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Sample records for phthalate ester compounds

  1. Mitochondrial toxicity of phthalate esters.

    PubMed Central

    Melnick, R L; Schiller, C M

    1982-01-01

    The effects of mono- and dibutyl phthalate and mono- and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate on energy-dependent K+ uptake, respiration rates, and succinate cytochrome c reductase activities of isolated rat liver mitochondria were evaluated. The energy-coupling processes, active K+ transport and oxidative phosphorylation, were affected most by di-n-butyl phthalate and mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate. Mono-n-butyl phthalate had a moderate effect on energy coupling and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate had no apparent effect. The potency of inhibition of succinate cytochrome c reductase activity was mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate greater than di-n-butyl phthalate greater than mono-n-butyl phthalate = di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate. It is concluded that phthalate esters affect mitochondrial activities by altering the permeability properties of the inner membrane and by inhibiting succinate dehydrogenase activity. PMID:7140696

  2. Airborne particulate endocrine disrupting compounds in China: Compositions, size distributions and seasonal variations of phthalate esters and bisphenol A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jianjun; Wang, Gehui

    2015-03-01

    Phthalate esters and bisphenol A (BPA) are endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) and ubiquitously occur in the environment. In the past decade we have characterized atmospheric organic aerosols from various environments (e.g., urban, rural, mountain and marine) of East Asia on a molecular level, but not investigated EDCs in the samples. In the current study we re-analyzed our database for concentrations, compositions and size distributions of phthalates and BPA and compared with those in the literature to improve the understanding on air pollution status in China. Our results showed that airborne particulate phthalates and BPA are 63-1162 ng m- 3 and 1.0-20 ng m- 3 in the urban regions in China, respectively, being one to two orders of magnitude higher than those in the developed countries. Among the detected phthalates in Chinese urban areas, bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (BEHP) is the predominant congener, contributing to 23-79% (ave. 53 ± 15%) of the total phthalates. Concentrations of phthalates and bisphenol A in Shanghai and Xi'an (two mega-cities in China) in 2009 were 3-84% lower than those in 2003, probably indicating a positive effect of the government's air pollution control in the recent years. Phthalates are higher in summer than in winter, because they are not chemically bonded to the polymeric matrix and more easily evaporate into the air under higher temperature conditions. Based on the size distribution observation, we found that diisobutyl and dibutyl phthalates mainly exist in coarse particles because of high volatilities, in contrast to BEHP and BPA, which are dominant in fine particles due to less volatility. Our results also indicate that BPA is mostly derived from the open burning of solid waste while phthalates are derived from both direct evaporation from the matrix and solid waste combustion.

  3. Compound-specific carbon isotopic fractionation during transport of phthalate esters in sandy aquifer.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hui; Li, YanXi; He, Xi; Sissou, Zakari; Tong, Lei; Yarnes, Chris; Huang, Xianyu

    2016-02-01

    The present paper aims to evaluate the carbon isotopic fractionation of phthalate esters (PAEs) during transport in an sandy aquifer. Breakthrough curves of di-methyl phthalate (DMP), di-ethyl phthalate (DEP), and di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) in mixed solution were determined by miscible displacement experiment, and simulated using HYDRUS-1D software. The stable carbon isotopes (δ(13)C) of 3 PAEs in effluent were analyzed at different times. Results showed that, in the transport process in sandy sediment, PAEs are mainly trapped into the pore space instead of being adsorbed on the surface of particles. At the initial stage of transport, PAEs with lighter carbon tend to run faster in the sandy sediment, and PAEs with heavier carbon run after. However, there is no priority for the transport of PAEs with different carbon isotopes at Stage Ⅱ with mainly time-limited sorption. So the transport-based isotope fractionation occurs in the front area of contaminant plume. This effect may be relevant for interpreting carbon isotope signatures in the real contaminant site. PMID:26539707

  4. REPRODUCTIVE TOXICITY OF PHTHALATE ESTERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Phthalate esters display several modes of toxicity in mammalian species. In the rat, in utero exposure at relatively low dosage levels disrupts development of the reproductive system of the male rat by altering fetal testis hormone production. This presentation is a review of t...

  5. TREATABILITY OF PHTHALATE ESTER COMPOUNDS FROM PLASTICS MOLDING AND FORMING WASTEWATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of the project was to evaluate methods of removing phthalates from a plastics molding and forming contact cooling and heating water. Two technologies were evaluated: (1) ferric chloride assisted clarification; and, (2) activated carbon adsorption. The actual wastewa...

  6. Phthalate esters as peroxisome proliferator carcinogens.

    PubMed Central

    Warren, J R; Lalwani, N D; Reddy, J K

    1982-01-01

    The phthalate ester di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate is both a peroxisome proliferator and a hepatic carcinogen. Peroxisome proliferators as a class are hepatocarcinogenic in rodent species. However, none of the peroxisome proliferators tested to date including the phthalate esters and related alcohol and acid analogs have demonstrated mutagenic or DNA-damaging activity in the in vitro Salmonella typhimurium/microsomal or the lymphocyte 3H-thymidine assays. A working hypothesis is proposed that peroxisome proliferation itself initiates neoplastic transformation of hepatic parenchymal cells by increasing intracellular rates of DNA-damaging reactive oxygen production. Evidence which supports such a hypothesis includes increased fatty acid beta-oxidation, elevated H2O2 levels, accumulation of peroxidized lipofuscin, disproportionately small increase in catalase, and elevated peroxisomal uricase activity which accompany peroxisome proliferation in hepatocytes. Direct testing of this hypothesis will provide insight into mechanisms of phthalate ester carcinogenicity and cytotoxicity. Images FIGURE 1. PMID:6754363

  7. 40 CFR 721.3085 - Brominated phthalate ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Brominated phthalate ester. 721.3085... Substances § 721.3085 Brominated phthalate ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as brominated phthalate ester (PMN P-90-581)...

  8. Uptake and Metabolism of Phthalate Esters by Edible Plants.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jianqiang; Wu, Xiaoqin; Gan, Jay

    2015-07-21

    Phthalate esters (PAEs) are large-volume chemicals and are found ubiquitously in soil as a result of widespread plasticulture and waste disposal. Food plants such as vegetables may take up and accumulate PAEs from soil, potentially imposing human health risks through dietary intake. In this study, we carried out a cultivation study using lettuce, strawberry, and carrot plants to determine the potential of plant uptake, translocation, and metabolism of di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP) and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and their primary metabolites mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP) and mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP). All four compounds were detected in the plant tissues, with the bioconcentration factors (BCFs) ranging from 0.16 ± 0.01 to 4.78 ± 0.59. However, the test compounds were poorly translocated from roots to leaves, with a translocation factor below 1. Further, PAEs were readily transformed to their monoesters following uptake. Incubation of PAEs and monoalkyl phthalate esters (MPEs) in carrot cell culture showed that DnBP was hydrolyzed more rapidly than DEHP, while the monoesters were transformed more quickly than their parent precursors. Given the extensive metabolism of PAEs to monoesters in both whole plants and plant cells, metabolism intermediates such as MPEs should be considered when assessing human exposure via dietary intake of food produced from PAE-contaminated soils. PMID:26090545

  9. Phthalate esters: Testing for ecological effects

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, D.; Thompson, R.; Croudace, C.; Stewart, K.; Williams, N.

    1995-12-31

    Ortho-phthalate esters are produced in high tonnages for use as plasticizers, in particular for PVC. Their physical chemical properties are typically very low water solubility and high octanol/water partition coefficient. This combination of properties presents a number of experimental difficulties in the design and interpretation of ecological effect studies. These difficulties are described and results presented showing techniques for the performance of reproduction studies with the water flea, Daphnia magna, in aqueous solution and with the midge, Chironomus riparius, in sediments. The results which showed no effect for the phthalate esters tested are discussed in the context of other ecotoxicity data obtained on these products.

  10. Fetal Phthalate Screen: Assessment of Several Phthalate Esters on Fetal Rodent Testosterone Production and Gene Expression Following In Utero Exposure

    EPA Science Inventory

    Phthalate esters(PE) are a large family of compounds used in a wide array of common products from medical tubing to pharmaceuticals to cables, and wall/floor coverings. Laboratory studies have demonstrated that in utero treatment with PE such as di-ethyl hexyl phthalate (DEHP) du...

  11. Hepatic effects of phthalate esters.

    PubMed Central

    Seth, P K

    1982-01-01

    Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), a commonly used plasticizer and microchemical environmental pollutant, produces subtle changes in hepatic function as judged by increase in liver weight and morphological and biochemical alterations. It can modify the biological response of drugs and other xenobiotics. Such interactions appear to occur at the pharmacokinetic phase, as DEHP was found to alter the activity of microsomal drug-metabolizing enzymes and ethanol metabolism. DEHP produced a time- and route-dependent effect on the hepatic cytochrome P-450 contents and activity of aminopyrine N-demethylase, aniline hydroxylase, alcohol dehydrogenase and high and low Km aldehyde dehydrogenases when given orally or intraperitoneally. Under in vitro conditions, DEHP produced no effect on the activity of aminopyrine N-demethylase or aniline hydroxylase, while mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) and 2-ethylhexanol (2-EH) significantly inhibited their activity at concentrations ranging from 2.5 to 15.0 mM. Activity of aminopyrine N-demethylase and aniline hydroxylase was also inhibited by dimethyl phthalate (DMP) and dibutyl phthalate (DBP) after a single oral administration. In view of the possibility of the human exposure to phthalates and other xenobiotics simultaneously, these observations are of great significance. PMID:6754361

  12. Adsorption of diethyl phthalate ester to clay minerals.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yanhua; Si, Youbin; Zhou, Dongmei; Gao, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Phthalate esters are a group of plasticizers, which have been widely detected in China's agricultural and industrial soils. In this study, batch adsorption experiments were conducted to investigate the environmental effects on the adsorption of diethyl phthalate ester (DEP) to clay minerals. The results showed that DEP adsorption isotherms were well fitted with the Freundlich model; the interlayer spacing of K(+) saturated montmorillonite (K-mont) was the most important adsorption area for DEP, and di-n-butyl ester (DnBP) was limited to intercalate into the interlayer of K-mont due to the bigger molecular size; there was no significant effect of pH and ionic strength on DEP adsorption to K-mont/Ca-mont, but to Na-mont clay. The adsorption to kaolinite was very limited. Data of X-ray diffraction and FTIR spectra further proved that DEP molecules could intercalate into K-/Ca-mont interlayer, and might interact with clay through H-bonding between carbonyl groups and clay adsorbed water. Coated humic acid on clay surface would enhance DEP adsorption at low concentration, but not at high concentration (eg. Ce>0.26 mM). The calculated adsorption enthalpy (ΔHobs) and adsorption isotherms at varied temperatures showed that DEP could be adsorbed easier as more adsorbed. This study implied that clay type, compound structure, exchangeable cation, soil organic matter and temperature played important roles in phthalate ester's transport in soil. PMID:25150972

  13. Phthalate esters reduce predation efficiency of dragonfly larvae, Odonata; Aeshna

    SciTech Connect

    Woin, P.; Larsson, P.

    1987-02-01

    Sublethal exposure to persistent organic chemicals cause effects different than levels resulting in acute toxicity. These effects may result in altered behavior, which may reduce the fitness of the organism. Behavior changes are difficult to study in vertebrates and in highly specialized invertebrates because of large natural variation in behavioral patterns. The behavior of insects, however, is strongly governed by genetic constraints (instincts). Phthalate esters are one of the most produced chemical groups in the world and are used mainly as plasticizers. Of the phthalates DEHP (di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate) seems to exhibit properties typical of organic micropollutants. The compound reduces reproduction in Daphnia magna and bioaccumulation occurs in invertebrates. Since phthalate esters are lipophilic they tend to become attached to particles in the aquatic environments and consequently are found in high levels in the sediment of the lakes and rivers. Benthic organisms are, therefore, more exposed to this substance than those living in the water column. An aquatic laboratory system was constructed to study the behavior (predation efficiency) of dragonfly larvae (Aeshna) exposed to sediment-bound DEHP. Dragonfly larvae were chosen since the predation behavior of these animals is easily studied.

  14. EPA (ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY) METHOD STUDY 16, METHOD 606--PHTHALATE ESTERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report describes the results obtained and data analysis from an interlaboratory method study of EPA Method 606 (Phthalate Esters). The method is designed to analyze for six phthalate esters: dimethyl phthalate, diethyl phthalate, di-n-butyl phthalate, benzylbutyl phthalate, ...

  15. AN ASSESSMENT OF THE TOXICITY OF PHTHALATE ESTERS TO FRESHWATER BENTHOS. 1. AQUEOUS EXPOSURES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Tests were performed with the freshwater invertebrates, Hyalella azteca, Chironomus tentans, and Lumbriculus variegatus to determine the acute toxicity of six phthalate esters, including dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), butylbenzyl ph...

  16. Dietary exposure and human risk assessment of phthalate esters based on total diet study in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Zhang; Li, Han-Han; Wang, Hong-Sheng; Zhu, Xue-Mei; Sthiannopkao, Suthipong; Kim, Kyoung-Woong; Yasin, Mohamed Salleh Mohamed; Hashim, Jamal Hisham; Wong, Ming-Hung

    2016-10-01

    Phthalate esters are used in a wide variety of consumer products, and human exposure to this class of compounds is widespread. Nevertheless, studies on dietary exposure of human to phthalates are limited. In this study, to assess the daily intakes of phthalate esters and the possible adverse health impacts, different food samples were collected from three areas of Cambodia, one of the poorest countries in the world. The ∑phthalate ester concentrations in Kampong Cham, Kratie and Kandal provinces ranged from 0.05 to 2.34 (median 0.88) μgg(-1), 0.19-1.65 (median 0.86) μgg(-1) and 0.24-3.05 (median 0.59) μgg(-1) wet weight (ww), respectively. Di-2-Ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) and diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP) were the predominant compounds among all foodstuffs. The estimated daily intake (EDI) of phthalate esters for the general population in Kampong Cham, Kratie and Kandal was 34.3, 35.6 and 35.8μgkg(-1) bw d(-1), respectively. The dietary daily intake of DEHP, benzylbutyl phthalate (BBP) and di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) in Kampong Cham, Kratie and Kandal were below the tolerable daily intakes (TDI) imposed by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) and reference doses (RfD) imposed by The United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). Rice contributed the greatest quantity of DEHP to the daily intake in Cambodia so may deserve further exploration. To our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate the occurrence and the daily intakes of phthalate esters in Cambodia. PMID:27372065

  17. Pollution characteristics of volatile organic compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and phthalate esters emitted from plastic wastes recycling granulation plants in Xingtan Town, South China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, De-Yin; Zhou, Shun-Gui; Hong, Wei; Feng, Wei-Feng; Tao, Liang

    2013-06-01

    With the aim to investigate the main pollution characteristics of exhaust gases emitted from plastic waste recycling granulation plants, mainly volatile organic compounds (VOCs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and phthalate esters (PAEs) were analyzed in Xingtan Town, the largest distribution center of plastic waste recycling in China. Both inside and outside the plants, the total concentrations of volatile monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (MAHs), PAHs and PAEs ranged from 2000 to 3000 μg m-3, 450 to 1200 ng m-3, and 200 to 1200 ng m-3, respectively. Their concentration levels inside the plants were higher than those outside the plants, and PAHs and PAEs were mainly distributed in the gas-phase. Notably, highly toxic benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) could be detected inside the plants, and harmful PAEs could be detected not only inside but also outside the plants, although PAEs are non-volatile. The exhaust gas composition and concentration were related to the plastic feedstock and granulation temperature.

  18. Methods for the Determination of Endocrine-Disrupting Phthalate Esters.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, Munawar Saeed; Yusoff, Abdull Rahim bin Mohd; Wirzal, Mohd Dzul Hakim; Sirajuddin; Barek, Jiri; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Üstündag, Zafer

    2016-01-01

    Phthalates are endocrine disruptors frequently occurring in the general and industrial environment and in many industrial products. Moreover, they are also suspected of being carcinogenic, teratogenic, and mutagenic, and they show diverse toxicity profiles depending on their structures. The European Union and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) have included many phthalates in the list of priority substances with potential endocrine-disrupting action. They are: dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), butylbenzyl phthalate (BBP), diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), di-iso-nonyl phthalate (DINP), di-iso-decyl phthalate (DIDP), di-n-decyl phthalate (DnDP), and dioctyl phthalate (DOP). There is an ever-increasing demand for new analytical methods suitable for monitoring different phthalates in various environmental, biological, and other matrices. Separation and spectrometric methods are most frequently used. However, modern electroanalytical methods can also play a useful role in this field because of their high sensitivity, reasonable selectivity, easy automation, and miniaturization, and especially low investment and running costs, which makes them suitable for large-scale monitoring. Therefore, this review outlines possibilities and limitations of various analytical methods for determination of endocrine-disruptor phthalate esters in various matrices, including somewhat neglected electroanalytical methods. PMID:25831046

  19. Screening of phthalate esters in 47 branded perfumes.

    PubMed

    Al-Saleh, Iman; Elkhatib, Rola

    2016-01-01

    In the last few years, the use of phthalates in perfumes has gained attention because these chemicals are sometimes added intentionally as a solvent and a fixative. Five phthalate esters, dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP), and diethyl hexyl phthalate (DEHP), were measured in 47 branded perfumes using headspace solid phase microextraction (SPME) followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The results revealed considerable amounts of phthalate in all 47 brands with detection frequencies > limit of quantitation in the following order: DEP (47/47) > DMP (47/47) > BBP (47/47) > DEHP (46/47) > DBP (23/45). Of the 47 brands, 68.1, 72.3, 85.1, 36.2, and 6.7 % had DEP, DMP, BBP, DEHP, and DBP levels, respectively, above their reported threshold limits. Of these phthalates, DEP was found to have the highest mean value (1621.625 ppm) and a maximum of 23,649.247 ppm. The use of DEP in the perfume industry is not restricted because it does not pose any known health risks for humans. DMP had the second highest level detected in the perfumes, with a mean value of 30.202 ppm and a maximum of 405.235 ppm. Although DMP may have some uses in cosmetics, it is not as commonly used as DEP, and again, there are no restrictions on its use. The levels of BBP were also high, with a mean value of 8.446 ppm and a maximum of 186.770 ppm. Although the EU banned the use of BBP in cosmetics, 27 of the tested perfumes had BBP levels above the threshold limit of 0.1 ppm. The mean value of DEHP found in this study was 5.962 ppm, and a maximum was 147.536 ppm. In spite of its prohibition by the EU, 7/28 perfumes manufactured in European countries had DEHP levels above the threshold limit of 1 ppm. The DBP levels were generally low, with a mean value of 0.0305 ppm and a maximum value of 0.594 ppm. The EU banned the use of DBP in cosmetics; however, we found three brands that were above the

  20. Phthalate ester toxicity in Leydig cells: developmental timing and dosage considerations.

    PubMed

    Ge, Ren-Shan; Chen, Guo-Rong; Tanrikut, Cigdem; Hardy, Matthew P

    2007-01-01

    Humans have significant exposures to phthalates, as these chemical plasticizers are ubiquitously present in flexible plastics. Recent epidemiological evidence indicates that boys born to women exposed to phthalates during pregnancy have an increased incidence of congenital genital malformations and spermatogenic dysfunction, signs of a condition referred to as testicular dysgenesis syndrome (TDS). TDS is thought to develop as a result of environmental factors that cause a testicular disturbance at an early fetal stage with a resultant spectrum of clinical testicular dysfunction, ranging from impaired spermatogenesis and genital malformations to increased risk for development of testicular cancer. Proposed environmental factors in the etiology of TDS include endocrine disrupting compounds such as the phthalates. Leydig cells have been classified as one of the main targets for phthalate ester toxicity in the body based on studies in rodents. In support of this hypothesis, two Leydig cell products - insulin-like growth factor 3 (INSL3) and testosterone (T) - are both suppressed after phthalate exposures. Both fetal and adult generations of Leydig cells are affected by phthalate esters, although their sensitivities may differ. In rodent models, when pregnant dams are exposed to phthalate esters, fetal Leydig cells form enlarged clusters that are retained in the testis even after birth, in contrast to untreated controls. Despite the retention of fetal Leydig cells, however, their numbers and average cell volume of total in exposed males are reduced, as are INSL3 production and steroidogenic competence. These alterations are directly associated with clinical features of TDS, including cryptorchidism and impaired spermatogenesis. PMID:17258888

  1. The estrogenic activity of phthalate esters in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Harris, C A; Henttu, P; Parker, M G; Sumpter, J P

    1997-01-01

    A large number of phthalate esters were screened for estrogenic activity using a recombinant yeast screen. a selection of these was also tested for mitogenic effect on estrogen-responsive human breast cancer cells. A small number of the commercially available phthalates tested showed extremely weak estrogenic activity. The relative potencies of these descended in the order butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP) > dibutyl phthalate (DBP) > diisobutyl phthalate (DIBP) > diethyl phthalate (DEP) > diisiononyl phthalate (DINP). Potencies ranged from approximately 1 x 10(6) to 5 x 10(7) times less than 17beta-estradiol. The phthalates that were estrogenic in the yeast screen were also mitogenic on the human breast cancer cells. Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) showed no estrogenic activity in these in vitro assays. A number of metabolites were tested, including mono-butyl phthalate, mono-benzyl phthalate, mono-ethylhexyl phthalate, mon-n-octyl phthalate; all were wound to be inactive. One of the phthalates, ditridecyl phthalate (DTDP), produced inconsistent results; one sample was weakly estrogenic, whereas another, obtained from a different source, was inactive. analysis by gel chromatography-mass spectometry showed that the preparation exhibiting estrogenic activity contained 0.5% of the ortho-isomer of bisphenol A. It is likely that the presence of this antioxidant in the phthalate standard was responsible for the generation of a dose-response curve--which was not observed with an alternative sample that had not been supplemented with o,p'-bisphenol A--in the yeast screen; hence, DTDP is probably not weakly estrogenic. The activities of simple mixtures of BBP, DBP, and 17beta-estradiol were assessed in the yeast screen. No synergism was observed, although the activities of the mixtures were approximately additive. In summary, a small number of phthalates are weakly estrogenic in vitro. No data has yet been published on whether these are also estrogenic in vitro. No data has

  2. From Clothing to Laundry Water: Investigating the Fate of Phthalates, Brominated Flame Retardants, and Organophosphate Esters.

    PubMed

    Saini, Amandeep; Thaysen, Clara; Jantunen, Liisa; McQueen, Rachel H; Diamond, Miriam L

    2016-09-01

    The accumulation of phthalate esters, brominated flame retardants (BFRs) and organophosphate esters (OPEs) by clothing from indoor air and transfer via laundering to outdoors were investigated. Over 30 days cotton and polyester fabrics accumulated 3475 and 1950 ng/dm(2) ∑5phthalates, 65 and 78 ng/dm(2) ∑10BFRs, and 1200 and 310 ng/dm(2) ∑8OPEs, respectively. Planar surface area concentrations of OPEs and low molecular weight phthalates were significantly greater in cotton than polyester and similar for BFRs and high molecular weight phthalates. This difference was significantly and inversely correlated with KOW, suggesting greater sorption of polar compounds to polar cotton. Chemical release from cotton and polyester to laundry water was >80% of aliphatic OPEs (log KOW < 4), < 50% of OPEs with an aromatic structure, 50-100% of low molecular weight phthalates (log KOW 4-6), and < detection-35% of higher molecular weight phthalates (log KOW > 8) and BFRs (log KOW > 6). These results support the hypothesis that clothing acts an efficient conveyer of soluble semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) from indoors to outdoors through accumulation from air and then release during laundering. Clothes drying could as well contribute to the release of chemicals emitted by electric dryers. The results also have implications for dermal exposure. PMID:27507188

  3. Chronic toxicity of 14 phthalate esters to Daphnia magna and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    SciTech Connect

    Rhodes, J.E.; Adams, W.J.; Biddinger, G.R.; Robillard, K.A.; Gorsuch, J.W.

    1995-11-01

    Chronic toxicity studies were performed with commercial phthalate esters and Daphnia magna (14 phthalates) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) (six phthalates). For the lower-molecular-weight phthalate esters--dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), and butylbenzyl phthalate (BBP)--the results of the studies indicated a general trend in which toxicity for both species increased as water solubility decreased. The geometric mean maximum acceptable toxicant concentration(GM-MATC) for D. magna ranged from 0.63 to 34.8 mg/L. For the higher-molecular-weight phthalate esters--dihexyl phthalate (DHP), butyl 2-ethylhexyl phthalate (BOP), di-(n-hexyl, n-octyl, n-decyl) phthalate (610P), di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), diisooctyl phthalate (DIOP), diisononyl phthalate (DINP), di-(heptyl, nonyl, undecyl) phthalate (711P), diisodecyl phthalate (DIDP), diundecyl phthalate (DUP), and ditridecyl phthalate (DTDP)--the GM-MATC values ranged from 0.042 to 0.15 mg/L. Survival was equally sensitive and sometimes more sensitive than reproduction. The observed toxicity to daphnids with most of the higher-molecular-weight phthalate esters appeared to be due to surface entrapment or a mode of toxicity that is not due to exposure to dissolved aqueous-phase chemical. Early life-stage toxicity studies with rainbow trout indicated that survival (DMP) and growth (DBP) were affected at 24 and 0.19 mg/L, respectively. This pattern of observed toxicity with the lower-molecular-weight phthalate esters and not the higher-molecular-weight phthalate esters is consistent with previously reported acute toxicity studies for several aquatic species.

  4. Kinetics of phthalate ester biodegradation by Chlorella pyrenoidosa

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, H.; Ye, C.; Yin, C.

    1995-06-01

    Experimental results show that Chlorella pyrenoidosa has an ability to accumulate and biodegrade phthalate esters. Bioconcentration factors of dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), and dibutyl phthalate (DBP) reached their maxima of 162 at 24 h, 205 at 12 h, and 4,077 at 12 h. The average biodegradation rates of DMP, DEP, and DBP per day were found to be 13.4 mg/L, 7.3 mg/L, and 2.1 mg/L, respectively. Based on the experimental data, a second-order kinetic equation was formulated as {minus}dC/dt = KNr, with a factor r indicating the rate of algal growth. Calculation of this equation fits well with the observed data, and the standard deviations between calculated and observed values were 1.72 mg/L, 1.80 mg/L, and 0.26 mg/L for DMP, DEP, DBP, respectively.

  5. Preconcentration procedures for phthalate esters combined with chromatographic analysis.

    PubMed

    Lv, Xueju; Hao, Yi; Jia, Qiong

    2013-08-01

    Phthalate esters are endocrine disrupters or mutagens. They are widely used as plasticizers and can be usually found in environmental samples, such as food, soil and polluted air. However, it is difficult to directly determine phthalate esters owing to their relatively low concentration and complex matrices. Therefore, preconcentration and separation have become increasingly important. In recent years, many preconcentration methods have been successfully developed and widely used, such as liquid-liquid extraction, dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction and solid-phase extraction. These preconcentration methods for phthalate esters can be applied to various real samples, water, soil, air, food and cosmetics. The aim of this paper is to review recent literature studies (primarily from the last five years) about preconcentration techniques for phthalate esters coupled with chromatographic analysis. The following text describes several preconcentration approaches, including liquid-liquid extraction, dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction, cloud point extraction, solid-phase extraction, solid-phase microextraction and stir bar sorptive extraction. Their advantages and disadvantages are also summarized. PMID:23696389

  6. Separation of phthalate esters from bio-oil derived from rice husk by a basification-acidification process and column chromatography.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Fanxin; Liu, Wujun; Jiang, Hong; Yu, Han-Qing; Zeng, Raymond J; Guo, Qingxiang

    2011-01-01

    Solid precipitate containing phthalate esters was obtained from rice-husk-derived oil through a basification-acidification process. After separation by column chromatography, the solid precipitate was divided into two mono-component fractions, two bi-component fractions and a tetra-component fraction. The major compounds of the five fractions were all consisted of phthalate esters. Especially, phthalate esters accounted for a proportion higher than 80% in both Fractions I and II. The generation and precipitation mechanisms of phthalate esters were proposed. Phthalate esters were considered to be derived from a series of complicated chemical reactions of small molecules in the biomass pyrolysis process, and precipitated from bio-oil by catalytic hydrolysis and esterification. PMID:20884201

  7. Self-immolative phthalate esters sensitive to hydrogen peroxide and light.

    PubMed

    Mahoney, Kaitlyn M; Goswami, Pratik P; Syed, Aleem; Kolker, Patrick; Shannan, Brian; Smith, Emily A; Winter, Arthur H

    2014-12-01

    Self-immolative aryl phthalate esters were conjugated with cleavable masking groups sensitive to light and hydrogen peroxide. The phthalate linker releases the fluorescent dye 7-hydroxycoumarin upon exposure to light or H2O2, respectively, leading to an increase in fluorescence. The light-sensitive aryl phthalate ester is demonstrated as a pro-fluorophore in cultured S2 cells. PMID:25384091

  8. Aspects of the testicular toxicity of phthalate esters

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, T.J.B.; Gangolli, S.D.

    1986-03-01

    Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) produced seminiferous tubular atrophy and reductions in seminal vesicle and prostate weight in 4-week-old, but not in 15 -week-old rats. Di-n-pentyl phthalate (DPP) did produce atrophy in the older rats but this developed more slowly than in young animals. Coadministration of testosterone or gonadotrophins did not protect against phthalate-induced testicular toxicity but did partly reverse the depression of seminal vesicle and prostate weight. Secretion of seminiferous tubule fluid and androgen binding protein by the Sertoli cells was markedly suppressed within 1 hr of a dose of DPP or mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP) in immature rats. This occurred less rapidly in mature rats. (/sup 14/C)mono-n-pentyl phthalate and (/sup 14/C)MEHP penetrated the blood testis barrier only to a very limited extent. These findings and the early morphological changes in the Sertoli cells produced by DPP suggest that phthalate esters may act initially to cause Sertoli cell injury, the subsequent loss of germ cells occurring as a consequence of this.

  9. Inhibitory mechanism of phthalate esters on Karenia brevis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ning; Wen, Fuling; Li, Fengmin; Zheng, Xiang; Liang, Zhi; Zheng, Hao

    2016-07-01

    The occurrence of phthalate esters (PAEs), a class of widely used and environmentally prevalent chemicals, raises concern to environmental and human health globally. The PAEs have been demonstrated to inhibit algae growth, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In this research, diethyl ortho-phthalate (DEP), diallyl phthalate (DAP), di-n-butyl ortho-phthalate (DBP), di-iso-butyl ortho-phthalate, and benzyl-n-butyl ortho-phthalate (BBP) were screened from 11 species of PAEs to study their inhibitory effects on Karenia brevis and determine their target sites on algae. With increasing the alkyl chains of these five PAEs, the values of EC50,96h decreased. The content of malondialdehyde increased with the continuous accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the algae cells. Moreover, the superoxide dismutase and catalase contents were first activated and then inhibited. The ultrastructures of Karenia brevis cells were detected by transmission electron microscopy, and cells treated with PAEs exhibiting distorted shapes and large vacuoles. Thus, the algae were damaged by ROS accumulation, resulting in lipid oxidation and algal growth inhibition. The inhibitors of the electron transport chain showed that the sites of ROS production and accumulation in K. brevis cells under DEP and BBP were the mitochondria and chloroplast, respectively. Moreover, the target sites of DAP and DBP were both the chloroplast and mitochondria. These results are useful for controlling PAEs contamination in and revealing the fate of PAEs in aquatic ecosystem. PMID:27151426

  10. Effects of phthalate esters on plant seedlings and reversal by a soil microorganism

    SciTech Connect

    Herring, R.; Bering, C.L.

    1988-04-01

    Phthalate esters are degraded by a number of soil and aquatic bacteria, but degradation is slow and may not keep pace with the increase in environmental contamination. Very little has been reported concerning the effects of phthalate esters on green plants. Certain phthalate esters are known to be natural constituents of some plants, but in significantly lower concentration that which may be encountered due to contamination. The authors have examined the effects of four common phthalate esters-dimethylphthalate (DMP), diethylphthalate (DEP), dibutylphthalate (DBP), and di(2-ethyl)hexylphthalate (DEHP)- added to the soil of developing spinach and pea seedlings. Two of the esters - DMP and DEP- caused significant inhibition of development.

  11. Phthalate Esters and Reproductive Toxicity** Presentation requested by State of Mass Use Reductions Committee-TURI

    EPA Science Inventory

    Phthalate esters and reproductive toxicity the presentation described the uses of phthalates, the toxicity to mammals with a focus on reproductive toxicity and the potency of these chemicals to disrupt mammalian reproductive development in utero

  12. Occurrence of phthalate diesters (phthalates), p-hydroxybenzoic acid esters (parabens), bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE) and their derivatives in indoor dust from Vietnam: Implications for exposure.

    PubMed

    Tran, Tri Manh; Minh, Tu Binh; Kumosani, Taha A; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2016-02-01

    Phthalate diesters (phthalates), esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid (parabens), and bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE) are used in personal care products, food packages, household products, or pharmaceuticals. These compounds possess endocrine-disrupting potentials and have been reported to occur in the environment. Nevertheless, no previous studies have reported the occurrence of these compounds in indoor dust from Vietnam. In this study, nine phthalates, six parabens, and four BADGEs were determined in indoor dust samples collected from Hanoi, Hatinh, Hungyen, and Thaibinh, in Vietnam. Total concentrations of phthalates, parabens, and BADGEs in indoor dust ranged from 3440 to 106,000 ng/g (median: 22,600 ng/g), 40-840 ng/g (median: 123 ng/g), and 23 to 1750 ng/g (median: 184 ng/g), respectively. Based on the measured median concentration of phthalates, parabens, and BADGEs in indoor dust, we estimated human exposure doses to these compounds through indoor dust ingestion for various age groups. The exposure doses to phthalates, parabens, and BADGEs decreased with age and ranged from 19.4 to 90.4 ng/kg-bw/d, 0.113-0.528 ng/kg-bw/d, and 0.158-0.736 ng/kg-bw/d, respectively. This is the first study on the occurrence and human exposure of phthalates, parabens, and BADGEs in indoor dust from Vietnam. PMID:26498104

  13. DNA Methyltransferase Inhibitor Induced Fungal Biosynthetic Products: Diethylene Glycol Phthalate Ester Oligomers from the Marine-Derived Fungus Cochliobolus lunatus.

    PubMed

    Chen, Min; Zhang, Wei; Shao, Chang-Lun; Chi, Zhen-Ming; Wang, Chang-Yun

    2016-06-01

    Chemical epigenetic manipulation was applied to the marine-derived fungus Cochliobolus lunatus (TA26-46) with a DNA methyltransferase inhibitor resulting in the significant changes of the secondary metabolites. Cultivation of C. lunatus (TA26-46) with 5-azacytidine led to the isolation of seven new diethylene glycol phthalate esters, cochphthesters A-G (1-6, 10), along with four known analogues (7-9, 11). Their structures were determined by extensive NMR spectroscopic spectra as well as MS data. Compounds 2-6 and 8-11, characterized by the cross-polymerization of phthalate across diethylene glycol via ester bonds, represent the first example of naturally occurring phthalate ester oligomers. Graphical Abstract Chemical epigenetic manipulation was applied to a marine-derived fungus resulting in significant changes of secondary metabolites. PMID:27245469

  14. Effects of phthalate esters on plant seedlings and reversal by a soil microorganism

    SciTech Connect

    Herring, R.; Bering, C.L. )

    1988-05-01

    Phthalate esters have been widely used in industrial nations as plasticizers, in cosmetics, insect repellants, and munitions. Due to the abundance of plastic materials in use, it has been estimated that 51 million pounds of phthalate esters leach into the environment annually. Very little has been reported concerning the effects of phthalate esters on green plants. Certain phthalate esters are known to be natural constituents of some plants, but in significantly lower concentration than that which may be encountered due to contamination. The authors have examined the effects of four common phthalate esters- dimethylphthalate (DMP), diethylphthalate (DEP), dibutylphthalate (DBP), and di-(2-ethyl)hexylphthalate (DEHP)- added to the soil of developing spinach and pea seedlings. Two of the esters- DMP and DEP- caused significant inhibition of development.

  15. Effects of prolonged administration of phthalate ester on the liver

    SciTech Connect

    Ganning, A.E.; Brunk, U.; Edlund, C.; Elhammer, A.; Dallner, G.

    1987-08-01

    Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) was administered to male rats in the diet at concentrations of 2.0, 0.2, and 0.02% for up to 102 weeks. Low doses resulted in moderate increases in certain hepatic enzymes during the initial phase of exposure and in a continuous increase in the activities of these same enzymes throughout the treatment period. An increased level of dolichol and decreased concentration of dolichyl-P were observed. Furthermore, the rate of protein glycosylation diminished. Liver biopsies from patients subjected to hemodialysis demonstrated an increased number of peroxisomes. Phthalate ester seems to interfere with protein turnover, so that the half-life of total mitochondrial and microsomal protein is considerably increased.

  16. Impact of three phthalate esters on the sexual reproduction of the Monogonont rotifer, Brachionus calyciflorus.

    PubMed

    Cruciani, V; Iovine, C; Thomé, J-P; Joaquim-Justo, C

    2016-01-01

    Phthalate esters are widespread contaminants that can cause endocrine disruption in vertebrates. Studies showed that molecules with hormonal activities in vertebrates and invertebrates can affect asexual and sexual reproduction in rotifers. We investigated the impact of di-hexylethyl phthalate (DEHP), di-butyl phthalate (DBP) and butylbenzyl phthalate (BBP), on the asexual and sexual reproduction of the freshwater monogonont rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus in order to determine a potential environmental risk for sexual reproduction. We observed that DEHP has no significant impact on both asexual and sexual reproduction up to 2 mg/L. DBP has a positive effect on asexual reproduction at concentrations from 0.05 to 1 mg/L, but depresses it at 2 mg/L. Sexual reproduction is only affected at 2 mg/L and the impact observed is negative. BBP displayed a negative impact on both asexual and sexual reproduction at 1 and 2 mg/L. However we showed that the impacts of BBP on mixis and fertilization rates observed are due to the decrease in population growth rates at these concentrations and not to a direct impact of BBP on the mixis and the fertilization processes. Our results show that sexual reproduction in B. calyciflorus is not more sensitive than asexual reproduction to any of the substances tested which indicates the mode of action of these molecules is related to general toxicity and not to an interference with potential endocrine regulation of sexual reproduction. Comparison of effect concentrations and surface water contamination by phthalate esters suggests these compounds do not constitute a risk for primary consumers in these environments. PMID:26666431

  17. Atmospheric deposition of phthalate esters in a subtropical city

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Feng; Lin, Yujun; Cui, Kunyan; Wen, Jiaxin; Ma, Yongqin; Chen, Hongli; Zhu, Fang; Ma, Zhiling; Zeng, Zunxiang

    2010-02-01

    In Chinese cities, air pollution has become a serious and aggravating environmental problem undermining the sustainability of urban ecosystems and the quality of urban life. Bulk atmospheric deposition samples were collected two-weekly, from February 2007 to January 2008, at three representative areas, one suburban and two urbanized, in the subtropical city, Guangzhou, China, to assess the deposition fluxes and seasonal variations of phthalate esters (PAEs). Sixteen PAE congeners in bulk deposition samples were measured and the depositional fluxes of ∑ 16PAEs ranged from 3.41 to 190 μg m -2 day -1, and were highly affected by local anthropogenic activities. The significant relationship between PAEs and particulate depositional fluxes (correlation coefficient R2 = 0.72, P < 0.001) showed PAEs are associated primarily with particles. Temporal flux variations of PAEs were influenced by seasonal changes in meteorological parameters, and the deposition fluxes of PAEs were obviously higher in wet season than in dry season. Diisobutyl phthalate (D iBP), Di- n-butyl phthalate (D nBP), and Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) dominated the PAE pattern in bulk depositions, which is consistent with a high consumption of the plasticizer market in China. PAE profiles in bulk deposition showed similarities exhibited in both time and space, and a weak increase of high molecular weight PAE (HMW PAE) contribution in the wet season compared to those in the dry season. Average atmospheric deposition fluxes of PAEs in the present study were significantly higher than those from other studies, reflecting strong anthropogenic inputs as a consequence of rapid industrial and urban development in the region.

  18. Chemical industry voluntary test program for phthalate esters: health effects studies

    SciTech Connect

    Astill, B.; Barber, E.; Lington, A.; Moran, E.; Mulholland, A.; Robinson, E.; Scheider, B.

    1986-03-01

    The Chemical Manufacturers' Association voluntary test program on phthalate esters is described, and the results of certain key aspects of the program are presented. Representative phthalate esters were chosen for genotoxicity testing and peroxisome proliferation screening, and di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) and its initial metabolic products were tested in the genotoxicity battery. A comparative metabolism study was performed with DEHP in the mouse, rat, and cynomologus monkey, together with a study of the metabolism of DEHP in the rodent at several dose levels, and after prolonged feeding. A standard test for peroxisome proliferation in the rat, employing 21 days of feeding and several end points is described, based on DEHP as a reference compound. DEHP is shown to be nongenotoxic in the test battery, and its initial major metabolites are also nongenotoxic. A nonlinear dose response with respect to the beta-oxidation of DEHP in the rodent is demonstrated. Quantitative differences exist between the mouse and rat, and the cynomologus monkey with respect to the beta-oxidation of DEHP, beta-oxidation being a much less used pathway in the monkey. The significance of these results in interpreting the hepatocellular carcinogenesis of DEHP in the Fischer 344 rat is discussed.

  19. Assessment of fetal testis function and postnatal development of the male rat following in utero exposure to diethylhexyl phthalate, dipentyl phthalate, diisobutyl phthalate, diisoheptyl phthalate and diisononyl phthalate

    EPA Science Inventory

    Phthalate esters are a large class of plasticizer compounds widely used in many consumer product applications. Some phthalates induce male fetal endocrine toxicity and reproductive malformations through disruption of hormone production during sexual differentiation. Regulatory ag...

  20. A study on emission of phthalate esters from plastic materials using a passive flux sampler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, M.; Shinohara, N.; Lim, A.; Otake, T.; Kumagai, K.; Yanagisawa, Y.

    Phthalate esters are used as plasticizer in many plastics, and several studies have shown their toxicity. Phthalate esters are gradually emitted over time, and so it is conceivable that they pose a significant health risk. This study aims to investigate the temperature dependence of the emissions of various phthalate esters and to estimate the health risks of these emissions at various temperatures. A passive-type sampler was developed to measure the flux of phthalate esters from the surface of plastic materials. With this sampler, we examined three widely used plastic materials: synthetic leather, wallpaper and vinyl flooring. The observed maximum emissions of diethyl phthalate, dibutyl phthalate, and diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) from these materials at 20°C were 0.89, 0.77, and 14 μg m -2 h -1, respectively. Emissions at 80°C were 2.8, 4.5×10 2, and 1.5×10 3 μg m -2 h -1, respectively. The results showed this temperature dependence is determined primarily by the type of phthalate ester and less so by the type of material. The estimation from the results of temperature dependence indicated the concentration of DEHP in a vehicle left out in the sunshine during the day can exceed the recommended levels of Japan Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare.

  1. Biodegradation of the phthalates and their esters by bacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Keyser, P; Pujar, B G; Eaton, R W; Ribbons, D W

    1976-01-01

    Recent studies on the biodegradation phthalate esters in natural ecosystems, sewage, and laboratory cultures are reviewed. There is ample evidence to demonstrate that bacteria are major elements in the biodegradative processes and that in most situations complete oxidation of the aromatic ring occurs; much less is known about the catabolism of the alcoholic moiety, e.g., 2-ethylhexanol. Evidence is presented to support catabolic pathways in pseudomonads and micrococci that are initiated by successive hydrolyses of the diesters to give the phthalate anion. Thereafter a dioxygenase catalyzes the formation of 4,5-dihydro-4,5-dihydroxyphthalate, which is oxidized by an NAD-dependent dehydrogenase to give 4,5-dihydroxyphthalate, Protocatechuate, formed by decarboxylation of 4,5-dihydroxyphthalate, is the substrate for ring cleavage enzymes. Whereas flurorescent pseudomonads use the beta-ketoadipate pathway, the nonfluorescent strains and micrococci examined use of meta-cleavage (4,5-) route. All the intermediates proposed have been accumulated by enzymes purified from Pseudomonas fluorescens. Isophthalate and terephthalate (anions) are readily used as carbon sources by aerobic bacteria, and preliminary evidence is consistent with catabolic routes for these isomers converging at the ring-cleavage substrate protocatechuate. Some possible effects and interactions of synthetic organic chemicals with the natural microflora, and the influence of other vectors, is discussed in relation to the maintenance of the carbon cycle and environmental pollution. PMID:829485

  2. Perilous plasticizers - are phthalate esters a risk for human reproductive health?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Phthalate diesters are high-production volume chemicals used to impart flexibility to polyvinyl chloride plastic (e.g. children’s toys and medical tubing) as well as other products (e.g. health and beauty products). Certain phthalate esters inhibit reproductive development in la...

  3. Perilous plastics - are phthalate esters a risk for human reproductive health?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Phthalate diesters are high-production volume chemicals used to impart flexibility to polyvinyl chloride plastic (e.g. children’s toys and medical tubing) and are also found in other products (e.g. health and beauty products). Certain phthalate esters inhibit reproductive develop...

  4. Phthalate esters in the environment: A critical review of their occurrence, biodegradation, and removal during wastewater treatment processes.

    PubMed

    Gao, Da-Wen; Wen, Zhi-Dan

    2016-01-15

    Phthalate esters are one of the most frequently detected persistent organic pollutants in the environment. A better understanding of their occurrence and degradation in the environment and during wastewater treatment processes will facilitate the development of strategies to reduce these pollutants and to bioremediate contaminated freshwater and soil. Phthalate esters occur at measurable levels in different environments worldwide. For example, the concentrations of dimethyl phthalate (DMP) in atmospheric particulate matter, fresh water and sediments, soil, and landfills are N.D.-10.4 ng/m(3), N.D.-31.7 μg/L, N.D.-316 μg/kg dry weight, and N.D.-200 μg/kg dry weight, N.D.-43.27 μg/L, respectively. Bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) are primary phthalate ester pollutants. Urbanization has increased the discharge of phthalate esters to atmospheric and aquatic environments, and the use of agricultural plastics has exacerbated soil contamination by phthalate esters in rural areas. Aerobic biodegradation is the primary manner of phthalate ester mineralization in the environment, and this process has been widely studied. Phthalate esters can be removed during wastewater treatment processes. The combination of different wastewater treatment technologies showed greater efficiency in the removal of phthalate esters than individual treatment steps, such as the combination of anaerobic wastewater treatment with a membrane bioreactor would increase the efficiency of phthalate ester removal from 65%-71% to 95%-97%. This review provides a useful framework to identify future research objectives to achieve the mineralization and elimination of phthalate esters in the environment. PMID:26473701

  5. Comparison of nonideal sorption formulations in modeling the transport of phthalate esters through packed soil columns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maraqa, Munjed A.; Zhao, Xianda; Lee, Jae-ug; Allan, Fathi; Voice, Thomas C.

    2011-07-01

    Sorption of dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP) and dipropyl phthalate (DPP) to two soil materials that vary in organic matter content was investigated using miscible displacement experiments under saturated flow conditions. Generated breakthrough curves (BTCs) were inversely simulated using linear, equilibrium sorption (LE), nonlinear, equilibrium sorption (NL), linear, first-order nonequilibrium sorption (LFO), linear, radial diffusion (LRD), and nonlinear, first-order nonequilibrium sorption (NFO) models. The Akaike information criterion was utilized to determine the preferred model. The LE model could not adequately describe phthalate ester (PE) BTCs in higher organic matter soil or for more hydrophobic PEs. The LFO and LRD models adequately described the BTCs but a slight improvement in curve-fitting was gained in some cases when the NFO model was used. However, none of the models could properly describe the desorptive tail of DPP for the high organic matter soil. Transport of DPP through this soil was adequately predicted when degradation or sorption hysteresis was considered. Using the optimized parameter values along with values reported by others it was shown that the organic carbon distribution coefficient ( Koc) of PEs correlates well with the octanol/water partition coefficient ( Kow). Also, a strong relationship was found between the first-order sorption rate coefficient normalized to injection pulse size and compound residence time. A similar trend of timescale dependence was found for the rate parameter in the radial diffusion model. Results also revealed that the fraction of instantaneous sorption sites is dependent on Kow and appears to decrease with the increase in the sorption rate parameter.

  6. Phthalate esters detected in various water samples and biodegradation of the phthalates by microbes isolated from river water.

    PubMed

    Hashizume, Kiyomatsu; Nanya, Jo; Toda, Chitose; Yasui, Teruyo; Nagano, Hideo; Kojima, Nakao

    2002-02-01

    Phthalate esters (PEs), especially di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) and di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) were detected in various water samples such as river water, well water and tap water. On degradation tests of PEs, Tempaku River water degraded almost 100% of diethyl phthalate (DEP), di-isobutyl phthalate and DBP, and approximately 70% of DEHP. All eight isolates from Tempaku River water (R1-R7, D1) did not degrade dimethyl phthalate (DMP), but showed biodegrading ability for the other PEs. The DBP-degrading ability was particularly high for the isolates R1-R3 and D1 of Acinetobacter iwoffii. Crude enzyme solutions prepared from bacterial cells of these isolates showed a higher degrading activity for DEHP compared with that for microbially-degradable DBP. Particularly high DEHP-degrading activity was found for crude enzyme solutions of the isolate D1. As metabolites from the river water and bacterial isolates, DMP and an unknown diester were produced from DEP. DMP, DEP, monomethyl phthalate, monobutyl phthalate (MBP) and an unknown diester were produced from DBP. DBP, DEP, DMP and an unknown diester were produced from DEHP. As metabolites by the crude enzyme solutions, DMP, MBP and an unknown diester derivative were produced from DBP. DBP, mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate and an unknown diester derivative were produced from DEHP. Diesters with shortened alkyl carbon chains were also found as metabolites by the isolates and their crude enzyme solutions. The results suggest that the alkyl chains in the diesters are also decomposed in addition to monoester formation from DBP or DEHP at the first step reported for animals and some types of bacteria. PMID:11853168

  7. Phthalate esters in main source water and drinking water of Zhejiang Province (China): Distribution and health risks.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaofeng; Lou, Xiaoming; Zhang, Nianhua; Ding, Gangqiang; Chen, Zhijian; Xu, Peiwei; Wu, Lizhi; Cai, Jianmin; Han, Jianlong; Qiu, Xueting

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate the distributions and health risks of phthalate esters in the main source water and corresponding drinking water of Zhejiang Province, the concentrations of 16 phthalate esters in water samples from 19 sites were measured from samples taken in the dry season and wet season. The concentration of the total phthalate ester congeners in source water ranged from 1.07 μg/L to 7.12 μg/L in the wet season, from 0.01 μg/L to 1.58 μg/L in the dry season, from 1.18 μg/L to 15.28 μg/L from drinking water in the wet season, and from 0.16 μg/L to 1.86 μg/L from drinking water in the dry season. Of the 16 phthalate esters, dimethyl phthalate, dibutyl phthalate, di-(2-ethyl-hexyl) phthalate, di-iso-butyl phthalate, bis-2-n-butoxyethyl phthalate, and dicyclohexyl phthalate were present in the samples analyzed, dominated by di-iso-butyl phthalate and di-(2-ethyl-hexyl) phthalate. The concentrations of phthalate esters in the wet season were all relatively higher than those in the dry season, and the drinking water had higher concentrations of phthalate esters than source water. The phthalate ester congeners studied pose little health risk to nearby citizens. Environ Toxicol Chem 2015;34:2205-2212. © 2015 SETAC. PMID:25988232

  8. Foetal exposure to phthalate esters and anogenital distance in male newborns.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Y; Yoshinaga, J; Mizumoto, Y; Serizawa, S; Shiraishi, H

    2012-06-01

    Phthalate esters, commonly used as plasticizers, show anti-androgenic activity and cause male reproductive malformation in experimental animals. However, the effects of prenatal exposure to phthalate esters in humans have not been extensively studied. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between prenatal exposure to phthalate esters and the anogenital distance (AGD) as a reproductive endpoint in human male newborns. Spot urine samples were collected from 111 Japanese pregnant women after obtaining their informed consent. Seven urinary phthalate ester metabolites were determined by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Urinary isoflavones concentrations were measured as possible covariates because their oestrogenicities and high exposure levels among Japanese have the potential to affect male genital development. Birth outcomes and AGD, the distance from the centre of the anus to external genitalia, were measured for their male newborns. In a multiple regression model, the log-transformed mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate concentration (specific gravity-corrected) was negatively significant, and maternal smoking status was positively significant, in explaining anogenital index (AGI) when potential covariates were controlled for. Urinary isoflavones did not significantly contribute to AGI in any models. Our results suggest that prenatal exposure to di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate affects reproductive development in human males. PMID:21696396

  9. Solubility and toxicity of eight phthalate esters to four aquatic organisms

    SciTech Connect

    DeFoe, D.L.; Holcombe, G.W.; Hammermeister, D.E.; Biesinger, K.E.

    1990-05-01

    Solubility values for eight phthalate esters investigated ranged from 0.020 to 121 mg/L. Acute toxicity tests were conducted with fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) and all eight phthalate esters. Acute and chronic tests were conducted with rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) using di-2-ethylhexylphthalate. In addition, the chronic toxicity of the three di-n-butylphthalates and a mixture of these three phthalates was examined using daphnids (Daphnia magna). Di-n-octyl-ortho-phthalate, di-n-octyl-iso-phthalate and di-n-octyl-tere-phthalate were not acutely toxic to fathead minnows at concentrations that exceeded the water solubility estimates for each phthalate. Di-2-ethylhexylphthalate was not acutely toxic to any tested species at the highest tested concentrations. No significant adverse effects were observed on hatchability, survival or growth of rainbow trout exposed to a mean di-2-ethylhexylphthalate concentration of 0.502 mg/L (the highest concentration tested) in a 90-d embryo-larval test. However, exposure to a mean di-2-ethylhexylphthalate concentration of 0.554 mg/L significantly reduced the growth of Japanese medaka during a 168-d larval test. Significant adverse effects on reproduction occurred in 21-d chronic tests with D. magna at concentrations of 1.91, 0.20 and 0.64 mg/L for di-n-butyl-ortho-phthalate, di-n-butyl-iso-phthalate and di-n-butyl-tere-phthalate, respectively. A daphnid mixture test with these three phthalates showed complete additivity, which suggests a similar mode of toxic action.

  10. Assessment of Phthalate-induced Changes in Fetal Rat Testis Gene Expression using an rt-PCR Drug Metabolism Array.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Phthalate esters are a large family of compounds used in many industrial and commercial products. Based on numerous studies, phthalates such as diethyl hexyl phthalate (DEHP) produce reproductive malformations in male rodents through reduction of testosterone production and gene ...

  11. Environmental occurrence and biota concentration of phthalate esters in Epe and Lagos Lagoons, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Adeogun, Aina O; Ibor, Oju R; Omogbemi, Emmanuel D; Chukwuka, Azubuike V; Adegbola, Rachel A; Adewuyi, Gregory A; Arukwe, Augustine

    2015-07-01

    The high global occurrence of phthalates in different environmental matrixes has resulted in the detection of their metabolites in human urine, blood, and breast milk, indicating a widespread human exposure. In addition, the notorious endocrine disrupting effects of phthalates have shown that they mimic or antagonize the action of endogenous hormones, consequently producing adverse effects on reproduction, growth and development. Herein, we have studied the occurrence of phthalate esters (PEs) in water, sediment and biota of two lagoons (Epe and Lagos) in Nigeria. Two fish species (Tilapia guineensis, and Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus) and a crustacean (the African river prawn--Macrobrachium vollenhovenii) were analyzed for PEs levels using a HPLC method and the derived values were used for calculating bioconcentration factor (BCF), biota-sediment accumulation factor (BSAF) and phthalate pollution index (PPI) in the biota and environment. We observed that the growth and health condition of the fish species were normal with a k-factor of >1. Sediment PE levels were compared with water, at both lagoons showing concentration pattern that is characterized as DEHP = DEP > DBP. We observed that DBP was the predominant compound in T. guineensis, C. nigrodigitatus and African prawn, at both lagoons, showing organ-specific differences in bioconcentration (BCF and BSAF) patterns in the fish species. While there were no observed consistency in the pattern of PE concentration in fish organs, elevated DBP levels in different fish organs may be related to fish habitat and degradation level of phthalates. Low concentration of DEHP, compared with DBP and DEP, was measured in fish organs and whole prawn body. The BSAF values for DEHP were lowest, and highest for DBP for all species at both lagoons, and DEHP easily accumulated more in the sediment (sediment PPI = 0.28 and 0.16 for Epe and Lagos lagoon, respectively). Overall, our findings suggest a broader environmental and human

  12. Direct sample introduction gas chromatography and mass spectrometry for the determination of phthalate esters in cleaning products.

    PubMed

    Cacho, J I; Campillo, N; Viñas, P; Hernández-Córdoba, M

    2015-02-01

    A method using direct sample introduction (DSI) coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) is developed for the determination of six phthalate esters (dimethyl, diethyl, dibutyl, butylbenzyl, diethylhexyl and dioctyl phthalate) in cleaning products. The different variables involved in the DSI step, including venting time and temperature, vaporisation time and temperature, injector heating temperature and gas flow rate and pressure, were evaluated and optimised using Taguchi orthogonal arrays. The proposed method, using calibration against methanolic standards, showed good linearity in the 0.05-15 μg g(-1) range and good repeatability, with RSD values ranging from 3.5% to 5.7%. Quantification limits between 0.010 and 0.041 μg g(-1), depending on the compound, were attained, while recovery assays provided values from 83% to 115%. Twenty-seven cleaning products were analysed using the DSI-GC-MS method, being four phthalates (dimethyl, diethyl, dibutyl and diethylhexyl phthalate) found in fourteen of them at concentration levels in the 0.1-21 μg g(-1) range. Compared with the most common GC injection technique, which uses the split/splitless injector, the proposed DSI procedure provided larger peak areas and lower detection limits, as result of the greater injected volume and reduction in noise. PMID:25582486

  13. Presence of phthalate esters in intravenous solution evaluated using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method.

    PubMed

    Strac, Ivona Vidić; Pušić, Maja; Gajski, Goran; Garaj-Vrhovac, Vera

    2013-03-01

    Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is a plasticizer widely used in the production of poly-(vinyl) chloride (PVC) materials. It is a reproductive and developmental toxicant in animals and a suspected endocrine modulator in humans. DEHP is not covalently bound within the PVC molecule, which is why migration into a suitable medium can be expected. Since application of infusion solutions is one of the most common medical treatments, the objective of this study was to determine the migration of phthalates from softened PVC storage bags into infusion solution in different time periods within one year from date of production using a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method. The measured values of DEHP ranged between 0.22 and 14.00 µg l(-1) , but the unexpected presence of other phthalate esters was also detected. It was concluded that values obtained in infusion solutions match the reference data and represent a minor risk for the patient. The presence of other phthalate esters leads to the conclusion that the pharmacopeic requirement for polymer cleanness was not fully met. Since phthalate esters are among the most extensively used industrial chemicals and are widely distributed in the environment, special precautions and further monitoring should be conducted to minimize any possible health risks. PMID:22034089

  14. Didymin reverses phthalate ester-associated breast cancer aggravation in the breast cancer tumor microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    HSU, YA-LING; HSIEH, CHIA-JUNG; TSAI, EING-MEI; HUNG, JEN-YU; CHANG, WEI-AN; HOU, MING-FENG; KUO, PO-LIN

    2016-01-01

    The present study demonstrated two novel findings. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first study to demonstrate that regulated upon activation, normal T-cell expressed and secreted (RANTES), produced by breast tumor-associated monocyte-derived dendritic cells (TADCs) following breast cancer cell exposure to phthalate esters, may contribute to the progression of cancer via enhancement of cancer cell proliferation, migration and invasion. Furthermore, the present study revealed that didymin, a dietary flavonoid glycoside present in citrus fruits, was able to reverse phthalate ester-mediated breast cancer aggravation. MDA-MB-231 cells were treated with butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) or di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP). Subsequently, the conditioned medium (CM) was harvested and cultured with monocyte-derived dendritic cells (mdDCs). Cultures of MDA-MB-231 cells with the conditioned medium of BBP-, DBP- or DEHP-MDA-MB-231 tumor-associated mdDCs (BBP-, DBP- or DEHP-MDA-TADC-CM) demonstrated enhanced proliferation, migration and invasion. Exposure of the MDA-MB-231 cells to DBP induced the MDA-TADCs to produce the inflammatory cytokine RANTES, which subsequently induced MDA-MB-231 cell proliferation, migration and invasion. Depleting RANTES reversed the effects of DBP-MDA-TADC-mediated MDA-MB-231 cell proliferation, migration and invasion. In addition, didymin was observed to suppress phthalate-mediated breast cancer cell proliferation, migration and invasion. The present study suggested that didymin was capable of preventing phthalate ester-associated cancer aggravation. PMID:26893687

  15. Phthalate ester testing in the National Toxicology Program's Environmental Mutagenesis Test Development Program

    PubMed Central

    Zeiger, Errol; Haworth, Stephen; Speck, William; Mortelmans, Kristien

    1982-01-01

    A number of phthalate esters and related chemicals were tested for mutagenicity in Salmonella typhimurium. The chemicals were tested blind in three laboratories by a preincubation modification of the Ames Salmonella/mammalian microsome test using S-9 prepared from Aroclor-induced rats and Syrian hamsters. All chemicals tested were judged to be nonmutagenic. PMID:6754365

  16. AN ASSESSMENT OF PHTHALATE ESTER TOXICITY TO FRESHWATER BENTHOS: 2. SEDIMENT EXPOSURES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Seven phthalate esters were evaluated for their stability and 10-d acute toxicity to the freshwater invertebrates Hyalella azteca and Chironomus tentans following incorporation into sediment. The chemicals were diethyl (DEP), di-n-butyl (DBP), di-n-hyxyl (DHP), di-[2-ethylhexyl] ...

  17. Mechanisms of phthalate ester toxicity in the female reproductive system.

    PubMed Central

    Lovekamp-Swan, Tara; Davis, Barbara J

    2003-01-01

    Phthalates are high-production-volume synthetic chemicals with ubiquitous human exposures because of their use in plastics and other common consumer products. Recent epidemiologic evidence suggests that women have a unique exposure profile to phthalates, which raises concern about the potential health hazards posed by such exposures. Research in our laboratory examines how phthalates interact with the female reproductive system in animal models to provide insights into the potential health effects of these chemicals in women. Here we review our work and the work of others studying these mechanisms and propose a model for the ovarian action of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP). In vivo, DEHP (2 g/kg) causes decreased serum estradiol levels, prolonged estrous cycles, and no ovulations in adult, cycling rats. In vitro, monoethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP; the active metabolite of DEHP) decreases granulosa cell aromatase RNA message and protein levels in a dose-dependent manner. MEHP is unique among the phthalates in its suppression of aromatase and in its ability to activate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs). We hypothesize that MEHP activates the PPARs to suppress aromatase in the granulosa cell. MEHP-, PPAR alpha-, and PPAR gamma-specific ligands all similarly decreased estradiol production and RNA message levels of aromatase in vitro. Our model shows that MEHP acts on the granulosa cell by decreasing cAMP stimulated by follicle stimulating hormone and by activating the PPARs, which leads to decreased aromatase transcription. Thus, the environmental contaminant DEHP, through its metabolite MEHP, acts through a receptor-mediated signaling pathway to suppress estradiol production in the ovary, leading to anovulation. PMID:12573895

  18. Thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method to determine phthalate and organophosphate esters from air samples.

    PubMed

    Aragón, M; Borrull, F; Marcé, R M

    2013-08-16

    A method based on thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (TD-GC-MS) has been developed to determine four organophosphate esters, seven phthalate esters, and bis(2-ethylhexyl) adipate in the gas phase from harbour and urban air samples. The method involves the sampling of 1.5L of air in a Tenax TA sorbent tube followed by thermal desorption (using a Tenax TA cryogenic trap) coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The repeatability of the method expressed as %RSD (n=3) is less than 15% and the MQLs are between 0.007μgm(-3) (DMP, TBP, BBP, TPP and DnOP) and 6.7μgm(-3) (DEHP). The method was successfully applied in two areas (urban and harbour) testing two and three points in each one, respectively. Some of these compounds were found in both urban and harbour samples. Di-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate was the most abundant compound found in both areas at concentration levels between 6.7μgm(-3) and 136.4μgm(-3). This study demonstrates that thermal desorption is an efficient method for the determination of these semi-volatile compounds in the gas phase fraction of air samples. PMID:23859797

  19. Development of natural sorbent based micro-solid-phase extraction for determination of phthalate esters in milk samples.

    PubMed

    Sajid, Muhammad; Basheer, Chanbasha; Alsharaa, Abdulnaser; Narasimhan, Kothandaraman; Buhmeida, Abdelbaset; Al Qahtani, Mohammed; Al-Ahwal, Mahmoud Shaheen

    2016-06-14

    In the present study, a natural sorbent based micro-solid phase extraction (μ-SPE) was developed for determination of phthalate esters in milk samples. For the first time, an efficient and cost effective natural material (seed powder of Moringa oleifera) was employed as sorbent in μ-SPE. The sorbent was found to be naturally enriched with variety of functional groups and having a network of interconnected fibers. This method of extraction integrates different steps such as removal of proteins and fatty stuff, extraction and pre-concentration of target analytes into a single step. Thirteen phthalate esters were selected as target compounds for the development and evaluation of method. Some key parameters affecting the extraction efficiency were optimized, including selection of membrane, selection and amount of sorbent, extraction time, desorption solvent, volume of desorption solvent, desorption time and effect of salt addition. Under the optimum conditions, very good linearity was achieved for all the analytes with coefficient of determinations (R(2)) ranging between 0.9768 and 0.9977. The limits of detection ranged from 0.01 to 1.2 μg L(-1). Proposed method showed satisfactory reproducibility with relative standard deviations ranging from 3.6% to 10.2% (n = 7). Finally, the developed method was applied to tetra pack and bottled milk samples for the determination of phthalate esters. The performance of natural sorbent based μ-SPE was better or comparable to the methods reported in the literature. PMID:27181642

  20. Sugar Ester Compounds for Arthropod Control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugar esters, also known as acyl sugars or polyol esters, are a class of compounds that are internationally recognized as food additives. They are commonly used in bakery goods, drugs, cosmetics, food packaging plastics, and in other applications because of their surfactant and emulsifying properti...

  1. Organophosphate and phthalate esters in settled dust from apartment buildings in Stockholm.

    PubMed

    Luongo, G; Östman, C

    2016-06-01

    In this study, the occurrence of nine phthalate diesters (phthalates) and 14 organophosphorus flame retardants (PFRs) was investigated in 62 house dust samples collected from 19 buildings in Stockholm area during the year 2008. Eight phthalates were detected in almost all samples, with median concentrations ranging from 0.47 μg/g to 449 μg/g with di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate being the most abundant compound. Twelve PFRs were detected with median concentrations ranging from 0.19 μg/g to 11 μg/g. Within this class of compounds, the most abundant were tris(2-chloroisopropyl) and tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate. Both classes of compounds were also measured in the air of the apartments, but no correlation between air and dust concentrations could be found. Based on these measurements, exposure, via house dust ingestion and air inhalation, was calculated for adults and toddlers, and compared to published limit values in order to estimate potential health risks. In an extreme exposure scenario for toddlers, di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate, tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate, and tributyl phosphate were close to the reference dose for chronic oral exposure or the tolerable daily intake. Standard Reference Material SRM 2585 was used as a quality control sample, and the levels of diisononyl and diisodecyl phthalates were determined in this material. PMID:25929991

  2. Preliminary toxicological assessment of phthalate esters from drinking water consumed in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Santana, José; Giraudi, Clara; Marengo, Emílio; Robotti, Elisa; Pires, Sara; Nunes, Inês; Gaspar, Elvira M

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports, for the first time, the concentrations of selected phthalates in drinking water consumed in Portugal. The use of bottled water in Portugal has increased in recent years. The main material for bottles is polyethylene terephthalate (PET). Its plasticizer components can contaminate water by leaching, and several scientific studies have evidenced potential health risks of phthalates to humans of all ages. With water being one of the most essential elements to human health and because it is consumed by ingestion, the evaluation of drinking water quality, with respect to phthalate contents, is important. This study tested seven commercial brands of bottled water consumed in Portugal, six PET and one glass (the most consumed) bottled water. Furthermore, tap water from Lisbon and three small neighbor cities was analyzed. Phthalates (di-n-butyl phthalate ester (DnBP), bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate ester (DEHP), and di-i-butyl phthalate ester (DIBP)) in water samples were quantified (PET and glass) by means of direct immersion solid-phase microextraction and ionic liquid gas chromatography associated with flame ionization detection or mass spectrometry due to their high boiling points and water solubility. The method utilized in this study showed a linear range for target phthalates between 0.02 and 6.5 μg L(-1), good precision and low limits of detection that were between 0.01 and 0.06 μg L(-1), and quantitation between 0.04 and 0.19 μg L(-1). Only three phthalates were detected in Portuguese drinking waters: dibutyl (DnBP), diisobutyl (DIBP), and di(ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP). Concentrations ranged between 0.06 and 6.5 μg L(-1) for DnBP, between 0.02 and 0.16 μg L(-1) for DEHP, and between 0.1 and 1.89 μg L(-1) for DIBP. The concentration of DEHP was found to be up to five times higher in PET than in glass bottled water. Surprisingly, all the three phthalates were detected in glass bottled water with the amount of DnBP being higher (6

  3. Fabrication of magnetic microsphere-confined graphene for the preconcentration of some phthalate esters from environmental water and soybean milk samples followed by their determination by HPLC.

    PubMed

    Wang, Weina; Ma, Ruiyang; Wu, Qiuhua; Wang, Chun; Wang, Zhi

    2013-05-15

    In this study, a magnetic microsphere-confined graphene (Fe3O4@SiO2-G) was prepared as a novel adsorbent for the preconcentration of some phthalate esters in environmental water and soybean milk samples prior to high performance liquid chromatography analysis. The properties and morphology of the Fe3O4@SiO2-G were characterized by transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. This novel graphene-based magnetic nanocomposite showed great adsorptive ability toward the analytes. The method, which takes the advantages of both the high adsorption capacity of G and easy phase separation of the magnetic adsorbent from the sample solution, could avoid the time-consuming experimental procedures related to the traditional solid phase extraction. Various experimental parameters that could affect the extraction efficiencies, such as the amount of Fe3O4@SiO2-G, the extraction time, the pH of sample solution and the desorption conditions, were investigated. Under the optimum conditions, the limits of detection (S/N=3) of the method for the compounds were between 0.07 and 0.10 ng mL(-1) in water samples, and between 0.15 and 0.30 ng mL(-1) in soybean milk samples. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) varied from 2.7% to 6.1% (n=5). The recoveries of the method were in the range between 87.2% and 109.0% for environmental water and soybean milk samples. The method is suitable to determine the five phthalate esters (diallyl phthalate, di-n-propyl-phthalate, benzyl butyl phthalate, dicyclohexyl-phthalate and diethyl-hexyl-phthalate) in environmental water and soybean milk samples. PMID:23618150

  4. Occurrence and Removal Characteristics of Phthalate Esters from Typical Water Sources in Northeast China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yu; Chen, Zhonglin; Shen, Jimin

    2013-01-01

    The presence of phthalate esters (PAEs) in the environment has gained a considerable attention due to their potential impacts on public health. This study reports the first data on the occurrence of 15 PAEs in the water near the Mopanshan Reservoir—the new and important water source of Harbin city in Northeast China. As drinking water is a major source for human exposure to PAEs, the fate of target PAEs in the two waterworks (Mopanshan Waterworks and Seven Waterworks) was also analyzed. The results demonstrated that the total concentrations of 15 PAEs in the water near the Mopanshan Reservoir were relatively moderate, ranging from 355.8 to 9226.5 ng/L, with the mean value of 2943.1 ng/L. DBP and DEHP dominated the PAE concentrations, which ranged from 52.5 to 4498.2 ng/L and 128.9 to 6570.9 ng/L, respectively. The occurrence and concentrations of these compounds were heavily spatially dependent. Meanwhile, the results on the waterworks samples suggested no significant differences in PAE levels with the input of the raw waters. Without effective and stable removal of PAEs after the conventional drinking water treatment in the waterworks (25.8% to 76.5%), the risks posed by PAEs through drinking water ingestion were still existing, which should be paid special attention to the source control in the Mopanshan Reservoir and some advanced treatment processes for drinking water supplies. PMID:23577281

  5. Disruption of Retinol (Vitamin A) Signaling by Phthalate Esters: SAR and Mechanism Studies

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yanling; Reese, David H.

    2016-01-01

    A spectrum of reproductive system anomalies (cryptorchidism, hypospadias, dysgenesis of Wolffian duct-derived tissues and prostate, and reduced sperm production) in male rats exposed in utero to phthalate esters (PEs) are thought to be caused by PE inhibition of fetal testosterone production. Recently, dibutyl and dipentyl phthalate (DBuP, DPnP) were shown to disrupt the retinol signaling pathway (RSP) in mouse pluripotent P19 embryonal carcinoma cells in vitro. The RSP regulates the synthesis and cellular levels of retinoic acid (RA), the active metabolite of retinol (vitamin A). In this new study, a total of 26 di- and mono-esters were screened to identify additional phthalate structures that disrupt the RSP and explore their mechanisms of action. The most potent PEs, those causing > 50% inhibition, contained aryl and cycloalkane groups or C4-C6 alkyl ester chains and were the same PEs reported to cause malformations in utero. They shared similar lipid solubility; logP values were between 4 and 6 and, except for PEs with butyl and phenyl groups, were stable for prolonged periods in culture. Mono- and cognate di-esters varied in ability to disrupt the RSP; e.g., DEHP was inactive but its monoester was active while DBuP was active yet its monoester was inactive. DBuP and dibenzyl phthalate both disrupted the synthesis of RA from retinol but not the ability of RA to activate gene transcription. Both PEs also disrupted the RSP in C3H10T1/2 multipotent mesenchymal stem cells. Based on this in vitro study showing that some PEs disrupt retinol signaling and previous in vivo studies that vitamin A/RA deficiency and PEs both cause strikingly similar anomalies in the male rat reproductive system, we propose that PE-mediated inhibition of testosterone and RA synthesis in utero are both causes of malformations in male rat offspring. PMID:27532513

  6. Disruption of Retinol (Vitamin A) Signaling by Phthalate Esters: SAR and Mechanism Studies.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yanling; Reese, David H

    2016-01-01

    A spectrum of reproductive system anomalies (cryptorchidism, hypospadias, dysgenesis of Wolffian duct-derived tissues and prostate, and reduced sperm production) in male rats exposed in utero to phthalate esters (PEs) are thought to be caused by PE inhibition of fetal testosterone production. Recently, dibutyl and dipentyl phthalate (DBuP, DPnP) were shown to disrupt the retinol signaling pathway (RSP) in mouse pluripotent P19 embryonal carcinoma cells in vitro. The RSP regulates the synthesis and cellular levels of retinoic acid (RA), the active metabolite of retinol (vitamin A). In this new study, a total of 26 di- and mono-esters were screened to identify additional phthalate structures that disrupt the RSP and explore their mechanisms of action. The most potent PEs, those causing > 50% inhibition, contained aryl and cycloalkane groups or C4-C6 alkyl ester chains and were the same PEs reported to cause malformations in utero. They shared similar lipid solubility; logP values were between 4 and 6 and, except for PEs with butyl and phenyl groups, were stable for prolonged periods in culture. Mono- and cognate di-esters varied in ability to disrupt the RSP; e.g., DEHP was inactive but its monoester was active while DBuP was active yet its monoester was inactive. DBuP and dibenzyl phthalate both disrupted the synthesis of RA from retinol but not the ability of RA to activate gene transcription. Both PEs also disrupted the RSP in C3H10T1/2 multipotent mesenchymal stem cells. Based on this in vitro study showing that some PEs disrupt retinol signaling and previous in vivo studies that vitamin A/RA deficiency and PEs both cause strikingly similar anomalies in the male rat reproductive system, we propose that PE-mediated inhibition of testosterone and RA synthesis in utero are both causes of malformations in male rat offspring. PMID:27532513

  7. Information profiles on potential occupational hazards: Phthalates. Draft report (Second)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-03-01

    Information profiles are presented for these phthalates: butyl benzyl phthalate, diallyl phthalate, di-n-butyl phthalate, di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate, diethyl phthalate, diisodecyl phthalate, diisononyl phthalate, dimethyl phthalate, ditridecyl phthalate, diundecyl phthalate, N-dexy-N-decyl phthalate and mixed dialkyl (C7 to C11) phthalates. In general, the phthalates had a low order of acute toxicity. Histological damage to the lungs, liver, and kidneys was associated with acute oral and/or intraperitoneal exposures to some of the compounds. Others have caused slight skin and eye irritation. Repeated oral exposure to many of the esters resulted in liver and/or kidney damage. Ingestion of di-n-butyl phthalate in humans caused nausea, dizziness, photophobia, lacrimation and conjunctivitis. Patients receiving blood stored in polyvinvyl chloride bags that contained residual di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate suffered a respiratory distress syndrome called shock lung. Neurological effects have been reported in workers exposed to a mixture of phthalate esters in production vapors. Epidemiological studies of di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate showed no adverse health effects.

  8. Distribution of phthalate esters in urban soils of subtropical city, Guangzhou, China.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Feng; Cui, Kunyan; Xie, Zhiyong; Wu, Lina; Luo, Danling; Chen, Lixuan; Lin, Yujun; Liu, Min; Sun, Gouxuan

    2009-05-30

    Surface soils from 37 sampling sites including roadsides (RS), parks (PA) and residential areas (RE) of the Subtropical City, Guangzhou, were collected in December of 2005 and analyzed for 16 phthalate esters (PAEs). PAEs were detected in all surface soils analyzed, which indicate that PAEs are ubiquitous environmental contaminants. The summation operator(16)PAEs concentrations ranged from 1.67 to 322 microg g(-1)-dry weight (dw), with the median concentration of 17.7 microg g(-1)-dw, mainly originating from municipal solid waste leachate, discarded plastic effusion, municipal sewage and atmospheric depositions. Concentrations of PAEs were poorly correlated with soil organic carbon content, suggesting mixing process between local and on-going sources. Of the 16 PAEs, diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP) and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) dominated the PAEs, with the median concentrations of 1.63 microg g(-1)-dw, 1.80 microg g(-1)-dw and 14.8 microg g(-1)-dw, respectively, and accounted for 74.2-99.8% of the summation operator(16)PAEs concentrations. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was applied to the distribution patterns of PAEs in the urban soils. Significant correlations existed among DiBP, DnBP, and DEHP, and between dimethyl phthalate (DMP) and diethyl phthalate (DEP). No significant differences of PAE congeneric profiles were observed between this and studies conducted elsewhere, which is consistent with the application of similar commercial PAEs around the world. As compared to the results from other studies, the urban soils of Guangzhou city were severely contaminated with PAEs. The environmental and human health risks posed by PAEs in the urban soils of Guangzhou city may deserve further attention. PMID:18963455

  9. Study on the Mechanism of Interaction between Phthalate Acid Esters and Bovine Hemoglobin.

    PubMed

    Chi, Zhenxing; Zhao, Jing; You, Hong; Wang, Mingjing

    2016-08-01

    Phthalate acid esters (PAEs) are widely used in plastic products as a series of chemical softeners. However, PAEs, which now exist in many environmental media such as the atmosphere, water, and soil, have been shown to be environmental endocrine disruptors. Hemoglobin is a functional protein that carries oxygen in the red blood cells of animals. This study aims at revealing the interactions between bovine hemoglobin (BHb) and PAEs using spectroscopic and molecular modeling methods. The results indicate that the selected representative PAEs-dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), and dibutyl phthalate (DBP)-can interact with BHb to form BHb-PAE complexes with one binding site, mainly relying on hydrophobic forces, with the affinity order DMP > DEP > DBP, opposite to the order of side-chain length. The binding of PAEs can cause conformational and micro-environmental changes in BHb, which may affect the physiological functions of Hb. Furthermore, molecular docking was applied to define the specific binding sites, the results of which show that all the three PAEs can bind into the central cavity of BHb. The study contributes to expound the toxic mechanism of PAEs in vivo from the point of hematological toxicology. PMID:27379662

  10. Simulated sunlight photodegradation of aqueous phthalate esters catalyzed by the polyoxotungstate/titania nanocomposite.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lei; Yang, Xia; Guo, Yihang; Ma, Fengyan; Guo, Yingna; Yuan, Xing; Huo, Mingxin

    2010-06-15

    A series of porous polyoxotungstate/titania nanocomposites (PW(12)/TiO(2)) with particle size lower than 10nm and BET surface area of ca. 200 m(2)g(-1) was prepared by sol-gel chemistry combined with solvothermal treatment. The composites were successfully applied to the degradation of aqueous phthalate esters (PAEs) including di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), and dimethyl phthalate (DMP) under the simulated sunlight irradiation (lambda=320-680 nm) for the first time, and the conversion of DBP, DEP, and DMP reached to 98%, 84%, and 80%, respectively, after the simulated sunlight irradiation the suspension including PAE (5 mg L(-1), 100 mL) and PW(12)/TiO(2)-19.8 (100 mg) for 90 min. In addition, nearly total mineralization of DBP and DEP was realized by further increasing light irradiation time to 12h. Based on the intermediates identified in the reaction system, the photocatalytic degradation pathway of PAEs was put forward. PMID:20236760

  11. Removal of phthalate esters from water using immobilized lipase on chitosan beads.

    PubMed

    Dulazi, Ashura A; Liu, Hui

    2011-10-01

    Lipase immobilized on chitosan beads was investigated as a possible efficient and cost-effective method of removing phthalate esters (PAEs) from water, under the hypothesis that the immobilized lipase could degrade PAEs and the amino group of chitosan could adsorb the degraded products. Three immobilization methods, namely crosslinking using glutaraldehyde (GLA), activation with 1-ethyl-3(3-dimethyl-aminopropyl) carbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC) and a binary method using both GLA and EDC, were compared. The results showed that lipase immobilized by crosslinking with GLA exhibited a higher degradation ability for PAEs with lower molecular weights. It removed 100% of dimethyl phthalate and 93.86% of diethyl phthalate. On the other hand, lipase immobilized by EDC activation exhibited efficient degradation of PAEs with higher molecular weights, such as diethylhexyl phthalate (removal efficiency 100%). However, lipase immobilized by the binary method unexpectedly showed less than 50% removal efficiency for all five PAEs. The PAE solutions treated with different immobilized lipases were characterized using high-performance liquid chromatography, and the mechanism of the removal of PAEs by the lipase immobilized on chitosan beads using different methods is further discussed. PMID:22329134

  12. A review of quantitative structure activity relationships (QSARs) for assessing the ecotoxicity of phthalate esters

    SciTech Connect

    Parkerton, T.F.

    1995-12-31

    Dialkyl phthalate esters represent an important class of high production volume, industrial chemicals spanning a wide range of chemical properties. Over the last two decades, numerous studies have been conducted to characterize the ecotoxicity of phthalate esters. The purpose of this presentation is to provide a synthesis of the available ecotoxicity literature using a QSAR paradigm. Results from this analysis provide several important insights. First, a mechanistic explanation is provided to account for the general lack of ecotoxicity observed for higher molecular weight phthalates possessing alkyl chains of six or more carbons. Second, studies that appear as outliers are identified due to either experimental artifacts (e.g., physical effects on daphnids due to testing at concentrations exceeding water solubility) or questionable experimental methods (e.g., toxicity tests based on nominal concentrations). Lastly, differences in ecotoxicity between species appear to be due, in part, to differences in test organisms biotransformation capacities. The utility of adopting a QSAR-based approach for risk assessment will be discussed.

  13. Assessing human exposure to phthalic acid and phthalate esters from mineral water stored in polyethylene terephthalate and glass bottles.

    PubMed

    Montuori, P; Jover, E; Morgantini, M; Bayona, J M; Triassi, M

    2008-04-01

    Phthalic acid and phthalate esters are of growing interest due to their significant usage and potential toxicity. Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and glass are both widely used materials for bottled drinking water. In this study, phthalic acid (PhA), bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), diisobutyl phthalate (DiisoBP) and dibutyl phthalate (DBP) were analysed in a large number of Italian bottled water samples. These samples showed different concentrations of phthalates are nearly 20 times higher in samples bottled in PET than those from glass bottles with total levels of phthalates of 3.52 and 0.19 microg l(-1), respectively. However, the observed levels do not represent a significant exposure pathway when considering the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) reference dose (an estimate of a daily oral exposure to the human population, including sensitive subgroups, that is likely to be without an appreciable risk of deleterious effects during a lifetime). In addition, no significant correlation was found between the phthalate concentrations and the physicochemical properties of the different water samples, apart from the still/sparkling water parameter for the PET samples. In this instance, slightly higher concentrations were observed for the PET bottled still water samples than for the sparkling water samples, although no explanation has been found yet. PMID:18348049

  14. Application of modified attapulgite in phthalate acid ester-contaminated soil: Effects on phthalate acid ester dissipation and the composition of soil microbial community.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jun; Shi, Yi-Ying; Zhou, Hai-Feng; Ren, Xu-Qin; Ji, Huai

    2016-08-01

    The effects of modified attapulgite (MA) on the dissipations of the plasticizers di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) and di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) in soil, as well as on the composition of soil microbial community, were studied. DBP, DEHP (50 mg kg(-1) in soil, respectively), and MA (1, 5, and 10 % in soil) were mixed thoroughly with soil and incubated for 60 days. DBP- and DEHP-contaminated soils without MA were used as the controls. Both of DBP and DEHP residues in bulk soils and four soil fractions were measured at five incubation times 1, 7, 15, 30, and 60 days, and their dissipation kinetic equations were analyzed. The microbial phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) concentrations were also measured at the end of experiment. Our results showed that the effect of modified attapulgite on DBP dissipation was related to its dosage in soil. The DEHP dissipation was both inhibited by MA at the 5 and 10 % rates in soils. The application of MA changed the content percentages but did not change the concentration order of phthalate acid esters (PAEs) in soil particle-size fractions. The total microbial PLFA content was significantly increased by 5 and 10 % MA in the contaminated soils. Meanwhile, the gram-negative (GN)/gram-positive (GP) ratios increased when MA was applied at the dosages of 5 and 10 % in DBP and 10 % in DEHP-contaminated soils. Principal component analysis (PCA) indicated that the change of bacteria PLFA, especially the GN bacterial PLFA, depended on the dosages of MA added into soil. The application of MA into soil has a positive effect on reducing the eco-toxicity of PAEs in soil based on the analysis of the soil microbial PLFA. PMID:27094276

  15. Role of dissolved humic substances surrogates on phthalate esters migration from sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Z; He, P J; Zhang, H; Shao, L M

    2008-01-01

    The facilitated transport of dibutyl phthalate (DBP) and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), the priority endocrine disrupting chemicals in sludge, by dissolved humic substances (HS) was evaluated by batch extraction. The DBP, much less hydrophobic than DEHP, was inclined to migrate from sludge matrix into humic substances solutions, while the DEHP could not migrate facilitated by most humic and fulvic acids solutions, except the humic acid surrogate of high humification. This result revealed that the affinity of DEHP in sludge matrix exceeded DBP and was not susceptible by weak HS. The hydrophobic property controlled the association of phthalic acid esters on sludge residual phases. Migration rate of DBP was positively correlated to the weight-average molecular weight of HS surrogates and the aromatic extents of HA. Some functional groups in HS molecules benefited to the facilitated transport of DBP. PMID:18360003

  16. An assessment of the levels of phthalate esters and metals in the Muledane open dump, Thohoyandou, Limpopo Province, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Adeniyi, Adeleke; Dayomi, Matthew; Siebe, Pitso; Okedeyi, Olumuyiwa

    2008-01-01

    Background This work reports the determination of the levels of phthalate esters (dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), diethyl hexyl phthalate (DEHP)) and metals (lead, cadmium, manganese, zinc, iron, calcium) in composite soil samples. The soil samples were collected randomly within the Muledane open dump, Thohoyandou, Limpopo province, South Africa. Control samples were collected about 200 m away from the open dump. The phthalate esters were separated and determined by capillary gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector, whilst the metals were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Results Open dump values for the phthalate esters and metals to be generally higher in comparison to control samples for DMP, DEP, DBP and DEHP – the mean values calculated were 0.31 ± 0.12, 0.21 ± 0.05, 0.30 ± 0.07, and 0.03 ± 0.01 mg/kg, respectively, for the open dump soil samples. Nonetheless, the mean open dump values for lead, cadmium, manganese, zinc, iron and calcium were 0.07 ± 0.04, 0.003 ± 0.001, 5.02 ± 1.92, 0.31 ± 0.02, 11.62 ± 9.48 and 0.12 ± 0.13 mg/kg, respectively. The results were compared statistically. Conclusion Our results revealed that the discarding of wastes into the open dump is a potential source of soil contamination in the immediate vicinity and beyond, via dispersal. Increased levels of phthalate esters and metals in the soil pose a risk to public health, plants and animals. Sustained monitoring of these contaminants is recommended, in addition to upgrading the facility to a landfill. PMID:18474112

  17. Octanol/water partition coefficients of phthalate esters: A comparison of measured, estimated, and computed values

    SciTech Connect

    Ellington, J.; Floyd, T.

    1995-12-31

    Reliable octanol/water partition coefficients (K{sub ow}) of nine dialkyl phthalate esters are needed in an ongoing benthic organisms toxicity testing program. The equilibrium distribution of an organic chemical between water and octanol (K{sub ow}) is a physical constant that can be used to calculate both bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) and equilibrium constants for sediment-organic carbon partitioning (K{sub oc}). The log K{sub ow}s reported in the literature for a single chemical often span several orders of magnitude. For example, the reported log K{sub ow}s of bis(2-ethylehxyl) phthalate range from a low of 5.11 to a high of 9.61. The log K{sub ow}s of the dialkyl phthalate esters in this study were expected to range from < 2 (dimethyl) to > 8 (didecyl). The slow-stir method as described by de Bruijn has been shown to avoid emulsion formation and allow measure of K{sub ow}s of chemicals with log K{sub ow} > 6. In addition to measurement by the slow-stir method the K{sub ow}s were also determined by a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) estimation method and calculated by a computer based program that was designed to calculate physical/chemical properties (SPARC). The greatest difference between the slow-stir and SPARC K{sub ow} values was 0.19 with the other differences less than 0.1 log units. All the HPLC estimated values were at least 0.7 log units lower than the slow-stir value. For example, the log K{sub ow}s determined for dibutly phthalate by the slow-stir, SPARC, and HPLC methods were 4.50 {+-} 0.03, 4.61, and 4.00, respectively.

  18. Synthesis of bioreductive esters from fungal compounds.

    PubMed

    Weerapreeyakul, Natthida; Anorach, Rutchayaporn; Khuansawad, Thidarut; Yenjai, Chavi; Isaka, Masahiko

    2007-06-01

    Four new bioreductive esters (7-10) have been synthesized. Their structures composed of trimethyl lock containing quinone propionic acid with an ester linkage to the fungal cytotoxic compounds; preussomerin G (1), preussomerin I (2), phaseolinone (3) and phomenone (4). The synthesized esters are aimed to act via reductive activation specifically at the cancer cells, resulting from hypoxia and overexpression of reductases. Hence, the toxicity will be lessened during distribution across the normal cells. The anticancer activity was determined in cancer cell lines with reported reductase i.e., BC-1 cells and NCI-H187 as well as in non-reductase containing cancer cells; KB cells. When considering each cell lines, result showed that structure modification giving to 7-10 led to less cytotoxicity than their parent compounds (1-4). Both 7 and 8 were strongly cytotoxic (IC50 < or = 5 microg/ml) to NCI-H187, whereas 9 and 10 were moderately cytotoxic (IC50 = 6-10 microg/ml) to BC-1 cells. Additional study of stability of represented phenolic ester (8) and an alcoholic ester (9) were performed. Result illustrated that both 8 and 9 were stable in the presence of esterase. Therefore, the cytotoxicity of the synthesized compounds (8-10) might be due to partial bioreductive activation in the cancer cells. PMID:17541198

  19. [Sample pretreatment for the measurement of phthalate esters in complex matrices].

    PubMed

    Liang, Jing; Zhuang, Wan'e; Lin, Fang; Yao, Wensong

    2014-11-01

    Sample pretreatment methods for the measurement of phthalate esters (PAEs) by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in various complex matrices, including sediment, soil, suspended particle matter, urban surface dust, Sinonovacula Constricta, cosmet- ic, leather, plastic and coastal/estuarine seawater, were proposed. The pretreatment which was appropriate for GC-MS detection was focused on the investigation and optimization of oper- ating parameters for the extraction and purification, such as the extraction solvent, the eluant and the adsorbent of solid phase extraction. The results of the study of pretreatment for various complex matrices showed that methylene chloride was the best solvent for the ultrasonic extraction when solid-liquid extraction was used; silica gel was the economical and practical adsorbent for solid-phase extraction for purification; C18 was the most commonly adsorbent for preconcentration of PAE in coastal/estuarine seawater sample; the mixed solution of n-hexane and ethyl acetate with a certain proportion was the suitable SPE eluent. Under the optimized conditions, the spiked recoveries were above 58% and the relative standard deviations (RSDs) were less than 10.5% (n = 6). The detection limits (DL, 3σ) were in the range of 0.3 μg/kg (dibutyl phthalate)--5.2 μg/kg ( diisononyl phthalate) for sediment, and 6 ng/L (dipropyl phthalate)--67 ng/L (diisodecyl phthalate) for costal/estuarine seawater. The pretreatment meth- od for various complex matrices is prominent for the measurement of the 16 PAEs with GC-MS. PMID:25764660

  20. Health risk assessment of phthalate esters (PAEs) in drinking water sources of China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wen-Long; Wu, Qian-Yuan; Wang, Chao; He, Tao; Hu, Hong-Ying

    2015-03-01

    Phthalate esters (PAEs) with endocrine disruption effects and carcinogenicity are widely detected in water environment. Occurrences of PAEs in source water and removal efficiencies of PAEs by drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) in China were surveyed from publications in the last 10 years. Concentration of diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) in source water with median value of 1.3 μg/L was higher than that of dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), and di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP). If the removal efficiencies of DEHP and DnBP reached 60 and 90 %, respectively, the calculated PAE concentration in drinking water can generally meet Standards for Drinking Water Quality in China. The health risks of PAEs, including non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks via the "water source-DWTP-oral ingestion/dermal permeation" pathway, were evaluated with Monte Carlo simulation and sensitivity analysis under certain removal efficiencies from 0 to 95 %. The carcinogenic risk of DEHP was lower than the upper acceptable carcinogenic risk level (10(-4)), while the probability of DEHP's carcinogenic risk between lower (10(-6)) and upper (10(-4)) acceptable carcinogenic risk level decreased from about 21.2 to 0.4 % through increasing DEHP removal efficiency from 0 to 95 %. The non-carcinogenic risk of DEHP was higher than that of DEP and DnBP. In all cases, the total non-carcinogenic risk of DEP, DnBP, and DEHP was lower than 1, indicating that there would be unlikely incremental non-carcinogenic risk to humans. Both carcinogenic risk and non-carcinogenic risk of PAEs in drinking water to female were a little higher than those to male. PMID:25253058

  1. High-performance liquid chromatography separation of phthalate acid esters with a MIL-53(Al)-packed column.

    PubMed

    Shu, Lun; Chen, Sha; Zhao, Wei-Wei; Bai, Yan; Ma, Xing-Chen; Li, Xiao-Xin; Li, Jian-Rong; Somsundaran, P

    2016-08-01

    In this study, a MIL-53(Al)-packed column was successfully prepared and firstly applied to separate phthalate acid esters (butyl benzyl phthalate, di-n-butyl phthalate, diethyl phthalate, bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, and dimethyl phthalate). Their baseline separation could be achieved within 12 min with a mobile phase of methanol/H2 O ratio at 92:8, and the temperature and flow rate was 40°C and 0.6 mL/min, respectively. The stacking effect and electrostatic force were the key factors in the separation. Moreover, there was a substantial linear relation between the peak height, peak area, and the analyte mass, and the relative standard deviations of retention time, peak height, peak area, and half peak width for five replicate separations of the analytes were within the ranges 0.31-0.88%, 0.72-1.52%, 1.33-1.53%, and 0.46-0.95%, respectively. The results of the calculation of the thermodynamics parameters showed that the separation of phthalate acid esters was controlled by both enthalpy change (ΔH) and entropy change (ΔS). PMID:27357380

  2. Human exposure, hazard and risk of alternative plasticizers to phthalate esters.

    PubMed

    Bui, Thuy T; Giovanoulis, Georgios; Cousins, Anna Palm; Magnér, Jörgen; Cousins, Ian T; de Wit, Cynthia A

    2016-01-15

    Alternative plasticizers to phthalate esters have been used for over a decade, but data regarding emissions, human exposure and health effects are limited. Here we review 20 alternative plasticizers in current use and their human exposure, hazard and risk. Physicochemical properties are collated for these diverse alternatives and log KOW values range over 15 orders of magnitude and log KAW and log KOA values over about 9 orders of magnitude. Most substances are hydrophobic with low volatility and are produced in high volumes for use in multiple applications. There is an increasing trend in the total use of alternative plasticizers in Sweden compared to common phthalate esters in the last 10 years, especially for DINCH. Evaluative indoor fate modeling reveals that most alternatives are distributed to vertical surfaces (e.g. walls or ceilings). Only TXIB and GTA are predicted to be predominantly distributed to indoor air. Human exposure data are lacking and clear evidence for human exposure only exists for DEHT and DINCH, which show increasing trends in body burdens. Human intake rates are collected and compared with limit values with resulting risk ratios below 1 except for infant's exposure to ESBO. PBT properties of the alternatives indicate mostly no reasons for concern, except that TEHPA is estimated to be persistent and TCP toxic. A caveat is that non-standard toxicological endpoint results are not available and, similar to phthalate esters, the alternatives are likely "pseudo-persistent". Key data gaps for more comprehensive risk assessment are identified and include: analytical methods to measure metabolites in biological fluids and tissues, toxicological information regarding non-standard endpoints such as endocrine disruption and a further refined exposure assessment in order to consider high risk groups such as infants, toddlers and children. PMID:26410720

  3. Phthalate esters affect maturation and function of primate testis tissue ectopically grafted in mice

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Sosa, Jose R; Bondareva, Alla; Tang, Lin; Avelar, Gleide F.; Coyle, Krysta M.; Modelski, Mark; Alpaugh, Whitney; Conley, Alan; Wynne-Edwards, Katherine; França, Luiz R; Meyers, Stuart; Dobrinski, Ina

    2014-01-01

    Di-n-Butyl (DBP) and Di-(2-EthylHexyl) (DEHP) phthalates can leach from daily-use products resulting in environmental exposure. In male rodents, phthalate exposure results in reproductive effects. To evaluate effects on the immature primate testis, testis fragments from 6-month-old rhesus macaques were grafted subcutaneously to immune-deficient mice, which were exposed to 0, 10, or 500 mg/kg of DBP or DEHP for 14 weeks or 28 weeks (DBP only). DBP exposure reduced the expression of key steroidogenic genes, indicating that Leydig cell function was compromised. Exposure to 500 mg/kg impaired tubule formation and germ cell differentiation and reduced numbers of spermatogonia. Exposure to 10 mg/kg did not affect development, but reduced Sertoli cell number and resulted in increased expression of inhibin B. Exposure to DEHP for 14 week also affected steroidogenic genes expression. Therefore, long-term exposure to phthalate esters affected development and function of the primate testis in a time and dosage dependent manner. PMID:25450860

  4. Determination of phthalate esters from environmental water samples by micro-solid-phase extraction using TiO2 nanotube arrays before high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qingxiang; Fang, Zhi; Liao, Xiangkun

    2015-07-01

    We describe a highly sensitive micro-solid-phase extraction method for the pre-concentration of six phthalate esters utilizing a TiO2 nanotube array coupled to high-performance liquid chromatography with a variable-wavelength ultraviolet visible detector. The selected phthalate esters included dimethyl phthalate, diethyl phthalate, dibutyl phthalate, butyl benzyl phthalate, bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate and dioctyl phthalate. The factors that would affect the enrichment, such as desorption solvent, sample pH, salting-out effect, extraction time and desorption time, were optimized. Under the optimum conditions, the linear range of the proposed method was 0.3-200 μg/L. The limits of detection were 0.04-0.2 μg/L (S/N = 3). The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of six phthalate esters in water samples and satisfied spiked recoveries were achieved. These results indicated that the proposed method was appropriate for the determination of trace phthalate esters in environmental water samples. PMID:25944027

  5. Results of the L5178Y mouse lymphoma assay and the Balb/3t3 cell in vitro transformation assay for eight phthalate esters.

    PubMed

    Barber, E D; Cifone, M; Rundell, J; Przygoda, R; Astill, B D; Moran, E; Mulholland, A; Robinson, E; Schneider, B

    2000-01-01

    Eight phthalate esters, with alcohol chain lengths of 1-11 carbon atoms and with various degrees of branching, were tested in vitro in the L5178Y mouse lymphoma mammalian cell mutation assay and in the Balb/3T3 cell transformation assay. The tests were performed as part of a voluntary testing agreement between the Chemical Manufacturers Association's Phthalate Esters Panel and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA). The esters tested were: dimethyl phthalate (DMP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP), di-¿n-hexyl, n-octyl, n-decyl¿ phthalate (610P), di-isononyl phthalate (DINP), di-¿heptyl, nonyl, undecyl¿ phthalate (711P), di-isodecyl phthalate (DIDP) and di-undecyl phthalate (DUP). Both DMP and DBP were found to produce significant increases in the mutant frequency in the mouse lymphoma assay in the presence but not in the absence of an Aroclor-induced rat liver activation system (S-9). Ester 610P gave equivocal results in the mouse lymphoma assay in the presence and absence of rat liver S-9. There was no indication of mutagenic potential for any of the other test materials in the mouse lymphoma assay, and none of the test materials increased transformation frequency in the Balb/3T3 cell transformation assay. Aldehyde metabolites of the de-esterified alcohols are postulated to play a role in the positive results for DMP and DBP. PMID:10641018

  6. A porous carbon derived from amino-functionalized material of Institut Lavoisier as a solid-phase microextraction fiber coating for the extraction of phthalate esters from tea.

    PubMed

    Liang, Weiqian; Wang, Juntao; Zang, Xiaohuan; Wang, Chun; Wang, Zhi

    2016-04-01

    In this work, a porous carbon derived from amino-functionalized material of Institut Lavoisier (C-NH2 -MIL-125) was prepared and coated onto a stainless-steel wire through sol-gel technique. The coated fiber was used for the solid-phase microextraction of trace levels of phthalate esters (diallyl phthalate, di-iso-butyl ortho-phthalate, di-n-butyl ortho-phthalate, benzyl-n-butyl ortho-phthalate, and bis(2-ethylhexy) ortho-phthalate) from tea beverage samples before gas chromatography with mass spectrometric analysis. Several experimental parameters that could influence the extraction efficiency such as extraction time, extraction temperature, sample pH, sample salinity, stirring rate, desorption temperature and desorption time, were investigated. Under the optimal conditions, the linearity existed in the range of 0.05-30.00 μg/L for green jasmine tea beverage samples, and 0.10-30.00 μg/L for honey jasmine tea beverage samples, with the correlation coefficients (r) ranging from 0.9939 to 0.9981. The limits of detection of the analytes for the method were 2.0-3.0 ng/L for green jasmine tea beverage sample, and 4.0-5.0 ng/L for honey jasmine tea beverage sample, depending on the compounds. The recoveries of the analytes for the spiked samples were in the range of 82.0-106.0%, and the precision, expressed as the relative standard deviations, was less than 11.1%. PMID:26840882

  7. Contamination of Phthalate Esters (PAEs) in Typical Wastewater-Irrigated Agricultural Soils in Hebei, North China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuan; Liang, Qiong; Gao, Rutai; Hou, Haobo; Tan, Wenbing; He, Xiaosong; Zhang, Hui; Yu, Minda; Ma, Lina; Xi, Beidou; Wang, Xiaowei

    2015-01-01

    The Wangyang River (WYR) basin is a typical wastewater irrigation area in Hebei Province, North China. This study investigated the concentration and distribution of six priority phthalate esters (PAEs) in the agricultural soils in this area. Thirty-nine soil samples (0-20 cm) were collected along the WYR to assess the PAE residues in soils. Results showed that PAEs are ubiquitous environmental contaminants in the topsoil obtained from the irrigation area. The concentrations of Σ6PAEs range from 0.191 μg g-1 dw to 0.457 μg g-1 dw with an average value of 0.294 μg g-1 dw. Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP) are the dominant PAE species in the agricultural soils. Among the DEHP concentrations, the highest DEHP concentration was found at the sites close to the villages; this result suggested that dense anthropogenic activities and random garbage disposal in the rural area are possible sources of PAEs. The PAE concentrations were weakly and positively correlated with soil organic carbon and soil enzyme activities; thus, these factors can affect the distribution of PAEs. This study further showed that only dimethyl phthalate (DMP) concentrations exceeded the recommended allowable concentrations; no remediation measures are necessary to control the PAEs in the WYR area. However, the PAEs in the topsoil may pose a potential risk to the ecosystem and human health in this area. Therefore, the exacerbating PAE pollution should be addressed. PMID:26360905

  8. Contamination of Phthalate Esters (PAEs) in Typical Wastewater-Irrigated Agricultural Soils in Hebei, North China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yuan; Liang, Qiong; Gao, Rutai; Hou, Haobo; Tan, Wenbing; He, Xiaosong; Zhang, Hui; Yu, Minda; Ma, Lina; Xi, Beidou; Wang, Xiaowei

    2015-01-01

    The Wangyang River (WYR) basin is a typical wastewater irrigation area in Hebei Province, North China. This study investigated the concentration and distribution of six priority phthalate esters (PAEs) in the agricultural soils in this area. Thirty-nine soil samples (0–20 cm) were collected along the WYR to assess the PAE residues in soils. Results showed that PAEs are ubiquitous environmental contaminants in the topsoil obtained from the irrigation area. The concentrations of Σ6PAEs range from 0.191 μg g−1 dw to 0.457 μg g−1 dw with an average value of 0.294 μg g−1 dw. Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP) are the dominant PAE species in the agricultural soils. Among the DEHP concentrations, the highest DEHP concentration was found at the sites close to the villages; this result suggested that dense anthropogenic activities and random garbage disposal in the rural area are possible sources of PAEs. The PAE concentrations were weakly and positively correlated with soil organic carbon and soil enzyme activities; thus, these factors can affect the distribution of PAEs. This study further showed that only dimethyl phthalate (DMP) concentrations exceeded the recommended allowable concentrations; no remediation measures are necessary to control the PAEs in the WYR area. However, the PAEs in the topsoil may pose a potential risk to the ecosystem and human health in this area. Therefore, the exacerbating PAE pollution should be addressed. PMID:26360905

  9. Application of electro-enhanced solid-phase microextraction for determination of phthalate esters and bisphenol A in blood and seawater samples.

    PubMed

    Mousa, Amayreh; Basheer, Chanbasha; Al-Arfaj, Abdul Rahman

    2013-10-15

    The electro-enhanced solid-phase microextraction (EE-SPME) method was developed for the determination of endocrine disruptor compounds such as phthalate esters and bisphenol A in human blood and seawater samples. After EE-SPME, samples were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). In this approach, commercial SPME fiber was used in direct-immersion mode with an applied potential to extract di-ethyl phthalate, di-butyl phthalate, benzyl butyl phthalate and bisphenol A. The applied potential facilitates and enhances the extraction efficiency of the target analytes. Various experimental conditions influencing performance of the EE-SPME such as extraction time, applied potential and ionic strength were optimized. Under the optimum conditions, EE-SPME was more efficient than a conventional SPME approach. Very good linearity was observed for all analytes in a range between 1 and 100 µg L(-1) with correlation of determination (R(2)) between 0.963 and 0.996. The limits of a detection based signal-to-noise of 3 were from 0.004 to 0.15 µg L(-1). The reproducibility of EE-SPME was evaluated and the relative standard deviations were between 1.0% and 5.0% (n=9). The proposed method was applied to human blood samples stored in transfusion bags and seawater. Results showed that the proposed EE-SPME was simple and suitable for trace level analysis. PMID:24054596

  10. 75 FR 20785 - Polyglyceryl Phthalate Ester of Coconut Oil Fatty Acids; Exemption from the Requirement of a...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-21

    ... . II. What Does this Correction Do? In the Federal Register of July 8, 2009, (74 FR 32456), EPA's... of polyglyceryl phthalate ester of coconut oil fatty acids, including fatty acid coco polymers with... acid coco of surfactants polymers with glyceryl and phthalic anhydride (CAS No. 67746-02-5) and...

  11. STRUCTURE ACTIVITY RELATIONSHIP OF PHTHALATE ESTERS TO INHIBITED FETAL TESTICULAR TESTOSTERONE PRODUCTION IN THE SPRAGUE DAWLEY RAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Several of the phthalate esters (widely used as plasticizers of polyvinyl chloride and other applications) have been shown to inhibit fetal testicular testosterone (T) production and Insl3 mRNA in the laboratory rat. The current study was designed to define the dose response of 7...

  12. PHTHALATE ESTER-INDUCED GUBERNACULAR LESIONS ARE ASSOCIATED WITH REDUCED INSL-3 GENE EXPRESSION IN THE FETAL RAT TESTIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Phthalate ester-induced gubernacular ligament lesions are associated with reduced Insl3 gene expression in the fetal rat testis during sexual differentiation.
    VS Wilson, C Lambright, J Furr, J Ostby, C Wood, G Held, LE Gray Jr.
    U.S. EPA, ORD, NHEERL, Reproductive Toxicology...

  13. Investigation of volatile organic compounds and phthalates present in the cabin air of used private cars.

    PubMed

    Geiss, Otmar; Tirendi, Salvatore; Barrero-Moreno, Josefa; Kotzias, Dimitrios

    2009-11-01

    The presence of selected volatile organic compounds (VOCs) including aromatic, aliphatic compounds and low molecular weight carbonyls, and a target set of phthalates were investigated in the interior of 23 used private cars during the summer and winter. VOC concentrations often exceeded levels typically found in residential indoor air, e.g. benzene concentrations reached values of up to 149.1 microg m(-3). Overall concentrations were 40% higher in summer, with temperatures inside the cars reaching up to 70 degrees C. The most frequently detected phthalates were di-n-butyl-phthalate and bis-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate in concentrations ranging from 196 to 3656 ng m(-3). PMID:19729200

  14. Magnetic nanoporous carbon as an adsorbent for the extraction of phthalate esters in environmental water and aloe juice samples.

    PubMed

    Liu, Li; Hao, Yunhui; Ren, Yiqian; Wang, Chun; Wu, Qiuhua; Wang, Zhi

    2015-05-01

    In this work, magnetic nanoporous carbon with high surface area and ordered structure was synthesized using cheap commercial silica gel as template and sucrose as the carbon source. The prepared magnetic nanoporous carbon was firstly used as an adsorbent for the extraction of phthalate esters, including diethyl phthalate, diallyl phthalate, and di-n-propyl-phthalate, from lake water and aloe juice samples. Several parameters that could affect the extraction efficiency were optimized. Under the optimum conditions, the limit of detection of the method (S/N = 3) was 0.10 ng/mL for water sample and 0.20 ng/mL for aloe juice sample. The linearity was observed over the concentration range of 0.50-150.0 and 1.0-200.0 ng/mL for water and aloe juice samples, respectively. The results showed that the magnetic nanoporous carbon has a high adsorptive capability toward the target phthalate esters in water and aloe juice samples. PMID:25677269

  15. Phthalate esters, parabens and bisphenol-A exposure among mothers and their children in Greece (Rhea cohort).

    PubMed

    Myridakis, Antonis; Fthenou, Eleni; Balaska, Eirini; Vakinti, Maria; Kogevinas, Manolis; Stephanou, Euripides G

    2015-10-01

    Exposure to endocrine disruptors, used as additives, preservatives, plasticisers and solvents in numerous consumer products, might cause adverse health effects. Humans exposed to these chemicals, metabolise and excrete them mostly via urine. Urinary metabolite concentrations are used as biomarkers of exposure. We evaluated the exposure of 4-month pregnant women and their children at 2 years of age to phthalates, parabens and bisphenol-A. Concentrations of eight phthalate metabolites, six parabens and bisphenol-A were measured in 239 mother-child pairs of the "Rhea" cohort in Greece. Concentration levels in mother and children were comparable with corresponding concentrations in other countries worldwide. Low Spearman correlation coefficients (CC 0.1-0.2, p-value < 0.01) were observed for di-ethyl phthalate (DEP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), butyl-benzyl phthalate (BBP) and ethyl paraben (EPB) between mothers and their children. We observed higher median daily intake (DIu) for mothers (e.g. di-ethyl phthalate 6.9 μg d(-1) kg(-1)) than for their children (1.4 μg d(-1) kg(-1)) for all examined compounds, except for di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) and bisphenol-A. Principal component analysis (PCA) indicated two main sources of exposure (plastic related and personal care-hygiene products) for phthalates, parabens and bisphenol-A. Differences in DEHP metabolism were observed among mothers-children and female-male children. PMID:26072145

  16. Organophosphorus flame retardants and phthalate esters in indoor dust from different microenvironments: Bioaccessibility and risk assessment.

    PubMed

    He, Ruiwen; Li, Yunzi; Xiang, Ping; Li, Chao; Zhou, Chunyang; Zhang, Shujun; Cui, Xinyi; Ma, Lena Q

    2016-05-01

    Incidental ingestion of indoor dust is an important pathway for human exposure to organophosphorus flame retardants (OPFRs) and phthalate esters (PAEs). However, little is known about their bioaccessibility in indoor dust. In this study, indoor dust samples were collected from houses, offices, public microenvironments (PMEs), and university dorms, and physiologically based extraction test (PBET) was used to measure the bioaccessibility of OPFRs and PAEs in these dust samples. Total concentrations of OPFRs in dust samples ranged from 0.01 to 63.2 μg g(-1), with significantly lower concentrations in dorm dust (median = 0.30 μg g(-1)) than those in houses (3.12), offices (5.94), and PMEs (11.6). Total PAEs ranged from 5.49 to 2161 μg g(-1) with significantly lower concentrations in dorm dust (379 μg g(-1)) than those in the other three types of dust (767, 515, and 731 μg g(-1)). When subject to PBET, the bioaccessibility of OPFRs ranged from 8.18% (triphenyl phosphate) to 54.5% (Tris(2-chloroisopropyl) phosphate) for OPFRs, and from 1.21% (di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate, DEHP) to 81.1% (dimethyl phthalate) for PAEs. Estimated exposure doses for adults and infants to OPFRs via dust ingestion were much lower than the reference doses (RfD), but intake dose of DEHP for infants was higher than the RfD of 20 μg kg(-1) d(-1). However, the DEHP intake dose did not exceed the RfD after incorporating bioaccessibility into risk assessment. Our data indicated the importance of considering contaminant bioaccessibility during risk assessment of indoor dust. PMID:26585356

  17. Distribution of phthalate esters in topsoil: a case study in the Yellow River Delta, China.

    PubMed

    Hongjun, Yang; Wenjun, Xie; Qing, Liu; Jingtao, Liu; Hongwen, Yu; Zhaohua, Lu

    2013-10-01

    The Yellow River Delta (YRD) is a typical agricultural and petrochemical industrial area of China. To assess the current status of phthalate esters (PAEs) of soil residues, soil samples (0∼20 cm) (n = 82) were collected in Bincheng District, at the geographic center of the YRD. PAEs were detected in all topsoil samples analyzed, which indicated that PAEs are ubiquitous environmental contaminants. Concentrations of 11 PAEs are in the range of 0.794∼19.504 μg g(-1), with an average value of 2.975 μg g(-1). It was presented that PAEs pollution in this area was weak and monotonously increasing along the rural-urban gradient. Higher concentrations were observed from roadsides (and/or gutters), densely anthropogenic activities areas (such as the urbanization and industrialization), and agriculture influence district, which mainly originated from construction waste, municipal sewage, agricultural waste and pesticide, discarded plastic effusion and atmospheric depositions. Concentrations of PAEs were weakly positivity correlated with soil organic carbon content and pH, which suggested both of them can affect the distribution of PAEs. The concentration of di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate and di-n-butyl phthalate dominated in the 11 PAEs, with the average values of 0.735 and 1.915 μg g(-1), respectively, and accounted for 92.1 % of the whole PAEs' concentrations. No significant differences of PAE congeneric profiles were observed between our work and others previously reported, which is consistent with the use of similar commercial PAEs around the world. PMID:23609921

  18. The occurrence and ecological risk assessment of phthalate esters (PAEs) in urban aquatic environments of China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lulu; Liu, Jingling; Liu, Huayong; Wan, Guisheng; Zhang, Shaowei

    2015-07-01

    Phthalate esters (PAEs) are widely used in the manufacturing of plastics, and the demand for PAEs has grown rapidly, especially in China. This trend will lead to much more environmental PAE contamination. PAEs are listed as priority substances in the European Union and are therefore subject to ecological risk assessments. This paper reviews the literature concerning the pollution status of PAEs and their ecological risk to aquatic environments. Risk quotients (RQs) based on the predicted no effect concentration and PAE concentrations in aquatic environments demonstrated significant (10 ≤ RQ < 100) or expected (RQ ≥ 100) potential adverse effects for algae, Daphnia, and fish in aquatic environments near PAE-based industrial and urban areas. Thus, the ecological risk of PAEs in Chinese aquatic environments should be considered, especially in areas where commercial plastics are produced. PMID:25847103

  19. Occurrence and risk assessment of phthalate esters (PAEs) in vegetables and soils of suburban plastic film greenhouses.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; Chen, Gangcai; Christie, Peter; Zhang, Manyun; Luo, Yongming; Teng, Ying

    2015-08-01

    Phthalate esters (PAEs) are suspected of having adverse effects on human health and have been frequently detected in soils and vegetables. The present study investigated their occurrence and composition in plastic film greenhouse soil-vegetable systems and assessed their potential health risks to farmers exposed to these widespread pollutants. Six priority control phthalates, namely dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP), di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP), were determined in 44 plastic film greenhouse vegetables and corresponding soils. Total PAEs ranged from 0.51 to 7.16mgkg(-1) in vegetables and 0.40 to 6.20mgkg(-1) in soils with average concentrations of 2.56 and 2.23mgkg(-1), respectively. DnBP, DEHP and DnOP contributed more than 90% of the total PAEs in both vegetables and soils but the proportions of DnBP and DnOP in vegetables were significantly (p<0.05) higher than in soils. The average concentrations of PAEs in pot herb mustard, celery and lettuce were >3.00mgkg(-1) but were <2.50mgkg(-1) in the corresponding soils. Stem and leaf vegetables accumulated more PAEs. There were no clear relationships between vegetable and soil PAEs. Risk assessment indicates that DnBP, DEHP and DnOP exhibited elevated non-cancer risk with values of 0.039, 0.338 and 0.038, respectively. The carcinogenic risk of DEHP was about 3.94×10(-5) to farmers working in plastic film greenhouses. Health risks were mainly by exposure through vegetable consumption and soil ingestion. PMID:25863503

  20. Fetal Phthalate Screen: Assessment of Several Phthalate Esters (PE) on Fetal Rodent Testosterone (T) Production and Gene Expressionfollowing In Utero Exposure

    EPA Science Inventory

    PE are a large family of compounds used in a wide array of products from medical tubing to pharmaceuticals to cables. Studies have shown that in utero treatment with PE such as diethyl hexyl phthalate (DEHP) during the critical period of fetal reproductive development produced ma...

  1. Phthalate esters (PAEs) in indoor PM10/PM2.5 and human exposure to PAEs via inhalation of indoor air in Tianjin, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Leibo; Wang, Fumei; Ji, Yaqin; Jiao, Jiao; Zou, Dekun; Liu, Lingling; Shan, Chunyan; Bai, Zhipeng; Sun, Zengrong

    2014-03-01

    In this study, filter samples of six Phthalate esters (PAEs) in indoor PM10 and PM2.5 were collected from thirteen homes in Tianjin, China. The results showed that the concentrations of Σ6PAEs in indoor PM10 and PM2.5 were in the range of 13.878-1591.277 ng m-3 and 7.266-1244.178 ng m-3, respectively. Dibutyl phthalate (DBP) was the most abundant compounds followed by di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) in indoor PM10 and PM2.5. Whereas DBP and dimethyl phthalate (DMP) were the predominant compounds in indoor air (gas-phase + particle-phase), the median values were 573.467 and 368.364 ng m-3 respectively. The earlier construction time, the lesser indoor area, the old decoration, the very crowded items coated with plastic and a lower frequency of dusting may lead to a higher level of PAEs in indoor environment. The six PAEs in indoor PM10 and PM2.5 were higher in summer than those in winter. The daily intake (DI) of six PAEs for five age groups through air inhalation in indoor air in Tianjin was estimated. The results indicated that the highest exposure dose was DBP in every age group, and infants experienced the highest total DIs (median: 664.332 ng kg-bw-1 day-1) to ∑6PAEs, whereas adults experienced the lowest total DIs (median: 155.850 ng kg-bw-1 day-1) to ∑6PAEs. So, more attention should be paid on infants in the aspect of indoor inhalation exposure to PAEs.

  2. Levels of phthalate esters in settled house dust from urban dwellings with young children in Nanjing, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qi; Lu, Xiao-Mei; Zhang, Xiao-Ling; Sun, Yong-Gang; Zhu, Dong-Mei; Wang, Bing-Ling; Zhao, Ren-Zheng; Zhang, Zheng-Dong

    2013-04-01

    To investigate the levels and possible determinants of phthalate esters (PEs) in settled house dust from urban dwellings with young children, dust was collected from 215 urban houses in Nanjing, China, and 145 outdoor settled dust samples were collected nearby. Six PEs were measured by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. All PEs were detected in the dust from approximately 90% of the houses, with the exception of dioctyl phthalate (DOP), which had only a 59% detection rate. Di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) and di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) were the most abundant PEs, with geometric means of 110 and 16.4 μg g-1, respectively, and maximal concentrations 9950 and 2150 μg g-1. Factor analysis showed that DBP, DEHP and benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP) might come from the same source and were significantly influenced by the use of solid-wood floor wax. High BBP, DEHP, DOP and total PE levels were associated with indices of dampness, and high DOP was associated with humidifier use. In conclusion, six PEs are ubiquitous in urban settled house dust in Nanjing, China, and both plastic materials and cosmetic and personal care products are important sources. Flooring material, dampness and humidifier use potentially influence house dust PE levels.

  3. Contamination of phthalate esters, organochlorine pesticides and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in agricultural soils from the Yangtze River Delta of China.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jianteng; Pan, Lili; Zhan, Yu; Lu, Hainan; Tsang, Daniel C W; Liu, Wenxin; Wang, Xilong; Li, Xiangdong; Zhu, Lizhong

    2016-02-15

    To reveal the pollution status associated with rapid urbanization and economic growth, extensive areas of agricultural soils (approximately 45,800 km(2)) in the Yangtze River Delta of China were investigated with respect to selected endocrine disruptor compounds (EDCs), including phthalate esters (PAEs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). The residues of sum of 15 PAEs, sum of 15 OCPs and sum of 13 PBDEs were in the range of 167-9370 ng/g, 1.0-3520 ng/g, and <1.0-382 ng/g, respectively. The OCPs residuals originated from both historical usage and recent input. Agricultural plastic film was considered to be an important source of PAEs. Discharge from furniture industry was potential major source of PBDEs in this region. The selected pollutants showed quite different spatial distributions within the studied region. It is worth noting that much higher concentrations of the EDCs were found on the borders between Shanghai and the two neighboring provinces, where agriculture and industry developed rapidly in recent years. Contaminants from both agricultural and industrial activities made this area a pollution hotspot, which should arouse more stringent regulation to safeguard the environment and food security. PMID:26674696

  4. Determination of phthalate esters in teas and tea infusions by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Du, Liping; Ma, Lijuan; Qiao, Yang; Lu, Yan; Xiao, Dongguang

    2016-04-15

    Phthalate esters (PAEs), a group of environmental pollutants which are carcinogenic to human body, have been detected in teas. In this work, five PAEs in teas and tea infusions were quantitatively determined by a modified simultaneous distillation extraction (SDE) coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. After the optimization of SDE, the proposed method afforded a wide range of linearity and high linear regression coefficients with the limits of detection range of 0.24-3.72 μg/kg. The average recoveries were 79.83-116.67% for tea samples and 78.22-101.64% for tea infusions with all the relative standard deviations below 20%. The total content of five PAEs in teas was 1.135-3.734 mg/kg and the total dissolving ratio of five PAEs from tea to infusion was 19.05-28.07% for the selected tea samples. The risk assessment result of all the selected tea samples demonstrated that the population with the habit of drinking tea won't cause risk to human health. PMID:26675858

  5. Landfarming of phthalate ester-contaminated soil: Two years of bioremediation results

    SciTech Connect

    Kunze, C.M.; Yu, J.; Wilson, S.; Rezin, J.L.; Andronico, A.

    1995-12-31

    Biorem Technologies Inc. collaborated with Regal Plastics Corporation over 2 years to clean up approximately 600 cubic yards of soil contaminated with di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate ester (DEHP) and No. 2 fuel oil using a landfarming bioremediation process. The contaminated soils consisted of sandy backfill material which had been excavated during the removal of two underground storage tanks (USTs). In 1994, the initial average DEHP concentration was 4,551 ppm while the TPH concentration was 7,252 ppm. In 1995, the initial DEHP concentration was 1067 ppm while TPH was 3,733 ppm. Prior to the implementation of the project, Biorem Technologies completed a laboratory biofeasibility study to demonstrate that a bacterial culture isolated from the site had the capacity to efficiently degrade DEBP in the soil. It was determined during this study that nitrogen and phosphorus nutrient amendments were needed to promote the bioremediation process. In 1994, the soils were loaded on to a lined treatment bed to a depth of 14--16 in. The bed was covered with a greenhouse structure to eliminate stormwater runoff concerns associated with the contaminated soil. To optimize biodegradation, soil moisture and nutrient levels were adjusted. In 1995, a windrow turner replaced the 1994 tilling system. Tarps were used to cover the piles in place of the greenhouse. A leachate collection system was implemented to contain stormwater and leachate.

  6. Modeling Human Exposure to Phthalate Esters: A Comparison of Indirect and Biomonitoring Estimation Methods

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Kathryn E.; David, Raymond M.; Guinn, Richard; Kramarz, Kurt W.; Lampi, Mark A.; Staples, Charles A.

    2011-01-01

    Humans are potentially exposed to phthalate esters (PEs) through ingestion, inhalation, and dermal contact. Studies quantifying exposure to PEs include “biomarker studies” and “indirect studies.” Biomarker studies use measurements of PE metabolites in urine to back-calculate exposure to the parent diester, while indirect studies use the concentration of the PE in each medium of exposure and the rate of intake of that medium to quantify intake of the PE. In this review, exposure estimates from biomarker and indirect studies are compiled and compared for seven PEs to determine if there are regional differences and if there is a preferred approach. The indirect and biomarker methods generally agree with each other within an order of magnitude and discrepancies are explained by difficulties in accounting for use of consumer products, uncertainty concerning absorption, regional differences, and temporal changes. No single method is preferred for estimating intake of all PEs; it is suggested that biomarker estimates be used for low molecular weight PEs for which it is difficult to quantify all sources of exposure and either indirect or biomarker methods be used for higher molecular weight PEs. The indirect methods are useful in identifying sources of exposure while the biomarker methods quantify exposure. PMID:23087593

  7. Dose-response assessment of fetal testosterone production and gene expression levels in rat testes following in utero exposure to diethylhexyl phthalate, diisobutyl phthalate, diisoheptyl phthalate and diisononyl phthalate

    EPA Science Inventory

    Several phthalate esters have been linked to the Phthalate Syndrome, affecting male reproductive development when administered to pregnant rats during in utero sexual differentiation. The goal of the current study was to enhance understanding of this class of compounds in the Spr...

  8. Transport of phthalate-esters in undisturbed and unsaturated soil columns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zurmühl, T.; Durner, W.; Herrmann, R.

    1991-11-01

    Breakthrough curves (BTC's) of five phthalate esters (PE's) and chloride as a tracer were measured during unsaturated, steady water flow conditions on two undisturbed soil columns with different organic carbon contents (OC). Two conceptual models, the local equilibrium assumption (LEA) model and the physical nonequilibrium (PNE) model, were used to simulate the observed BTC's. The unknown parameters for the two models were estimated either by fitting model predictions to the experimental data, or if possible, by independent measurements. Results of the tracer BTC's indicate that for the soil with the lower organic content the local equilibrium assumption was valid, whereas for the more aggregated soil, with higher OC, physical nonequilibrium existed. For the PE's an incomplete mass-balance was observed which increased with increasing hydrophobicity of the PE's and which was greater for the soil with the higher OC. Since microbiological degradation of the PE's was hindered, it cannot be the major cause for this mass deficit. Consequently, it is partly attributed to a chemical nonequilibrium, which is due to slow diffusion of the contaminants into the organic matrix of the soil and a possible subsequent entrapment of these substances in the organic matter. When modelling the PE BTC's, it was necessary to introduce a non-zero degradation term to account for this nonequilibrium. For the soil with the lower OC the LEA-model described well the measured BTC's for the PE's. When independently measured parameter values for the other soil were used, the LEA-model failed to describe any of the observed BTC's whereas good agreement between measured and calculated data was reached with the PNE-model.

  9. Transport and sorption behavior of individual phthalate esters in sandy aquifer: column experiments.

    PubMed

    Zakari, Sissou; Liu, Hui; Li, Yan-Xi; He, Xi; Tong, Lei

    2016-08-01

    This work aimed to quantify the transport and sorption behavior of four individual phthalate esters (PAEs) in sandy aquifer using column experiments so as to provide important parameters for the prediction and control of PAEs pollution plume in groundwater system. The transport curves of four individual PAEs were simulated with HYDRUS-1D through fitting linear and nonlinear equilibrium (LE/NO), linear and nonlinear, first-order, one-site non-equilibrium (LO/NO), linear and nonlinear, first-order, two-site non-equilibrium (LFO/NFO) sorption models. Simulation results showed that two-site models (LFO and NFO) displayed similar best fittings. The results from LFO model simulation showed that when water flowed 1000 m in sandy aquifer, PAEs with shorter carbon chains (DMP and DEP) transport 31.6 and 22.2 m, respectively. Unexpectedly for the same water transport distance, PAEs with longer carbon chains (DBP and DiBP) transported 40.2 and 60.7 m, respectively, which were faster than DMP and DEP, mainly due to the limited accessibility of type-2 sorption sites. The retardations were mainly caused by the sorption of PAEs on the time-dependent type-2 sites. DBP and DiBP exhibited higher mass transfer speed to and fro type-2 sites but showed lower total sorption coefficient (K) due to the limited accessibility of sorption sites. Coexistence of PAEs and smaller sorbent particles increased total K values of DBP and DiBP due to synergic development of more sorption sites with DMP and DEP. PMID:27146532

  10. Determination of phthalate ester plasticizers in the aquatic environment using hollow fibre supported liquid membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mtibe, A.; Msagati, Titus A. M.; Mishra, Ajay K.; Mamba, Bhekie B.

    Phthalates are known to be carcinogenic, teratogenic as well as endocrine disruptors. The potential risk to human and animals health generated from them has drawn great attention all over the world. Hollow fibre supported liquid membrane (HFSLM) online with high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to determine benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP) and Diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) in wastewater. Toluene, di-n-hexyl ether and undecane were used as liquid barriers separating both donor (sample) and acceptor phase. Toluene performed much better than undecane and was used in sample preparation. The presence of toluene showed the potential for the enrichment and removal of phthalates to the concentrations ranges from 0 to 1.7 mg L-1.

  11. Assessment and analysis of phthalate esters, in Lake Pontchartrain, by SPME combining with GC-MS.

    PubMed

    Liu, Pengyan; Tian, Tian; Barreto, Jose; Chou, Ju

    2013-01-01

    This study for the first time reports a quantitative analysis of phthalates and spatial distribution of phthalates in Lake Pontchartrain, Louisiana, USA using solid phase micro-extraction (SPME) coupled with gas chromatography mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). During 2008-2009, di-n-butylphthalate (DnBP) along with its congener (DiBP) and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) were detected in Lake Pontchartrain. Concentrations of these phthalates in the lake were monitored in different areas before and after the opening of the Bonnet Carré Spillway that occurred from April to May in 2008. The concentration of sigma3PAEs (DnBP, DiBP and DEHP) ranged from 0 to 20 microg/L in the surface water of the lake from March 2008 to June 2009. The distribution of the three phthalates varied with locations in the lake. An increase trend of sigma3PAEs was observed after the opening of the Bonnet Carré Spillway in the central lake area. The observed increase of the phthalates could be correlated to the opening of the spillway. The SPME followed by GC-MS employed in this study has been proved to be a rapid, sensitive and practical method to quantitatively analyse and evaluate phthalate concentrations in salt lake waters. PMID:23530359

  12. Vimentin-Mediated Steroidogenesis Induced by Phthalate Esters: Involvement of DNA Demethylation and Nuclear Factor κB

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yuan; Hu, Yanhui; Dong, Congcong; Lu, Hongchao; Zhang, Chang; Hu, Qi; Li, Shifeng; Qin, Heng; Li, Zhong; Wang, Yubang

    2016-01-01

    Di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) and its active metabolite, monobutyl phthalate (MBP) are the most common endocrine disrupting chemicals. Many studies indicate that high-doses of DBP and/or MBP exhibit toxicity on testicular function, however, little attention have been paid to the effects of low levels of DBP/MBP on steroidogenesis. As we all know, the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) is a key regulator involved in the steroidogenesis. Here we found that, in addition to StAR, MBP/DBP increased the steroidogenesis by a cytoskeletal protein, vimentin. Briefly, in murine adrenocortical tumor (Y1) and the mouse Leydig tumor (MLTC-1) cells, vimentin regulated the secretion of progesterone. When these two cells were exposure to MBP, the DNA demethylation in the vimentin promoter was observed. In addition, MBP also induced the activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB, a transcriptional regulator of vimentin). These two processes improved the transcriptional elevation of vimentin. Knockdown of NF-κB/vimentin signaling blocked the DBP/MBP-induced steroidogenesis. These in vitro results were also confirmed via an in vivo model. By identifying a mechanism whereby DBP/MBP regulates vimentin, our results expand the understanding of the endocrine disrupting potential of phthalate esters. PMID:26745512

  13. The classic EDCs, phthalate esters and organochlorines, in relation to abnormal sperm quality: a systematic review with meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chao; Yang, Lu; Wang, Shu; Zhang, Zhan; Yu, Yongquan; Wang, Meilin; Cromie, Meghan; Gao, Weimin; Wang, Shou-Lin

    2016-01-01

    The association between endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and human sperm quality is controversial due to the inconsistent literature findings, therefore, a systematic review with meta-analysis was performed. Through the literature search and selection based on inclusion criteria, a total of 9 studies (7 cross-sectional, 1 case-control, and 1 pilot study) were analyzed for classic EDCs (5 studies for phthalate esters and 4 studies for organochlorines). Funnel plots revealed a symmetrical distribution with no evidence of publication bias (Begg’s test: intercept = 0.40; p = 0.692). The summary odds ratios (OR) of human sperm quality associated with the classic EDCs was 1.67 (95% CI: 1.31–2.02). After stratification by specific chemical class, consistent increases in the risk of abnormal sperm quality were found in phthalate ester group (OR = 1.52; 95% CI: 1.09–1.95) and organochlorine group (OR = 1.98; 95% CI: 1.34–2.62). Additionally, identification of official data, and a comprehensive review of the mechanisms were performed, and better elucidated the increased risk of these classic EDCs on abnormal sperm quality. The present systematic review and meta-analysis helps to identify the impact of classic EDCs on human sperm quality. However, it still highlights the need for additional epidemiological studies in a larger variety of geographic locations. PMID:26804707

  14. The classic EDCs, phthalate esters and organochlorines, in relation to abnormal sperm quality: a systematic review with meta-analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chao; Yang, Lu; Wang, Shu; Zhang, Zhan; Yu, Yongquan; Wang, Meilin; Cromie, Meghan; Gao, Weimin; Wang, Shou-Lin

    2016-01-01

    The association between endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and human sperm quality is controversial due to the inconsistent literature findings, therefore, a systematic review with meta-analysis was performed. Through the literature search and selection based on inclusion criteria, a total of 9 studies (7 cross-sectional, 1 case-control, and 1 pilot study) were analyzed for classic EDCs (5 studies for phthalate esters and 4 studies for organochlorines). Funnel plots revealed a symmetrical distribution with no evidence of publication bias (Begg’s test: intercept = 0.40 p = 0.692). The summary odds ratios (OR) of human sperm quality associated with the classic EDCs was 1.67 (95% CI: 1.31-2.02). After stratification by specific chemical class, consistent increases in the risk of abnormal sperm quality were found in phthalate ester group (OR = 1.52 95% CI: 1.09-1.95) and organochlorine group (OR = 1.98 95% CI: 1.34-2.62). Additionally, identification of official data, and a comprehensive review of the mechanisms were performed, and better elucidated the increased risk of these classic EDCs on abnormal sperm quality. The present systematic review and meta-analysis helps to identify the impact of classic EDCs on human sperm quality. However, it still highlights the need for additional epidemiological studies in a larger variety of geographic locations.

  15. Phthalate Esters in Indoor Window Films in a Northeastern Chinese Urban Center: Film Growth and Implications for Human Exposure.

    PubMed

    Huo, Chun-Yan; Liu, Li-Yan; Zhang, Zi-Feng; Ma, Wan-Li; Song, Wei-Wei; Li, Hai-Ling; Li, Wen-Long; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Wu, Yong-Kai; Han, Ya-Meng; Peng, Zhi-Xiang; Li, Yi-Fan

    2016-07-19

    Indoor window film samples were collected in buildings during 2014-2015 for the determination of six phthalate diesters (PAEs). Linear regression analysis suggested that the film mass was positively and significantly correlated with the duration of film growth (from 7 to 77 days). PAEs were detected in all window film samples (n = 64). For all the samples with growth days ranged from 7 to 77 days, the median concentrations of total six PAEs (∑6PAEs) in winter and summer window film samples were 9900 ng/m(2) film (2000 μg/g film) and 4700 ng/m(2) film (650 μg/g film), respectively. Among PAEs analyzed, di-2-ethyl-hexyl phthalate (DEHP) was the major compound (71 ± 9.7%), followed by di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP; 20 ± 7.4%) and diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP; 5.1 ± 2.2%). Positive correlations among PAEs suggested their common sources in the window film samples. Room temperature and relative humidity were negatively and significantly correlated with PAEs concentations (in ng/m(2)). Poor ventilation in cold winter in Noreastern China significantly influenced the concentrations of PAEs in window film which suggested higher inhalation exposure dose in winter. The median hazard quotient (HQ) values from PAEs exposure were below 1, suggesting that the intake of PAEs via three exposure pathways was considered as acceptable. PMID:27322908

  16. Cetyltrimethylammonium bromide-coated titanate nanotubes for solid-phase extraction of phthalate esters from natural waters prior to high-performance liquid chromatography analysis.

    PubMed

    Niu, Hongyun; Cai, Yaqi; Shi, Yali; Wei, Fusheng; Mou, Shifen; Jiang, Guibin

    2007-11-23

    As a novel nanomaterial, titanate nanotube has attracted considerable attention recently. However, most of the research work is focused on the preparation of this nanomaterial, and there is lack of information about its application in the fields of environmental monitoring and analytical chemistry. The purpose of our study is to investigate the feasibility of titanate nanotubes as an adsorbent for solid-phase extraction of several phthalate esters. The titanate nanotubes in this study were prepared by alkaline hydrothermal method. The cationic surfactant cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB)-titanate nanotube system was adopted based on hemimicelles/admicelles formed on the mineral oxide surface. It was shown in the batch experiment that the highest adsorption of phthalate esters onto the CTAB-titania and -titanate nanotube system occurred when the CTAB was varied from 100 to 200mgg(-1) titania or 80 to 300mgg(-1) titanate nanotube separately. According to the fluorescent spectra of a molecular probe, N-phenyl-1-naphthylamine, and the binding constant of solute in CTAB admicelles, the CTAB-titanate nanotube admicelles was more hydrophobic than CTAB-titania admicelles. Consequently, CTAB-titanate nanotube admicelles system was suitable for concentrating phthalates esters in water. An admicelle column was prepared with 100mg of titanate nanotubes by passing through 100mgg(-1) titanate nanotube of CTAB. And excellent collection yields were obtained for all the analytes when the sample volume was up to 1000mL. Under the optimal conditions, the detection limits found for di-n-propyl-phthalate, di-n-butyl-phthalate, di-cyclohexyl-phthalate, and di-n-octyl-phthalate were 39, 19, 35 and 20ngL(-1), respectively. The developed method was successfully applied to the analysis of several real water samples and satisfactory recoveries were achieved. All the results indicated the application potential of titanate nanotubes as solid-phase extraction adsorbents to pre-treat water

  17. In utero treatment with the herbicide linuron produces male rat reproductive malformations similar to the phthalate esters but through a different mechanism of action.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although linuron has been reported to act as an androgen receptor (AR) antagonist, the suite of malformations observed in male rat offspring after in utero exposure differs from that of other AR antagonists and more closely resembles that produced by phthalate esters (PE) such as...

  18. Determination of the Composition and Quantity of Phthalate Ester Additives in PVC Children's Toys. Greenpeace Research Laboratories Technical Note 06/97.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stringer, Ruth; Labounskaia, Irina; Santillo, David; Johnston, Paul; Siddorn, John; Stephenson, Angela

    Polyvinyl chloride (vinyl or PVC) is widely used in toys and other children's products. This study, conducted by Greenpeace, examined the composition and quantity of phthalate ester additives in children's PVC toys, used to give the toys added flexibility. Drawn from 17 countries, a total of 71 toys designed to be chewed by babies and young…

  19. PHTHALATE ESTER-INDUCED GUBERNACULAR LIGAMENT LESIONS ARE ASSOCIATED WITH REDUCED INSL3 GENE EXPRESSION IN THE FETAL RAT TESTIS DURING SEXUAL DIFFERENTIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Phthalate ester-induced gubernacular ligament lesions are associated with reduced Insl3 gene expression in the fetal rat testis during sexual differentiation.
    Vickie S Wilson, Christy Lambright, Johnathan Furr, Joseph Ostby, Carmen Wood, Gary Held, L.Earl Gray Jr.
    U.S. EPA,...

  20. PHTHALATE ESTER-INDUCED MALFORMATIONS ARE ASSOCIATED WITH CHANGES IN GENE EXPRESSION AND STEROID HORMONE PRODUCTION IN THE FETAL RAT TESTIS DURING SEXUAL DIFFERENTIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Phthalate ester-induced gubernacular ligament lesions are associated with reduced Insl3 gene expression in the fetal rat testis during sexual differentiation.
    Vickie S Wilson, Christy Lambright, Johnathan Furr, Joseph Ostby, Carmen Wood, Gary Held, L.Earl Gray Jr.
    U.S. EPA,...

  1. USE OF LINEAR FREE ENERGY RELATIONSHIPS AND AN EVALUATIVE MODEL TO ASSESS THE FATE AND TRANSPORT OF PHTHALATE ESTERS IN THE AQUATIC ENVIRONMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Linear free energy relationships for selected phthalate esters were used to estimate the rate constants for hydrolysis, biolysis, sediment-water partition coefficients, and biosorption required for modeling. The fate and transport behavior of dimethyl, diethyl, di-n-butyl, di-n-o...

  2. Prenatal Exposure to Phthalate Esters and Behavioral Syndromes in Children at 8 Years of Age: Taiwan Maternal and Infant Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Lien, Yin-Ju; Ku, Hsiu-Ying; Su, Pen-Hua; Chen, Suh-Jen; Chen, Hsiao-Yen; Liao, Pao-Chi; Chen, Wei-J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Few studies have shown an association between prenatal phthalate exposure and adverse effects on neurodevelopment and behavior in young children. Objectives: We aimed to assess the relationship between prenatal exposure to phthalate esters and behavior syndromes in children at 8 years of age. Methods: A total of 122 mother–child pairs from the general population in central Taiwan were studied from 2000 to 2009. Mono-methyl phthalate (MMP), mono-ethyl phthalate (MEP), mono-butyl phthalate (MBP), mono-benzyl phthalate (MBzP), and three di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) metabolites—mono-2-ethylhexyl, mono-2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl, and mono-2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl phthalates (MEHP, MEHHP, and MEOHP)—were measured in maternal urine collected during the third trimester of pregnancy using liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization–tandem mass spectrometry. Behavioral syndromes of children at 8 years of age were evaluated using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). Associations between log10-transformed creatinine-corrected phthalate concentrations and standardized scores of the CBCL were estimated using linear regression models or multinomial logistic regressions with adjustments for potential confounders. Results: Externalizing problem scores were significantly higher in association with a 1-unit increase in log10-transformed creatinine-corrected concentrations of maternal MBP (β = 4.29; 95% CI: 0.59, 7.99), MEOHP (β = 3.74; 95% CI: 1.33, 6.15), and MEHP (β = 4.28 ; 95% CI: 0.03, 8.26) after adjusting for the child’s sex, intelligence, and family income. Meanwhile, MBP and MEOHP were significantly associated with Delinquent Behavior and Aggressive Behavior scores. The same pattern was found for borderline and/or clinical ranges. Conclusions: Our findings suggest positive associations between maternal DEHP and dibutyl phthalate (DBP) exposure and externalizing domain behavior problems in 8-year-old children. Citation: Lien YJ, Ku HY, Su PH, Chen SJ

  3. Size fraction effect on phthalate esters accumulation, bioaccessibility and in vitro cytotoxicity of indoor/outdoor dust, and risk assessment of human exposure.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Wu, Fu-Yong; Huang, Min-Juan; Kang, Yuan; Cheung, Kwai Chung; Wong, Ming Hung

    2013-10-15

    Indoor and outdoor dusts from two urban centers in the Pearl River Delta, China, were analyzed and phthalate esters varied from 4.95 to 2,220 μg g(-1) in indoor dust, significantly higher than outdoor dust (1.70-869 μg g(-1)). Di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) was the dominant phthalate found and the highest distribution factor (DF) (1.56 ± 0.41) was noted in the <63 μm fraction (p<0.05). In vitro cytotoxicity of dust extract on human T cell lymphoblast leukemic cell line (CCRF-CEM) indicated by Lethal Concentration 50 (LC50) decreased with particle size. The power model was found as a better fit for explaining the relationship between LC50 and phthalates (R(2)=0.46, p<0.01). Bioaccessibility of phthalates in dust varied with different particle sizes, with the greatest bioaccessible fraction (2.49-38.6%) obtained in <63 μm. Risk assessment indicated that indoor dust ingestion accounted for the major source for DEHP exposure (81.4-96.4% of non-dietary exposure and 36.5% of total exposure), especially for toddlers. The cancer risks associated with DEHP via home dust were high (10(-6)-10(-4)), with 10% of houses estimated with unacceptable risks (>10(-4)). After corrected with the bioaccessibility of phthalates, the cancer risks of dust exposure were moderate (10(-7)-10(-5)). PMID:23755845

  4. Neonatal phthalate ester exposure induced placental MTs, FATP1 and HFABP mRNA expression in two districts of southeast China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Bin; Xu, Xijin; Zhu, Yueqin; Cao, Junjun; Zhang, Yuling; Huo, Xia

    2016-01-01

    Plastic production releases phthalate esters (PAEs), which can alter the expression of metallothioneins (MTs), fatty acid transport protein 1 (FATP1) and heart fatty acid binding protein (HFABP). A total of 187 mother-infant pairs were recruited, 127 from Chenghai (high exposed group) and 60 from Haojiang (low exposed group), to investigate the association between neonatal PAE exposure and mRNA expression of placental MTs, FATP1 and HFABP. Umbilical cord blood and placenta samples were collected for measuring five PAE concentrations and detecting mRNA levels of MTs, FATP1 and HFABP. Butylbenzyl phthalate (BBP), di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), di-n-octyl phthalate (DNOP) were significantly higher in the high exposed group compared to the low exposed group. FATP1 and HFABP mRNA in the high exposed group were higher than that in the low exposed group while MT-1A was contrary. Both dimethyl phthalate (DMP) and DEHP were correlated with higher MT and MT-2A expression, while diethyl phthalate (DEP) was also positively correlated with MT-1A and FATP1 expression in female infants. DEHP exposure was negatively correlated with birth weight and gestational age in male infants. These results show that neonatal PAE exposure alters the mRNA expression of placental MTs and FATP1, which are related to fetal growth and development. PMID:26867681

  5. Simultaneous determination of 17 phthalate esters in edible vegetable oils by GC-MS with silica/PSA-mixed solid-phase extraction.

    PubMed

    Wu, PingGu; Yang, DaJin; Zhang, Liqun; Shen, XiangHong; Pan, XiaoDong; Wang, LiYuan; Zhang, Jing; Tan, Ying; Feng, Liang; Ying, Ying

    2012-11-01

    A quantified method for the determination of 17 phthalate esters (PAEs) in edible vegetable oil by GC-MS with the pretreatment of acetonitrile extraction and silica/N-(n-Propyl)ethylenediamine-mixed SPE column was established. By the quantification of internal standard of D(4)-di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, a good linearity range of related 17 PAEs was observed. The correlation coefficient was ranged at 0.994~1.000, and the standard lowest quantified level was 0.05~0.15 mg/L. The spiking recoveries of 17 PAEs were 78.3~108.9% with the relative standard deviations of 4.3~12.1% (n = 6). The method detection limits were 0.1~0.2 mg/kg. Meanwhile, PAEs were determined in 30 plastic buckets of edible vegetable oil from supermarkets in Hangzhou city of China. The survey of 30 oil samples showed di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) had the 100% (30/30) detection rate. The levels of diisobutyl phthalate with 86.7% (26:30), di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) with 70% (21:30) and diethyl phthalate with 10% (3:30) were detected. It was worth note that DBP with 16.7% (5:30) samples and DEHP with 10% (3:30) samples were beyond the regular migrating limit, which indicated that more attention should be paid to the PAEs in oil with plastic package. PMID:23065997

  6. Graphene nanoplatelets as a highly efficient solid-phase extraction sorbent for determination of phthalate esters in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Luo, Xi; Zhang, FeiFang; Ji, Shunli; Yang, Bingcheng; Liang, Xinmiao

    2014-03-01

    Graphene nanoplatelet (GN) as a solid-phase extraction (SPE) sorbent in combination with high performance liquid chromatography has been used for the determination of five phthalate esters (PAEs) in aqueous solution. The operation parameters affecting the extraction efficiency were optimized. Comparative studies showed that GN was superior to other common SPE sorbents in terms of recovery and adsorption capacity. Under optimization conditions, detection limits of 0.09-0.33 ng mL(-1) were achieved for five PAEs and enrichment factors of 402-711 for the analytes were obtained. The proposed method was successfully applied for the determination of PAEs in tap water and drink samples with recoveries ranging from 87.7% to 100.9%. PMID:24468344

  7. Dose addition predicts the effects of a mixture of five phthalate esters to inhibit fetal testosterone production and gene expression, and postnatal reproductive development in the Sprague Dawley rat

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to some phthalate esters (PE) during sexual differentiation induces reproductive malformations in male and female rats. In the fetal male, these lesions result from phthalate-induced reductions in testicular testosterone (T) production and insulin-like hormone 3 (insl3) ...

  8. Current status and historical variations of phthalate ester (PAE) contamination in the sediments from a large Chinese lake (Lake Chaohu).

    PubMed

    Kang, Lei; Wang, Qing-Mei; He, Qi-Shuang; He, Wei; Liu, Wen-Xiu; Kong, Xiang-Zhen; Yang, Bin; Yang, Chen; Jiang, Yu-Jiao; Xu, Fu-Liu

    2016-06-01

    The residual levels of phthalate esters (PAEs) in the surface and two core sediments from Lake Chaohu were measured with a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS). The temporal-spatial distributions, compositions of PAEs, and their effecting factors were investigated. The results indicated that di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), diisobutyl phthalate (DIBP), and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) were three dominant PAE components in both the surface and core sediments. The residual level of total detected PAEs (∑PAEs) in the surface sediments (2.146 ± 2.255 μg/g dw) was lower than that in the western core sediments (10.615 ± 9.733 μg/g) and in the eastern core sediments (5.109 ± 4.741 μg/g). The average content of ∑PAEs in the surface sediments from the inflow rivers (4.128 ± 1.738 μg/g dw) was an order of magnitude higher than those from the lake (0.323 ± 0.093 μg/g dw), and there were similar PAE compositions between the lake and inflow rivers. This finding means that there were important effects of PAE input from the inflow rivers on the compositions and distributions of PAEs in the surface sediments. An increasing trend was found for the residual levels of ΣPAEs, DnBP, and DIBP from the bottom to the surface in both the western and eastern core sediments. Increasing PAE usage with the population growth, urbanization, and industrial and agricultural development in Lake Chaohu watershed would result in the increasing production of PAEs and their resulting presence in the sediments. The significant positive relationships were also found between the PAE contents and the percentage of sand particles, as well as TOC contents in the sediment cores. PMID:26330308

  9. Occurrence and fate of phthalate esters in full-scale domestic wastewater treatment plants and their impact on receiving waters along the Songhua River in China.

    PubMed

    Gao, Dawen; Li, Zhe; Wen, Zhidan; Ren, Nanqi

    2014-01-01

    The occurrence and fate of six phthalates: dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP), bis (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and di-n-octyl phthalate (DOP) were investigated as phthalates passed through three full-scale wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) with different treatment processes, and ultimately into the recipient Songhua River water in Harbin (China). The six phthalates were detected in the majority of aqueous and solid samples, with DEHP being the most abundant compound. The overall removal efficiency of ΣPAEs in the Cyclic Activated Sludge Technology (CAST) process was over 72%, while both the A/O and A/A/O processes achieved approximately 30% removal. The better performance of the CAST process relative to the Anoxic/Oxic (A/O) and Anaerobic/Anoxic/Oxic (A/A/O) processes was attributed to the indoor-conditions of the CAST plants, which effectively maintained the temperature of the treatment system. The fate of PAEs within two different types of WWTPs (CAST and A/A/O) were assessed qualitatively using mass balances. The results suggested that PAEs removal resulted from both biotransformation and adsorption, of which the former was particularly significant in the CAST process, while the latter was more significant in the A/A/O process. Substantial levels of several PAEs were detected in the Songhua River, especially downstream of the WWTPs, which means that the discharge from WWTPs has a strong impact on the water quality of the Songhua River during cold winter conditions. PMID:24001662

  10. [Simultaneous determination of four phthalate esters in water samples using ultrasound-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction coupled with high performance liquid chromatography].

    PubMed

    Ma, Yanling; Chen, Lingxin; Ding, Yangjun; Ming, Yongfei; Li, Jinhua

    2013-02-01

    Ultrasound-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction coupled with high performance liquid chromatography (UA-DLLME-HPLC) was developed for the determination of four typical phthalate esters (PAEs). The analyzed PAEs included dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP) and di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP). The UA-DLLME parameters such as types/volumes of extraction/dispersion solvents, ultrasonic time, ionic strength and extraction time, were investigated. Enrichment factor (EF)was employed to evaluate the extraction efficiency. The conditions were finally chosen: CCl4 (40 microL)/ acetonitrile (1.0 mL) as extraction/dispersion solvents; 30 g/L NaCl; ultrasound/centrifugation of 5 min. Under the optimized extraction conditions, UA-DLLME exhibited strong enrichment ability for the four PAEs. The EFs for DMP, DEP, DBP and DnOP obtained were 71, 144, 169 and 159, respectively. The limits of detection were 3.78, 1.77, 3.07 and 3.30 microg/L for DMP, DEP, DBP and DnOP, respectively. The satisfactory recoveries for three water samples at three spiked levels ranged from 82.99%-114.47%, with the relative standard deviations of 1.93%-8.31%. It is a convenient, speedy, environmentally benign method for the routine analysis of PAEs in water samples. PMID:23697182

  11. Determination of phthalate esters in cleaning and personal care products by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Viñas, Pilar; Campillo, Natalia; Pastor-Belda, Marta; Oller, Ainhoa; Hernández-Córdoba, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Phthalic acid esters (PEs) were preconcentrated from cleaning products, detergents and cosmetics using ultrasound assisted extraction (UAE) in the presence of acetonitrile, and then submitted to dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME). For DLLME, 3mL of acetonitrile extract, 150μL carbon tetrachloride and 10mL aqueous solution were used. The enriched organic phase was evaporated, reconstituted with 25μL acetonitrile and injected into a liquid chromatograph with a mobile phase (acetonitrile:10mM ammonium acetate, pH 4) under gradient elution. Detection was carried out using both diode-array (DAD) and electrospray-ion trap-tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-IT-MS/MS) in the multiple reaction monitoring mode (MRM) of the positive fragment ions. Quantification was carried out using matrix-matched standards. Detection limits were in the range 0.04-0.45ngmL(-1) for the six PEs considered. The recoveries obtained were in the 84-124% range, with RSDs lower than 10%. Thirty three different cleaning products were analyzed. The most frequently found compound was diethyl phthalate. PMID:25537172

  12. Encapsulating fatty acid esters of bioactive compounds in starch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lay Ma, Ursula Vanesa

    Interest in the use of many bioactive compounds in foods is growing in large part because of the apparent health benefits of these molecules. However, many of these compounds can be easily degraded during processing, storage, or their passage through the gastrointestinal tract before reaching the target site. In addition, they can be bitter, acrid, or astringent, which may negatively affect the sensory properties of the product. Encapsulation of these molecules may increase their stability during processing, storage, and in the gastrointestinal tract, while providing controlled release properties. The ability of amylose to form inclusion complexes and spherulites while entrapping certain compounds has been suggested as a potential method for encapsulation of certain molecules. However, complex formation and spherulitic crystallization are greatly affected by the type of inclusion molecules, type of starch, and processing conditions. The objectives of the present investigation were to: (a) study the effect of amylose, amylopectin, and intermediate material on spherulite formation and its microstructure; (b) investigate the formation of amylose and high amylose starch inclusion complexes with ascorbyl palmitate, retinyl palmitate, and phytosterol esters; (c) evaluate the ability of spherulites to form in the presence of fatty acid esters and to entrap ascorbyl palmitate, retinyl palmitate, and phytosterol esters; and (d) evaluate the effect of processing conditions on spherulite formation and fatty acid ester entrapment. Higher ratios of linear to branched molecules resulted in the formation of more and rounder spherulites with higher heat stability. In addition to the presence of branches, it appears that spherulitic crystallization is also affected by other factors, such as degree of branching, chain length, and chain length distribution. Amylose and Hylon VII starch formed inclusion complexes with fatty acid esters of ascorbic acid, retinol, or phytosterols

  13. Effects of Potamogeton crispus L.-bacteria interactions on the removal of phthalate acid esters from surface water.

    PubMed

    Chi, Jie; Gao, Jing

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the mechanism of submerged macrophyte-bacteria interactions on the removal of phthalic acid esters from surface water, experiments with and without Potamogeton crispus L. were performed. A two-compartment (i.e., water and plant) kinetic model was developed. The model adequately described the variation of dibutyl phthalate (DBP) and di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) in the plant-water system by providing the first-order rate constants of plant uptake (k1) and release (k2), microbial degradation in water (k3) and plant degradation (k4). During 10-d incubation, the presence of P. crispus enhanced the removal of DBP and DEHP from water by 6.3% and 22.4%. Compared with the experiment without P. crispus, biodegradation of DBP in water with P. crispus decreased by 8.3% because of plant uptake even though k3 increased by 30%. 21.4% of DBP transferred from water to plants, of which only small amount (5.1%) retained in the plant and the rest (94.9%) was degraded. Different from DBP, biodegradation of DEHP in water with P. crispus was a slightly higher than that without P. crispus. 25.5% of DEHP transferred from water to plants, of which a large portion (73.3%) retained in the plant and the rest (26.7%) was degraded. This finding reveals that the enhancement of DBP removal from surface water is mainly related to faster degradation in the plant, whereas it is mainly related to higher plant accumulation for DEHP. PMID:24968306

  14. Anionic surfactant micelle-mediated extraction coupled with dispersive magnetic microextraction for the determination of phthalate esters.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hao; Tian, Hong; Chen, Ming-Fei; You, Jun-Chen; Du, Li-Ming; Fu, Yun-Long

    2014-08-01

    A novel and easy two-step microextraction technique combining anionic surfactant coacervation phase (CAP) extraction and dispersive microsolid-phase extraction (D-μ-SPE) was developed for the high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection to determination of phthalate esters (PEs) in water samples. The method started with the phase separation of sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid (SDBSA) obtained by adding NaCl, whereas the target analytes were extracted in the CAP. The CAP was then retrieved using diatomaceous earth-supported magnetite nanoparticles. The effects of solution acidity, SDBSA, and electrolyte concentration, extraction time, magnetic material quantity, and elution solvent volume were discussed. Under optimal extraction conditions, the extraction recoveries ranged from 48.6 to 84.8%, and relative standard deviations ranged from 3.9 to 5.7% (n = 10). The detection limits ranged from 0.5 to 5.0 ng mL(-1) for the five PEs. The proposed method was used to determine the five PEs in the water samples and recoveries between 85.7 and 105.5%. PMID:25029225

  15. Analytical methods for the quantification of bisphenol A, alkylphenols, phthalate esters, and perfluoronated chemicals in biological samples.

    PubMed

    Nakazawa, Hiroyuki; Iwasaki, Yusuke; Ito, Rie

    2014-01-01

    Our modern society has created a large number of chemicals that are used for the production of everyday commodities including toys, food packaging, cosmetic products, and building materials. We enjoy a comfortable and convenient lifestyle with access to these items. In addition, in specialized areas, such as experimental science and various medical fields, laboratory equipment and devices that are manufactured using a wide range of chemical substances are also extensively employed. The association between human exposure to trace hazardous chemicals and an increased incidence of endocrine disease has been recognized. However, the evaluation of human exposure to such endocrine disrupting chemicals is therefore imperative, and the determination of exposure levels requires the analysis of human biological materials, such as blood and urine. To obtain as much information as possible from limited sample sizes, highly sensitive and reliable analytical methods are also required for exposure assessments. The present review focuses on effective analytical methods for the quantification of bisphenol A (BPA), alkylphenols (APs), phthalate esters (PEs), and perfluoronated chemicals (PFCs), which are chemicals used in the production of everyday commodities. Using data obtained from liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) and LC/MS/MS analyses, assessments of the risks to humans were also presented based on the estimated levels of exposure to PFCs. PMID:24420241

  16. Electrochemical degradation of the dimethyl phthalate ester on a fluoride-doped Ti/β-PbO2 anode.

    PubMed

    Souza, Fernanda L; Aquino, José M; Irikura, Kallyni; Miwa, Douglas W; Rodrigo, Manuel A; Motheo, Artur J

    2014-08-01

    The electrooxidation of the dimethyl phthalate (DMP) ester was galvanostatically carried out in a filter-press reactor using a fluoride-doped lead dioxide (β-PbO2,F) film electrodeposited on a Ti substrate. The variables investigated were the nature of the supporting electrolyte (NaCl and Na2SO4), pH (3, 7, and 10), current density (10, 20, 40, 60, and 80mAcm(-2)), and temperature (10, 20, 30, 40, and 50°C). The removal of DMP was monitored through high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and total organic carbon (TOC) analysis. The best conditions were obtained using Na2SO4 and at low current densities, independent of the solution pH or temperature. These conditions led to the highest levels of current efficiencies and complete combustion. However, the TOC removal levels were low, due to the generation of highly oxidized intermediates, which was confirmed by the intermediates detected by HPLC. PMID:24613504

  17. Phthalate esters in soil, plastic film, and vegetable from greenhouse vegetable production bases in Beijing, China: Concentrations, sources, and risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Li, Cheng; Chen, Jiayi; Wang, Jihua; Han, Ping; Luan, Yunxia; Ma, Xupu; Lu, Anxiang

    2016-10-15

    The increased use of plastic film in greenhouse vegetable production (GVP) could result in phthalate ester (PAE) contamination in vegetables. However, limited information is currently available on their occurrence and associated potential risks in GVP systems. The present study documents the occurrence and composition of 15 PAEs in soil, plastic film, and vegetable samples from eight large-scale GVP bases in Beijing, China. Results showed that PAEs are ubiquitous contaminants in these GVP bases. Total PAE concentrations ranged from 0.14 to 2.13mg/kg (mean 0.99mg/kg) in soils and from 0.15 to 6.94mg/kg (mean 1.49mg/kg) in vegetables. Di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, di-n-butyl phthalate, and diisobutyl phthalate were the most abundant components, which accounted for >90% of the total PAEs. This investigation also indicated that the widespread application of plastic film in GVP systems may be the primary source of these PAEs. The non-cancer and carcinogenic risks of target PAEs were estimated based on the exposures of vegetable intake. The hazard quotients of PAE in all vegetable samples were lower than 1 and the carcinogenic risks were also at acceptable levels for consumers. The data in this study can provide valuable information to understand the status of potential pollutants, specifically PAEs, in GVP systems. PMID:27318515

  18. Solid-phase microextraction of phthalate esters from aqueous media by electrochemically deposited carbon nanotube/polypyrrole composite on a stainless steel fiber.

    PubMed

    Asadollahzadeh, H; Noroozian, E; Maghsoudi, Sh

    2010-06-11

    A novel direct immersion solid-phase microextraction (DI-SPME) method using a stainless steel wire electrochemically coated with oxidized multiwalled carbon nanotubes-polypyrrole composite (MWCNTs-PPy) was used in the gas chromatographic (GC) determination of phthalate esters in aqueous samples. The composite coating did not swell in organic solvents nor did it strip off from the substrate. It was also highly stable and extremely adherent to the surface of the steel fiber. The effects of various parameters on the efficiency of SPME process such as extraction time, extraction temperature, ionic strength, desorption time, and desorption temperature were studied. Under optimized conditions, the detection limits for the phthalate esters varied between 0.05 and 0.1 ng mL(-1), the inter-day and intra-day relative standard deviations for various phthalates at 1.0 ng mL(-1) concentration level (N=7) using a single fiber were 6.2-10.2% and 7.7-10.5, respectively. The fiber-to fiber RSD% (N=3) was 9.3-12.1% at 10 ng mL(-1). The linear ranges varied between 0.5 and 300 ng mL(-1). The method was successfully applied to the analysis of mineral water samples with the recoveries from 90 to 113%. PMID:20510900

  19. A monograph on the remediation of hazardous phthalates.

    PubMed

    Benjamin, Sailas; Pradeep, Selvanesan; Josh, Moolakkariyil Sarath; Kumar, Sunil; Masai, Eiji

    2015-11-15

    Phthalates or phthalic acid esters are a group of xenobiotic and hazardous compounds blended in plastics to enhance their plasticity and versatility. Enormous quantities of phthalates are produced globally for the production of plastic goods, whose disposal and leaching out into the surroundings cause serious concerns to the environment, biota and human health. Though in silico computational, in vitro mechanistic, pre-clinical animal and clinical human studies showed endocrine disruption, hepatotoxic, teratogenic and carcinogenic properties, usage of phthalates continues due to their cuteness, attractive chemical properties, low production cost and lack of suitable alternatives. Studies revealed that microbes isolated from phthalate-contaminated environmental niches efficiently bioremediate various phthalates. Based upon this background, this review addresses the enumeration of major phthalates used in industry, routes of environmental contamination, evidences for health hazards, routes for in situ and ex situ microbial degradation, bacterial pathways involved in the degradation, major enzymes involved in the degradation process, half-lives of phthalates in environments, etc. Briefly, this handy module would enable the readers, environmentalists and policy makers to understand the impact of phthalates on the environment and the biota, coupled with the concerted microbial efforts to alleviate the burden of ever increasing load posed by phthalates. PMID:26004054

  20. Phthalates and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in retail stores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Ying; Liang, Yirui; Urquidi, Jorge R.; Siegel, Jeffrey A.

    2014-04-01

    Retail stores contain a wide range of products that can emit a variety of indoor pollutants. Among these chemicals, phthalate esters and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are two important categories, because they are extensively used as additives in consumer products and associated with serious health concerns. This study measured six phthalate and 14 PBDE compounds inside of 12 retail stores in Texas and Pennsylvania, U.S. Phthalates and PBDEs were widely found in the retail environment, indicating that they are ubiquitous indoor air pollutants. DEP, DnBP, and DEHP were the most abundant phthalates, with DnBP showing the highest concentration (0.23 ± 0.36 μg m-3). PBDEs were dominated by BDE-28, -99, and -209, having concentrations as high as 0.85 ± 1.99 ng m-3 (BDE-99). The levels of phthalates and PBDEs measured in this study are comparable to concentrations found in previous investigations of residential buildings, with phthalates showing lower concentrations and PBDEs exhibiting higher concentrations in retail stores. The potential co-occurrence of phthalates was not as strong as that of PBDEs, suggesting that phthalates might have more diverse sources. Whole building emission rates were calculated and showed similar patterns of variations as indoor air concentrations, suggestion the diversity of indoor sources of phthalates and PBDEs in retail environments.

  1. The utilization of fillers and reinforcements to develop an optimal DAP (diallyl phthalate) molding compound

    SciTech Connect

    Kaye, C.J.; Schneider, R.E.; Katz, H.S.; Milewski, J.V.; Utility Development Corp., Livingston, NJ )

    1989-01-01

    Diallyl phthalate (DAP) resin-based compounds were formulated and tested. In these formulations, various types of fillers and fiberglass reinforcements were used in different concentrations while taking into consideration packing concepts, optimum aspect (L/D) ratios, resin content, rheology of the molding compound, and ultimately, the compound's performance. These formulations were required for transfer molding without restricting the melt flow through a gate size of less than 1 mm. The end products are very small parts that must conform to stringent dimensional tolerances (typically {plus minus}0.05 mm) and exhibit physical properties that exceed the requirements specified by MIL-M-14G without compromising excellent electrical characteristics. These objectives were achieved by changing from chopped glass roving to screened, milled fiberglass, by the use of microspherical fillers, and by improving micro packing which allowed an increase in the total

  2. Determination of alkylphenols and phthalate esters in vegetables and migration studies from their packages by means of stir bar sorptive extraction coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Cacho, J I; Campillo, N; Viñas, P; Hernández-Córdoba, M

    2012-06-01

    This paper describes a method for the determination of three alkylphenols (APs), 4-tert-octylphenol (tOP), 4-n-octylphenol (OP) and 4-nonylphenol (NP), and six phthalate esters (PEs), dimethylphthalate (DMP), diethylphthalate (DEP), di-n-butylphthalate (DBP), n-butylbenzylphthalate (BBP), di-2-ethylhexylphthalate (DEHP) and di-n-octylphthalate (DOP), in vegetables using stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) in combination with thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (TD-GC-MS). Ultrasonic radiation was used to extract the analytes from the solid food matrix, and the extract obtained was preconcentrated by SBSE. The different parameters affecting both stages were carefully optimized. The method was applied to analyze commercial vegetables, in the form of plastic packed salads and canned greens, as well as the corresponding filling liquids of the canned food. Quantification of the samples was carried out against aqueous standards using an internal standard (anthracene). The analysis of a 2 g vegetable sample provided detection limits between 12.7 and 105.8 pg g⁻¹ for OP and DEHP, respectively. Migration studies from the plastic packages of the vegetables samples analyzed were carried out. DEP, DBP and DEHP were found to have migrated from the bags to the simulant and the same compounds were quantified in lettuce, corn salad, arugula, parsley and chard, at concentration levels in the 8-51 ng g⁻¹ range. However, OP and NP were found in only two vegetable samples and one filling liquid, but neither was detected in any package. The proposed method provided recoveries of 83-118%. PMID:22533911

  3. Surfactant-modified flowerlike layered double hydroxide-coated magnetic nanoparticles for preconcentration of phthalate esters from environmental water samples.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiaoli; Liu, Shuangliu; Wang, Peifang; Tang, Zhi; Niu, Hongyun; Cai, Yaqi; Wu, Fengchang; Wang, Hao; Meng, Wei; Giesy, John P

    2015-10-01

    A novel type of layered, flowerlike magnetic double hydroxide (MLDH) nanoparticles modified by surfactants has been successfully synthesized and was applied as an effective sorbent for pre-concentration of several phthalate ester pollutants (PAEs) from water prior to quantification. The MLDH was obtained via a simple ultrasound-assisted method by using silica coated Fe3O4 as the core and anisotropic Mg-Al layered double hydroxide (Mg-Al LDH) nanocrystals as the shell to which analytes were absorbed. Orientation and dimensionality hierarchical structure as well as the large expandable interlayer free space and positive charge of the Mg-Al LDH shell make it easier to form anionic surfactant micelles on its surface via self-assembly. Due to its high adsorption area, compared with non-mesoporous nano solid-phase extraction agents, mesoporous channel shell and reduction diffusion path, MLDH exhibited high extraction efficiency of organic target residues. Under optimized conditions, with a total of 30mg of adsorbant added to from samples containing 400mL water from the environment recoveries of DPP, DBP, DCP and DOP were consistent with ranges of 69-101%, 79-101%, 86-102% and 63-100%, respectively. Standard deviations of recoveries ranged from 1 to 7%, respectively and the method was sensitive with limits of detection of 12.3, 18.7, 36.5 and 15.6ngL(-1). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of use of surfactant-modified MLDH nanoparticles and its application as adsorbent to pre-concentration of PAEs from environmental water samples prior to instrumental analyses. PMID:26342875

  4. Solid-phase microextraction of phthalate esters in water sample using different activated carbon-polymer monoliths as adsorbents.

    PubMed

    Lirio, Stephen; Fu, Chung-Wei; Lin, Jhih-Yun; Hsu, Meng-Ju; Huang, Hsi-Ya

    2016-07-13

    In this study, the application of different activated carbon-polymer (AC-polymer) monoliths as adsorbents for the solid-phase microextraction (SPME) of phthalate esters (PAEs) in water sample were investigated. The activated carbon (AC) was embedded in organic polymers, poly(butyl methacrylate-co-ethylene dimethacrylate) (poly(BMA-EDMA)) or poly(styrene-co-divinylbenzene) (poly(STY-DVB)), via a 5-min microwave-assisted or a 15-min water bath heating polymerization. Preliminary investigation on the performance of the native poly(BMA-EDMA) and poly(STY-DVB) demonstrated remarkable adsorption efficiencies for PAEs. However, due to the strong hydrophobic, π-π, and hydrogen bonding interactions between the analytes and polymers, low extraction recoveries were achieved. In contrast, the presence of AC in native polymers not only enhanced the adsorption efficiencies but also assisted the PAE desorption, especially for AC-poly(STY-DVB) with extraction recovery ranged of 76.2-99.3%. Under the optimized conditions, the extraction recoveries for intra-, inter-day and column-to-column were in the range of 76.5-100.8% (<3.7% RSDs), 77.2-97.6% (<5.6% RSDs) and 75.5-99.7% (<6.2% RSDs), respectively. The developed AC-poly(STY-DVB) monolithic column showed good mechanical stability, which can be reused for more than 30 extraction times without any significant loss in the extraction recoveries of PAEs. The AC-poly(STY-DVB) monolithic column was successfully applied in SPME of PAEs in water sample with extraction recovery ranged of 78.8%-104.6% (<5.5% RSDs). PMID:27237837

  5. Competitive adsorption and transport of phthalate esters in the clay layer of JiangHan plain, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hui; Zhang, Dan; Li, Minjing; Tong, Lei; Feng, Liang

    2013-09-01

    This study aimed to investigate the adsorption behavior of phthalate esters (PAEs) in the clay layer of JiangHan Plain, China, so as to make better understanding about the source and control of PAEs in groundwater. Adsorption kinetics, isotherms, and miscible displacement experiments were conducted, and different models were used to simulate the experiment data. Results showed that the adsorption kinetics followed pseudo-second-order model. The kinetic parameters showed quantitative relationships with straight and branched chain carbon numbers of PAEs. These relationships were simulated and carefully discussed. The adsorption isotherms followed linear model better. And partition coefficient (Kd) increased with the carbon chain length of PAEs. Miscible displacement experiments showed that DEHP could not flow out of the column in 100d. HYDRUS-1D and two-site sorption model (linear, first order nonequilibrium adsorption) were used for the simulation of the breakthrough and transport curves of DMP, DEP, DBP, and DiBP. Results showed that the dispersion coefficients (D) and partition coefficient (Kd(')) increased with the carbon chain length. About 10% DBP and DiBP and 1% DMP and DEP were absorbed on the type-1 sites. DMP and DEP were much easier to transfer into the type-2 sites than DBP and DiBP. DBP and DiBP might aggregate in micro-pores of the sorbent. Retardation coefficient and Damkohler number were also calculated and discussed. It was proved that clay layer is an important retarder for PAEs downward transport. However, it can be passed through if the time is sufficient. PMID:23706400

  6. Ultra-trace determination of phthalate ester metabolites in seawater, sediments, and biota from an urbanized marine inlet by LC/ESI-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Blair, Joel D; Ikonomou, Michael G; Kelly, Barry C; Surridge, Blair; Gobas, Frank A P C

    2009-08-15

    This study presents results of an analytical method developed for the quantification of monoalkyl phthalate esters (MPEs) in seawater, sediments, and biota. The method uses accelerated solvent extraction, solid-phase extraction, and liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC/ ESI-MS/MS). Results show the method is robust and can provide trace measurement of several MPE analytes at low parts per trillion levels in water and low parts per billion levels in sediments and biological tissues. Analyte recoveries varied between 70% and 110%. Method detection limits (MDLs) varied between 0.19 and 3.98 ng/L in seawater and between 0.024 and 0.99 ng/g in sediment and biota, which is approximately 10-50 times lower than previously reported MDLs using gas chromatography mass spectrometry. We applied the method to field collected samples of seawater, sediments, and tissues of mussels, crabs, and fish from False Creek an urbanized marine inlet near Vancouver, Canada. The results indicate residues of several MPEs can be found in surface waters, sediments, and organism tissues of this marine system. Monoethyl phthalate (MEP), mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP), and mono-(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate (MEHP) were frequently detected in all matrices. MnBP generally exhibited the highest concentrations among MPEs analyzed. Detectable concentrations of MPEs varied from 1 to 600 ng/L in seawater, 0.1 to 20 ng/g dry wt in sediments, and 0.1 to 600 ng/g wet wt in biota. Observed concentrations of low molecular weight MPEs in mussels were found to be significantly higher (P < 0.05) than those of corresponding parent DPEs (e.g., MnBP > DBP). Mono-iso-nonyl-phthalate (MoC9) and mono-iso-decyl phthalate (MoC10), which were routinely detected in water and sediments, were not detected in False Creek biota, indicating negligible uptake and/or in vivo bioformation of these high molecular weight MPEs. The ability to measure MPEs in complex environmental samples provided by

  7. Mechanism of action and cumulative effects of phthalate esters to alter male reproductive development in the rat.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Phthalate diesters are high-produciton volume chemicals used to impart flexibility to polyvinyl plastic (e.g. children's toys and medical tubing) as well as other products (e.g. health and beauty products). Humans are ubiquitously exposed to these chemicals. Certain phthalate est...

  8. Rapid screening of five phthalate esters from beverages by ultrasound-assisted surfactant-enhanced emulsification microextraction coupled with gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Yan, Hongyuan; Cheng, Xiaoling; Yan, Kuo

    2012-10-21

    A rapid ultrasound-assisted surfactant-enhanced emulsification microextraction (UASEME) method coupled with gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID) is proposed for the rapid screening of five phthalate esters in bottled beverages. In the UASEME procedure, a nonionic surfactant (Triton X-100) was used as the emulsifier, without application of any organic dispersive solvents typically required in dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction. Triton X-100 as the emulsifier accelerated the formation of fine droplets from the extraction solvent in the sample solution under ultrasound radiation, thus combining the advantages of dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) and ultrasound-assisted emulsification microextraction (UAEME). Under the optimum conditions, the enrichment factors of the five analytes ranged from 230 to 288 fold and the recoveries ranged from 89.3% to 100.1%. The limits of detection (LODs) based on signal to noise of 3 were 0.41-0.79 μg L(-1). Intra-assay and inter-assay precision, expressed as the relative standard deviation (RSD), were ≤5.46% and 5.81%, respectively. The proposed UASEME-GC/FID method was demonstrated to be simple, practical and environmentally friendly for the determination of trace phthalate esters in beverage samples. PMID:22932997

  9. ESTIMATION OF HYDROLYSIS RATE CONSTANTS OF CARBOXYLIC ACID ESTER AND PHOSPHATE ESTER COMPOUNDS IN AQUEOUS SYSTEMS FROM MOLECULAR STRUCTURE BY SPARC

    EPA Science Inventory

    SPARC (SPARC Performs Automated Reasoning in Chemistry) chemical reactivity models were extended to calculate hydrolysis rate constants for carboxylic acid ester and phosphate ester compounds in aqueous non- aqueous and systems strictly from molecular structure. The energy diffe...

  10. Di-pentyl phthalate dosing during sexual differentiation disrupts fetal testis function and postnatal development of the male Sprague dawley rat with greater relative potency than other phthalates

    EPA Science Inventory

    Phthalate esters (PEs) constitute a large class of plasticizer compounds that are widely used for many consumer product applications. Ten or more members of the PE class of compounds have been shown to induce male fetal endocrine toxicity and postnatal reproductive malformations ...

  11. Determination of phthalate esters at trace level from environmental water samples by magnetic solid-phase extraction with Fe@SiO2@polyethyleneimine magnetic nanoparticles as adsorbent prior to high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qingxiang; Zheng, Zhenwen; Xiao, Junping; Fan, Huili; Yan, Xiuyi

    2016-07-01

    In this work, polyethyleneimine grafted silica-coated nanoscale zero valent iron (Fe@SiO2@PEI) has been successfully synthesized and was investigated to be an effective adsorbent for efficient enrichment of five phthalate esters such as diphenyl phthalate, dibenzyl phthalate, butyl benzyl phthalate, diphenyl isophthalate, and dicyclohexyl phthalate (DPP, DBP, BBP, DPIP, and DCHP) from environmental water samples. The structure and morphology of the materials were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and X-ray diffraction(XRD). The parameters that influenced the enrichment performance such as amount of sorbent, sample pH, type of eluent, volume of eluent, salting-out effect, adsorption time, and desorption time were investigated. Under optimal conditions, excellent linear relationships were found in the concentration range from 0.5 to 100 μg L(-1), the limits of detection (S/N = 3) were in the range of 0.26-0.45 μg L(-1), and the intra-day and inter-day precisions (n = 6) were in the range of 3.7-4.8 and 3.2-4.3 %, respectively. The developed method was evaluated with real water samples, and satisfied spiked recoveries in the range of 99-104 % were achieved. The experimental results proved that Fe@SiO2@PEI had good adsorption for phthalate esters, and would be a good adsorbent for the magnetic solid-phase extraction of important pollutants from environmental water samples.ᅟ Graphical abstract A flowchart of the synthesis of polyethyleneimine grafted silica coated nanoscale zero valent iron (Fe@SiO2@PEI) and the process of the developed magnetic solid phase extraction of phthalate esters before the analysis by high performance liquid chromatography. PMID:27178558

  12. Using water plug-assisted analyte focusing by micelle collapse in combination with microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography for analyzing phthalate esters.

    PubMed

    Chao, Hsi-Chun; Liao, Hsiao-Wei; Kuo, Ching-Hua

    2016-05-01

    Phthalate plasticizers are widely used in the plastics industry, but they have been detected in soft drinks, pharmaceuticals and food products. This study developed a method that uses water plug-assisted analyte focusing by micelle collapse and microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography (WPA-AFMC-MEEKC) for quantifying benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), and diisodecyl phthalate (DIDP) in pediatric pharmaceuticals. The AFMC strategy was applied to improve the detection sensitivity, and a short water plug was introduced to assist micelle collapse in the micelle dilution zone for sample stacking. To carry neutral phthalates into the capillary through electrokinetic injection, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) was added to the sample solution, and 8mM SDS was selected as the optimal concentration. The optimized background solution (BGS) contained 16.13mM phosphate buffer (pH=2.5), 150mM SDS, 0.75% n-octane (v/v), 5% 1-butanol (BuOH), 22.5% acetonitrile (ACN), and 15% isopropanol (IPA). Under the optimal separation conditions, four phthalates could be quantified within 20min with enhancement factors of 58, 200, 86 and 90 for DIDP, DEHP, BBP, and DBP, respectively, compared to the conventional MEEKC mode. The limits of detection were within the range of 0.047-0.010μgmL(-1). The accuracy of the method was within the range of 96-117%. The WPA-AFMC-MEEKC method was applied for the analysis of six pediatric pharmaceuticals, and the results demonstrated that the developed method is sensitive and accurate, allowing it to be used for quality control of pediatric pharmaceuticals. PMID:27063370

  13. A mixture of five phthalate esters inhibits fetal testicular testosterone production in a cummulative manner consistent with their predicted reproductive toxicity in the Sprague Dawley rat

    EPA Science Inventory

    Phthalate diesters are plasticizers to which humans are ubiquitously exposed. Exposure to certain phthalates during sexual differentiation causes reproductive tract malformations in male rats. In the fetal rat, exposure to the phthalates benzylbutyl (BBP), di(n)butyl (DBP), and...

  14. 40 CFR 721.3100 - Oligomeric silicic acid ester compound with a hy-droxyl-al-kyla-mine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Oligomeric silicic acid ester compound... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3100 Oligomeric silicic acid ester compound with a... chemical substance identified generically as oligomeric silicic acid ester compound with...

  15. 40 CFR 721.3100 - Oligomeric silicic acid ester compound with a hy-droxyl-al-kyla-mine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Oligomeric silicic acid ester compound... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3100 Oligomeric silicic acid ester compound with a... chemical substance identified generically as oligomeric silicic acid ester compound with...

  16. 40 CFR 721.3100 - Oligomeric silicic acid ester compound with a hy-droxyl-al-kyla-mine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Oligomeric silicic acid ester compound... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3100 Oligomeric silicic acid ester compound with a... chemical substance identified generically as oligomeric silicic acid ester compound with...

  17. 40 CFR 721.3100 - Oligomeric silicic acid ester compound with a hy-droxyl-al-kyla-mine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Oligomeric silicic acid ester compound... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3100 Oligomeric silicic acid ester compound with a... chemical substance identified generically as oligomeric silicic acid ester compound with...

  18. 40 CFR 721.3100 - Oligomeric silicic acid ester compound with a hy-droxyl-al-kyla-mine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Oligomeric silicic acid ester compound... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3100 Oligomeric silicic acid ester compound with a... chemical substance identified generically as oligomeric silicic acid ester compound with...

  19. 40 CFR 721.10410 - Polyether ester acid compound with a polyamine amide (generic) (P-05-714).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Polyether ester acid compound with a... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10410 Polyether ester acid compound with a.... (1) The chemical substance identified generically as polyether ester acid compound with a...

  20. 40 CFR 721.10410 - Polyether ester acid compound with a polyamine amide (generic) (P-05-714).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Polyether ester acid compound with a... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10410 Polyether ester acid compound with a.... (1) The chemical substance identified generically as polyether ester acid compound with a...

  1. 40 CFR 721.10410 - Polyether ester acid compound with a polyamine amide (generic) (P-05-714).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Polyether ester acid compound with a... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10410 Polyether ester acid compound with a.... (1) The chemical substance identified generically as polyether ester acid compound with a...

  2. Rapid determination of phthalate esters in alcoholic beverages by conventional ionic liquid dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction coupled with high performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Fan, Yingying; Liu, Shuhui; Xie, Qilong

    2014-02-01

    A very simple, fast and environmentally friendly sample extraction method was proposed for the analysis of phthalate esters (PAEs, di-isobutyl phthalate (DIBP), dibutylphthalate (DBP), butylbenzylphthalate (BBP) and bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP)) in alcoholic beverages by using conventional ionic liquid dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction. The samples were extracted by 160 μL 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate in the presence of appropriate amount of ethanol and 10% (w/v) sodium chloride solution; the enriched analytes in sedimented phases were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector (HPLC-DAD). Under the optimum conditions, a satisfactory linearity (in the range of 0.02-1 μg mL(-1) for white spirits and 0.01-0.5 μg mL(-1) for red wines with the correlation coefficients (r) varying from 0.9983 to 1), acceptable recovery rates (88.5-103.5% for white spirits and 91.6-104.6% for red wines), good repeatability (RSD ≤ 8.0%) and low detection limits (3.1-4.2 ng mL(-1) for white spirits and 1.5-2.2 ng mL(-1) for red wines) were obtained. The developed method was successfully applied for the determination of the four PAEs in 30 white spirits and 11 red wines collected locally, and the DBP content in 63% (19:30) white spirits exceeded the specific migration limit of 0.3 mg kg(-1) established by international regulation. PMID:24401417

  3. Determination of three phthalate esters in environmental samples by coal cinder extraction and cyclodextrin modified micellar electrokinetic chromatography.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hongli; Jiang, Feng; Chen, Lin; Zheng, Jing; Wu, Yiwei; Liu, Meilin

    2014-07-01

    A new micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) method using beta-cyclodextrin (ß-CD) as the electrophoresis additive has been developed for the simultaneous determination of dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP) and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) in environmental samples. To improve the sensitivity of cyclodextrin-modified MEKC (CD-MEKC), a flow injection procedure using a microcolumn packed with coal cinder as the solid-phase extractant was also investigated for the preconcentration and separation of DMP, DEP and DEHP in environmental samples. Parameters affecting CD-MEKC separation and coal cinder flow injection solid-phase extraction were systematically researched. In the presence of the running buffer [5 mmol/L of borax, 5% (v/v) methanol and 25 mmol/L of sodium dodecyl sulfate at pH 9.5], the addition of 14 mmol/L ß-CD greatly improved the separation efficiency. The analytes were quantitatively adsorbed by coal cinders and readily desorbed quantitatively with 0.2 mL of 10% (v/v) methanol-10 mmol/L disodium hydrogen phosphate. Under the optimum conditions, the enrichment factor of coal cinder was 60, and the determination limits of DMP, DEP and DEHP were 3.07, 2.07 and 4.06 ng/mL, respectively. The presented procedure was successfully applied to determine DMP, DEP and DEHP in landfill leachate and water samples with satisfactory results. PMID:23794720

  4. Food Emulsifier Glycerin Monostearate Increases Internal Exposure Levels of Six Priority Controlled Phthalate Esters and Exacerbates Their Male Reproductive Toxicities in Rats.

    PubMed

    Gao, Hai-Tao; Xu, Run; Cao, Wei-Xin; Zhou, Xu; Yan, Ye-Hui-Mei; Lu, Lingeng; Xu, Qian; Shen, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Human beings are inevitably exposed to ubiquitous phthalate esters (PAEs). Processed, packaged foods are popular nowadays, in which emulsifiers are frequently added as food additives. It is unclear how emulsifiers affect the bioavailability of ingested PAEs contaminants and their toxicities. The purposes of our study were to explore whether food emulsifier Glycerin Monostearate (GMS) could increase the internal exposure levels of six priority controlled PAEs and affect their reproductive toxicities when male rats are exposed to PAEs mixture (MIXPs). The male rats were exposed to MIXPs by gavage for thirty days in combination with or without given GMS. Phthalate monoesters (MPAEs), primary metabolites of PAEs, in rat urine were used as biomarkers to predict the internal exposure levels of the six PAEs, and their concentrations were determined using UPLC-MS. The reproductive toxicity was evaluated using serum testosterone levels test and histopathology of testes. Results showed that compared to PAEs exposure alone, the internal exposure levels of PAEs increased by 30%-49% in the presence of GMS. PAEs exposure led to the reduction of testosterone level by 23.4%-42.1% in the presence and absence of GMS, respectively, compared to the baseline. Testosterone levels in MIXPs+GMS and DEHP+GMS group were decreased by 9.1% and 13.6%, respectively, compared with MIXPs and DEHP group. Histopathology showed that injuries of testis (deciduous spermatids) were observed, and GMS exacerbated the injuries. The results indicated food emulsifiers chronically taken up might increase safety risks of food PAEs contaminants. PMID:27575856

  5. Food Emulsifier Glycerin Monostearate Increases Internal Exposure Levels of Six Priority Controlled Phthalate Esters and Exacerbates Their Male Reproductive Toxicities in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Hai-Tao; Xu, Run; Cao, Wei-Xin; Zhou, Xu; Yan, Ye-Hui-Mei; Lu, Lingeng; Xu, Qian; Shen, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Human beings are inevitably exposed to ubiquitous phthalate esters (PAEs). Processed, packaged foods are popular nowadays, in which emulsifiers are frequently added as food additives. It is unclear how emulsifiers affect the bioavailability of ingested PAEs contaminants and their toxicities. The purposes of our study were to explore whether food emulsifier Glycerin Monostearate (GMS) could increase the internal exposure levels of six priority controlled PAEs and affect their reproductive toxicities when male rats are exposed to PAEs mixture (MIXPs). The male rats were exposed to MIXPs by gavage for thirty days in combination with or without given GMS. Phthalate monoesters (MPAEs), primary metabolites of PAEs, in rat urine were used as biomarkers to predict the internal exposure levels of the six PAEs, and their concentrations were determined using UPLC-MS. The reproductive toxicity was evaluated using serum testosterone levels test and histopathology of testes. Results showed that compared to PAEs exposure alone, the internal exposure levels of PAEs increased by 30%-49% in the presence of GMS. PAEs exposure led to the reduction of testosterone level by 23.4%-42.1% in the presence and absence of GMS, respectively, compared to the baseline. Testosterone levels in MIXPs+GMS and DEHP+GMS group were decreased by 9.1% and 13.6%, respectively, compared with MIXPs and DEHP group. Histopathology showed that injuries of testis (deciduous spermatids) were observed, and GMS exacerbated the injuries. The results indicated food emulsifiers chronically taken up might increase safety risks of food PAEs contaminants. PMID:27575856

  6. Degradation of phthalate esters and acetaminophen in river sediments using the electrokinetic process integrated with a novel Fenton-like process catalyzed by nanoscale schwertmannite.

    PubMed

    Yang, Gordon C C; Huang, Sheng-Chih; Wang, Chih-Lung; Jen, Yu-Sheng

    2016-09-01

    The main objective of this study was to develop and establish an in situ remediation technology coupling nano-schwertmannite/H2O2 process and electrokinetic (EK) process for the removal of phthalates (PAEs) and acetaminophen in river sediments. Test results are given as follows: (1) injection of nano-schwertmannite slurry and H2O2 (collectively, "novel oxidant") into the anode reservoir would yield ·OH radicals that then will be diffused into the sediment compartment and further transported by the electroosmotic flow and/or electrophoresis from the anode end toward the cathode to degrade PAEs and pharmaceuticals in the sediment if any; (2) an electric potential gradient of 1.5 V cm(-1) would help the removal of PAEs and acetaminophen in the blank test, which no "novel oxidants" was added to the remediation system; (3) the practice of electrode polarity reversal would maintain neutral pH for sediment after remediation; (4) injection of equally divided dose of 10 mL novel oxidant into the anode reservoir and four injection ports on the top of sediment chamber would further enhance the removal efficiency; and (5) an extension of treatment time from 14 d to 28 d is beneficial to the removal efficiency as expected. In comparison, the remediation performance obtained by the EK-assisted nano-SHM/H2O2 oxidation process is superior to that of the batch degradation test, but is comparable with other EK integrated technologies for the treatment of same contaminants. Thus, it is expected that the EK-assisted nano-SHM/H2O2 oxidation process is a viable technology for the removal of phthalate esters and pharmaceuticals from river sediments in large-scale operations. PMID:27309673

  7. Flow of sewage sludge-borne phthalate esters (PAEs) from human release to human intake: implication for risk assessment of sludge applied to soil.

    PubMed

    Meng, Xiang-Zhou; Wang, Ying; Xiang, Nan; Chen, Ling; Liu, Zhigang; Wu, Bing; Dai, Xiaohu; Zhang, Yun-Hui; Xie, Zhiyong; Ebinghaus, Ralf

    2014-04-01

    The wide production and use of phthalate esters (PAEs) in both industry and commercial products lead to their ubiquitous existence in the environment. However, understanding flow and pathway of human exposure to PAEs from sources to receptors is necessary and challenging. In this study, we selected final sewage sludge, an inevitable byproduct of wastewater treatment plants (WWTP), as one type of important carrier/sources of PAEs to clarify the flow of PAEs between human and the environment, e.g. the release by human to sludge and in turn ingestion by human after these sludges were disposed as soil amendment. Twenty-five sludge samples were collected from 25 wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Shanghai, East China. Of all 16 PAE congeners, di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and dibutyl phthalate (DnBP) were predominant with mean concentrations of 97.4 and 22.4 μg/g dw, respectively, both locating at the high end of the global range. WWTP treating industrial waster generally contained higher PAEs compared to those treating domestic wastewater, but no positive relationship was found between PAE levels with the percentage of industrial wastewater. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed that similar PAE sources for all WWTPs in Shanghai with three exceptions, in which specific PAE products were made. The annual mass loadings via sludge of DEHP, DnBP, and Σ16PAEs were 31.4, 7.44, and 39.6 tons in Shanghai and 1042, 247, and 1314 tons in China, respectively, only accounting for 0.09% of the total consumption of PAEs in China. If this sludge is applied in soil, human will take 16.4 and 3.8 μg/kg bw for DEHP and DnBP every day, respectively, via dietary and soil ingestion, which were lower than the toxicological safety parameters. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report to analyze the flow of sludge-borne PAEs from human release to human intake. PMID:24468498

  8. Nematicidal activity of natural ester compounds and their analogues against pine wood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus.

    PubMed

    Seo, Seon-Mi; Kim, Junheon; Koh, Sang-Hyun; Ahn, Young-Joon; Park, Il-Kwon

    2014-09-17

    In this study, we evaluated the nematicidal activity of natural ester compounds against the pine wood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, to identify candidates for the development of novel, safe nematicides. We also tested the nematicidal activity of synthesized analogues of these ester compounds to determine the structure-activity relationship. Among 28 ester compounds tested, isobutyl 2-methylbutanoate, 3-methylbutyl 2-methylbutanoate, 3-methylbutyl tiglate, 3-methyl-2-butenyl 2-methylbutanoate, and pentyl 2-methylbutanoate showed strong nematicidal activity against the pine wood nematode at a 1 mg/mL concentration. The other ester compounds showed weak nematicidal activity. The LC50 values of 3-methylbutyl tiglate, isobutyl 2-methylbutanoate, 3-methylbutyl 2-methylbutanoate, 3-methyl-2-butenyl 2-methylbutanoate, and pentyl 2-methylbutanoate were 0.0218, 0.0284, 0.0326, 0.0402, and 0.0480 mg/mL, respectively. The ester compounds described herein merit further study as potential nematicides for pine wood nematode control. PMID:25153339

  9. COMBINATION DOSE OF TWO PHTHALATES ADDITIVELY DEPRESSES TESTOSTERONE PRODUCTION AND INSL3 GENE EXPRESSION IN MALE RAT FETUSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) and di(n-butyl) phthalate (DBP) are phthalate esters used to modify plastic and polymer textures. Individually,DEHP and DBP reduce testosterone production, inhibit reproductive tract development, andinduce reproductive organ malformationsin male rats...

  10. Genotoxicity of phthalates.

    PubMed

    Erkekoglu, Pınar; Kocer-Gumusel, Belma

    2014-12-01

    Many of the environmental, occupational and industrial chemicals are able to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cause oxidative stress. ROS may lead to genotoxicity, which is suggested to contribute to the pathophysiology of many human diseases, including inflammatory diseases and cancer. Phthalates are ubiquitous environmental chemicals and are well-known peroxisome proliferators (PPs) and endocrine disruptors. Several in vivo and in vitro studies have been conducted concerning the carcinogenic and mutagenic effects of phthalates. Di(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate (DEHP) and several other phthalates are shown to be hepatocarcinogenic in rodents. The underlying factor in the hepatocarcinogenesis is suggested to be their ability to generate ROS and cause genotoxicity. Several methods, including chromosomal aberration test, Ames test, micronucleus assay and hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (HPRT) mutation test and Comet assay, have been used to determine genotoxic properties of phthalates. Comet assay has been an important tool in the measurement of the genotoxic potential of many chemicals, including phthalates. In this review, we will mainly focus on the studies, which were conducted on the DNA damage caused by different phthalate esters and protection studies against the genotoxicity of these chemicals. PMID:25174766

  11. Production of wax esters during aerobic growth of marine bacteria on isoprenoid compounds

    PubMed

    Rontani; Bonin; Volkman

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes the production of isoprenoid wax esters during the aerobic degradation of 6,10,14-trimethylpentadecan-2-one and phytol by four bacteria (Acinetobacter sp. strain PHY9, Pseudomonas nautica [IP85/617], Marinobacter sp. strain CAB [DSMZ 11874], and Marinobacter hydrocarbonoclasticus [ATCC 49840]) isolated from the marine environment. Different pathways are proposed to explain the formation of these compounds. In the case of 6,10, 14-trimethylpentadecan-2-one, these esters result from the condensation of some acidic and alcoholic metabolites produced during the biodegradation, while phytol constitutes the alcohol moiety of most of the esters produced during growth on this isoprenoid alcohol. The amount of these esters formed increased considerably in N-limited cultures, in which the ammonium concentration corresponds to conditions often found in marine sediments. This suggests that the bacterial formation of isoprenoid wax esters might be favored in such environments. Although conflicting evidence exists regarding the stability of these esters in sediments, it seems likely that, under some conditions, bacterial esterification can enhance the preservation potential of labile compounds such as phytol. PMID:9872783

  12. [Quality assurance/quality control for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and phthalate esters in soils using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lifei; Huang, Yeru; Shi, Shuangxin; Zhou, Li; Dong, Liang; Zhang, Ting; Zeng, Liangzi; Mi, Fangzhuo; Shao, Dingding

    2010-05-01

    A method for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and phthalate esters (PAEs) in soil samples by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was developed. After extracted by accelerated solvent extraction or ultrasonic extraction by dichloromethane-hexane (1:1, v/v) and dichloromethane-acetone (1:1, v/v), respectively, the extracts were cleaned up by solid phase extraction and/or gel permeation chromatography. Quality control and quality assurance procedures were carried out with the methods of whole procedure blank, blank spike recovery, clean soil matrix spike recovery, and the comparison with reference materials. The method detection limits were 0.13-2.2 microg/kg and 0.19-0.52 microg/kg and the average recoveries were 41.5%-116.9% 90.7%-107.1% for the PAHs and the PAEs, respectively. The results showed that the method can meet the technical requirements on the soil sample test and analysis in the national survey of soil pollution. PMID:20812622

  13. Occurence of the phthalate esters in soil and street dust samples from the Novi Sad city area, Serbia, and the influence on the children's and adults' exposure.

    PubMed

    Škrbić, Biljana D; Ji, Yaqin; Đurišić-Mladenović, Nataša; Zhao, Jie

    2016-07-15

    This is the first study reporting the presence of 6 phthalic acid esters (PAEs) in 60 composite soil and street dust samples collected in the urban zone of Novi Sad, the second largest city in Serbia. The results were further used to assess children's and adults' PAEs nondietary daily intakes (DIs) through incidental soil and dust ingestion and/or dermal absorption. The study could be regarded as the important baseline for future monitoring of PAEs in the urban environments, particularly as it contributes to the rare data on PAEs occurence in the street dust. All 6 PAEs were detected in every analyzed soil and street dust samples from 0.0002mgkg(-1) to 4.82mgkg(-1), with the highest level obtained for di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), which was the most dominant PAE (70-96%). The highest total PAEs (Σ6PAEs) contents in soil (2.12mgkg(-1)) and street dust (5.45mgkg(-1)) samples were obtained for the samples from city parks. In all soil samples, Σ6PAEs exceeded the soil sustainable quality limit sets by the relevant Serbian Regulation, but were much lower than the limit requiring remediation measures. Concerning the estimated DIs, children were more susceptible to PAEs intake than adults regardless of the exposure routes. All the estimated DIs values were far below the known reference values. PMID:27039030

  14. Airborne phthalate partitioning to cotton clothing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrison, Glenn; Li, Hongwan; Mishra, Santosh; Buechlein, Melissa

    2015-08-01

    Accumulation on indoor surfaces and fabrics can increase dermal uptake and non-dietary ingestion of semi-volatile organic compounds. To better understand the potential for dermal uptake of phthalates from clothing, we measured the mass accumulation on cotton fabrics of two phthalate esters commonly identified in indoor air: diethylphthalate (DEP) and di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP). In 10-day chamber experiments, we observed strong air-to-cloth partitioning of these phthalates to shirts and jean material. Area-normalized partition coefficients ranged from 209 to 411 (μg/m2)/(μg/m3) for DEP and 2850 to 6580 (μg/m2)/(μg/m3) for DnBP. Clothing volume-normalized partition coefficients averaged 2.6 × 105 (μg/m3)/(μg/m3) for DEP and 3.9 × 106 (μg/m3)/(μg/m3) for DnBP. At equilibrium, we estimate that a typical set of cotton clothing can sorb DnBP from the equivalent of >10,000 m3 of indoor air, thereby substantially decreasing external mass-transfer barriers to dermal uptake. Further, we estimate that a significant fraction of a child's body burden of DnBP may come from mouthing fabric material that has been equilibrated with indoor air.

  15. [Determination of three ester compounds in gasoline by two-dimensional gas chromatography].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yan; Xu, Dongyu; Lin, Haoxue; Chen, Xiaoyan; Chen, Zeyong

    2014-06-01

    A simple and efficient method based on the technique of packed column switching-back flushing was established for the analysis of the ester compounds (including ethyl acetate, sec-butyl acetate, dimethyl carbonate) in gasoline. With the use of a non-polar pre-column, we successfully separated the components in gasoline by back flushing out components heavier than n-octane, while the lighter components and the ester compounds were flushed into a polar analytical column. In this method, external standard method was applied for quantification. As a result, good linear relationships existed among the three ester compounds in the range of 50 mg/L to 50 000 mg/L. The linear correlation coefficients (r2) for ethyl acetate, sec-butyl acetate and dimethyl carbonate were 0.999 99, 1.000 00 and 0.999 95, respectively. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) of standard samples in six continuous tests were within 1.0%. The recoveries were between 98.7% and 107.9%. The detection limit of the method (S/N = 3) was 5 mg/L. No pretreatment was needed. This method is simple, accurate, quick as well as efficient, and can be used as an ideal method for the analysis of the ester compounds in gasoline. PMID:25269268

  16. Dicarboxylic esters: Useful tools for the biocatalyzed synthesis of hybrid compounds and polymers

    PubMed Central

    Bassanini, Ivan; Hult, Karl

    2015-01-01

    Summary Dicarboxylic acids and their derivatives (esters and anhydrides) have been used as acylating agents in lipase-catalyzed reactions in organic solvents. The synthetic outcomes have been dimeric or hybrid derivatives of bioactive natural compounds as well as functionalized polyesters. PMID:26664578

  17. Transdermal Uptake of Diethyl Phthalate and Di(n-butyl) Phthalate Directly from Air: Experimental Verification

    PubMed Central

    Bekö, Gabriel; Koch, Holger M.; Salthammer, Tunga; Schripp, Tobias; Toftum, Jørn; Clausen, Geo

    2015-01-01

    Background Fundamental considerations indicate that, for certain phthalate esters, dermal absorption from air is an uptake pathway that is comparable to or greater than inhalation. Yet this pathway has not been experimentally evaluated and has been largely overlooked when assessing uptake of phthalate esters. Objectives This study investigated transdermal uptake, directly from air, of diethyl phthalate (DEP) and di(n-butyl) phthalate (DnBP) in humans. Methods In a series of experiments, six human participants were exposed for 6 hr in a chamber containing deliberately elevated air concentrations of DEP and DnBP. The participants either wore a hood and breathed air with phthalate concentrations substantially below those in the chamber or did not wear a hood and breathed chamber air. All urinations were collected from initiation of exposure until 54 hr later. Metabolites of DEP and DnBP were measured in these samples and extrapolated to parent phthalate intakes, corrected for background and hood air exposures. Results For DEP, the median dermal uptake directly from air was 4.0 μg/(μg/m3 in air) compared with an inhalation intake of 3.8 μg/(μg/m3 in air). For DnBP, the median dermal uptake from air was 3.1 μg/(μg/m3 in air) compared with an inhalation intake of 3.9 μg/(μg/m3 in air). Conclusions This study shows that dermal uptake directly from air can be a meaningful exposure pathway for DEP and DnBP. For other semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) whose molecular weight and lipid/air partition coefficient are in the appropriate range, direct absorption from air is also anticipated to be significant. Citation Weschler CJ, Bekö G, Koch HM, Salthammer T, Schripp T, Toftum J, Clausen G. 2015. Transdermal uptake of diethyl phthalate and di(n-butyl) phthalate directly from air: experimental verification. Environ Health Perspect 123:928–934; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1409151 PMID:25850107

  18. Establishing the Biological Relevance of Dipentyl Phthalate Reductions in Fetal Rat Testosterone Production and Plasma and Testis Testosterone Levels

    EPA Science Inventory

    Phthalate esters (PEs) constitute a large class of compounds that are used for many consumer product applications. Many of the C2-C7 di-ortho PEs reduce fetal testicular hormone and gene expression levels in rats resulting in adverse effects seen later in life but it appears that...

  19. Hantzsch Ester as a Photosensitizer for the Visible-Light-Induced Debromination of Vicinal Dibromo Compounds.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wenxin; Tao, Huachen; Huang, Wenhao; Wang, Guoqiang; Li, Shuhua; Cheng, Xu; Li, Guigen

    2016-07-01

    The debromination of vicinal dibromo compounds to generate alkenes usually requires harsh reaction conditions and the addition of catalysts. Just recently the visible-light-induced debromination of vicinal dibromo compounds emerged as a possible alternative to commonly used methods, but the substrate scope of this reaction is limited and a photocatalyst is necessary for the successful conversion of the starting compounds. A catalyst-free visible-light-induced debromination of vicinal dibromo compounds with a base-activated Hantzsch ester as photosensitizer is reported. The method has a wide substrate scope and a broad functional-group compatibility. PMID:27128783

  20. Bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide-based ionic liquids grafted on graphene oxide-coated solid-phase microextraction fiber for extraction and enrichment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in potatoes and phthalate esters in food-wrap.

    PubMed

    Hou, Xiudan; Guo, Yong; Liang, Xiaojing; Wang, Xusheng; Wang, Lei; Wang, Licheng; Liu, Xia

    2016-06-01

    A class of novel, environmental friendly ionic liquids (ILs) were synthesized by on-fiber preparation strategy and modified on graphene oxide (GO)-coated stainless steel wire, which was used as a solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fiber for efficient enrichment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and phthalate esters (PAEs). Surface characteristic of the ILs and polymeric-ILs (PILs) fibers with the wave-structure were inspected by scanning electron microscope. The successfully synthesis of bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (NTf2(-))-based ILs were also characterized by energy dispersive spectrometer analysis. Through the chromatograms of the proposed two ILs (1-aminoethyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide (C2NH2MIm(+)Br(-)), C2NH2MIm(+)NTf2(-)) and two PILs (polymeric 1-vinyl-3-hexylimidazolium bromide (poly(VHIm(+)Br(-))), poly(VHIm(+)NTf2(-)))-GO-coated fibers for the extraction of analytes, NTf2(-)-based PIL demonstrated higher extraction capacity for hydrophobic compounds than other as-prepared ILs. Analytical performances of the proposed fibers were investigated under the optimized extraction and desorption conditions coupled with gas chromatography (GC). Compared with the poly(VHIm(+)Br(-))-GO fiber, the poly(VHIm(+)NTf2(-))-GO SPME fiber brought wider linear ranges for analytes with correlation coefficient in the range of 0.9852-0.9989 and lower limits of detection ranging from 0.015-0.025μgL(-1). The obtained results indicated that the newly prepared PILs-GO coating was a feasible, selective and green microextraction medium, which could be suitable for extraction and determination of PAHs and PAEs in potatoes and food-wrap sample, respectively. PMID:27130133

  1. Development of rapid determination of 18 phthalate esters in edible vegetable oils by gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yinping; Wang, Shuhui; Wang, Li

    2013-02-13

    A simultaneous and fast determination of 18 phthalic acid esters (PAEs) in edible vegetable oils was developed. After solvent extraction, the PAEs in the oil sample were further cleaned up by solid-phase extraction. After concentration, the extract was directly injected into gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) in positive-ion electron impact (EI) mode. Method quantification limits of 18 PAEs were between 0.01 and 0.1 mg/kg. Quantitative recoveries ranging from 63.9 to 115.3% were obtained by analysis of spiked oil. The relative standard deviations were less than 15% (n = 6). The method could potentially overcome the interference from large amounts of lipids and pigment. It was applied to real sample and shown to be a rapid and reliable alternative for determination and confirmation of PAEs in routine analysis. PMID:23339279

  2. Concentration and risk assessment of phthalates present in indoor air from newly decorated apartments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pei, X. Q.; Song, M.; Guo, M.; Mo, F. F.; Shen, X. Y.

    2013-04-01

    Phthalate esters (PAEs) are ubiquitous in the indoor environment, owing to their use in consumer products. People spend a considerable amount of time indoors. As a result, human exposure to indoor contaminants is of great concern. People are exposed to phthalates through inhalation and dermal absorption of indoor air. In this study, the concentrations, characteristics and carcinogenic risks of gas-phase and particle-phase phthalates in indoor air from bedroom, living room and study room of 10 newly decorated apartments in Hangzhou, China were first investigated. The mean concentration of phthalates (gas-phase and particle-phase) present in household air was 12 096.4 ng m-3, of which diethyl phthalate (DEP), butylbenzyl phthalate (BBP) and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) were the most abundant compounds with concentrations of 2290 ng m-3, 3975 ng m-3 and 2437 ng m-3, respectively, totally accounting for 72.0% of ∑6PAEs. Contamination levels of phthalates varied in different compartments. The concentration of phthalates was the highest 17 363.7 ng m-3 in living room, followed with 11 389.5 ng m-3 in study room, and the lowest 9739.1 ng m-3 in bedroom. It was also found that phthalates mainly accumulated in gaseous form in household air. DEHP posed the greatest health risk to children aged 1-2. Carcinogenic risk of DEHP was evaluated to be 3.912 × 10-5, and was 39 times higher than the limit set by the U.S. EPA.

  3. Urinary Phthalate Metabolites in Relation to Biomarkers of Inflammation and Oxidative Stress: NHANES 1999-2006

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, Kelly K.; Loch-Caruso, Rita; Meeker, John D.

    2011-01-01

    Phthalate esters are a class of compounds utilized extensively in widely-distributed consumer goods, and have been associated with various adverse health outcomes in previous epidemiologic research. Some of these health outcomes may be the result of phthalate-induced increases in oxidative stress or inflammation, which has been demonstrated in animal studies. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations and serum markers of inflammation and oxidative stress (C-reactive protein (CRP) and gamma glutamyltransferase (GGT), respectively). Subjects were participants in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) between the years 1999 and 2006. In multivariable linear regression models, we observed significant positive associations between CRP and mono-benzyl phthalate (MBzP) and mono-isobutyl phthalate (MiBP). There were CRP elevations of 6.0% (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.7% to 10.8%) and 8.3% (95% CI 2.9% to 14.0%) in relation to interquartile range (IQR) increases in urinary MBzP and MiBP, respectively. GGT was positively associated with mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) and an MEHP% variable calculated from the proportion of MEHP in comparison to other di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) metabolites. IQR increases in MEHP and MEHP% were associated with 2.5% (95%CI 0.2% to 4.8%) and 3.7% (95%CI 1.7% to 5.7%) increases in GGT, respectively. CRP and GGT were also inversely related to several phthalate metabolites, primarily oxidized metabolites. In conclusion, several phthalate monoester metabolites that are detected in a high proportion of urine samples from the US general population are associated with increased serum markers of inflammation and oxidative stress. On the other hand, several oxidized phthalate metabolites were inversely associated with these markers. These relationships deserve further exploration in both experimental and observational studies. PMID:21349512

  4. Nutrients, heavy metals and phthalate acid esters in solar greenhouse soils in Round-Bohai Bay-Region, China: impacts of cultivation year and biogeography.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhiqun; Tian, Tian; Gao, Lihong; Tian, Yongqiang

    2016-07-01

    Solar greenhouse is a common facility type used for horticultural crop production in China. However, most solar greenhouse fields have been degraded due to continuous cropping and excessive fertilizer use. Therefore, we investigated solar greenhouse soils covering a wide range of cultivation years and environmental conditions in Round-Bohai Bay-Region to test the effects of cultivation year and biogeography on nutrients, heavy metals, and phthalate acid esters (PAEs). In general, soil pH decreased while soil electrical conductivity (EC), organic matter (OM), total nitrogen (TN), NO3 (-)-N, NH4 (+)-N, mineral nitrogen (MN), Olsen-P, and NH4OAc-K contents increased as time of cultivation increased. However, this trend was influenced by sampling sites. Among sampling sites, Jiangsu showed a relatively low soil pH and high Olsen-P content, while Hebei showed a relatively high soil EC value, NO3 (-)-N, NH4 (+)-N, MN, and NH4OAc-K contents. Liaoning was characterized by relatively high soil OM and TN contents. The nutrient level indexes in evaluation of soil quality on Olsen-P and NH4OAc-K exceeded the standard seriously. The maximum values of the heavy metals Cd, Cu, and Zn were 4.87, 2.78, and 1.15 times higher than the threshold values, respectively. There was a rising trend on the heavy metal contents with the increasing cultivation years, and this trend was significantly influenced by sampling sites. Both Cu and Zn had relative high heavy metal indexes in evaluation of soil pollution. The PAEs were not detected in almost all sampling soils. Overall, the excessive fertilizer application was an important cause of nutrient accumulation and heavy metal pollution, resulting in soil degradation in solar greenhouses. PMID:26996919

  5. CUMULATIVE EFFECTS OF DIBUTYL PHTHALATE AND DIETHYLHEXYL PHTHALATE ON MALE RAT REPRODUCTIVE TRACT DEVELOPMENT: ALTERED FETAL STEROID HORMONES AND GENES.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to the plasticizers diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) and di(n-butyl) phthalate (DBP) during sexual differentiation causes male reproductive tract malformations in rats and rabbits. In the fetal male rat, these two phthalate esters decrease testosterone (T) production and i...

  6. Biodegradation and bioaccumulation of phthalates

    SciTech Connect

    Scholz, N.; Diefenbach, R.

    1995-12-31

    Phthalate esters very often are considered as persistent in the environment. This view is supported by an assumed lack of biodegradability, the high log K{sub ow} values and the assumed high bioaccumulation potential. Results are presented which show phthalates esters to be readily biodegradable even with a non-adapted inoculum. Combined with a lack of relevant bioaccumulation in aquatic organisms, a reconsideration of the environmental impact of these substances is necessary. Special prerequisites for testing poorly water soluble substances are also discussed.

  7. URINARY METABOLITES OF DI-N-OCTYL PHTHALATE IN RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP) is a plasticizer used in polyvinyl chloride plastics, cellulose esters, and polystyrene resins. The metabolism of DnOP results in the hydrolysis of one ester linkage to produce mono-n-octyl phthalate (MnOP), which subsequently metabolizes to form oxida...

  8. Determination of chlorinated pesticide residues in foods. II. Simultaneous analysis of chlorinated pesticide and phthalate ester residues by using AgNO3-coated Florisil column chromatography for cleanup of various samples.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, T; Ishikawa, K; Sato, N; Sakai, K I

    1979-05-01

    A simplified method suitable for simultaneous analysis of chlorinated pesticide and phthalate ester residues in various foods was developed. Chemical residues were quantitatively extracted from fatty and vegetable samples with acetonitrile as follows: Chemical standard in 0.5 mL ethanol solution was added to 10 g homogenized sample. After 3 hr, pork and beef were extracted 3 times with 20 mL portions of acetonitrile. The acetonitrile layers were diluted with water and extracted with n-hexane. Rice samples were combined with 10 mL water, 5 mL acetonitrile and 1 mL ethanol and extracted 3 times with 20 mL portions of n-hexane. The n-hexane concentrate from each sample was submitted to AgNO3-coated Florisil column chromatography. The AgNO3 coating adequately adsorbed interfering coextractives. Extracts of fish and vegetable samples were separated into 2 fractions by the above column chromatography. Supplemental cleanup procedures were also developed to accurately determine phthalate esters eluted in the second fraction. Satisfactory gas chromatograms were obtained for most samples. PMID:479097

  9. Prenatal and postnatal exposure to phthalate esters and asthma: a 9-year follow-up study of a taiwanese birth cohort.

    PubMed

    Ku, Hsiu Ying; Su, Pen Hua; Wen, Hui Ju; Sun, Hai Lun; Wang, Chien Jen; Chen, Hsiao Yen; Jaakkola, Jouni J K; Wang, Shu-Li

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that phthalate exposure in childhood is associated with the development of respiratory problems. However, few studies have assessed the relative impact of prenatal and postnatal exposure to phthalates on the development of asthma later in childhood. Therefore, we assessed the impact of prenatal and postnatal phthalate exposure on the development of asthma and wheezing using a Taiwanese birth cohort. A total of 430 pregnant women were recruited, and 171 (39.8%) of them had their children followed when they were aged 2, 5, and 8 years. The International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood questionnaire was used to assess asthma and wheezing symptoms and serum total immunoglobulin E levels were measured at 8 years of age. Urine samples were obtained from 136 women during their third trimester of pregnancy, 99 children at 2 years of age, and 110 children at 5 years. Four common phthalate monoester metabolites in maternal and children's urine were measured using liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry. Maternal urinary mono-benzyl phthalate [MBzP] concentrations were associated with an increased occurrence of wheezing in boys at 8 years of age (odds ratio [OR] = 4.95 (95% CI 1.08-22.63)), for upper quintile compared to the others) after controlling for parental allergies and family members' smoking status. Urinary mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate [MEHP] levels over the quintile at 2-year-old were associated with increased asthma occurrence (adjusted OR = 6.14 (1.17-32.13)) in boys. Similarly, the sum of di-2-ethyl-hexyl phthalate [DEHP] metabolites at 5 years was associated with asthma in boys (adjusted OR = 4.36 (1.01-18.86)). Urinary MEHP in maternal and 5-year-old children urine were significantly associated with increased IgE in allergic children at 8 years. Prenatal and postnatal exposure to phthalate was associated with the occurrence of asthma in children, particularly for boys. PMID:25875379

  10. Phthalate levels in nursery schools and related factors.

    PubMed

    Kim, Won; Choi, Inja; Jung, Yeonhee; Lee, Jihye; Min, Sungjae; Yoon, Chungsik

    2013-01-01

    Phthalate esters, which are known endocrine disruptors, are ubiquitously present throughout indoor environments. Leaching from building materials may be a major source of phthalate esters. In this study, we evaluated phthalate ester concentrations in dust samples from 64 classrooms located in 50 nursery schools and explored the critical factors affecting phthalate concentrations, especially with regard to building materials. Dust was sampled by a modified vacuuming method, and building materials were assessed using a portable X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analyzer to determine whether they contained polyvinyl chloride. Di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), and di-isononyl phthalate (DINP) were the most frequently detected phthalates. Of these, DEHP was the most abundant phthalate, with a geometric mean of 3170 μg/g dust, and concentrations were significantly correlated with the area of polyvinyl chloride (PVC)-verified flooring. DINP, which has not been well-reported in other studies, was the second-most abundant phthalate, with a geometric mean of 688 μg/g dust, and showed a critical relationship with the number of children in the institution and the agency operating the nursery school. This is the first study to verify the sources of phthalates with an XRF analyzer and to evaluate the relationship between phthalate concentrations and PVC-verified materials. PMID:24073890

  11. 40 CFR 721.6100 - Phosphoric acid, C6-12-alkyl esters, compounds with 2-(dibutylamino) ethanol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., compounds with 2-(dibutylamino) ethanol. 721.6100 Section 721.6100 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL..., compounds with 2-(dibutylamino) ethanol. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified as phosphoric acid, C6-12-alkyl esters, compounds with...

  12. 40 CFR 721.6100 - Phosphoric acid, C6-12-alkyl esters, compounds with 2-(dibutylamino) ethanol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., compounds with 2-(dibutylamino) ethanol. 721.6100 Section 721.6100 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL..., compounds with 2-(dibutylamino) ethanol. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified as phosphoric acid, C6-12-alkyl esters, compounds with...

  13. 40 CFR 721.6100 - Phosphoric acid, C6-12-alkyl esters, compounds with 2-(dibutylamino) ethanol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., compounds with 2-(dibutylamino) ethanol. 721.6100 Section 721.6100 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL..., compounds with 2-(dibutylamino) ethanol. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified as phosphoric acid, C6-12-alkyl esters, compounds with...

  14. 40 CFR 721.6100 - Phosphoric acid, C6-12-alkyl esters, compounds with 2-(dibutylamino) ethanol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., compounds with 2-(dibutylamino) ethanol. 721.6100 Section 721.6100 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL..., compounds with 2-(dibutylamino) ethanol. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified as phosphoric acid, C6-12-alkyl esters, compounds with...

  15. 40 CFR 721.6100 - Phosphoric acid, C6-12-alkyl esters, compounds with 2-(dibutylamino) ethanol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., compounds with 2-(dibutylamino) ethanol. 721.6100 Section 721.6100 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL..., compounds with 2-(dibutylamino) ethanol. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified as phosphoric acid, C6-12-alkyl esters, compounds with...

  16. Condensation of anhydrides or dicarboxylic acids with compounds containing active methylene groups. Part 1: Condensation of phthalic anhydride with acetoacetic and malonic ester

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oshkaya, V. P.; Vanag, G. Y.

    1985-01-01

    Phthalic anhydride was condensed with acetoacetic ester in acetic anhydride and triethylamine solution, and when phthalyl chloride was reacted with sodium acetoacetic ester compounds were formed of the phthalide and indandione series: phthalylacetoacetic ester and a derivative of indan-1,3-dione which after boiling with hydrochloric acid yielded indan-1,3-dione. Phthalylmalonic ester was obtained from phthalic anhydride and malonic ester in the presence of triethylamine.

  17. Synthesis, characterization of azobenzene and cinnamate ester based calamitic liquid crystalline compounds and their photoresponsive properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selvarasu, Chinnaiyan; Kannan, Palaninathan

    2015-07-01

    A series of azobenzene-containing mesogens end-capped with cinnamoyl esters were synthesized and investigated its mesogenic and photochemical properties. Terminal substituents of the molecules were changed with various substituents like CN, Cl, H, CH3, and OCH3. Liquid crystalline properties of the synthesized compounds were studied and confirmed using differential scanning calorimetry, polarising optical microscopy. Compounds (4a-4e) exhibited a thermotropic mesomorph behaviour viz., nematic and smectic phases that depends on the terminal substituents. The thermal transition temperatures and the mesophase types are depend on the terminal substituents which are ascribed with the increasing cohesive forces between molecules as the conjugation length increases. These photochromic compounds exhibited strong UV-vis absorption maxima between 330 and 340 nm. Upon irradiation with selective UV light produces the trans-cis isomerization producing new maxima at 450 nm due to cis configuration.

  18. Anaerobic biodegradability of phthalic acid isomers and related compounds.

    PubMed

    Kleerebezem, R; Pol, L W; Lettinga, G

    1999-02-01

    All three phthalic acid isomers (ortho, meta and para benzene dicarboxylic acid) are produced in massive amounts, and used in the chemical industry as plasticizers or for the production of polyester. Wastestreams generated during the production of phthalate isomers generally contain high concentrations of aromatic acids. To study the potential biodegradability of these primarily anthropogenic compounds in anaerobic bioreactors, biodegradability studies were performed. Compounds tested were benzoate, ortho-phthalate, isophthalate, terephthalate, dimethyl phthalate, dimethyl terephthalate, para-toluate and para-xylene. Seed materials tested were two types of granular sludge and digested sewage sludge. It was found that all phthalate isomers and their corresponding dimethyl-esters, could be completely mineralized by all seed materials studied. Lag phases required for 50% degradation of these compounds, ranged from 17 to 156 days. The observed degradation curves could be explained by growth of an initially small amount of organisms in the inoculum with the specific ability to degrade one phthalate isomer. The observed order in the length of the lag phases for the phthalate isomers is: phthalate < terephthalate < isophthalate. This order appears to be related to the environmental abundancy of the different phthalate isomers. The initial step in the degradation pathway of both dimethyl phthalate esters was hydrolysis of the ester sidechain, resulting in the formation of the corresponding mono-methyl-phthalate isomer and phthalate isomer. The rate limiting step in mineralization of both dimethyl phthalate and dimethyl terephthalate was found to be fermentation of the phthalate isomer. Para-toluate was degraded only by digested sewage sludge after a lag phase of 425 days. The observed degradation rates of this compound were very low. No mineralization of para-xylene was observed. In general, the differences in the lag phases between different seed materials were relatively

  19. Prenatal and Postnatal Exposure to Phthalate Esters and Asthma: A 9-Year Follow-Up Study of a Taiwanese Birth Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Ku, Hsiu Ying; Su, Pen Hua; Wen, Hui Ju; Sun, Hai Lun; Wang, Chien Jen; Chen, Hsiao Yen; Jaakkola, Jouni J. K.; Wang, Shu-Li

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that phthalate exposure in childhood is associated with the development of respiratory problems. However, few studies have assessed the relative impact of prenatal and postnatal exposure to phthalates on the development of asthma later in childhood. Therefore, we assessed the impact of prenatal and postnatal phthalate exposure on the development of asthma and wheezing using a Taiwanese birth cohort. A total of 430 pregnant women were recruited, and 171 (39.8%) of them had their children followed when they were aged 2, 5, and 8 years. The International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood questionnaire was used to assess asthma and wheezing symptoms and serum total immunoglobulin E levels were measured at 8 years of age. Urine samples were obtained from 136 women during their third trimester of pregnancy, 99 children at 2 years of age, and 110 children at 5 years. Four common phthalate monoester metabolites in maternal and children’s urine were measured using liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry. Maternal urinary mono-benzyl phthalate [MBzP] concentrations were associated with an increased occurrence of wheezing in boys at 8 years of age (odds ratio [OR] = 4.95 (95% CI 1.08–22.63)), for upper quintile compared to the others) after controlling for parental allergies and family members' smoking status. Urinary mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate [MEHP] levels over the quintile at 2-year-old were associated with increased asthma occurrence (adjusted OR = 6.14 (1.17–32.13)) in boys. Similarly, the sum of di-2-ethyl-hexyl phthalate [DEHP] metabolites at 5 years was associated with asthma in boys (adjusted OR = 4.36 (1.01–18.86)). Urinary MEHP in maternal and 5-year-old children urine were significantly associated with increased IgE in allergic children at 8 years. Prenatal and postnatal exposure to phthalate was associated with the occurrence of asthma in children, particularly for boys. PMID:25875379

  20. Meta-analysis of environmental contamination by phthalates.

    PubMed

    Bergé, Alexandre; Cladière, Mathieu; Gasperi, Johnny; Coursimault, Annie; Tassin, Bruno; Moilleron, Régis

    2013-11-01

    Phthalate acid esters (PAE), commonly named phthalates, are toxics classified as endocrine-disrupting compounds; they are primarily used as additives to improve the flexibility in polyvinyl chloride. Many studies have reported the occurrence of phthalates in different environmental matrices; however, none of these studies has yet established a complete overview for those compounds in the water cycle within an urban environment. This review summarizes PAE concentrations for all environmental media throughout the water cycle, from atmosphere to receiving waters. Once the occurrences of compounds have been evaluated for each environmental compartment (urban wastewater, wastewater treatment plants, atmosphere, and the natural environment), we reviewed data in order to identify the fate of PAE in the environment and establish whether geographical and historical trends exist. Indeed, geographical and historical trends appear between Europe and other countries such as USA/Canada and China, however they remain location dependent. This study aimed at identifying both the correlations existing between environmental compartments and the processes influencing the fate and transport of these contaminants into the environment. In Europe, the concentrations measured in waterways today represent the background level of contamination, which provides evidence of a past diffuse pollution. In contrast, an increasing trend has actually been observed for developing countries, especially for China. PMID:23917738

  1. Phthalate concentrations in personal care products and the cumulative exposure to female adults and infants in Shanghai.

    PubMed

    Bao, Jiaqin; Wang, Min; Ning, Xiaojun; Zhou, Yaobin; He, Yuping; Yang, Jielin; Gao, Xi; Li, Shuguang; Ding, Zhuoping; Chen, Bo

    2015-01-01

    Phthalate esters (PE) are synthetic chemicals widely used in industry, and have been detected in personal care products (PCP). Recent findings of human reports demonstrated endocrine-disrupting action associated with phthalate exposures. The aims of this study were to (1) measure levels of 11 PE in 198 PCP collected from retail markets in Shanghai and (2) assess daily dermal exposure in adult females and infants. The health risk of cumulative exposure to eight PE on reproductive system function derived from dermal PCP use was further assessed by utilizing the hazard index (HI) approach. Diethyl phthalate (DEP) was the most frequently detected compound (29.8%), followed by diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP) (6.6%). The geometric mean (GM) concentrations of daily exposure to DEP, bis(2-methoxyethyl) phthalate (DMEP), DiBP, dibutyl phthalate (DBP), diphenyl phthalate (DPP), and bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) in female adults were 0.018, 0.012, 0.002, 0.001, 0.003, and 0.002 μg/kg body weight (bw)/d, respectively. The GM daily exposure levels to PE in infants and adult females were similar except for DEHP, which was higher in infants. DEP exposure was highest in both subpopulations at either GM or maximal level. All HI of 8 PE were far less than 1, ranging from 0.0002 to 0.005, indicating no cumulative reproductive risks to these populations. DBP, DMEP, and DEHP were three major contributors to the cumulative HI. In summary, the level of phthalate in PCP from Shanghai retail markets posed no apparent cumulative risk to adult females and infants in China. PMID:25734628

  2. Esters of Bendamustine Are by Far More Potent Cytotoxic Agents than the Parent Compound against Human Sarcoma and Carcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Huber, Stefan; Huettner, Johannes Philip; Hacker, Kristina; Bernhardt, Günther; König, Jörg; Buschauer, Armin

    2015-01-01

    The alkylating agent bendamustine is approved for the treatment of hematopoietic malignancies such as non-Hodgkin lymphoma, chronic lymphocytic leukemia and multiple myeloma. As preliminary data on recently disclosed bendamustine esters suggested increased cytotoxicity, we investigated representative derivatives in more detail. Especially basic esters, which are positively charged under physiological conditions, were in the crystal violet and the MTT assay up to approximately 100 times more effective than bendamustine, paralleled by a higher fraction of early apoptotic cancer cells and increased expression of p53. Analytical studies performed with bendamustine and representative esters revealed pronounced cellular accumulation of the derivatives compared to the parent compound. In particular, the pyrrolidinoethyl ester showed a high enrichment in tumor cells and inhibition of OCT1- and OCT3-mediated transport processes, suggesting organic cation transporters to be involved. However, this hypothesis was not supported by the differential expression of OCT1 (SLC22A1) and OCT3 (SLC22A3), comparing a panel of human cancer cells. Bendamustine esters proved to be considerably more potent cytotoxic agents than the parent compound against a broad panel of human cancer cell types, including hematologic and solid malignancies (e.g. malignant melanoma, colorectal carcinoma and lung cancer), which are resistant to bendamustine. Interestingly, spontaneously immortalized human keratinocytes, as a model of “normal” cells, were by far less sensitive than tumor cells against the most potent bendamustine esters. PMID:26196503

  3. A variety of environmentally persistent chemicals, including some phthalate plasticizers, are weakly estrogenic.

    PubMed Central

    Jobling, S; Reynolds, T; White, R; Parker, M G; Sumpter, J P

    1995-01-01

    Sewage, a complex mixture of organic and inorganic chemicals, is considered to be a major source of environmental pollution. A random screen of 20 organic man-made chemicals present in liquid effluents revealed that half appeared able to interact with the estradiol receptor. This was demonstrated by their ability to inhibit binding of 17 beta-estradiol to the fish estrogen receptor. Further studies, using mammalian estrogen screens in vitro, revealed that the two phthalate esters butylbenzyl phthalate (BBP) and di-n-butylphthalate (DBP) and a food antioxidant, butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) were estrogenic; however, they were all less estrogenic than the environmental estrogen octylphenol. Phthalate esters, used in the production of various plastics (including PVC), are among the most common industrial chemicals. Their ubiquity in the environment and tendency to bioconcentrate in animal fat are well known. Neither BBP nor DBP were able to act as antagonists, indicating that, in the presence of endogenous estrogens, their overall effect would be cumulative. Recently, it has been suggested that environmental estrogens may be etiological agents in several human diseases, including disorders of the male reproductive tract and breast and testicular cancers. The current finding that some phthalate compounds and some food additives are weakly estrogenic in vitro, needs to be supported by further studies on their effects in vivo before any conclusions can be made regarding their possible role in the development of these conditions. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. PMID:7556011

  4. Copper-catalyzed oxidative C-O bond formation of 2-acyl phenols and 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds with ethers: direct access to phenol esters and enol esters.

    PubMed

    Park, Jihye; Han, Sang Hoon; Sharma, Satyasheel; Han, Sangil; Shin, Youngmi; Mishra, Neeraj Kumar; Kwak, Jong Hwan; Lee, Cheong Hoon; Lee, Jeongmi; Kim, In Su

    2014-05-16

    A copper-catalyzed oxidative coupling of 2-carbonyl-substituted phenols and 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds with a wide range of dibenzyl or dialkyl ethers is described. This protocol provides an efficient preparation of phenol esters and enol esters in good yields with high chemoselectivity. This method represents an alternative protocol for classical esterification reactions. PMID:24762192

  5. Correlation of phthalate exposures with semen quality

    SciTech Connect

    Pant, Niraj Shukla, Manju; Kumar Patel, Devendra; Shukla, Yogeshwar; Mathur, Neeraj; Kumar Gupta, Yogendra; Saxena, Daya Krishna

    2008-08-15

    Phthalates are widely used man-made chemical released in the environment and human exposure is mainly through diet. As the phthalate plasticizers are not covalently bound to PVC, they can leach, migrate or evaporate into the environment and as a result have become ubiquitously contaminants. The present study investigates the correlation, if any, between the phthalate esters (DEP, DEHP, DBP, DMP, DOP) and sperm mitochondrial status, ROS, LPO, SCSA, and sperm quality. The study was conducted in the urban/rural population of Lucknow visiting Obstetrics and Gynecology Department, CSMMU, Lucknow. Semen analysis was performed according to the WHO guidelines while phthalate analysis by HPLC and LPO by spectrophotometer and the sperm mitochondrial status, ROS, SCSA using flow cytometry. The questionnaire data showed no significant difference in the demographic characteristics among the groups. In general, urban population was found to have statistically significant higher levels of phthalate esters than the rural. Further, infertile men showed statistically significant (p < 0.05) higher levels of pollutants in the semen than fertile men. A negative correlation between semen phthalate level viz DEHP and sperm quality and positive association with depolarized mitochondria, elevation in ROS production and LPO, DNA fragmentation was established. The findings are suggestive that phthalates might be one among the contributing factors associated with the deterioration in semen quality and these adverse effects might be ROS, LPO and mitochondrial dysfunction mediated.

  6. The concentrations of phthalates in settled dust in Bulgarian homes in relation to building characteristic and cleaning habits in the family

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolarik, Barbara; Bornehag, Carl-Gustaf; Naydenov, Kiril; Sundell, Jan; Stavova, Petra; Nielsen, Ole Faurskov

    Phthalate esters are chemical compounds with a broad range of applications. Recently, we have shown that significantly higher dust concentration of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) was found in Bulgarian homes of children with asthma or allergies compared to healthy children. The concentration of DEHP was found to be significantly associated with wheezing in the last 12 months as reported by parents. The objective of the current study was to examine the associations between concentrations of phthalates in settled dust collected in Bulgarian homes and building characteristics and cleaning habits. Dust samples from the child's bedroom were collected in 177 homes and analysed for the content of dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), butyl benzyl phthalate (BBzP), di- n-octyl phthalate (DnOP) and DEHP. Information on building characteristics and family habits were collected from parental reports in questionnaires and from inspectors' observations in the homes. Significantly higher concentrations of BBzP, DEHP and DnOP in indoor dust were found in homes where polishing agents were used, compared to homes where such products were not used. The highest concentrations of DEHP, BBzP and DnOP were found in homes with the combination of a low frequency of dusting and the use of polish. There was no difference in phthalate concentrations between inspector-observed balatum flooring (PVC or linoleum) and wood flooring as well as between PVC, as determined by Raman spectra, and wood flooring. However, in a sub-group of homes with no use of polish, the concentration of DEHP was higher in homes with inspector-observed balatum compared with wood flooring but the difference was not significant may be due to a too small sample size.

  7. The inhibition of mitochondrial dicarboxylate transport by inorganic phosphate, some phosphate esters and some phosphonate compounds.

    PubMed

    Johnson, R N; Chappell, J B

    1974-02-01

    1. P(i) competitively inhibited succinate oxidation by intact uncoupled mitochondria in the presence of sufficient N-ethylmaleimide to block the phosphate carrier, with a K(i) of 2.5mm. 2. Of a large number of phosphate esters and phosphonate compounds, phenyl phosphate and phenylphosphonate were found to inhibit competitively uncoupled succinate oxidation by intact but not broken mitochondria. By comparison, benzoate was a relatively weak competitive inhibitor of succinate oxidation by intact mitochondria but a relatively potent inhibitor of succinate dehydrogenase. 3. Phenyl phosphate and phenylphosphonate were non-penetrant, and inhibited P(i)-dependent swelling of mitochondria suspended in isosmolar ammonium malate in a manner non-competitive with P(i). The inhibitors did not affect mitochondrial swelling when tested with P(i) alone. 4. It is concluded that: (i) phenyl phosphate and phenylphosphonate behaved as non-penetrant analogues of P(i), since their inhibitory properties were in strict contrast with those of benzoate; (ii) phenyl phosphate and phenylphosphonate interacted with the dicarboxylate carrier but not with the phosphate carrier; (iii) P(i) was effective as a competitive inhibitor of succinate oxidation because of its being either an alternative substrate for the dicarboxylate carrier or competitive with succinate for the intramitochondrial cations as proposed by Harris & Manger (1968). PMID:4822730

  8. Novel post-translational oligomerization of peptidyl dehydrodopa model compound, 1,2-dehydro-N-acetyldopa methyl ester.

    PubMed

    Abebe, Adal; Zheng, Dong; Evans, Jason; Sugumaran, Manickam

    2016-06-01

    Post-translational modification of peptidyl tyrosine to peptidyl dopa is widely observed in different marine organisms. While peptidyl dopas are oxidatively converted to dehydrodopa derivatives, nothing is known about the further fate of dehydrodopyl compounds. To fill this void, we studied the oxidation chemistry of a peptidyl dehydrodopa mimic, 1,2-dehydro-N-acetyldopa methyl ester with mushroom tyrosinase. We employed both routine biochemical studies and reversed phase liquid chromatography mass spectrometry to investigate the course of the reaction. Tyrosinase catalyzed the oxidation of 1,2-dehydro-N-acetyldopa methyl ester readily generating its typical o-quinone as the transient two-electron oxidation product. This quinone was extremely unstable and rapidly reacted with the parent compound forming benzodioxan type oligomeric products. Reaction mixture containing chemically made o-benzoquinone and 1,2-dehydro-N-acetyldopa methyl ester generated a mixed adduct of benzoquinone and 1,2-dehydro-N-acetyldopa methyl ester. Based on this finding, we propose that peptidyl dehydrodopa also exhibits a similar transformation accounting partially for the adhesive and cementing properties of dopyl proteins in nature. PMID:27010908

  9. Effects of Prenatal Exposure to Phthalates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Laurie A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this review of literature is to examine the association of phthalate exposure with development. Phthalates are chemical compounds used in poly-vinyl chloride, PVC; vinyl flooring, cosmetics, shampoo, air fresheners, soft plastic items, intravenous tubing, food packaging and wraps, textiles, paints, cleaning products and detergents.…

  10. [Magnetic multi-walled carbon nanotubes as a solid phase extraction adsorbent for the determination of 13 phthalate acid esters in water samples by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Fu, Shanliang; Ding, Li; Zhu, Shaohua; Jiao, Yanna; Gong, Qiang; Chen, Jitao; Wang, Libing

    2011-08-01

    A method based on solid phase extraction (SPE) with magnetic multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) as adsorbent was developed for the determination of 13 phthalate acid esters (PAEs) in water samples by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The factors affecting the extraction efficiency, such as extraction time, pH of water sample, desorption solvent, and desorption time, were carefully investigated. The optimized conditions were as follows: extraction time, 10 min; pH of water samples, 5 - 7; desorption solvent, 2 mL acetone; desorption time, 5 min. The extraction efficiencies were 89.7% - 100.5% under the optimized conditions. The method was sensitive with the detection limits (S/N = 3) between 0.08 -0.47 microg/L for the 13 PAEs. The developed method was successfully applied for the analysis of tap water, bottle drinking water and lake water, and none of the 13 PAEs was detected. The recoveries ranged from 84.5% to 107.5% for the 3 real spiked samples, and the relative standard deviations were between 1.9% and 12.8%. The developed method has proved convenient, time-saving, accurate, sensitive, and environmental-friendly, and can be used for the determination of PAEs in water samples. PMID:22128736

  11. Consecutive visible-light photoredox decarboxylative couplings of adipic acid active esters with alkynyl sulfones leading to cyclic compounds.

    PubMed

    Li, Jingjing; Tian, Hua; Jiang, Min; Yang, Haijun; Zhao, Yufen; Fu, Hua

    2016-07-01

    Novel and efficient consecutive photoredox decarboxylative couplings of adipic acid active esters (bis(1,3-dioxoisoindolin-2-yl)-substituted hexanedioates) with substituted 1-(2-arylethynylsulfonyl)benzenes have been developed under visible-light photocatalysis. The successive photoredox decarboxylative C-C bond formation at room temperature afforded the corresponding cyclic compounds in good yields with tolerance of some functional groups. PMID:27345832

  12. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy based MEMS sensors for phthalates detection in water and juices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zia, Asif I.; Mohd Syaifudin, A. R.; Mukhopadhyay, S. C.; Yu, P. L.; Al-Bahadly, I. H.; Gooneratne, Chinthaka P.; Kosel, Jǘrgen; Liao, Tai-Shan

    2013-06-01

    Phthalate esters are ubiquitous environmental and food pollutants well known as endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs). These developmental and reproductive toxicants pose a grave risk to the human health due to their unlimited use in consumer plastic industry. Detection of phthalates is strictly laboratory based time consuming and expensive process and requires expertise of highly qualified and skilled professionals. We present a real time, non-invasive, label free rapid detection technique to quantify phthalates' presence in deionized water and fruit juices. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) technique applied to a novel planar inter-digital (ID) capacitive sensor plays a vital role to explore the presence of phthalate esters in bulk fluid media. The ID sensor with multiple sensing gold electrodes was fabricated on silicon substrate using micro-electromechanical system (MEMS) device fabrication technology. A thin film of parylene C polymer was coated as a passivation layer to enhance the capacitive sensing capabilities of the sensor and to reduce the magnitude of Faradic current flowing through the sensor. Various concentrations, 0.002ppm through to 2ppm of di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) in deionized water, were exposed to the sensing system by dip testing method. Impedance spectra obtained was analysed to determine sample conductance which led to consequent evaluation of its dielectric properties. Electro-chemical impedance spectrum analyser algorithm was employed to model the experimentally obtained impedance spectra. Curve fitting technique was applied to deduce constant phase element (CPE) equivalent circuit based on Randle's equivalent circuit model. The sensing system was tested to detect different concentrations of DEHP in orange juice as a real world application. The result analysis indicated that our rapid testing technique is able to detect the presence of DEHP in all test samples distinctively.

  13. Dibutyl phthalate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Dibutyl phthalate ; CASRN 84 - 74 - 2 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic

  14. Diethyl phthalate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Diethyl phthalate ; CASRN 84 - 66 - 2 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic

  15. Dimethyl phthalate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Dimethyl phthalate ; CASRN 131 - 11 - 3 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogeni

  16. Semi-volatile organic compounds in heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning filter dust in retail stores.

    PubMed

    Xu, Y; Liang, Y; Urquidi, J R; Siegel, J A

    2015-02-01

    Retail stores contain a wide range of products that can emit a variety of indoor pollutants. Among these chemicals, phthalate esters and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are two important categories of semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs). Filters in heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system collect particles from large volumes of air and thus potentially provide spatially and temporally integrated SVOC concentrations. This study measured six phthalate and 14 PBDE compounds in HVAC filter dust in 14 retail stores in Texas and Pennsylvania, United States. Phthalates and PBDEs were widely found in the HVAC filter dust in retail environment, indicating that they are ubiquitous indoor pollutants. The potential co-occurrence of phthalates and PBDEs was not strong, suggesting that their indoor sources are diverse. The levels of phthalates and PBDEs measured in HVAC filter dust are comparable to concentrations found in previous investigations of settled dust in residential buildings. Significant correlations between indoor air and filter dust concentrations were found for diethyl phthalate, di-n-butyl phthalate, and benzyl butyl phthalate. Reasonable agreement between measurements and an equilibrium model to describe SVOC partitioning between dust and gas-phase is achieved. PMID:24766478

  17. Teratogenicity of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) in mice.

    PubMed Central

    Shiota, K; Nishimura, H

    1982-01-01

    Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) were mixed with diet at graded levels of 0.05, 0.1, 0.2. 0.4 and 1.0 wt-% and given to pregnant ICR mice throughout gestation. Maternal weight gain was suppressed and fetal resorption increased at 0.2, 0.4 and 1.0% levels of DEHP and 1.0% level of DBP. All the implanted ova died early in rats fed 0.4 and 1.0% levels of DEHP. External malformations increased significantly by 0.2% DEHP, and 1.0% DBP showed borderline significance. The major malformations in treated groups were neural tube defects (exencephaly and myeloschisis), suggesting that the phthalic acid esters (PAEs) affect neural tube closure in developing embryos. Treatment with the compounds caused intrauterine growth retardation and delayed ossification with an apparently dose-related response pattern. These results indicate that a high dose of DEHP and DBP might be embryotoxic and teratogenic in mice. The maximum nonembryotoxic doses of PAEs in mice were more than 2000 times the estimated level of human intake through the food chain. Thus it is assumed that the current "normal" exposure level of PAEs dose not pose an imminent threat to human fetal development. PMID:7140698

  18. COMBINATION DOSE OF TWO PHTHALATES ADDITIVELY DEPRESSES TESTOSTERONE PRODUCTION AND INSL3 GENE EXPRESSION IN MALE RAT FETUSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) and di(n-butyl) phthalate (DBP) are phthalate esters used to modify plastic and polymer textures. Individually,in uteroexposure to DEHP and DBP inhibit reproductive tract development,induce reproductive organ malformations, and reduce testosterone (T...

  19. Phthalate exposure and risk assessment in California child care facilities.

    PubMed

    Gaspar, Fraser W; Castorina, Rosemary; Maddalena, Randy L; Nishioka, Marcia G; McKone, Thomas E; Bradman, Asa

    2014-07-01

    Approximately 13 million U.S. children less than 6 years old spend some time in early childhood education (ECE) facilities where they may be exposed to potentially harmful chemicals during critical periods of development. We measured five phthalate esters in indoor dust (n = 39) and indoor and outdoor air (n = 40 and 14, respectively) at ECE facilities in Northern California. Dust and airborne concentrations were used to perform a probabilistic health risk assessment to compare estimated exposures with risk levels established for chemicals causing reproductive toxicity and cancer under California's Proposition 65. Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and butyl benzyl phthalate (BBzP) were the dominant phthalates present in floor dust (medians = 172.2 and 46.8 μg/g, respectively), and dibutyl phthalate (DBP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), and diisobutyl phthalate (DIBP) were the dominant phthalates in indoor air (medians = 0.52, 0.21, and 0.10 μg/m(3), respectively). The risk assessment results indicate that 82-89% of children in California ECE had DBP exposure estimates exceeding reproductive health benchmarks. Further, 8-11% of children less than 2 years old had DEHP exposure estimates exceeding cancer benchmarks. This is the largest study to measure phthalate exposure in U.S. ECE facilities and findings indicate wide phthalate contamination and potential risk to developing children. PMID:24870214

  20. Urinary arsenic, heavy metals, phthalates, pesticides, polyaromatic hydrocarbons but not parabens, polyfluorinated compounds are associated with self-rated health: USA NHANES, 2011-2012.

    PubMed

    Shiue, Ivy

    2015-06-01

    Links between environmental chemicals and human health have emerged, but the effects on self-rated health were less studied. Therefore, it was aimed to study the relationships of different sets of urinary environmental chemicals and the self-rated health in a national and population-based study in recent years. Data was retrieved from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, 2011-2012, including demographics, serum measurements, lifestyle factors, self-rated health (with two grouping approaches) and urinary environmental chemical concentrations. T test and survey-weighted logistic regression modeling were performed. Among American adults aged 12-80 (n = 6833), 5892 people had reported their general health condition. Two thousand three hundred sixty-nine (40.2 %) people reported their general health condition as excellent or very good while 3523 (59.8 %) reported good, fair, or poor. People who reported their general health condition as good, fair, or poor had higher levels of urinary arsenic, heavy metals (including cadmium, cobalt, manganese, molybdenum, lead, antimony, strontium, tungsten and uranium), phthalates, pesticides and polyaromatic hydrocarbons but lower levels of benzophenone-3 and triclosan. There were no associations with urinary parabens, perchlorate, nitrate, thiocyanate or polyfluorinated compounds. However, only urinary cadmium, benzophenone-3, triclosan, and 2-hydroxynaphthalene remained significant when comparing between "good to excellent" and "poor to fair." This is the first time observing risk associations of urinary arsenic, heavy metal, phthalate, pesticide, and hydrocarbon concentrations and self-rated health in people aged 12-80, although the causality cannot be established. Further elimination of these environmental chemicals in humans might need to be considered in health and environmental policies. PMID:25943515

  1. Development of Enantiospecific Coupling of Secondary and Tertiary Boronic Esters with Aromatic Compounds.

    PubMed

    Odachowski, Marcin; Bonet, Amadeu; Essafi, Stephanie; Conti-Ramsden, Philip; Harvey, Jeremy N; Leonori, Daniele; Aggarwal, Varinder K

    2016-08-01

    The stereospecific cross-coupling of secondary boronic esters with sp(2) electrophiles (Suzuki-Miyaura reaction) is a long-standing problem in synthesis, but progress has been achieved in specific cases using palladium catalysis. However, related couplings with tertiary boronic esters are not currently achievable. To address this general problem, we have focused on an alternative method exploiting the reactivity of a boronate complex formed between an aryl lithium and a boronic ester. We reasoned that subsequent addition of an oxidant or an electrophile would remove an electron from the aromatic ring or react in a Friedel-Crafts-type manner, respectively, generating a cationic species, which would trigger 1,2-migration of the boron substituent, creating the new C-C bond. Elimination (preceded by further oxidation in the former case) would result in rearomatization giving the coupled product stereospecifically. Initial work was examined with 2-furyllithium. Although the oxidants tested were unsuccessful, electrophiles, particularly NBS, enabled the coupling reaction to occur in good yield with a broad range of secondary and tertiary boronic esters, bearing different steric demands and functional groups (esters, azides, nitriles, alcohols, and ethers). The reaction also worked well with other electron-rich heteroaromatics and 6-membered ring aromatics provided they had donor groups in the meta position. Conditions were also found under which the B(pin)- moiety could be retained in the product, ortho to the boron substituent. This protocol, which created a new C(sp(2))-C(sp(3)) and an adjacent C-B bond, was again applicable to a range of secondary and tertiary boronic esters. In all cases, the coupling reaction occurred with complete stereospecificity. Computational studies verified the competing processes involved and were in close agreement with the experimental observations. PMID:27384259

  2. [Determination of six phthalate acid esters in camellia oil by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry coupled with solid-phase extraction using single-walled carbon nanotubes as adsorbent].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fan; Li, Zhonghai; Zhang, Ying; Huang, Zhiqiang; Wang, Xiaosong

    2014-07-01

    An analytical method based on solid-phase extraction with single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) as adsorbent was developed for the simultaneous determination of six phthalate acid esters (PAEs) in camellia oil by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The samples were diluted by hexane and then cleaned up with a glass SWCNTs solid phase extraction (SPE) column. The PAEs were measured by GC-MS in selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode, using external standard method for quantitative analysis. The important factors affecting extraction efficiency, such as the dilution volume of hexane, the type of adsorbent material, the dosage of SWCNTs, the volume of wash solution, the type and volume of elution solution were optimized. The optimal conditions were as follows: the dilution volume of hexane was 5 mL, the dosage of SWCNTs was 0.6 g, the wash solution was 20 mL hexane, and the elution solution was 5 mL toluene. The six PAEs had a good linear range from 0.05 mg/L to 1.0 mg/L, with the correlation coefficients (r) all above 0.999 9. The average recoveries of the six targets in spiked camellia oil (from 0.05 mg/kg to 1.0 mg/kg) ranged from 86.4% to 111.7% with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) from 4.2% to 10.4%. The developed method is accurate, quick and suitable for the determination of the six PAEs in camellia oil. PMID:25255566

  3. Determination of phthalate esters in drinking water and edible vegetable oil samples by headspace solid phase microextraction using graphene/polyvinylchloride nanocomposite coated fiber coupled to gas chromatography-flame ionization detector.

    PubMed

    Amanzadeh, Hatam; Yamini, Yadollah; Moradi, Morteza; Asl, Yousef Abdossalmi

    2016-09-23

    In the current study, a graphene/polyvinylchloride nanocomposite was successfully coated on a stainless steel substrate by a simple dip coating process and used as a novel headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) fiber for the extraction of phthalate esters (PEs) from drinking water and edible vegetable oil samples. The prepared SPME fibers exhibited high extractability for PEs (due to the dominant role of π-π stacking interactions and hydrophobic effects) yielding good sensitivity and precision when followed by a gas chromatograph with a flame ionization detector (GC-FID). The optimization strategy of the extraction process was carried out using the response surface method based on a central composite design. The developed method gave a low limit of detection (0.06-0.08μgL(-1)) and good linearity (0.2-100μgL(-1)) for the determination of the PEs under the optimized conditions (extraction temperature, 70±1°C; extraction time, 35min; salt concentration, 30% w/v; stirring rate, 900rpm; desorption temperature, 230°C; and desorption time, 4min) whereas the repeatability and fiber-to-fiber reproducibility were in the range 6.1-7.8% and 8.9-10.2%, respectively. Finally, the proposed method was successfully applied to the analysis of PEs in drinking water and edible oil samples with good recoveries (87-112%) and satisfactory precisions (RSDs<8.3%), indicating the absence of matrix effects in the proposed HS-SPME method. PMID:27592610

  4. Metal-organic framework MIL-101(Cr) as a sorbent of porous membrane-protected micro-solid-phase extraction for the analysis of six phthalate esters from drinking water: a combination of experimental and computational study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ting; Wang, Jian; Zhang, Conglu; Yang, Zhao; Dai, Xinpeng; Cheng, Maosheng; Hou, Xiaohong

    2015-08-01

    An attractive metal-organic framework (MOF) MIL-101(Cr) material was synthesized at the nanoscale and applied as a sorbent in the porous membrane-protected micro-solid-phase extraction (μ-SPE) device for the pre-concentration of phthalate esters (PAEs) in drinking water samples for the first time. Parameters influencing the extraction efficiency, such as the selection of sorbent materials, pH adjustment, the effect of salt, magnetic-stirring extraction time, the desorption solvent and the desorption time, were investigated. Under the optimum conditions, the limits of detection from gas chromatography-mass spectrometric analysis for PAEs varied from 0.004 to 0.02 μg L(-1). The linear ranges were from 0.1 to 50 μg L(-1) or from 0.2 to 50 μg L(-1) for the analytes with the relative standard deviations fluctuating from 0.8 to 10.9% (n = 5). The enrichment factors (EFs) for the target PAEs were varied from 143 to 187. MIL-101(Cr) exhibited remarkable advantages compared to activated carbon and MIL-100(Fe). On the other hand, the computational method was first used to predict the adsorption of MIL-101(Cr) towards PAEs. The molecular interactions and the free binding energies between MIL-101(Cr) and PAEs were observed and calculated in terms of the molecular modeling method. MIL-101(Cr) showed high potential in the analysis of PAEs at trace levels in drinking water. The computational result was consistent with the detected enrichment factors. The computational modeling accurately predicted the extraction efficiency of MOF-based material towards the target analytes. Therefore, the combination of experimental and computational study provided a new strategy on the trace contaminant analysis. PMID:26076497

  5. Isolation, structure elucidation and enzyme inhibition studies of a new hydroxy ester and other compounds from Berberis jaeschkeana Schneid stem.

    PubMed

    Alamzeb, Muhammad; Khan, M Rafiullah; Mamoon-Ur-Rashid; Ali, Saqib; Khan, Ashfaq Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Bioassay-guided isolation and fractionation of Berberis jaeschkeana Schneid var. jaeschkeana stem resulted in the isolation and characterisation of a new long chain hydroxy ester named as berberinol (1) along with six known compounds (2-7). All the structures were established from 1D and 2D spectroscopic data. Crude extract, sub-fractions and all the isolated compounds were evaluated for their anti-fungal and urease enzyme inhibition properties. All of the sub-fractions and compounds showed good anti-fungal and urease enzyme inhibition properties. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were calculated for all active samples in case of urease enzyme inhibition. MICs values were found to be in the range of 39.03-49.78 μg/mL for urease enzyme inhibition. PMID:25604951

  6. Kinematic viscosity of biodiesel components (fatty acid alkyl esters) and related compounds at low temperatures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biodiesel, defined as the mono-alkyl esters of vegetable oils and animal fats, has undergone rapid development and acceptance recently. Kinematic viscosity is one of the fuel properties specified in biodiesel standards, with 40 deg C being the temperature at which this property is to be determined ...

  7. Clerodane diterpenoids, long chain esters of coumaric acid and other compounds from Baccharis myrsinites.

    PubMed

    Li, C J; Ahmed, A A; Arias, A C; Mabry, T J

    1997-06-01

    A new clerodane diterpenoid and two new long chain esters of trans- and cis-coumaric acid, in addition to known triterpenoids and one known clerodane diterpenoid, have been isolated and characterized from Baccharis myrsinites. The structures were determined by spectroscopic techniques. PMID:9190087

  8. [Determination of phthalic acid esters in imitation jewellery and investigation of their migration risk].

    PubMed

    Lai, Ying; Huang, Zongping; Ge, Xiuxiu; Lin, Rui; Chen, Hexiu

    2012-07-01

    A reliable gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method was developed for the determination of 14 phthalic acid esters (PAEs) in imitation jewellery. The influences of sample pretreatment methods including microwave extraction, ultrasonic extraction, accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) and Soxhlet extraction on the determination of PAEs were investigated. The migration risk of dibutyl phthalate (DBP), bis(2-ethyl hexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and dioctyl phthalate (DOP) in plastic imitation jewellery was investigated under the simulated body temperature and sweat environment within 0 h to 168 h. The results showed that the target compounds can be effectively extracted with hexane-acetone (1:1, v/v) under microwave extraction for 35 min. The limit of quantification (LOQ) of the method was 5 mg/kg for 12 PAEs (25 mg/kg for diisononyl phthalate (DINP) and diisodecyl phthalate (DIDP)). The calibration curves were linear within 0.1-50 mg/L (0.5-250 mg/L for DINP and DIDP) with the correlation coefficients above 0.99. The recoveries ranged from 90.95% to 98.67% at three spiked levels. The migration risk of DEHP was higher than DBP and DOP with 0.75% dissolved after soaking for 72 h under the simulated conditions. The sensitivity, recovery and selectivity of the method can meet the requirements of the practical work. PMID:23189657

  9. Study of moving bed biofilm reactor in diethyl phthalate and diallyl phthalate removal from synthetic wastewater.

    PubMed

    Ahmadi, Ehsan; Gholami, Mitra; Farzadkia, Mahdi; Nabizadeh, Ramin; Azari, Ali

    2015-05-01

    Phthalic acid esters have received significant attention over the last few years since they are considered as priority pollutants. In this study, effects of different operation conditions including hydraulic retention time, phthalates loading rates and aeration rate on process performance of moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) for removing diethyl phthalate (DEP) and diallyl phthalate (DAP) from synthetic wastewater was evaluated. In optimum conditions, 94.96% and 93.85% removal efficiency were achieved for DEP and DAP, respectively. Moreover, MBBR achieved to remove more than 92% of COD for both phthalates. The results showed that DEP had a higher biodegradation rate compared to DAP, according to the selected parameters such as half saturation constant, overall reaction rate and maximum specific growth rate. The Grau second order model found as the best model for predicting MBBR performance due to its high correlation coefficients and more conformity of its kinetic coefficients to the results. PMID:25727760

  10. Main-group compounds selectively oxidize mixtures of methane, ethane, and propane to alcohol esters.

    PubMed

    Hashiguchi, Brian G; Konnick, Michael M; Bischof, Steven M; Gustafson, Samantha J; Devarajan, Deepa; Gunsalus, Niles; Ess, Daniel H; Periana, Roy A

    2014-03-14

    Much of the recent research on homogeneous alkane oxidation has focused on the use of transition metal catalysts. Here, we report that the electrophilic main-group cations thallium(III) and lead(IV) stoichiometrically oxidize methane, ethane, and propane, separately or as a one-pot mixture, to corresponding alcohol esters in trifluoroacetic acid solvent. Esters of methanol, ethanol, ethylene glycol, isopropanol, and propylene glycol are obtained with greater than 95% selectivity in concentrations up to 1.48 molar within 3 hours at 180°C. Experiment and theory support a mechanism involving electrophilic carbon-hydrogen bond activation to generate metal alkyl intermediates. We posit that the comparatively high reactivity of these d(10) main-group cations relative to transition metals stems from facile alkane coordination at vacant sites, enabled by the overall lability of the ligand sphere and the absence of ligand field stabilization energies in systems with filled d-orbitals. PMID:24626925

  11. High stability and high efficiency chemiluminescent acridinium compounds obtained from 9-acridine carboxylic esters of hydroxamic and sulphohydroxamic acids.

    PubMed

    Renotte, R; Sarlet, G; Thunus, L; Lejeune, R

    2000-01-01

    A series of hydroxamic acids and sulphohydroxamic acids were prepared and linked to 9-acridinecarboxylic acid through a pseudo-ester function. After N-methylation of the heterocyclic ring, the different compounds were tested for their chemiluminescent properties. Substituents on the hydroxamic functions have shown various effects (steric or electronic) on the luminescence yield or stability of the molecule. The most interesting derivatives were selected in terms of chemical stability and chemiluminescence efficiency. 9-[(N-hydroxysuccinimidyl-4-oxo-4-N-phenylaminobutanoate)N-carb oxylat e]-10-methyl-acridinium (FA6), 9-(N-phenylpivalamide-N-carboxylate)-10-methylacridinium (FA17) and 9-(N-phenylpivalamide N-carboxylate)-10-carboxymethyl-acridinium (FA18) iodomercurates are very promising as chemiluminescent labels. These compounds can be detected at very low levels (10(-16)-10(-17) mol/L) and in our stability evaluation, FA6, FA17 and FA18 showed similar results to the acridinium ester DMAE. Their half-lives at 20 degrees C are greater than 2 weeks. PMID:11038489

  12. Alkylphenols and phthalates in bottled waters.

    PubMed

    Amiridou, Diana; Voutsa, Dimitra

    2011-01-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) in bottled waters. The examined compounds were bisphenol A (BPA), nonylphenol (NP), tert-octylphenol (tOP), dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP), di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) and di(n-octyl)phthalate (DNOP). The presence of EDCs in bottled waters under poor storage conditions was also investigated after exposure outdoors under realistic conditions for 15 and 30 days. EDCs were recovered after liquid-liquid extraction and determined by employing Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry. Most of these compounds were detected in bottled water from different brands purchased from local market. Storage at outdoor conditions had no significant effect on the concentrations of the examined compounds. Only BPA occurred at higher concentrations in polycarbonate containers exhibited an increasing trend during exposure. The estimated exposure to EDCs via consumption of drinking water was very low. PMID:20933324

  13. Development of urine standard reference materials for metabolites of organic chemicals including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, phthalates, phenols, parabens, and volatile organic compounds.

    PubMed

    Schantz, Michele M; Benner, Bruce A; Heckert, N Alan; Sander, Lane C; Sharpless, Katherine E; Vander Pol, Stacy S; Vasquez, Y; Villegas, M; Wise, Stephen A; Alwis, K Udeni; Blount, Benjamin C; Calafat, Antonia M; Li, Zheng; Silva, Manori J; Ye, Xiaoyun; Gaudreau, Éric; Patterson, Donald G; Sjödin, Andreas

    2015-04-01

    Two new Standard Reference Materials (SRMs), SRM 3672 Organic Contaminants in Smokers' Urine (Frozen) and SRM 3673 Organic Contaminants in Non-Smokers' Urine (Frozen), have been developed in support of studies for assessment of human exposure to select organic environmental contaminants. Collaborations among three organizations resulted in certified values for 11 hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (OH-PAHs) and reference values for 11 phthalate metabolites, 8 environmental phenols and parabens, and 24 volatile organic compound (VOC) metabolites. Reference values are also available for creatinine and the free forms of caffeine, theobromine, ibuprofen, nicotine, cotinine, and 3-hydroxycotinine. These are the first urine Certified Reference Materials characterized for metabolites of organic environmental contaminants. Noteworthy, the mass fractions of the environmental organic contaminants in the two SRMs are within the ranges reported in population survey studies such as the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and the Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS). These SRMs will be useful as quality control samples for ensuring compatibility of results among population survey studies and will fill a void to assess the accuracy of analytical methods used in studies monitoring human exposure to these organic environmental contaminants. PMID:25651899

  14. Dipentyl Phthalate Dosing during Sexual Differentiation Disrupts Fetal Testis Function and Postnatal Development of the Male Sprague-Dawley Rat with Greater Relative Potency than Other Phthalates

    PubMed Central

    Hannas, Bethany R.; Furr, Johnathan; Lambright, Christy S.; Wilson, Vickie S.; Foster, Paul M. D.; Gray, L. Earl

    2011-01-01

    Phthalate esters (PEs) constitute a large class of plasticizer compounds that are widely used for many consumer product applications. Ten or more members of the PE class of compounds are known to induce male fetal endocrine toxicity and postnatal reproductive malformations by disrupting androgen production during the sexual differentiation period of development. An early study conducted in the rat pubertal model suggested that dipentyl phthalate (DPeP) may be a more potent testicular toxicant than some more extensively studied phthalates. Regulatory agencies require dose-response and potency data to facilitate risk assessment; however, very little data are currently available for DPeP. The goal of this study was to establish a more comprehensive data set for DPeP, focusing on dose-response and potency information for fetal and postnatal male reproductive endpoints. We dosed pregnant rats on gestational day (GD) 17 or GD 14–18 and subsequently evaluated fetal testicular testosterone (T) production on GD 17.5 and GD 18, respectively. We also dosed pregnant rats on GD 8–18 and evaluated early postnatal endpoints in male offspring. Comparison of these data to data previously obtained under similar conditions for di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate indicates that DPeP is approximately eightfold more potent in reducing fetal T production and two- to threefold more potent in inducing development of early postnatal male reproductive malformations. Additionally, fetal testicular T production was more sensitive to inhibitory effects of DPeP exposure than was gene expression of target genes involved in male reproductive development, supporting the use of this endpoint as a critical effect in the risk assessment process. PMID:21177253

  15. Influence of Sulfur for Oxygen Substitution in the Solvolytic Reactions of Chloroformate Esters and Related Compounds

    PubMed Central

    D’Souza, Malcolm J.; Kevill, Dennis N.

    2014-01-01

    The replacement of oxygen within a chloroformate ester (ROCOCl) by sulfur can lead to a chlorothioformate (RSCOCl), a chlorothionoformate (ROCSCl), or a chlorodithioformate (RSCSCl). Phenyl chloroformate (PhOCOCl) reacts over the full range of solvents usually included in Grunwald-Winstein equation studies of solvolysis by an addition-elimination (A-E) pathway. At the other extreme, phenyl chlorodithioformate (PhSCSCl) reacts across the range by an ionization pathway. The phenyl chlorothioformate (PhSCOCl) and phenyl chlorothionoformate (PhOCSCl) react at remarkably similar rates in a given solvent and there is a dichotomy of behavior with the A-E pathway favored in solvents such as ethanol-water and the ionization mechanism favored in aqueous solvents rich in fluoroalcohol. Alkyl esters behave similarly but with increased tendency to ionization as the alkyl group goes from 1° to 2° to 3°. N,N-Disubstituted carbamoyl halides favor the ionization pathway as do also the considerably faster reacting thiocarbamoyl chlorides. The tendency towards ionization increases as, within the three contributing structures of the resonance hybrid for the formed cation, the atoms carrying positive charge (other than the central carbon) change from oxygen to sulfur to nitrogen, consistent with the relative stabilities of species with positive charge on these atoms. PMID:25310653

  16. CLONING AND CHARACTERIZATION OF THE PHTHALATE CATABOLISM REGION OF PRE1 OF ARTHROBACTER KEYSERI 12B

    EPA Science Inventory

    o-Phthalate (benzene-1,2-dicarboxylate) is a central intermediate in the bacterial degradation of phthalate ester plasticizers as well as of a number of fused-ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons found in fossil fuels. In Arthrobacter keyseri 12B, the genes encoding catabolism o...

  17. Draft Genome Sequence of Sphingobium yanoikuyae TJ, a Halotolerant Di-n-Butyl-Phthalate-Degrading Bacterium

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Decai; Zhu, Ying; Wang, Xinxin; Kong, Xiao; Liu, Huijun; Wang, Yafeng

    2016-01-01

    Sphingobium yanoikuyae TJ is a halotolerant di-n-butyl-phthalate-degrading bacterium, isolated from the Haihe estuary in Bohai Bay, Tianjin, China. Here, we report the 5.1-Mb draft genome sequence of this strain, which will provide insights into the diversity of Sphingobium spp. and the mechanism of phthalate ester degradation in the estuary. PMID:27313307

  18. Investigation of the mechanism for phthalate-induced toxicity during male sexual differentiation in the rat

    EPA Science Inventory

    Male rats exposed to phthalate esters during sexual differentiation (GDI4-GDI8) display various developmental abnormalities of the reproductive tract that are manifested later in adult life. Induction of these malformations is associated with declines in fetal testicular testoste...

  19. PHTHALATE-INDUCED LEYDIG CELL HYPERPLASIA IS ASSOCIATED WITH MULTIPLE ENDOCRINE DISTURBANCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The possibility that exposures to environmental agents are associated with reproductive disorders in human populations has generated much public interest recently. Phthalate esters are used most commonly as plasticizers in the food and construction industry, and DEHP is the most ...

  20. Inhibitory effect of caffeic acid phenethyl ester, a plant-derived polyphenolic compound, on rat intestinal contractility.

    PubMed

    Aviello, Gabriella; Scalisi, Caterina; Fileccia, Rosaria; Capasso, Raffaele; Romano, Barbara; Izzo, Angelo A; Borrelli, Francesca

    2010-08-25

    Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) exerts pharmacological actions (e.g. anti-inflammatory, chemopreventive) which are relevant for potential clinical application in the digestive tract. However, no study has been published on its possible effects on intestinal motility, to date. In the present study, we investigated the effect of this plant-derived polyphenolic compound on the spontaneous contractions of the rat isolated ileum. CAPE reduced (in a tetrodotoxin-insensitive manner) spontaneous ileal contractions and this effect was reduced by the L-type Ca2+ channel blocker nifedipine and the chelant of calcium ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid. However, the effect of CAPE was not modified by a number of inhibitors/antagonists such as of phentolamine plus propranolol, atropine, tetrodotoxin, cyclopiazonic acid, omega-conotoxin, apamin, NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine, 9-(tetrahydro-2-furanyl)-9H-purin-6-amine, 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one or a combination of SR 140333, SR48968 and SR142801. In conclusion our study shows that (i) CAPE relaxed myogenic contractions of rat ileum and that (ii) this effect occurs, at least in part, throughout a mechanism involving L-type Ca2+ channels. PMID:20451513

  1. Growth and aggregation behavior of representative phytoplankton as affected by the environmental contaminant di-n-butyl phthalate

    SciTech Connect

    Acey, R.; Healy, P.; Unger, T.F.; Ford, C.E.; Hudson, R.A.

    1987-07-01

    The authors' continuing efforts to characterize the molecular basis for the development-stage-dependent phthalate ester toxicity in the brine shrimp, Artemia, led them to consider a number of microorganisms as foraging species for Artemia. The sensitivity of these microorganisms to phthalate esters was surprising and suggests that the nature and distribution of fresh water phytoplankton may already have been significantly altered by phthalates. The purpose of our experiments was to demonstrate the extent to which present levels of oceanic contamination by phthalates may be approaching those necessary to affect the distribution and survival of phytoplankton in the biosphere.

  2. In utero exposure to di(n)butyl phthalate reduces testicular testosterone and testis size in a dose-dependent manner in Harlan Sprague Dawley fetal rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    Phthalate esters are widely used to impart flexibility to plastics (e.g. plastic medical devices and children’s toys) as well as other uses in health and beauty products and some pharmaceuticals. Certain phthalate esters cause reproductive malformations and decrease androgen-dep...

  3. Measurement and estimated health risks of semivolatile organic compounds (PCBs, PAHs, pesticides, and phthalates) in ambient air at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Patton, G.W.; Cooper, A.T.; Blanton, M.L.; Lefkovitz, L.F.; Gilfoil, T.J.

    1997-09-01

    Air samples for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), chlorinated pesticides, phthalate plasticizers, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were collected at three Hanford Site locations (300-Area South Gate, southeast of 200-East Area, and a background location near Rattlesnake Springs). Samples were collected using high-volume air samplers equipped with a glass fiber filter and polyurethane foam plug sampling train. Target compounds were extracted from the sampling trains and analyzed using capillary gas chromatography with either electron capture detection or mass selective detection. Twenty of the 28 PCB congeners analyzed were found above the detection limits, with 8 of the congeners accounting for over 80% of the average PCB concentrations. The average sum of all individual PCB congeners ranged from 500-740 pg/m{sup 3}, with little apparent difference between the sampling locations. Twenty of the 25 pesticides analyzed were found above the detection limits, with endosulfan I, endosulfan II, and methoxychlor having the highest average concentrations. With the exception of the endosulfans, all other average pesticide concentrations were below 100 pg/m{sup 3}. There was little apparent difference between the air concentrations of pesticides measured at each location. Sixteen of the 18 PAHs analyzed were found above the detection limit. Phenanthrene, fluoranthene, pyrene, fluorene, chrysene, benzo(b)fluoranthene, and naphthalene were the only PAHs with average concentrations above 100 pg/m{sup 3}. Overall, the 300 Area had higher average PAH concentrations compared to the 200-East Area and the background location at Rattlesnake Springs; however, the air concentrations at the 300-Area also are influenced by sources on the Hanford Site and from nearby communities.

  4. Phthalate Concentrations and Dietary Exposure from Food Purchased in New York State

    PubMed Central

    Lorber, Matthew; Guo, Ying; Wu, Qian; Yun, Se Hun; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Hommel, Madeline; Imran, Nadia; Hynan, Linda S.; Cheng, Dunlei; Colacino, Justin A.; Birnbaum, Linda S.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Phthalates have been found in many personal care and industrial products, but have not previously been reported in food purchased in the United States. Phthalates are ubiquitous synthetic compounds and therefore difficult to measure in foods containing trace levels. Phthalates have been associated with endocrine disruption and developmental alteration. Objectives: Our goals were to report concentrations of phthalates in U.S. food for the first time, specifically, nine phthalates in 72 individual food samples purchased in Albany, New York, and to compare these findings with other countries and estimate dietary phthalate intake. Methods: A convenience sample of commonly consumed foods was purchased from New York supermarkets. Methods were developed to analyze these foods using gas chromatography–mass spectroscopy. Dietary intakes of phthalates were estimated as the product of the food consumption rate and concentration of phthalates in that food. Results: The range of detection frequency of individual phthalates varied from 6% for dicyclohexyl phthalate (DCHP) to 74% for di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP). DEHP concentrations were the highest of the phthalates measured in all foods except beef [where di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP) was the highest phthalate found], with pork having the highest estimated mean concentration of any food group (mean 300 ng/g; maximum, 1,158 ng/g). Estimated mean adult intakes ranged from 0.004 μg/kg/day for dimethyl phthalate (DMP) to 0.673 μg/kg/day for DEHP. Conclusions: Phthalates are widely present in U.S. foods. While estimated intakes for individual phthalates in this study were more than an order of magnitude lower than U.S. Environmental Protection Agency reference doses, cumulative exposure to phthalates is of concern and a more representative survey of U.S. foods is indicated. PMID:23461894

  5. THE SEARCH OF COMPOUNDS WITH ANTIAGGREGATION ACTIVITY AMONG S-ESTERS OF THIOSULFONIC ACIDS.

    PubMed

    Halenova, T I; Nikolaeva, I V; Nakonechna, A V; Bolibrukh, K B; Monka, N Y; Lubenets, V I; Savchuk, O M; Novikov, V P; Ostapchenko, L I

    2015-01-01

    According to the current understanding, the hyperactivation of platelets may lead to increased intravascular coagulation and thrombosis. Today a relevant issue is the search for new anti-thrombotic agents that are able to modulate the activity of platelet receptors, thus, influence the processes of activation and aggregation of platelets. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of newly synthesized thiosulfonate derivatives on platelet aggregation. The activity of the compounds was tested in vitro using platelet-rich plasma. As a result of the screening test, structural formulas of four agents with high antiaggregative activity were established. These compounds inhibited ADP- and collagen-induced platelet aggregation in a dose-dependent manner. Two of these compounds were shown to be more effective inhibitors of aggregation induced by ADP (IC50 - 8-10 μM), as well as collagen (IC50 - 1.5-2.0 μM). PMID:26717599

  6. Simultaneous GC-MS determination of seven phthalates in total and migrated portions of paper cups.

    PubMed

    Park, Yu Na; Choi, Min Sun; Rehman, Shaheed Ur; Gye, Myung Chan; Yoo, Hye Hyun

    2016-05-01

    Phthalate acid esters are widely used as plasticizers to impart plastic flexibility in various industrial applications. In this study, the content of seven phthalates, dibutyl phthalate (DBP), benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP), di-(2-ethylhexyl) adipate (DEHA), di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), di-n-octyl phthalate (DNOP), di-isononyl phthalate (DINP), and di-isodecyl phthalate (DIDP) were determined in paper cups using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). In addition, the potential migration of these seven phthalates from paper cups into various food stimulants under different conditions was evaluated. The levels of DBP, DEHA, DEHP, and DNOP were in the ranges of 0.07-3.14, 0.16-42.69, 0.45-58.56, and 0.3-2.4 mg/kg, respectively. Meanwhile, BBP, DINP, and DIDP were not detected in most of the tested samples. In the migration test, DEHA was released to 50 % ethanol and n-heptane in a time-dependent manner and the maximum migration levels were 65.62 ± 3.61 and 95.56 ± 19.76 μg/L, respectively. The release of other phthalates was very low or negligible. These results demonstrated that paper cups are not a significant source of phthalate exposure; however, DEHA could be released from paper cups into alcoholic beverages or oily liquid beverages in the human diet. PMID:27053047

  7. [Pyrolysates of novel latent fragrant compound 3,6-dimethyl-2,5-pyrazinedicarboxylic acid menthol ester].

    PubMed

    Lai, Miao; Zhao, Boya; Bao, Xiaorong; Zhao, Mingqin; Ji, Xiaoming; Fu, Peipei; Zhang, Yujie

    2015-01-01

    In order to develop a new tobacco flavor released at high-temperature, the novel latent fragrant compound 3,6-dimethyl-2,5-pyrazinedicarboxylic acid menthol ester (DPAME) was synthesized by esterification using 2,3,5,6-tetramethylpyrazine and menthol as raw materials. In air atmosphere, the pyrolysis behavior of DPAME was investigated using an on-line pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Py-GC-MS) method at three temperature levels of 300, 600 and 900 degrees C, separately. The pyrolysis products were directly introduced into GC-MS and were qualitatively and semi-quantitatively analyzed. The results showed that a variety of aroma compounds of aldehydes, 3-p-menthene and menthol were released and identified at 300 degrees C. While at 600 degrees C and 900 degrees C, flavor alkene class, the alkyl pyrazines, menthol and 3-p-menthene were generated. And the types and relative amounts of pyrazines were significantly increased, at these two temperatures. Combined the analytical results of DPAME pyrolysates and the results of sensory evaluation of the cigarette, the possible pyrolysis mechanism was preliminarily speculated. The Py-GC-MS technique for the study of the pyrolysis products of DPAME was convenient and rapid. The investigation provided a reliable theoretical foundation for the perfume reinforcement technology in tobacco products, contributing to the development of cigarette products with better aroma and taste. This method is an accurate and quick way to study the pyrolysis products of latent fragrant substance. PMID:25958667

  8. Antioxidant activity of phenolic compounds added to a functional emulsion containing omega-3 fatty acids and plant sterol esters.

    PubMed

    Espinosa, Raquel Rainho; Inchingolo, Raffaella; Alencar, Severino Matias; Rodriguez-Estrada, Maria Teresa; Castro, Inar Alves

    2015-09-01

    The effect of eleven compounds extracted from red propolis on the oxidative stability of a functional emulsion was evaluated. Emulsions prepared with Echium oil as omega 3 (ω-3 FA) source, containing 1.63 g/100mL of α-linolenic acid (ALA), 0.73 g/100 mL of stearidonic acid (SDA) and 0.65 g/100mL of plant sterol esters (PSE) were prepared without or with phenolic compounds (vanillic acid, caffeic acid, trans-cinnamic acid, 2,4-dihydroxycinnamic acid, p-coumaric acid, quercetin, trans-ferulic acid, trans,trans-farnesol, rutin, gallic acid or sinapic acid). tert-Butylhydroquinone and a mixture containing ascorbic acid and FeSO4 were applied as negative and positive controls of the oxidation. Hydroperoxide, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), malondialdehyde and phytosterol oxidation products (POPs) were evaluated as oxidative markers. Based on hydroperoxide and TBARS analysis, sinapic acid and rutin (200 ppm) showed the same antioxidant activity than TBHQ, representing a potential alternative as natural antioxidant to be applied in a functional emulsion containing ω-3 FA and PSE. PMID:25842314

  9. Generation of anticalins with specificity for a nonsymmetric phthalic acid ester.

    PubMed

    Mercader, Josep V; Skerra, Arne

    2002-09-15

    A set of engineered lipocalins, so-called anticalins, that bind benzyl butyl phthalate, a potential pollutant of environmental and food samples or medical plastic ware, has been generated. To this end, the synthesis of a derivative of the target analyte carrying an activatable carboxylate group at the end of an aliphatic spacer arm was established. This compound was covalently coupled to amino-functionalized paramagnetic beads. Using phage display technology three variants were selected from a random library of the bilin-binding protein (BBP), a prototypic lipocalin, which exhibit binding activity toward the nonsymmetric phthalic acid ester. These anticalins (denominated PhtA, PhtB, and PhtC) possess dissociation constants of 9.1, 6.2, and 11.6 microM, respectively. Specificity for the binding of other phthalic acid esters was studied. No cross-reactivity was found for diethyl phthalate, while binding to dibutyl phthalate was observed with higher dissociation constants. Interestingly, two differing types of binding behavior were observed among the three selected anticalins. Sequence comparison of these engineered lipocalins with the wild-type BBP revealed that all of the 16 randomized positions carried an amino acid exchange and that a certain sequence pattern had been selected, thus pointing toward a peculiar mode of structural interaction. Our data suggest that the generation of anticalins may provide an alternative to antibodies for the creation of stable receptor proteins against haptens with bioanalytical relevance. PMID:12419339

  10. Oxygen-Controlled Catalysis by Vitamin B12 -TiO2 : Formation of Esters and Amides from Trichlorinated Organic Compounds by Photoirradiation.

    PubMed

    Shimakoshi, Hisashi; Hisaeda, Yoshio

    2015-12-14

    An oxygen switch in catalysis of the cobalamin derivative (B12 )-TiO2 hybrid catalyst for the dechlorination of trichlorinated organic compounds has been developed. The covalently bound B12 on the TiO2 surface transformed trichlorinated organic compounds into an ester and amide by UV light irradiation under mild conditions (in air at room temperature), while dichlorostilbenes (E and Z forms) were formed in nitrogen from benzotrichloride. A benzoyl chloride was formed as an intermediate of the ester and amide, which was detected by GC-MS. The substrate scope of the synthetic strategy is demonstrated with a range of various trichlorinated organic compounds. A photo-duet reaction utilizing the hole and conduction band electron of TiO2 in B12 -TiO2 for the amide formation was also developed. PMID:26526962