates of water supplies and flows through the world's hydrologic c...

  12. RESPONDING TO WATER CONTAMINATION THREATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Drinking water safety has traditionally been linked to water quality. The possibility of terrorism directed against the drinking water supply has emphasized the link between water safety and water security. The traditional paradigm in solving water quality problems is to develop ...

  13. Threats to the World's Water.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    la Riviere, J. W. Maurits

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the management of the earth's water resources. Describes the global water cycle and the status of water pollution. Recommends that a water-management project should lean toward increasing the efficiency of water consumption rather than toward increasing the supply of water. (YP)

  14. TRIBAL WATER QUALITY STANDARDS WORKSHOP

    EPA Science Inventory

    Water quality standards are the foundation for water management actions. They provide the basis for regulating discharges of pollutants to surface waters, and provide a target for restoration of degraded waters. Water quality standards identify and protect uses of the water bod...

  15. Water footprint as a tool for integrated water resources management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldaya, Maite; Hoekstra, Arjen

    2010-05-01

    In a context where water resources are unevenly distributed and, in some regions precipitation and drought conditions are increasing, enhanced water management is a major challenge to final consumers, businesses, water resource users, water managers and policymakers in general. By linking a large range of sectors and issues, virtual water trade and water footprint analyses provide an appropriate framework to find potential solutions and contribute to a better management of water resources. The water footprint is an indicator of freshwater use that looks not only at direct water use of a consumer or producer, but also at the indirect water use. The water footprint of a product is the volume of freshwater used to produce the product, measured over the full supply chain. It is a multi-dimensional indicator, showing water consumption volumes by source and polluted volumes by type of pollution; all components of a total water footprint are specified geographically and temporally. The water footprint breaks down into three components: the blue (volume of freshwater evaporated from surface or groundwater systems), green (water volume evaporated from rainwater stored in the soil as soil moisture) and grey water footprint (the volume of polluted water associated with the production of goods and services). Closely linked to the concept of water footprint is that of virtual water trade, which represents the amount of water embedded in traded products. Many nations save domestic water resources by importing water-intensive products and exporting commodities that are less water intensive. National water saving through the import of a product can imply saving water at a global level if the flow is from sites with high to sites with low water productivity. Virtual water trade between nations and even continents could thus be used as an instrument to improve global water use efficiency and to achieve water security in water-poor regions of the world. The virtual water trade

  16. Safety of Bottled Water Beverages Including Flavored Water and Nutrient-Added Water Beverages

    MedlinePlus

    ... of 26 gallons per person. Today, only carbonated soft drinks out-sell bottled water. Defining "Bottled Water" Under ... and seltzer historically are regulated by FDA as soft drinks. Flavored Water and Nutrient-Added Water Beverages New ...

  17. Water hammer simulator

    SciTech Connect

    Sinha, S.K.; Madia, J.; Dixon, S.

    1995-11-01

    The Consolidated Edison Company of New York, Inc. (Con Edison) has constructed a first-of-a-kind water hammer events simulator for use at its training center. The Learning Center, Con Edison`s central training facility, intends to use the simulator as an educational tool to demonstrate the various mechanisms of the water hammer phenomenon to power plant designers, engineers and operators. The water hammer phenomenon has been studied extensively for the past 15 years for the nuclear industry. However, the acknowledge of the various water hammer mechanisms and the measures to prevent or mitigate water hammer have not been widely disseminated among the operators of fossil-fueled power plants. Con Edison personnel who operate the various generation stations and the New York City steam distribution systems are expected to benefit from the new simulator. Knowledge gained from interacting with the simulator will be very important in helping the Con Edison prevent, mitigate, or accommodate water hammer at its facilities. The water hammer simulator was fabricated in Con Edison`s central machine shop. Details of the design and construction of the simulator were finalized in consultation with Creare, Inc., an engineering research firm, located in Hanover, New Hampshire. The simulator seeks to recreate the essential features of water hammer in steam mines following the buildup of cold (subcooled) water by condensation and steam-water interaction. This paper describes the fabrication, design, testing, and operation of the Con Edison water hammer simulator. A discussion of how Con Edison plans to use the facility at The Learning Center is included.

  18. The salt water encroachment along the Lamone river artificial estuary: an issue for the coastal management in the Southern Po Plain Adriatic Coast (Italy).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laghi, M.; Antonellini, M.; Minchio, A.; Stecchi, F.

    2009-04-01

    Recently, the problem of saltwater intrusion in shallow aquifers has been recognized across Europe as one of the major threats for freshwater resources in coastal areas. Italy is indicated as one of the countries most severely affected. The problem of saltwater encroachment into the coastal water system attracted the public opinion attention during the last summers, when, due to low rainfall and low discharge rates, the ingression of seawater along the Po river branches was measured 12 kilometres upstream of the river delta. This situation caused a weakening of agricultural activities (inability to irrigate crops and orchards) and led, in same cases, to the shutdown of electric power generation plants due to the lack of freshwater used for cooling. This study is carried out to quantify the saltwater encroachment along the Lamone river and to estimate its possible contribution to the salinization process of the shallow sandy aquifer in the area. The Lamone River is typical for one of the many small low-discharge rivers flowing from the Appennines and reaching the Adriatic sea after a 88 km course through the southern Po Plain. Its estuary was artificially constrained to the actual position in 1960 and this is the reason of its artificially rectified shape. The salt water encroachment phenomenon has been analyzed during 2008 with a monthly monitoring of electrical conductivity profiles in 31 stations along the terminal 8 kilometres of the river, from its upstream physical boundary (represented by an artificial dam built to collect water for the Ravenna city water treatment plant) and the sea. Measurements point out that the Lamone river estuary has sharp vertical water stratification. Bottom water conductivity values show the presence of saltwater (45 mS/cm) in the first 24 stations (starting from the sea) in almost all monitoring campaigns. At 6.5 km from the sea, the presence of a rocky sill protecting a pipeline represents an efficient threshold that blocks or in

  19. Water Resources Data, California, Water Year 1989. Volume 5. Ground-Water Data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lamb, C.E.; Johnson, J.A.; Fogelman, R.P.; Grillo, D.A.

    1990-01-01

    Water resources data for the 1989 water year for California consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents in lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality in weils. Volume 5 contains water levels for 1,037 observation wells and water-quality data for 254 monitoring wells. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperatine State and Federal agencies in California.

  20. Water Resources Data for California, Water Year 1988. Volume 5. Ground-Water Data for California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lamb, C.E.; Fogelman, R.P.; Grillo, D.A.

    1989-01-01

    Water resources data for the 1988 water year for California consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents in lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water-quality in wells. Volume 5 contains water levels for 980 observation wells and water-quality data for 239 observation monitoring wells. These data represent that part of the National water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in California.

  1. Water Resources Data for California, Water Year 1987. Volume 5. Ground-water Data for California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lamb, C.E.; Fogelman, R.P.; Grillo, D.A.

    1989-01-01

    Water resources data for the 1987 water year for California consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents in lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality in wells. Volume 5 contains water levels for 786 observation wells and water-quality data for 168 observation wells. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in California.

  2. Water Resources Data - Texas Water Year 2000, Volume 6. Ground Water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barbie, D.L.

    2001-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 2000 water year for Texas consists of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents in lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality in wells. Volume 6 contains water levels for 898 observation wells and 145 water-quality data for monitoring wells. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating Federal, State, and local agencies in Texas.

  3. Water Resources Data - Texas, Water Year 2002, Volume 6. Ground Water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barbie, D.L.

    2003-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 2002 water year for Texas consists of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents in lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality in wells. Volume 6 contains water levels for 960 observation wells and water-quality data for 173 monitoring wells. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating Federal, State, and local agencies in Texas.

  4. Water resources data - Texas water year 2001 : Volume 6. Ground water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barbie, D.L.

    2002-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 2001 water year for Texas consists of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents in lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality in wells. Volume 6 contains water levels for 908 observation wells and water-quality data for 155 monitoring wells. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating Federal, State, and local agencies in Texas.

  5. Water Resources Data - Texas Water Year 1999, Volume 6. Ground Water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gandara, S.C.; Barbie, D.L.

    2000-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 1999 water year for Texas consists of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents in lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality in wells. Volume 6 contains water levels for 759 observation wells and 146 water-quality data for monitoring wells. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating Federal, State, and local agencies in Texas.

  6. Water Resources Data, Texas Water Year 1998, Volume 4. Ground Water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gandara, S.C.; Barbie, D.L.

    1999-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 1998 water year for Texas consists of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents in lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality in wells. Volume 4 contains water levels for 759 observation wells and 146 water-quality data for monitoring wells. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating Federal, State, and local agencies in Texas.

  7. Soil Erosion by Water

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil erosion by water, the wearing away of the earth's surface by the forces of water and gravity, consists of rock or soil particle dislodgement, entrainment, transport, and deposition. This sequence of events occurs over a wide range of temporal and spatial scales, from raindrop splash moving par...

  8. Water Treatment Technology - Chlorination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on chlorination provides instructional materials for nine competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: purpose and process of chlorination, chlorine…

  9. Drinking Water and Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC.

    In response to a provision of the Safe Drinking Water Act of 1974 which called for a study that would serve as a scientific basis for revising the primary drinking water regulations that were promulgated under the Act, a study of the scientific literature was undertaken in order to assess the implications for human health of the constituents of…

  10. Microbiology of Water.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geldreich, Edwin E.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of microbiology of water, covering publications of 1967-77. This review covers: (1) microbial indicators of pollution; and (2) microbiology of rivers, potable waters, natural lakes, and impoundments. A list of 192 references is also presented. (HM)

  11. Splash! Water Resource Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southwest Florida Water Management District, Brooksville.

    This set of activities is designed to bring water resource education into the middle school classroom using an interdisciplinary approach. The packet contains timely, localized information about the water resources of west central Florida. Each activity is aligned to middle-school Sunshine State Standards. These hands-on, minds-on activities can…

  12. The Water Hyacinth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bay, Richards

    1992-01-01

    Presents a student study of the growing conditions of the Water Hyacinth and its effect on the food chain. Describes the different phases of the project including fieldwork, a public awareness survey, public involvement, control programs, and conclusions. A vignette describes beneficial uses of the Water Hyacinth. (MCO)

  13. Treading on Thin Water.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haley, Richard D.

    1985-01-01

    Provides a simple introduction to animals whose habitat is the thin surface film of water. Describes adaptive mechanisms of water striders, whirlygigs and riffle bugs and suggests ways to observe them in the wild or as aquarium animals. Includes basic demonstrations of the nature of surface tension. (JHZ)

  14. Cave Water Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Keefe, Elizabeth S.

    1996-01-01

    Describes a comparative study project where seventh grade students tested water samples from 10 cave sites that had been tested 24 years ago in a study that had attempted to determine if pollution in the environment had reached cave water. Discusses lab skills and some results of the study. (JRH)

  15. Water Chemistry Laboratory Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, David; And Others

    This manual of laboratory experiments in water chemistry serves a dual function of illustrating fundamental chemical principles of dilute aqueous systems and of providing the student with some familiarity with the chemical measurements commonly used in water and wastewater analysis. Experiments are grouped in categories on the basis of similar…

  16. Water oxidation: Intermediate identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowan, Alexander J.

    2016-08-01

    The slow kinetics of light-driven water oxidation on haematite is an important factor limiting the material's efficiency. Now, an intermediate of the water-splitting reaction has been identified offering hope that the full mechanism will soon be resolved.

  17. Purge water management system

    DOEpatents

    Cardoso-Neto, J.E.; Williams, D.W.

    1995-01-01

    A purge water management system is described for effectively eliminating the production of purge water when obtaining a groundwater sample from a monitoring well. In its preferred embodiment, the purge water management system comprises an expandable container, a transportation system, and a return system. The purge water management system is connected to a wellhead sampling configuration, typically permanently installed at the well site. A pump, positioned with the monitoring well, pumps groundwater through the transportation system into the expandable container, which expands in direct proportion with volume of groundwater introduced, usually three or four well volumes, yet prevents the groundwater from coming into contact with the oxygen in the air. After this quantity of groundwater has been removed from the well, a sample is taken from a sampling port, after which the groundwater in the expandable container can be returned to the monitoring well through the return system. The purge water management system prevents the purge water from coming in contact with the outside environment, especially oxygen, which might cause the constituents of the groundwater to oxidize. Therefore, by introducing the purge water back into the monitoring well, the necessity of dealing with the purge water as a hazardous waste under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act is eliminated.

  18. Purge water management system

    DOEpatents

    Cardoso-Neto, Joao E.; Williams, Daniel W.

    1996-01-01

    A purge water management system for effectively eliminating the production of purge water when obtaining a groundwater sample from a monitoring well. In its preferred embodiment, the purge water management system comprises an expandable container, a transportation system, and a return system. The purge water management system is connected to a wellhead sampling configuration, typically permanently installed at the well site. A pump, positioned with the monitoring well, pumps groundwater through the transportation system into the expandable container, which expands in direct proportion with volume of groundwater introduced, usually three or four well volumes, yet prevents the groundwater from coming into contact with the oxygen in the air. After this quantity of groundwater has been removed from the well, a sample is taken from a sampling port, after which the groundwater in the expandable container can be returned to the monitoring well through the return system. The purge water management system prevents the purge water from coming in contact with the outside environment, especially oxygen, which might cause the constituents of the groundwater to oxidize. Therefore, by introducing the purge water back into the monitoring well, the necessity of dealing with the purge water as a hazardous waste under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act is eliminated.

  19. Water Quality Monitoring Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Fred J.; Houdart, Joseph F.

    This manual is designed for students involved in environmental education programs dealing with water pollution problems. By establishing a network of Environmental Monitoring Stations within the educational system, four steps toward the prevention, control, and abatement of water pollution are proposed. (1) Train students to recognize, monitor,…

  20. Lunar Water Resource Demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muscatello, Anthony C.

    2008-01-01

    In cooperation with the Canadian Space Agency, the Northern Centre for Advanced Technology, Inc., the Carnegie-Mellon University, JPL, and NEPTEC, NASA has undertaken the In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) project called RESOLVE. This project is a ground demonstration of a system that would be sent to explore permanently shadowed polar lunar craters, drill into the regolith, determine what volatiles are present, and quantify them in addition to recovering oxygen by hydrogen reduction. The Lunar Prospector has determined these craters contain enhanced hydrogen concentrations averaging about 0.1%. If the hydrogen is in the form of water, the water concentration would be around 1%, which would translate into billions of tons of water on the Moon, a tremendous resource. The Lunar Water Resource Demonstration (LWRD) is a part of RESOLVE designed to capture lunar water and hydrogen and quantify them as a backup to gas chromatography analysis. This presentation will briefly review the design of LWRD and some of the results of testing the subsystem. RESOLVE is to be integrated with the Scarab rover from CMIJ and the whole system demonstrated on Mauna Kea on Hawaii in November 2008. The implications of lunar water for Mars exploration are two-fold: 1) RESOLVE and LWRD could be used in a similar fashion on Mars to locate and quantify water resources, and 2) electrolysis of lunar water could provide large amounts of liquid oxygen in LEO, leading to lower costs for travel to Mars, in addition to being very useful at lunar outposts.

  1. Water resources, summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simons, D. B.

    1975-01-01

    The application of remote sensing products to the development and understanding of water resources problems is considered. Geology and hydrogeology, analysis of watersheds, snow and ice, prediction of runoff from snowmelt, hydrologic land use classifications, soil moisture, evapotranspiration, flood hazards, and water quality surveys are among the topics discussed. Suggestions for further use of remotely sensed data are given along with increased user requirements.

  2. Water Rocket Workout.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esler, William K.; Sanford, Daniel

    1989-01-01

    Water rockets are used to present Newton's three laws of motion to high school physics students. Described is an outdoor activity which uses four students per group. Provides a launch data sheet to record height, angle of elevation, amount of water used, and launch number. (MVL)

  3. Fecal Pollution of Water.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fecal pollution of water from a health point of view is the contamination of water with disease-causing organisms (pathogens) that may inhabit the gastrointestinal tract of mammals, but with particular attention to human fecal sources as the most relevant source of human illnesse...

  4. Water permeability of elastomers.

    PubMed

    Held, H R; Landi, S

    1977-01-01

    In a previous study it has been shown that the free moisture content in freeze-dried BCG vaccine dispensed in vials sealed with rubber stoppers increased during storage. The search for the source of this increase led us to explore the possibility that this additional moisture could originate from the rubber stoppers themselves. Therefore, the water permeability of various rubber stoppers has been studied, and the water content of grey butyl stoppers during some operations (autoclaving, oven-drying, freeze-drying, storage) used in the manufacturing of BCG vaccine has been determined. Our experiments showed: rapid water uptake during steam-autoclaving and rapid water release during subsequent oven-drying of the stoppers; a slow water uptake of the stoppers during freeze-drying and a slow water permeation through the stoppers when vials containing Indicating Drierite were stored in a water-saturated atmosphere. Among 12 types of rubber stoppers tested, the grey butyl stoppers and the silicone stoppers showed the lowest water uptake. Moisture-resistant wrappings decreased significantly the moisture uptake of Drierite. To delay moisture from reaching the vaccine it is recommended that the stoppers employed be as dry as possible. PMID:881425

  5. Jumping hoops on water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Eunjin; Kim, Ho-Young

    2015-11-01

    Small aquatic arthropods, such as water striders and fishing spiders, are able to jump off water to a height several times their body length. Inspired by the unique biological motility on water, we study a simple model using a flexible hoop to provide fundamental understanding and a mimicking principle of small jumpers on water. Behavior of a hoop on water, which is coated with superhydrophobic particles and initially bent into an ellipse from an equilibrium circular shape, is visualized with a high speed camera upon launching it into air by releasing its initial elastic strain energy. We observe that jumping of our hoops is dominated by the dynamic pressure of water rather than surface tension, and thus it corresponds to the dynamic condition experienced by fishing spiders. We calculate the reaction forces provided by water adopting the unsteady Bernoulli equation as well as the momentum loss into liquid inertia and viscous friction. Our analysis allows us to predict the jumping efficiency of the hoop on water in comparison to that on ground, and to discuss the evolutionary pressure rendering fishing spiders select such dynamic behavior.

  6. Fecal Pollution of Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fecal pollution of water from a health point of view is the contamination of water with disease-causing organisms (pathogens) that may inhabit the gastrointestinal tract of mammals, but with particular attention to human fecal sources as the most relevant source of human illnesse...

  7. Water Treatment Technology - Filtration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on filtration provides instructional materials for six competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: purposes of sedimentation basins and flocculation…

  8. Water Reclamation and Reuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Daniel W.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of water reclamation and reuse. This review covers: (1) water resources planning; (2) agriculture and irrigation; (3) ground recharge; (4) industrial reuse; (5) health considerations; and (6) technology developments. A list of 217 references is also presented. (HM)

  9. WATER CONSERVATION IN SOIL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water conservation is important for agricultural, residential, industrial, and recreational users in all climatic regions, but becomes increasingly important when going from humid to semiarid and arid regions. This report briefly describes techniques that can be used to increase the storage of water...

  10. Water impact loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, D. H.; Safronski, S. G.

    1972-01-01

    Computer program to generate time history of load factor and pressure on conical body of revolution during impact with water is discussed. Program calculates depth of penetration, velocity, force, load factor, maximum pressure at water line, and average pressure. Program is written in FORTRAN 4 Level H for IBM 360/85/195 Release 20.1 computer.

  11. Developing Water Sampling Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Science and Technology, 1974

    1974-01-01

    Participants in the D-19 symposium on aquatic sampling and measurement for water pollution assessment were informed that determining the extent of waste water stream pollution is not a cut and dry procedure. Topics discussed include field sampling, representative sampling from storm sewers, suggested sampler features and application of improved…

  12. Safe drinking water act

    SciTech Connect

    Calabrese, E.J.; Gilbert, C.E. )

    1989-01-01

    This book covers drinking water regulations such as disinfectant by-products, synthetic organics, inorganic chemicals, microbiological contaminants, volatile organic chemicals, radionuclides, fluoride, toxicological approaches to setting new national drinking water regulations, and trihalomethanes. Gives organic and inorganic compounds scheduled to be regulated in 1989 and candidates for the 1990s regulations.

  13. Water vapor pressure calculation.

    PubMed

    Hall, J R; Brouillard, R G

    1985-06-01

    Accurate calculation of water vapor pressure for systems saturated with water vapor can be performed using the Goff-Gratch equation. A form of the equation that can be adapted for computer programming and for use in electronic databases is provided. PMID:4008425

  14. Stage a Water Show

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frasier, Debra

    2008-01-01

    In the author's book titled "The Incredible Water Show," the characters from "Miss Alaineus: A Vocabulary Disaster" used an ocean of information to stage an inventive performance about the water cycle. In this article, the author relates how she turned the story into hands-on science teaching for real-life fifth-grade students. The author also…

  15. Water Treatment Technology - Springs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on springs provides instructional materials for two competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on spring basin construction and spring protection. For each competency, student…

  16. Water Treatment Technology - Wells.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on wells provides instructional materials for five competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: dug, driven, and chilled wells, aquifer types, deep well…

  17. Water Treatment Technology - Flouridation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on flouridation provides instructional materials for three competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: purpose and process of flouridation, correct…

  18. Energy and Water

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harte, John; El-Gasseir, Mohamed

    1978-01-01

    The water consumption requirements for a variety of energy options are presented, and comparative judgments drawn. Attention is focused on problems resulting from synthetic, gaseous, and liquid fuel production. Scenarios describing possible future levels of coal and electricity use are analyzed. They point to the importance of water supply…

  19. Potable water dispenser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunningham, H. R. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A dispenser particularly suited for use in dispensing potable water into food and beverage reconstitution bags is described. The dispenser is characterized by an expansible chamber, selectively adjustable stop means for varying the maximum dimensions, a rotary valve, and a linear valve coupled in a cooperating relation for delivering potable water to and from the chamber.

  20. Waking up to Water

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hines, Chris

    2007-01-01

    Climate change is having a major effect on water cycles. There is an increased intensity and frequency of severe storms resulting in flooding. Floods in other parts of the world cause death on a major scale. Meanwhile across the planet, one billion people (a sixth of the world's population) do not have access to safe drinking water, and two…

  1. Water Treatment Technology - Pumps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on pumps provides instructional materials for three competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: types of pumps in plant and distribution systems, pump…

  2. Whose Water Is It?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trisler, Carmen E.

    1996-01-01

    Western states have long had their eye on the Great Lakes as a water source for irrigation and municipal supplies. Great Lakes states protect this water source and oppose any diversion that is not agreed upon by all Great Lakes states and provinces. This article presents a role-play activity simulation of a Great Lakes governors' conference. (MKR)

  3. Water Treatment Technology - Hydraulics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on hydraulics provides instructional materials for three competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: head loss in pipes in series, function loss in…

  4. The Other Water Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barton, Kathy

    1978-01-01

    Nonpoint source pollution, water pollution not released at one specific identifiable point, now accounts for 50 percent of the nation's water pollution problem. Runoff is the primary culprit and includes the following sources: agriculture, mining, hydrologic modifications, and urban runoff. Economics, legislation, practices, and management of this…

  5. The Dirty Water Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Mark; Kremer, Angelika; Schluter, Kirsten

    2007-01-01

    "The Dirty Water Challenge" is a fun activity that teaches children about their environment in an engaging and practical way. Inquiry is embedded within the practical--students have to design, plan, and then build their own design of water filter. Students are exposed to important concepts from a variety of scientific disciplines, including how…

  6. Water Pollution, Teachers' Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavaroni, Charles W.; And Others

    One of three in a series about pollution, this teacher's guide for a unit on water pollution is designed for use in junior high school grades. It offers suggestions for extending the information and activities contained in the textual material for students. Chapter 1 discusses the problem of water pollution and involves students in processes of…

  7. Water Exercise Causes Ripples.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koszuta, Laurie Einstein

    1986-01-01

    Water exercise provides benefits independently of participants' skill levels, and reduces the likelihood of injury from overuse syndromes and heat-related problems. The advantages of water resistance exercises for athletes and for elderly, overweight, or physically disabled people are discussed. (MT)

  8. Water hyacinths for removal of phenols from polluted waters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolverton, B. C.

    1975-01-01

    Removal of phenol by water hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms) in static water was investigated. 2.75 g dry weight of this aquatic plant demonstrated the ability to absorb 100 mg of phenol per plant per 72 hours from distilled water, river water, and bayou water. One hectare of water hyacinth plants is shown to be potentially capable of removing 160 kg of phenol per 72 hours from waters polluted with this chemical.

  9. Radiolysis of boiling water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Shuang; Katsumura, Yosuke; Yamashita, Shinichi; Matsuura, Chihiro; Hiroishi, Daisuke; Lertnaisat, Phantira; Taguchi, Mitsumasa

    2016-06-01

    γ-radiolysis of boiling water has been investigated. The G-value of H2 evolution was found to be very sensitive to the purity of water. In high-purity water, both H2 and O2 gases were formed in the stoichiometric ratio of 2:1; a negligible amount of H2O2 remained in the liquid phase. The G-values of H2 and O2 gas evolution depend on the dose rate: lower dose rates produce larger yields. To clarify the importance of the interface between liquid and gas phase for gas evolution, the gas evolution under Ar gas bubbling was measured. A large amount of H2 was detected, similar to the radiolysis of boiling water. The evolution of gas was enhanced in a 0.5 M NaCl aqueous solution. Deterministic chemical kinetics simulation elucidated the mechanism of radiolysis in boiling water.

  10. In hot water, again

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basden, Alastair; Watkins, Sheila

    2009-10-01

    Regarding Norman Willcox's letter about the problems of using solar panels for domestic heating (August p21), I also have thermal solar panels installed. However, contrary to his disappointing experience, I have found that they provide my family with a useful amount of hot water. In our system, the solar energy is used to heat a store of water, which has no other source of heat. Mains-pressure cold water passes through this store via a heat exchanger, removing heat from it and warming up. If the water becomes warm enough, an unpowered thermostatic valve allows it to go straight to the hot taps (mixing it with cold if it is too hot). However, if it is not hot enough, then the water is directed first through our previously installed gaspowered combination boiler and then to the taps.

  11. Skylab water balance analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leonard, J. I.

    1977-01-01

    The water balance of the Skylab crew was analyzed. Evaporative water loss using a whole body input/output balance equation, water, body tissue, and energy balance was analyzed. The approach utilizes the results of several major Skylab medical experiments. Subsystems were designed for the use of the software necessary for the analysis. A partitional water balance that graphically depicts the changes due to water intake is presented. The energy balance analysis determines the net available energy to the individual crewman during any period. The balances produce a visual description of the total change of a particular body component during the course of the mission. The information is salvaged from metabolic balance data if certain techniques are used to reduce errors inherent in the balance method.

  12. Stratospheric water vapor feedback

    PubMed Central

    Dessler, A. E.; Schoeberl, M. R.; Wang, T.; Davis, S. M.; Rosenlof, K. H.

    2013-01-01

    We show here that stratospheric water vapor variations play an important role in the evolution of our climate. This comes from analysis of observations showing that stratospheric water vapor increases with tropospheric temperature, implying the existence of a stratospheric water vapor feedback. We estimate the strength of this feedback in a chemistry–climate model to be +0.3 W/(m2⋅K), which would be a significant contributor to the overall climate sensitivity. One-third of this feedback comes from increases in water vapor entering the stratosphere through the tropical tropopause layer, with the rest coming from increases in water vapor entering through the extratropical tropopause. PMID:24082126

  13. Surface-water surveillance

    SciTech Connect

    Saldi, K.A.; Dirkes, R.L.; Blanton, M.L.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the Surface water on and near the Hanford Site is monitored to determine the potential effects of Hanford operations. Surface water at Hanford includes the Columbia River, riverbank springs, ponds located on the Hanford Site, and offsite water systems directly east and across the Columbia River from the Hanford Site, and offsite water systems directly east and across the Columbia River from the Hanford Site. Columbia River sediments are also included in this discussion. Tables 5.3.1 and 5.3.2 summarize the sampling locations, sample types, sampling frequencies, and sample analyses included in surface-water surveillance activities during 1994. Sample locations are also identified in Figure 5.3.1. This section describes the surveillance effort and summarizes the results for these aquatic environments. Detailed analytical results are reported by Bisping (1995).

  14. Stratospheric water vapor feedback.

    PubMed

    Dessler, A E; Schoeberl, M R; Wang, T; Davis, S M; Rosenlof, K H

    2013-11-01

    We show here that stratospheric water vapor variations play an important role in the evolution of our climate. This comes from analysis of observations showing that stratospheric water vapor increases with tropospheric temperature, implying the existence of a stratospheric water vapor feedback. We estimate the strength of this feedback in a chemistry-climate model to be +0.3 W/(m(2)⋅K), which would be a significant contributor to the overall climate sensitivity. One-third of this feedback comes from increases in water vapor entering the stratosphere through the tropical tropopause layer, with the rest coming from increases in water vapor entering through the extratropical tropopause. PMID:24082126

  15. Water, Hydration and Health

    PubMed Central

    Popkin, Barry M.; D’Anci, Kristen E.; Rosenberg, Irwin H.

    2010-01-01

    This review attempts to provide some sense of our current knowledge of water including overall patterns of intake and some factors linked with intake, the complex mechanisms behind water homeostasis, the effects of variation in water intake on health and energy intake, weight, and human performance and functioning. Water represents a critical nutrient whose absence will be lethal within days. Water’s importance for prevention of nutrition-related noncommunicable diseases has emerged more recently because of the shift toward large proportions of fluids coming from caloric beverages. Nevertheless, there are major gaps in knowledge related to measurement of total fluid intake, hydration status at the population level, and few longer-term systematic interventions and no published random-controlled longer-term trials. We suggest some ways to examine water requirements as a means to encouraging more dialogue on this important topic. PMID:20646222

  16. Water policy bill debated

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bush, Susan

    “Federal water-related policy is extremely fragmented and haphazard and prevents us from dealing with our water problems in an expeditious and coordinated fashion,” said Mark O. Hatfield (R-Oreg.), member of the Senate committee on Energy and Natural Resources and sponsor of the Western Water Policy Review Act.At a September 19 hearing on the proposed legislation, Hatfield pointed out that there are currently at least 13 congressional committees, 8 Cabinet-level departments, 6 independent agencies, and 2 White House offices with some form of responsibility relating to national water management policy. As a result of this fragmentation, coordinating solutions to water problems remains difficult. Jurisdiction disputes between federal and state governments and between states must be resolved, Hatfield believes.

  17. WATER DRAINAGE MODEL

    SciTech Connect

    J.B. Case

    2000-05-30

    The drainage of water from the emplacement drift is essential for the performance of the EBS. The unsaturated flow properties of the surrounding rock matrix and fractures determine how well the water will be naturally drained. To enhance natural drainage, it may be necessary to introduce engineered drainage features (e.g. drilled holes in the drifts), that will ensure communication of the flow into the fracture system. The purpose of the Water Drainage Model is to quantify and evaluate the capability of the drift to remove water naturally, using the selected conceptual repository design as a basis (CRWMS M&O, 1999d). The analysis will provide input to the Water Distribution and Removal Model of the EBS. The model is intended to be used to provide postclosure analysis of temperatures and drainage from the EBS. It has been determined that drainage from the EBS is a factor important to the postclosure safety case.

  18. Where the water is: Mapping global drivers of water scarcity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brauman, K. A.; Richter, B.; Foley, J. A.

    2012-12-01

    Water scarcity, and its implications for human and ecosystem wellbeing, is well documented. To mitigate activities that exacerbate water scarcity, and to adapt to scarcity when it is unavoidable, we must understand the drivers of water scarcity. Based on data from the new WaterGAP3 model, we analyze patterns of water stress and water use in watersheds globally. Our data include information on multi-sectoral water withdrawal and consumption as well as irrigation data for individual crops. We assess monthly water use and availability as well as annual trends. Of 11,050 basins, about 2.5% are over-extended, with higher levels of water consumption than available water. In most of these basins, irrigated agriculture dominates water withdrawals. In the majority of basins (92%), less than 20% of available water is consumed by human activity. This leaves just 5.5% of basins potentially stressed; they may not be experiencing water limitation at present, but they are highly susceptible. We consider both water availability (supply) and water withdrawals and consumption (demand) as drivers of water stress, finding that over-extended basins are both dry, with about one fifth of the water availability of the lowest stress basins, and heavy water consumers, with more than double the water consumption of moderate-stress basins. Identifying basins likely to experience water stress, and strategies and characteristics of those that are not, will help put all basins on a path toward water sustainability.

  19. INEEL Source Water Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Sehlke, Gerald

    2003-03-01

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) covers approximately 890 mi2 and includes 12 public water systems that must be evaluated for Source water protection purposes under the Safe Drinking Water Act. Because of its size and location, six watersheds and five aquifers could potentially affect the INEEL’s drinking water sources. Based on a preliminary evaluation of the available information, it was determined that the Big Lost River, Birch Creek, and Little Lost River Watersheds and the eastern Snake River Plain Aquifer needed to be assessed. These watersheds were delineated using the United States Geologic Survey’s Hydrological Unit scheme. Well capture zones were originally estimated using the RESSQC module of the Environmental Protection Agency’s Well Head Protection Area model, and the initial modeling assumptions and results were checked by running several scenarios using Modflow modeling. After a technical review, the resulting capture zones were expanded to account for the uncertainties associated with changing groundwater flow directions, a thick vadose zone, and other data uncertainties. Finally, all well capture zones at a given facility were merged to a single wellhead protection area at each facility. A contaminant source inventory was conducted, and the results were integrated with the well capture zones, watershed and aquifer information, and facility information using geographic information system technology to complete the INEEL’s Source Water Assessment. Of the INEEL’s 12 public water systems, three systems rated as low susceptibility (EBR-I, Main Gate, and Gun Range), and the remainder rated as moderate susceptibility. No INEEL public water system rated as high susceptibility. We are using this information to develop a source water management plan from which we will subsequently implement an INEEL-wide source water management program. The results are a very robust set of wellhead protection areas that will

  20. Water isotopologues in leaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuntz, M.; Ogée, J.; Farquhar, G. D.; Cernusak, L. A.; Peylin, P.; Bariac, T.

    2007-12-01

    Leaf water isotope enrichment is a cornerstone of a variety of isotopic applications. It imprints on different substances such as atmospheric CO2, O2, and plant organic matter. But different applications use enrichment in different parts of the leaf and weighted by different fluxes. For example, leaf organic matter is determined by the assimilation-weighted average bulk water enrichment. Atmospheric CO2 and O2 are determined by the enrichment near the evaporating sites, either weighted by the one-way CO2 flux from the stomata to the atmosphere or by electron transport, resp. These applications of leaf water enrichment are used from the leaf level up to global scales. It is therefore essential to understand the time course of leaf water enrichment at both the evaporating sites and in the mesophyll but also to asses the suitability of simple models such as the Craig & Gordon (1965) steady-state prediction or the Dongmann et al. (1974) non-steady-state model. We describe here advection and diffusion of water isotopologues in leaves in the non-steady state. We first show how this relates to earlier non-steady state bulk leaf water enrichment models. The adv.-diff. model compares very well with observations of bulk mesophyll water during the whole diel cycle. It compares well with the enrichment at the evaporative sites during the day but shows some deviations at night. It is clear that night-time stomatal conductance should be measured in the future. However, varying mesophyll water volume did not seem critical for a good prediction. In addition, observations of single diurnal cycles do not constrain the effective length in the mesophyll. Finally, we show when simpler models of leaf water enrichment are suitable for applications of leaf water isotopes once weighted with the appropriate gas exchange flux. We then present a two-dimensional adv.-diff. description of leaf water enrichment along monocot leaves. The model reproduces well all published measurements along

  1. Water quality monitor. [spacecraft potable water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, S.; Crisos, J.; Baxter, W.

    1979-01-01

    The preprototype water quality monitor (WQM) subsystem was designed based on a breadboard monitor for pH, specific conductance, and total organic carbon (TOC). The breadboard equipment demonstrated the feasibility of continuous on-line analysis of potable water for a spacecraft. The WQM subsystem incorporated these breadboard features and, in addition, measures ammonia and includes a failure detection system. The sample, reagent, and standard solutions are delivered to the WQM sensing manifold where chemical operations and measurements are performed using flow through sensors for conductance, pH, TOC, and NH3. Fault monitoring flow detection is also accomplished in this manifold assembly. The WQM is designed to operate automatically using a hardwired electronic controller. In addition, automatic shutdown is incorporated which is keyed to four flow sensors strategically located within the fluid system.

  2. Virtual scarce water in China.

    PubMed

    Feng, Kuishuang; Hubacek, Klaus; Pfister, Stephan; Yu, Yang; Sun, Laixiang

    2014-07-15

    Water footprints and virtual water flows have been promoted as important indicators to characterize human-induced water consumption. However, environmental impacts associated with water consumption are largely neglected in these analyses. Incorporating water scarcity into water consumption allows better understanding of what is causing water scarcity and which regions are suffering from it. In this study, we incorporate water scarcity and ecosystem impacts into multiregional input-output analysis to assess virtual water flows and associated impacts among 30 provinces in China. China, in particular its water-scarce regions, are facing a serious water crisis driven by rapid economic growth. Our findings show that inter-regional flows of virtual water reveal additional insights when water scarcity is taken into account. Consumption in highly developed coastal provinces is largely relying on water resources in the water-scarce northern provinces, such as Xinjiang, Hebei, and Inner Mongolia, thus significantly contributing to the water scarcity in these regions. In addition, many highly developed but water scarce regions, such as Shanghai, Beijing, and Tianjin, are already large importers of net virtual water at the expense of water resource depletion in other water scarce provinces. Thus, increasingly importing water-intensive goods from other water-scarce regions may just shift the pressure to other regions, but the overall water problems may still remain. Using the water footprint as a policy tool to alleviate water shortage may only work when water scarcity is taken into account and virtual water flows from water-poor regions are identified. PMID:24922282

  3. Managing field water supply to increase water use efficiency

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field water supply (FWS) represents the three sources of water that a crop can use for evapotranspiration (ET), and consists of available soil water at planting (ASWP), rainfall, and irrigation. Because it integrates all sources of water available to a crop, it impacts crop water production function...

  4. Water Purification Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Clearwater Pool Technologies employs NASA-developed silver/copper ionization to purify turtle and dolphin tanks, cooling towers, spas, water recycling systems, etc. The pool purifier consists of a microcomputer to monitor water conditions, a pair of metallic electrodes, and a rheostat controller. Ions are generated by passing a low voltage current through the electrodes; the silver ions kill the bacteria, and the copper ions kill algae. This technology has found broad application because it offers an alternative to chemical disinfectants. It was originally developed to purify water on Apollo spacecraft. Caribbean Clear has been using NASA's silver ionization technology for water purification for more than a decade. Two new products incorporate advancements of the basic technology. One is the AquaKing, a system designed for areas with no source of acceptable drinking water. Another is the Caribbean Clear Controller, designed for commercial pool and water park applications where sanitizing is combined with feedback control of pH and an oxidizer, chlorine or bromine. The technology was originally developed to purify water on Apollo spacecraft.

  5. Water Homeostasis: Evolutionary Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Zeidel, Mark L.

    2012-01-01

    As a major component of homeostasis, all organisms regulate the water composition of various compartments. Through the selective use of barrier membranes and surface glycoproteins, as well as aquaporin water channels, organisms ranging from Archaebacteria to humans can vary water permeabilities across their cell membranes by 4 to 5 orders of magnitude. In barrier epithelia the outer, or exofacial, leaflet acts as the main resistor to water flow; this leaflet restricts water flow by minimizing the surface area of lipid molecules which is not covered by phosphate headgroups and by packing hydrocarbon chains at maximal density. Cells may enhance the barrier by expressing glycoproteins that augment the “thickness” of unstirred layers at their surfaces, reducing osmotic gradients at the lipid bilayer surface. Aquaporins markedly and highly selectively accelerate water flux and are “switched on” either by deployment into membranes or gating. This review summarizes these mechanisms in many species, and indicates potential roles for manipulating water permeabilities in treating disease. PMID:23303973

  6. Adsorbed Water Illustration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The Thermal and Electrical Conductivity Probe on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander detected small and variable amounts of water in the Martian soil.

    In this schematic illustration, water molecules are represented in red and white; soil minerals are represented in green and blue. The water, neither liquid, vapor, nor solid, adheres in very thin films of molecules to the surfaces of soil minerals. The left half illustrates an interpretation of less water being adsorbed onto the soil-particle surface during a period when the tilt, or obliquity, of Mars' rotation axis is small, as it is in the present. The right half illustrates a thicker film of water during a time when the obliquity is greater, as it is during cycles on time scales of hundreds of thousands of years. As the humidity of the atmosphere increases, more water accumulates on mineral surfaces. Thicker films behave increasingly like liquid water.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  7. The politics of water

    SciTech Connect

    Postel, S.

    1993-08-01

    Wars have been waged over oil and gold, but it is water that now poses the greatest potential for provoking conflict among nations-and the greatest need for new guarantees of cooperation. Athough water is a renewable resource, it is also a finite one. Nearly 40 percent of the world's population depends on river systems shared by two or more countries, leading to political hot spots, most critically in the middle east. This article describes in detail the water problems in the middle east, starting with the Jordan River basin, the Golan Heights, and the coastal aquifer, partly polluted. On the Sinai Peninsula the Nile River is the water source for nine countries, and the Tigris-Euphrates, although still providing water in relative abundance, is prey to the failure of Iraq, Syria, and Turkey to reach water-sharing agreements. Discussion includes the possibilities of turning the win-lose situations into win-win situations by appropriate water management and the problem of lack of a clear legal framework for settling disputes.

  8. MACPEX Water Measurement Comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Saadi, J. A.; Thornhill, A.; Alston, E. J.; Chen, G.; Fahey, D. W.; Jensen, E. J.; Mace, G. G.

    2012-12-01

    The Mid-latitude Airborne Cirrus Properties Experiment (MACPEX) airborne field campaign was conducted in March and April 2011 to investigate cirrus cloud properties and the processes that affect their impact on radiation. In pursuit of this goal the NASA WB-57 was outfitted with dozens of in-situ instruments from government and university science teams including a wide range of water instruments. This provided an unprecedented situation to compare eight water instruments on one platform measuring water vapor (CIMS, DLH, HWV, JLH, and ULH), total water (ALIAS and FISH) and ice water content (CLH/IWC) for 14 flight days. Objective and data-driven approaches were applied to analyze the comparison data and to assess the consistency levels between the instruments and instrument uncertainties. The analysis is primarily focused on the upper tropospheric and lower stratospheric conditions, paying particular attention to water levels below 20 ppmv and between 20 - 120 ppmv depending on specific instrument data coverage. To be presented are comparison results suggesting the level of the agreement among the instrument as a function of atmospheric conditions, e.g., temperature and water vapor. Also discussed are some exploratory analyses of instrument precisions.

  9. WATER-TRAPPED WORLDS

    SciTech Connect

    Menou, Kristen

    2013-09-01

    Although tidally locked habitable planets orbiting nearby M-dwarf stars are among the best astronomical targets to search for extrasolar life, they may also be deficient in volatiles and water. Climate models for this class of planets show atmospheric transport of water from the dayside to the nightside, where it is precipitated as snow and trapped as ice. Since ice only slowly flows back to the dayside upon accumulation, the resulting hydrological cycle can trap a large amount of water in the form of nightside ice. Using ice sheet dynamical and thermodynamical constraints, I illustrate how planets with less than about a quarter the Earth's oceans could trap most of their surface water on the nightside. This would leave their dayside, where habitable conditions are met, potentially dry. The amount and distribution of residual liquid water on the dayside depend on a variety of geophysical factors, including the efficiency of rock weathering at regulating atmospheric CO{sub 2} as dayside ocean basins dry up. Water-trapped worlds with dry daysides may offer similar advantages as land planets for habitability, by contrast with worlds where more abundant water freely flows around the globe.

  10. Water-driven micromotors.

    PubMed

    Gao, Wei; Pei, Allen; Wang, Joseph

    2012-09-25

    We demonstrate the first example of a water-driven bubble-propelled micromotor that eliminates the requirement for the common hydrogen peroxide fuel. The new water-driven Janus micromotor is composed of a partially coated Al-Ga binary alloy microsphere prepared via microcontact mixing of aluminum microparticles and liquid gallium. The ejection of hydrogen bubbles from the exposed Al-Ga alloy hemisphere side, upon its contact with water, provides a powerful directional propulsion thrust. Such spontaneous generation of hydrogen bubbles reflects the rapid reaction between the aluminum alloy and water. The resulting water-driven spherical motors can move at remarkable speeds of 3 mm s(-1) (i.e., 150 body length s(-1)), while exerting large forces exceeding 500 pN. Factors influencing the efficiency of the aluminum-water reaction and the resulting propulsion behavior and motor lifetime, including the ionic strength and environmental pH, are investigated. The resulting water-propelled Al-Ga/Ti motors move efficiently in different biological media (e.g., human serum) and hold considerable promise for diverse biomedical or industrial applications. PMID:22891973

  11. Water Depletion Threatens Agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brauman, K. A.; Richter, B. D.; Postel, S.; Floerke, M.; Malsy, M.

    2014-12-01

    Irrigated agriculture is the human activity that has by far the largest impact on water, constituting 85% of global water consumption and 67% of global water withdrawals. Much of this water use occurs in places where water depletion, the ratio of water consumption to water availability, exceeds 75% for at least one month of the year. Although only 17% of global watershed area experiences depletion at this level or more, nearly 30% of total cropland and 60% of irrigated cropland are found in these depleted watersheds. Staple crops are particularly at risk, with 75% of global irrigated wheat production and 65% of irrigated maize production found in watersheds that are at least seasonally depleted. Of importance to textile production, 75% of cotton production occurs in the same watersheds. For crop production in depleted watersheds, we find that one half to two-thirds of production occurs in watersheds that have not just seasonal but annual water shortages, suggesting that re-distributing water supply over the course of the year cannot be an effective solution to shortage. We explore the degree to which irrigated production in depleted watersheds reflects limitations in supply, a byproduct of the need for irrigation in perennially or seasonally dry landscapes, and identify heavy irrigation consumption that leads to watershed depletion in more humid climates. For watersheds that are not depleted, we evaluate the potential impact of an increase in irrigated production. Finally, we evaluate the benefits of irrigated agriculture in depleted and non-depleted watersheds, quantifying the fraction of irrigated production going to food production, animal feed, and biofuels.

  12. Exploding Water Drops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reich, Gary

    2016-01-01

    Water has the unusual property that it expands on freezing, so that ice has a specific gravity of 0.92 compared to 1.0 for liquid water. The most familiar demonstration of this property is ice cubes floating in a glass of water. A more dramatic demonstration is the ice bomb shown in Fig. 1. Here a cast iron flask is filled with water and tightly stoppered. The flask is then cooled, either by leaving it outdoors in winter or by immersing it in a cryogenic fluid, until the water freezes. As the water freezes and expands, the pressure inside the flask increases dramatically, eventually becoming sufficient to fracture the metal walls of the enclosure. A related, but much less familiar, phenomenon is the explosive fracturing of small water drops upon freezing. That water drops can fracture in this way has been known for many years, and the phenomenon has been described in detail in the atmospheric sciences literature, where it is seen as relevant to the freezing of raindrops as they fall through cold air. Carefully controlled experiments have been done documenting how the character and frequency of fracture is affected by such variables as drop size, rate of cooling, chemistry of dissolved gases, etc. Here I describe instead a simple demonstration of fracture suitable for video analysis and appropriate for study at the introductory physics level. Readers may also be interested in other characteristics of freezing and fragmenting water drops, for example, charge separation upon fracture and the appearance of spikes and bulges on the surface.

  13. Shallow Water Optical Water Quality Buoy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bostater, Charles

    1998-01-01

    This NASA grant was funded as a result of an unsolicited proposal submission to Kennedy Space Center. The proposal proposed the development and testing of a shallow water optical water quality buoy. The buoy is meant to work in shallow aquatic systems (ponds, rivers, lagoons, and semi-enclosed water areas where strong wind wave action is not a major environmental During the project period of three years, a demonstration of the buoy was conducted. The last demonstration during the project period was held in November, 1996 when the buoy was demonstrated as being totally operational with no tethered communications line. During the last year of the project the buoy was made to be solar operated by large gel cell batteries. Fund limitations did not permit the batteries in metal enclosures as hoped for higher wind conditions, however the system used to date has worked continuously for in- situ operation of over 18 months continuous deployment. The system needs to have maintenance and somewhat continuous operational attention since various components have limited lifetime ages. For example, within the last six months the onboard computer has had to be repaired as it did approximately 6 months after deployment. The spectrograph had to be repaired and costs for repairs was covered by KB Science since no ftmds were available for this purpose after the grant expired. Most recently the computer web page server failed and it is currently being repaired by KB Science. In addition, the cell phone operation is currently being ftmded by Dr. Bostater in order to maintain the system's operation. The above points need to be made to allow NASA to understand that like any sophisticated measuring system in a lab or in the field, necessary funding and maintenance is needed to insure the system's operational state and to obtain quality factor. The proposal stated that the project was based upon the integration of a proprietary and confidential sensor and probe design that was developed by

  14. Global water cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, Franklin R.; Christy, John R.; Goodman, Steven J.; Miller, Tim L.; Fitzjarrald, Dan; Lapenta, Bill; Wang, Shouping

    1991-01-01

    The primary objective is to determine the scope and interactions of the global water cycle with all components of the Earth system and to understand how it stimulates and regulates changes on both global and regional scales. The following subject areas are covered: (1) water vapor variability; (2) multi-phase water analysis; (3) diabatic heating; (4) MSU (Microwave Sounding Unit) temperature analysis; (5) Optimal precipitation and streamflow analysis; (6) CCM (Community Climate Model) hydrological cycle; (7) CCM1 climate sensitivity to lower boundary forcing; and (8) mesoscale modeling of atmosphere/surface interaction.

  15. Physiological water model development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doty, Susan

    1993-01-01

    The water of the human body can be categorized as existing in two main compartments: intracellular water and extracellular water. The intracellular water consists of all the water within the cells and constitutes over half of the total body water. Since red blood cells are surrounded by plasma, and all other cells are surrounded by interstitial fluid, the intracellular compartment has been subdivided to represent these two cell types. The extracellular water, which includes all of the fluid outside of the cells, can be further subdivided into compartments which represent the interstitial fluid, circulating blood plasma, lymph, and transcellular water. The interstitial fluid surrounds cells outside of the vascular system whereas plasma is contained within the blood vessels. Avascular tissues such as dense connective tissue and cartilage contain interstitial water which slowly equilibrates with tracers used to determine extracellular fluid volume. For this reason, additional compartments are sometimes used to represent these avascular tissues. The average size of each compartment, in terms of percent body weight, has been determined for adult males and females. These compartments and the forces which cause flow between them are presented. The kidneys, a main compartment, receive about 25 percent of the cardiac output and filters out a fluid similar to plasma. The composition of this filtered fluid changes as it flows through the kidney tubules since compounds are continually being secreted and reabsorbed. Through this mechanism, the kidneys eliminate wastes while conserving body water, electrolytes, and metabolites. Since sodium accounts for over 90 percent of the cations in the extracellular fluid, and the number of cations is balanced by the number of anions, considering the renal handling sodium and water only should sufficiently describe the relationship between the plasma compartment and kidneys. A kidney function model is presented which has been adapted from a

  16. Water Reclamation and Reuse.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chunkai; Zeng, Ping; Yang, Sen; Shao, Yanxi; Liu, Yang

    2016-10-01

    A review of the literature published in 2015 on topics relating to water reclamation and reuse is presented. The review is divided into the following sections: (1) General: extent of reuse, research needs, guidelines and monitoring, health effects; (2) Treatment technologies: integrated process design, membrane treatment, membrane bioreactors, electrocoagulation, ion exchange and adsorption, disinfection, wetlands, managed aquifer recharge; (3) Planning and management: public acceptance and education, economics/pricing, water quality planning and management and project/case studies. Much of the water treatment research focuses on membrane treatment, integrated designs, and other innovative technologies. PMID:27620090

  17. Wind/Water Nexus

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2006-04-01

    Nobel laureate Richard Smalley cited energy and water as among humanity's top problems for the next 50 years as the world's population increases from 6.3 billion to 9 billion. The U.S. Department of Energy's Wind and Hydropower Program has initiated an effort to explore wind energy's role as a technical solution to this critically important issue in the United States and the world. This four-page fact sheet outlines five areas in which wind energy can contribute: thermoelectric power plant/water processes, irrigation, municipal water supply, desalination, and wind/hydropower integration.

  18. Thermochemical water decomposition processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, R. E.

    1974-01-01

    Thermochemical processes which lead to the production of hydrogen and oxygen from water without the consumption of any other material have a number of advantages when compared to other processes such as water electrolysis. It is possible to operate a sequence of chemical steps with net work requirements equal to zero at temperatures well below the temperature required for water dissociation in a single step. Various types of procedures are discussed, giving attention to halide processes, reverse Deacon processes, iron oxide and carbon oxide processes, and metal and alkali metal processes. Economical questions are also considered.

  19. Solar Water Heater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    As a Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) scientist Dr. Eldon Haines studied the solar energy source and solar water heating. He concluded he could build a superior solar water heating system using the geyser pumping principle. He resigned from JPL to develop his system and later form Sage Advance Corporation to market the technology. Haines' Copper Cricket residential system has no moving parts, is immune to freeze damage, needs no roof-mounted tanks, and features low maintenance. It provides 50-90 percent of average hot water requirements. A larger system, the Copper Dragon, has been developed for commercial installations.

  20. Water preheater system

    SciTech Connect

    Dunstan, Ph.E.

    1985-03-12

    A heat transfer liquid collects heat in a solar collector and transfers the heat to water in a preheater heat exchanger. Use of a negative-pressure collector by means of an ejector and pressure relief valve allows inexpensive and readily available materials to be used in the collector. Preferably, the preheat heat exchanger is a converted gas hot water heater in which the heat transfer liquid is sprayed onto a portion of the storage tank and is collected in a reservoir. The negative-pressure solar collector can also be used to heat swimming pool water.

  1. How Does Water Boil?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahn, Dirk

    2004-11-01

    Insight into the boiling of water is obtained from molecular dynamics simulations. The process is initiated by the spontaneous formation of small vacuum cavities in liquid water. By themselves, these defects are very short lived. If, however, several cavities occur at close distances, they are likely to merge into larger vacuum holes. At the liquid-vapor interfaces, single or small groups of water molecules tend to leave the liquid surface. Once the system is propagated beyond the transition state, these evaporation events outnumber the competing reintegration into the hydrogen-bonded network.

  2. EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL WATERING DEVICE

    DOEpatents

    Finkel, M.P.

    1964-04-01

    A device for watering experimental animals confined in a battery of individual plastic enclosures is described. It consists of a rectangular plastic enclosure having a plurality of fluid-tight compartments, each with a drinking hole near the bottom and a filling hole on the top. The enclosure is immersed in water until filled, its drinking holes sealed with a strip of tape, and it is then placed in the battery. The tape sealing prevents the flow of water from the device, but permits animals to drink by licking the drinking holes. (AEC)

  3. Water Powered Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Space Spin-Offs, Inc. under a contract with Lewis Research Center and Marshall Space Flight Center produced a new water-powered saw that cuts through concrete and steel plate reducing danger of explosion or electric shock in rescue and other operations. In prototype unit efficient water-powered turbine drives an 8 inch diameter grinding disk at 6,600 rpm. Exhaust water cools disk and workpiece quenching any sparks produced by cutting head. At maximum power, tool easily cuts through quarter inch steel plate. Adapter heads for chain saws, impact wrenches, heavy duty drills, and power hack saws can be fitted.

  4. Natural mineral waters, curative-medical waters and their protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fricke, M.

    1993-10-01

    In Europe different types of water are marketed, each strictly defined by EC Directive 80/777 (Natural Mineral Water, Spring and Table Water) or 80/778 (Drinking Water). In Germany, an additional type of water is common in the market: curative/medical water. Product quality and safety, registration as medicine, and pharmaceutical control are defined by the German Federal Medicine Act. A medical water is treated as any other medicine and may be sold only in pharmacies. The use of any water in Germany is controlled and strictly regulated by the Federal Water Act (Fricke 1981). The following requirements are set by the act: (1) No water use without a permit, which is limited in time and quantity. (2) No single or juristic person may own water. (3) Water resources of public interest and their recharge areas are to be protected by the definition of water protection zones. (Natural mineral water is not of public interest and therefore is not required to be protected by the definition of water protection zones, although it represents a market value of more than US2 billion. Medical water is of public interest). The definition of water protection zones impacts private property rights and has to be handled carefully. In order to protect water resources, sometimes the economic basis of a traditional industrial and/or agricultural infrastructure is destroyed. The concerns and needs all citizens, including industry, must be considered in analyzing the adequacy of water protection zones.

  5. REGULATED CONTAMINANTS IN DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Safe drinking water is critical to protecting human health. More than 260 million Americans rely on the safety of tap water provided by water systems that comply with national drinking water standards. EPA's strategy for ensuring safe drinking water includes four key elements, ...

  6. Solar Water Heater Installation Package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    A 48-page report describes water-heating system, installation (covering collector orientation, mounting, plumbing and wiring), operating instructions and maintenance procedures. Commercial solar-powered water heater system consists of a solar collector, solar-heated-water tank, electrically heated water tank and controls. Analysis of possible hazards from pressure, electricity, toxicity, flammability, gas, hot water and steam are also included.

  7. WATER SUPPLY AND WATER RESOURCES DIVISION - HOME PAGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Water Supply and Water Resources Division (WSWRD) conducts research to help prepare the primary and secondary regulations for drinking water and to develop technologies and strategies for controlling waterborne contaminants. The program integrates chemistry, engineering, micr...

  8. Water Treatment: Can You Purify Water for Drinking?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Mary E.

    1996-01-01

    Presents a three-day mini unit on purification of drinking water that uses the learning cycle approach. Demonstrates the typical technology that water companies use to provide high-quality drinking water. (JRH)

  9. WATERSHED AND POINT SOURCE ENRICHMENT AND LAKE TROPHIC STATE INDEX

    EPA Science Inventory

    Water in the permeable soils of the upper Pelican River watershed, Minnesota, requires slightly more than a year to move generally out of the phreatic zone into surface channels and basins. Its nutrient content seems mainly responsible for the load borne in surface waters above e...

  10. Water Power Program News

    SciTech Connect

    2012-01-19

    News stories about conventional hydropower and marine and hydrokinetic technologies from the U.S. Department of Energy, the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, the Wind and Water Power Program, and other federal agencies.

  11. Exploring Pond Water

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raun, Chester E.; Metz, William C.

    1975-01-01

    An activity utilizing a bucket of pond water for study of microorganisms as presented to elementary school preservice and inservice teachers, and subsequently to their pupils, is described. Procedures for collecting, studying, tabulating data and extended activities are presented. (EB)

  12. Thermoelectrically cooled water trap

    DOEpatents

    Micheels, Ronald H.

    2006-02-21

    A water trap system based on a thermoelectric cooling device is employed to remove a major fraction of the water from air samples, prior to analysis of these samples for chemical composition, by a variety of analytical techniques where water vapor interferes with the measurement process. These analytical techniques include infrared spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, ion mobility spectrometry and gas chromatography. The thermoelectric system for trapping water present in air samples can substantially improve detection sensitivity in these analytical techniques when it is necessary to measure trace analytes with concentrations in the ppm (parts per million) or ppb (parts per billion) partial pressure range. The thermoelectric trap design is compact and amenable to use in a portable gas monitoring instrumentation.

  13. Nonaqueous Catalytic Water Oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Zuofeng; Concepcion, Javier J.; Luo, Hanlin; Hull, Jonathan F.; Paul, Amit; Meyer, Thomas J.

    2010-11-23

    The complex [Ru(Mebimpy)(bpy)(OH2)]2+ [Mebimpy = 2,6-bis(1-methylbenzimidazol-2-yl)pyridine; bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine] and its 4,4'-(PO3H2CH2)2bpy derivative on oxide electrodes are water oxidation catalysts in propylene carbonate and 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol (TFE) to which water has been added as a limiting reagent. The rate of water oxidation is greatly enhanced relative to that with water as the solvent and occurs by a pathway that is first-order in H2O; an additional pathway that is first-order in acetate appears when TFE is used as the solvent.

  14. BACTEROLOGICAL EXAMINATION OF WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation will focus on basic elements of water bacteriology. The presentation will be part of a seminar entitled, "Microbiology 101." This seminar is designed to provide general information regarding various microorganisms, e.g., bacteria, virus, protozoa. Basic principl...

  15. Water Use: A Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleming, Rose Glee; Warden, Jessie

    1976-01-01

    A survey of Florida State University students showed that their current laundry practices generate energy and water over-consumption. The survey also resulted in some concrete suggestions to the students that would improve their conservation practices. (Author/BP)

  16. UV water disinfector

    DOEpatents

    Gadgil, A.; Garud, V.

    1998-07-14

    A UV disinfector with a gravity driven feed water delivery system and an air-suspended bare UV lamp are disclosed. The disinfector is hydrodynamically optimized with a laminerizing, perforated baffle wall, beveled treatment chamber, and outlet weir. 7 figs.

  17. WORLD WATER ASSESSMENT PROGRAMME

    EPA Science Inventory

    The overall objective of the World Water Assessment Programme is to support the building of global security - food, environment, economic, social and political security -- through an integrated comprehensive freshwater assessment.The specific objectives within the assessment pr...

  18. Dehumidifying water heater

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-08-18

    Drawings and specifications are included for the system to heat water for the swimming pool and dehumidify the building of the Glen Cove YMCA. An overview is presented of the Nautica product used in this system. (MHR)

  19. Glaciers: A water resource

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meier, Mark; Post, Austin

    1995-01-01

    Most Americans have never seen a glacier, and most would say that glaciers are rare features found only in inaccessible, isolated wilderness mountains. Are they really so rare? Or are they really potentially important sources of water supply?

  20. Protecting Our Water Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jewett, Jon

    1996-01-01

    Describes the watershed management approach for preserving water resources. Considers pollution sources ranging from industrial discharge to agricultural leachate and runoff and evaluates its impact on the total watershed environment. (JRH)

  1. Water Sample Concentrator

    ScienceCinema

    Idaho National Laboratory

    2010-01-08

    Automated portable device that concentrates and packages a sample of suspected contaminated water for safe, efficient transport to a qualified analytical laboratory. This technology will help safeguard against pathogen contamination or chemical and biolog

  2. Water Sample Concentrator

    SciTech Connect

    Idaho National Laboratory

    2009-07-21

    Automated portable device that concentrates and packages a sample of suspected contaminated water for safe, efficient transport to a qualified analytical laboratory. This technology will help safeguard against pathogen contamination or chemical and biolog

  3. Water Chemistry: Seeking Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delfino, Joseph J.

    1977-01-01

    A survey of the available literature in water chemistry is presented. Materials surveyed include: texts, reference books, bibliographic resources, journals, American Chemical Society publications, proceedings, unpublished articles, and reports. (BT)

  4. Water Mist Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The Water Mist commercial research program is scheduled to fly an investigation on STS-107 in 2002 in the updated Combustion Module (CM-2), a sophisticated combustion chamber plus diagnostic equipment. The Center for the Commercial Applications of Combustion in Space (CCACS), a NASA Commercial Space Center located at the Colorado School of Mines, is investigating the properties of mist fire suppression in microgravity with Industry Partner Environmental Engineering Concepts. These experiments consist of varying water droplet sizes and water mist concentrations applied to flame fronts of different propane/air mixtures. Observations from these tests will provide valuable information on the change of flame speed in the presence of water mist. Shown here is a flame front propagating through the Mist flame tube during 1-g testing at NASA/Glenn Research Center.

  5. Water world 2000.

    PubMed Central

    Tibbetts, J

    2000-01-01

    Today, at least one-fifth of all people worldwide lack access to safe drinking water, a problem that will almost certainly worsen as the earth's population grows. Although the vast majority of industrial discharges into waterways are regulated and treated, and most cities and towns effectively monitor and treat their sewage for chemical contaminants, problems such as arsenic contamination and dangerous microorganisms still trouble public water supplies in wealthy nations. In developing countries, most cities discharge 80-90% of their untreated sewage directly into rivers and streams, which are used for drinking, bathing, and washing. This lack of sewage treatment has allowed dangerous microorganisms to spread, posing one of the greatest threats to human health in the developing world: waterborne diseases caused by deadly microbes in water. Contamination isn't the only problem: in many areas of the world, drinkable water is a scarce resource available to many only at high cost, when it is available at all. PMID:10656865

  6. Deionized Water Watchdog

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edens, Gregory J.

    2004-01-01

    A deionizer (Barnstead) attached to a dedicated faucet is used to produce the deionized water used in the teaching laboratories and research. The experiment timer switch was a 60-min spring-wound timer, Intermatic, available at home improvement centers.

  7. Estimating Thermoelectric Water Use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutson, S. S.

    2012-12-01

    In 2009, the Government Accountability Office recommended that the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and Department of Energy-Energy Information Administration, (DOE-EIA) jointly improve their thermoelectric water-use estimates. Since then, the annual mandatory reporting forms returned by powerplant operators to DOE-EIA have been revised twice to improve the water data. At the same time, the USGS began improving estimation of withdrawal and consumption. Because of the variation in amount and quality of water-use data across powerplants, the USGS adopted a hierarchy of methods for estimating water withdrawal and consumptive use for the approximately 1,300 water-using powerplants in the thermoelectric sector. About 800 of these powerplants have generation and cooling data, and the remaining 500 have generation data only, or sparse data. The preferred method is to accept DOE-EIA data following validation. This is the traditional USGS method and the best method if all operators follow best practices for measurement and reporting. However, in 2010, fewer than 200 powerplants reported thermodynamically realistic values of both withdrawal and consumption. Secondly, water use was estimated using linked heat and water budgets for the first group of 800 plants, and for some of the other 500 powerplants where data were sufficient for at least partial modeling using plant characteristics, electric generation, and fuel use. Thermodynamics, environmental conditions, and characteristics of the plant and cooling system constrain both the amount of heat discharged to the environment and the share of this heat that drives evaporation. Heat and water budgets were used to define reasonable estimates of withdrawal and consumption, including likely upper and lower thermodynamic limits. These results were used to validate the reported values at the 800 plants with water-use data, and reported values were replaced by budget estimates at most of these plants. Thirdly, at plants without valid

  8. Water system virus detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fraser, A. S.; Wells, A. F.; Tenoso, H. J. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    The performance of a waste water reclamation system is monitored by introducing a non-pathogenic marker virus, bacteriophage F2, into the waste-water prior to treatment and, thereafter, testing the reclaimed water for the presence of the marker virus. A test sample is first concentrated by absorbing any marker virus onto a cellulose acetate filter in the presence of a trivalent cation at low pH and then flushing the filter with a limited quantity of a glycine buffer solution to desorb any marker virus present on the filter. Photo-optical detection of indirect passive immune agglutination by polystyrene beads indicates the performance of the water reclamation system in removing the marker virus. A closed system provides for concentrating any marker virus, initiating and monitoring the passive immune agglutination reaction, and then flushing the system to prepare for another sample.

  9. About Body Water

    MedlinePlus

    ... Thoughts As Traffic Piles Up, So Does Air Pollution Heart Docs: Never Expose Kids to Cigarette Smoke ... Insulin Delivery Additional Content Medical News About Body Water By James L. Lewis, III, MD NOTE: This ...

  10. MUTAGENS IN CHLORINATED WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Over the past twelve years, numerous reports have appeared in the literature documenting the presence of genotoxic activity in organic concentrates of drinking water. enotoxic activity has been observed using in vitro test systems, including microbial, mammalian and lower eukaryo...

  11. Fresh Water Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kestler, Carol Susan

    1991-01-01

    Describes methodology for a fresh water life study with elementary through college age students with suggestions for proper equipment, useful guides, and other materials. Proposes an activity for the collection and study of plankton. Includes background information.(MCO)

  12. UV water disinfector

    DOEpatents

    Gadgil, Ashok; Garud, Vikas

    1998-07-14

    A UV disinfector with a gravity driven feed water delivery system, and an air-suspended bare UV lamp. The disinfector is hydrodynamically optimized with a laminerizing, perforated baffle wall, beveled treatment chamber, and outlet weir.

  13. Water Safety Quiz

    MedlinePlus

    ... Drive About Donating Blood Host a Blood Drive Training & Certification Find Classes First Aid CPR AED BLS Babysitting & Child Care Swimming Lifeguarding & Water Safety EMT CNA Train My Employees ...

  14. Water softening process

    DOEpatents

    Sheppard, John D.; Thomas, David G.

    1976-01-01

    This invention involves an improved process for softening hard water which comprises selectively precipitaing CaCO.sub.3 to form a thin layer thereof, increasing the pH of said water to precipitate magnesium as magnesium hydroxide and then filtering the resultant slurry through said layer. The CaCO.sub.3 layer serves as a thin permeable layer which has particularly useful application in cross-flow filtration applications.

  15. Purifying contaminated water

    DOEpatents

    Daughton, Christian G.

    1983-01-01

    Process for removing biorefractory compounds from contaminated water (e.g., oil shale retort waste-water) by contacting same with fragmented raw oil shale. Biorefractory removal is enhanced by preactivating the oil shale with at least one member of the group of carboxylic, acids, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, ethers, amines, amides, sulfoxides, mixed ether-esters and nitriles. Further purification is obtained by stripping, followed by biodegradation and removal of the cells.

  16. Water on the sun.

    PubMed

    Wallace, L; Bernath, P; Livingston, W; Hinkle, K; Busler, J; Guo, B; Zhang, K

    1995-05-26

    High-resolution infrared spectra of sunspot umbrae have been recorded with the 1-meter Fourier transform spectrometer on Kitt Peak. The spectra contain a very large number of water absorption features originating on the sun. These lines have been assigned to the pure rotation and the vibration-rotation transitions of hot water by comparison with high-temperature laboratory emission spectra. PMID:7761830

  17. Water Filtration Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    American Water Corporation manufactures water filtration products which incorporate technology originally developed for manned space operations. The formula involves granular activated charcoal and other ingredients, and removes substances by catalytic reactions, mechanical filtration, and absorption. Details are proprietary. A NASA literature search contributed to development of the compound. The technology is being extended to a deodorizing compound called Biofresh which traps gas and moisture inside the unit. Further applications are anticipated.

  18. The world's water woes.

    PubMed

    Hinrichsen, D

    1996-01-01

    The Syr Darya River used to broaden into a rich delta at Kazalinsk, a town in central Asia's Kazakhstan, then dump into the Aral Sea, formerly the world's fourth largest lake. The Syr Darya River was once home to many species of fish and fowl, and a region of productive tugai forests. The river and lake, however, began shrinking in the 1960s as Soviet engineers and hydrologists siphoned off large amounts of water to irrigate cotton fields in Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan, in a drive to meet the Communist government's 5-year planning objectives regardless of environmental costs. By 1990, the Aral Sea had lost 66% of its original volume and the Syr Darya River now usually disappears into the desert west of town. Almost 1 million hectares of tugai wetlands were converted into desert between 1960 and 1990. Even though little remains alive in the Syr Darya as it passes through Kazalinsk, and what water remains is highly polluted by farms and cities to the east, the people of Kazalinsk still depend upon the Syr Darya for drinking water and other daily water needs, despite the health risks. Considerable morbidity in the region is attributed to this contaminated water supply. Water resources are being wasted everywhere in the interest of development. Like Syr Darya, and even in the US, many of the world's rivers no longer reach their former deltas. China especially has problems to resolve given its huge population and rapidly developing economic base. Approximately 300 major cities across northern and central China, including Beijing, already have critical water shortages. Wars may develop over access to freshwater sources. Water concerns in Egypt and the Jordan River Basin are noted. PMID:12294358

  19. Technology for Water Treatment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    There are approximately 500,000 water cooling towers in the United States, all of which must be kept clear of "scale" and corrosion and free of pollutants and bacteria. Electron Pure, Ltd. manufactures a hydro cooling tower conditioner as well as an automatic pool sanitizer. The pool sanitizer consists of two copper/silver electrodes placed in a chamber mounted in the pool's recirculation system. The tower conditioner combines the ionization system with a water conditioner, pump, centrifugal solids separator and timer. The system saves water, eliminates algae and operates maintenance and chemical free. The company has over 100 distributors in the U.S. as well as others in 20 foreign countries. The buildup of scale and corrosion is the most costly maintenance problem in cooling tower operation. Jet Propulsion Laboratory successfully developed a non-chemical system that not only curbed scale and corrosion, but also offered advantages in water conservation, cost savings and the elimination of toxic chemical discharge. In the system, ozone is produced by an on-site generator and introduced to the cooling tower water. Organic impurities are oxidized, and the dissolved ozone removes bacteria and scale. National Water Management, a NASA licensee, has installed its ozone advantage systems at some 200 cooling towers. Customers have saved money and eliminated chemical storage and discharge.

  20. Solar Hot Water Heater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The solar panels pictured below, mounted on a Moscow, Idaho home, are part of a domestic hot water heating system capable of providing up to 100 percent of home or small business hot water needs. Produced by Lennox Industries Inc., Marshalltown, Iowa, the panels are commercial versions of a collector co-developed by NASA. In an effort to conserve energy, NASA has installed solar collectors at a number of its own facilities and is conducting research to develop the most efficient systems. Lewis Research Center teamed with Honeywell Inc., Minneapolis, Minnesota to develop the flat plate collector shown. Key to the collector's efficiency is black chrome coating on the plate developed for use on spacecraft solar cells, the coating prevents sun heat from "reradiating," or escaping outward. The design proved the most effective heat absorber among 23 different types of collectors evaluated in a Lewis test program. The Lennox solar domestic hot water heating system has three main components: the array of collectors, a "solar module" (blue unit pictured) and a conventional water heater. A fluid-ethylene glycol and water-is circulated through the collectors to absorb solar heat. The fluid is then piped to a double-walled jacket around a water tank within the solar module.

  1. Physics in water slides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomazo, Jean-Baptiste; Reyssat, Etienne; Fermigier, Marc

    2015-11-01

    Water slides are body-size inclined pipes fed with water to improve sliding. Water is allowed to freely flow down the slide. It forms a lubrication film that reduces friction between the slide and the body, allowing sliders to travel down at high speeds. We present the results of an experimental study on a model water slide at the scale of the laboratory. We analyze the sliding velocities of cylindrical objects of various masses and sizes sliding down an inclined gutter fed with a controlled flux of water. In the range of parameters that we have studied, we show that the speed of the model sliders is faster than the flow of the environing water. We propose a minimal model to account for the observed sliding velocities measured in our experiments. The sliding velocity is set by a balance of the apparent weight with inertial drag or viscous friction in the lubrication film under the slider. Other resisting mechanisms will also be discussed.

  2. Water Quality Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    With the backing of NASA, researchers at Michigan State University, the University of Minnesota, and the University of Wisconsin have begun using satellite data to measure lake water quality and clarity of the lakes in the Upper Midwest. This false color IKONOS image displays the water clarity of the lakes in Eagan, Minnesota. Scientists measure the lake quality in satellite data by observing the ratio of blue to red light in the satellite data. When the amount of blue light reflecting off of the lake is high and the red light is low, a lake generally had high water quality. Lakes loaded with algae and sediments, on the other hand, reflect less blue light and more red light. In this image, scientists used false coloring to depict the level of clarity of the water. Clear lakes are blue, moderately clear lakes are green and yellow, and murky lakes are orange and red. Using images such as these along with data from the Landsat satellites and NASA's Terra satellite, the scientists plan to create a comprehensive water quality map for the entire Great Lakes region in the next few years. For more information, read: Testing the Waters (Image courtesy Upper Great Lakes Regional Earth Science Applications Center, based on data copyright Space Imaging)

  3. Water ball collision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fujimoto, K.

    1986-01-01

    What happens if a stainless steel ball hits a water ball in the weightless space ot the Universe? In other words, it was the objective of our experiments in the Space to observe the surface tension of liquid by means of making a solid collide with a liquid. Place a small volume of water between 2 glass sheets to make a thin water membrane: the 2 glass sheets cannot be separated unless an enormous force is applied. It is obvious from this phenomenom that the surface tension of water is far greater than presumed. On Earth, however, it is impossible in most cases to observe only the surface tension of liquid, because gravity always acts on the surface tension. Water and stainless steel balls were chosen the liquid and solids for the experiments. Because water is the liquid most familiar to us, its properties are well known. And it is also of great interest to compare its properties on the Earth with those in the weightless space.

  4. Water hyacinth removes arsenic from arsenic-contaminated drinking water.

    PubMed

    Misbahuddin, Mir; Fariduddin, Atm

    2002-01-01

    Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) removes arsenic from arsenic-contaminated drinking water. This effect depends on several factors, such as the amount of water hyacinth, amount of arsenic present in the water, duration of exposure, and presence of sunlight and air. On the basis of the present study, the authors suggest that water hyacinth is useful for making arsenic-contaminated drinking water totally arsenic free. Water hyacinth provides a natural means of removing arsenic from drinking water at the household level without monetary cost. PMID:12696647

  5. Water Resources Data - Texas, Water Year 2003, Volume 6. Ground Water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barbie, D.L.

    2003-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 2003 water year for Texas consists of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents in lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality in wells. Volume 6 contains water levels for 880 ground-water observation wells and water-quality data for 158 monitoring wells. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating Federal, State, and local agencies in Texas.

  6. Labeling lake water with tritium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frederick, B.J.

    1963-01-01

    A method of packaging tritiated water in a manner that facilitates safe handling in environmental labeling operations, and procedures followed in labeling a large body of water with a small volume of tritiated water are described. ?? 1963.

  7. Guide to Home Water Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    2010-10-01

    A fact sheet from the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy: A water-efficient home helps you minimize your water use, harness water for reuse, conserve energy, and save money.

  8. Water: A Recycling Success Story.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swinehart, Rebecca, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    This activity involves elementary students in simulating water purification techniques by finding ways to clear up soapy water. An introduction discusses water use and conservation. Materials needed and step-by-step procedure are provided. (LZ)

  9. The Dynamics of Flowing Waters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattingly, Rosanna L.

    1987-01-01

    Describes a series of activities designed to help students understand the dynamics of flowing water. Includes investigations into determining water discharge, calculating variable velocities, utilizing flood formulas, graphing stream profiles, and learning about the water cycle. (TW)

  10. Molded polymer solar water heater

    DOEpatents

    Bourne, Richard C.; Lee, Brian E.

    2004-11-09

    A solar water heater has a rotationally-molded water box and a glazing subassembly disposed over the water box that enhances solar gain and provides an insulating air space between the outside environment and the water box. When used with a pressurized water system, an internal heat exchanger is integrally molded within the water box. Mounting and connection hardware is included to provide a rapid and secure method of installation.

  11. Open water bells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paramati, Manjula; Tirumkudulu, Mahesh S.

    2016-03-01

    A smooth circular moving liquid sheet is formed by the head-on impingement of two equal laminar water jets. We subject such a liquid sheet to uniform laminar air flow from one side such that the direction of air velocity is perpendicular to the liquid sheet. The pressure of the moving air deforms the liquid sheet giving rise to an open water bell. The water bell is symmetric suggesting that the gas flow around the bell is also symmetric and that the gravitational force is negligible. We have captured the shape of the water bells for varying air flow rates and for varying Weber numbers, and compared the measurements with theoretical predictions obtained from a force balance involving liquid inertia, surface tension, and pressure difference across the sheet. The pressure exerted by the gas phase on the front and the rear surface of the deformed liquid sheet is obtained from known results of flow past flat circular discs. The predicted steady state shapes match well with the measurements at low Weber numbers but differences are observed at high Weber numbers, where the sheet flaps and is no longer smooth. Interestingly, the shape predicted by assuming a constant pressure difference equal to the stagnation pressure over the whole of the front face of the sheet and free stream value over the whole of the rear face yields nearly identical results suggesting that an open water bell is similar to a closed water bell in that, to a good approximation, the pressure on either sides of the water bell is homogeneous.

  12. Water intensity of transportation.

    PubMed

    King, Carey W; Webber, Michael E

    2008-11-01

    As the need for alternative transportation fuels increases, it is important to understand the many effects of introducing fuels based upon feedstocks other than petroleum. Water intensity in "gallons of water per mile traveled" is one method to measure these effects on the consumer level. In this paper we investigate the water intensity for light duty vehicle (LDV) travel using selected fuels based upon petroleum, natural gas, unconventional fossil fuels, hydrogen, electricity, and two biofuels (ethanol from corn and biodiesel from soy). Fuels more directly derived from fossil fuels are less water intensive than those derived either indirectly from fossil fuels (e.g., through electricity generation) or directly from biomass. The lowest water consumptive (<0.15 gal H20/mile) and withdrawal (<1 gal H2O/mile) rates are for LDVs using conventional petroleum-based gasoline and diesel, nonirrigated biofuels, hydrogen derived from methane or electrolysis via nonthermal renewable electricity, and electricity derived from nonthermal renewable sources. LDVs running on electricity and hydrogen derived from the aggregate U.S. grid (heavily based upon fossil fuel and nuclear steam-electric power generation) withdraw 5-20 times and consume nearly 2-5 times more water than by using petroleum gasoline. The water intensities (gal H20/mile) of LDVs operating on biofuels derived from crops irrigated in the United States at average rates is 28 and 36 for corn ethanol (E85) for consumption and withdrawal, respectively. For soy-derived biodiesel the average consumption and withdrawal rates are 8 and 10 gal H2O/mile. PMID:19031873

  13. Water permeation through Nafion membranes: the role of water activity.

    PubMed

    Majsztrik, Paul; Bocarsly, Andrew; Benziger, Jay

    2008-12-25

    The permeation of water through 1100 equivalent weight Nation membranes has been measured for film thicknesses of 51-254 microm, temperatures of 30-80 degrees C, and water activities (a(w)) from 0.3 to 1 (liquid water). Water permeation coefficients increased with water content in Nafion. For feed side water activity in the range 0 < a(w) < 0.8, permeation coefficients increased linearly with water activity and scaled inversely with membrane thickness. The permeation coefficients were independent of membrane thickness when the feed side of the membrane was in contact with liquid water (a(w) = 1). The permeation coefficient for a 127 microm thick membrane increased by a factor of 10 between contacting the feed side of the membrane to water vapor (a(w) = 0.9) compared to liquid water (a(w) = 1). Water permeation couples interfacial transport across the fluid membrane interface with water transport through the hydrophilic phase of Nafion. At low water activity the hydrophilic volume fraction is small and permeation is limited by water diffusion. The volume fraction of the hydrophilic phase increases with water activity, increasing water transport. As a(w) --> 1, the effective transport rate increased by almost an order of magnitude, resulting in a change of the limiting transport resistance from water permeation across the membrane to interfacial mass transport at the gas/membrane interface. PMID:19053672

  14. Accounting for Water Insecurity in Modeling Domestic Water Demand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galaitsis, S. E.; Huber-lee, A. T.; Vogel, R. M.; Naumova, E.

    2013-12-01

    Water demand management uses price elasticity estimates to predict consumer demand in relation to water pricing changes, but studies have shown that many additional factors effect water consumption. Development scholars document the need for water security, however, much of the water security literature focuses on broad policies which can influence water demand. Previous domestic water demand studies have not considered how water security can affect a population's consumption behavior. This study is the first to model the influence of water insecurity on water demand. A subjective indicator scale measuring water insecurity among consumers in the Palestinian West Bank is developed and included as a variable to explore how perceptions of control, or lack thereof, impact consumption behavior and resulting estimates of price elasticity. A multivariate regression model demonstrates the significance of a water insecurity variable for data sets encompassing disparate water access. When accounting for insecurity, the R-squaed value improves and the marginal price a household is willing to pay becomes a significant predictor for the household quantity consumption. The model denotes that, with all other variables held equal, a household will buy more water when the users are more water insecure. Though the reasons behind this trend require further study, the findings suggest broad policy implications by demonstrating that water distribution practices in scarcity conditions can promote consumer welfare and efficient water use.

  15. The roles of magmatic and external water in the March 8 tephra eruption at Mount St. Helens as assessed by a 1-D steady plume-height model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mastin, L. G.; Sherrod, D. R.; Vallance, J. W.; Thornber, C. T.; Ewert, J. W.

    2005-12-01

    The dome-building eruption at Mount St. Helens has occurred through glacial ice and snow that would be expected to substantially affect the character of the eruption. Nevertheless, the role of water in the eruption to date has not always been clear. For example, on March 8, 2005, a half-hour-long tephra blast sent a plume to a maximum of ~9 km above the vent (based on pilot reports); seismicity and plume heights were greatest during the first ~10 minutes, then persisted for another ~15 minutes at a lower level before the eruption stopped. Tephra volume within 5 km2 downwind of the vent was ~5x104 m3 DRE, but trace amounts were reported at least to Ellensburg, WA (150 km NE), suggesting a total areal coverage >5,000 km2 and total volume >1x105 m3. Assuming that most of this material was expelled in the first ten minutes and had a density of 2500 kg/m3, the mass flow rate (M) during the vigorous phase was >~4x105 kg/s. The tephra, composed primarily of non-pumiceous broken and decrepitated dome rock, could have been expelled either by groundwater and steam at relatively modest (boiling-point) temperatures, or by magmatic gas at much higher temperatures. The high plume, however, suggested significant buoyancy, perhaps driven by temperatures closer to magmatic. To assess the effect of magmatic heat on plume height, we employ a 1-D steady volcanic plume model that uses specified vent diameter, exit velocity, eruption temperature, mass fractions of gas and added external water, and profiles of atmospheric temperature and humidity, to calculate plume height and plume properties as a function of elevation. The model considers the enthalpy of equilibrium water condensation and of ice formation. Model results show that, under atmospheric temperature and humidity profiles measured near Mount St. Helens on the afternoon of March 8, 2005, a plume height (h) of 7-9 km could have developed with eruption temperatures (T) as low as 100° C, provided the mass fraction of water vapor

  16. Indian water rights settlements and water management innovations: The role of the Arizona Water Settlements Act

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bark, Rosalind H.; Jacobs, Katharine L.

    2009-05-01

    In the American southwest, over-allocated water supplies, groundwater depletion, and potential climate change impacts are major water management concerns. It may therefore seem counterintuitive that the resolution of outstanding senior tribal water claims, essentially reallocating finite water supplies to tribes, could support improved water supply reliability for many water users as is the case with the 2004 Arizona Water Settlements Act. The large size of the settlement and its multiple components translate to significant impacts on water policy in Arizona. Key water management solutions incorporated into the settlement and associated legislation have expanded the water manager's "toolbox" and are expected to enhance water supply reliability both within and outside Arizona's active management areas. Many of these new tools are transferable to water management applications in other states.

  17. Water droplets also swim!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Linden, Marjolein; Izri, Ziane; Michelin, Sébastien; Dauchot, Olivier

    2015-03-01

    Recently there has been a surge of interest in producing artificial swimmers. One possible path is to produce self-propelling droplets in a liquid phase. The self-propulsion often relies on complex mechanisms at the droplet interface, involving chemical reactions and the adsorption-desorption kinetics of the surfactant. Here, we report the spontaneous swimming of droplets in a very simple system: water droplets immersed in an oil-surfactant medium. The swimmers consist of pure water, with no additional chemical species inside: water droplets also swim! The swimming is very robust: the droplets are able to transport cargo such as large colloids, salt crystals, and even cells. In this talk we discuss the origin of the spontaneous motion. Water from the droplet is solubilized by the reverse micellar solution, creating a concentration gradient of swollen reverse micelles around each droplet. By generalizing a recently proposed instability mechanism, we explain how spontaneous motion emerges in this system at sufficiently large Péclet number. Our water droplets in an oil-surfactant medium constitute the first experimental realization of spontaneous motion of isotropic particles driven by this instability mechanism.

  18. Water Quality Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    An automated water quality monitoring system was developed by Langley Research Center to meet a need of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Designed for unattended operation in water depths up to 100 feet, the system consists of a subsurface buoy anchored in the water, a surface control unit (SCU) and a hydrophone link for acoustic communication between buoy and SCU. Primary functional unit is the subsurface buoy. It incorporates 16 cells for water sampling, plus sensors for eight water quality measurements. Buoy contains all the electronic equipment needed for collecting and storing sensor data, including a microcomputer and a memory unit. Power for the electronics is supplied by a rechargeable nickel cadmium battery that is designed to operate for about two weeks. Through hydrophone link the subsurface buoy reports its data to the SCU, which relays it to land stations. Link allows two-way communications. If system encounters a problem, it automatically shuts down and sends alert signal. Sequence of commands sent via hydrophone link causes buoy to release from anchor and float to the surface for recovery.

  19. Moss hair water transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Zhao; Wu, Nan; Hurd, Randy; Thomson, Scott; Pitt, William; Truscott, Tadd

    2013-11-01

    We present an investigation of water transportation on a moss (Syntrichia caninervis) indigenous to temperate deserts. The moss typically appears to be in a dry, brown state, but is rehydrated by water during the wet season, making the desert green. Small hairs (500-2000 μm in length, and 40 μm in diameter, d) growing out from the tip of the moss leaves transport water back to the leaves. Through high speed observations and mathematical modeling it appears that this transportation is driven by two different mechanisms. 1) Droplet transport is achieved in three ways: i) A large (10d) droplet attached between two intersecting fibers will move toward the bases of the leaves by the changing angle between the two hairs. ii) The shape of the moss hair is conical, thicker at the base, producing a gradient that moves fluid (5d) toward the leaf similar to cactus spines. iii) We also observe that in some cases a Plateau-Rayleigh instability trigger a series of droplets moving toward the base. 2) Micro-grooves on the moss hair transport a film of water along the moss hair when larger droplets are not available. These various water transportation strategies combine to help the moss to survive in the desert and provide valuable insight.

  20. The Power of Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrova, Zhaneta; Miteva, Kamelia

    2013-04-01

    The Power of Water Zh. Petrova, K. Miteva Bio Games, Sofia, Bulgaria (petrova.jani@gmail.com; miteva.kamelia@gmail.com) Lessons "The Power of Water" Due to our belief in the initial creativity of the children and their capacity for discover and perceive logically the world, we consider that the primary and even the pre-school learning have a significant influence in the process of suggesting the idea of respect to the natural forces. These classroom activities include a variety of hand- and self-made simulation models with natural materials and toys which lead the children to easy understanding of what could 'friendly' water do and how powerful, dangerous and not-friendly it could be. During the lessons the children draw their own conclusions of the causes and possible solutions of natural hazards caused by water in each of its forms - avalanches, inundations, floods, the water influence in activation of landslides. The children make on their own some of the models and test them via simulations. In the end they discuss what they have learned in groups.