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Sample records for physical activity-related injury

  1. Parental Social Support and the Physical Activity-Related Behaviors of Youth: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beets, Michael W.; Cardinal, Bradley J.; Alderman, Brandon L.

    2010-01-01

    Social support from parents serves as one of the primary influences of youth physical activity-related behaviors. A systematic review was conducted on the relationship of parental social support to the physical activity-related behaviors of youth. Four categories of social support were identified, falling under two distinct mechanisms--tangible…

  2. Do Motives to Undertake Physical Activity Relate to Physical Activity in Adolescent Boys and Girls?

    PubMed Central

    Kopcakova, Jaroslava; Dankulincova Veselska, Zuzana; Madarasova Geckova, Andrea; Kalman, Michal; van Dijk, Jitse P.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    2015-01-01

    Low levels of physical activity (PA) during adolescence contribute to obesity and poor health outcomes in adolescence, and these associations endure into adulthood. The aim of this study was to assess the associations between motives for PA and the level of PA among adolescent boys and girls. We obtained data regarding motives for PA and frequency of PA in 2010 via the Health Behavior in School-aged Children cross-sectional study in the Czech and Slovak Republics (n = 9018, mean age = 13.6, 49% boys). Respondents answered questions about their motives for PA and the frequency of their PA. Motives for PA were assessed using 13 items, which were structured in four groups. We explored the association between the motives for PA and sufficient PA using univariate and multivariate logistic regression models adjusted for age, and separately for boys and girls. “Good child” motives and Achievement motives were significantly associated with sufficient PA among both boys and girls. Health motives were associated with sufficient PA only among boys, and Social motives were associated with sufficient PA only among girls. Motives for PA were associated with the level of PA, and this association was partially gender dependent. These gender differences should be considered in interventions focusing on enhancement of PA. PMID:26184246

  3. Youth at risk of physical inactivity may benefit more from activity-related support than youth not at risk

    PubMed Central

    Davison, Kirsten Krahnstoever; Schmalz, Dorothy L

    2006-01-01

    Background This study examines whether associations between activity-related support and adolescents' physical activity differ for adolescents at high versus low risk of physical inactivity. Methods: Participants included 202 middle-school-aged girls (N = 92) and boys (N = 110). Physical activity was assessed using three self-report questionnaires. Activity-related support from mothers, fathers, siblings, and peers was assessed using the Activity Support Scale. Perceived sport competence was assessed using the Physical Activity Self Description Questionnaire. Participants' height and weight were measured and used to calculate their age- and sex-adjusted Body Mass Index percentile. Participants were classified as being at high risk for physical inactivity if they fulfilled two of the following three criteria: (1) overweight; (2) female; or (3) having low perceived sport competence. Results: Activity-related support from all sources was associated with higher levels of physical activity among adolescents. A stronger association between activity support and physical activity was found for adolescents at high risk for physical inactivity in comparison to adolescents at low risk. Conclusions: Findings from this study suggest that the activity-related support from family and friends may be an effective tool in promoting physical activity among youth at risk of physical inactivity. PMID:16566842

  4. Factors in Daily Physical Activity Related to Calcaneal Mineral Density in Men

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutchinson, Teresa M.; Whalen, Robert T.; Cleek, Tammy M.; Vogel, John M.; Arnaud, Sara B.

    1995-01-01

    To determine the factors in daily physical activity that influence the mineral density of the calcaneus, we recorded walking steps and the type and duration of exercise in 43 healthy 26-to 51-yr-old men. Areal (g/sq cm) calcaneal bone mineral density (CBMD) was measured by single energy x-ray densitometry. Subjects walked a mean (+/- SD) of 7902(+/-2534) steps per day or approximately 3.9(+/-1.2) miles daily. Eight subjects reported no exercise activities. The remaining 35 subjects spent 143(2-772) (median and range) min/wk exercising. Twenty-eight men engaged in exercise activities that generate single leg peak vertical ground reaction forces (GRF(sub z)) of 2 or more body weights (high loaders, HL), and 15 reported exercise or daily activities that typically generate GRF(sub z) less than 1.5 body weights (low loaders, LL). CBMD was 12% higher in HL than LL (0.668 +/- 0.074 g/sq cm vs 0.597 +/- 0.062 g/sq cm, P less than 0.004). In the HL group, CBMD correlated to reported minutes of high load exercise (r = 0.41, P less than 0.03). CBMD was not related to the number of daily walking steps (N = 43, r = 0.03, NS). The results of this study support the concept that the dominant factor in daily physical activity relating to bone mineral density is the participation in site specific high loading activities, i.e., for the calcaneus, high calcaneal loads.

  5. Active relatives and health-related physical fitness in European adolescents: the HELENA Study.

    PubMed

    Martín-Matillas, Miguel; Ortega, Francisco B; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Martínez-Gómez, David; Vicente-Rodríguez, Germán; Marcos, Ascensión; Béghin, Laurent; Kafatos, Anthony; González-Gross, Marcela; Zaccaria, Maria; Molnár, Dénes; De Henauw, Stefaan; Sjöström, Michael; Moreno, Luis A; Castillo, Manuel J

    2012-01-01

    High physical fitness in childhood and adolescence is positively associated with favourable health-related outcomes. Our aim was to examine the relationship between relatives' (father, mother, brother, sister, and best friend) physical activity engagement and encouragement on adolescents' physical fitness. Adolescents were part of the HELENA study, a multi-centre study conducted in 10 cities from nine European countries in 2006-2008. Participants were 3288 adolescents (48% boys, 52% girls) aged 12.5-17.5 years with valid data on at least one of the three fitness variables studied: muscular strength (standing long jump), speed/agility (4×10 m shuttle run), and cardiorespiratory fitness (20 m shuttle run). The adolescents reported their relatives' physical activity engagement and encouragement. Analysis of covariance showed that relatives' physical activity engagement (father, mother, brother, and best friend) was positively related to cardiorespiratory fitness (P < 0.05); and mother's and sisters' physical activity engagement were positively associated with higher muscular strength in adolescents (P < 0.05). Furthermore, father's physical activity encouragement was positively linked to physical fitness (all fitness components) in adolescents (P < 0.05). Interventions aimed at improving physical fitness in young people might be more successful when family members, particularly mothers and fathers, are encouraged to engage in physical activity and support adolescents' physical activity. PMID:22906183

  6. Physical Activity Related to Depression and Predicted Mortality Risk: Results from the Americans' Changing Lives Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Pai-Lin; Lan, William; Lee, Charles C.-L.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the association between three types of physical activities (PA) and depression, and the relationship between PA and later mortality. Previous studies rarely assessed these associations in one single study in randomly selected population samples. Few studies have assessed these relations by adjusting the covariate of…

  7. Physical Agents for Soft Tissue Injury.

    PubMed

    2016-07-01

    The clinical management of soft tissue injuries of the lower limb commonly includes physical agents such as electrotherapy or ultrasound. However, the evidence about the effectiveness of physical agents varies, and their use remains controversial. A systematic review of randomized clinical trials (RCTs), published in the July 2016 issue of JOSPT, examined the benefits and safety risks of various physical agents for soft tissue injuries of the lower limb. Importantly, the review looked closely at the quality of the RCTs and focused on studies with low risk of bias. In this Perspectives for Practice, the authors explain the impact of their findings for clinicians treating patients with such musculoskeletal conditions. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2016;46(7):555. doi:10.2519/jospt.2016.0503. PMID:27363571

  8. Epidemiology of Musculoskeletal Injuries among Sedentary and Physically Active Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hootman, Jennifer M.; Macera, Carol A.; Ainsworth, Barbara E.; Addy, Cheryl L.; Martin, Malissa; Blair, Steven N.

    2002-01-01

    Examined types and frequencies of musculoskeletal injuries among adults with above average activity levels enrolled in the Dallas Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study. Participant surveys and examinations indicated that one-quarter of all respondents reported musculoskeletal injuries (most of which were activity- related). Sport participants had the…

  9. Contralateral Metabolic Activation Related to Plastic Changes in the Spinal Cord after Peripheral Nerve Injury in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Won, Ran; Lee, Bae Hwan

    2015-01-01

    We have previously reported the crossed-withdrawal reflex in which the rats with nerve injury developed behavioral pain responses of the injured paw to stimuli applied to the contralateral uninjured paw. This reflex indicates that contralateral plastic changes may occur in the spinal cord after unilateral nerve injury. The present study was performed to elucidate the mechanisms and morphological correlates underlying the crossed-withdrawal reflex by using quantitative 14C-2-deoxyglucose (2-DG) autoradiography which can examine metabolic activities and spatial patterns simultaneously. Under pentobarbital anesthesia, rats were subjected to unilateral nerve injury. Mechanical allodynia was tested for two weeks after nerve injury. After nerve injury, neuropathic pain behaviors developed progressively. The crossed-withdrawal reflex was observed at two weeks postoperatively. Contralateral enhancement of 2-DG uptake in the ventral horn of the spinal cord to electrical stimulation of the uninjured paw was observed. These results suggest that the facilitation of information processing from the uninjured side to the injured side may contribute to the crossed-withdrawal reflex by plastic changes in the spinal cord of nerve-injured rats. PMID:26491570

  10. Contralateral Metabolic Activation Related to Plastic Changes in the Spinal Cord after Peripheral Nerve Injury in Rats.

    PubMed

    Won, Ran; Lee, Bae Hwan

    2015-01-01

    We have previously reported the crossed-withdrawal reflex in which the rats with nerve injury developed behavioral pain responses of the injured paw to stimuli applied to the contralateral uninjured paw. This reflex indicates that contralateral plastic changes may occur in the spinal cord after unilateral nerve injury. The present study was performed to elucidate the mechanisms and morphological correlates underlying the crossed-withdrawal reflex by using quantitative (14)C-2-deoxyglucose (2-DG) autoradiography which can examine metabolic activities and spatial patterns simultaneously. Under pentobarbital anesthesia, rats were subjected to unilateral nerve injury. Mechanical allodynia was tested for two weeks after nerve injury. After nerve injury, neuropathic pain behaviors developed progressively. The crossed-withdrawal reflex was observed at two weeks postoperatively. Contralateral enhancement of 2-DG uptake in the ventral horn of the spinal cord to electrical stimulation of the uninjured paw was observed. These results suggest that the facilitation of information processing from the uninjured side to the injured side may contribute to the crossed-withdrawal reflex by plastic changes in the spinal cord of nerve-injured rats. PMID:26491570

  11. Injury Prevention in Physical Education: Scenarios and Solutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrie, Michael D.; Shewmake, Cole; Calleja, Paul

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide physical educators with practical strategies that can assist in preventing injuries in the classroom. The dynamic nature of physical education and the numerous tasks physical educators must complete daily can be challenging. Embedded in these challenges is the constant risk of student injury. Fortunately,…

  12. Physical Activity Assessment: Biomarkers and Self-Report of Activity-Related Energy Expenditure in the WHI

    PubMed Central

    Neuhouser, Marian L.; Di, Chongzhi; Tinker, Lesley F.; Thomson, Cynthia; Sternfeld, Barbara; Mossavar-Rahmani, Yasmin; Stefanick, Marcia L.; Sims, Stacy; Curb, J. David; Lamonte, Michael; Seguin, Rebecca; Johnson, Karen C.; Prentice, Ross L

    2013-01-01

    We used a biomarker of activity-related energy expenditure (AREE) to assess measurement properties of self-reported physical activity and to determine the usefulness of AREE regression calibration equations in the Women's Health Initiative. Biomarker AREE, calculated as the total energy expenditure from doubly labeled water minus the resting energy expenditure from indirect calorimetry, was assessed in 450 Women's Health Initiative participants (2007–2009). Self-reported AREE was obtained from the Arizona Activity Frequency Questionnaire (AAFQ), the 7-Day Physical Activity Recall (PAR), and the Women's Health Initiative Personal Habits Questionnaire (PHQ). Eighty-eight participants repeated the protocol 6 months later. Reporting error, measured as log(self-report AREE) minus log(biomarker AREE), was regressed on participant characteristics for each instrument. Body mass index was associated with underreporting on the AAFQ and PHQ but overreporting on PAR. Blacks and Hispanics underreported physical activity levels on the AAFQ and PAR, respectively. Underreporting decreased with age for the PAR and PHQ. Regressing logbiomarker AREE on logself-reported AREE revealed that self-report alone explained minimal biomarker variance (R2 = 7.6, 4.8, and 3.4 for AAFQ, PAR, and PHQ, respectively). R2 increased to 25.2, 21.5, and 21.8, respectively, when participant characteristics were included. Six-month repeatability data adjusted for temporal biomarker variation, improving R2 to 79.4, 67.8, and 68.7 for AAFQ, PAR, and PHQ, respectively. Calibration equations “recover” substantial variation in average AREE and valuably enhance AREE self-assessment. PMID:23436896

  13. Sports injuries in physical education teacher education students.

    PubMed

    Goossens, L; Verrelst, R; Cardon, G; De Clercq, D

    2014-08-01

    Sports injuries could be highly detrimental to the career of a physical education teacher education (PETE) student. To enable the development of future sports injury prevention programs, sports injuries in 128 first-year academic bachelor PETE students were registered prospectively during one academic year. Common risk factors for sports injuries, taken from the literature, were also evaluated by means of logistic regression analysis. We found an incidence rate of 1.91 and an injury risk of 0.85, which is higher than generally found in a sports-active population. Most injuries involved the lower extremities, were acute, newly occurring injuries, and took place in non-contact situations. More than half of all injuries lead to an inactivity period of 1 week or more and over 80% of all injuries required medical attention. A major part of these injuries happened during the intracurricular sports classes. Few differences were seen between women and men. A history of injury was a significant risk factor (P = 0.018) for the occurrence of injuries, and performance of cooling-down exercises was significantly related to a lower occurrence of ankle injuries (P = 0.031). These data can inform future programs for the prevention of sports injuries in PETE students. PMID:23379854

  14. 75 FR 1301 - Damages Received on Account of Personal Physical Injuries or Physical Sickness; Hearing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-11

    ... Register on Tuesday, September 15, 2009 (74 FR 47152). Persons who wish to present oral comments at the... Injuries or Physical Sickness; Hearing AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice of... of personal physical injuries or physical sickness. DATES: The public hearing is being held...

  15. Anthropometrics, Physical Performance, and Injury Characteristics of Youth American Football

    PubMed Central

    Caswell, Shane V.; Ausborn, Ashley; Diao, Guoqing; Johnson, David C.; Johnson, Timothy S.; Atkins, Rickie; Ambegaonkar, Jatin P.; Cortes, Nelson

    2016-01-01

    Background: Prior research has described the anthropometric and physical performance characteristics of professional, collegiate, and high school American football players. Yet, little research has described these factors in American youth football and their potential relationship with injury. Purpose: To characterize anthropometric and physical performance measures, describe the epidemiology of injury, and examine the association of physical performance measures with injury among children participating within age-based divisions of a large metropolitan American youth football league. Study Design: Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: Demographic, anthropometric, and physical performance characteristics and injuries of 819 male children were collected over a 2-year period (2011-2012). Injury data were collected by the league athletic trainer (AT) and coaches. Descriptive analysis of demographic, anthropometric, and physical performance measures (40-yard sprint, pro-agility, push-ups, and vertical jump) were conducted. Incidence rates were computed for all reported injuries; rates were calculated as the number of injuries per 1000 athlete-exposures (AEs). Multinomial logistic regression was used to identify whether the categories of no injury, no-time-loss (NTL) injury, and time-loss (TL) injury were associated with physical performance measures. Results: Of the 819 original participants, 760 (92.8%) completed preseason anthropometric measures (mean ± SD: age, 11.8 ± 1.2 years; height, 157.4 ± 10.7 cm; weight, 48.7 ± 13.3 kg; experience, 2.0 ± 1.8 years); 640 (78.1%) players completed physical performance measures. The mean (±SD) 40-yard sprint and pro-agility measures of the players were 6.5 ± 0.6 and 5.7 ± 0.5 seconds, respectively; the number of push-ups and maximal vertical jump height were 16.5 ± 9.3 repetitions and 42.3 ± 8.4 cm, respectively. Players assigned to different teams within age divisions demonstrated no differences in

  16. Design of the iPlay study: systematic development of a physical activity injury prevention programme for primary school children.

    PubMed

    Collard, Dorine C M; Chinapaw, Mai J M; van Mechelen, Willem; Verhagen, Evert A L M

    2009-01-01

    Health benefits of physical activity in children are well known. However, a drawback is the risk of physical activity-related injuries. Children are at particular risk for these injuries, because of a high level of exposure. Because of the high prevalence of physical activity injuries and the negative short- and long-term consequences, prevention of these injuries in children is important. This article describes how we systematically developed a school-based physical activity injury prevention programme using the intervention mapping (IM) protocol. IM describes a process for developing theory- and evidence-based health promotion programmes. The development can be described in six steps: (i) perform a needs assessment; (ii) identify programme and performance objectives; (iii) select methods and strategies; (iv) develop programme; (v) adopt and implement; and (vi) evaluate. First, the results of the needs assessment showed the injury problem in children and the different risk factors for physical activity injuries. Based on the results of the needs assessment the main focus of the injury prevention programme was described. Second, the overall programme objective of the injury prevention programme was defined as reducing the incidence of lower extremity physical activity injuries. Third, theoretical methods and practical strategies were selected to accomplish a decrease in injury incidence. The theoretical methods used were active learning, providing cues and scenario-based risk information, and active processing of information. The practical strategy of the injury prevention programme was an 8-month course about injury prevention to be used in physical education classes in primary schools. Fourth, programme materials that were used in the injury prevention programme were developed, including newsletters for children and parents, posters, exercises to improve motor fitness, and an information website. Fifth, an implementation plan was designed in order to ensure that

  17. A multifactorial injury prevention intervention reduces injury incidence in Physical Education Teacher Education students.

    PubMed

    Goossens, L; Cardon, G; Witvrouw, E; Steyaert, A; De Clercq, D

    2016-01-01

    Physical Education Teacher Education (PETE) students are at considerable risk for non-contact sports injuries of the lower extremities. Multifactorial injury prevention interventions including exercises have been successful in sports populations, but no such study has ever been performed in PETE students. This study investigated the efficacy of a multifactorial injury prevention intervention on injury incidence reduction in PETE students. PETE students in the intervention group (n = 154) and in the control group (n = 189) registered sports injuries prospectively. The intervention lasted one academic year and consisted of an injury awareness programme and preventive strategies, implemented by the PETE sports lecturers. Differences in injury incidence between the intervention and control group were tested by Poisson regression Wald tests. There was a trend towards significantly lower incidence rate (2.18 vs. 2.73; p = 0.061) in the intervention group compared with the control group. Students in the intervention group had significantly less acute, first-time and extracurricular injuries. The largest reduction was observed for injuries during unsupervised practice sessions. A multifactorial injury prevention intervention embedded into a regular PETE programme is a promising and feasible strategy to prevent injuries in PETE students. Further research is needed to investigate whether the results may be generalised to other PETE programmes. PMID:25768808

  18. Therapeutic physical exercise in neural injury: friend or foe?

    PubMed

    Park, Kanghui; Lee, Seunghoon; Hong, Yunkyung; Park, Sookyoung; Choi, Jeonghyun; Chang, Kyu-Tae; Kim, Joo-Heon; Hong, Yonggeun

    2015-12-01

    [Purpose] The intensity of therapeutic physical exercise is complex and sometimes controversial in patients with neural injuries. This review assessed whether therapeutic physical exercise is beneficial according to the intensity of the physical exercise. [Methods] The authors identified clinically or scientifically relevant articles from PubMed that met the inclusion criteria. [Results] Exercise training can improve body strength and lead to the physiological adaptation of skeletal muscles and the nervous system after neural injuries. Furthermore, neurophysiological and neuropathological studies show differences in the beneficial effects of forced therapeutic exercise in patients with severe or mild neural injuries. Forced exercise alters the distribution of muscle fiber types in patients with neural injuries. Based on several animal studies, forced exercise may promote functional recovery following cerebral ischemia via signaling molecules in ischemic brain regions. [Conclusions] This review describes several types of therapeutic forced exercise and the controversy regarding the therapeutic effects in experimental animals versus humans with neural injuries. This review also provides a therapeutic strategy for physical therapists that grades the intensity of forced exercise according to the level of neural injury. PMID:26834383

  19. Therapeutic physical exercise in neural injury: friend or foe?

    PubMed Central

    Park, Kanghui; Lee, Seunghoon; Hong, Yunkyung; Park, Sookyoung; Choi, Jeonghyun; Chang, Kyu-Tae; Kim, Joo-Heon; Hong, Yonggeun

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The intensity of therapeutic physical exercise is complex and sometimes controversial in patients with neural injuries. This review assessed whether therapeutic physical exercise is beneficial according to the intensity of the physical exercise. [Methods] The authors identified clinically or scientifically relevant articles from PubMed that met the inclusion criteria. [Results] Exercise training can improve body strength and lead to the physiological adaptation of skeletal muscles and the nervous system after neural injuries. Furthermore, neurophysiological and neuropathological studies show differences in the beneficial effects of forced therapeutic exercise in patients with severe or mild neural injuries. Forced exercise alters the distribution of muscle fiber types in patients with neural injuries. Based on several animal studies, forced exercise may promote functional recovery following cerebral ischemia via signaling molecules in ischemic brain regions. [Conclusions] This review describes several types of therapeutic forced exercise and the controversy regarding the therapeutic effects in experimental animals versus humans with neural injuries. This review also provides a therapeutic strategy for physical therapists that grades the intensity of forced exercise according to the level of neural injury. PMID:26834383

  20. Physical Activity and Musculoskeletal Injuries in Women: The Women's Injury Study

    PubMed Central

    DeFina, Laura F.; Leonard, David; Custodio, Michelle A.; Morrow, James R.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Increased injury rates have been associated with physical activity (PA). The differences in musculoskeletal injury (MSI) characteristics resulting from PA, versus those unrelated to PA, are unknown. We describe the pattern of PA and non-PA MSI incurred by community-dwelling women. Methods Data were extracted from the Women's Injury Study, a web-based observational study that tracked weekly PA behaviors and self-reported MSI of 909 community-dwelling women ages 20–83 years. The primary outcome was self-reported MSI that interrupted daily activities ≥2 days and/or required treatment from a health care provider. Follow-up telephone reporting of MSIs allowed further description of injuries. Mixed effects logistic regression was used to identify injury sites associated with PA, controlling for age, body mass index, previous injury, and use of alcohol. Results Incidence of PA and non-PA MSIs were comparable; some differences in injury characteristics were evident across 83,241 person-weeks of reporting. Non-PA MSIs were more likely to come on “suddenly” (54% vs. 8%) and commonly involved head/jaw/neck injuries. Reported PA-related MSIs were less likely to require health care provider treatment (60% vs. 80%) and resulted in less missed days of work/school (11%) versus non-PA MSIs (17%). Compared to non-PA related injuries, PA-related injuries were more likely to involve the lower (odds ratio [OR]=3.10, p=0.002) or upper limbs (OR=2.54, p=0.01) and less likely to involve the head/jaw/neck (OR=0.21, p=0.002). Conclusion There are some differences in mechanisms of injury, the distribution of injuries by anatomical location, and the treatment of injuries depending on aerobic activity participation, although absolute rates of MSI were comparable. PMID:24117001

  1. The physical basis of explosion and blast injury processes.

    PubMed

    Proud, W G

    2013-03-01

    Energetic materials are widely used in civilian and military applications, such as quarrying and mining, flares, and in munitions. Recent conflicts have involved the widespread use of improvised explosive devices to attack military, civilians and infrastructure. This article gives a basic overview of explosive technology and the underlying physical processes that produce the injuries encountered. In particular aspects relevant to primary and secondary injuries are discussed. PMID:23631318

  2. Musculoskeletal injuries in physical education versus non-physical education teachers: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Goossens, Lennert; Vercruysse, Sien; Cardon, Greet; Haerens, Leen; Witvrouw, Erik; De Clercq, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    Physical education (PE) teachers have a physically demanding job, putting them at a considerable risk for musculoskeletal injuries. To structurally develop tailored injury prevention programmes for PE teachers, a clear understanding of the extent, characteristics and underlying factors of their musculoskeletal injuries compared to referents is necessary. Therefore, the current study prospectively followed 103 PE teachers and 58 non-PE teachers, who registered musculoskeletal injuries and time of exposure to sports participation during one school year. Pearson χ(2)-tests and independent samples t-tests determined significant differences between PE and non-PE teachers regarding demographics and variables possibly related to injury occurrence. PE teachers had 1.23 and non-PE teachers 0.78 injuries/teacher/school year. This difference was significantly different after adjustment for hours spent weekly on intracurricular teaching during the career and for injury history during the preceding six months (P = 0.009; OR = 0.511; 95% CI = 0.308-0.846). PE teachers' most affected body parts were the knee and the back. PE teachers had a more extensive injury history (P < 0.001), a higher work- (P < 0.001) and sport index (P < 0.001), practiced more sports (P < 0.002) and taught more extracurricular sports (P = 0.001). Future injury prevention programmes should take account for the great injury history and heavy physical load in PE teachers. PMID:26419187

  3. Is preoperative physical activity related to post-surgery recovery? A cohort study of patients with breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Nilsson, Hanna; Angerås, Ulf; Bock, David; Börjesson, Mats; Onerup, Aron; Fagevik Olsen, Monika; Gellerstedt, Martin; Haglind, Eva; Angenete, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of our study is to assess the association between preoperative level of activity and recovery after breast cancer surgery measured as hospital stay, length of sick leave and self-assessed physical and mental recovery. Design A prospective cohort study. Setting Patients included were those scheduled to undergo breast cancer surgery, between February and November 2013, at two participating hospitals in the Western Region of Sweden. Participants Patients planned for breast cancer surgery filled out a questionnaire before, as well as at 3 and 6 weeks after the operation. The preoperative level of activity was self-assessed and categorised into four categories by the participants using the 4-level Saltin-Grimby Physical Activity Level Scale (SGPALS). Main outcome measure Our main outcome was postoperative recovery measured as length of sick leave, in-hospital stay and self-assessed physical and mental recovery. Results 220 patients were included. Preoperatively, 14% (31/220) of participants assessed themselves to be physically inactive, 61% (135/220) to exert some light physical activity (PA) and 20% (43/220) to be more active (level 3+4). Patients operated with mastectomy versus partial mastectomy and axillary lymph node dissection versus sentinel node biopsy were less likely to have a short hospital stay, relative risk (RR) 0.88 (0.78 to 1.00) and 0.82 (0.70 to 0.96). More active participants (level 3 or 4) had an 85% increased chance of feeling physically recovered at 3 weeks after the operation, RR 1.85 (1.20 to 2.85). No difference was seen after 6 weeks. Conclusions The above study shows that a higher preoperative level of PA is associated with a faster physical recovery as reported by the patients 3 weeks post breast cancer surgery. After 6 weeks, most patients felt physically recovered, diminishing the association above. No difference was seen in length of sick leave or self-assessed mental recovery between inactive or more active

  4. The Importance of Physical Fitness for Injury Prevention: Part 2.

    PubMed

    Knapik, Joseph J

    2015-01-01

    This report examines associations between injuries and flexibility, stretching, warm-up, and body composition. Military studies show that either too much or too little flexibility increases injury risk. Static stretching prior to exercise does not appear to reduce the overall injury incidence, although further research is needed on some types of injuries. Static stretching also appears to reduce strength and power (explosive strength). Warm-up (low intensity activity prior to exercise or sports) appears to reduce injury risk. Body mass index (BMI; weight in kg/ height in m²) is a surrogate measure of body fat because it is highly related to laboratory measures of body fat. However, Soldiers can also have a high BMI because of higher muscle mass. If high BMI reflects a larger percentage of body fat relative to height, injury risk might be increased because the additional fat would increase the intensity of physical activity, leading to more rapid fatigue and repetitive stress on the musculoskeletal system. Low BMI could reflect a paucity of fat or muscle/ bone, or both. Low BMI may make Soldiers more susceptible to injury if they lack the muscle mass or strength in the supportive structures (ligaments, bones) required to perform certain physical tasks, and if they overexert or overuse the available muscle mass or supportive structures. Studies in basic combat training show that both high and low BMI increases injury risk. However, studies among active duty Soldiers only show that injury risk increases as BMI increases, possibly because very few active duty Soldiers have very low BMI (i.e., less than 18 kg/m²). PMID:26125174

  5. Injury biomechanics, neuropathology, and simplified physics of explosive blast and impact mild traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Bandak, F A; Ling, G; Bandak, A; De Lanerolle, N C

    2015-01-01

    Explosive blast shock waves and blunt impact to the head are two types of loading shown to result in mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). While mTBI from these two causes shares some common features behaviorally, there are distinct differences in the pathophysiology of the underlying injury mechanisms. Various elucidations have been offered in the literature to explain the organic damage associated with mTBI resulting from both types of loading. The current state of understanding in this field is somewhat limited by the degree of appreciation of the physics and biomechanics governing the effects of explosive blast shock waves and blunt impact on the head, which has resulted in the various approaches to the investigation of the operative brain injury "wounding mechanisms". In this chapter we provide a simplified description of terminology associated with forces on the head from explosive blast shock waves and blunt impact, to assist readers in the field in evaluating interpretations of brain injury "wounding" processes. Remarkably, mTBI from either loading is shown generally to result in only a small loss of neurons, with hippocampal neurons appearing to be particularly vulnerable to explosive blast shock waves. Explosive blast studies in large animal models show a unique pattern of periventricular injury, which is different from the classic diffuse axonal injury. Both astrocyte and microglial activation are also seen in explosive blast as well as impact trauma, but this may be a general secondary brain injury response, nonspecific to explosive blast or blunt trauma. Additionally, while moderate to severe impact closed head injuries sometimes result in petechial hemorrhages or hematomas, they do not appear to be associated with explosive blast mTBI even with repeated exposure to blasts. PMID:25702211

  6. The impact of sport and active recreation injuries on physical activity levels at 12 months post-injury.

    PubMed

    Andrew, N; Wolfe, R; Cameron, P; Richardson, M; Page, R; Bucknill, A; Gabbe, B

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of serious sport and active recreation injury on 12-month physical activity levels. Adults admitted to hospital with sport and active recreation-related injuries, and captured by the Victorian Orthopaedic Trauma Outcomes Registry were recruited to the study. Changes between preinjury and 12 month post-injury physical activity was assessed using the short International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). Independent demographic, injury, and hospital variables were assessed for associations with changes in physical activity levels, using multivariate linear regression. A total of 324 patients were recruited, of which 98% were followed up at 12 months. Mean short IPAQ scores decreased from 7650 METS (95% CI: 7180, 8120) preinjury to 3880 METS; (95% CI: 3530, 4250) post-injury, independent of functional recovery. Education level and occupation group were the only variables independently associated with changes in physical activity levels post-injury. These results highlighted that sport and active recreation injuries lead to significant reductions in physical activity levels. Hence, the prevention of sport and active recreation injuries is important when considering promotion of activity at a population level. PMID:22937749

  7. Effects of an osteoporosis prevention training program on physical activity-related stages of change and self-efficacy among university students, Shiraz, Iran: a Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    KAVEH, MOHAMMAD HOSSIEN; GOLIJ, MONIRE; NAZARI, MAHIN; MAZLOOM, ZOHREH; REZAEIAN ZADEH, ABBAS

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Osteoporosis is a major problem in today's world, being characterized by decreased bone mass and bone change. Due to deficiency of theory-based studies in young population, especially in students, there are significant knowledge gaps of effective planning. Thepresent study was performed in response to this need. The present study investigated the effect of an empowerment program on physical activity related stages of change and self-efficacyin preventing osteoporosis among university students. Methods:In this randomized controlled trial (IRCT: IRCT201212016261N2), 152 female students of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences were selected through multi-stages cluster sampling and were randomly assigned to an experimental (n=76) and a control (n=76) group.The pre-and post-intervention data were collected using the Stages of Exercise Change Questionnaire (SECQ) of Marcos with Cronbach's alpha reliability of 0.89 and also the self-efficacy scale with a Cronbach's alpha reliability of 0.88 and Test-Retest Correlation Coefficient of 0.80. The educational intervention for the experimental group took place through problem-based learning method, small group discussion, and training manuals. In addition, training CDs and brochures were given to the subjects and short SMSs were sent to them. The data were analyzed throughSPSS, version 14, usingMann-Whitney test, Chi-square test, Wilcoxon and regression tests. Results:Pre-intervention findings showed that participants had behavioral constructs below the expected levels. The results showed that the experimental group received significant statisticalincrease after the intervention in stage of change. Before the intervention, the mean scores of stages of changes in the experimental groups was 2.28±0.86 but this rose to 3±0.84 in the first post-test and 3.22±0.84 in the second post-test. The control group showed a significant increase in stage of change without intervention (pre-test 2.04±0.82, first post

  8. What Predicts Injury from Physical Punishment? A Test of the Typologies of Violence Hypothesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Miriam; Durrant, Joan E.; Chabot, Martin; Trocme, Nico; Brown, Jason

    2008-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the power of child, perpetrator, and socio-economic characteristics to predict injury in cases of reported child physical abuse. The study was designed to assess the validity of the assumption that physically injurious incidents of child physical abuse are qualitatively different from those that do not result in…

  9. Depressive Symptoms and Impaired Physical Function after Acute Lung Injury

    PubMed Central

    Colantuoni, Elizabeth; Mendez-Tellez, Pedro A.; Dinglas, Victor D.; Shanholtz, Carl; Husain, Nadia; Dennison, Cheryl R.; Herridge, Margaret S.; Pronovost, Peter J.; Needham, Dale M.

    2012-01-01

    Rationale: Survivors of acute lung injury (ALI) frequently have substantial depressive symptoms and physical impairment, but the longitudinal epidemiology of these conditions remains unclear. Objectives: To evaluate the 2-year incidence and duration of depressive symptoms and physical impairment after ALI, as well as risk factors for these conditions. Methods: This prospective, longitudinal cohort study recruited patients from 13 intensive care units (ICUs) in four hospitals, with follow-up 3, 6, 12, and 24 months after ALI. The outcomes were Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale depression score greater than or equal to 8 (“depressive symptoms”) in patients without a history of depression before ALI, and two or more dependencies in instrumental activities of daily living (“impaired physical function”) in patients without baseline impairment. Measurements and Main Results: During 2-year follow-up of 186 ALI survivors, the cumulative incidences of depressive symptoms and impaired physical function were 40 and 66%, respectively, with greatest incidence by 3-month follow-up; modal durations were greater than 21 months for each outcome. Risk factors for incident depressive symptoms were education 12 years or less, baseline disability or unemployment, higher baseline medical comorbidity, and lower blood glucose in the ICU. Risk factors for incident impaired physical function were longer ICU stay and prior depressive symptoms. Conclusions: Incident depressive symptoms and impaired physical function are common and long-lasting during the first 2 years after ALI. Interventions targeting potentially modifiable risk factors (e.g., substantial depressive symptoms in early recovery) should be evaluated to improve ALI survivors’ long-term outcomes. PMID:22161158

  10. Severe physical exertion, oxidative stress, and acute lung injury.

    PubMed

    Shah, Nikunj R; Iqbal, M Bilal; Barlow, Andrew; Bayliss, John

    2011-11-01

    We report the case of a 27-year-old male athlete presenting with severe dyspnoea 24 hours after completing an "Ironman Triathlon." Subsequent chest radiology excluded pulmonary embolus but confirmed an acute lung injury (ALI). Echocardiography corroborated a normal brain natriuretic peptide level by demonstrating good biventricular systolic function with no regional wall motion abnormalities. He recovered well, without requiring ventilatory support, on supplemental oxygen therapy and empirical antibiotics. To date, ALI following severe physical exertion has never been described. Exercise is a form of physiological stress resulting in oxidative stress through generation of reactive oxygen/nitrogen species. In its extreme form, there is potential for an excessive oxidative stress response--one that overwhelms the body's protective antioxidant mechanisms. As our case demonstrated, oxidative stress secondary to severe physical exertion was the most likely factor in the pathogenesis of ALI. Further studies are necessary to explore the pathological consequences of exercise-induced oxidative stress. Although unproven as of yet, further research may be needed to demonstrate if antioxidant therapy can prevent or ameliorate potential life-threatening complications in the acute setting. PMID:22064719

  11. Retrospective examination of injuries and physical fitness during Federal Bureau of Investigation new agent training

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background A retrospective examination was conducted of injuries, physical fitness, and their association among Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) new agent trainees. Methods Injuries and activities associated with injuries were obtained from a review of medical records in the medical clinic that served the new agents. A physical fitness test (PFT) was administered at Weeks 1, 7 and 14 of the 17-week new agent training course. The PFT consisted of push-ups, sit-ups, pull-ups, a 300-meter sprint, and a 1.5-mile run. Injury data were available from 2000 to 2008 and fitness data were available from 2004 to early 2009. Results During the survey period, 37% of men and 44% of women experienced one or more injuries during the new agent training course (risk ratio (women/men) = 1.18, 95% confidence interval = 1.07-1.31). The most common injury diagnoses were musculoskeletal pain (not otherwise specified) (27%), strains (11%), sprains (10%), contusions (9%), and abrasions/lacerations (9%). Activities associated with injury included defensive tactics training (48%), physical fitness training (26%), physical fitness testing (6%), and firearms training (6%). Over a 6-year period, there was little difference in performance of push-ups, sit-ups, pull-ups, or the 300-meter sprint; 1.5-mile run performance was higher in recent years. Among both men and women, higher injury incidence was associated with lower performance on any of the physical fitness measures. Conclusion This investigation documented injury diagnoses, activities associated with injury, and changes in physical fitness, and demonstrated that higher levels of physical fitness were associated with lower injury risk. PMID:21981817

  12. Adapted marching distances and physical training decrease recruits' injuries and attrition.

    PubMed

    Roos, Lilian; Boesch, Maria; Sefidan, Sandra; Frey, Franz; Mäder, Urs; Annen, Hubert; Wyss, Thomas

    2015-03-01

    There is evidence that progressive loading of physical demands at the beginning of basic military service and specific physical training can reduce injury incidences. Therefore, aim of this study was to measure the effects of a progressive increase in marching distances and an adapted physical training program on injury incidence and attrition rate in a Swiss Army infantry training school. One company reduced the distances covered on foot during the first 4 weeks of basic military training. A second company performed an adapted physical training program for 10 weeks. A third company participated in both interventions combined, and a fourth company served as a control group without any intervention. The injury incidences and attrition rates of 651 male recruits were registered during 21 weeks of military service. Several predictor variables for injury and attrition, such as physical fitness, previous injuries, level of previous physical activity, smoking, motivation, and socioeconomic factors, were assessed as well. The data were analyzed using binary logistic backward regressions. Each intervention separately had a favorable effect on injury prevention. However, combining the 2 interventions resulted in the greatest reduction in injury incidence rate (-33%). Furthermore, the adapted physical training successfully reduced the military service attrition rates (-53%). PMID:25735025

  13. Asteroseismic stellar activity relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonanno, A.; Corsaro, E.; Karoff, C.

    2014-11-01

    Context. In asteroseismology an important diagnostic of the evolutionary status of a star is the small frequency separation which is sensitive to the gradient of the mean molecular weight in the stellar interior. It is thus interesting to discuss the classical age-activity relations in terms of this quantity. Moreover, as the photospheric magnetic field tends to suppress the amplitudes of acoustic oscillations, it is important to quantify the importance of this effect by considering various activity indicators. Aims: We propose a new class of age-activity relations that connects the Mt. Wilson S index and the average scatter in the light curve with the small frequency separation and the amplitude of the p-mode oscillations. Methods: We used a Bayesian inference to compute the posterior probability of various empirical laws for a sample of 19 solar-like active stars observed by the Kepler telescope. Results: We demonstrate the presence of a clear correlation between the Mt. Wilson S index and the relative age of the stars as indicated by the small frequency separation, as well as an anti-correlation between the S index and the oscillation amplitudes. We argue that the average activity level of the stars shows a stronger correlation with the small frequency separation than with the absolute age that is often considered in the literature. Conclusions: The phenomenological laws discovered in this paper have the potential to become new important diagnostics to link stellar evolution theory with the dynamics of global magnetic fields. In particular we argue that the relation between the Mt. Wilson S index and the oscillation amplitudes is in good agreement with the findings of direct numerical simulations of magneto-convection.

  14. Domestic violence against children and adolescents: prevalence of physical injuries in a southern Brazilian metropolis.

    PubMed

    Valente, Leidielly Aline; Dalledone, Mariana; Pizzatto, Eduardo; Zaiter, Wellington; de Souza, Juliana Feltrin; Losso, Estela Maris

    2015-01-01

    Violence against children and adolescents is a public health issue worldwide that threatens physical and mental wellbeing and causes irreparable harm. Reports on this violence are an essential way to prevent it and to protect the children and adolescents. Thus, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of physical injuries that occur in domestic environments and reported to the Child and Adolescent Protection Network. This retrospective study was conducted at the Epidemiology Center of the Municipality of Curitiba. A total of 10,483 reports for the years 2010 (5,112) and 2011 (5,371) were analyzed and from them were selected reports of physical injuries that occurred in the family environment. The children and adolescents were 0-17 years old, comprising 322 cases of physical abuse within the family in 2010. Out of these, 57.1% were male and 42.9% were female, and 58% (187) presented head and neck injuries. There were 342 reports in 2011, 49% were male and 51% were female; head and neck injuries corresponded to 65% (222) of the reported cases. The prevalence of injuries increased by 6% and head and neck injury increased by 19% between 2010 and 2011. It may be concluded that physical abuse is associated with a high prevalence of head and neck injury, which is easily observed by the health and education professionals. Notification organs should be created in Brazilian hospitals and health centers, which is essential to conduct epidemiological surveillance and appropriate policies. PMID:25672385

  15. The physical basis of ventilator-induced lung injury

    PubMed Central

    Plataki, Maria; Hubmayr, Rolf D

    2010-01-01

    Although mechanical ventilation (MV) is a life-saving intervention for patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), it can aggravate or cause lung injury, known as ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI). The biophysical characteristics of heterogeneously injured ARDS lungs increase the parenchymal stress associated with breathing, which is further aggravated by MV. Cells, in particular those lining the capillaries, airways and alveoli, transform this strain into chemical signals (mechanotransduction). The interaction of reparative and injurious mechanotransductive pathways leads to VILI. Several attempts have been made to identify clinical surrogate measures of lung stress/strain (e.g., density changes in chest computed tomography, lower and upper inflection points of the pressure–volume curve, plateau pressure and inflammatory cytokine levels) that could be used to titrate MV. However, uncertainty about the topographical distribution of stress relative to that of the susceptibility of the cells and tissues to injury makes the existence of a single ‘global’ stress/strain injury threshold doubtful. PMID:20524920

  16. Strategies for optimizing military physical readiness and preventing musculoskeletal injuries in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Nindl, Bradley C; Williams, Thomas J; Deuster, Patricia A; Butler, Nikki L; Jones, Bruce H

    2013-01-01

    With downsizing of the military services and significant budget cuts, it will be more important than ever to optimize the health and performance of individual service members. Musculoskeletal injuries (MSIs) represent a major threat to the health and fitness of Soldiers and other service members that degrade our nation's ability to project military power. This affects both financial (such as the economic burden from medical, healthcare, and disability costs) and human manpower resources (Soldiers medically unable to optimally perform their duties and to deploy). For example, in 2012, MSIs represented the leading cause of medical care visits across the military services resulting in almost 2,200,000 medical encounters. They also result in more disability discharges than any other health condition. Nonbattle injuries (NBIs) have caused more medical evacuations (34%) from recent theaters of operation than any other cause including combat injuries. Physical training and sports are the main cause of these NBIs. The majority (56%) of these injuries are the direct result of physical training. Higher levels of physical fitness protect against such injuries; however, more physical training to improve fitness also causes higher injury rates. Thus, military physical training programs must balance the need for fitness with the risks of injuries. The Army has launched several initiatives that may potentially improve military physical readiness and reduce injuries. These include the US Army Training and Doctrine Command's Baseline Soldier Physical Readiness Requirements and Gender Neutral Physical Performance Standards studies, as well as the reimplementation of the Master Fitness Trainer program and the Army Medical Command's Soldier Medical Readiness and Performance Triad Campaigns. It is imperative for military leaders to understand that military physical readiness can be enhanced at the same time that MSIs are prevented. A strategic paradigm shift in the military's approach

  17. Development of a Conceptual Model to Predict Physical Activity Participation in Adults with Brain Injuries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Driver, Simon

    2008-01-01

    The purpose was to examine psychosocial factors that influence the physical activity behaviors of adults with brain injuries. Two differing models, based on Harter's model of self-worth, were proposed to examine the relationship between perceived competence, social support, physical self-worth, affect, and motivation. Adults numbering 384 with…

  18. Development of a conceptual model to predict physical activity participation in adults with brain injuries.

    PubMed

    Driver, Simon

    2008-10-01

    The purpose was to examine psychosocial factors that influence the physical activity behaviors of adults with brain injuries. Two differing models, based on Harter's model of self-worth, were proposed to examine the relationship between perceived competence, social support, physical self-worth, affect, and motivation. Adults numbering 384 with brain injuries completed a series of questionnaires measuring each psychosocial variable. The structural analysis indicated a nonsignificant chi squared value and good fit indices for model two which included affect as the mediating variable. Findings indicate that affect is critical in shaping the physical activity cognitions and behaviors of adults with brain injuries. Suggestions are made on practical ways to enhance affect and subsequently physical activity participation. PMID:18955746

  19. PHYSICAL EXAMINATIONS FOR DIAGNOSING MENISCAL INJURIES: CORRELATION WITH SURGICAL FINDINGS

    PubMed Central

    Gobbo, Ricardo da Rocha; Rangel, Victor de Oliveira; Karam, Francisco Consoli; Pires, Luiz Antônio Simões

    2015-01-01

    Objective: A set of five maneuvers for meniscal injuries (McMurray, Apley, Childress and Steinmann 1 and 2) was evaluated and their sensitivity, specificity, accuracy and likelihood were calculated. The same methods were applied to each test individually. Methods: One hundred and fifty-two patients of both sexes who were going to undergo videoarthroscopy on the knee were examined blindly by one of five residents at this hospital, without knowledge of the clinical data and why the patient was going to undergo an operation. This examination was conducted immediately before the videoarthroscopy and its results were recorded in an electronic spreadsheet. The set of maneuvers was considered positive when one was positive. In the individual analysis, it was enough for the test to be positive. Results: The analysis showed that the set of five meniscal tests presented sensitivity of 89%, specificity of 42%, accuracy of 75%, positive likelihood of 1.53 and negative likelihood of 0.26. Individually, the tests presented accuracy of between 48% and 53%. Conclusion: The set of maneuvers for meniscal injuries presented a good accuracy and significant value, especially for ruling out injury. Individually, the tests had less diagnostic value, although the Apley test had better specificity. PMID:27047833

  20. Cohort study of physical activity and injury among Latino farm workers

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Hong; Stoecklin-Marois, Maria; Li, Chin-Shang; McCurdy, Stephen A.; Schenker, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Introduction This study characterized physical activity and its association with injury among Latino farm workers. Methods An interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to collect baseline and follow-up data on 843 and 640 Latino farm workers, respectively. Participants were 18–55 years old, engaged in farm work and residing in Mendota, CA at baseline interview. The questionnaire assessed self-reported physical activity and risk of injury. Results The 12 month prevalence of injury decreased from 9.0% at baseline to 6.9% at follow up interview. In GEE models adjusted for age, follow-up time, gender, smoking, income and years working in agriculture, poor/fair self-assessed health status (OR=1.82, 95% CI: 1.18, 2.82) and 2–3 hours per day of sitting/watching TV/using a computer (OR=0.50, 95% CI: 0.30–0.83) were significantly associated with injury. Conclusions Physical activity was not associated with injury in this population. Efforts to reduce injuries should focus on known risk factors such as poor health status. PMID:25943698

  1. [Controlled release oxycodone--a new option in the treatment of severe and very severe pain. Review of studies on neuropathic, physical activity-related and postoperative pain].

    PubMed

    Stiehl, M

    2004-08-01

    Opioids are used not only in the treatment of cancer pain, but also pain of non-malignant genesis. In recent years, the efficacy of controlled release (CR) oxycodone in the treatment of the above-mentioned types of pain has been investigated in a number of clinical studies. The present article reviews the clinical studies that have been already published. Thanks to its outstanding pharmacological and pharmacodynamic properties, CR oxycodone is fast acting and brings about long lasting pain relief, coupled with benefits for physical and mental activities. This results in a significant quality-of-life improvement. Oral therapy with CR oxycodone is safe and can be precisely controlled. Since there are no clinical relevant metabolites, there is no danger of accumulation in patients with renal infarction due to these metabolites. Side effects are those typical for opioids, and are readily manageable. CR oxycodone is a good alternative in the treatment of non-cancer pain and can be recommended as first-line treatment for the above-mentioned indications. PMID:16739361

  2. Blast mines: physics, injury mechanisms and vehicle protection.

    PubMed

    Ramasamy, A; Hill, A M; Hepper, A E; Bull, A M J; Clasper, J C

    2009-12-01

    Since World War II, more vehicles have been lost to land mines than all other threats combined. Anti-vehicular (AV) mines are capable of disabling a heavy vehicle, or completely destroying a lighter vehicle. The most common form of AV mine is the blast mine, which uses a large amount of explosive to directly damage the target. In a conventional military setting, landmines are used as a defensive force-multiplier and to restrict the movements of the opposing force. They are relatively cheap to purchase and easy to acquire, hence landmines are also potent weapons in the insurgents' armamentarium. The stand-offnature of its design has allowed insurgents to cause significant injuries to security forces in current conflicts with little personal risk. As a result, AV mines and improvised explosive devices (IEDs) have become the most common cause of death and injury to Coalition and local security forces operating in Iraq and Afghanistan. Detonation of an AV mine causes an explosive, exothermic reaction which results in the formation of a shockwave followed by a rapid expansion of gases. The shockwave is mainly reflected by the soillair interface and fractures the soil cap overthe mine. The detonation products then vent through the voids in the soil, resulting in a hollow inverse cone which consists of the detonation gases surrounded by the soil ejecta. It is the combination of the detonation products and soil ejecta that interact with the target vehicle and cause injury to the vehicle occupants. A number of different strategies are required to mitigate the blast effects of an explosion. Primary blast effects can be reduced by increasing the standoff distance between the seat of the explosion and the crew compartment. Enhancement of armour on the base of the vehicle, as well as improvements in personal protection can prevent penetration of fragments. Mitigating tertiary effects can be achieved by altering the vehicle geometry and structure, increasing vehicle mass, as

  3. Development and reliability of a scale of physical-activity related informal social control for parents of Chinese pre-schoolers

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Parents’ perceived informal social control, defined as the informal ways residents intervene to create a safe and orderly neighbourhood environment, may influence young children’s physical activity (PA) in the neighbourhood. This study aimed to develop and test the reliability of a scale of PA-related informal social control relevant to Chinese parents/caregivers of pre-schoolers (children aged 3 to 5 years) living in Hong Kong. Methods Nominal Group Technique (NGT), a structured, multi-step brainstorming technique, was conducted with two groups of caregivers (mainly parents; n = 11) of Hong Kong pre-schoolers in June 2011. Items collected in the NGT sessions and those generated by a panel of experts were used to compile a list of items (n = 22) for a preliminary version of a questionnaire of informal social control. The newly-developed scale was tested with 20 Chinese-speaking parents/caregivers using cognitive interviews (August 2011). The modified scale, including all 22 original items of which a few were slightly reworded, was subsequently administered on two occasions, a week apart, to 61 Chinese parents/caregivers of Hong Kong pre-schoolers in early 2012. The test-retest reliability and internal consistency of the items and scale were examined using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC), paired t-tests, relative percentages of shifts in responses to items, and Cronbach’s α coefficient. Results Thirteen items generated by parents/caregivers and nine items generated by the panel of experts (total 22 items) were included in a first working version of the scale and classified into three subscales: “Personal involvement and general informal supervision”, “Civic engagement for the creation of a better neighbourhood environment” and “Educating and assisting neighbourhood children”. Twenty out of 22 items showed moderate to excellent test-test reliability (ICC range: 0.40-0.81). All three subscales of informal social control

  4. Effective components of exercise and physical activity-related behaviour-change interventions for chronic non-communicable diseases in Africa: protocol for a systematic mixed studies review with meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Igwesi-Chidobe, Chinonso N; Godfrey, Emma L; Kengne, Andre P

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs) account for a high burden of mortality and morbidity in Africa. Evidence-based clinical guidelines recommend exercise training and promotion of physical activity behaviour changes to control NCDs. Developing such interventions in Africa requires an understanding of the essential components that make them effective in this context. This is a protocol for a systematic mixed studies review that aims to determine the effective components of exercise and physical activity-related behaviour-change interventions for chronic diseases in Africa, by combining quantitative and qualitative research evidence from studies published until July 2015. Methods and analysis We will conduct a detailed search to identify all published and unpublished studies that assessed the effects of exercise and physical activity-related interventions or the experiences/perspectives of patients to these interventions for NCDs from bibliographic databases and the grey literature. Bibliographic databases include MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL (Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials), PsycINFO, CINAHL and Web of Science. We will include the following African regional databases: African Index Medicus (AIM) and AFROLIB, which is the WHO's regional office database for Africa. The databases will be searched from inception until 18 July 2015. Appraisal of study quality will be performed after results synthesis. Data synthesis will be performed independently for quantitative and qualitative data using a mixed methods sequential explanatory synthesis for systematic mixed studies reviews. Meta-analysis will be conducted for the quantitative studies, and thematic synthesis for qualitative studies and qualitative results from the non-controlled observational studies. The primary outcome will include exercise adherence and physical activity behaviour changes. This review protocol is reported according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and

  5. Effects of a multifactorial injury prevention intervention in physical education teachers: A randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Vercruysse, Sien; Haerens, Leen; Verhagen, Evert; Goossens, Lennert; De Clercq, Dirk

    2016-10-01

    Physical education (PE) teachers are at a high risk of musculoskeletal sports or work-related injuries because of the physical activity as inherent part of their profession. Such injuries have a negative impact on work and leisure time activities, and effective injury prevention interventions are needed. The present study aimed at testing the effectiveness of an injury prevention intervention that was developed and optimized according to PE teachers' wishes and values. Fifty-five PE teachers were randomly assigned to intervention or control group. Intervention group teachers engaged in two days of training during which they familiarized with eight injury prevention strategies (seven intrinsic and one extrinsic). A special feature of the intervention was that the way of delivery was based on the self-determination theory in order to stimulate participants' motivation to adhere to the proposed strategies. Prospective registrations during one school year were conducted concerning injuries and preventive behaviours. Results showed that the intervention group teachers had a lower number of injuries per 1000 h time of exposure (TOE) than the controls (INT: 0.49, CON: 1.14 injuries/1000 h TOE, OR: 2.32, 95% CI: 1.06-5.07), and applied a broader variety of strategies including dynamic and static stretching, core stability, balance and strength training, when compared to the controls who mainly engaged in warming-up. In conclusion, with the same amount of time, an injury reduction was found in PE teachers through a more balanced use of provided preventive strategies. PMID:26848872

  6. Effect of Physical and Academic Stress on Illness and Injury in Division 1 College Football Players.

    PubMed

    Mann, J Bryan; Bryant, Kirk R; Johnstone, Brick; Ivey, Patrick A; Sayers, Stephen P

    2016-01-01

    Stress-injury models of health suggest that athletes experience more physical injuries during times of high stress. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of increased physical and academic stress on injury restrictions for athletes (n = 101) on a division I college football team. Weeks of the season were categorized into 3 levels: high physical stress (HPS) (i.e., preseason), high academic stress (HAS) (i.e., weeks with regularly scheduled examinations such as midterms, finals, and week before Thanksgiving break), and low academic stress (LAS) (i.e., regular season without regularly scheduled academic examinations). During each week, we recorded whether a player had an injury restriction, thereby creating a longitudinal binary outcome. The data were analyzed using a hierarchical logistic regression model to properly account for the dependency induced by the repeated observations over time within each subject. Significance for regression models was accepted at p ≤ 0.05. We found that the odds of an injury restriction during training camp (HPS) were the greatest compared with weeks of HAS (odds ratio [OR] = 2.05, p = 0.0003) and LAS (OR = 3.65, p < 0.001). However, the odds of an injury restriction during weeks of HAS were nearly twice as high as during weeks of LAS (OR = 1.78, p = 0.0088). Moreover, the difference in injury rates reported in all athletes during weeks of HPS and weeks of HAS disappeared when considering only athletes that regularly played in games (OR = 1.13, p = 0.75) suggesting that HAS may affect athletes that play to an even greater extent than HPS. Coaches should be aware of both types of stressors and consider carefully the types of training methods imposed during times of HAS when injuries are most likely. PMID:26049791

  7. Reliability and validity of daily physical activity measures during inpatient spinal cord injury rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Zbogar, Dominik; Eng, Janice J; Miller, William C; Krassioukov, Andrei V; Verrier, Mary C

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the test–retest reliability and convergent validity of daily physical activity measures during inpatient spinal cord injury rehabilitation. Design: Observational study. Setting: Two inpatient spinal cord injury rehabilitation centres. Subjects: Participants (n = 106) were recruited from consecutive admissions to rehabilitation. Methods: Physical activity during inpatient spinal cord injury rehabilitation stay was recorded on two days via (1) wrist accelerometer, (2) hip accelerometer if ambulatory, and (3) self-report (Physical Activity Recall Assessment for People with Spinal Cord Injury questionnaire). Spearman’s correlations and Bland–Altman plots were utilized for test–retest reliability. Correlations between physical activity measures and clinical measures (functional independence, hand function, and ambulation) were performed. Results: Correlations for physical activity measures between Day 1 and Day 2 were moderate to high (ρ = 0.53–0.89). Bland–Altman plots showed minimal bias and more within-subject differences in more active individuals and wide limits of agreement. None of these three physical activity measures correlated with one another. A moderate correlation was found between wrist accelerometry counts and grip strength (ρ = 0.58) and between step counts and measures of ambulation (ρ = 0.62). Functional independence was related to wrist accelerometry (ρ = 0.70) and step counts (ρ = 0.56), but not with self-report. Conclusion: The test–retest reliability and convergent validity of the instrumented measures suggest that wrist and hip accelerometers are appropriate tools for use in research studies of daily physical activity in the spinal cord injury rehabilitation setting but are too variable for individual use.

  8. A Multivariate Model for Predicting Rape and Physical Injury Outcomes during Sexual Assaults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ullman, Sarah E.; Knight, Raymond A.

    1991-01-01

    Analyzed relation of situational factors, offender aggression, and victim resistance to women's sexual abuse and physical injury during sexual assaults using police reports/court testimonies of 274 women who avoided rape or were raped. After situational variables were partialed out, women's screaming was related to less severe sexual abuse;…

  9. Nonsuicidal Self-Injury: What Physical and Sport Educators Should Know

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trujillo, Natasha P.

    2015-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) among children and youth suggests that increased awareness, attention, and training must be disseminated to frontline personnel. Physical and sport educators have an increased chance of identifying students who are currently engaging in NSSI because of the nature of their work. This…

  10. OUTCOME OF PHYSICAL THERAPY AND SPLINTING IN HAND BURNS INJURY. OUR LAST FOUR YEARS’ EXPERIENCE

    PubMed Central

    Rrecaj, Shkurta; Hysenaj, Hajrie; Martinaj, Merita; Murtezani, Ardiana; Ibrahimi-Kacuri, Dafina; Haxhiu, Bekim; Buja, Zene

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Burn injuries in hands are much more complex and the appearance of contractures is a common complication. Hand burn injuries often result in limited functionality, flexion and extension of fingers and present a major hindrance in rehabilitation. The aim of physical therapy and splinting after hand burn injury is to maintain mobility, prevent the development of the contracture and to promote the functionality of hand and good cosmetic results. The purpose of this study is to presents our experience of 38 children with hand burn injuries, admitted and treated at the Department of Plastic Surgery, UCCK-Pristina, Kosovo, during the years 2012-2015. Methods: Physical therapy is focused on active/passive range of motion in affected joints, management of cicatrix, strengthening exercise, coordination and use of splints for correction contractures. Patients were evaluated in three, six months and the definitive evaluation is done after 9 months of physical therapy and splinting. Results: We have improvement in range of motion (ROM), functionality, coordination, muscle force, decrease of keloids scars. Conclusion: This study shows the importance of physical therapy and splinting, achieving good results in preventing contracture, improving range of motion, muscle force and good cosmetic results. PMID:26889095

  11. Work-Related Activities Associated with Injury in Occupational and Physical Therapists

    PubMed Central

    Campo, Marc; King, Phyllis

    2013-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to examine work activities associated with work-related injury (WRI) in occupational and physical therapy. Participants 1,158 occupational and physical therapists in Wisconsin responded to a mailed survey, from a total of 3,297 OTs and PTs randomly selected from the State licensure list. Methods The study used a cross-sectional, survey design. Participants reported information about WRI they sustained between 2004 and 2006, including the activities they were performing when injured. Investigators analyzed 248 injury incidents using qualitative and quantitative analysis. Results Data were examined across OT and PT practice in general, and also by practice area. Manual therapy and transfers/lifts were associated with 54% of all injuries. Other activities associated with injury were distinct to practice area, for example: floor work in pediatrics; functional activities in acute care; patient falls in skilled nursing facilities; and motor vehicle activities in home care. Conclusions Injury prevention activities must address transfers and manual therapy, but also must examine setting-specific activities influenced by environment and patient population. PMID:22523031

  12. Physical injury and workplace assault in UK mental health trusts: An analysis of formal reports.

    PubMed

    Renwick, Laoise; Lavelle, Mary; Brennan, Geoffrey; Stewart, Duncan; James, Karen; Richardson, Michelle; Williams, Hilary; Price, Owen; Bowers, Len

    2016-08-01

    Workplace violence is a significant problem for health service personnel, with National Health Service (NHS) workers subject to 68 683 physical assaults between 2013 and 2014. Almost 70% of assaults occur in the mental health sector, and although serious, non-fatal injury is rare, the individual and economic impact can be substantial. In the present study, we analysed mandatory incident reports from a national database to examine whether there were identifiable precursors to incidents leading to staff injury, and whether staff characteristics were associated with injury. In line with previous descriptions, we found injury occurred either as a direct result of patient assault or during physical interventions employed by staff to contain aggression. Importantly, we found little evidence from staff reports that patients' symptoms were driving aggression, and we found less evidence of patient perspectives among reports. We make several recommendations regarding the reporting of these events that could inform policy and interventions aimed at minimizing the likelihood of injury. PMID:27170345

  13. Do Personal Factors or Types of Physical Tasks Predict Workplace Injury?

    PubMed

    Oranye, Nelson Ositadimma; Wallis, Bernadine; Roer, Kim; Archer-Heese, Gail; Aguilar, Zaklina

    2016-04-01

    Occupational health research has shown that certain worker and job characteristics are risk factors for workplace injuries. Workers who engage in physically demanding jobs, especially those jobs that involve repetitive motion, are at greater risk for work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSD). These risks are particularly prevalent in the health care sector. It is often reported that nurses are at higher risk of workplace musculoskeletal injury than other health care workers due to frequent lifting and transfer of patients and the prevalence of workplace violence. However, many analyses of the physical requirements of jobs do not consider the modifying effect of time spent on a physical task and the risk of WMSD. This study compared the risks of WMSD among workers in health care facilities based on the type of physical tasks and amount of time workers spent on such tasks. Workers who worked longer on a physical task reported more WMSD than those who spent less time on the same physical task. The risk of WMSD was twice as high (odds ratio [OR] = 2.3) among workers who sit less than 2 hours each day compared with those who sit longer. This study found that physical tasks associated with health care jobs and the amount of time spent on these tasks constitutes serious risk factors for WMSD. PMID:27056936

  14. Physical exercise and burnout facets predict injuries in a population-based sample of French career firefighters.

    PubMed

    Vaulerin, Jérôme; d'Arripe-Longueville, Fabienne; Emile, Mélanie; Colson, Serge S

    2016-05-01

    Although firefighting is known to engender a high rate of injury, few studies have examined the contribution of physical exercise, burnout and coping strategies to firefighting-related injuries. Data were collected from a population-based sample of 220 male firefighters. In a descriptive study, the nature and site of the injuries and the relationships among firefighter injuries, physical exercise, burnout and coping strategies were examined. Sprains were the most prevalent type of injury (98%), followed by tendinitis (40%) and muscle tears (30%). More than two thirds of these injuries were located at the ankle. Weekly hours of physical exercise, cognitive weariness at work, social support seeking, problem-focused coping and emotional exhaustion were significantly related to these injuries. The findings suggest that physical exercise and cognitive weariness can be considered as risk factors for French firefighter injuries, whereas problem-focused coping can be seen as a protective factor. More research is needed to explain the relationship between social support seeking and injury. PMID:26851472

  15. Psychosocial interventions for the prevention of disability following traumatic physical injury

    PubMed Central

    De Silva, Mary; MacLachlan, Malcolm; Devane, Declan; Desmond, Deirdre; Gallagher, Pamela; Schnyder, Ulrich; Brennan, Muireann; Patel, Vikram

    2012-01-01

    Background Traumatic physical injury can result in many disabling sequelae including physical and mental health problems and impaired social functioning. Objectives To assess the effectiveness of psychosocial interventions in the prevention of physical, mental and social disability following traumatic physical injury. Search methods The search was not restricted by date, language or publication status. We searched the following electronic databases; Cochrane Injuries Group Specialised Register, CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library 2009, Issue 1), MEDLINE (Ovid SP), EMBASE (Ovid SP), PsycINFO (Ovid SP), Controlled Trials metaRegister (www.controlled-trials.com), AMED (Allied & Complementary Medicine), ISI Web of Science: Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI), PubMed. We also screened the reference lists of all selected papers and contacted authors of relevant studies. The latest search for trials was in February 2008. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials that consider one or more defined psychosocial interventions for the prevention of physical disability, mental health problems or reduced social functioning as a result of traumatic physical injury. We excluded studies that included patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Data collection and analysis Two authors independently screened the titles and abstracts of search results, reviewed the full text of potentially relevant studies, independently assessed the risk of bias and extracted data. Main results We included five studies, involving 756 participants. Three studies assessed the effect of brief psychological therapies, one assessed the impact of a self-help booklet, and one the effect of collaborative care. The disparate nature of the trials covering different patient populations, interventions and outcomes meant that it was not possible to pool data meaningfully across studies. There was no evidence of a protective effect of brief psychological therapy or educational booklets on preventing disability

  16. Physical Examination and Imaging of the Acute Multiple Ligament Knee Injury

    PubMed Central

    Prohaska, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Examination and evaluation of the patient a with multiple ligament injured knee is a complicated process and best done in a methodical, comprehensive fashion with a particular emphasis placed on assessment of supporting soft tissues. Tissues that can be damaged during this devastating injury include bones, ligaments, meniscus, articular cartilage, and neurovascular structures. Uses of diagnostic imaging and the physical examination process will be described in this article. PMID:21509120

  17. Psychological Sequelae of the Station Nightclub Fire: Comparing Survivors with and without Physical Injuries Using a Mixed-Methods Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Trinh, Nhi-Ha T.; Nadler, Deborah L.; Shie, Vivian; Fregni, Felipe; Gilman, Stephen E.; Ryan, Colleen M.; Schneider, Jeffrey C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Surveying survivors from a large fire provides an opportunity to explore the impact of emotional trauma on psychological outcomes. Methods This is a cross-sectional survey of survivors of The Station Fire. Primary outcomes were post-traumatic stress (Impact of Event Scale – Revised) and depressive (Beck Depression Inventory) symptoms. Linear regression was used to examine differences in symptom profiles between those with and without physical injuries. The free-response section of the survey was analyzed qualitatively to compare psychological sequelae of survivors with and without physical injuries. Results 104 participants completed the study survey; 47% experienced a burn injury. There was a 42% to 72% response rate range. The mean age of respondents was 32 years, 62% were male, and 47% experienced a physical injury. No significant relationships were found between physical injury and depressive or post-traumatic stress symptom profiles. In the qualitative analysis, the emotional trauma that survivors experienced was a major, common theme regardless of physical injury. Survivors without physical injuries were more likely to experience survivor guilt, helplessness, self-blame, and bitterness. Despite the post-fire challenges described, most survivors wrote about themes of recovery and renewal. Conclusions All survivors of this large fire experienced significant psychological sequelae. These findings reinforce the importance of mental health care for all survivors and suggest a need to understand factors influencing positive outcomes. PMID:25536085

  18. How to classify plantar plate injuries: parameters from history and physical examination☆

    PubMed Central

    Nery, Caio; Coughlin, Michael; Baumfeld, Daniel; Raduan, Fernando; Mann, Tania Szejnfeld; Catena, Fernanda

    2015-01-01

    Objective To find the best clinical parameters for defining and classifying the degree of plantar plate injuries. Method Sixty-eight patients (100 metatarsophalangeal joints) were classified in accordance with the Arthroscopic Anatomical Classification for plantar plate injuries and were divided into five groups (0 to IV). Their medical files were reviewed and the incidence of each parameter for the respective group was correlated. These parameters were: use of high heels, sports, acute pain, local edema, Mulder's sign, widening of the interdigital space, pain in the head of the corresponding metatarsal, touching the ground, “drawer test”, toe grip and toe deformities (in the sagittal, coronal and transversal planes). Results There were no statistically significant associations between the degree of injury and use of high-heel shoes, sports trauma, pain at the head of the metatarsal, Mulder's sign, deformity in pronation or displacement in the transversal and sagittal planes (although their combination, i.e. “cross toe”, showed a statistically significant correlation). Positive correlations with the severity of the injuries were found in relation to initial acute pain, progressive widening of the interdigital space, loss of “touching the ground”, positive results from the “drawer test” on the metatarsophalangeal joint, diminished grip strength and toe deformity in supination. Conclusions The “drawer test” was seen to be the more reliable and precise tool for classifying the degree of plantar plate injury, followed by “touching the ground” and rotational deformities. It is possible to improve the precision of the diagnosis and the predictions of the anatomical classification for plantar plate injuries through combining the clinical history and data from the physical examination. PMID:27218086

  19. Transient Disablement in the Physically Active With Musculoskeletal Injuries, Part I: A Descriptive Model

    PubMed Central

    Vela, Luzita I.; Denegar, Craig

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Context: Disablement theory has been characterized as the sequence of events that occurs after an injury, but little research has been conducted to establish how disablement is experienced and described by physically active persons. Objective: To describe the disablement process in physically active persons with musculoskeletal injuries. Design: Concurrent, embedded mixed-methods study. For the qualitative portion, interviews were conducted to create descriptive disablement themes. For the quantitative portion, frequencies analysis was used to identify common terminology. Setting: National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I collegiate and club sports, collegiate intramural program, large high school athletics program, and outpatient orthopaedic center. Patients or Other Participants: Thirty-one physically active volunteers (15 males, 16 females; mean age  =  21.2 years; range, 14–53 years) with a current injury (18 lower extremity injuries, 13 upper extremity injuries) participated in individual interviews. Six physically active volunteers (3 males, 3 females; mean age  =  22.2 years; range, 16–28 years) participated in the group interview to assess trustworthiness. Data Collection and Analysis: We analyzed interviews through a constant-comparison method, and data were collected until saturation occurred. Common limitations were transformed into descriptive themes and were confirmed during the group interview. Disablement descriptors were identified with frequencies and fit to the themes. Results: A total of 15 overall descriptive themes emerged within the 4 disablement components, and descriptive terms were identified for each theme. Impairments were marked by 4 complaints: pain, decreased motion, decreased muscle function, and instability. Functional limitations were denoted by problems with skill performance, daily actions, maintaining positions, fitness, and changing directions. Disability consisted of problems with

  20. The Effectiveness of Physical Agents for Lower-Limb Soft Tissue Injuries: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hainan; Randhawa, Kristi; Côté, Pierre; Optima Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    Study Design Systematic review. Background Soft tissue injuries to the lower limb bring a substantial health and economic burden to society. Physical agents are commonly used to treat these injuries. However, the effectiveness of many such physical agents is not clearly established in the literature. Objective To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of physical agents for soft tissue injuries of the lower limb. Methods We searched 5 databases from 1990 to 2015 for randomized controlled trials (RCTs), cohort studies, and case-control studies. Paired reviewers independently screened the retrieved literature and appraised relevant studies using the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network criteria. Studies with a high risk of bias were excluded. We synthesized low-risk-of-bias studies according to principles of best-evidence synthesis. Results We screened 10261 articles. Of 43 RCTs identified, 20 had a high risk of bias and were excluded from the analysis, and 23 RCTs had a low risk of bias and were included in the analysis. The available higher-quality evidence suggests that patients with persistent plantar fasciitis may benefit from ultrasound or foot orthoses, while those with persistent midportion Achilles tendinopathy may benefit from shockwave therapy. However, the current evidence does not support the use of shockwave therapy for recent plantar fasciitis, low-Dye taping for persistent plantar fasciitis, low-level laser therapy for recent ankle sprains, or splints for persistent midportion Achilles tendinopathy. Finally, evidence on the effectiveness of the following interventions is not established in the current literature: (1) shockwave therapy for persistent plantar fasciitis, (2) cryotherapy or assistive devices for recent ankle sprains, (3) braces for persistent midportion Achilles tendinopathy, and (4) taping or electric muscle stimulation for patellofemoral pain syndrome. Conclusion Almost half the identified RCTs that evaluated the effectiveness of

  1. Injury patterns and causal mechanisms of bruising in physical elder abuse.

    PubMed

    Ziminski, Carolyn E; Wiglesworth, Aileen; Austin, Raciela; Phillips, Linda R; Mosqueda, Laura

    2013-01-01

    The recognition of injury patterns can aid forensic nurses to identify victims of elder abuse. This study examined the mechanism of injury of bruises endured by physical elder abuse victims. A sample of 67 elders aged 65 years and older who reported to Adult Protective Services for physical elder abuse was included in the analysis. A research nurse conducted assessments and documented the presence and characteristics of all bruises. Data regarding the abusive incident were collected through victim descriptions and the Revised Conflicts Tactic Scales (CTS2) physical assault scale. The most common bruising locations were the lateral/anterior arms (n = 23, 34.3%), head and neck (n = 10, 14.9%), and posterior torso (n = 7, 10.4%). Victims' odds of having head and neck bruises were greater when reporting being choked (OR = 7.71, 95% CI [1.29, 45.90], p = 0.039), punched (OR = 13.53, 95% CI [2.55, 71.80], p = 0.001), and beaten up (OR = 5.60, 95% CI [3.26, 74.45], p = 0.001). The odds of having lateral/anterior arm bruises were eight times greater when the victim reported being grabbed (OR = 8.43, 95% CI [2.67, 26.65], p < 0.001). The findings suggest similarities between injuries experienced in elder abuse and those in intimate partner violence. Findings highlight injury patterns that elder abuse victims sustain and can be informative for forensic nurses. PMID:24158129

  2. Measurement of Physical Performance and Objective Fatigability in People with Mild-to-Moderate Traumatic Brain Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merritta, Catherine; Cherian, Binu; Macaden, Ashish S.; John, Judy Ann

    2010-01-01

    The aims of this study were to objectively measure the physical performance and physical endurance of patients with traumatic brain injury with minimization of cognitive and psychological fatigue, and to compare the physical performance of brain injured patients with that of healthy controls. This was a nonrandomized partially blinded controlled…

  3. Modelling verbal aggression, physical aggression and inappropriate sexual behaviour after acquired brain injury

    PubMed Central

    James, Andrew I. W.; Böhnke, Jan R.; Young, Andrew W.; Lewis, Gary J.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the underpinnings of behavioural disturbances following brain injury is of considerable importance, but little at present is known about the relationships between different types of behavioural disturbances. Here, we take a novel approach to this issue by using confirmatory factor analysis to elucidate the architecture of verbal aggression, physical aggression and inappropriate sexual behaviour using systematic records made across an eight-week observation period for a large sample (n = 301) of individuals with a range of brain injuries. This approach offers a powerful test of the architecture of these behavioural disturbances by testing the fit between observed behaviours and different theoretical models. We chose models that reflected alternative theoretical perspectives based on generalized disinhibition (Model 1), a difference between aggression and inappropriate sexual behaviour (Model 2), or on the idea that verbal aggression, physical aggression and inappropriate sexual behaviour reflect broadly distinct but correlated clinical phenomena (Model 3). Model 3 provided the best fit to the data indicating that these behaviours can be viewed as distinct, but with substantial overlap. These data are important both for developing models concerning the architecture of behaviour as well as for clinical management in individuals with brain injury. PMID:26136449

  4. Enhancing primary care for persons with spinal cord injury: More than improving physical accessibility.

    PubMed

    Milligan, James; Lee, Joseph

    2016-09-01

    In Ontario, Canada, legislation exists that mandates that all medical practices be fully accessible by 2025, in an effort to improve access to primary care for persons with physical disabilities. The simple removal of physical barriers may not guarantee improved access to appropriate care. In this clinical note, members of an interprofessional primary care-based Mobility Clinic reflect on opportunities to improve primary care beyond just better physical accessibility for persons with spinal cord injury (SCI). The importance of collaborations between funders, researchers, and clinicians are examined. Using a participatory action research model, the unique perspective of consumers and consumer networks are incorporated into the Mobility Clinic's clinical and research efforts to improve primary care for persons with SCI. PMID:26111044

  5. Barriers to Leisure-Time Physical Activities in Individuals with Spinal Cord Injury.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Eric J; Groves, Mary D; Sanchez, Jacqueline N; Hudson, Cassandra E; Jao, Rachel G; Kroll, Meghan E

    2016-07-01

    This study investigated the personal, environmental, and activity barriers to leisure-time physical activities (LTPAs) among individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI). A survey instrument was administered to 85 participants with SCI. Personal barriers to LTPAs included issues involving motivation, pain, scheduling, and financial resources. Environmental barriers marked the issues regarding availability and accessibility to specialized programs, activities, and professional services. Activity barriers included limitations in equipment, training, and personal skills required by the selected activities. Significant negative correlations were found between these barriers and the levels of physical activity and satisfaction with physical activity. While working with clients with SCI, occupational therapists should identify those LTPA barriers and possible solutions in order to establish individualized action plans for enhancing participation in LTPAs. PMID:27218889

  6. Childhood adversities and adult use of potentially injurious physical discipline in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Umeda, Maki; Kawakami, Norito; Kessler, Ronald C.; Miller, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Using data derived from the World Mental Health Japan Survey (n = 1,186), this study examined the intergenerational continuity of potentially injurious physical discipline of children in a community sample from Japan with a special focus on the confounding effects of 11 other types of childhood adversities (CAs) and the intervening effects of mental disorders and socioeconomic status. Bivariate analyses revealed that having experienced physical discipline as children and five other CAs was significantly associated with the use of physical discipline as parents in the Japanese community examined. However, childhood physical discipline was the only CA that remained significant after adjusting for the other CAs. The association of childhood physical discipline with adult perpetration was independent of the respondents’ mental disorders and household income. No significant gender differences were found in the associations between childhood physical discipline and adult perpetration. The current study on Japan provided empirical support consistent with results found in other countries regarding the intergenerational transmission of child physical abuse. PMID:26478655

  7. Physical injury assessment of male versus female chiropractic students when learning and performing various adjustive techniques: a preliminary investigative study

    PubMed Central

    Bisiacchi, Debra W; Huber, Laura L

    2006-01-01

    Background Reports of musculoskeletal injuries that some chiropractic students experienced while in the role of adjustor became increasingly evident and developed into the basis of this study. The main objective of this study was to survey a select student population and identify, by gender, the specific types of musculoskeletal injuries they experienced when learning adjustive techniques in the classroom, and performing them in the clinical setting. Methods A survey was developed to record musculoskeletal injuries that students reported to have sustained while practicing chiropractic adjustment set-ups and while delivering adjustments. The survey was modeled from similar instruments used in the university's clinic as well as those used in professional practice. Stratified sampling was used to obtain participants for the study. Data reported the anatomical areas of injury, adjustive technique utilized, the type of injury received, and the recovery time from sustained injuries. The survey also inquired as to the type and area of any past physical injuries as well as the mechanism(s) of injury. Results Data obtained from the study identified injuries of the shoulder, wrist, elbow, neck, low back, and mid-back. The low back was the most common injury site reported by females, and the neck was the most common site reported by males. The reported wrist injuries in both genders were 1% male complaints and 17% female complaints. A total of 13% of female respondents reported shoulder injuries, whereas less than 1% of male respondents indicated similar complaints. Conclusion The data collected from the project indicated that obtaining further information on the subject would be worthwhile, and could provide an integral step toward developing methods of behavior modification in an attempt to reduce and/or prevent the incidence of musculoskeletal injuries. PMID:16930481

  8. Risk factors and injury prevention in elite athletes: a descriptive study of the opinions of physical therapists, doctors and trainers

    PubMed Central

    Saragiotto, Bruno T.; Di Pierro, Carla; Lopes, Alexandre D.

    2014-01-01

    Background Musculoskeletal injuries occur frequently in elite athletes. Understanding what professionals who work with patients with sports injuries think about prevention has been suggested as an important aspect to improve the effectiveness of programs to prevent sports injuries. Objectives To describe and characterize the opinions of physical therapists, physicians and trainers on 'risk factors' and 'prevention of injury' in elite athletes. Method This is a qualitative study with semi-structured interviews with members of the medical and technical department of the Brazilian delegation who participated in the Pan American Games of Guadalajara 2011. The interview was conducted using two questions: 1) "What do you think can cause injuries in athletes participating in your sport?" 2) "What do you do to prevent injuries in your sport?" The interviews were analyzed in two stages, the identification of thematic units, followed by the categorization and grouping of thematic units. Results We interviewed a total of 30 professionals. Regarding question 1, the main factors attributed as responsible for injury were over-training and incorrect sports techniques. Regarding question 2, the main reported strategies used to prevent injuries were muscle strengthening, nutritional counseling and guidance. Conclusions The main factors affecting the appearance of lesions were over-training, incorrect sports technique, inadequate nutrition and factors related to the athlete's behavior. The main injury prevention strategies were muscle strengthening, nutritional counseling and guidance. PMID:24845023

  9. Risk Factors for Physical Impairment after Acute Lung Injury in a National, Multicenter Study

    PubMed Central

    Wozniak, Amy W.; Hough, Catherine L.; Morris, Peter E.; Dinglas, Victor D.; Jackson, James C.; Mendez-Tellez, Pedro A.; Shanholtz, Carl; Ely, E. Wesley; Colantuoni, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Rationale: Existing studies of risk factors for physical impairments in acute lung injury (ALI) survivors were potentially limited by single-center design or relatively small sample size. Objectives: To evaluate risk factors for three measures of physical impairments commonly experienced by survivors of ALI in the first year after hospitalization. Methods: A prospective, longitudinal study of 6- and 12-month physical outcomes (muscle strength, 6-minute-walk distance, and Short Form [SF]-36 Physical Function score) for 203 survivors of ALI enrolled from 12 hospitals participating in the ARDS Network randomized trials. Multivariable regression analyses evaluated the independent association of critical illness–related variables and intensive care interventions with impairments in each physical outcome measure, after adjusting for patient demographics, comorbidities, and baseline functional status. Measurements and Main Results: At 6 and 12 months, respectively, mean (± SD) values for strength (presented as proportion of maximum strength score evaluated using manual muscle testing) was 92% (± 8%) and 93% (± 9%), 6-minute-walk distance (as percent-predicted) was 64% (± 22%) and 67% (± 26%), and SF-36 Physical Function score (as percent-predicted) was 61% (± 36%) and 67% (± 37%). After accounting for patient baseline status, there was significant association and statistical interaction of mean daily dose of corticosteroids and intensive care unit length of stay with impairments in physical outcomes. Conclusions: Patients had substantial impairments, from predicted values, for 6-minute-walk distance and SF-36 Physical Function outcome measures. Minimizing corticosteroid dose and implementing existing evidence-based methods to reduce duration of intensive care unit stay and associated patient immobilization may be important interventions for improving ALI survivors’ physical outcomes. PMID:24716641

  10. Gender Differences in the Relative Impact of Physical and Relational Bullying on Adolescent Injury and Weapon Carrying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dukes, Richard L.; Stein, Judith A.; Zane, Jazmin I.

    2010-01-01

    Using structural equation modeling, concurrent associations were assessed among physical bullying, relational bullying, physical victimization, relational victimization, injury and weapon carrying using data from the population of 1300 adolescent girls and 1362 adolescent boys in grades 7-12 in a Colorado school district. For both genders, being a…

  11. Mediated effects of physical risk factors, leader-member exchange and empowerment in predicting perceived injury risk.

    PubMed

    Muldoon, Jeffery; Matthews, Russell A; Foley, Caroline

    2012-04-01

    In the context of conservation of resources theory, we examine the indirect (mediated) effects of physical risk factors, leader-member exchange (LMX) and empowerment on perceived injury risk in a heterogeneous sample (N = 226) of individuals employed in occupations related to production, construction and installation/maintenance. Positioning work role stressors and upward safety communications as two important mediating variables, as predicted, LMX and empowerment demonstrated significant indirect effects on perceived injury risk. Results from our model also provide preliminary evidence that an asymmetrical dualistic process exists in terms of the effect physical risk factors have on perceived injury risk via depletion of both psychological (i.e. role stressors) and physical resources (i.e. physical symptoms). Theoretical and practical implications based on the results of our model are also discussed. PMID:22282314

  12. Stepchildren, community disadvantage, and physical injury in a child abuse incident: a preliminary investigation.

    PubMed

    D'Alessio, Stewart J; Stolzenberg, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    It is proffered that stepchildren are more likely than genetic children to be physically abused because they are unable to ensure the genetic survival of their adoptive parents. This abuse is theorized to be more pronounced in communities where social and economic resources are scarce. The salience of this cross-level interaction hinges on the assumption that the limited resources of a family are first allocated to genetic offspring because these children, unlike their nongenetic siblings, carry the genes of their parents. A multilevel analysis of child abuse incidents reported to police in 133 U.S. cities during 2005 shows that in cities with a high level of community disadvantage, stepchildren are much more apt than are genetic children to suffer a physical injury in a child abuse incident. Such a finding buttresses the position articulated by proponents of sociobiology. PMID:23393950

  13. Life Course and Intergenerational Continuity of Intimate Partner Aggression and Physical Injury: A 20-Year Study.

    PubMed

    Knight, Kelly E; Menard, Scott; Simmons, Sara B; Bouffard, Leana A; Orsi, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to examine continuity of intimate partner aggression (IPA), which is defined as repeated annual involvement in IPA, across respondents' life course and into the next generation, where it may emerge among adult children. A national, longitudinal, and multigenerational sample of 1,401 individuals and their adult children is analyzed. Annual data on IPA severity and physical injury were collected by the National Youth Survey Family Study across a 20-year period from 1984 to 2004. Three hypotheses and biological sex differences are tested and effect sizes are estimated. First, findings reveal evidence for life course continuity (IPA is a strong predictor of subsequent IPA), but the overall trend decreases over time. Second, intergenerational continuity is documented (parents' IPA predicts adult children's IPA), but the effect is stronger for female than for male adult children. Third, results from combined and separate, more restrictive, measures of victimization and perpetration are nearly identical except in the intergenerational analyses. Fourth, evidence for continuity is not found when assessing physical injury alone. Together, these findings imply that some but not all forms of IPA are common, continuous, and intergenerational. Life course continuity appears stronger than intergenerational continuity. PMID:27076093

  14. What makes home health workers think about leaving their job? The role of physical injury and organizational support.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ahyoung Anna; Jang, Yuri

    2016-01-01

    Based on the job demands-resources (JD-R) model, this study explored the role of physical injury and organizational support in predicting home health workers' turnover intention. In a sample of home health workers in Central Texas (n = 150), about 37% reported turnover intention. The logistic regression model showed that turnover intention was 3.23 times more likely among those who had experienced work-related injury. On the other hand, organizational support was found to reduce the likelihood of turnover intention. Findings suggest that injury and organizational support should be prioritized in prevention and intervention efforts to promote home health workers' safety and retention. PMID:26833177

  15. Quality of life perception of basketball master athletes: association with physical activity level and sports injuries.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Natália Boneti; Mazzardo, Oldemar; Vagetti, Gislaine Cristina; De Oliveira, Valdomiro; De Campos, Wagner

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to verify the prevalence and characteristics of sports injuries (SI) and determine the association between the physical activity level (PA) and SI with perception of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in Brazilian basketball master athletes. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 410 male master athletes, between 35 and 85 years of age (mean 52.26, SD ±11.83). The HRQoL was assessed using the Medical Outcomes Study - Short Form-36. The PA was evaluated using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Information regarding SI was collected using the Reported Morbidity Survey. Poisson regression, as estimated by the prevalence ratio (PR), was used as a measure of the association of PA and SI with HRQoL. The majority of athletes showed a high SI prevalence (58.3%) and reported one injury (67.8%) that occurred during training (61.1%) and primarily affected a lower limb (74.6%). The adjusted regression models showed a positive association of PA with the Functional Capacity (PR = 1.46, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.12-1.90) and Physical Component (PR = 1.32, 95% CI = 1.03-1.70) of HRQoL. Furthermore, the SI were negatively associated with HRQoL in Functional Capacity (PR = 1.85, 95% CI = 1.51-2.27), Physical Aspects (PR = 3.99, 95% CI = 3.08-5.18), Pain (PR = 1.65, 95% CI = 1.26-2.16), Social Functioning (PR = 1.79, 95% CI = 1.41-2.27), Emotional Aspects (PR = 4.40, 95% CI = 3.35-5.78), Mental Health domains (PR = 1.37, 95% CI = 1.06-1.68), Physical Component (PR = 2.35, 95% CI = 1.90-2.90) and Mental Component (PR = 2.65, 95% CI = 2.14-3.29). These results highlighted that master athletes showed a high SI prevalence, primarily in the lower limbs. PA positively correlates with the physical HRQoL domain, whereas SI may decrease the HRQoL levels of both physical and mental domains. PMID:26323316

  16. Experimental study of blast-induced traumatic brain injury using a physical head model.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiangyue; Pintar, Frank A; Yoganandan, Narayan; Gennarelli, Thomas A; Son, Steven F

    2009-11-01

    This study was conducted to quantify intracranial biomechanical responses and external blast overpressures using physical head model to understand the biomechanics of blast traumatic brain injury and to provide experimental data for computer simulation of blast-induced brain trauma. Ellipsoidal-shaped physical head models, made from 3-mm polycarbonate shell filled with Sylgard 527 silicon gel, were used. Six blast tests were conducted in frontal, side, and 45 degrees oblique orientations. External blast overpressures and internal pressures were quantified with ballistic pressure sensors. Blast overpressures, ranging from 129.5 kPa to 769.3 kPa, were generated using a rigid cannon and 1.3 to 3.0 grams of pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) plastic sheet explosive (explosive yield of 13.24 kJ and TNT equivalent mass of 2.87 grams for 3 grams of material). The PETN plastic sheet explosive consisted of 63% PETN powder, 29% plasticizer, and 8% nitrocellulose with a density of 1.48 g/cm3 and detonation velocity of 6.8 km/s. Propagation and reflection of the shockwave was captured using a shadowgraph technique. Shockwave speeds ranging from 423.3 m/s to 680.3 m/s were recorded. The model demonstrated a two-stage response: a pressure dominant (overpressure) stage followed by kinematic dominant (blast wind) stage. Positive pressures in the brain simulant ranged from 75.1 kPa to 1095 kPa, and negative pressures ranged from -43.6 kPa to -646.0 kPa. High- and normal-speed videos did not reveal observable deformations in the brain simulant from the neutral density markers embedded in the midsagittal plane of the head model. Amplitudes of the internal positive and negative pressures were found to linearly correlate with external overpressure. Results from the current study suggested a pressure-dominant brain injury mechanism instead of strain injury mechanism under the blast severity of the current study. These quantitative results also served as the validation and calibration

  17. Body composition modifications in people with chronic spinal cord injury after supervised physical activity

    PubMed Central

    Neto, Frederico Ribeiro; Lopes, Guilherme Henrique

    2011-01-01

    Background Quantification of body composition variables is important for planning of better activities in relation to individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI). Objectives (1) To evaluate changes in body composition in patients with SCI after a supervised physical activity process; (2) To correlate total body fat with time since injury. Design Pre-post intervention. Setting Sarah Rehabilitation Hospital Network, Brazil. Participants Fifty-three men with SCI aged 18–52 years with duration of injury >3 years. Interventions The subjects were divided into three groups: tetraplegia (TT) (C5–C8), high paraplegia (HP) (T1–T6), and low paraplegia (LP) (T7–L2). Body composition was estimated in the first and last weeks of hospitalization. Outcome measures Body weight (kg), skinfolds sum (mm), absolute (kg), and relative (%) fat and lean body mass. Results Body weight increased in TT and decreased in HP (0.8 kg, 95%CI 0.1–1.5; and −1.0 kg, 95%CI −2.0 to 0.0, respectively; P < 0.05). Skinfolds sum decreased only in HP (−13.1 mm, 95%CI −20.7 to −5.5; P < 0.05). Absolute and relative body fat decreased significantly in the paraplegia groups. Lean body mass (LBM) percentage increased significantly in the paraplegia groups. Absolute LBM increased in TT and LP (0.8 kg, 95%CI 0.3–1.3; and 1.3 kg, 95%CI 0.8 to 1.8, respectively; P < 0.05). There was no correlation between time since injury and skinfolds sum for the three groups (P < 0.05). Conclusion TT, HP, and LP demonstrated favorable changes in body composition after 29 days of supervised physical activity. However, these changes were different in direction and magnitude. PMID:22330114

  18. Simulation of blast-induced early-time intracranial wave physics leading to traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Paul A; Ford, Corey C

    2009-06-01

    The objective of this modeling and simulation study was to establish the role of stress wave interactions in the genesis of traumatic brain injury (TBI) from exposure to explosive blast. A high resolution (1 mm3 voxels) five material model of the human head was created by segmentation of color cryosections from the Visible Human Female data set. Tissue material properties were assigned from literature values. The model was inserted into the shock physics wave code, CTH, and subjected to a simulated blast wave of 1.3 MPa (13 bars) peak pressure from anterior, posterior, and lateral directions. Three-dimensional plots of maximum pressure, volumetric tension, and deviatoric (shear) stress demonstrated significant differences related to the incident blast geometry. In particular, the calculations revealed focal brain regions of elevated pressure and deviatoric stress within the first 2 ms of blast exposure. Calculated maximum levels of 15 KPa deviatoric, 3.3 MPa pressure, and 0.8 MPa volumetric tension were observed before the onset of significant head accelerations. Over a 2 ms time course, the head model moved only 1 mm in response to the blast loading. Doubling the blast strength changed the resulting intracranial stress magnitudes but not their distribution. We conclude that stress localization, due to early-time wave interactions, may contribute to the development of multifocal axonal injury underlying TBI. We propose that a contribution to traumatic brain injury from blast exposure, and most likely blunt impact, can occur on a time scale shorter than previous model predictions and before the onset of linear or rotational accelerations traditionally associated with the development of TBI. PMID:19449961

  19. Grade II whiplash injuries to the neck: what is the benefit for patients treated by different physical therapy modalities?

    PubMed Central

    Dehner, Christoph; Elbel, Martin; Strobel, Philipp; Scheich, Matthias; Schneider, Florian; Krischak, Gert; Kramer, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Background In a majority of cases, whiplash injuries are a domain of conservative therapy. Nevertheless it remains unclear whether physical therapy is of medical or economic benefit in patients with whiplash injuries. Methods Seventy patients with acute Quebec Task Force (QTF) grade II whiplash injuries were randomized to two therapy groups and received either active (APT) or passive (PPT) physical therapy. Patients were compared with regard to pain and range of motion with data obtained in an earlier study from a group with grade II whiplash injuries in which the therapy recommendation had been "act as usual" (AAU; n = 20). The above-mentioned parameters were assessed at 24 hours and two months after the injury. Furthermore patients' period of disability was documented after two months. Results After two months, patients in both the APT and PPT groups showed significant improvement in the median period of disability (active: 14 days; passive: 14 days) compared to the AAU group (49 days). No group difference was observed with regard to median improvement in range of motion (active: 120°; passive: 108°; activity as usual: 70°). The median pain reduction was significantly greater in the APT group (50.5) than in the PPT (39.2) or AAU group (28.8). Conclusion Our data show that active physical therapy results in enhanced pain reduction and shortening of post-injury disability. Therefore, active physical therapy should be considered the treatment of choice in patients with QTF grade II whiplash injuries. Trial registration The study complied with applicable German law and with the principles of the Helsinki Declaration and was approved by the institutional ethics commission. PMID:19149880

  20. The association of age, pain, and fatigue with physical functioning and depressive symptoms in persons with spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Alschuler, Kevin N.; Jensen, Mark P.; Sullivan-Singh, Sarah J.; Borson, Soo; Smith, Amanda E.; Molton, Ivan R.

    2013-01-01

    Context/objective To describe the relationship of pain and fatigue with physical and psychological functioning in adults with spinal cord injury (SCI). Design Cross-sectional survey. Setting Community-based survey. Participants Convenience sample of individuals with SCI. Intervention Not applicable. Outcome measures Physical functioning (Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) Physical Functioning item bank items), depression (Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9)), pain severity (0–10 Numerical Rating Scale (NRS)), and fatigue (0–10 NRS). Results Pain and fatigue were independently associated with depression, but only pain was associated with physical functioning. Additionally, depression was more severe among middle-aged participants relative to younger or older participants. Physical functioning declined with increasing age, as well as with higher level of injury. Conclusions The findings support the need for continued development of effective treatments for both pain and fatigue in order to prevent and mitigate the negative effects these symptoms can have on functioning. PMID:23941796

  1. Gender differences in the relative impact of physical and relational bullying on adolescent injury and weapon carrying.

    PubMed

    Dukes, Richard L; Stein, Judith A; Zane, Jazmin I

    2010-12-01

    Using structural equation modeling, concurrent associations were assessed among physical bullying, relational bullying, physical victimization, relational victimization, injury and weapon carrying using data from the population of 1300 adolescent girls and 1362 adolescent boys in grades 7-12 in a Colorado school district. For both genders, being a relational bully was a significantly stronger predictor of weapon carrying than being a physical bully, and both bullying types were significant predictors of more weapon carrying. For both genders, being a victim of physical bullying, a victim of relational bullying, or being a relational bully significantly predicted more injury. In latent means comparisons, adolescent girls reported more relational victimization and adolescent boys reported more physical bullying and victimization, more weapon carrying, and more injury. The relative strength of relational bullying on weapon carrying, and the health-related consequences of bullying on interpersonal violence and injury support concerted efforts in schools to mitigate these behaviors. Attention to differences related to age and gender also is indicated in the design of bullying mitigation programs. PMID:21094396

  2. Injuries to primary school pupils and secondary school students during physical education classes and in their leisure time.

    PubMed

    Videmsek, Mateja; Karpljuk, Damir; Mlinar, Suzana; Mesko, Maja; Stihec, Joze

    2010-09-01

    The study aimed to establish the frequency of injuries in primary and secondary schools during leisure time and physical education classes in school as well as in group and individual sports. The sample included 2842 pupils from nine primary schools and 1235 students from five secondary schools in Slovenia. The data were processed with the SPSS statistical software package and the frequencies and Crosstabs were calculated. The results showed that substantially more pupils and students were injured in their leisure time than during physical education classes. Girls were more frequently injured in group and individual sports practiced during physical education classes and in individual sports practiced in their leisure time, whereas boys suffered more injuries in group sports practiced in their leisure time. As regards group sports, pupils and students were most frequently injured while playing football in their leisure time whereas, during physical education classes, they suffered most injuries in volleyball, followed closely by basketball and football; as regards individual sports, pupils and students were most frequently injured while cycling and rollerblading in their leisure time, whereas during physical education classes they suffered most injuries in athletics. PMID:20977091

  3. Relationship of physical therapy inpatient rehabilitation interventions and patient characteristics to outcomes following spinal cord injury: The SCIRehab project

    PubMed Central

    Teeter, Laura; Gassaway, Julie; Taylor, Sally; LaBarbera, Jacqueline; McDowell, Shari; Backus, Deborah; Zanca, Jeanne M.; Natale, Audrey; Cabrera, Jordan; Smout, Randall J.; Kreider, Scott E. D.; Whiteneck, Gale

    2012-01-01

    Background/objective Examine associations of type and quantity of physical therapy (PT) interventions delivered during inpatient spinal cord injury (SCI) rehabilitation and patient characteristics with outcomes at the time of discharge and at 1 year post-injury. Methods Physical therapists delivering routine care documented details of PT interventions provided. Regression modeling was used to predict outcomes at discharge and 1 year post-injury for a 75% subset; models were validated with the remaining 25%. Injury subgroups also were examined: motor complete low tetraplegia, motor complete paraplegia, and American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) Impairment Scale (AIS) D motor incomplete tetra-/paraplegia. Results PT treatment variables explain more variation in three functionally homogeneous subgroups than in the total sample. Among patients with motor complete low tetraplegia, higher scores for the transfer component of the discharge motor Functional Independence Measure () are strongly associated with more time spent working on manual wheelchair skills. Being male is the most predictive variable for the motor FIM score at discharge for patients with motor complete paraplegia. Admission ASIA lower extremity motor score (LEMS) and change in LEMS were the factors most predictive for having the primary locomotion mode of “walk” or “both (walk and wheelchair)” on the discharge motor FIM for patients with AIS D injuries. Conclusion Injury classification influences type and quantity of PT interventions during inpatient SCI rehabilitation and is a strong predictor of outcomes at discharge and 1 year post-injury. The impact of PT treatment increases when patient groupings become more homogeneous and outcomes become specific to the groupings. Note This is the second of nine articles in the SCIRehab series. PMID:23318034

  4. Partner Aggression among Men and Women in Substance Use Disorder Treatment: Correlates of Psychological and Physical Aggression and Injury

    PubMed Central

    Chermack, Stephen T.; Murray, Regan L; Walton, Maureen A; Booth, Brenda A; Wryobeck, John; Blow, Frederic C.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined intimate partner aggression in a sample of 489 participants enrolled in substance use disorder treatment, and expands on prior research by including measures of various forms of aggression, a mixed gender sample (76% men, 24% women), and measurement of several potential risk domains. Aggression measures included both participant-to-partner and partner-to-participant psychological aggression, physical aggression and injury. Analyses focused on the role of distal and proximal risk factors, including demographics, history of childhood physical and sexual abuse, and family history of problems with alcohol, drugs and depression, as well as recent substance use and symptoms of depression. Overall rates of participant-to-partner psychological aggression (77%), physical aggression (54%) and injuring partners (33%) were high, as were rates of partner-to-participant psychological aggression (73%), physical aggression (51%), and injury (33%). Several distal (family history variables, physical abuse) and proximal factors (binge drinking, several different drugs, depressive symptoms) were bivariately related to most of the aggression measures. However, according to multivariate analyses predicting aggression and injury measures, binge drinking and cocaine use were the drugs significantly associated with most measures, depression symptoms also were related to most aggression and injury measures, and a history of reported childhood physical abuse was related to all frequency of aggression and injury measures among those reporting such behaviors. Overall, the high rates of aggression among both men and women observed in this study further illustrate the need for interventions targeting substance use and aggression, and for further research regarding the inter-relationships among substance, aggression and depressive symptoms. PMID:18554825

  5. Systematic Review of Theory-Based Interventions Aimed at Increasing Physical Activity in Individuals with Spinal Cord Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilroy, Jereme; Knowlden, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Background: Approximately 200,000 individuals have a spinal cord injury (SCI) and more than 12,000 new cases are diagnosed each year in the United States. Lowered physical functioning caused by SCI often leads to a sedentary lifestyle, increasing risk for chronic diseases, secondary medical conditions, and lower quality of life. Purpose: The aim…

  6. Effectiveness of an Injury Prevention Warm-up for Unit Physical Training: A Case Series of Two Flying Squadrons.

    PubMed

    Shumway, Joshua D; Anderson, Danielle N; Bishop, Brett

    2016-05-01

    Injury prevention has been assessed and studied in professional and collegiate athletic populations, but application to the military setting has been limited. The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of an injury prevention warm-up in two flying squadrons. At the commanders' request, two Air Force flying squadrons (276 individuals) were provided an injury prevention warm-up of evidence-based exercises, which focused on functional range of motion and dynamic core stability. The routine was performed before unit physical training twice a week. The number of injuries did not significantly decrease after the injury prevention warm-up compared to 12 months before the intervention. However, the amount of time a subject was "grounded," duty not involving flying, because of a musculoskeletal injury decreased significantly from 146 days per month to 73 days per month (p = 0.02). A quick, generic warm-up of evidence-based exercises may decrease the number of limited duty days in a flying population. PMID:27168558

  7. Crown-of-thorns starfish predation and physical injuries promote brown band disease on corals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katz, Sefano M.; Pollock, F. Joseph; Bourne, David G.; Willis, Bette L.

    2014-09-01

    Brown band (BrB) disease manifests on corals as a ciliate-dominated lesion that typically progresses rapidly causing extensive mortality, but it is unclear whether the dominant ciliate Porpostoma guamense is a primary or an opportunistic pathogen, the latter taking advantage of compromised coral tissue or depressed host resistance. In this study, manipulative aquarium-based experiments were used to investigate the role of P. guamense as a pathogen when inoculated onto fragments of the coral Acropora hyacinthus that were either healthy, preyed on by Acanthaster planci (crown-of-thorns starfish; COTS), or experimentally injured. Following ciliate inoculation, BrB lesions developed on all of COTS-predated fragments ( n = 9 fragments) and progressed up to 4.6 ± 0.3 cm d-1, resulting in ~70 % of coral tissue loss after 4 d. Similarly, BrB lesions developed rapidly on experimentally injured corals and ~38 % of coral tissue area was lost 60 h after inoculation. In contrast, no BrB lesions were observed on healthy corals following experimental inoculations. A choice experiment demonstrated that ciliates are strongly attracted to physically injured corals, with over 55 % of inoculated ciliates migrating to injured corals and forming distinct lesions, whereas ciliates did not migrate to healthy corals. Our results indicate that ciliates characteristic of BrB disease are opportunistic pathogens that rapidly migrate to and colonise compromised coral tissue, leading to rapid coral mortality, particularly following predation or injury. Predicted increases in tropical storms, cyclones, and COTS outbreaks are likely to increase the incidence of coral injury in the near future, promoting BrB disease and further contributing to declines in coral cover.

  8. Nutritional status and physical activity level as risk factor for traumatic dental injuries occurrence: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Goettems, Marília Leão; Schuch, Helena Silveira; Hallal, Pedro Curi; Torriani, Dione Dias; Demarco, Flávio Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Aim To systematically review epidemiological articles assessing traumatic dental injuries (TDI) rates according to the physical activity habits and nutritional status. Methods A search was conducted using PubMed, ISI, Scopus, SciELO, LILACS, and gray literature in Brazilian Theses Databank. We searched for dental trauma, traumatic dental injuries, tooth injuries, tooth fractures, physical activity, motor activity, exercise, sedentary lifestyle, sports, obesity, body mass index (BMI), overweight, and fatness. Databases were searched in duplicate from their earliest records until 2012. Additional studies were identified by searching bibliographies of the articles. Two reviewers performed data extraction and analyzed study procedural quality using the Newcastle–Ottawa scale. PRISMA guidelines for reporting systematic reviews were followed. Results We found 1159 articles, of whom 14 reports involving 13 studies were selected. One article was a birth cohort, one had a case–control design, and the others were cross-sectional. The quality of evidence varied across the studies and was high (9) in 3. Eleven of the studies included assessed influence of nutritional status: five show a positive association between dental trauma and overweight and six do not show any association. Regarding physical activity level, five studies assessed its effect on trauma occurrence: two detected that physical activity acts as a protective factor and two that physical active increases the risk of dental injuries, and one showed no differences in TDI occurrence. Physical activity estimated from questionnaires and BMI were the most frequently used measures, but methodological differences prevent the comparison of results. Conclusion The results suggest that no truly causal relationship exists between dental trauma and physical activity and nutritional status. Due to the relatively low level of evidence currently present, studies with more robust design, for example, prospective cohort

  9. Descriptive Epidemiology of Musculoskeletal Injuries in Naval Special Warfare Sea, Air, and Land Operators.

    PubMed

    Lovalekar, Mita; Abt, John P; Sell, Timothy C; Wood, Dallas E; Lephart, Scott M

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis was to describe medical chart reviewed musculoskeletal injuries among Naval Special Warfare Sea, Air, and Land Operators. 210 Operators volunteered (age: 28.1 ± 6.0 years, height: 1.8 ± 0.1 m, weight: 85.4 ± 9.3 kg). Musculoskeletal injury data were extracted from subjects' medical charts, and injuries that occurred during 1 year were described. Anatomic location of injury, cause of injury, activity when injury occurred, and injury type were described. The frequency of injuries was 0.025 per Operator per month. Most injuries involved the upper extremity (38.1% of injuries). Frequent anatomic sublocations for injuries were the shoulder (23.8%) and lumbopelvic region of the spine (12.7%). Lifting was the cause of 7.9% of injuries. Subjects were participating in training when 38.1% of injuries occurred and recreational activity/sports when 12.7% of injuries occurred. Frequent injury types were strain (20.6%), pain/spasm/ache (19.0%), fracture (11.1%), and sprain (11.1%). The results of this analysis underscore the need to investigate the risk factors, especially of upper extremity and physical activity related injuries, in this population of Operators. There is a scope for development of a focused, customized injury prevention program, targeting the unique injury profile of this population. PMID:26741478

  10. The association of sports and physical recreation with life satisfaction in a community sample of people with spinal cord injuries.

    PubMed

    Tasiemski, Tomasz; Kennedy, Paul; Gardner, Brian Patrick; Taylor, Nicola

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess satisfaction with life domains in people with spinal cord injuries (SCI) and investigate whether participation in sports and physical recreation is associated with life satisfaction in SCI. 1,748 randomly selected participants with SCI who fulfilled the criteria: SCI at level C5 or below, wheelchair dependent; aged 18-50 at the time of injury; at least 1 year post-injury, were approached to take part in this study. Completed replies were received from 985 individuals with SCI (198 women, 798 men). The measures used included the Sports Participation Questionnaire, the Life Satisfaction Questionnaire and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. The numbers of hours participating in sports decreased significantly after injury. There was a greater decrease in numbers participating in team sports in comparison to the decrease seen in numbers participating in individual sports. The highest level of satisfaction existed within social domains such as: family life and contacts with friends. The lowest level of satisfaction was found in regard to the participant's sexual life and vocational situation. Higher satisfaction with life in general was demonstrated in respondents with SCI involved in sports or physical recreation compared to those not participating in physical activities. PMID:16403994

  11. Incidence of Self-Reported Interpersonal Violence Related Physical Injury in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Salamati, Payman; Rahimi-Movaghar, Afarin; Motevalian, Seyed Abbas; Amin-Esmaeili, Masoumeh; Sharifi, Vandad; Hajebi, Ahmad; Rad Goodarzi, Reza; Hefazi, Mitra; Naji, Zohrehsadat; Saadat, Soheil; Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa

    2015-01-01

    Background: Violence is the cause of death for 1.5 million people in a year. Objectives: Our study aimed to estimate the incidence rate of self-reported interpersonal violence related physical injury (VRPI) and its associated factors in Iran. Patients and Methods: The sample included people ranged from 15 to 64 years old who were residing in Iran. A total of 1525 clusters were selected from the whole country. Six families were selected from each cluster via a systematic random sampling method. Then, the residential units were identified and the interviewers contacted the inhabitants. In the next step, one of the family members was selected by using Kish grid method. The instrument was a researcher-made questionnaire and consisted of two sections; demographics and project related data. Face validity and content validity of our questionnaire were investigated based on expert opinions and the reliability was confirmed by a pilot study, as well. The inclusion criteria were considered for choosing the interviewers. An interviewer was assigned for each 42 participants (7 clusters). An educational seminar was held for the administrative managers (54 persons) and interviewers (230 persons) for a week. The field work was distributed among all 46 Medical Sciences universities in Iran. In each university, administrative issues were related to an executive director. Mann-Whitney U test and odds ratio were used to analyze the data with 95% confidence interval. α value was considered less than 5%. Results: The frequency of VRPI among 7886 participants was 24 during the last three months. The incidence rate of interpersonal VRPI was estimated at 3.04 per 1000 population (95% CI: 2.66-3.42) during a three-month interval in Iran. The incidence was 4.72 per 1000 population (95% CI: 4.01-5.43) for males and 1.78 per 1000 population (95% CI: 1.39-2.17) for females during a three-month interval. The mean (SD) of age of the participants with and without a history of VRPI were 26.5 (7

  12. DNA injury is acutely enhanced in response to increasing bulks of aerobic physical exercise.

    PubMed

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Buonocore, Ruggero; Tarperi, Cantor; Montagnana, Martina; Festa, Luca; Danese, Elisa; Benati, Marco; Salvagno, Gian Luca; Bonaguri, Chiara; Roggenbuck, Dirk; Schena, Federico

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate DNA damage in response to increasing bulks of aerobic physical exercise. Fifteen adult and trained athletes performed four sequential trials with increasing running distance (5-, 10-, 21- and 42-km) in different periods of the year. The γ-H2AX foci parameters were analyzed before and 3h after the end of each trial. The values of all γ-H2AX foci parameters were enhanced after the end of each trial, with values gradually increasing from the 5- to the 42-km trial. Interestingly, a minor increase of γ-H2AX foci was still evident after 5- to 10-km running, but a much higher increase occurred when the running distance exceeded 21km. The generation of DNA injury was then magnified by running up to 42-km. The increase of each γ-H2AX foci parameter was then found to be associated with both running distance and average intensity. In multivariate linear regression analysis, the running distance was significantly associated with average intensity and post-run variation in the percentage of cells with γ-H2AX foci. We can hence conclude that aerobic exercise may generate an acute DNA damage in trained athletes, which is highly dependent upon running distance and average intensity. PMID:27374303

  13. Occupational, Physical, and Speech Therapy Treatment Activities during Inpatient Rehabilitation for Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Beaulieu, Cynthia L.; Dijkers, Marcel P.; Barrett, Ryan S.; Horn, Susan D.; Giuffrida, Clare G.; Timpson, Misti L.; Carroll, Deborah M.; Smout, Randy J.; Hammond, Flora M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To describe use of Occupational Therapy (OT), Physical Therapy (PT) and Speech Therapy (ST) treatment activities throughout the acute rehabilitation stay of patients with traumatic brain injuries (TBI). Design Multi-site prospective observational cohort study. Setting 9 U.S. and 1 Canadian inpatient rehabilitation settings. Participants 2130 patients admitted for initial acute rehabilitation following TBI. Patients were categorized based on admission FIM cognitive scores, resulting in 5 fairly homogenous groups. Interventions Not applicable. Main Outcome Measures Percentage of patients engaged in specific activities and mean time patients engaged in the activities, per 10-hour block of time for OT, PT, and ST combined. Results Therapy activities in OT, PT, and ST across all 5 cognitive groups had a primary focus on basic activities. While advanced activities occurred in each discipline and within each cognitive group, these advanced activities occurred with fewer patients and usually only toward the end of the rehabilitation stay. Conclusions The pattern of activities engaged in was both similar to and different from patterns seen in previous PBE studies with different rehabilitation diagnostic groups. PMID:26212399

  14. Physical therapy after spinal cord injury: a systematic review of treatments focused on participation.

    PubMed

    Gómara-Toldrà, Natàlia; Sliwinski, Martha; Dijkers, Marcel P

    2014-07-01

    Context Over the last four decades, the focus of spinal cord injury (SCI) rehabilitation has shifted from medical management to issues that affect quality of life and community participation. Physical therapists (PTs) need to design and implement interventions that result in maximal participation to provide an individual with SCI an effective rehabilitation program. Objective The aim of this review is to assess the extent, content, and outcomes of physical therapy (PT) interventions focused on improving the participation of individuals with SCI. Methods A search was conducted in Medline, Embase, CENTRAL, CINAHL, PEDro, and PsycINFO. We included studies, of all designs, focused on improving the participation of individuals with SCI using PT interventions.The primary author and a reviewer independently selected articles for inclusion, assessed articles quality, and extracted the data. Results Five studies met the inclusion criteria. The interventions applied were 9- and 12-month body weight-supported treadmill training in two studies, a supervised 9-month exercise program, a 12-week home exercise program, and a 10-week multidisciplinary cognitive behavioral program for coping with chronic neuropathic pain. Four of five PT interventions positively impacted the individual's perceived participation and satisfaction with participation. Conclusion The body of research by PTs on interventions to improve participation is limited. PTs must document the effects of interventions with a valid outcome tool to enable more research that examines participation. Expanding participation research will allow PTs to meet the needs of individuals with SCI and identify what interventions best facilitate integration into the community. PMID:24621042

  15. Physical therapy after spinal cord injury: A systematic review of treatments focused on participation

    PubMed Central

    Gómara-Toldrà, Natàlia; Sliwinski, Martha; Dijkers, Marcel P.

    2014-01-01

    Context Over the last four decades, the focus of spinal cord injury (SCI) rehabilitation has shifted from medical management to issues that affect quality of life and community participation. Physical therapists (PTs) need to design and implement interventions that result in maximal participation to provide an individual with SCI an effective rehabilitation program. Objective The aim of this review is to assess the extent, content, and outcomes of physical therapy (PT) interventions focused on improving the participation of individuals with SCI. Methods A search was conducted in Medline, Embase, CENTRAL, CINAHL, PEDro, and PsycINFO. We included studies, of all designs, focused on improving the participation of individuals with SCI using PT interventions.The primary author and a reviewer independently selected articles for inclusion, assessed articles quality, and extracted the data. Results Five studies met the inclusion criteria. The interventions applied were 9- and 12-month body weight-supported treadmill training in two studies, a supervised 9-month exercise program, a 12-week home exercise program, and a 10-week multidisciplinary cognitive behavioral program for coping with chronic neuropathic pain. Four of five PT interventions positively impacted the individual's perceived participation and satisfaction with participation. Conclusion The body of research by PTs on interventions to improve participation is limited. PTs must document the effects of interventions with a valid outcome tool to enable more research that examines participation. Expanding participation research will allow PTs to meet the needs of individuals with SCI and identify what interventions best facilitate integration into the community. PMID:24621042

  16. Neuropathic Pain Post Spinal Cord Injury Part 1: Systematic Review of Physical and Behavioral Treatment

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background: Neuropathic pain has various physiologic and psychosocial aspects. Hence, there is a growing use of adjunct nonpharmacological therapy with traditional pharmacotherapy to reduce neuropathic pain post spinal cord injury (SCI). Objective: The purpose of this study was to conduct a systematic review of published research on nonpharmacological treatment of neuropathic pain after SCI. Methods: MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, and PsycINFO databases were searched for articles addressing nonpharmacological treatment of pain post SCI. Articles were restricted to the English language. Article selection was conducted by 2 independent reviewers with the following inclusion criteria: the subjects participated in a treatment or intervention for neuropathic pain; at least 50% of the subjects had an SCI; at least 3 subjects had an SCI; and a definable intervention was being studied. Data extracted included study design, study type, subject demographics, inclusion and exclusion criteria, sample size, outcome measures, and study results. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were assessed for quality using the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) assessment scale. Levels of evidence were assigned to each intervention using a modified Sackett scale. Results: The 16 articles selected for this review fell into 1 of 2 categories of nonpharmacological management of pain after SCI: physical and behavioral treatments. The pooled sample size of all studies included 433 participants. Of the 16 studies included, 7 were level 1, 3 were level 2, and 6 were level 4 studies. Conclusions: Physical interventions demonstrated the strongest evidence based on quality of studies and numbers of RCTs in the nonpharmacological treatment of post-SCI pain. Of these interventions, transcranial electrical stimulation had the strongest evidence of reducing pain. Despite a growing body of literature, there is still a significant lack of research on the use of nonpharmacological therapies for SCI pain

  17. Diagnosis of knee injuries: comparison of the physical examination and magnetic resonance imaging with the findings from arthroscopy☆

    PubMed Central

    Orlando Júnior, Nilton; de Souza Leão, Marcos George; de Oliveira, Nelson Henrique Carvalho

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To ascertain the sensitivity, specificity, accuracy and concordance of the physical examination (PE) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in comparison with arthroscopy, in diagnosing knee injuries. Methods Prospective study on 72 patients, with evaluation and comparison of PE, MRI and arthroscopic findings, to determine the concordance, accuracy, sensitivity and specificity. Results PE showed sensitivity of 75.00%, specificity of 62.50% and accuracy of 69.44% for medial meniscal (MM) lesions, while it showed sensitivity of 47.82%, specificity of 93.87% and accuracy of 79.16% for lateral meniscal (LM) lesions. For anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries, PE showed sensitivity of 88.67%, specificity of 94.73% and accuracy of 90.27%. For MM lesions, MRI showed sensitivity of 92.50%, specificity of 62.50% and accuracy of 69.44%, while for LM injuries, it showed sensitivity of 65.00%, specificity of 88.46% and accuracy of 81.94%. For ACL injuries, MRI showed sensitivity of 86.79%, specificity of 73.68% and accuracy of 83.33%. For ACL injuries, the best concordance was with PE, while for MM and LM lesions, it was with MRI (p < 0.001). Conclusions Meniscal and ligament injuries can be diagnosed through careful physical examination, while requests for MRI are reserved for complex or doubtful cases. PE and MRI used together have high sensitivity for ACL and MM lesions, while for LM lesions the specificity is higher. Level of evidence II – Development of diagnostic criteria on consecutive patients (with universally applied reference “gold” standard). PMID:27218085

  18. Simulation of blast-induced, early-time intracranial wave physics leading to traumatic brain injury.

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, Paul Allen; Ford, Corey C.

    2008-04-01

    U.S. soldiers are surviving blast and impacts due to effective body armor, trauma evacuation and care. Blast injuries are the leading cause of traumatic brain injury (TBI) in military personnel returning from combat. Understanding of Primary Blast Injury may be needed to develop better means of blast mitigation strategies. The objective of this paper is to investigate the effects of blast direction and strength on the resulting mechanical stress and wave energy distributions generated in the brain.

  19. Psychological Aggression, Physical Aggression, and Injury in Nonpartner Relationships Among Men and Women in Treatment for Substance-Use Disorders*

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Regan L.; Chermack, Stephen T.; Walton, Maureen A.; Winters, Jamie; Booth, Brenda M.; Blow, Frederic C.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: This study focused on the prevalence and predictors of psychological aggression, physical aggression, and injury rates in nonintimate partner relationships in a substance-use disorder treatment sample. Method: The sample included 489 (76% men, 24% women) participants who completed screening measures for inclusion in a randomized control trial for an aggression-prevention treatment. Primary outcome measures included rates of past-year psychological aggression, physical aggression, and injury (both from the participant to nonpartners and from nonpartners to the participant). Potential predictors included individual factors (e.g., age, gender), developmental factors (e.g., family history of drug use, childhood physical abuse), and recent factors (e.g., depression, cocaine use). Results: Rates of participant-tononpartner psychological aggression (83%), physical aggression (61%), and injury (47%) were high, as were rates of nonpartner-to-participant aggression. Bivariate analyses revealed significant relationships between the aggression outcomes and most of the individual, developmental, and recent factors. However, multivariate analyses (zero-inflated Poisson regression) revealed that age, treatment status, current symptoms of depression, heavy periods of drinking, and cocaine use were related most frequently to the occurrence of aggression to and from nonpartners. Conclusions: Nonpartner aggression may be as common within a substance-use disorder sample as partner aggression, and it is associated with heavy drinking episodes, cocaine use, and depressive symptoms. The findings highlight the need for the development of effective violence interventions addressing violence in nonpartner relationship types. PMID:18925348

  20. Staying physically active after spinal cord injury: a qualitative exploration of barriers and facilitators to exercise participation

    PubMed Central

    Kehn, Matthew; Kroll, Thilo

    2009-01-01

    Background While enhancing physical activity has been an essential goal of public health officials, people with physical impairments such as spinal cord injury (SCI) are more likely to live a sedentary lifestyle. Exercise has been shown to decrease the risk for many of the secondary conditions associated with SCI, including osteoporosis, cardiovascular disease, pressure ulcers, urinary tract infections, diabetes and arthritis, yet this population is rarely a target for health promotion efforts. This paper examines the self-reported exercise experiences of people with SCI using a qualitative-exploratory design. Methods We enrolled 26 individuals with SCI (15 self-described 'exercisers' and 11 'non-exercisers') from a non-random pool of survey responders. Semi-structured phone interviews were conducted to record participants' experiences with exercise pre/post injury, barriers and facilitators to being active and perceived health impact. Results Regardless of exercise status, all participants reported physical activity prior to injury and expressed interest in becoming active or maintaining an active lifestyle. Participants identified a range of both motivational and socio-environmental factors that were either facilitating or constraining of such a lifestyle. Non-exercisers identified barriers to exercise, including a perceived low return on physical investment, lack of accessible facilities, unaffordable equipment, no personal assistance and fear of injury. Exercisers identified facilitators, including personal motivation, independence, availability of accessible facilities and personal assistants, fear of health complications, and weight management. Exercisers associated a greater range of specific health benefits with being active than non-exercisers. Conclusion Despite motivation and interest in being exercise active, people with SCI face many obstacles. Removal of barriers coupled with promotion of facilitating factors, is vital for enhancing opportunities for

  1. When Physics Meets Biology: Low and High-Velocity Penetration, Blunt Impact, and Blast Injuries to the Brain

    PubMed Central

    Young, Leanne; Rule, Gregory T.; Bocchieri, Robert T.; Walilko, Timothy J.; Burns, Jennie M.; Ling, Geoffrey

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of traumatic brain injuries (TBI) in the US has reached epidemic proportions with well over 2 million new cases reported each year. TBI can occur in both civilians and warfighters, with head injuries occurring in both combat and non-combat situations from a variety of threats, including ballistic penetration, acceleration, blunt impact, and blast. Most generally, TBI is a condition in which physical loads exceed the capacity of brain tissues to absorb without injury. More specifically, TBI results when sufficient external force is applied to the head and is subsequently converted into stresses that must be absorbed or redirected by protective equipment. If the stresses are not sufficiently absorbed or redirected, they will lead to damage of extracranial soft tissue and the skull. Complex interactions and kinematics of the head, neck and jaw cause strains within the brain tissue, resulting in structural, anatomical damage that is characteristic of the inciting insult. This mechanical trauma then initiates a neuro-chemical cascade that leads to the functional consequences of TBI, such as cognitive impairment. To fully understand the mechanisms by which TBI occurs, it is critically important to understand the effects of the loading environments created by these threats. In the following, a review is made of the pertinent complex loading conditions and how these loads cause injury. Also discussed are injury thresholds and gaps in knowledge, both of which are needed to design improved protective systems. PMID:25999910

  2. When physics meets biology: low and high-velocity penetration, blunt impact, and blast injuries to the brain.

    PubMed

    Young, Leanne; Rule, Gregory T; Bocchieri, Robert T; Walilko, Timothy J; Burns, Jennie M; Ling, Geoffrey

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of traumatic brain injuries (TBI) in the US has reached epidemic proportions with well over 2 million new cases reported each year. TBI can occur in both civilians and warfighters, with head injuries occurring in both combat and non-combat situations from a variety of threats, including ballistic penetration, acceleration, blunt impact, and blast. Most generally, TBI is a condition in which physical loads exceed the capacity of brain tissues to absorb without injury. More specifically, TBI results when sufficient external force is applied to the head and is subsequently converted into stresses that must be absorbed or redirected by protective equipment. If the stresses are not sufficiently absorbed or redirected, they will lead to damage of extracranial soft tissue and the skull. Complex interactions and kinematics of the head, neck and jaw cause strains within the brain tissue, resulting in structural, anatomical damage that is characteristic of the inciting insult. This mechanical trauma then initiates a neuro-chemical cascade that leads to the functional consequences of TBI, such as cognitive impairment. To fully understand the mechanisms by which TBI occurs, it is critically important to understand the effects of the loading environments created by these threats. In the following, a review is made of the pertinent complex loading conditions and how these loads cause injury. Also discussed are injury thresholds and gaps in knowledge, both of which are needed to design improved protective systems. PMID:25999910

  3. Pancreatic injury.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Nasim; Vernick, Jerome J

    2009-12-01

    Injury to the pancreas, because of its retroperitoneal location, is a rare occurrence, most commonly seen with penetrating injuries (gun shot or stab wounds). Blunt trauma to the pancreas accounts for only 25% of the cases. Pancreatic injuries are associated with high morbidity and mortality due to accompanying vascular and duodenal injuries. Pancreatic injuries are not always easy to diagnose resulting in life threatening complications. Physical examination as well as serum amylase is not diagnostic following blunt trauma. Computed tomography (CT) scan can delineate the injury or transaction of the pancreas. Endoscopic retrograde pancreaticography (ERCP) is the main diagnostic modality for evaluation of the main pancreatic duct. Unrecognized ductal injury leads to pancreatic pseudocyst, fistula, abscess, and other complications. Management depends upon the severity of the pancreatic injury as well as associated injuries. Damage control surgery in hemodynamic unstable patients reduces morbidity and mortality. PMID:20016434

  4. Operational Physical Performance and Fitness in Military Women: Physiological, Musculoskeletal Injury, and Optimized Physical Training Considerations for Successfully Integrating Women Into Combat-Centric Military Occupations.

    PubMed

    Nindl, Bradley C; Jones, Bruce H; Van Arsdale, Stephanie J; Kelly, Karen; Kraemer, William J

    2016-01-01

    This article summarizes presentations from a 2014 United States Department of Defense (DoD) Health Affairs Women in Combat symposium addressing physiological, musculoskeletal injury, and optimized physical training considerations from the operational physical performance section. The symposium was held to provide a state-of-the-science meeting on the U.S. DoD's rescinding of the ground combat exclusion policy opening up combat-centric occupations to women. Physiological, metabolic, body composition, bone density, cardiorespiratory fitness, and thermoregulation differences between men and women were briefly reviewed. Injury epidemiological data are presented within military training and operational environments demonstrating women to be at a higher risk for musculoskeletal injuries than men. Physical training considerations for improved muscle strength and power, occupational task performance, load carriage were also reviewed. Particular focus of this article was given to translating physiological and epidemiological findings from the literature on these topics toward actionable guidance and policy recommendations for military leaders responsible for military physical training doctrine: (1) inclusion of resistance training with special emphasis on strength and power development (i.e., activation of high-threshold motor units and recruitment of type II high-force muscle fibers), upper-body strength development, and heavy load carriage, (2) moving away from "field expediency" as the major criteria for determining military physical training policy and training implementation, (3) improvement of load carriage ability with emphasis placed on specific load carriage task performance, combined with both resistance and endurance training, and (4) providing greater equipment resources, coaching assets, and increased training time dedicated to physical readiness training. PMID:26741902

  5. Block observations of neighbourhood physical disorder are associated with neighbourhood crime, firearm injuries and deaths, and teen births

    PubMed Central

    Wei, E.; Hipwell, A.; Pardini, D.; Beyers, J.; Loeber, R.

    2005-01-01

    Study objective: To provide reliability information for a brief observational measure of physical disorder and determine its relation with neighbourhood level crime and health variables after controlling for census based measures of concentrated poverty and minority concentration. Design: Psychometric analysis of block observation data comprising a brief measure of neighbourhood physical disorder, and cross sectional analysis of neighbourhood physical disorder, neighbourhood crime and birth statistics, and neighbourhood level poverty and minority concentration. Setting: Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, US (2000 population = 334 563). Participants: Pittsburgh neighbourhoods (n = 82) and their residents (as reflected in neighbourhood level statistics). Main results: The physical disorder index showed adequate reliability and validity and was associated significantly with rates of crime, firearm injuries and homicides, and teen births, while controlling for concentrated poverty and minority population. Conclusions: This brief measure of neighbourhood physical disorder may help increase our understanding of how community level factors reflect health and crime outcomes. PMID:16166368

  6. Enhancing physical activity guidelines: a needs survey of adults with spinal cord injury and health care professionals.

    PubMed

    Foulon, Brianne L; Lemay, Valérie; Ainsworth, Victoria; Martin Ginis, Kathleen A

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine preferences of people with spinal cord injury (SCI) and health care professionals (HCP) regarding the content and format of a SCI physical activity guide to support recently released SCI physical activity guidelines. Seventy-eight people with SCI and 80 HCP completed a survey questionnaire. Participants with SCI identified desired content items and their preferences for format. HCP rated the helpfulness of content items to prescribe physical activity. All content items were rated favorably by participants with SCI and useful by HCP. The risks and benefits of activity and inactivity, and strategies for becoming more active, were rated high by both samples. Photographs and separate information for those with paraplegia versus tetraplegia were strongly endorsed. These data were used to guide the development of an SCI physical activity guide to enhance the uptake of physical activity guidelines for people with SCI. The guide was publically released November 11, 2011. PMID:23027146

  7. Altered left ventricular performance in aging physically active mice with an ankle sprain injury.

    PubMed

    Turner, Michael J; Guderian, Sophie; Wikstrom, Erik A; Huot, Joshua R; Peck, Bailey D; Arthur, Susan T; Marino, Joseph S; Hubbard-Turner, Tricia

    2016-02-01

    We assessed the impact of differing physical activity levels throughout the lifespan, using a musculoskeletal injury model, on the age-related changes in left ventricular (LV) parameters in active mice. Forty male mice (CBA/J) were randomly placed into one of three running wheel groups (transected CFL group, transected ATFL/CFL group, SHAM group) or a SHAM Sedentary group (SHAMSED). Before surgery and every 6 weeks after surgery, LV parameters were measured under 2.5 % isoflurane inhalation. Group effects for daily distance run was significantly greater for the SHAM and lesser for the ATLF/CFL mice (p = 0.013) with distance run decreasing with age for all mice (p < 0.0001). Beginning at 6 months of age, interaction (group × age) was noted with LV posterior wall thickness-to-radius ratios (h/r) where h/r increased with age in the ATFL/CFL and SHAMSED mice while the SHAM and CFL mice exhibited decreased h/r with age (p = 0.0002). Passive filling velocity (E wave) was significantly greater in the SHAM mice and lowest for the ATFL/CFL and SHAMSED mice (p < 0.0001) beginning at 9 months of age. Active filling velocity (A wave) was not different between groups (p = 0.10). Passive-to-active filling velocity ratio (E/A ratio) was different between groups (p < 0.0001), with higher ratios for the SHAM mice and lower ratios for the ATFL/CFL and SHAMSED mice in response to physical activity beginning at 9 months of age. Passive-to-active filling velocity ratio decreased with age (p < 0.0001). Regular physical activity throughout the lifespan improved LV structure, passive filling velocity, and E/A ratio by 6 to 9 months of age and attenuated any negative alterations throughout the second half of life. The diastolic filling differences were found to be significantly related to the amount of activity performed by 9 months and at the end of the lifespan. PMID:26803818

  8. Attitudes toward People with Disabilities Caused by Illness or Injury: Beyond Physical Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shiloh, Shoshana; Heruti, Irit; Berkovitz, Tamar

    2011-01-01

    This study examined differences in attitudes toward and reactions to individuals with comparable disabilities caused by injury or illness. Participants were students and healthcare professionals randomly assigned to read one of eight vignettes constructed in a between-subjects, full-factorial design: 2 (illness/injury)x2 (male/female)x2…

  9. The Use of Consumer Injury Registry Data to Evaluate Physical Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wissow, Lawrence S.; Wilson, Modena H.

    1988-01-01

    Descriptive case information evaluated by 68 medical personnel included a fall from a highchair as the explanation of an injury, with or without injury pattern data obtained for such falls from the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC). Respondents given the CPSC data appropriately had less confidence in the explanation. (Author/JW)

  10. Research in physical medicine and rehabilitation. XII. Measurement tools with application to brain injury.

    PubMed

    Johnston, M V; Findley, T W; DeLuca, J; Katz, R T

    1991-02-01

    There are basic principles and techniques of measurement that are relevant across biomedical disciplines. The purpose of this article is to explain some of the most important of these for medical rehabilitation, to illustrate how to use them to choose assessment instruments and to describe the nature of measurement in medical rehabilitation by examples in brain injury rehabilitation. Reliability is basic to any scientific measure. Validity, the ultimate criterion, is closely associated with the purpose of the measure. Content validity, criterion validity and construct validity are explained. Sensitivity to rehabilitative interventions and significance in patients' real lives (ecological validity) are emphasized. Measures of functional outcomes (disability) may show improvement after rehabilitation even when impairment measures do not. An extensive but selected list of measures of coma, global status, disabilities, communicative and cognitive impairments, and handicaps is presented, and their main uses are illustrated. Examples illustrate how to choose measures to study comprehensive program-level outcomes, to study learning-based interventions and to develop a general purpose database. Although there are many measures of activities of daily living and mobility, little published evidence of reliability and validity could be found even for some well-known scales. Ecologically valid and sensitive outcome measures are especially needed. Studies of the clinical utility of measures were also scarce. Many of these gaps can be spanned by clinical researchers with limited resources. Physical medicine and rehabilitation will benefit from formal studies of the reliabilities and validities of both its old and its new measurement instruments and by increased sophistication in choice of measures. PMID:1994970

  11. The Impact of Previous Physical Training on Redox Signaling after Traumatic Brain Injury in Rats: A Behavioral and Neurochemical Approach.

    PubMed

    da Silva Fiorin, Fernando; de Oliveira Ferreira, Ana P; Ribeiro, Leandro R; Silva, Luiz F A; de Castro, Mauro R T; da Silva, Luís R H; da Silveira, Mauro E P; Zemolin, Ana P P; Dobrachinski, Fernando; Marchesan de Oliveira, Sara; Franco, Jeferson L; Soares, Félix A; Furian, Ana F; Oliveira, Mauro S; Fighera, Michele R; Freire Royes, Luiz F

    2016-07-15

    Throughout the world, traumatic brain injury (TBI) is one of the major causes of disability, which can include deficits in motor function and memory, as well as acquired epilepsy. Although some studies have shown the beneficial effects of physical exercise after TBI, the prophylactic effects are poorly understood. In the current study, we demonstrated that TBI induced by fluid percussion injury (FPI) in adult male Wistar rats caused early motor impairment (24 h), learning deficit (15 days), spontaneous epileptiform events (SEE), and hilar cell loss in the hippocampus (35 days) after TBI. The hippocampal alterations in the redox status, which were characterized by dichlorofluorescein diacetate oxidation and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity inhibition, led to the impairment of protein function (Na(+), K(+)-adenosine triphosphatase [ATPase] activity inhibition) and glutamate uptake inhibition 24 h after neuronal injury. The molecular adaptations elicited by previous swim training protected against the glutamate uptake inhibition, oxidative stress, and inhibition of selected targets for free radicals (e.g., Na(+), K(+)-ATPase) 24 h after neuronal injury. Our data indicate that this protocol of exercise protected against FPI-induced motor impairment, learning deficits, and SEE. In addition, the enhancement of the hippocampal phosphorylated nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor (P-Nrf2)/Nrf2, heat shock protein 70, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor immune content in the trained injured rats suggests that protein expression modulation associated with an antioxidant defense elicited by previous physical exercise can prevent toxicity induced by TBI, which is characterized by cell loss in the dentate gyrus hilus at 35 days after TBI. Therefore, this report suggests that previous physical exercise can decrease lesion progression in this model of brain damage. PMID:26651029

  12. Precise survival time and physical activity after fatal left ventricle injury from sharp pointed weapon: a case report and a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Franchi, Angélique; Kolopp, Martin; Coudane, Henry; Martrille, Laurent

    2016-09-01

    Survival time and physical activity following fatal injury are especially important during investigation of homicide cases and the estimation of a victim's survival time and physical activity following a fatal injury from a sharp weapon is a commonly raised issue, particularly at trial. According to the literature, survival time and physical activity after cardiac damage are short-term estimates without high accuracy. We report the homicide case of a young man who died as a result of a left ventricle injury caused by a sharp pointed weapon. This case is based on evidence from a video surveillance camera that recorded the whole scene after the fatal injury: The victim showed an adapted physical activity for 38 s, although the left ventricle incision measured 2 cm. Despite several cases in the literature, it is not possible to correlate precisely the size of the wounds and the acting capability. PMID:26914799

  13. Fear of Injury With Physical Activity Is Greater in Adults With Diabetes Than in Adults Without Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Huebschmann, Amy G.; Crane, Lori A.; Belansky, Elaine S.; Scarbro, Sharon; Marshall, Julie A.; Regensteiner, Judith G.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Physical activity is a cornerstone of treatment for diabetes, yet people with diabetes perform less moderate and vigorous physical activity (MVPA) than people without diabetes. In contrast, whether differences in walking activity exist has been understudied. Diabetes-specific barriers to physical activity are one possible explanation for lower MVPA in diabetes. We hypothesized that people with diabetes would perform less walking and combined MVPA and would be less likely to anticipate increasing physical activity if barriers were theoretically absent, compared with people without diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We surveyed 1,848 randomly selected rural Colorado adult residents by telephone from 2002 to 2004. Respondents reported weekly walking and MVPA duration and their likelihood of increasing physical activity if each of seven barriers was theoretically absent. RESULTS People with diabetes (n = 129) had lower odds of walking and MVPA than people without diabetes (walking: adjusted odds ratio 0.62 [95% CI 0.40–0.95]; MVPA: adjusted odds ratio 0.60 [0.36–0.99]; ≥10 vs. <10 min/week, adjusted for age, sex, BMI, and ethnicity). Respondents with diabetes reported fear of injury as a barrier to physical activity more often than respondents without diabetes (56 vs. 39%; P = 0.0002), although this relationship was attenuated after adjusting for age and BMI (adjusted odds ratio 1.36 [0.93–1.99]). CONCLUSIONS Although walking is a preferred form of activity in diabetes, people with diabetes walk less than people without diabetes. Reducing fear of injury may potentially increase physical activity for people with diabetes, particularly in older and more overweight individuals. PMID:21700920

  14. Examination for sexual assault: Is the documentation of physical injury associated with the laying of charges? A retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    McGregor, M J; Le, G; Marion, S A; Wiebe, E

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Few studies have examined whether there is an association between individual medical findings and legal outcome in cases of sexual assault. This study was undertaken to determine the relation between the extent of documented physical injury and a positive legal outcome in cases of sexual assault and to determine other factors associated with the laying of charges in such cases. METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study, the authors reviewed the charts and medicolegal reports for all cases of sexual assault that were handled by the BC Women's Sexual Assault Service in 1992 for which a police report had been filed. Information on patients' characteristics, the nature of the assault and the extent of injury was extracted from these records. A system for scoring clinical injury was developed by 4 of the physicians at the Sexual Assault Service, and a clinical injury score was assigned for each case by one physician. The relation between the outcome (in terms of whether charges were laid) and the circumstances of the case was examined by logistic regression. RESULTS: A total of 95 cases with complete medical records and information about legal outcome were identified during the 1992 calendar year. After adjustment for income level and the patient's knowledge of the assailant (either as an acquaintance or as his or her partner), the odds ratio (OR) for charge-laying in a sexual assault case with documented moderate to severe injury was 3.33 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.06-10.42). Socioeconomic status above the group median (defined as annual income greater than $21,893) (OR 3.26, 95% CI 1.09-9.71) and knowledge of the assailant (OR 4.58, 95% CI 1.52-13.79) were also associated with charge-laying. Presence of genital injury per se, age of the patient and detection of sperm by microscopy at the time of examination were not associated with the laying of charges. INTERPRETATION: The results of this study show that the extent of documented injury is

  15. Physical demands and injuries to the upper extremity associated with the space program.

    PubMed

    Viegas, Steven F; Williams, David; Jones, Jeffrey; Strauss, Samuel; Clark, Jonathan

    2004-05-01

    Hand and upper-extremity overuse and repetitive injuries in astronauts have been and continue to be a common problem in the space program. The demands on upper-extremity use in the astronaut training program, the zero-gravity environment, the extreme temperature conditions of space, the effects of space travel on human physiology/anatomy, and the constraints and pressures of space suits and gloves all can negatively impact upper-extremity function in ways that can result in overuse/repetitive injuries. Future plans for space exploration include endeavors that will continue and even increase the demands on the hand and upper extremity. PMID:15140472

  16. Sports Safety. Accident Prevention and Injury Control in Physical Education, Athletics, and Recreation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yost, Charles Peter, Ed.

    This anthology of articles concerned with injury in sports and safety procedures is divided into three parts. Part One is devoted to general discussions of safety and a guiding philosophy for accident prevention. Part Two develops articles on administration and supervision, including discussions of health examination, legal liability, facilities,…

  17. Preventing ACL Injuries in Females: What Physical Educators Need to Know

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toscano, Lisa; Carroll, Brianne

    2015-01-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries happen at a frequent rate, especially in girls and women. While there are many factors that contribute to ACL tears, teaching proper landing techniques and strengthening certain muscles can decrease the incidence of ACL tears, especially in women. This article reviews some of the high-risk factors that…

  18. Testing the feasibility of training peers with a spinal cord injury to learn and implement brief action planning to promote physical activity to people with spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Gainforth, Heather L.; Latimer-Cheung, Amy E.; Davis, Connie; Casemore, Sheila; Martin Ginis, Kathleen A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The present study tested the feasibility of training peers with spinal cord injury (SCI) to learn brief action planning (BAP), an application of motivational interviewing principles, to promote physical activity to mentees with SCI. Method Thirteen peers with SCI attended a half-day BAP workshop. Using a one-arm, pre-, post-test design, feasibility to learn BAP was assessed in terms of peers' (1) BAP and motivational interviewing spirit competence; (2) training satisfaction; and (3) motivations to use BAP as assessed by measures of the theory of planned behavior constructs. Measures were taken at baseline, immediately post-training, and 1 month follow up. Results Following the training, participants' BAP and motivational interviewing competence significantly increased (P's < 0.05, d's > 2.27). Training satisfaction was very positive with all means falling above the scale midpoint. Participants' perceived behavioral control to use BAP increased from baseline to post (P < 0.05, d = 0.91) but was not maintained at follow up (P > 0.05). Conclusion Training peers with a SCI to learn to use BAP is feasible. Practical implications BAP is a tool that can be feasibly learned by peers to promote physical activity to their mentees. PMID:25429692

  19. Efficacy of Acute Intermittent Hypoxia on Physical Function and Health Status in Humans with Spinal Cord Injury: A Brief Review

    PubMed Central

    Astorino, Todd A.; Harness, Eric T.; White, Ailish C.

    2015-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) results in a loss of motor and sensory function and is consequent with reductions in locomotion, leading to a relatively sedentary lifestyle which predisposes individuals to premature morbidity and mortality. Many exercise modalities have been employed to improve physical function and health status in SCI, yet they are typically expensive, require many trained clinicians to implement, and are thus relegated to specialized rehabilitation centers. These characteristics of traditional exercise-based rehabilitation in SCI make their application relatively impractical considering the time-intensive nature of these regimens and patients' poor access to exercise. A promising approach to improve physical function in persons with SCI is exposure to acute intermittent hypoxia (IH) in the form of a small amount of sessions of brief, repeated exposures to low oxygen gas mixtures interspersed with normoxic breathing. This review summarizes the clinical application of IH in humans with SCI, describes recommended dosing and potential side effects of IH, and reviews existing data concerning the efficacy of relatively brief exposures of IH to modify health and physical function. Potential mechanisms explaining the effects of IH are also discussed. Collectively, IH appears to be a safe, time-efficient, and robust approach to enhance physical function in chronic, incomplete SCI. PMID:26167303

  20. Changes in mouse cognition and hippocampal gene expression observed in a mild physical- and blast-traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Tweedie, David; Rachmany, Lital; Rubovitch, Vardit; Zhang, Yongqing; Becker, Kevin G; Perez, Evelyn; Hoffer, Barry J; Pick, Chaim G; Greig, Nigel H

    2013-06-01

    Warfare has long been associated with traumatic brain injury (TBI) in militarized zones. Common forms of TBI can be caused by a physical insult to the head-brain or by the effects of a high velocity blast shock wave generated by the detonation of an explosive device. While both forms of trauma are distinctly different regarding the mechanism of trauma induction, there are striking similarities in the cognitive and emotional status of survivors. Presently, proven effective therapeutics for the treatment of either form of TBI are unavailable. To be able to develop efficacious therapies, studies involving animal models of physical- and blast-TBI are required to identify possible novel or existing medicines that may be of value in the management of clinical events. We examined indices of cognition and anxiety-like behavior and the hippocampal gene transcriptome of mice subjected to both forms of TBI. We identified common behavioral deficits and gene expression regulations, in addition to unique injury-specific forms of gene regulation. Molecular pathways presented a pattern similar to that seen in gene expression. Interestingly, pathways connected to Alzheimer's disease displayed a markedly different form of regulation depending on the type of TBI. While these data highlight similarities in behavioral outcomes after trauma, the divergence in hippocampal transcriptome observed between models suggests that, at the molecular level, the TBIs are quite different. These models may provide tools to help define therapeutic approaches for the treatment of physical- and blast-TBIs. Based upon observations of increasing numbers of personnel displaying TBI related emotional and behavioral changes in militarized zones, the development of efficacious therapies will become a national if not a global priority. PMID:23454194

  1. Mental and Physical Health Outcomes in Parents of Children with Burn Injuries as Compared with Matched Controls.

    PubMed

    Enns, Jessica; Gawaziuk, Justin P; Khan, Sazzadul; Chateau, Dan; Bolton, James M; Sareen, Jitender; Stone, James; Doupe, Malcolm; Logsetty, Sarvesh

    2016-01-01

    Pediatric burn injuries are common, and the stress of caring for them can affect caregivers' health. This study's objective was to examine the rates of common mental and physical disorders of parents of burn-injured children (cases) compared with matched controls (controls). This is a population-based study linking the Regional Pediatric burn registry with administrative health information. Pediatric burn cases were matched 1:5 with control children from the general population based on age, sex, and geographical location then parents identified. One thousand and twenty-six parental cases and 4858 controls were identified. International Classification of Disease codes were used to identify diagnoses of common mental and physical disorders. Using rates of disease 2 years before and 2 years after the date of burn, the changes in the relative rates of health outcomes were compared between the cases and the controls. The cases had higher rates of postinjury mental and physical illness compared with the matches. However, it was found that controls also had increased rates postindex date and additionally cases had increased rates of preinjury illnesses. There was no difference in the relative rates of illnesses between the groups from pre- to post-index date. The higher rate of illness in cases postinjury could be explained by preinjury illness, and similar rate increases in the control cohort. Evaluation of the effect of a child's burn injury on parents should take into context the preexisting health of the parent. Socioeconomic factors associated with increased risk of burns may also be associated with adverse health outcomes. PMID:26361326

  2. Changes in mouse cognition and hippocampal gene expression observed in a mild physical- and blast-traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Tweedie, David; Rachmany, Lital; Rubovitch, Vardit; Zhang, Yongqing; Becker, Kevin G.; Perez, Evelyn; Hoffer, Barry J.; Pick, Chaim G.; Greig, Nigel H.

    2013-01-01

    Warfare has long been associated with traumatic brain injury (TBI) in militarized zones. Common forms of TBI can be caused by a physical insult to the head-brain or by the effects of a high velocity blast shock wave generated by the detonation of an explosive device. While both forms of trauma are distinctly different regarding the mechanism of trauma induction, there are striking similarities in the cognitive and emotional status of survivors. Presently, proven effective therapeutics for the treatment of either form of TBI are unavailable. To be able to develop efficacious therapies, studies involving animal models of physical- and blast-TBI are required to identify possible novel or existing medicines that may be of value in the management of clinical events. We examined indices of cognition and anxiety-like behavior and the hippocampal gene transcriptome of mice subjected to both forms of TBI. We identified common behavioral deficits and gene expression regulations, in addition to unique injury-specific forms of gene regulation. Molecular pathways presented a pattern similar to that seen in gene expression. Interestingly, pathways connected to Alzheimer’s disease displayed a markedly different form of regulation depending on the type of TBI. While these data highlight similarities in behavioral outcomes after trauma, the divergence in hippocampal transcriptome observed between models suggests that, at the molecular level, the TBIs are quite different. These models may provide tools to help define therapeutic approaches for the treatment of physical- and blast-TBIs. Based upon observations of increasing numbers of personnel displaying TBI related emotional and behavioral changes in militarized zones, the development of efficacious therapies will become a national if not a global priority. PMID:23454194

  3. The Physical Abilities and Mobility Scale (PAMS): reliability and validity in children receiving inpatient brain injury rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Trovato, Melissa K.; Bradley, Elena; Slomine, Beth S.; Salorio, Cynthia F.; Christensen, James R.; Suskauer, Stacy J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the psychometric properties of the Physical Abilities and Mobility Scale (PAMS) in children receiving inpatient rehabilitation for acquired brain injury. Design Admission and discharge PAMS item and total scores were evaluated. The Functional Independence Measure for Children (WeeFIM) was used as the criterion standard. A case study was used to illustrate the complementary nature of the PAMS and WeeFIM. Setting A single free-standing academically-affiliated pediatric rehabilitation hospital Participants 107 children aged two through eighteen years receiving inpatient rehabilitation for acquired brain injury between March 2009 and March 2012. 42 additional children treated during this time were excluded due to missing PAMS data. Interventions Not applicable Main Outcome Measures Internal consistency was evaluated using Cronbach alpha. Inter-rater reliability was evaluated through overall agreement, Pearson correlations, and intraclass correlations. Construct validity was examined through exploratory factor analysis. Criterion validity was explored through correlations of PAMS overall and factor scores with WeeFIM total and subscale scores. Sensitivity to recovery was examined using paired t tests examining differences between admission and discharge scores for each item and for the total score. Results Internal consistency and inter-rater reliability were high. Factor analysis revealed two factors: lower level skills and higher level mobility skills. Correlations with the WeeFIM ranged from moderate to very strong; total PAMS score most strongly correlated with the WeeFIM mobility subscore. Total PAMS score and each item score significantly increased between admission and discharge. Conclusions The PAMS is a reliable and valid measure of progress during inpatient rehabilitation for children with acquired brain injury. By capturing fine grain progress toward both lower level and higher level mobility skills, the PAMS complements the WeeFIM in

  4. Modeling and simulation of blast-induced, early-time intracranial wave physics leading to traumatic brain injury.

    SciTech Connect

    Ford, Corey C.; Taylor, Paul Allen

    2008-02-01

    The objective of this modeling and simulation study was to establish the role of stress wave interactions in the genesis of traumatic brain injury (TBI) from exposure to explosive blast. A high resolution (1 mm{sup 3} voxels), 5 material model of the human head was created by segmentation of color cryosections from the Visible Human Female dataset. Tissue material properties were assigned from literature values. The model was inserted into the shock physics wave code, CTH, and subjected to a simulated blast wave of 1.3 MPa (13 bars) peak pressure from anterior, posterior and lateral directions. Three dimensional plots of maximum pressure, volumetric tension, and deviatoric (shear) stress demonstrated significant differences related to the incident blast geometry. In particular, the calculations revealed focal brain regions of elevated pressure and deviatoric (shear) stress within the first 2 milliseconds of blast exposure. Calculated maximum levels of 15 KPa deviatoric, 3.3 MPa pressure, and 0.8 MPa volumetric tension were observed before the onset of significant head accelerations. Over a 2 msec time course, the head model moved only 1 mm in response to the blast loading. Doubling the blast strength changed the resulting intracranial stress magnitudes but not their distribution. We conclude that stress localization, due to early time wave interactions, may contribute to the development of multifocal axonal injury underlying TBI. We propose that a contribution to traumatic brain injury from blast exposure, and most likely blunt impact, can occur on a time scale shorter than previous model predictions and before the onset of linear or rotational accelerations traditionally associated with the development of TBI.

  5. DEVELOPMENT OF A PHYSICAL PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT CHECKLIST FOR ATHLETES WHO SUSTAINED A LOWER EXTREMITY INJURY IN PREPARATION FOR RETURN TO SPORT: A DELPHI STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Haines, Sara; Baker, Tricia

    2013-01-01

    Purpose/Background: To develop a consensus on the critical constructs necessary to be included in a physical performance assessment checklist (PPAC) to assess an athlete's ability for return to sport following a lower extremity injury. Methods: The study used a 3‐round Delphi method to finalize the PPAI originally developed by a panel of experts. Fourteen Delphi representative sample participants were randomly derived from the authors of peer‐reviewed publications of lower extremity injuries. Nine participants completed all 3 rounds. Results: Throughout the 3 rounds, the 10 initial constructs were modified and revised to produce the finalized PPAC consisting of 12 constructs necessary to consider for an athlete's return to sport after a lower extremity injury. Conclusions: This instrument can be used as a checklist to advocate for prospective batteries of physical performance tests to incorporate the elements identified by this study. Level of Evidence: 5 PMID:23439809

  6. DREV activities related to military vehicles robotization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montminy, B.

    The Defence Research Establishment Valcartier (DREV) is involved in a number of activities aimed at improving the performance of systems installed aboard military vehicles, automating functions normally carried out by human operators, and adding new functions that become essential to cope with new scenarios and threats. These activities relate to the development of sensors that sense the surrounding environment, processors that interpret the sensor data, and actuators that perform various robotic actions. DREV research related to those activities is reviewed as they relate to robotics which continues to increase the portion of vehicular function that is carried out autonomously. Of special interest is the CF aircraft robotization project which aims to develop an autonomous integrated aircraft protection system to detect and counter threats without any human intervention. This research involves development of means for passive surveillance of the surrounding environment, processing of multisensor data, triggering of sensing-aid devices, and actuation of countermeasures that modify the environment.

  7. Social Cognitive and Planned Behavior Variables Associated with Stages of Change for Physical Activity in Spinal Cord Injury: A Multivariate Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keegan, John; Ditchman, Nicole; Dutta, Alo; Chiu, Chung-Yi; Muller, Veronica; Chan, Fong; Kundu, Madan

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To apply the constructs of social cognitive theory (SCT) and the theory of planned behavior (TPB) to understand the stages of change (SOC) for physical activities among individuals with a spinal cord injury (SCI). Method: Ex post facto design using multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA). The participants were 144 individuals with SCI…

  8. Predictive Ability of Pender's Health Promotion Model for Physical Activity and Exercise in People with Spinal Cord Injuries: A Hierarchical Regression Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keegan, John P.; Chan, Fong; Ditchman, Nicole; Chiu, Chung-Yi

    2012-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to validate Pender's Health Promotion Model (HPM) as a motivational model for exercise/physical activity self-management for people with spinal cord injuries (SCIs). Quantitative descriptive research design using hierarchical regression analysis (HRA) was used. A total of 126 individuals with SCI were recruited…

  9. Outcomes of a skiing program on level and stability of self-esteem and physical self in adults with spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Barbin, Jean-Marc; Ninot, Grégory

    2008-03-01

    This study explored the intraindividual level and variability of global self-esteem and physical self-worth in adults with spinal cord injury over three consecutive periods, 4 weeks at home, 1 week in an adapted skiing program, and 4 weeks at home. Ten participants responded twice a day over a period of 9 weeks with the Physical Self Inventory, a six-item questionnaire with a visual analogue scale. The results showed that the program significantly increased the level of global self-esteem, physical self-worth, and three subdomains. The variability of the physical condition, sport competence, and physical strength subdomains was diminished after the program. The changes are discussed in terms of impact of a specific adapted physical activities program on physical self conceived as a complex system. PMID:18277205

  10. The risk of PTSD and depression after an airplane crash and its potential association with physical injury: A longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Gouweloos, Juul; Postma, Ingri L E; te Brake, Hans; Sijbrandij, Marit; Kleber, Rolf J; Goslings, J Carel

    2016-01-01

    In 2009, a commercial airplane crashed near Amsterdam. This longitudinal study aims to investigate (1) the proportion of survivors of the airplane crash showing a probable posttraumatic stress disorders (PTSD) or depressive disorder, and (2) whether symptoms of PTSD and depression were predicted by trauma characteristics. Identifying these trauma characteristics is crucial for early detection and treatment. Of the 121 adult survivors, 82 participated in this study 2 months after the crash and 76 participated 9 months after the crash. Risk for PTSD and depression was measured with the self-report instruments Trauma Screening Questionnaire and Patient Health Questionnaire-2. Trauma characteristics assessed were Injury Severity Score (ISS), hospitalisation, length of hospital stay, and seating position in the plane. Two months after the crash, 32 participants (of N=70, 46%) were at risk for PTSD and 28 (of N=80, 32%) were at risk for depression. Nine months after the crash, 35 participants (of N=75, 47%) were at risk for PTSD and 24 (of N=76, 35%) were at risk for depression. There was a moderate correlation between length of hospital stay and symptoms of PTSD and depression 9 months after the crash (r=.33 and r=.45, respectively). There were no differences in seating position between participants at high risk vs. participants at low risk for PTSD or depression. Mixed design ANOVAs showed also no association between the course of symptoms of PTSD and depression 2 and 9 months after the crash and ISS or hospitalisation. This suggests that health care providers need to be aware that survivors may be at risk for PTSD or depression, regardless of the objective severity of their physical injuries. PMID:26210753

  11. Very early-initiated physical rehabilitation protects against ischemic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Pengyue; Zhang, Qi; Pu, Hongjian; Wu, Yi; Bai, Yulong; Vosler, Peter S; Chen, Jun; Shi, Hong; Gao, Yanqin; Hu, Yongshan

    2012-01-01

    Recent clinical data suggest that very early initiated physical rehabilitation (VEIPR) within 24 hours after stroke may reduce morbidity. However, there is limited evidence to support the beneficial effects of VEIPR and the underlying mechanisms are yet unknown. The present study investigated the effect of VEIPR on brain damage, inflammation, and neurobehavioral outcomes following cerebral ischemia. Rats that underwent transient focal cerebral ischemia (tFCI) were randomly assigned to VEIPR or non-exercise (NE) groups. VEIPR was induced 24 hours after the insult by initiating treadmill training for a maximum of 14 days while the NE group remained sedentary in their cages during this period. The results indicated that VEIPR significantly improved recovery of functional behavior as measured by neurological score, foot fault test, and Morris water maze performance. We also demonstrated that VEIPR significantly reduced infarct volume, brain water content, BBB damage, and acute inflammatory response. In summary, our results provide novel evidence that VEIPR confers marked neuroprotection against experimental stroke by attenuating pro-inflammatory reactions, brain edema, BBB damage, and cognitive and behavioral deficits. PMID:22652654

  12. Objective Functional Assessment After a Head Injury Using Movement and Activity in Physical Space Scores: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Farnsworth, James L.; McElhiney, Danielle; David, Shannon; Sinha, Gaurav; Ragan, Brian G.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To describe the potential benefit of using a global positioning system (GPS) and accelerometry as an objective functional-activity measure after concussion by creating Movement and Activity in Physical Space (MAPS) scores. Background: A 21-year-old female soccer player suffered a blow to the back of the head from an opponent's shoulder during an away match. No athletic trainer was present. She played the remainder of the match and reported to the athletic training facility the next day for evaluation. Differential Diagnosis: Concussion. Treatment: The athlete was removed from all athletic activities. Her symptoms were monitored based on the Zurich guidelines. She was also instructed to wear an accelerometer on her hip and to carry an on-person GPS receiver at all times for 10 days. Her total symptom scores for the 4 symptomatic days were 82, 39, 49, and 36. Her mean MAPS functional score for symptomatic days 3 through 5 was 900.9 and for asymptomatic days 6 through 11 was 2734.9. Uniqueness: We monitored the patient's function during the concussion-recovery process using an on-person GPS receiver and accelerometer to calculate personalized MAPS scores. This novel approach to measuring function after injury may provide a useful complementary tool to help with return-to-play decisions. Conclusions: An on-person GPS receiver and accelerometer were used to observe the patient's physical activity in a free-living environment, allowing for an objective measure of function during recovery. Her MAPS scores were low while she was symptomatic and increased as she became asymptomatic. We saw the expected inverse relationship between symptoms and function. In situations where accuracy of reported symptoms may be a concern, this measure may provide a way to verify the validity of, or raise doubts about, self-reported symptoms. PMID:24840582

  13. Current NRC activities related to MQA

    SciTech Connect

    Trottier, C.A.; Nellis, D.O.

    1993-12-31

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s (NRC`s) interest in measurement quality assurance (MQA) goes back to before 1963, when the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) published a notice in the Federal Register concerning the need for establishing a Film Dosimetry Calibration Laboratory, and also provided a set of minimum performance criteria to be used by the laboratory in evaluating film dosimetry services used by licensees. The proposed laboratory was not established, but in 1967 the AEC contracted with Battelle`s Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to evaluate film dosimeter performance criteria and provide a basis for establishing a Film Dosimetry Calibration Laboratory if the study showed that it was needed. Then, in 1973, the Conference of Radiation Control Program Directors (CRCPD), concerned with the state of dosimetry processing and the lack of adequate standards, recommended that the National Bureau of Standards (NBS) direct a performance testing program for personnel dosimetry processing services. Later, in 1976, NRC asked PNL to conduct a study to evaluate the four existing performance standards for personnel dosimetry processing. One result of this study was that the HPSSC standard, which later became ANSI N13.11, was recommended as the standard for use in a national dosimetry processing program. The rest is common knowledge. With the support of numerous other federal agencies and the CRCPD, NRC published a regulation, effective in 1988, that required all processors of personnel dosimeters be accredited under the National Voluntary Laboratory Accreditation Program (NVLAP), operated by the NBS, which is now called the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). At present, there are 75 dosimetry processing laboratories accredited under NVLAP. NRC has also been involved in extremity dosimeters, health physics survey instruments, bioassay measurements, electronic personnel dosimeters, and environmental monitoring around nuclear power plants.

  14. Physical activity levels and torso orientations of hospitalized patients at risk of developing a pressure injury: an observational study.

    PubMed

    Chaboyer, Wendy; Mills, Peter M; Roberts, Shelley; Latimer, Sharon

    2015-02-01

    Pressure injury guidelines recommend regular repositioning yet patients' mobility and repositioning patterns are unknown. An observational study using activity monitors was undertaken to describe the 24 h activity patterns of 84 hospitalized patients at risk of developing a pressure injury. The vast majority of participants' time was spent in the sedentary activity range (94% ± 3%) followed by the light range (5% ± 4 %). Patients changed their posture a median of 94 (interquartile range 48) time in the 24-h period (range 11-154), or ≈ 3.8 times per hour. Although a main focus for pressure injury prevention has been on repositioning, this study shows that patients with restricted mobility are actually moving quite often. Therefore, it might be appropriate to focus more attention on other pressure injury prevention strategies such as adequate nutrition, appropriate support surfaces and good skin care. PMID:24118408

  15. Effect of structured physical activity on prevention of serious fall injuries in adults aged 70-89: randomized clinical trial (LIFE Study)

    PubMed Central

    Pahor, Marco; Guralnik, Jack M; McDermott, Mary M; King, Abby C; Buford, Thomas W; Strotmeyer, Elsa S; Nelson, Miriam E; Sink, Kaycee M; Demons, Jamehl L; Kashaf, Susan S; Walkup, Michael P; Miller, Michael E

    2016-01-01

    Objective To test whether a long term, structured physical activity program compared with a health education program reduces the risk of serious fall injuries among sedentary older people with functional limitations. Design Multicenter, single blinded randomized trial (Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders (LIFE) study). Setting Eight centers across the United States, February 2010 to December 2011. Participants 1635 sedentary adults aged 70-89 years with functional limitations, defined as a short physical performance battery score ≤9, but who were able to walk 400 m. Interventions A permuted block algorithm stratified by field center and sex was used to allocate interventions. Participants were randomized to a structured, moderate intensity physical activity program (n=818) conducted in a center (twice a week) and at home (3-4 times a week) that included aerobic, strength, flexibility, and balance training activities, or to a health education program (n=817) consisting of workshops on topics relevant to older people and upper extremity stretching exercises. Main outcome measures Serious fall injuries, defined as a fall that resulted in a clinical, non-vertebral fracture or that led to a hospital admission for another serious injury, was a prespecified secondary outcome in the LIFE Study. Outcomes were assessed every six months for up to 42 months by staff masked to intervention assignment. All participants were included in the analysis. Results Over a median follow-up of 2.6 years, a serious fall injury was experienced by 75 (9.2%) participants in the physical activity group and 84 (10.3%) in the health education group (hazard ratio 0.90, 95% confidence interval 0.66 to 1.23; P=0.52). These results were consistent across several subgroups, including sex. However, in analyses that were not prespecified, sex specific differences were observed for rates of all serious fall injuries (rate ratio 0.54, 95% confidence interval 0.31 to 0.95 in men

  16. Urethral Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... Injuries Ureteral Injuries Urethral Injuries Injuries to the Penis and Scrotum Most urethral injuries occur in men. ... leakage of urine into the tissues of the penis, scrotum, abdominal wall, or perineum (the area between ...

  17. 29 CFR 780.122 - Activities relating to race horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Activities relating to race horses. 780.122 Section 780.122... Activities relating to race horses. Employees engaged in the breeding, raising, and training of horses on..., employees engaged in the racing, training, and care of horses and other activities performed off the farm...

  18. 29 CFR 780.122 - Activities relating to race horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Activities relating to race horses. 780.122 Section 780.122... Activities relating to race horses. Employees engaged in the breeding, raising, and training of horses on..., employees engaged in the racing, training, and care of horses and other activities performed off the farm...

  19. 29 CFR 780.122 - Activities relating to race horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Activities relating to race horses. 780.122 Section 780.122... Activities relating to race horses. Employees engaged in the breeding, raising, and training of horses on..., employees engaged in the racing, training, and care of horses and other activities performed off the farm...

  20. 29 CFR 780.122 - Activities relating to race horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Activities relating to race horses. 780.122 Section 780.122... Activities relating to race horses. Employees engaged in the breeding, raising, and training of horses on..., employees engaged in the racing, training, and care of horses and other activities performed off the farm...

  1. 29 CFR 780.122 - Activities relating to race horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Activities relating to race horses. 780.122 Section 780.122... Activities relating to race horses. Employees engaged in the breeding, raising, and training of horses on..., employees engaged in the racing, training, and care of horses and other activities performed off the farm...

  2. The Moderating Role of Purging Behaviour in the Relationship Between Sexual/Physical Abuse and Nonsuicidal Self-Injury in Eating Disorder Patients.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Sónia; Machado, Bárbara; Silva, Cátia; Crosby, Ross D; Lavender, Jason M; Cao, Li; Machado, Paulo P P

    2016-03-01

    This study sought to examine predictors of nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) in eating disorder patients and to evaluate the moderating role of purging behaviours in the relationship between a theorised predictor (i.e. sexual/physical abuse) and NSSI. Participants in this study were 177 female patients with eating disorders (age range = 14-38 years) who completed semistructured interviews assessing eating disorder symptoms and eating disorder-related risk factors (e.g. history of sexual and physical abuse, history of NSSI and feelings of fatness). Results revealed that 65 participants (36.7%) reported lifetime engagement in NSSI, and 48 participants (27.1%) reported a history of sexual/physical abuse. Early onset of eating problems, lower BMI, feeling fat, a history of sexual/physical abuse and the presence of purging behaviours were all positively associated with the lifetime occurrence of NSSI. The relationship between sexual/physical abuse before eating disorder onset and lifetime NSSI was moderated by the presence of purging behaviours, such that the relationship was stronger in the absence of purging. These findings are consistent with the notion that purging and NSSI may serve similar functions in eating disorder patients (e.g. emotion regulation), such that the presence of purging may attenuate the strength of the association between sexual/physical abuse history (which is also associated with elevated NSSI risk) and engagement in NSSI behaviours. PMID:26606864

  3. Physical and Cognitive Performance of Patients with Acute Lung Injury 1 Year after Initial Trophic versus Full Enteral Feeding. EDEN Trial Follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Dinglas, Victor D.; Morris, Peter E.; Jackson, James C.; Hough, Catherine L.; Mendez-Tellez, Pedro A.; Wozniak, Amy W.; Colantuoni, Elizabeth; Ely, E. Wesley; Rice, Todd W.; Hopkins, Ramona O.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale: We hypothesized that providing patients with acute lung injury two different protein/calorie nutritional strategies in the intensive care unit may affect longer-term physical and cognitive performance. Objectives: To assess physical and cognitive performance 6 and 12 months after acute lung injury, and to evaluate the effect of trophic versus full enteral feeding, provided for the first 6 days of mechanical ventilation, on 6-minute-walk distance, cognitive impairment, and secondary outcomes. Methods: A prospective, longitudinal ancillary study of the ARDS Network EDEN trial evaluating 174 consecutive survivors from 5 of 12 centers. Blinded assessments of patients’ arm anthropometrics, strength, pulmonary function, 6-minute-walk distance, and cognitive status (executive function, language, memory, verbal reasoning/concept formation, and attention) were performed. Measurements and Main Results: At 6 and 12 months, respectively, the mean (SD) percent predicted for 6-minute-walk distance was 64% (22%) and 66% (25%) (P = 0.011 for difference between assessments), and 36 and 25% of survivors had cognitive impairment (P = 0.001). Patients performed below predicted values for secondary physical tests with small improvement from 6 to 12 months. There was no significant effect of initial trophic versus full feeding for the first 6 days after randomization on survivors’ percent predicted for 6-minute-walk distance, cognitive impairment status, and all secondary outcomes. Conclusions: EDEN trial survivors performed below predicted values for physical and cognitive performance at 6 and 12 months, with some improvement over time. Initial trophic versus full enteral feeding for the first 6 days after randomization did not affect physical and cognitive performance. PMID:23805899

  4. Effects of voluntary physical exercise, citicoline, and combined treatment on object recognition memory, neurogenesis, and neuroprotection after traumatic brain injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Jacotte-Simancas, Alejandra; Costa-Miserachs, David; Coll-Andreu, Margalida; Torras-Garcia, Meritxell; Borlongan, Cesar V; Portell-Cortés, Isabel

    2015-05-15

    The biochemical and cellular events that lead to secondary neural damage after traumatic brain injury (TBI) contribute to long-term disabilities, including memory deficits. There is a need to search for single and/or combined treatments aimed at reducing these TBI-related disfunctions. The effects of citicoline and of voluntary physical exercise in a running wheel (3 weeks), alone or in combination, on TBI-related short-term (3 h) and long-term (24 h) object recognition memory (ORM) deficits and on neurogenesis and neuroprotection were examined using a rodent model of TBI (controlled cortical impact injury). Citicoline improved memory deficits at the two times tested, while physical exercise only in the long-term test. Physical exercise had a clear neuroprotective effect as indicated by reduced interhemispheric differences in hippocampal formation and lateral ventricle volumes and in density of mature neurons in the hilus of the dentate gyrus and the perirhinal cortex. Physical exercise also increased cell proliferation and neurogenesis in the granular cell layer of the dentate gyrus. Some degree of neuroprotection of citicoline was suggested by reduced interhemispheric differences in the volume of the hippocampal formation. Contrary to what was expected, the effects of citicoline and physical exercise did not sum up. Further, a negative interference between both treatments was found in several behavioral and histological variables. The promising profiles of both treatments as therapeutic tools in TBI when applied singly underscore the need to perform further works looking for other combined treatment regimens that increase the benefit of each treatment alone. PMID:25144903

  5. Ethnic/racial differences in the prevalence of injurious spanking and other child physical abuse in a National Survey of Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, Alesia Oscea; Danielson, Carla Kmett; de Arellano, Michael A; Hanson, Rochelle F; Ruggiero, Kenneth J; Smith, Daniel W; Saunders, Benjamin E; Kilpatrick, Dean G

    2010-08-01

    Limited research has examined whether similar patterns in injurious spanking and other forms of child physical abuse (CPA) exist across specific ethnic/racial groups. The authors examined and compared differences in the lifetime prevalence of injurious spanking and CPA in two national samples of adolescents across ethnic/racial groups and over time. Participants were 4,023 youth (12-17 years) and 3,614 youth (12-17 years) who participated in the 1995 National Survey of Adolescents (NSA) and 2005 National Survey of Adolescents-Replication (NSA-R), respectively. Adolescents, who were identified through random digit dial procedures, completed a telephone interview assessment. Results indicated significant ethnic/racial variation across groups in reports of injurious spanking in the NSA and the NSA-R samples; however, significant differences were not observed within groups between the two samples over time. Ethnic/racial differences also were found between groups in reports of CPA in the NSA-R sample. Limitations and future directions of this research are discussed. PMID:20498129

  6. Assessing risk factors for early hip osteoarthritis in activity-related hip pain: a Delphi study

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, K A; Glyn-Jones, S; Batt, M E; Arden, N K; Newton, J L

    2015-01-01

    Objective Hip pain and injury as a result of activity can lead to the development of early hip osteoarthritis (OA) in susceptible individuals. Our understanding of the factors that increase susceptibility continues to evolve. The ability to clearly identify individuals (and cohorts) with activity-related hip pain who are at risk of early hip OA is currently lacking. The purpose of this study was to gain expert consensus on which key clinical measures might help predict the risk of early hip OA in individuals presenting with activity-related hip pain. The agreed measures would constitute a standardised approach to initial clinical assessment to help identify these individuals. Methods This Dephi study used online surveys to gain concordance of expert opinion in a structured process of ‘rounds’. In this study, we asked ‘What outcome measures are useful in predicting hip OA in activity-related hip pain?’ The Delphi panel consisted of experts from sport and exercise medicine, orthopaedics, rheumatology, physiotherapy and OA research. Results The study identified key clinical measures in the history, examination and investigations (plain anteroposterior radiograph and femoroacetabular impingement views) that the panel agreed would be useful in predicting future risk of hip OA when assessing activity-related hip pain. The panel also agreed that certain investigations and tests (eg, MR angiography) did not currently have a role in routine assessment. There was a lack of consensus regarding the role of MRI, patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) and certain biomechanical and functional assessments. Conclusions We provide a standardised approach to the clinical assessment of patients with activity-related hip pain. Assessment measures rejected by the Delphi panel were newer, more expensive investigations that currently lack evidence. Assessment measures that did not reach consensus include MRI and PROMs. Their role remains ambiguous and would benefit from further

  7. 2015 JOSPT Awards: Back Pain and Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries Are a Continued Focus of Research and Clinical Attention in Physical Therapy.

    PubMed

    Simoneau, Guy G

    2016-04-01

    During the American Physical Therapy Association's Combined Sections Meeting in Anaheim, California in February 2016, JOSPT recognized the authors of the most outstanding research and clinical practice manuscripts published in JOSPT during the 2015 calendar year. The 2015 JOSPT Excellence in Research Award was presented to Björn Aasa, Lars Berglund, Peter Michaelson, and Ulrika Aasa for their paper titled "Individualized Low-Load Motor Control Exercises and Education Versus a High-Load Lifting Exercise and Education to Improve Activity, Pain Intensity, and Physical Performance in Patients With Low Back Pain: A Randomized Controlled Trial." The 2015 George J. Davies-James A. Gould Excellence in Clinical Inquiry Award was presented to Anne Benjaminse, Alli Gokeler, Bert Otten, Ariel V. Dowling, Avery Faigenbaum, Kevin R. Ford, Timothy E. Hewett, James A. Onate, and Gregory D. Myer for their work titled "Optimization of the Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury Prevention Paradigm: Novel Feedback Techniques to Enhance Motor Learning and Reduce Injury Risk." PMID:27032528

  8. Head Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... before. Often, the injury is minor because your skull is hard and it protects your brain. But ... injuries can be more severe, such as a skull fracture, concussion, or traumatic brain injury. Head injuries ...

  9. Head Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... before. Usually, the injury is minor because your skull is hard and it protects your brain. But ... injuries can be more severe, such as a skull fracture, concussion, or traumatic brain injury. Head injuries ...

  10. Back Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... extending from your neck to your pelvis. Back injuries can result from sports injuries, work around the house or in the garden, ... back is the most common site of back injuries and back pain. Common back injuries include Sprains ...

  11. Head Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... of head injuries include bicycle or motorcycle wrecks, sports injuries, falls from windows (especially among children who live ... to watch for? When can I start playing sports again after a head injury? How can brain damage from a head injury ...

  12. Acute effects of muscle stretching on physical performance, range of motion, and injury incidence in healthy active individuals: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Behm, David G; Blazevich, Anthony J; Kay, Anthony D; McHugh, Malachy

    2016-01-01

    Recently, there has been a shift from static stretching (SS) or proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) stretching within a warm-up to a greater emphasis on dynamic stretching (DS). The objective of this review was to compare the effects of SS, DS, and PNF on performance, range of motion (ROM), and injury prevention. The data indicated that SS- (-3.7%), DS- (+1.3%), and PNF- (-4.4%) induced performance changes were small to moderate with testing performed immediately after stretching, possibly because of reduced muscle activation after SS and PNF. A dose-response relationship illustrated greater performance deficits with ≥60 s (-4.6%) than with <60 s (-1.1%) SS per muscle group. Conversely, SS demonstrated a moderate (2.2%) performance benefit at longer muscle lengths. Testing was performed on average 3-5 min after stretching, and most studies did not include poststretching dynamic activities; when these activities were included, no clear performance effect was observed. DS produced small-to-moderate performance improvements when completed within minutes of physical activity. SS and PNF stretching had no clear effect on all-cause or overuse injuries; no data are available for DS. All forms of training induced ROM improvements, typically lasting <30 min. Changes may result from acute reductions in muscle and tendon stiffness or from neural adaptations causing an improved stretch tolerance. Considering the small-to-moderate changes immediately after stretching and the study limitations, stretching within a warm-up that includes additional poststretching dynamic activity is recommended for reducing muscle injuries and increasing joint ROM with inconsequential effects on subsequent athletic performance. PMID:26642915

  13. Neck Injuries and Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... another common cause of neck pain. Whiplash, a soft tissue injury to the neck, is also called neck sprain or strain. Treatment depends on the cause, but may include applying ice, taking pain relievers, getting physical therapy or wearing ...

  14. Physical principles demonstrate that the biceps femoris muscle relative to the other hamstring muscles exerts the most force: implications for hamstring muscle strain injuries

    PubMed Central

    Dolman, Bronwyn; Verrall, Geoffrey; Reid, Iain

    2014-01-01

    Summary Of the hamstring muscle group the biceps femoris muscle is the most commonly injured muscle in sports requiring interval sprinting. The reason for this observation is unknown. The objective of this study was to calculate the forces of all three hamstring muscles, relative to each other, during a lengthening contraction to assess for any differences that may help explain the biceps femoris predilection for injury during interval sprinting. To calculate the displacement of each individual hamstring muscle previously performed studies on cadaveric anatomical data and hamstring kinematics during sprinting were used. From these displacement calculations for each individual hamstring muscle physical principles were then used to deduce the proportion of force exerted by each individual hamstring muscle during a lengthening muscle contraction. These deductions demonstrate that the biceps femoris muscle is required to exert proportionally more force in a lengthening muscle contraction relative to the semimembranosus and semitendinosus muscles primarily as a consequence of having to lengthen over a greater distance within the same time frame. It is hypothesized that this property maybe a factor in the known observation of the increased susceptibility of the biceps femoris muscle to injury during repeated sprints where recurrent higher force is required. PMID:25506583

  15. Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bromley, D. Allan

    1980-01-01

    The author presents the argument that the past few years, in terms of new discoveries, insights, and questions raised, have been among the most productive in the history of physics. Selected for discussion are some of the most important new developments in physics research. (Author/SA)

  16. Cooperative Learning Activities Related to Women Chemists and Physicists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reat, Kay

    This collection of activities related to women chemists and physicists is designed for use in cooperative groups of three students each. Each of eight activities consists of a written account of the career and life of an historical woman scientist and four writing activity suggestions. The writings from each group can then be organized into one…

  17. Radiology of musculoskeletal stress injuries

    SciTech Connect

    Keats, T.E.

    1989-01-01

    With the new emphasis on physical fitness, musculoskeletal stress injuries are being seen with greater frequency in children and adults, and in locations that are not widely associated with stress injury. Some of the injuries continue to be mistaken for signs of more serious illnesses, such as infection and neoplasm, and this may lead to unnecessary investigative effort. This book covers both the classic stress injuries and the new manifestations.

  18. Injuries in Irish dance.

    PubMed

    Stein, Cynthia J; Tyson, Kesley D; Johnson, Victor M; Popoli, David M; d'Hemecourt, Pierre A; Micheli, Lyle J

    2013-12-01

    Irish dance is growing in popularity and competitiveness; however, very little research has focused specifically on this genre of dance. The purpose of this study was to analyze the types of dance injuries incurred by Irish dancers. A chart review was performed to identify all injuries associated with Irish dance seen in the sports medicine or orthopaedic clinics at the investigators' hospital over an 11-year period. "Injury" was defined as any dance-related pain or disorder that led to evaluation in the clinics. Survey data were also collected from study participants. Ultimately, 255 patients from over 30 different schools of dance were seen with injuries directly related (726 clinic visits) or partially related (199 visits) to Irish dance. Participants ranged in age from 4 to 47, with 95% (243/255) under the age of 19. These 255 patients received 437 diagnoses. Almost 80% of the injuries (348/437) were attributable to overuse, and 20.4% were acute and traumatic injuries (89/437). Ninety-five percent (95.9%) of injuries involved the hip or lower extremity. The most common sites were the foot (33.2%), ankle (22.7%), knee (19.7%), and hip (14.4%). Typical diagnoses were tendon injury (13.3%), apophysitis (11.4%), patellofemoral pain and instability (10.8%), stress injury (10.1%), and muscle injury (7.8%). The majority of traumatic injuries were seen in clinic within 3 weeks, but less than a quarter of overuse injuries were seen that quickly. The most common treatment, prescribed to 84.3% of patients, was physical therapy and home exercises, and the majority of dancers (64.3%) were able to return to full dance activity after injury. PMID:24565331

  19. Eye Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    The structure of your face helps protect your eyes from injury. Still, injuries can damage your eye, sometimes severely enough that you could lose your vision. Most eye injuries are preventable. If you play sports or ...

  20. Head Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... injuries internal head injuries, which may involve the skull, the blood vessels within the skull, or the brain Fortunately, most childhood falls or ... knock the brain into the side of the skull or tear blood vessels. Some internal head injuries ...

  1. Back Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... the most common site of back injuries and back pain. Common back injuries include Sprains and strains Herniated disks Fractured vertebrae These injuries can cause pain and limit your movement. Treatments vary but might ...

  2. Eye Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... of your face helps protect your eyes from injury. Still, injuries can damage your eye, sometimes severely enough that you could lose your vision. Most eye injuries are preventable. If you play sports or work ...

  3. Blast Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... Service Members & Veterans Family & Caregivers Medical Providers Blast Injuries U.S. Army photo by Sgt. Gustavo Olgiati How ... tertiary injury Does a blast cause different brain injuries than blunt trauma? There currently is no evidence ...

  4. Ocular Injury

    MedlinePlus

    ... usually occur from blunt trauma, such as a sports injury or a fall with injury to the nose ... of protective goggles at all times. Even in sports like baseball, eye injuries can be prevented by using batting helmets that ...

  5. Sports Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... sometimes you can injure yourself when you play sports or exercise. Accidents, poor training practices, or improper ... can also lead to injuries. The most common sports injuries are Sprains and strains Knee injuries Swollen ...

  6. The impact of physical therapy in patients with severe traumatic brain injury during acute and post-acute rehabilitation according to coma duration

    PubMed Central

    Lendraitienė, Eglė; Petruševičienė, Daiva; Savickas, Raimondas; Žemaitienė, Ieva; Mingaila, Sigitas

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of study was to evaluate the impact of physical therapy on the recovery of motor and mental status in patients who sustained a severe traumatic brain injury, according to coma duration in acute and post-acute rehabilitation. [Subjects and Methods] The study population comprised patients with levels of consciousness ranging from 3 to 8 according to Glasgow Coma Scale score. The patients were divided into 2 groups based on coma duration as follows: group 1, those who were in a coma up to 1 week, and group 2, those who were in a coma for more than 2 weeks. The recovery of the patients’ motor function was evaluated according to the Motor Assessment Scale and the recovery of mental status according to the Mini-Mental State Examination. [Results] The evaluation of motor and mental status recovery revealed that the patients who were in a coma up to 1 week recovered significantly better after physical therapy during the acute rehabilitation than those who were in a coma for longer than 2 weeks. [Conclusion] The recovery of motor and mental status of the patients in acute rehabilitation was significantly better for those in a coma for a shorter period. PMID:27512262

  7. The impact of physical therapy in patients with severe traumatic brain injury during acute and post-acute rehabilitation according to coma duration.

    PubMed

    Lendraitienė, Eglė; Petruševičienė, Daiva; Savickas, Raimondas; Žemaitienė, Ieva; Mingaila, Sigitas

    2016-07-01

    [Purpose] The aim of study was to evaluate the impact of physical therapy on the recovery of motor and mental status in patients who sustained a severe traumatic brain injury, according to coma duration in acute and post-acute rehabilitation. [Subjects and Methods] The study population comprised patients with levels of consciousness ranging from 3 to 8 according to Glasgow Coma Scale score. The patients were divided into 2 groups based on coma duration as follows: group 1, those who were in a coma up to 1 week, and group 2, those who were in a coma for more than 2 weeks. The recovery of the patients' motor function was evaluated according to the Motor Assessment Scale and the recovery of mental status according to the Mini-Mental State Examination. [Results] The evaluation of motor and mental status recovery revealed that the patients who were in a coma up to 1 week recovered significantly better after physical therapy during the acute rehabilitation than those who were in a coma for longer than 2 weeks. [Conclusion] The recovery of motor and mental status of the patients in acute rehabilitation was significantly better for those in a coma for a shorter period. PMID:27512262

  8. Physical therapy for correcting postural and coordination deficits in patients with mild-to-moderate traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Ustinova, Ksenia I; Chernikova, Ludmila A; Dull, Ann; Perkins, Jan

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the effects of a conventional exercise program designed for correcting postural and coordination abnormalities in patients with mild-to-moderate traumatic brain injury (TBI). Using principles of motor learning applied to functional exercise training, exercises were performed while lying, sitting, standing and walking, with the goal of improving intra- and inter-limb coordination in the upper and lower extremities, postural stability and gait pattern. Twenty-two participants with TBI-related deficits received therapy in a supervised outpatient clinic. Therapy included 20 sessions, each approximately 55 to 60 min in duration, scheduled four to five times a week over four consecutive weeks. Each participant was evaluated with a battery of clinical tests at baseline and immediately after therapy. Upon completion of the therapy, participants improved static and dynamic postural stability and gait, evaluated with the Berg Balance Scale (from 45.2 ± 5.9 to 49.2 ± 4.2 points) and the Functional Gait Assessment (from 22.8 ± 4.1 to 26.9 ± 3.4 points). They also reduced truncal, upper and lower extremity ataxia, evaluated with the Ataxia Scale (from 7.3 ± 4.5 to 5.9 ± 4.2 points). Results will be used to refine the current version of the exercise therapy, which focused on whole body coordination and balance, and to design a large-scale clinical trial establishing effectiveness of this intervention and for comparison with other forms of therapy. PMID:25083579

  9. The University of Queensland study of physical and psychological outcomes for claimants with minor and moderate injuries following a road traffic crash (UQ SuPPORT): design and methods

    PubMed Central

    Kenardy, Justin; Heron-Delaney, Michelle; Bellamy, Nicholas; Sterling, Michele; Connelly, Luke

    2014-01-01

    Background To date research investigating how mental health impacts physical recovery following a road traffic crash (RTC) has focused on cohorts with severe injuries. The UQ SuPPORT study aims to study the physical and psychological outcomes of claimants with minor injuries following an RTC under the Queensland common law compulsory insurance scheme. Objectives This paper outlines the protocols of this study as a platform for future publications. Methods The 2-year longitudinal cohort study collected interview and survey data from claimants at 6, 12, and 24 months post-RTC. Measures used in the telephone interview included the DSM-IV Composite International Diagnostic Interview for posttraumatic stress disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, major depressive episode, panic attacks, agoraphobia; and self-reported disability (WHO-DAS-II). Quality of life (SF-36v2), alcohol use (AUDIT), social support (MSPSS), quality-adjusted life years (EQ-5D), and return to work outcomes were assessed via postal questionnaires. Results A total of 382 claimants consented to participate at the beginning of the study, and these participants were approached at each wave. Retention was high (65%). The average age of participants at Wave 1 was 48.6 years, with 65% of the sample sustaining minor injuries (Injury Severity Score=1–3). Conclusions This study has collected a unique sample of data to investigate recovery patterns of claimants with minor injuries. Future publications will more fully assess the effects of the collected measures on recovery rates 2 years post-RTC. PMID:24799996

  10. Effectiveness of intense, activity-based physical therapy for individuals with spinal cord injury in promoting motor and sensory recovery: Is olfactory mucosa autograft a factor?

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Cathy A.; Dension, Paula M.

    2013-01-01

    Background/objectives Rehabilitation for individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) is expanding to include intense, activity-based, out-patient physical therapy (PT). The study's primary purposes were to (i) examine the effectiveness of intense PT in promoting motor and sensory recovery in individuals with SCI and (ii) compare recovery for individuals who had an olfactory mucosa autograft (OMA) with individuals who did not have the OMA while both groups participated in the intense PT program. Methods Prospective, non-randomized, non-blinded, intervention study. Using the American Spinal Injury Association examination, motor and sensory scores for 23 (7 OMA, 6 matched control and 10 other) participants were recorded. Results Mean therapy dosage was 137.3 total hours. The participants’ total, upper and lower extremity motor scores improved significantly while sensory scores did not improve during the first 60 days and from initial to discharge examination. Incomplete SCI or paraplegia was associated with greater motor recovery. Five of 14 participants converted from motor-complete to motor-incomplete SCI. Individuals who had the OMA and participated in intense PT did not have greater sensory or greater magnitude or rate of motor recovery as compared with participants who had intense PT alone. Conclusion This study provides encouraging evidence as to the effectiveness of intense PT for individuals with SCI. Future research is needed to identify the optimal therapy dosage and specific therapeutic activities required to generate clinically meaningful recovery for individuals with SCI including those who elect to undergo a neural recovery/regenerative surgical procedure and those that elect intense therapy alone. PMID:23433335

  11. The Relationship Between Initial Physical Examination Findings and Failure on Objective Validity Testing During Neuropsychological Evaluation After Pediatric Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Provance, Aaron J.; Terhune, E. Bailey; Cooley, Christine; Carry, Patrick M.; Connery, Amy K.; Engelman, Glenn H.; Kirkwood, Michael W.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The symptomatology after mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is complex as symptoms are subjective and nonspecific. It is important to differentiate symptoms as neurologically based or caused by noninjury factors. Symptom exaggeration has been found to influence postinjury presentation, and objective validity tests are used to help differentiate these cases. This study examines how concussed patients seen for initial medical workup may present with noncredible effort during follow-up neuropsychological examination and identifies physical findings during evaluation that best predict noncredible performance. Hypothesis: A portion of pediatric patients will demonstrate noncredible effort during neuropsychological testing after mTBI, predicted by failure of certain vestibular and cognitive tests during initial examination. Study Design: Retrospective cohort. Level of Evidence: Level 4. Methods: Participants (n = 80) underwent evaluation by a sports medicine physician ≤3 months from injury, were subsequently seen for a neuropsychological examination, and completed the Medical Symptom Validity Test (MSVT). Variables included results of a mental status examination (orientation), serial 7s examination, Romberg test, and heel-to-toe walking test. The primary outcome variable of interest was pass/fail of the MSVT. Results: Of the participants, 51% were male and 49% were female. Eighteen of 80 (23%) failed the MSVT. Based on univariable logistic regression analysis, the outcomes of the Romberg test (P = 0.0037) and heel-to-toe walking test(P = 0.0066) were identified as significant independent predictors of MSVT failure. In a multivariable model, outcome of Romberg test was the only significant predictor of MSVT failure. The probability of MSVT failure was 66.7% (95% CI, 33.3% to 88.9%) when a subject failed the Romberg test. Conclusion: A meaningful percentage of pediatric subjects present evidence of noncredible performance during neuropsychological examination

  12. [Membranes structure and physical and mechanical erythrocytes properties in the early period of traumatic brain injury caused by less-lethal firearms].

    PubMed

    Gaĭdash, A A; Ivchenko, E V; Levichev, V V; Denisov, A V

    2014-04-01

    The dynamics of erythrocytes properties in the acute phase of traumatic brain injury caused by less-lethal firearms has been studied by the methods of atomic force and morphometry. The experiments have been performed on sheep by a Makarych pistol single shot at the parietooccipital area. It has been established that under the influence of the shock waves the erythrocyte disks and transmembrane liquid oscillatory fluctuations (flicker) are increased. The fluctuations are rapidly attenuated and the shock waves energy is accepted by cytoplasmic membranes lipoproteids. As a result the interface tlipid-protein, phase transitions are hastened. The membranes undergo heterogeneous structural, physical and mechanical transformations the character of which is determined by the phase transitions direction. In the spots of phospolipid liquid clusters accumulation the fluidity is increased and marks caused by membranes lamination and spreading appear. In the spots of phospholipids solid phase the surfaces become hydrophobic and marks caused by membranes local embrittlement and fragility appear. The transmembrane fluid hydrodynamic flows heterogeneity is increased due to deformation processes irregular spreading. The flows acceleration causes the hydrodynamic ruptures-like defects. The flows deceleration results in depressions evolving through the mechanism of creeping erosions. PMID:25051784

  13. Lisfranc injuries.

    PubMed

    Welck, M J; Zinchenko, R; Rudge, B

    2015-04-01

    Lisfranc injuries are commonly asked about in FRCS Orthopaedic trauma vivas. The term "Lisfranc injury" strictly refers to an injury where one or more of the metatarsals are displaced from the tarsus. The term is more commonly used to describe an injury to the midfoot centred on the 2nd tarsometatarsal joint. The injury is named after Jacques Lisfranc de St. Martin (1790-1847), a French surgeon and gynaecologist who first described the injury in 1815. 'Lisfranc injury' encompasses a broad spectrum of injuries, which can be purely ligamentous or involve the osseous and articular structures. They are often difficult to diagnose and treat, but if not detected and appropriately managed they can cause long-term disability. This review outlines the anatomy, epidemiology, classification, investigation and current evidence on management of this injury. PMID:25543185

  14. Basketball injuries.

    PubMed

    Newman, Joel S; Newberg, Arthur H

    2010-11-01

    Basketball injuries are most prevalent in the lower extremity, especially at the ankle and knee. Most basketball injuries are orthopedic in nature and commonly include ligament sprains, musculotendinous strains, and overuse injuries including stress fractures. By virtue of its excellent contrast resolution and depiction of the soft tissues and trabecular bone, magnetic resonance imaging has become the principal modality for evaluating many basketball injuries. In this article, commonly encountered basketball injuries and their imaging appearances are described. The epidemiology of basketball injuries across various age groups and levels of competition and between genders are reviewed. PMID:21094400

  15. Spinal injury

    MedlinePlus

    ... head. Alternative Names Spinal cord injury; SCI Images Skeletal spine Vertebra, cervical (neck) Vertebra, lumbar (low back) Vertebra, thoracic (mid back) Vertebral column Central nervous system Spinal cord injury Spinal anatomy Two person roll - ...

  16. Corneal injury

    MedlinePlus

    ... as sand or dust Ultraviolet injuries: Caused by sunlight, sun lamps, snow or water reflections, or arc- ... a corneal injury if you: Are exposed to sunlight or artificial ultraviolet light for long periods of ...

  17. Inhalation Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... you can inhale that can cause acute internal injuries. Particles in the air from fires and toxic ... and lung diseases worse. Symptoms of acute inhalation injuries may include Coughing and phlegm A scratchy throat ...

  18. Cycling injuries.

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, G. C.

    1993-01-01

    Bicycle-related injuries have increased as cycling has become more popular. Most injuries to recreational riders are associated with overuse or improper fit of the bicycle. Injuries to racers often result from high speeds, which predispose riders to muscle strains, collisions, and falls. Cyclists contact bicycles at the pedals, seat, and handlebars. Each is associated with particular cycling injuries. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:8471908

  19. School Environment and School Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Salminen, Simo; Kurenniemi, Marja; Råback, Mirka; Markkula, Jaana; Lounamaa, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Background: Although injuries at school are an important issue in public health, environmental factors in schools and school yards have seldom been the focus of school injury research. The goal of our investigation was to examine the effect of environmental factors on school injuries. Methods: Nine comprehensive Finnish schools registered school injuries over a period of two school years. Injuries were classified as being associated with environmental factors, suspected environmental factors, and others. The consensus between two independent classifiers was 81%. Results: A total of 722 injuries were classified. In 11.6% of these injuries, the physical environment factor was evident, and in 28.1% of the injuries, physical environment was suspected of being a contributory risk factor. Thus the physical environment of the school was a contributing factor in over a third (39.7%) of injuries occurring in the school, on the school yard or during the journey to, or from school. In this study, conducted in Finland, ice on the ground was mentioned most frequently as an environmental risk factor. Conclusion: In Finland, the Nordic weather conditions are not taken into account in the school yard and playground plans as they ought to from the safety point of view. An initiative has been launched on a mandatory wintertime master plan for every school yard. PMID:24455667

  20. Orienteering injuries

    PubMed Central

    Folan, Jean M.

    1982-01-01

    At the Irish National Orienteering Championships in 1981 a survey of the injuries occurring over the two days of competition was carried out. Of 285 individual competitors there was a percentage injury rate of 5.26%. The article discusses the injuries and aspects of safety in orienteering. Imagesp236-ap237-ap237-bp238-ap239-ap240-a PMID:7159815

  1. Injury reduction at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Griffing, Bill; /Fermilab

    2005-06-01

    In a recent DOE Program Review, Fermilab's director presented results of the laboratory's effort to reduce the injury rate over the last decade. The results, shown in the figure below, reveal a consistent and dramatic downward trend in OSHA recordable injuries at Fermilab. The High Energy Physics Program Office has asked Fermilab to report in detail on how the laboratory has achieved the reduction. In fact, the reduction in the injury rate reflects a change in safety culture at Fermilab, which has evolved slowly over this period, due to a series of events, both planned and unplanned. This paper attempts to describe those significant events and analyze how each of them has shaped the safety culture that, in turn, has reduced the rate of injury at Fermilab to its current value.

  2. Head injury.

    PubMed

    Hureibi, K A; McLatchie, G R

    2010-05-01

    Head injury is one of the commonest injuries in sport. Most are mild but some can have serious outcomes. Sports medicine doctors should be able to recognise the clinical features and evaluate athletes with head injury. It is necessary during field assessment to recognise signs and symptoms that help in assessing the severity of injury and making a decision to return-to-play. Prevention of primary head injury should be the aim. This includes protective equipment like helmets and possible rule changes. PMID:20533694

  3. Turco's injury: diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Ana Paula Simões; Shimba, Leandro Girardi; Ribas, Luiz Henrique Boraschi Vieira; de Almeida, Alexandre Simmonds; Naves, Vinicius; Duarte Júnior, Aires

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to alert doctors to the existence of Turco's injury and discus the existing treatments that have been described in the worldwide literature. A bibliographic survey of Lisfranc's injury and Turco's injury covering from 1985 to 2013 was conducted in the SciELO and PubMed databases. Among the 193 articles, those relating to bone-ligament injuries of the Lisfranc joint and high-energy trauma were excluded, as were the case reports. The patients selected were professional or amateur athletes who solely presented a ligament injury to the Lisfranc joint (Turco's injury), which was diagnosed from the history, physical examination, radiographs and magnetic resonance images. Non-athletic patients and those with associated bone injuries were excluded (10). According to the injury classification, the patients were treated by means of either an open or a closed procedure and then a standard rehabilitation protocol. Out of the 10 patients, five underwent conservative treatment and five underwent surgical treatment using different techniques and synthesis materials. We obtained two poor results, one satisfactory, five good and two excellent. We conclude that the correct diagnosis has a direct influence on the treatment and on the final result obtained, and that lack of knowledge of this injury is the main factor responsible for underdiagnosing Turco's injury. There is a need for randomized prospective studies comparing the types of synthesis and evolution of treated cases, in order to define the best treatment for this injury. PMID:26229821

  4. Preventing Running Injuries through Barefoot Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Priscilla M.; Smith, Darla R.

    2008-01-01

    Running has become a very popular lifetime physical activity even though there are numerous reports of running injuries. Although common theories have pointed to impact forces and overpronation as the main contributors to chronic running injuries, the increased use of cushioning and orthotics has done little to decrease running injuries. A new…

  5. Amusement park injuries and deaths.

    PubMed

    Braksiek, Robert J; Roberts, David J

    2002-01-01

    Media coverage of amusement park injuries has increased over the past several years, raising concern that amusement rides may be dangerous. Amusement park fatalities and increases in reported injuries have prompted proposed legislation to regulate the industry. Since 1979, the medical literature has published reports of 4 subdural hematomas, 4 internal carotid artery dissections, 2 vertebral artery dissections, 2 subarachnoid hemorrhages, 1 intraparenchymal hemorrhage, and 1 carotid artery thrombosis with stroke, all related to roller coaster rides. In this article, we review reports of amusement park injuries in the medical literature and Consumer Product Safety Commission data on the overall risk of injury. We also discuss the physics and the physiologic effects of roller coasters that may influence the type and severity of injuries. Although the risk of injury is low, emergency physicians are advised to include participation on thrill rides as part of their history, particularly when evaluating patients presenting with neurologic symptoms. PMID:11782733

  6. Activity-Related Energy Expenditure in Older Adults: A Call for More Research

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Katherine S.; Morey, Miriam C.; Dutta, Chhanda; Manini, Todd M.; Weltman, Arthur L.; Nelson, Miriam E.; Morgan, Amy L.; Senior, Jane G.; Seyffarth, Chris; Buchner, David M.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to 1) provide an overview of the science of physical activity-related energy expenditure in older adults (65+ years); 2) offer suggestions for future research and guidelines for how scientists should be reporting their results in this area; and 3) present strategies for making this data more accessible to the lay person. This paper is meant to serve as a preliminary blueprint for future empirical work in the area of energy expenditure in older adults as well as translational efforts to make this data useful and accurate for older adults. This document is based upon deliberations of experts involved in the Strategic Health Initiative on Aging (SHI-A) Committee of the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM). The paper is designed to reach a broad audience who might not be familiar with the complexities of assessing energy expenditure, especially in older adults. PMID:24714651

  7. Activity-related energy expenditure in older adults: a call for more research.

    PubMed

    Hall, Katherine S; Morey, Miriam C; Dutta, Chhanda; Manini, Todd M; Weltman, Arthur L; Nelson, Miriam E; Morgan, Amy L; Senior, Jane G; Seyffarth, Chris; Buchner, David M

    2014-12-01

    The purposes of this article were to 1) provide an overview of the science of physical activity-related energy expenditure in older adults (≥65 yr), 2) offer suggestions for future research and guidelines for how scientists should be reporting their results in this area, and 3) present strategies for making these data more accessible to the layperson. This article was meant to serve as a preliminary blueprint for future empirical work in the area of energy expenditure in older adults and translational efforts to make these data useful and accurate for older adults. This document was based upon deliberations of experts involved in the Strategic Health Initiative on Aging Committee of the American College of Sports Medicine. The article was designed to reach a broad audience who might not be familiar with the complexities of assessing energy expenditure, especially in older adults. PMID:24714651

  8. Activity-Related Outcomes of Articular Cartilage Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Chalmers, Peter N.; Vigneswaran, Hari; Harris, Joshua D.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this systematic review was to compare activity-based outcomes after microfracture, autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI), and osteochondral autograft (OAT). Design: Multiple databases were searched with specific inclusion and exclusion criteria for level III and higher studies with activity outcomes after microfracture, OAT, osteochondral allograft, and ACI. Activity-based outcomes included the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS), the Tegner Score, the Cincinnati Knee scores, the International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) subjective knee score, the Marx activity score, and/or the rate of return-to-sport. Results: Twenty studies were included (1,375 patients). Although results were heterogeneous, significant advantages were seen for ACI and OAT as compared with microfracture in Tegner scores at 1 year (ACI vs. microfracture, P = 0.0016), IKDC scores at 2 years (ACI vs microfracture, P = 0.046), Lysholm scores at 1 year (OAT vs microfracture, P = 0.032), and Marx scores at 2 years (OAT vs microfracture, P < 0.001). The only score or time point to favor microfracture was Lysholm score at 1 year (ACI vs microfracture, P = 0.037). No other standardized outcome measures or time points were significantly different. Several studies demonstrated significantly earlier return to competition with microfracture. Overall reoperation rates were similar, but of reoperations, a higher proportion of those following ACI were unplanned with the majority of performed for graft delamination or hypertrophy. Conclusions: ACI and OAT may have some benefits over microfracture, although return-to-sport is fastest following microfracture. Heterogeneity in technique, outcome measures, and patient populations hampers systematic comparison within the current literature. PMID:26069665

  9. Skiing Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Bartlett, L. H.

    1975-01-01

    In the broad spectrum of orthopedic skiing injuries, ‘second aid’ on the mountain and at the base by the physician is very important. All skiing physicians should carry minimal medical supplies, including narcotic medication. Diagnosis and treatment of injuries at the hospital are outlined. Most ski fractures of the tibia can be treated by conservative methods. A more aggressive approach to diagnosis and treatment of ligamentous injuries of the knee is recommended. PMID:20469236

  10. Gunshot injuries.

    PubMed

    Hinkle, J; Betz, S

    1995-05-01

    If current trends for this nation continue, by the year 2003 the number of people killed by firearms will exceed the number of people killed in motor vehicle accidents. Critical care practitioners must understand the mechanism of injury associated with firearm injuries to provide optimal care. This article reviews internal, exterior, and terminal ballistics, bullet design, wound classification, and initial assessment and treatment of firearm injuries. PMID:7743422

  11. Rowing injuries.

    PubMed

    Rumball, Jane S; Lebrun, Constance M; Di Ciacca, Stephen R; Orlando, Karen

    2005-01-01

    Participation in the sport of rowing has been steadily increasing in recent decades, yet few studies address the specific injuries incurred. This article reviews the most common injuries described in the literature, including musculoskeletal problems in the lower back, ribs, shoulder, wrist and knee. A review of basic rowing physiology and equipment is included, along with a description of the mechanics of the rowing stroke. This information is necessary in order to make an accurate diagnosis and treatment protocol for these injuries, which are mainly chronic in nature. The most frequently injured region is the low back, mainly due to excessive hyperflexion and twisting, and can include specific injuries such as spondylolysis, sacroiliac joint dysfunction and disc herniation. Rib stress fractures account for the most time lost from on-water training and competition. Although theories abound for the mechanism of injury, the exact aetiology of rib stress fractures remains unknown. Other injuries discussed within, which are specific to ribs, include costochondritis, costovertebral joint subluxation and intercostal muscle strains. Shoulder pain is quite common in rowers and can be the result of overuse, poor technique, or tension in the upper body. Injuries concerning the forearm and wrist are also common, and can include exertional compartment syndrome, lateral epicondylitis, deQuervain's and intersection syndrome, and tenosynovitis of the wrist extensors. In the lower body, the major injuries reported include generalised patellofemoral pain due to abnormal patellar tracking, and iliotibial band friction syndrome. Lastly, dermatological issues, such as blisters and abrasions, and miscellaneous issues, such as environmental concerns and the female athlete triad, are also included in this article.Pathophysiology, mechanism of injury, assessment and management strategies are outlined in the text for each injury, with special attention given to ways to correct

  12. Cerebral Vascular Injury in Traumatic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Kenney, Kimbra; Amyot, Franck; Haber, Margalit; Pronger, Angela; Bogoslovsky, Tanya; Moore, Carol; Diaz-Arrastia, Ramon

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic cerebral vascular injury (TCVI) is a very frequent, if not universal, feature after traumatic brain injury (TBI). It is likely responsible, at least in part, for functional deficits and TBI-related chronic disability. Because there are multiple pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic therapies that promote vascular health, TCVI is an attractive target for therapeutic intervention after TBI. The cerebral microvasculature is a component of the neurovascular unit (NVU) coupling neuronal metabolism with local cerebral blood flow. The NVU participates in the pathogenesis of TBI, either directly from physical trauma or as part of the cascade of secondary injury that occurs after TBI. Pathologically, there is extensive cerebral microvascular injury in humans and experimental animal, identified with either conventional light microscopy or ultrastructural examination. It is seen in acute and chronic TBI, and even described in chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). Non-invasive, physiologic measures of cerebral microvascular function show dysfunction after TBI in humans and experimental animal models of TBI. These include imaging sequences (MRI-ASL), Transcranial Doppler (TCD), and Near InfraRed Spectroscopy (NIRS). Understanding the pathophysiology of TCVI, a relatively under-studied component of TBI, has promise for the development of novel therapies for TBI. PMID:26048614

  13. Sports Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... sometimes you can injure yourself when you play sports or exercise. Accidents, poor training practices, or improper gear can cause them. Some people get hurt because they are not in shape. Not warming up or stretching enough can also ... injuries are Sprains and strains Knee injuries Swollen ...

  14. Rowing Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Hosea, Timothy M.; Hannafin, Jo A.

    2012-01-01

    Context: Rowing is one of the original modern Olympic sports and was one of the most popular spectator sports in the United States. Its popularity has been increasing since the enactment of Title IX. The injury patterns in this sport are unique because of the stress applied during the rowing stroke. Evidence Acquisition: This review summarizes the existing literature describing the biomechanics of the rowing stroke and rowing-related injury patterns. Data were obtained from previously published peer-reviewed literature through a search of the entire PubMed database (up to December, 2011) as well as from textbook chapters and rowing coaching manuals. Results: Rowing injuries are primarily overuse related. The knee, lumbar spine, and ribs are most commonly affected. The injury incidence is directly related to the volume of training and technique. Conclusion: Familiarity of the injury patterns and the biomechanical forces affecting the rowing athlete will aid in prompt diagnosis and appropriate management. PMID:23016093

  15. Volleyball injuries.

    PubMed

    Eerkes, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    There has been a significant increase in the numbers of people playing indoor and beach volleyball since the early 1980s and, consequently, an increase in injuries. Most injuries are related to repetitive jumping and hitting the ball overhead. The ankle is the most commonly injured joint, but the knee, shoulder, low back, and fingers also are vulnerable. The shoulder in particular is subject to extreme torque when hitting and jump serving the ball. Some injuries have a predilection for those playing on sand versus those playing in an indoor court. The clinician caring for volleyball players should be aware of the types of injuries these players sustain and how to help them return to play promptly and appropriately. This article reviews the specific injuries that are most common as a result of participating in the sport of volleyball. PMID:22965348

  16. Head injury - first aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... is shaken, is the most common type of traumatic brain injury. Scalp wounds. Skull fractures. Head injuries may cause ... of people who suffer head injuries are children. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) accounts for over 1 in 6 injury- ...

  17. Injury Surveillance Among NASA Astronauts Using the Barell Injury Diagnosis Matrix

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murray, J. D.; Laughlin, M. S.; Eudy, D. L.; Wear, M. L.; VanBaalen, M. G.

    2014-01-01

    Astronauts perform physically demanding tasks and risk incurring musculoskeletal injuries during both groundbased training and missions. Increased injury rates throughout the history of the U.S. space program have been attributed to numerous factors, including an aging astronaut corps, increased Weightless Environment Training Facility (WETF) and Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory (NBL) training to construct the International Space Station, and improved clinical operations that promote injury prevention and reporting. With NASA program changes through the years (including retirement of the Shuttle program) and an improved training environment (including a new astronaut gym), there is no surveillance program to systematically track injury rates. A limited number of research projects have been conducted over the past 20 years to evaluate musculoskeletal injuries: (1) to evaluate orthopedic injuries from 1987 to 1995, (2) to describe upper extremity injuries, (3) to evaluate EVA spacesuit training related injuries, and (4) to evaluate in-flight musculoskeletal injuries. Nevertheless, there has been no consistently performed comprehensive assessment of musculoskeletal injuries among astronauts. The Barell Injury Diagnosis Matrix was introduced at the 2001 meeting of the International Collaborative Effort (ICE) on Injury Statistics. The Matrix proposes a standardized method of classifying body region by nature of injury. Diagnoses are coded using the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) coding system. The purpose of this study is to assess the usefulness and complexity of the Barell Injury Diagnosis Matrix to classify and track musculoskeletal injuries among NASA astronauts.

  18. Electrical injury

    MedlinePlus

    ... damage, especially to the heart, muscles, or brain. Electric current can cause injury in three ways: Cardiac arrest ... How long you were in contact with the electricity How the electricity moved through your body Your ...

  19. Sports Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... heart, to help decrease swelling. The Body’s Healing Process From the moment a bone breaks or a ... what happens at each stage of the healing process: At the moment of injury: Chemicals are released ...

  20. Corneal injury

    MedlinePlus

    ... at all times when using hand or power tools or chemicals, during high impact sports, or during other activities where you may get an eye injury. Wear sunglasses that screen ultraviolet light when you are ...

  1. Injury Risk Estimation Expertise

    PubMed Central

    Petushek, Erich J.; Ward, Paul; Cokely, Edward T.; Myer, Gregory D.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Simple observational assessment of movement is a potentially low-cost method for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury screening and prevention. Although many individuals utilize some form of observational assessment of movement, there are currently no substantial data on group skill differences in observational screening of ACL injury risk. Purpose/Hypothesis: The purpose of this study was to compare various groups’ abilities to visually assess ACL injury risk as well as the associated strategies and ACL knowledge levels. The hypothesis was that sports medicine professionals would perform better than coaches and exercise science academics/students and that these subgroups would all perform better than parents and other general population members. Study Design: Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: A total of 428 individuals, including physicians, physical therapists, athletic trainers, strength and conditioning coaches, exercise science researchers/students, athletes, parents, and members of the general public participated in the study. Participants completed the ACL Injury Risk Estimation Quiz (ACL-IQ) and answered questions related to assessment strategy and ACL knowledge. Results: Strength and conditioning coaches, athletic trainers, physical therapists, and exercise science students exhibited consistently superior ACL injury risk estimation ability (+2 SD) as compared with sport coaches, parents of athletes, and members of the general public. The performance of a substantial number of individuals in the exercise sciences/sports medicines (approximately 40%) was similar to or exceeded clinical instrument-based biomechanical assessment methods (eg, ACL nomogram). Parents, sport coaches, and the general public had lower ACL-IQ, likely due to their lower ACL knowledge and to rating the importance of knee/thigh motion lower and weight and jump height higher. Conclusion: Substantial cross-professional/group differences in visual ACL

  2. Electric injury, Part II: Specific injuries.

    PubMed

    Fish, R M

    2000-01-01

    Electric injury can cause disruption of cardiac rhythm and breathing, burns, fractures, dislocations, rhabdomyolysis, eye and ear injury, oral and gastrointestinal injury, vascular damage, disseminated intravascular coagulation, peripheral and spinal cord injury, and Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy. Secondary trauma from falls, fires, flying debris, and inhalation injury can complicate the clinical picture. Diagnostic and treatment considerations for electric injuries are described in this article, which is the second part of a three-part series on electric injuries. PMID:10645833

  3. Association between activities related to routes of infection and clinical manifestations of melioidosis.

    PubMed

    Lim, C; Peacock, S J; Limmathurotsakul, D

    2016-01-01

    We sought associations between route of infection by Burkholderia pseudomallei and clinical manifestations in 330 cases of melioidosis in northeast Thailand using bivariate multivariable logistic regression models. Activities related to skin inoculation were negatively associated with bacteraemia, activities related to ingestion were associated with bacteraemia, and activities related to inhalation were associated with pneumonia. Our study suggests that route of infection is one of the factors related to clinical manifestations of melioidosis. PMID:26417852

  4. Association between activities related to routes of infection and clinical manifestations of melioidosis

    PubMed Central

    Lim, C.; Peacock, S.J.; Limmathurotsakul, D.

    2016-01-01

    We sought associations between route of infection by Burkholderia pseudomallei and clinical manifestations in 330 cases of melioidosis in northeast Thailand using bivariate multivariable logistic regression models. Activities related to skin inoculation were negatively associated with bacteraemia, activities related to ingestion were associated with bacteraemia, and activities related to inhalation were associated with pneumonia. Our study suggests that route of infection is one of the factors related to clinical manifestations of melioidosis. PMID:26417852

  5. Rehabilitation of spinal cord injuries

    PubMed Central

    Nas, Kemal; Yazmalar, Levent; Şah, Volkan; Aydın, Abdulkadir; Öneş, Kadriye

    2015-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) is the injury of the spinal cord from the foramen magnum to the cauda equina which occurs as a result of compulsion, incision or contusion. The most common causes of SCI in the world are traffic accidents, gunshot injuries, knife injuries, falls and sports injuries. There is a strong relationship between functional status and whether the injury is complete or not complete, as well as the level of the injury. The results of SCI bring not only damage to independence and physical function, but also include many complications from the injury. Neurogenic bladder and bowel, urinary tract infections, pressure ulcers, orthostatic hypotension, fractures, deep vein thrombosis, spasticity, autonomic dysreflexia, pulmonary and cardiovascular problems, and depressive disorders are frequent complications after SCI. SCI leads to serious disability in the patient resulting in the loss of work, which brings psychosocial and economic problems. The treatment and rehabilitation period is long, expensive and exhausting in SCI. Whether complete or incomplete, SCI rehabilitation is a long process that requires patience and motivation of the patient and relatives. Early rehabilitation is important to prevent joint contractures and the loss of muscle strength, conservation of bone density, and to ensure normal functioning of the respiratory and digestive system. An interdisciplinary approach is essential in rehabilitation in SCI, as in the other types of rehabilitation. The team is led by a physiatrist and consists of the patients’ family, physiotherapist, occupational therapist, dietician, psychologist, speech therapist, social worker and other consultant specialists as necessary. PMID:25621206

  6. Lisfranc Injury in a West Point Cadet

    PubMed Central

    Diebal, Angela R.; Westrick, Richard B.; Alitz, Curtis; Gerber, J. Parry

    2013-01-01

    Background: Lisfranc joint injuries are fairly uncommon; however, few injuries hold such an elevated potential for devastating chronic secondary pain and disability. It is imperative when evaluating an injury to the ankle or foot to have a high clinical index of suspicion for Lisfranc injury, as physical examination findings are often subtle. Case Description: An 18-year-old military cadet reported to a direct-access sports physical therapy clinic with foot pain. Despite negative radiographic findings, there was a high suspicion for Lisfranc injury based on the injury mechanism and physical examination. A computed tomography scan demonstrated an oblique fracture through the base of the third metatarsal, a small marginal fracture at the plantar base of the second metatarsal, and a subtle diastasis. Two days following his injury, he underwent an open reduction and internal fixation, completed subsequent rehabilitation, and returned to full activity approximately 1 year following injury. Conclusion: Early diagnosis of Lisfranc injuries is imperative for proper management and prevention of a poor functional outcome. If a strong clinical suspicion exists, negative radiographic findings are insufficient to rule out a Lisfranc injury, and therefore, advanced imaging is required. PMID:24427404

  7. Measurement characteristics of activity-related psychosocial measures in 8- to 10-year-old African-American girls in the Girls health Enrichment Multisite Study (GEMS)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    BACKGROUND: This paper presents reliability and validity analyses of physical activity-related psychosocial questionnaires completed by 8- to 10-year-old African-American girls at baseline and follow-up assessments of pilot intervention studies in the Girls health Enrichment Multi-site Study (GEMS)....

  8. If Not You, Who? Responding to Emergencies in Physical Education and Physical Activity Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Matthew A.; Brewer, Joan D.; Shane, Shawna D.

    2013-01-01

    Injuries can occur anywhere and anytime in physical education. Physical educators should do all they can to prevent injuries from occurring and must be prepared for such an occurrence. Many physical educators have limited knowledge about how to respond to injury and emergency situations. The purpose of this article is to provide information for…

  9. Evaluation of a computer-assisted learning programme on the oro-facial signs of child physical abuse (non-accidental injury) by general dental practitioners.

    PubMed

    Welbury, R R; Hobson, R S; Stephenson, J J; Jepson, N J

    2001-06-23

    A computer-assisted learning programme with tutorials and self assessment multiple choice questions has been developed. One hundred and two general dental practitioners were asked to evaluate the programme. Over 80% of respondents felt that the programme was easy to use, contained an appropriate level of supporting information, and had improved their knowledge of non-accidental injury. All users of the programme felt that it was a better way of learning than video, audio tapes, and journals or books on the subject. It is concluded that CAL programmes are worthwhile for providing continuing professional education for general dental practitioners. PMID:11453157

  10. Cold injuries.

    PubMed

    Long, William B; Edlich, Richard F; Winters, Kathryne L; Britt, L D

    2005-01-01

    Exposure to cold can produce a variety of injuries that occur as a result of man's inability to adapt to cold. These injuries can be divided into localized injury to a body part, systemic hypothermia, or a combination of both. Body temperature may fall as a result of heat loss by radiation, evaporation, conduction, and convection. Hypothermia or systemic cold injury occurs when the core body temperature has decreased to 35 degrees C (95 degrees F) or less. The causes of hypothermia are either primary or secondary. Primary, or accidental, hypothermia occurs in healthy individuals inadequately clothed and exposed to severe cooling. In secondary hypothermia, another illness predisposes the individual to accidental hypothermia. Hypothermia affects multiple organs with symptoms of hypothermia that vary according to the severity of cold injury. The diagnosis of hypothermia is easy if the patient is a mountaineer who is stranded in cold weather. However, it may be more difficult in an elderly patient who has been exposed to a cold environment. In either case, the rectal temperature should be checked with a low-reading thermometer. The general principals of prehospital management are to (1) prevent further heat loss, (2) rewarm the body core temperature in advance of the shell, and (3) avoid precipitating ventricular fibrillation. There are two general techniques of rewarming--passive and active. The mechanisms of peripheral cold injury can be divided into phenomena that affect cells and extracellular fluids (direct effects) and those that disrupt the function of the organized tissue and the integrity of the circulation (indirect effects). Generally, no serious damage is seen until tissue freezing occurs. The mildest form of peripheral cold injury is frostnip. Chilblains represent a more severe form of cold injury than frostnip and occur after exposure to nonfreezing temperatures and damp conditions. Immersion (trench) foot, a disease of the sympathetic nerves and blood

  11. Estimating activity-related energy expenditure under sedentary conditions using a tri-axial seismic accelerometer.

    PubMed

    van Hees, Vincent T; van Lummel, Rob C; Westerterp, Klaas R

    2009-06-01

    Activity-related energy expenditure (AEE) is difficult to quantify, especially under sedentary conditions. Here, a model was developed using the detected type of physical activity (PA) and movement intensity (MI), based on a tri-axial seismic accelerometer (DynaPort MiniMod; McRoberts B.V., The Hague, the Netherlands), with energy expenditure for PA as a reference. The relation between AEE (J/min/kg), MI, and the type of PA was determined for standardized PAs as performed in a laboratory including: lying, sitting, standing, and walking. AEE (J/min/kg) was calculated from total energy expenditure (TEE) and sleeping metabolic rate (SMR) as assessed with indirect calorimetry ((TEEx0.9)-SMR). Subsequently, the model was validated over 23-h intervals in a respiration chamber. Subjects were 15 healthy women (age: 22+/-2 years; BMI: 24.0+/-4.0 kg/m2). Predicted AEE in the chamber was significantly related to measured AEE both within (r2=0.81+/-0.06, P<0.00001) and between (r2=0.70, P<0.001) subjects. The explained variation in AEE by the model was higher than the explained variation by MI alone. This shows that a tri-axial seismic accelerometer is a valid tool for estimating AEE under sedentary conditions. PMID:19282829

  12. 26 CFR 1.924(e)-1 - Activities relating to the disposition of export property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 10 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Activities relating to the disposition of export property. 1.924(e)-1 Section 1.924(e)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Earned Income of Citizens of United States § 1.924(e)-1 Activities relating to...

  13. 31 CFR 585.213 - Exemption of activities related to certain international organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption of activities related to certain international organizations. 585.213 Section 585.213 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... related to certain international organizations. Any activities related to the United Nations...

  14. 22 CFR 1203.735-211 - Activities relating to private organizations and politics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... politics. 1203.735-211 Section 1203.735-211 Foreign Relations UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT... Employees § 1203.735-211 Activities relating to private organizations and politics. (a) Definition. For the... engage in any form of political activity in any foreign country. (h) Activities relating to U.S....

  15. 22 CFR 1203.735-211 - Activities relating to private organizations and politics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... and politics. 1203.735-211 Section 1203.735-211 Foreign Relations UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL... Responsibilities of Employees § 1203.735-211 Activities relating to private organizations and politics. (a... engage in any form of political activity in any foreign country. (h) Activities relating to U.S....

  16. 22 CFR 1203.735-211 - Activities relating to private organizations and politics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... politics. 1203.735-211 Section 1203.735-211 Foreign Relations UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT... Employees § 1203.735-211 Activities relating to private organizations and politics. (a) Definition. For the... engage in any form of political activity in any foreign country. (h) Activities relating to U.S....

  17. 22 CFR 1203.735-211 - Activities relating to private organizations and politics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... politics. 1203.735-211 Section 1203.735-211 Foreign Relations UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT... Employees § 1203.735-211 Activities relating to private organizations and politics. (a) Definition. For the... engage in any form of political activity in any foreign country. (h) Activities relating to U.S....

  18. 22 CFR 1203.735-211 - Activities relating to private organizations and politics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... politics. 1203.735-211 Section 1203.735-211 Foreign Relations UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT... Employees § 1203.735-211 Activities relating to private organizations and politics. (a) Definition. For the... engage in any form of political activity in any foreign country. (h) Activities relating to U.S....

  19. Blast injury.

    PubMed

    de Candole, C A

    1967-01-28

    The shock wave generated by an explosion ("blast wave") may cause injury in any or all of the following: (1) direct impact on the tissues of variations in environmental pressure; (2) flying glass and other debris set in motion by it; (3) propulsion of the body. Injuries in the first category affect gas-containing organs (ears, lungs and intestines), and acute death is attributed to air forced into the coronary vessels via damaged pulmonary alveoli. It is estimated that overpressure sufficient to cause lung injury may occur up to five miles from a 20-megaton nuclear explosion. The greatest single hazard from blast is, however, flying glass, and serious wounding from this cause is possible up to 12 miles from an explosion of this magnitude. PMID:6015742

  20. Blast Injury

    PubMed Central

    de Candole, C. A.

    1967-01-01

    The shock wave generated by an explosion (“blast wave”) may cause injury in any or all of the following: (1) direct impact on the tissues of variations in environmental pressure; (2) flying glass and other debris set in motion by it; (3) propulsion of the body. Injuries in the first category affect gas-containing organs (ears, lungs and intestines), and acute death is attributed to air forced into the coronary vessels via damaged pulmonary alveoli. It is estimated that overpressure sufficient to cause lung injury may occur up to five miles from a 20-megaton nuclear explosion. The greatest single hazard from blast is, however, flying glass, and serious wounding from this cause is possible up to 12 miles from an explosion of this magnitude. PMID:6015742

  1. Muscle Injuries in Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Delos, Demetris; Maak, Travis G.; Rodeo, Scott A.

    2013-01-01

    Context: Muscle injuries are extremely common in athletes and often produce pain, dysfunction, and the inability to return to practice or competition. Appropriate diagnosis and management can optimize recovery and minimize time to return to play. Evidence Acquisition: Contemporary papers, both basic science and clinical medicine, that investigate muscle healing were reviewed. A Medline/PubMed search inclusive of years 1948 to 2012 was performed. Results: Diagnosis can usually be made according to history and physical examination for most injuries. Although data are limited, initial conservative management emphasizing the RICE principles and immobilization of the extremity for several days for higher grade injuries are typically all that is required. Injection of corticosteroids may clinically enhance function after an acute muscle strain. Additional adjunctive treatments (nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, platelet-rich plasma, and others) to enhance muscle healing and limit scar formation show promise but need additional data to better define their roles. Conclusion: Conservative treatment recommendations will typically lead to successful outcomes after a muscle injury. There is limited evidence to support most adjunctive treatments. PMID:24459552

  2. Injury in professional Irish dancers.

    PubMed

    Cahalan, Roisin; O'Sullivan, Kieran

    2013-12-01

    Despite the evolution of Irish dance to professional status in recent decades, only scant investigation of musculoskeletal pain and injury among professional Irish dancers (PIDs) has been undertaken. This study investigated the rate of injury and associated factors among 178 PIDs, using an online questionnaire. One hundred and thirty-seven PIDs (76.7%) reported a previous injury, with the foot (67.9%) and ankle (60.6%) most commonly affected. A mean career rate of 2.25 injuries per dancer was computed. The majority of injuries were minor in nature, and almost half occurred midway through a tour. Sixty subjects (33.7%) reported that they often or always danced in pain. The main contributory factors to injury were accidents, fatigue or overwork, repetitive movements, and unsafe stages. Warm-up (98.8%) and cool-down (84.3%) were almost universally practised, with cross-training engaged in by 124 PIDs (74.7%). Popular treatments used to prevent and manage injuries were massage (N = 137, or 83.0% of PIDs), stretching (N = 117, or 70.1%) and physiotherapy (N = 105, or 62.9%). There was a moderate level of psychological distress among the participants, with "interpersonal difficulties" and "tension with people" the main problems cited. PIDs who were older (p = 0.008) and more experienced (p = 0.002) reported missing a greater number of performances due to injury. There were no other significant relationships between injury and factors, including gender, frequency of dancing in pain, use of warm-up, cool-down, or cross-training. Further prospective studies of PIDs should consider both physical and biopsychosocial elements to generate an appropriate screening process to predict those at risk of injury. PMID:24565330

  3. Spinal Cord Injury Map

    MedlinePlus

    ... on the severity of the injury. Tap this spinal column to see how the level of injury affects loss of function and control. Learn more about spinal cord injuries. A spinal cord injury affects the ...

  4. Eye Injuries at Home

    MedlinePlus

    ... Patient Stories Español Eye Health / Tips & Prevention Eye Injuries Sections Preventing Eye Injuries Recognizing and Treating Eye ... Sports Eye Injuries by the Numbers — Infographic Eye Injuries at Home Reviewed by: Brenda Pagan-Duran MD ...

  5. Football injuries of the ankle: A review of injury mechanisms, diagnosis and management

    PubMed Central

    Walls, Raymond J; Ross, Keir A; Fraser, Ethan J; Hodgkins, Christopher W; Smyth, Niall A; Egan, Christopher J; Calder, James; Kennedy, John G

    2016-01-01

    Football is the most popular sport worldwide and is associated with a high injury rate, most of which are the result of trauma from player contact. Ankle injuries are among the most commonly diagnosed injuries in the game. The result is reduced physical activity and endurance levels, lost game time, and considerable medical cost. Sports medicine professionals must employ the correct diagnostic tools and effective treatments and rehabilitation protocols to minimize the impact of these injuries on the player. This review examines the diagnosis, treatment, and postoperative rehabilitation for common football injuries of the ankle based on the clinical evidence provided in the current literature. PMID:26807351

  6. [Traumatic Injury of the Diaphragm].

    PubMed

    Kadokura, Mitsutaka

    2015-07-01

    Traumatic diaphragmatic injury (TDI) is relatively rare condition, and is associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. TDI usually results from blunt trauma and penetrating trauma. The majority causes of blunt TDI are victims of motor vehicle accidents. The incidence rates of TDI is unknown because of it can be overlooked if it is unsuspected with non-specific radiological and clinical findings. The mortality rates associated with blunt and penetrating TDI are affected by the severity of concurrent organ injuries. The diagnoses of TDI are frequently missed in the post-traumatic assessment because of non-specific symptoms or physical findings. When the site of trauma is in the abdomen, there will be high rate of an intra-abdominal organ injury. Furthermore, when the site of trauma is in the chest, there will be the abdominal organ injury in 50%.Surgical operation should be performed as soon as possible for concomitant injuries. Diaphragmatic repair can be performed using laparotomy, thoracotomy, or both approaches. Primary suture of the diaphragm can be performed in the majority of TDI patients. The outcome of post TDI depends on concurrent organ injury. In case of emergency, it is important to take an appropriate diagnosis and treatment for any concomitant injuries. PMID:26197916

  7. Electrical Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... your injuries are depends on how strong the electric current was, what type of current it was, how it moved through your body, and how long you were exposed. Other factors include how ... you should see a doctor. You may have internal damage and not realize it.

  8. Inhalation Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... increase mortality 30% to 40% when patients with cutaneous burns and inhalation injury are compared with patients ... nasal hairs • Facial burns • Burns around the mouth • Mineral spirits – 104º F – paint thinner, brush cleaner. • Redness, ...

  9. Imaging of the Lisfranc injury.

    PubMed

    Libby, Brent; Ersoy, Hale; Pomeranz, Stephen J

    2015-01-01

    Lisfranc ligament and joint injuries are relatively uncommon but can result from a variety of low- and high-impact trauma. Up to 20% of Lisfranc fracture-dislocations are misdiagnosed or missed during the initial evaluation. Timely and accurate diagnosis of the injury and early anatomical reduction and stabilization of the Lisfranc joint are crucial to avoid long-term sequelae and functional impairment. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a sensitive and specific imaging modality and should be considered in injuries with equivocal physical and radiographic findings. In this article, the mechanism and the classification of the Lisfranc joint and ligament injuries are outlined, and imaging findings of different modalities are discussed with the emphasis on MRI. PMID:25830269

  10. Medial elbow injury in young throwing athletes

    PubMed Central

    Gregory, Bonnie; Nyland, John

    2013-01-01

    Summary This report reviews the anatomy, overhead throwing biomechanics, injury mechanism and incidence, physical examination and diagnosis, diagnostic imaging and conservative treatment of medial elbow injuries in young throwing athletes. Based on the information a clinical management decision-making algorithm is presented. PMID:23888291

  11. Clustering of diet- and activity-related parenting practices: cross-sectional findings of the INPACT study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Various diet- and activity-related parenting practices are positive determinants of child dietary and activity behaviour, including home availability, parental modelling and parental policies. There is evidence that parenting practices cluster within the dietary domain and within the activity domain. This study explores whether diet- and activity-related parenting practices cluster across the dietary and activity domain. Also examined is whether the clusters are related to child and parental background characteristics. Finally, to indicate the relevance of the clusters in influencing child dietary and activity behaviour, we examined whether clusters of parenting practices are related to these behaviours. Methods Data were used from 1480 parent–child dyads participating in the Dutch IVO Nutrition and Physical Activity Child cohorT (INPACT). Parents of children aged 8–11 years completed questionnaires at home assessing their diet- and activity-related parenting practices, child and parental background characteristics, and child dietary and activity behaviours. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to identify clusters of parenting practices. Backward regression analysis was used to examine the relationship between child and parental background characteristics with cluster scores, and partial correlations to examine associations between cluster scores and child dietary and activity behaviours. Results PCA revealed five clusters of parenting practices: 1) high visibility and accessibility of screens and unhealthy food, 2) diet- and activity-related rules, 3) low availability of unhealthy food, 4) diet- and activity-related positive modelling, and 5) positive modelling on sports and fruit. Low parental education was associated with unhealthy cluster 1, while high(er) education was associated with healthy clusters 2, 3 and 5. Separate clusters were related to both child dietary and activity behaviour in the hypothesized directions: healthy clusters

  12. Acute Shoulder Injuries in Adults.

    PubMed

    Monica, James; Vredenburgh, Zachary; Korsh, Jeremy; Gatt, Charles

    2016-07-15

    Acute shoulder injuries in adults are often initially managed by family physicians. Common acute shoulder injuries include acromioclavicular joint injuries, clavicle fractures, glenohumeral dislocations, proximal humerus fractures, and rotator cuff tears. Acromioclavicular joint injuries and clavicle fractures mostly occur in young adults as the result of a sports injury or direct trauma. Most nondisplaced or minimally displaced injuries can be treated conservatively. Treatment includes pain management, short-term use of a sling for comfort, and physical therapy as needed. Glenohumeral dislocations can result from contact sports, falls, bicycle accidents, and similar high-impact trauma. Patients will usually hold the affected arm in their contralateral hand and have pain with motion and decreased motion at the shoulder. Physical findings may include a palpable humeral head in the axilla or a dimple inferior to the acromion laterally. Reduction maneuvers usually require intra-articular lidocaine or intravenous analgesia. Proximal humerus fractures often occur in older patients after a low-energy fall. Radiography of the shoulder should include a true anteroposterior view of the glenoid, scapular Y view, and axillary view. Most of these fractures can be managed nonoperatively, using a sling, early range-of-motion exercises, and strength training. Rotator cuff tears can cause difficulty with overhead activities or pain that awakens the patient from sleep. On physical examination, patients may be unable to hold the affected arm in an elevated position. It is important to recognize the sometimes subtle signs and symptoms of acute shoulder injuries to ensure proper management and timely referral if necessary. PMID:27419328

  13. Descriptive Epidemiology of Musculoskeletal Injuries in the Army 101st Airborne (Air Assault) Division.

    PubMed

    Lovalekar, Mita T; Abt, John P; Sell, Timothy C; Nagai, Takashi; Keenan, Karen; Beals, Kim; Lephart, Scott M; Wirt, Michael D

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the epidemiology of musculoskeletal injuries among Soldiers of the 101st Airborne (Air Assault) Division. A total of 451 subjects (age: 27.6 ± 6.2 years, gender: males 395/451 = 87.6%) volunteered. Musculoskeletal injury data were extracted from subjects' medical charts and injuries that occurred during 1 year were described. Injury frequency, injury anatomic location and sublocation, injury cause, activity when injury occurred, and injury type were described. Injury frequency was 29.5 injuries per 100 subjects per year. Most injures affected the lower extremity (60.2% of injuries) and common anatomic sublocations for injuries were the ankle (17.3%) and knee (15.0%). Frequent causes of injuries were running (13.5%) and direct trauma (9.0%). Physical training was associated with 29.3% of the injuries. A majority of injuries were classified as pain/spasm/ache (29.3%), without further elucidation of pathology. Other frequent injury types were sprain (21.8%) and strain (14.3%). The descriptive epidemiology of musculoskeletal injuries in this population underscores the need to explore the modifiable risk factors of potentially preventable lower extremity injuries associated with physical training and running. There is scope for the development of an optimized and targeted physical training program for injury prevention in this population. PMID:27483531

  14. Injury rates and injury risk factors among federal bureau of investigation new agent trainees

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background A one-year prospective examination of injury rates and injury risk factors was conducted in Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) new agent training. Methods Injury incidents were obtained from medical records and injury compensation forms. Potential injury risk factors were acquired from a lifestyle questionnaire and existing data at the FBI Academy. Results A total of 426 men and 105 women participated in the project. Thirty-five percent of men and 42% of women experienced one or more injuries during training. The injury incidence rate was 2.5 and 3.2 injuries/1,000 person-days for men and women, respectively (risk ratio (women/men) = 1.3, 95% confidence interval = 0.9-1.7). The activities most commonly associated with injuries (% of total) were defensive tactics training (58%), physical fitness training (20%), physical fitness testing (5%), and firearms training (3%). Among the men, higher injury risk was associated with older age, slower 300-meter sprint time, slower 1.5-mile run time, lower total points on the physical fitness test (PFT), lower self-rated physical activity, lower frequency of aerobic exercise, a prior upper or lower limb injury, and prior foot or knee pain that limited activity. Among the women higher injury risk was associated with slower 300-meter sprint time, slower 1.5-mile run time, lower total points on the PFT, and prior back pain that limited activity. Conclusion The results of this investigation supported those of a previous retrospective investigation emphasizing that lower fitness and self-reported pain limiting activity were associated with higher injury risk among FBI new agents. PMID:22166096

  15. Genital injuries in boys and abuse

    PubMed Central

    Hobbs, C J; Osman, J

    2007-01-01

    Aims To describe a cohort of boys with genital injuries in whom child abuse was suspected. Methods Boys with genital injury (penile and/or scrotal) and referred to paediatricians in Leeds, population 750 000, with concerns regarding possible abuse from 1983 to 2003 were identified from medical reports. Results 86 boys (average age 62.7 months, median age 48 months) were referred between 1983 and 2003. The injury was judged inflicted in 63, unexplained, suspicious or inconsistent with the history given in 17 and accidental in six. The number of discrete injuries ranged from one in 57, two in 15, three in 12, to more than three in two cases. Genital injuries included burns in seven boys, bruises in 27, incised wounds, lacerations or scars in 39, and other traumatic lesions in 27. Non‐genital findings included anal findings in 28, >10 bruises in 17, fractures in three, burns in 12, mouth injuries in four, brain and retinal haemorrhages in one, and poor nourishment or underweight in 14. The categories of abuse were physical (eight), sexual (19), both physical and sexual (eight), physical and neglect (four), and physical, sexual and neglect (one). The category of abuse was unspecified in 39 children. Conclusions Genital injury in boys may be the result of abuse which may be physical or sexual in nature. PMID:17376938

  16. Psychology in sports injury rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Concannon, Michael; Pringle, Bob

    Using the case study of an 18-year-old track athlete with a chronic Achilles tendinopathy, this article identifies risk factors associated with training for major athletic events, such as the forthcoming Olympic Games, and presents evidence for adopting a multidisciplinary approach to the treatment and management of athletic injury, addressing the physical aspects of the injury, as well as the psychological needs of the athlete. The athlete's GP and practice nurse, as well as a podiatrist and sport psychologist, are all involved in providing an accurate clinical diagnosis, effective physical intervention, and psychological skills training to address emotional issues and encourage adherence to the rehabilitation programme. Nurses, in both secondary and primary care, can play a crucial role; in this case, the practice nurse recognised the adverse impact that the injury was having on the athlete's emotional wellbeing before making a referral to a trained sport psychologist. PMID:22585077

  17. Treatment Alternatives Following Mild Head Injury.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novack, Thomas A.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Discusses treatment alternatives which may alleviate problems in recovery following mild head injury, including providing education, cognitive stimulation, stress management training, individual counseling, group discussion, and physical activity in a day treatment setting. (Author/ABL)

  18. Complement activation-related pseudoallergy: a stress reaction in blood triggered by nanomedicines and biologicals.

    PubMed

    Szebeni, Janos

    2014-10-01

    Intravenous injection of a variety of nanotechnology enhanced (liposomal, micellar, polymer-conjugated) and protein-based (antibodies, enzymes) drugs can lead to hypersensitivity reactions (HSRs), also known as infusion, or anaphylactoid reactions. The molecular mechanism of mild to severe allergy symptoms may differ from case to case and is mostly not known, however, in many cases a major cause, or contributing factor is activation of the complement (C) system. The clinical relevance of C activation-related HSRs, a non-IgE-mediated pseudoallergy (CARPA), lies in its unpredictability and occasional lethal outcome. Accordingly, there is an unmet medical need to develop laboratory assays and animal models that quantitate CARPA. This review provides basic information on CARPA; a short history, issues of nomenclature, incidence, classification of reactogenic drugs and symptoms, and the mechanisms of C activation via different pathways. It is pointed out that anaphylatoxin-induced mast cell release may not entirely explain the severe reactions; a "second hit" on allergy mediating cells may also contribute. In addressing the increasing requirements for CARPA testing, the review evaluates the available assays and animal models, and proposes a possible algorithm for the screening of reactogenic drugs and hypersensitive patients. Finally, an analogy is proposed between CARPA and the classic stress reaction, suggesting that CARPA represents a "blood stress" reaction, a systemic fight of the body against harmful biological and chemical agents via the anaphylatoxin/mast-cell/circulatory system axis, in analogy to the body's fight of physical and emotional stress via the hypothalamo/pituitary/adrenal axis. In both cases the response to a broad variety of noxious effects are funneled into a uniform pattern of physiological changes. PMID:25124145

  19. OECD/NEA Ongoing activities related to the nuclear fuel cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Cornet, S.M.; McCarthy, K.; Chauvin, N.

    2013-07-01

    As part of its role in encouraging international collaboration, the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency is coordinating a series of projects related to the Nuclear Fuel Cycle. The Nuclear Science Committee (NSC) Working Party on Scientific Issues of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle (WPFC) comprises five different expert groups covering all aspects of the fuel cycle from front to back-end. Activities related to fuels, materials, physics, separation chemistry, and fuel cycles scenarios are being undertaken. By publishing state-of-the-art reports and organizing workshops, the groups are able to disseminate recent research advancements to the international community. Current activities mainly focus on advanced nuclear systems, and experts are working on analyzing results and establishing challenges associated to the adoption of new materials and fuels. By comparing different codes, the Expert Group on Advanced Fuel Cycle Scenarios is aiming at gaining further understanding of the scientific issues and specific national needs associated with the implementation of advanced fuel cycles. At the back end of the fuel cycle, separation technologies (aqueous and pyrochemical processing) are being assessed. Current and future activities comprise studies on minor actinides separation and post Fukushima studies. Regular workshops are also organized to discuss recent developments on Partitioning and Transmutation. In addition, the Nuclear Development Committee (NDC) focuses on the analysis of the economics of nuclear power across the fuel cycle in the context of changes of electricity markets, social acceptance and technological advances and assesses the availability of the nuclear fuel and infrastructure required for the deployment of existing and future nuclear power. The Expert Group on the Economics of the Back End of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle (EBENFC), in particular, is looking at assessing economic and financial issues related to the long term management of spent nuclear fuel. (authors)

  20. Activity-related sexual dimorphism in Alaskan foragers from Point Hope: Evidences from the upper limb.

    PubMed

    Ibáñez-Gimeno, Pere; Galtés, Ignasi; Jordana, Xavier; Manyosa, Joan; Malgosa, Assumpció

    2015-01-01

    Ipiutak (100BCE-500CE) and Tigara (1200 - 1700CE) are two populations from Point Hope, Alaska. As commonly observed in forager communities, it may be expected males and females to have been involved in markedly different daily activities. Nevertheless, activity-related sexual dimorphism in these populations has been scarcely studied. Using humeral diaphyseal cross-sectional properties and forearm rotational efficiency, which are activity-dependent characteristics, we aim to assess differences between sexes and discuss what activities could have triggered them. Our results suggest that in Ipiutak males and females did not differ meaningfully in their cross-sectional properties. Conversely, in Tigara males had a greater rigidity of the entire humeral diaphysis than females, which suggests the existence of greater relative activity levels and more physically demanding tasks, possibly related to hunting activities. Concerning the differences between sexes in the forearm rotational efficiency, in Tigara females rotational efficiency in elbow flexion is maximal in a more supinated position than in males, which leads to an improvement of efficiency in those stages related to manipulation, and so improves the manipulative capacities of the upper limb. These differences in efficiency are caused by a more proximally oriented humeral medial epicondyle in females, which is thus confirmed to be a good feature to assess differences in labor. Therefore females in Tigara probably performed in a daily basis household activities, such as hide processing and other manipulative labors. In Ipiutak, the analysis of forearm rotational efficiency did not reveal differences between sexes. Overall, the results suggest that division of labor in Ipiutak was not as marked as in Tigara, where upper limb skeletal structure supports the idea that both sexes were involved in different daily activities. Nevertheless, the generalized lack of results in Ipiutak could be due to the small sample

  1. Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury. Special Topic Report #3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waaland, Pamela K.; Cockrell, Janice L.

    This brief report summarizes what is known about pediatric traumatic brain injury, including the following: risk factors (e.g., males especially those ages 5 to 25, youth with preexisting problems including previous head injury victims, and children receiving inadequate supervision); life after injury; physical and neurological consequences (e.g.,…

  2. Common foot and ankle injuries in dance.

    PubMed

    Quirk, R

    1994-01-01

    Classical ballet is a popular but physically demanding activity. Minor injuries become increasingly common as the dancer encounters the greater workload of professional dancing. The doctor must have a basic knowledge of ballet technique and an understanding of the mental approach of dancers to accurately diagnose and effectively treat their injuries. The practice of dancing on the toes, the exaggerated turn out of the feet, and the extreme flexibility of the hips and spine all lead to unusual injuries. With informed conservative treatment, most ballet injuries will heal, but surgery is occasionally required. PMID:7904737

  3. Traumatic Brain Injury Inpatient Rehabilitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Im, Brian; Schrer, Marcia J.; Gaeta, Raphael; Elias, Eileen

    2010-01-01

    Traumatic brain injuries (TBI) can cause multiple medical and functional problems. As the brain is involved in regulating nearly every bodily function, a TBI can affect any part of the body and aspect of cognitive, behavioral, and physical functioning. However, TBI affects each individual differently. Optimal management requires understanding the…

  4. Popliteal vasculature injuries in paediatric trauma patients.

    PubMed

    Jones, S A; Roberts, D C; Clarke, N M P

    2012-10-01

    Popliteal-artery injuries in the paediatric-trauma patient are uncommon, difficult to diagnose and with prolonged ischaemia lead to substantial complications. We report three cases of popliteal-vasculature injury in paediatric-trauma patients with diverse mechanisms of injury: blunt trauma, penetrating injury and a Salter-Harris I fracture. We present a range of the significant sequelae that can result from paediatric popliteal-artery injury, both physically and psychologically. It is imperative that clinicians have a high index of suspicion when confronted with paediatric patients with trauma around the knee and that popliteal-vasculature injuries are diagnosed early. If insufficiencies are detected, further imaging should be considered, but surgical exploration should not be delayed in the presence of ischaemia. PMID:22776610

  5. [Medical and legal considerations in whiplash injury].

    PubMed

    Castillo-Chávez, Miguel Angel

    2013-01-01

    Whiplash injury usually occurs in people who suffered an automobile accident, but also occurs as a result of physical assault and other mechanisms. Diagnosis and initial management of the patient by the emergency physician or orthopedist, and prescribing indications, are taken into account by two forensic intervention specialists. One of these is the medical officer, who, through analysis of the injury mechanism, establishes a cause-effect relationship and concludes whether the accident suffered by a worker it is related to work or not, determines how long the worker will remain disabled and if the injury caused permanent disability under Federal Labor Law. The medical examiner by injury classification assists the Public Ministry so that it can frame the crime of injury to the Criminal Code of Federal District. For these reasons a review of medical information about the mechanism of injury, diagnosis, treatment and healing time was performed to help both specialists to standardize their approach in their daily activities. PMID:23883460

  6. Disability and risk of school related injury

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez, M; Peek-Asa, C; Kraus, J

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Approximately six million children with disabilities attend school in the United States. Cognitive and physical limitations may compromise their ability to handle environmental hazards and hence increase their risk for injury. The objective of this study was to describe the epidemiology of school related injury among children enrolled in 17 special education schools in one large, urban school district. Design: Altogether 6769 schoolchildren with disabilities were followed up from 1994–98. Injury and population data were collected from pupil accident reports and existing school records. Associations were estimated through generalized estimating equations. Results: A total of 697 injuries were reported for a rate of 4.7/100 students per year. Children with multiple disabilities had a 70% increased odds of injury compared with the developmentally disabled (odds ratio (OR) 1.7, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.3 to 2.3). The physically disabled (OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.0 to 1.9) had a modest increased odds of injury. Cuts, bruises, and abrasions composed almost three fourths of all injuries; almost half of these injuries were to the face. Falls (34%) and insults by other students (31%) were the most common external causes. More than a fourth of injuries were sports related, and 21% occurred on the playground/athletic field. Injury patterns differed across disabilities. Conclusions: Although limited to one school district, the population studied is the largest cohort thus far of schoolchildren with disabilities. With this large study base, potentially high risk groups were identified and circumstances of injury described. This information is imperative for developing and improving school based injury prevention measures. PMID:14760022

  7. Injury in rugby league: a four year prospective survey.

    PubMed Central

    Stephenson, S; Gissane, C; Jennings, D

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the incidence of injury in English professional rugby league over a period of four playing seasons. METHODS: All injuries that were received by players during match play were recorded. Each injury was classified according to site, type, player position, team playing for, activity at the time of injury, and time off as a result of injury. RESULTS: The overall injury rate was 114 (95% confidence interval 105 to 124) per 1000 playing hours, the most frequent type of injury were muscular injuries [34 (29 to 40) per 1000 playing hours], while the most frequently injured site was the head and neck region [38 (16 to 25) per 1000 playing hours]. Players received the largest percentage of injuries when being tackled [46.3% (41.9 to 50.7)], most injuries required less than one week away from playing and training [70.1% (66.1 to 74.2)], and forwards had a higher injury rate than backs (139 v 93 injuries per 1000 hours). CONCLUSIONS: The high rates of injury in rugby league are undoubtedly due to the high amount of bodily contact in the game. Being tackled has the highest risk of injury, because of being hit forcibly by other players. Forwards suffer higher injury rates than backs, probably because they are involved in a larger number of physical collisions. PMID:9015597

  8. Peripheral nerve injuries in the athlete.

    PubMed

    Feinberg, J H; Nadler, S F; Krivickas, L S

    1997-12-01

    Peripheral nerves are susceptible to injury in the athlete because of the excessive physiological demands that are made on both the neurological structures and the soft tissues that protect them. The common mechanisms of injury are compression, traction, ischaemia and laceration. Seddon's original classification system for nerve injuries based on neurophysiological changes is the most widely used. Grade 1 nerve injury is a neuropraxic condition, grade 2 is axonal degeneration and grade 3 is nerve transection. Peripheral nerve injuries are more common in the upper extremities than the lower extremities, tend to be sport specific, and often have a biomechanical component. While the more acute and catastrophic neurological injuries are usually obvious, many remain subclinical and are not recognised before neurological damage is permanent. Early detection allows initiation of a proper rehabilitation programme and modification of biomechanics before the nerve injury becomes irreversible. Recognition of nerve injuries requires an understanding of peripheral neuroanatomy, knowledge of common sites of nerve injury and an awareness of the types of peripheral nerve injuries that are common and unique to each sport. The electrodiagnostic exam, usually referred to as the 'EMG', consists of nerve conduction studies and the needle electrode examination. It is used to determine the site and degree of neurological injury and to predict outcome. It should be performed by a neurologist or physiatrist (physician specialising in physical medicine and rehabilitation), trained and skilled in this procedure. Timing is essential if the study is to provide maximal information. Findings such as decreased recruitment after injury and conduction block at the site of injury may be apparent immediately after injury but other findings such as abnormal spontaneous activity may take several weeks to develop. The electrodiagnostic test assists with both diagnosis of the injury and in predicting

  9. Preventing dance injuries: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Jeffrey A

    2013-01-01

    Dancers are clearly athletes in the degree to which sophisticated physical capacities are required to perform at a high level. The standard complement of athletic attributes – muscular strength and endurance, anaerobic and aerobic energy utilization, speed, agility, coordination, motor control, and psychological readiness – all are essential to dance performance. In dance, as in any athletic activity, injuries are prevalent. This paper presents the research background of dance injuries, characteristics that distinguish dance and dancers from traditional sports and athletes, and research-based perspectives into how dance injuries can be reduced or prevented, including the factors of physical training, nutrition and rest, flooring, dancing en pointe, and specialized health care access for dancers. The review concludes by offering five essential components for those involved with caring for dancers that, when properly applied, will assist them in decreasing the likelihood of dance-related injury and ensuring that dancers receive optimum attention from the health care profession: (1) screening; (2) physical training; (3) nutrition and rest; (4) specialized dance health care; and (5) becoming acquainted with the nature of dance and dancers. PMID:24379726

  10. Nerve Injuries in Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Kathryn; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Over a two-year period this study evaluated the condition of 65 athletes with nerve injuries. These injuries represent the spectrum of nerve injuries likely to be encountered in sports medicine clinics. (Author/MT)

  11. Traumatic Brain Injury

    MedlinePlus

    ... Center PTACs Workspaces Log-in Search for: Traumatic Brain Injury A legacy resource from NICHCY Disability Fact ... in her. Back to top What is Traumatic Brain Injury? A traumatic brain injury (TBI) is an ...

  12. Eye Injuries at Work

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bureau of Labor Statistics, more than 20,000 workplace eye injuries happen each year. Injuries on the job often ... Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) reports that workplace eye injuries cost an estimated $300 million a year in ...

  13. Head injury. Second edition

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, P.R.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains 22 chapters. Some of the chapter titles are: Radiographic Evaluation; Epidemiology of Head Injury; Emergency Care and Initial Evaluation; Skull Fracture and Traumatic Cerebrospinal Fluid Fistulas; Mild Head Injury; and Injuries of the Cranial Nerves.

  14. Traumatic Brain Injury

    MedlinePlus

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) happens when a bump, blow, jolt, or other head injury causes damage to the brain. Every year, millions of people in the U.S. suffer brain injuries. More than half are bad enough that ...

  15. Spinal injury - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - spinal injury ... The following organizations are good resources for information on spinal injury : National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke -- www.ninds.nih.gov The National Spinal Cord Injury ...

  16. Wounds and Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    An injury is damage to your body. It is a general term that refers to harm caused by accidents, ... millions of people injure themselves every year. These injuries range from minor to life-threatening. Injuries can ...

  17. Pediatric hand treadmill injuries.

    PubMed

    Banever, Gregory T; Moriarty, Kevin P; Sachs, Barry F; Courtney, Richard A; Konefal, Stanley H; Barbeau, Lori

    2003-07-01

    The great popularity of physical fitness in modern society has brought many pieces of exercise equipment into our homes for convenience and privacy. This trend has come with an increasing rate of injuries to children who curiously touch moving parts, including treadmill belts. Experience with a recent series of treadmill contact burns to children's hands is described in this article. A retrospective chart review at a tertiary referral center from June 1998 until June 2001 found six children sustaining hand burns from treadmills. The patients' ages at presentation ranged from 15 to 45 months (average of 31 months, three boys and three girls). All injuries occurred in the home while a parent was using the treadmill. Burns involved the palmar aspect of the hand, mostly confined to the fingers, and the severity ranged from partialto full-thickness burns. All patients were initially managed with collagenase and bacitracin zinc/polymyxin B powder dressings to second- and third-degree burns, along with splinting and range-of-motion exercises. Two patients required skin grafting at 2 weeks and 2 months for full-thickness tissue loss and tight joint contracture, respectively. At an average follow-up of 12 months, all patients had full range of motion and no physical limitation. The rate of children injured by exercise equipment is expected to increase. Friction burns to the hands remain a concern, although early recognition and appropriate management are associated with excellent functional outcomes. Protective modification of exercise machines seems to be the best approach to eliminating these injuries. PMID:12867861

  18. Emergency Action Plans in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanis, Cindy J.; Hebel, Susan L.

    2016-01-01

    Emergency Action Plans (EAP) are essential to properly manage injuries and illnesses in physical education and sport. However, most literature discusses EAP's in the athletic arena instead of physical education. The purpose of this study was to examine physical education instructors' experiences of student illness and injury, discuss the steps of…

  19. Basketball Injuries: An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Apple Jr., David F.

    1988-01-01

    This article discusses reasons for the increase in basketball-related injuries, describes common injuries, outlines steps for diagnosis and treatment, and offers recovery and prevention strategies. (IAH)

  20. Perioperative lung injury.

    PubMed

    Slinger, Peter

    2008-03-01

    Patients are at risk for several types of lung injury in the perioperative period. These injuries include atelectasis, pneumonia, pneumothorax, bronchopleural fistula, acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome. Anesthetic management can cause, exacerbate or ameliorate most of these injuries. Clinical research trends show that traditional protocols for perioperative mechanical ventilation, using large tidal volumes without positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) can cause a sub-clinical lung injury and this injury becomes clinically important when any additional lung injury is added. Lung-protective ventilation strategies using more physiologic tidal volumes and appropriate levels of PEEP can decrease the extent of this injury. PMID:18494396

  1. Predicting pain outcomes after traumatic musculoskeletal injury.

    PubMed

    Rosenbloom, Brittany N; Katz, Joel; Chin, Kelly Y W; Haslam, Lynn; Canzian, Sonya; Kreder, Hans J; McCartney, Colin J L

    2016-08-01

    Traumatic musculoskeletal injury results in a high incidence of chronic pain; however, there is little evidence about the nature, quality, and severity of the pain. This study uses a prospective, observational, longitudinal design to (1) examine neuropathic pain symptoms, pain severity, pain interference, and pain management at hospital admission and 4 months after traumatic musculoskeletal injury (n = 205), and (2) to identify predictors of group membership for patients with differing moderate-to-severe putative neuropathic pain trajectories. Data were collected on mechanism of injury, injury severity, pain (intensity, interference, neuropathic quality), anxiety (anxiety sensitivity, general anxiety, pain catastrophizing, pain anxiety), depression, and posttraumatic stress while patients were in-hospital and 4 months after injury. A third of patients had chronic moderate-to-severe neuropathic pain 4 months after injury. Specifically, 11% of patients developed moderate-to-severe pain by 4 months and 21% had symptoms immediately after injury that persisted over time. Significant predictors of the development and maintenance of moderate-to-severe neuropathic pain included high levels of general anxiety while in-hospital immediately after injury (P < 0.001) and symptoms of posttraumatic stress 4 months after injury (P < 0.001). Few patients had adequate pharmacological, physical, or psychological pain management in-hospital and at 4 months. Future research is needed among trauma patients to better understand the development of chronic pain and to determine the best treatment approaches. PMID:27058677

  2. Meniscal injuries in basketball players.

    PubMed

    Zedde, Pietro; Mela, Federico; Del Prete, Fabio; Masia, Francesco; Manunta, Andrea F

    2014-01-01

    Basketball is a highly competitive sport in which the knee joint is constantly subject to physical stresses. Basketball-related traumatic injuries are the result of specific technical movements. Even though basketball is not considered a contact sport, injuries in basketball players are due both to athletes' handling of the ball and to their intense physical interaction during games. Nowadays, traumatic meniscal injuries are constantly on the increase, especially in young athletes, and they are generally the result of compressive forces together with knee flexion rotation. Recognition of the great importance of meniscal biomechanics and of the functional role of the meniscus has resulted in the adoption of an increasingly preserving approach, also in the light of the effects, in terms of articular degeneration, of removing meniscal tissue. Even though recent decades have seen considerable developments in arthroscopic meniscectomy techniques, geared at preserving as much meniscal tissue as possible, basketball players undergoing this treatment often present, in the long run, clinical symptomatology severe enough to compromise their participation in competitive sport. Hence the treatment of meniscal injuries in athletes has become more and more preserving in recent years, through recourse to surgical techniques such as meniscal repair, biological replacement implantation and donor meniscus implantation, which allow pain relief, return to competitive activities and stable long-term results, slowing down arthritic progression. Therefore, considering the increasing number of meniscal injuries in basketball players, which can jeopardize their sporting careers, great importance is now attached to early diagnosis and to the correct choice of meniscal injury treatment in these athletes. PMID:25750909

  3. Management of acromioclavicular joint injuries.

    PubMed

    Li, Xinning; Ma, Richard; Bedi, Asheesh; Dines, David M; Altchek, David W; Dines, Joshua S

    2014-01-01

    Acromioclavicular joint injuries are among the most common shoulder girdle injuries in athletes and most commonly result from a direct force to the acromion with the arm in an adducted position. Acromioclavicular joint injuries often present with associated injuries to the glenohumeral joint, including an increased incidence of superior labrum anterior posterior (SLAP) tears that may warrant further evaluation and treatment. Anteroposterior stability of the acromioclavicular joint is conferred by the capsule and acromioclavicular ligaments, of which the posterior and superior ligaments are the strongest. Superior-inferior stability is maintained by the coracoclavicular (conoid and trapezoid) ligaments. Type-I or type-II acromioclavicular joint injuries have been treated with sling immobilization, early shoulder motion, and physical therapy, with favorable outcomes. Return to activity can occur when normal shoulder motion and strength are obtained and the shoulder is asymptomatic as compared with the contralateral normal extremity. The management of type-III injuries remains controversial and is individualized. While a return to the previous level of functional activity with nonsurgical treatment has been documented in a number of case series, surgical reduction and coracoclavicular ligament reconstruction has been associated with a favorable outcome and can be considered in patients who place high functional demands on their shoulders or in athletes who participate in overhead sports. Surgical management is indicated for high-grade (≥type IV) acromioclavicular joint injuries to achieve anatomic reduction of the acromioclavicular joint, reconstruction of the coracoclavicular ligaments, and repair of the deltotrapezial fascia. Outcomes after surgical reconstruction of the coracoclavicular ligaments have been satisfactory with regard to achieving pain relief and return to functional activities, but further improvements in the biomechanical strength of these

  4. Vascular Injury in Orthopedic Trauma.

    PubMed

    Mavrogenis, Andreas F; Panagopoulos, George N; Kokkalis, Zinon T; Koulouvaris, Panayiotis; Megaloikonomos, Panayiotis D; Igoumenou, Vasilios; Mantas, George; Moulakakis, Konstantinos G; Sfyroeras, George S; Lazaris, Andreas; Soucacos, Panayotis N

    2016-07-01

    Vascular injury in orthopedic trauma is challenging. The risk to life and limb can be high, and clinical signs initially can be subtle. Recognition and management should be a critical skill for every orthopedic surgeon. There are 5 types of vascular injury: intimal injury (flaps, disruptions, or subintimal/intramural hematomas), complete wall defects with pseudoaneurysms or hemorrhage, complete transections with hemorrhage or occlusion, arteriovenous fistulas, and spasm. Intimal defects and subintimal hematomas with possible secondary occlusion are most commonly associated with blunt trauma, whereas wall defects, complete transections, and arteriovenous fistulas usually occur with penetrating trauma. Spasm can occur after either blunt or penetrating trauma to an extremity and is more common in young patients. Clinical presentation of vascular injury may not be straightforward. Physical examination can be misleading or initially unimpressive; a normal pulse examination may be present in 5% to 15% of patients with vascular injury. Detection and treatment of vascular injuries should take place within the context of the overall resuscitation of the patient according to the established principles of the Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) protocols. Advances in the field, made mostly during times of war, have made limb salvage the rule rather than the exception. Teamwork, familiarity with the often subtle signs of vascular injuries, a high index of suspicion, effective communication, appropriate use of imaging modalities, sound knowledge of relevant technique, and sequence of surgical repairs are among the essential factors that will lead to a successful outcome. This article provides a comprehensive literature review on a subject that generates significant controversy and confusion among clinicians involved in the care of trauma patients. [Orthopedics. 2016; 39(4):249-259.]. PMID:27322172

  5. Subacute to chronic mild traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Mott, Timothy F; McConnon, Michael L; Rieger, Brian P

    2012-12-01

    Although a universally accepted definition is lacking, mild traumatic brain injury and concussion are classified by transient loss of consciousness, amnesia, altered mental status, a Glasgow Coma Score of 13 to 15, and focal neurologic deficits following an acute closed head injury. Most patients recover quickly, with a predictable clinical course of recovery within the first one to two weeks following traumatic brain injury. Persistent physical, cognitive, or behavioral postconcussive symptoms may be noted in 5 to 20 percent of persons who have mild traumatic brain injury. Physical symptoms include headaches, dizziness, and nausea, and changes in coordination, balance, appetite, sleep, vision, and hearing. Cognitive and behavioral symptoms include fatigue, anxiety, depression, and irritability, and problems with memory, concentration and decision making. Women, older adults, less educated persons, and those with a previous mental health diagnosis are more likely to have persistent symptoms. The diagnostic workup for subacute to chronic mild traumatic brain injury focuses on the history and physical examination, with continuing observation for the development of red flags such as the progression of physical, cognitive, and behavioral symptoms, seizure, progressive vomiting, and altered mental status. Early patient and family education should include information on diagnosis and prognosis, symptoms, and further injury prevention. Symptom-specific treatment, gradual return to activity, and multidisciplinary coordination of care lead to the best outcomes. Psychiatric and medical comorbidities, psychosocial issues, and legal or compensatory incentives should be explored in patients resistant to treatment. PMID:23198672

  6. AN OVERVIEW OF OECD AND EPA/ORD ACTIVITIES RELATED TO AMPHIBIAN TESTING

    EPA Science Inventory

    There has been significant recent activity related to testing amphibians in a regulatory setting. Much of this has emanated from interest by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Office of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) in utilizing amphibians in scree...

  7. 77 FR 60109 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Harbor Activities Related to the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-02

    ...In accordance with the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA) regulations, notification is hereby given that NMFS has issued an Incidental Harassment Authorization (IHA) to United Launch Alliance (ULA), to take marine mammals, by Level B harassment, incidental to conducting Delta Mariner activities related to the Delta IV/Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle (Delta IV/EELV) at south Vandenberg Air......

  8. 31 CFR 542.527 - Policy on activities related to the telecommunications sector of Syria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Policy on activities related to the telecommunications sector of Syria. 542.527 Section 542.527 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SYRIAN SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  9. Federal monitoring activities related to food and nutritian: How do they compare?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several monitoring activities related to food are carried out by the Federal Government in the United States. These include the What We Eat In America, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (WWEIA, NHANES), conducted by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services and the U.S. Depart...

  10. A national program for injury prevention in children and adolescents: the injury free coalition for kids.

    PubMed

    Pressley, Joyce C; Barlow, Barbara; Durkin, Maureen; Jacko, Sally A; Dominguez, DiLenny Roca; Johnson, Lenita

    2005-09-01

    Injury is the leading cause of death and a major source of preventable disability in children. Mechanisms of injury are rooted in a complex web of social, economic, environmental, criminal, and behavioral factors that necessitate a multifaceted, systematic injury prevention approach. This article describes the injury burden and the way physicians, community coalitions, and a private foundation teamed to impact the problem first in an urban minority community and then through a national program. Through our injury prevention work in a resource-limited neighborhood, a national model evolved that provides a systematic framework through which education and other interventions are implemented. Interventions are aimed at changing the community and home environments physically (safe play areas and elimination of community and home hazards) and socially (education and supervised extracurricular activities with mentors). This program, based on physician-community partnerships and private foundation financial support, expanded to 40 sites in 37 cities, representing all 10 US trauma regions. Each site is a local adaptation of the Injury Free Coalition model also referred to as the ABC's of injury prevention: A, "analyze injury data through local injury surveillance"; B, "build a local coalition"; C, "communicate the problem and raise awareness that injuries are a preventable public health problem"; D, "develop interventions and injury prevention activities to create safer environments and activities for children"; and E, "evaluate the interventions with ongoing surveillance." It is feasible to develop a comprehensive injury prevention program of national scope using a voluntary coalition of trauma centers, private foundation financial and technical support, and a local injury prevention model with a well-established record of reducing and sustaining lower injury rates for inner-city children and adolescents. PMID:15958785

  11. Preventing injuries in workers: the role of management practices in decreasing injuries reporting

    PubMed Central

    Kiani, Fariba; Khodabakhsh, Mohammad Reza

    2014-01-01

    Background: Researchers have found that management safety practices may predict occupational injuries and psychological distresses in the workplace. The present study examined the perception of management safety practices related to injuries reporting and its dimensions among workers of Isfahan Steel Company (ESCO). Methods: A self-administered anonymous survey was distributed to 189 workers. The survey included demographic factors, management safety perception, injuries reporting and its components (physical symptoms, psychological symptoms, and injuries). The data were analyzed by Multivariate and correlation techniques. Results: The results showed that: 1) there were significant correlations between management safety perception with injuries reporting and its two dimensions namely physical and psychological symptoms; 2) there was no significant relationship between management safety perception and injury; 3) in Multivariate analysis, management safety perception significantly predicted about 26%, 19%, and 28% of the variances of variables of injuries reporting, physical symptoms, and psychological symptoms respectively (P< 0.01). Conclusion: Improving employees’ perception of management safety practices can be important to prevent the development of job injuries and to promote workers’ safety and well-being. PMID:25279379

  12. The interpretation of urogenital findings in children with straddle injuries.

    PubMed

    Dowd, M D; Fitzmaurice, L; Knapp, J F; Mooney, D

    1994-01-01

    Because urogenital trauma frequently raises the question of sexual abuse, it is important to be able to relate the mechanism of injury to expected examination findings. This study was undertaken to characterize the trauma that results from straddling and correlate such injuries with the history, examination, and patient characteristics. The charts of 100 patients examined in an urban pediatric emergency department were reviewed; their conditions met the criteria of straddle injury--a blow to the perineum as a result of falling or striking a surface or an object with the force of one's own body weight. Ages ranged from 9 to 187 months (mean, 77.9; median, 67.2); 72% were female. Most injuries were minor lacerations and abrasions of the genitalia. Eleven percent had injury to the posterior fourchette. Hymenal and vaginal injuries were primarily caused by penetrating mechanisms. Five patients who presented with a history of straddling subsequently received the diagnosis of sexual assault based on disclosure by the patient or a witness and inconsistency of physical findings. There were no urethral or perianal injuries resulting from nonpenetrating straddle mechanisms. Straddle injuries include a variety of mostly minor urogenital injuries. Perianal, hymenal, or vaginal trauma suggests a penetrating mechanism, either unintentional or from sexual assault. An investigation for sexual assault should be initiated in the following cases: infants younger than 9 months of age; perianal, hymenal, or vaginal injury; extensive or severe injury; concurrent nonurogenital injuries; and whenever there is lack of correlation between history and physical findings. PMID:8120766

  13. Working with Students with Traumatic Brain Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucas, Matthew D.

    2010-01-01

    The participation of a student with Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) in general physical education can often be challenging and rewarding for the student and physical education teacher. This article addresses common characteristics of students with TBI and presents basic solutions to improve the education of students with TBI in the general physical…

  14. Investigation of nerve injury through microfluidic devices

    PubMed Central

    Siddique, Rezina; Thakor, Nitish

    2014-01-01

    Traumatic injuries, both in the central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral nervous system (PNS), can potentially lead to irreversible damage resulting in permanent loss of function. Investigating the complex dynamics involved in these processes may elucidate the biological mechanisms of both nerve degeneration and regeneration, and may potentially lead to the development of new therapies for recovery. A scientific overview on the biological foundations of nerve injury is presented. Differences between nerve regeneration in the central and PNS are discussed. Advances in microtechnology over the past several years have led to the development of invaluable tools that now facilitate investigation of neurobiology at the cellular scale. Microfluidic devices are explored as a means to study nerve injury at the necessary simplification of the cellular level, including those devices aimed at both chemical and physical injury, as well as those that recreate the post-injury environment. PMID:24227311

  15. Head Injuries in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennington, Nicole

    2010-01-01

    School nurses play a crucial role in injury prevention and initial treatment when injuries occur at school. The role of school nurses includes being knowledgeable about the management of head injuries, including assessment and initial treatment. The school nurse must be familiar with the outcomes of a head injury and know when further evaluation…

  16. Injuries in a modern dance company effect of comprehensive management on injury incidence and cost.

    PubMed

    Ojofeitimi, Sheyi; Bronner, Shaw

    2011-09-01

    Injury costs strain the finances of many dance companies. The objectives of this study were to analyze the effect of comprehensive management on injury patterns, incidence, and time loss and examine its financial impact on workers compensation premiums in a modern dance company. In this retrospective-prospective cohort study, injury was defined as any physical insult that required financial outlay (workers compensation or self insurance) or caused a dancer to cease dancing beyond the day of injury (time-loss injury). Injury data and insurance premiums were analyzed over an eight-year period. Injuries were compared using a mixed linear model with phase and gender as fixed effects. It was found that comprehensive management resulted in 34% decline in total injury incidence, 66% decrease in workers compensation claims, and 56% decrease in lost days. These outcomes achieved substantial savings in workers compensation premiums. Thus, this study demonstrates the effectiveness of an injury prevention program in reducing injury-related costs and promoting dancers' health and wellness in a modern dance company. PMID:22040757

  17. Pediatric Hand Injuries.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Matthew A; Cogan, Charles J; Adkinson, Joshua M

    2016-01-01

    Pediatric hand injuries are extremely common. Although many hand injuries are adequately managed in the emergency department, some may need evaluation and treatment by a pediatric hand surgeon to ensure a good functional outcome. This article discusses the diagnosis and management of the most common pediatric hand maladies: fingertip injuries/amputation, tendon injuries, and phalangeal and metacarpal fractures. The plastic surgery nurse should be familiar with hand injuries that require intervention to facilitate efficient management and optimal postoperative care. PMID:27606586

  18. Rates and Risks for Running and Exercise Injuries: Studies in Three Populations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blair, Steven N.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Reports on the results of three epidemiologic studies of orthopedic running and exercise injuries in exercisers present information regarding relationships between type of injury and participant age, gender, exercise level, exercise surface, and physical fitness. (Author/CB)

  19. Managing traumatic brain injury secondary to explosions

    PubMed Central

    Burgess, Paula; E Sullivent, Ernest; M Sasser, Scott; M Wald, Marlena; Ossmann, Eric; Kapil, Vikas

    2010-01-01

    Explosions and bombings are the most common deliberate cause of disasters with large numbers of casualties. Despite this fact, disaster medical response training has traditionally focused on the management of injuries following natural disasters and terrorist attacks with biological, chemical, and nuclear agents. The following article is a clinical primer for physicians regarding traumatic brain injury (TBI) caused by explosions and bombings. The history, physics, and treatment of TBI are outlined. PMID:20606794

  20. Treatment of Unstable Pelvic Ring Injuries

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Pelvic fractures are classified according to the stability of the pelvic ring. Unlike stable pelvic fractures, which heal without complications, unstable fractures may lead to pelvic ring deformities, which cause severe complications. An orthopedic surgeon must determine the stability of the pelvic ring by radiography and physical examination of the patient in order to ensure early, prompt treatment. This article includes anatomy of the pelvic ring, classification of pelvic ring injuries, its treatment algorithm, and corresponding cases involving unstable pelvic ring injury.

  1. Perioperative lower extremity peripheral nerve traction injuries.

    PubMed

    Plastaras, Christopher T; Chhatre, Akhil; Kotcharian, Ashot S

    2014-01-01

    Peripheral nerve traction injuries may occur after surgical care and can involve any of the lower extremity large peripheral nerves. In this review, the authors discuss injuries after knee or hip surgical intervention. The diagnosis, including electrodiagnostic studies, is time sensitive and also relies on a detailed history and physical examination. Successful prevention and treatment involve familiarity with risk and predisposing factors as well as prophylactic measures. PMID:24267207

  2. Automobile Collisions, Kinematics and Related Injury Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Siegel, A. W.

    1972-01-01

    It has been determined clinically that fatalities and injury severity resulting from automobile collisions have decreased during the last five years for low impact speeds. This reduction is a direct result of the application of biomechanics and occupant kinematics, as well as changes in automobile design. The paper defines terminology used in the field of mechanics and develops examples and illustrations of the physical concepts of acceleration, force strength, magnitude duration, rate of onset and others, as they apply to collision phenomena and injury. The mechanism of injury pattern reduction through the use of restraint systems is illustrated. PMID:5059661

  3. Ankle injuries and the family physician.

    PubMed

    Birrer, R B

    1988-01-01

    In transmitting the body's weight, the ankle is subject to frequent static and dynamic injury due to concentrated stresses during standing and movement. The frequency of athletic ankle injuries ranges from 10 to 90 percent, with the highest rate occurring in basketball players. There is prolonged disability and recurrent instability for months to years for 25 to 40 per cent of these patients. Because most of this trauma is handled by primary care physicians, this review presents the mechanism of injury, relevant anatomy, physical examination, and appropriate therapeutic intervention in the acute and rehabilitative phases. PMID:3146894

  4. Consequences and Costs of Lower Extremity Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Dischinger, PC; Read, KM; Kufera, JA; Kerns, TJ; Burch, CA; Jawed, N; Ho, SM; Burgess, AR

    2004-01-01

    Lower extremity injuries resulting from motor vehicle crashes are common and have become relatively more important as more drivers with newer occupant restraints survive high-energy crashes. CIREN data provide a greater level of clinical detail based on coding guidelines from the Orthopedic Trauma Association. These detailed data, in conjunction with long-term follow-up data obtained from patient interviews, reveal that the most costly and disabling injuries are those involving articular (joint) surfaces, especially those of the ankle/foot. Patients with such injuries exhibit residual physical and psychosocial problems, even at one year post-trauma. PMID:15319134

  5. Long-term sequelae of electrical injury

    PubMed Central

    Wesner, Marni L.; Hickie, John

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective To summarize the current evidence-based knowledge about the long-term sequelae of injuries from electrical current. Quality of evidence MEDLINE was searched for English-language articles published in the past 20 years using the following search terms: electrical, injuries, wound, trauma, accident, sequelae, long-term, follow-up, and aftereffects. For obvious reasons, it is unethical to randomly study electrical injury in controlled clinical trials. By necessity, this topic is addressed in less-rigorous observational and retrospective work and case studies. Therefore, the strength of the literature pertaining to the long-term sequelae of electrical injury is impaired by the necessity of retrospective methods and case studies that typically describe small cohorts. Main message There are 2 possible consequences of electrical injury: the person either survives or dies. For those who survive electrical injury, the immediate consequences are usually obvious and often require extensive medical intervention. The long-term sequelae of the electrical injury might be more subtle, pervasive, and less well defined, but can include neurologic, psychological, and physical symptoms. In the field of compensation medicine, determining causation and attributing outcome to an injury that might not result in objective clinical findings becomes a considerable challenge. Conclusion The appearance of these consequences of electrical injury might be substantially delayed, with onset 1 to 5 or more years after the electrical injury. This poses a problem for patients and health care workers, making it hard to ascribe symptoms to a remote injury when they might not arise until well after the incident event. PMID:24029506

  6. Shoulder Injuries in English Community Rugby Union.

    PubMed

    Singh, V R; Trewartha, G; Roberts, S P; England, M; Stokes, K A

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the incidence, severity and type of shoulder injuries resulting from match play in adult community rugby union between 2009-2013. A total of 254 time-loss shoulder injuries were reported, an overall incidence of 2.2 per 1 000 h (95% CI: 1.9 to 2.4), and a mean injury severity of 9.5 weeks missed (95% CI: 8.2 to 10.8). The semi-professional group had an incidence of 2.8 injuries per 1 000 h (95% CI: 2.2 to 3.5), which was higher than the recreational group at 1.8 injuries per 1 000 h (95% CI: 1.4 to 2.2, p=0.004). The incidence of acromioclavicular joint injury for semi-professional players was 1.2 per 1 000 h (95% CI: 0.8 to 1.6); which was significantly higher than the incidence of this injury type in recreational players (0.5 per 1 000 h 95% CI: 0.3 to 0.7, p=0.002). Overall, back row players sustained the highest incidence of all shoulder injuries for a given playing position, 2.9 injuries per 1 000 h (95% CI: 2.2 to 3.6). The tackle was the main event associated with injury. Injury prevention programs and coaching strategies that consider tackle technique and physical conditioning of the shoulder region are therefore considered important. PMID:27176887

  7. Therapeutic approaches for spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Cristante, Alexandre Fogaça; de Barros Filho, Tarcísio Eloy Pessoa; Marcon, Raphael Martus; Letaif, Olavo Biraghi; da Rocha, Ivan Dias

    2012-01-01

    This study reviews the literature concerning possible therapeutic approaches for spinal cord injury. Spinal cord injury is a disabling and irreversible condition that has high economic and social costs. There are both primary and secondary mechanisms of damage to the spinal cord. The primary lesion is the mechanical injury itself. The secondary lesion results from one or more biochemical and cellular processes that are triggered by the primary lesion. The frustration of health professionals in treating a severe spinal cord injury was described in 1700 BC in an Egyptian surgical papyrus that was translated by Edwin Smith; the papyrus reported spinal fractures as a “disease that should not be treated.” Over the last two decades, several studies have been performed to obtain more effective treatments for spinal cord injury. Most of these studies approach a patient with acute spinal cord injury in one of four manners: corrective surgery or a physical, biological or pharmacological treatment method. Science is unraveling the mechanisms of cell protection and neuroregeneration, but clinically, we only provide supportive care for patients with spinal cord injuries. By combining these treatments, researchers attempt to enhance the functional recovery of patients with spinal cord injuries. Advances in the last decade have allowed us to encourage the development of experimental studies in the field of spinal cord regeneration. The combination of several therapeutic strategies should, at minimum, allow for partial functional recoveries for these patients, which could improve their quality of life. PMID:23070351

  8. [Physical urticarias].

    PubMed

    Barbaud, A

    2003-05-01

    Ten percent of chronic urticarias are physical urticarias. Patients suffering from physical urticaria all have a suggestive history with specific eliciting stimuli (cold, heat, water, sun.) and wheals in the areas where the stimulus acts. The involved pathomechanisms are not well known. An unknown allergen (related to a cold or a heat injury, a polar molecule contained in the stratum corneum and soluble into water, a photoallergen) could induce a mast cell mediator release, followed by an infiltration by eosinophil then neutrophils polymorphonuclears. T-cells are not highly involved. Dermographism, the most frequent can be cured by anti-H1. In diagnosing cholinergic urticaria physical exercise has to be done by the patient (jogging, running, riding), anti-H1 are efficient. In other physical urticarias (delayed-pressure, cold, solar, heat, vibratory urticarias) as to be managed as follows: (1) to perform specific tests with respectively (weights; ice cube; UVA, UVB and visible light exposure; hot water contained in a tube; a vortex mixer); (2) to avoid eliciting stimuli; (3) to treat the associated diseases e.g. in secondary cold urticaria; (4) to try to induce a physical tolerance, a review is enclosed concerning cold, solar, heat and aquagenic urticarias; (5) to associate or not non sedative 2(nd) generation antihistamines. All the other alternative treatments are discussed but none of them has been evaluated. PMID:12843805

  9. Ophthalmic thermal injuries.

    PubMed

    Lipshy, K A; Wheeler, W E; Denning, D E

    1996-06-01

    Reflex lid closure often protects the eyes during facial burns. Although corneal burns are uncommon, other ophthalmic injuries occur more frequently. Ophthalmic burns are usually associated with marked facial damage and possible inhalation injury. Failure to recognize and appropriately treat ophthalmic burns can lead to catastrophic sequelae. We performed a 2-year survey of all facial burns in our burn unit. Forty-four patients with thermal facial burns were identified. Sixteen patients had ophthalmic injuries. Corneal injury was detected in 13 per cent (2/16). Intubation was required in 43.75 per cent (7/16) of patients with ophthalmic injuries. Mortality was 25 per cent (4/16). We conclude that patients with facial burns severe enough to cause ophthalmic injuries may be associated with other lethal injuries, and a high index of suspicion should be maintained until all lethal injuries are ruled out. All ophthalmic injuries should be evaluated by an ophthalmologist. PMID:8651533

  10. [Therapeutic physical training after knee injuries].

    PubMed

    Freiwald, J; Engelhardt, M; Gnewuch, A; Reuter, I; Konrad, P

    1997-01-01

    Exercise training is a therapy that accompanies and follows physiotherapy. Basic training principles are discussed on the basis of motricity research. Initially, exercise therapy mostly trains patients to recall and standardize the execution of exercise programs. With the patient's increasing power of endurance, the intensity of extent of training are increased. Exercise therapy eventually aims at particularly preparing the patient for the activities of daily living and the sportsman for the requirements specific to training and competition. PMID:9542006

  11. Health Physics Technician (HPT) Injury Reduction

    SciTech Connect

    BUMP, S.L.

    2001-10-01

    The Hanford Environmental Cleanup project one of the largest of its type in the United States of America. Due to age of the facilities and their operating history, this cleanup has presented interesting challenges to the Radiological Control Organization.

  12. Neuropathophysiology of Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Quillinan, Nidia; Herson, Paco S; Traystman, Richard J

    2016-09-01

    Every year in the United States, millions of individuals incur ischemic brain injury from stroke, cardiac arrest, or traumatic brain injury. These acquired brain injuries can lead to death or long-term neurologic and neuropsychological impairments. The mechanisms of ischemic and traumatic brain injury that lead to these deficiencies result from a complex interplay of interdependent molecular pathways, including excitotoxicity, acidotoxicity, ionic imbalance, oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis. This article reviews several mechanisms of brain injury and discusses recent developments. Although much is known from animal models of injury, it has been difficult to translate these effects to humans. PMID:27521191

  13. Incidence of syndesmotic injury.

    PubMed

    Vosseller, J Turner; Karl, John W; Greisberg, Justin K

    2014-03-01

    Injury to the tibiofibular syndesmosis can occur with ankle sprain or fracture. The incidence of syndesmotic injury has not been specifically studied at a population level. Data on syndesmotic injury were obtained from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP), a federal-state-private partnership. It is administered by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, a division of the US Department of Health and Human Services. Two HCUP databases were queried for 8 states: the State Inpatient Database and the State Emergency Department Database. The first 6 International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Edition (ICD-9) code diagnoses were searched for codes that are used for syndesmotic injury (ie, 845.03). These data, along with data from the 2010 US census, were used to yield incidence rates for syndesmosis injury, as well as for various demographic groups. National estimates of injury totals were also calculated. In the 8 states, there were a total of 1821 syndesmotic injuries. Given the population of these states, the incidence rate of syndesmotic injury was 2.09 syndesmotic injuries per 100,000 person-years. This incidence correlates to an estimated 6445 syndesmotic injuries per year in the United States. These data provide some baseline numbers as to the incidence of syndesmotic injury in the United States. Although the incidence was low relative to some other injuries, the fact that syndesmotic injuries tend to occur in younger patients may have a greater effect in terms of productive years of life lost. PMID:24762148

  14. DEFINING PATTERNS OF GENITAL INJURY FROM SEXUAL ASSAULT

    PubMed Central

    SOMMERS, MARILYN SAWYER

    2011-01-01

    The forensic examination following rape has two primary purposes: to provide health care and to collect evidence. Physical injuries need treatment so that they heal without adverse consequences. The pattern of injuries also has a forensic significance in that injuries are linked to the outcome of legal proceedings. This literature review investigates the variables related to genital injury prevalence and location that are reported in a series of retrospective reviews of medical records. The author builds the case that the prevalence and location of genital injury provide only a partial description of the nature of genital trauma associated with sexual assault and suggests a multidimensional definition of genital injury pattern. Several of the cited studies indicate that new avenues of investigation, such as refined measurement strategies for injury severity and skin color, may lead to advancements in health care, forensic, and criminal justice science. PMID:17596344

  15. Unfavourable outcomes in maxillofacial injuries: How to avoid and manage

    PubMed Central

    Parashar, Atul; Sharma, Ramesh Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Faciomaxillary injuries remain one of the common injuries managed by plastic surgeons. The goal of treatment in these injuries is the three-dimensional restoration of the disturbed anatomy so as to achieve pre-injury form and function. In this article, the authors review the anatomic, diagnostic and management considerations to optimise results and minimise the late post-traumatic deformities. Most of the adverse outcomes are usually a result of poorly addressed underlying structural injury during the primary management. An accurate physical examination combined with detailed computed tomographic scanning of the craniofacial skeleton is required to generate an appropriate treatment plan. This organised approach has proven effective in restoring the injured structures to pre-injury status. Multiple clinical cases are used to illustrate the different fracture patterns along with various surgical techniques to achieve an acceptable outcome. Early diagnosis and timely management of complications in these complex injuries is also discussed. PMID:24501458

  16. Activity-related parenting practices: development of the Parenting Related to Activity Measure (PRAM) and links with mothers' eating psychopathology and compulsive exercise beliefs.

    PubMed

    Haycraft, Emma; Powell, Faye; Meyer, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    This is a two-study paper that developed a measure to assess parenting practices related to children's physical activity and explored maternal predictors of such parenting practices. Study 1: A self-report measure of parents' activity-related practices (the Parenting Related to Activity Measure) was developed, and a principal component analysis was carried out using data from 233 mothers of 4.5- to 9-year-old children. The results supported a six-factor model and yielded the following subscales: Responsibility/monitoring; Activity regulation; Control of active behaviours; Overweight concern; Rewarding parenting; and Pressure to exercise. Study 2: Mothers (N = 170) completed the Parenting Related to Activity Measure, alongside measures of eating psychopathology and compulsive exercise, to identify predictors of activity-related parenting practices. Mothers' eating psychopathology and exercise beliefs predicted activity parenting practices with their sons and daughters, but different predictors were seen for mothers of daughters versus sons. Mothers' eating and exercise attitudes are important predictors of their activity-related parenting practices, particularly with girls. Identifying early interactions around activity/exercise could be important in preventing the development of problematic beliefs about exercise, which are often a key symptom of eating disorders. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. PMID:25377732

  17. Hand Injuries and Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... the wrist, often making your fingers feel numb Injuries that result in fractures, ruptured ligaments and dislocations ... deformity Tendinitis - irritation of the tendons Disorders and injuries of your fingers and thumb

  18. Rotator Cuff Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... cuff are common. They include tendinitis, bursitis, and injuries such as tears. Rotator cuff tendons can become ... cuff depends on age, health, how severe the injury is, and how long you've had the ...

  19. What Are Sports Injuries?

    MedlinePlus

    ... 06:02 Size: 11.7 MB November 2014 What Are Sports Injuries? Fast Facts: An Easy-to- ... Research Is Being Done on Treating Sports Injuries? What’s the Difference Between an Acute and a Chronic ...

  20. Head injury - first aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000028.htm Head injury - first aid To use the sharing features on this page, ... a concussion can range from mild to severe. First Aid Learning to recognize a serious head injury and ...

  1. Head Injury Prevention Tips

    MedlinePlus

    Head Injury Prevention Tips American Association of Neurological Surgeons 5550 Meadowbrook Drive, Rolling Meadows, IL 60008-3852 ... defined as a blow or jolt to the head or a penetrating head injury that disrupts the ...

  2. Injuries in classical ballet.

    PubMed

    Quirk, R

    1984-11-01

    The specialised medical knowledge about dancers' injuries is negligible compared with that which surrounds sports medicine. The author discusses his experience in the management of more than 2000 injuries sustained by dancers of classical ballet. PMID:6151832

  3. Spinal Cord Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    Your spinal cord is a bundle of nerves that runs down the middle of your back. It carries signals back ... forth between your body and your brain. A spinal cord injury disrupts the signals. Spinal cord injuries usually ...

  4. Leg Injuries and Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... can damage your legs. Common leg injuries include sprains and strains, joint dislocations, and fractures. These injuries can affect the entire leg, or just the foot, ankle, knee, or hip. Certain diseases also lead to leg ...

  5. Hip Injuries and Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... or falling can all sometimes lead to hip injuries. These include Strains Bursitis Dislocations Fractures Certain diseases also lead to hip injuries or problems. Osteoarthritis can cause pain and limited ...

  6. Brachial Plexus Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Brachial Plexus Injuries Information Page Synonym(s): Erb's Palsy Table of Contents ( ... done? Clinical Trials Organizations What are Brachial Plexus Injuries? The brachial plexus is a network of nerves ...

  7. Arm Injuries and Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... of muscles, joints, tendons and other connective tissue. Injuries to any of these parts of the arm ... a fall or an accident. Types of arm injuries include Tendinitis and bursitis Sprains Dislocations Broken bones ...

  8. Brachial Plexus Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... to the shoulder, arm, and hand. Brachial plexus injuries are caused by damage to those nerves. Symptoms ... sensation in the arm or hand Brachial plexus injuries can occur as a result of shoulder trauma, ...

  9. Facial Injuries and Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    Face injuries and disorders can cause pain and affect how you look. In severe cases, they can affect sight, ... your nose, cheekbone and jaw, are common facial injuries. Certain diseases also lead to facial disorders. For ...

  10. Teeth Injuries (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Teeth Injuries KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Teeth Injuries ... or young child injures the gums or baby teeth: Apply pressure to the area (if it's bleeding) ...

  11. Head Injuries in Soccer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fields, Karl B.

    1989-01-01

    This article reviews the medical literature on head injuries in soccer and concludes that protective headgear to reduce these injuries may not be as effective as rule changes and other measures, such as padding goal posts. (IAH)

  12. Leg Injuries and Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Common leg injuries include sprains and strains, joint dislocations, and fractures. These injuries can affect the entire leg, or just the foot, ankle, knee, or hip. Certain diseases also lead to leg problems. For ...

  13. Football injuries: current concepts.

    PubMed

    Olson, David E; Sikka, Robby Singh; Hamilton, Abigail; Krohn, Austin

    2011-01-01

    Football is one of the most popular sports in the United States and is the leading cause of sports-related injury. A large focus in recent years has been on concussions, sudden cardiac death, and heat illness, all thought to be largely preventable health issues in the young athlete. Injury prevention through better understanding of injury mechanisms, education, proper equipment, and practice techniques and preseason screening may aid in reducing the number of injuries. Proper management of on-field injuries and health emergencies can reduce the morbidity associated with these injuries and may lead to faster return to play and reduced risk of future injury. This article reviews current concepts surrounding frequently seen football-related injuries. PMID:23531977

  14. Bicycle-related injuries.

    PubMed

    Thompson, M J; Rivara, F P

    2001-05-15

    Bicycle riding is a popular form of recreation among persons of all ages, and related injuries cause significant morbidity and mortality. Most injuries occur in males and are associated with riding at high speed; most serious injuries and fatalities result from collisions with motor vehicles. Although superficial soft tissue injuries and musculoskeletal trauma are the most common injuries, head injuries are responsible for most fatalities and long-term disabilities. Overuse injuries may contribute to a variety of musculoskeletal complaints, compression neuropathies, perineal and genital complaints. Physicians treating such patients should consider medical factors, as well as suggest adjusting various components of the bicycle, such as the seat height and handlebars. Encouraging bicycle riders to wear helmets is key to preventing injuries; protective clothing and equipment, and general safety advice also may offer some protection. PMID:11388717

  15. Experimental traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury, a leading cause of death and disability, is a result of an outside force causing mechanical disruption of brain tissue and delayed pathogenic events which collectively exacerbate the injury. These pathogenic injury processes are poorly understood and accordingly no effective neuroprotective treatment is available so far. Experimental models are essential for further clarification of the highly complex pathology of traumatic brain injury towards the development of novel treatments. Among the rodent models of traumatic brain injury the most commonly used are the weight-drop, the fluid percussion, and the cortical contusion injury models. As the entire spectrum of events that might occur in traumatic brain injury cannot be covered by one single rodent model, the design and choice of a specific model represents a major challenge for neuroscientists. This review summarizes and evaluates the strengths and weaknesses of the currently available rodent models for traumatic brain injury. PMID:20707892

  16. Brain injury - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... Rehabilitation Nurses. Care of the patient with mild traumatic brain injury. Available at: www.aann.org/pubs/content/guidelines. ... Stroud, NL, Zafonte R. Rehabilitation of patients with traumatic brain injury. In: Winn HR, ed. Youman's Neurological Surgery . 6th ...

  17. Eye Injuries in Sports

    MedlinePlus

    ... these injuries can be prevented. Overall, basketball and baseball cause the most eye injuries, followed by water ... involve body contact. Some high-risk sports are baseball, basketball, hockey, football, lacrosse, tennis and other racquet ...

  18. Ballistic injury.

    PubMed

    Fackler, M L

    1986-12-01

    Wound profiles made under controlled conditions in the wound ballistics laboratory at the Letterman Army Institute of Research showed the location along their tissue path at which projectiles cause tissue disruption and the type of disruption (crush from direct contact with the projectile or stretch from temporary cavitation). Comparison of wound profiles showed the fallacy in attempting to judge wound severity using velocity alone, and laid to rest the common belief that in treating a wound caused by a high-velocity missile, one needs to excise tissue far in excess of that which appears damaged. All penetrating projectile wounds, whether civilian or military, therefore should be treated the same regardless of projectile velocity. Diagnosis of the approximate amount and location of tissue disruption is made by physical examination and appropriate radiographic studies. These wounds are contaminated, and coverage with a penicillin-type antibiotic should be provided. PMID:3777618

  19. A pseudoenergy wave-activity relation for ageostrophic and non-hydrostatic moist atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ran, Ling-Kun; Ping, Fan

    2015-05-01

    By employing the energy-Casimir method, a three-dimensional virtual pseudoenergy wave-activity relation for a moist atmosphere is derived from a complete system of nonhydrostatic equations in Cartesian coordinates. Since this system of equations includes the effects of water substance, mass forcing, diabatic heating, and dissipations, the derived wave-activity relation generalizes the previous result for a dry atmosphere. The Casimir function used in the derivation is a monotonous function of virtual potential vorticity and virtual potential temperature. A virtual energy equation is employed (in place of the previous zonal momentum equation) in the derivation, and the basic state is stationary but can be three-dimensional or, at least, not necessarily zonally symmetric. The derived wave-activity relation is further used for the diagnosis of the evolution and propagation of meso-scale weather systems leading to heavy rainfall. Our diagnosis of two real cases of heavy precipitation shows that positive anomalies of the virtual pseudoenergy wave-activity density correspond well with the strong precipitation and are capable of indicating the movement of the precipitation region. This is largely due to the cyclonic vorticity perturbation and the vertically increasing virtual potential temperature over the precipitation region. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2013CB430105), the Key Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (Grant No. KZZD-EW-05), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 41175060), and the Project of CAMS, China (Grant No. 2011LASW-B15).

  20. Softball Pitching and Injury.

    PubMed

    Lear, Aaron; Patel, Niraj

    2016-01-01

    The windmill softball pitch generates considerable forces about the athlete's shoulder and elbow. The injury pattern of softball pitchers seems to be primarily overuse injury, and they seem not to suffer the same volume of injury that baseball pitchers do. This article will explore softball pitching techniques, kinetics and kinematics of the windmill pitch, epidemiology of softball pitchers, and discuss possible etiologies of softball pitching injuries. PMID:27618243

  1. Editorial. Bicycle injuries and injury prevention.

    PubMed

    Pless, I B

    2014-07-01

    In 1989, long before this journal added injuries to its title, it published two papers on childhood injuries and I was asked to write an editorial for this occasion. I chose the title "Challenges for Injury Prevention: Two Neglected Aspects" because I thought the papers neglected to mention the inadequacy of injury statistics (at the time there were no emergency department data) and also failed to emphasize the public health importance of childhood injuries. It is instructive, therefore, to compare this issue's offerings with how matters stood nearly 25 years ago and see what progress we've made. Papers in this and the previous issue of this journal discuss bicycle safety in general and helmet use in particular. Although this is a somewhat narrow focus, it serves as one indicator of how the field has evolved and what remains to be done to improve both the science and policy in this domain. PMID:24991769

  2. [Maxillo facial injuries in victims of violence at school environment].

    PubMed

    Cavalcanti, Alessandro Leite

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the presence of injuries in the maxillofacial complex in children and adolescents victims of physical violence in school environment. Forty-two proofs involved children and adolescents victims of physical violence in school in the years of 2003 and 2006 were analyzed. The data had been registered in specific form collecting the following variables: gender, age, perpetrator agent, localization of the injuries in the distinct regions of the body, type and number of injuries, existence of injuries in oral cavity and tissue involvement. It was observed that 61.9% of the victims were male (61.9%), age-group 13 to 17 years the most reached. In most of the cases (92.9%), the perpetrators were friends from school while teachers represented 7.1% of the cases. Injuries around the head and face were present in 69.1% of the sample, with 23.8% of the victims presenting injuries in the buccal cavity, all of the injuries were situated in soft tissues, mainly in the lips. It was evidenced to be high the existence of injuries in the buccal cavity of the victims of aggression in the school environment, confirming the importance of dentistry in the diagnosis of injuries around the head and face of the victims of physical abuse. PMID:19851596

  3. Healthy eating at school to compensate for the activity-related obesigenic lifestyle in children and adolescents: the Quebec experience.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Angelo; Arguin, Hélène

    2011-03-01

    In this article, we describe the Quebec experience about the determinants of childhood obesity and the search for solutions, which are well adapted to the constraints of the current lifestyle. As expected, it is likely that a decrease in physical fitness and its related sedentariness as well as suboptimal food habits have contributed to the increase in overweight prevalence that was observed between 1980 and 2000. Our research experience suggests that other less suspected activity related factors have also played an important role in the occurrence of the obesity epidemic. This is particularly the case for short sleeping and demanding mental work, which are features of our modern lifestyle. Because there is no foreseeable prospect for a change in sleep and mental work habits, we argue that compensations in other factors may be necessary to prevent weight gain in this new context. We thus developed a concept of food design aiming at the maximization of the satiating properties of a food or a meal course. In this context, we were successful in the design of healthy lunch bags for students of a school located in a low socioeconomic area. Indeed, for a majority of menus, an optimal compromise seemed to be reached between nutrient composition, satiating potential, palatability, and financial accessibility. In summary, the Quebec experience reveals that childhood obesity is a complex problem that partly results from unsuspected environmental factors that deserve creative solutions to at least partly compensate for their effect. PMID:22332048

  4. "Floating shoulder" injuries.

    PubMed

    Heng, Kenneth

    2016-12-01

    "Floating shoulder" is a rare injury complex resulting from high-energy blunt force trauma to the shoulder, resulting in scapulothoracic dissociation. It is commonly associated with catastrophic neurovascular injury. Two cases of motorcyclists with floating shoulder injuries are described. PMID:26961729

  5. Repetitive Stress Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... any problems since. What Are Repetitive Stress Injuries? Repetitive stress injuries (RSIs) are injuries that happen when too much stress is placed on a part of the body, resulting in inflammation (pain and swelling), muscle strain, or tissue damage. This stress generally occurs from ...

  6. Rotator Cuff Injuries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connors, G. Patrick

    Many baseball players suffer from shoulder injuries related to the rotator cuff muscles. These injuries may be classified as muscular strain, tendonitis or tenosynovitis, and impingement syndrome. Treatment varies from simple rest to surgery, so it is important to be seen by a physician as soon as possible. In order to prevent these injuries, the…

  7. Assessment of Ankle Injuries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mai, Nicholas; Cooper, Leslie

    2009-01-01

    School nurses are faced with the challenge of identifying and treating ankle injuries in the school setting. There is little information guiding the assessment and treatment of these children when an injury occurs. It is essential for school nurses to understand ankle anatomy, pathophysiology of the acute ankle injury, general and orthopedic…

  8. Ankle syndesmosis injuries.

    PubMed

    Peña, Fernando A; Coetzee, J Chris

    2006-03-01

    Physician awareness of ankle syndesmosis injuries is improving. The anatomy involved and the mechanism of injury are extremely relevant for the understanding and treatment of this type of injury. Examination under anesthesia may confirm the syndesmosis instability. Based on those findings, stabilization is the recommended approach. PMID:16564452

  9. Spinal Cord Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... forth between your body and your brain. A spinal cord injury disrupts the signals. Spinal cord injuries usually begin with a blow that fractures or ... down on the nerve parts that carry signals. Spinal cord injuries can be complete or incomplete. With a complete ...

  10. Candidate Species Selection and Controlled Environment Injuries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tibbitts, T. W.

    1982-01-01

    Research was undertaken to attempt to identify the causal agents for intumescences that develop on many different species of plants in controlled environments. Concentration and filtration procedures were not successful in identifying any particular compounds. The injury was found to develop, even though the atmosphere for the plants is filtered through activated charcoal, potassium permanganate, or is subjected to catalytic combustion at 450 C. Thus, the causal agent is apparently either an oxidized compound or specific element, or the result of some unrecognized variation in physical conditions around the plants. The research has demonstrated that the injury is controlled to a significant extent by temperature. Growing temperatures of 20 degrees and 25 degrees C resulted in serious injury on plants, but temperatures of 30 C resulted in very little injury.

  11. SPORTS INJURIES OF THE UPPER LIMBS

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Rogerio Teixeira

    2015-01-01

    Sports injuries of the upper limbs are very common in physical activities and therefore, they need to be studied in detail, taking into consideration specific aspects of the types of sports practiced. Special attention should be paid to the dynamics of the shoulder girdle and the entire scapular belt, since the most appropriate treatment for athletes can only be provided in this manner. This can also help to prevent recurrences, which can occur in some cases because athletes always seek to return to their pre-injury level of sports activity. This article will focus primarily on the management of upper-limb tendon injuries, from the physiopathology through to the new methods of injury treatment that are more prevalent in sports practice in Brazil. PMID:27022529

  12. Meniscal injury: I. Basic science and evaluation.

    PubMed

    Greis, Patrick E; Bardana, Davide D; Holmstrom, Michael C; Burks, Robert T

    2002-01-01

    The patient with meniscal injury may present with pain, swelling, or mechanical symptoms and often requires surgical intervention for symptom resolution. Treatment of such injuries relies on understanding the gross and microanatomic features of the meniscus that are important in maintaining meniscal function. The ability of the meniscus to participate in load bearing, shock absorption, joint lubrication, and joint stability depends on the maintenance of its structural integrity. The diagnosis of meniscal injury often can be made by clinical evaluation utilizing the history, physical examination, and plain radiographs. Magnetic resonance imaging can be useful in confirming the diagnosis when clinical findings are inconclusive. Treatment depends on tear pattern, vascularity, and an assessment of tissue quality. Surgical decision making for the treatment of meniscal injury is based on patient factors and understanding of the meniscal structure, function, and pathology. PMID:12041938

  13. Airway injury during high-level exercise.

    PubMed

    Kippelen, Pascale; Anderson, Sandra D

    2012-05-01

    Airway epithelial cells act as a physical barrier against environmental toxins and injury, and modulate inflammation and the immune response. As such, maintenance of their integrity is critical. Evidence is accumulating to suggest that exercise can cause injury to the airway epithelium. This seems the case particularly for competitive athletes performing high-level exercise, or when exercise takes place in extreme environmental conditions such as in cold dry air or in polluted air. Dehydration of the small airways and increased forces exerted on to the airway surface during severe hyperpnoea are thought to be key factors in determining the occurrence of injury of the airway epithelium. The injury-repair process of the airway epithelium may contribute to the development of the bronchial hyper-responsiveness that is documented in many elite athletes. PMID:22247295

  14. Traumatic Brain Injury: An Educator's Manual. [Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiegenbaum, Ed, Ed.; And Others

    This manual for the Portland (Oregon) Public Schools presents basic information on providing educational services to children with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Individual sections cover the following topics: the brain, central nervous system and behavior; physical, psychological and emotional implication; traumatic brain injury in children versus…

  15. Social and Emotional Impacts of Farmwork Injuries: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, S. M.; Murphy, Dennis J.; Davis, Lisa A.

    2006-01-01

    Context: The physical hazards of farming have been extensively studied and reported upon. Far less studied are the social and emotional impacts of farmwork injuries and deaths. Purpose: To investigate and document broad but targeted issues regarding the impact on individuals, families, and communities of farmwork injuries and fatalities of farmer…

  16. Teens' Knowledge of Risk Factors for Sports Injuries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Cynthia W.

    2004-01-01

    Youth participation in sports has increased greatly over the past 20 years. Consequently, there has been a rise in the number of sports injuries. A study was conducted to determine teen's level of physical activity, knowledge about risk factors for sports injuries, use of protective equipment, and parental involvement. Two groups of teens, one of…

  17. The Role of Hope in Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heinemann, Allen; And Others

    Hope has motivational importance to individuals who have suffered a major physical loss. Theories of adjustment to a spinal cord injury take one of three approaches: (1) premorbid personality, which highlights the individual's past experiences, personal meanings, and body image; (2) typologies of injury reactions, which range from normal to…

  18. Treatment for Common Running/Walking Foot Injuries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDaniel, Larry W.; Haar, Calin; Ihlers, Matt; Jackson, Allen; Gaudet, Laura

    2009-01-01

    Whether you are a weekend warrior or a serious athlete, most runners fear the possibility of being injured. For those who are physically active or stand on their feet all day, healthy feet are important Highly conditioned runners spend many hours performing foot maintenance to prevent unnecessary injuries. Some of the common foot injuries are:…

  19. 48 CFR 52.225-25 - Prohibition on Engaging in Sanctioned Activities Relating to Iran-Certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Sanctioned Activities Relating to Iran-Certification. 52.225-25 Section 52.225-25 Federal Acquisition... Relating to Iran—Certification. As prescribed at 25.1103(e), insert the following provision: PROHIBITION ON ENGAGING IN SANCTIONED ACTIVITIES RELATING TO IRAN—CERTIFICATION (SEP 2010) (a) Definition. Person—...

  20. 48 CFR 52.225-25 - Prohibition on Engaging in Sanctioned Activities Relating to Iran-Certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Sanctioned Activities Relating to Iran-Certification. 52.225-25 Section 52.225-25 Federal Acquisition... Relating to Iran—Certification. As prescribed at 25.1103(e), insert the following provision: PROHIBITION ON ENGAGING IN SANCTIONED ACTIVITIES RELATING TO IRAN—CERTIFICATION (SEP 2010) (a) Definition. Person—...

  1. 31 CFR 538.536 - Activities relating to the petroleum and petrochemical industries in the Republic of South Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Activities relating to the petroleum... Policy § 538.536 Activities relating to the petroleum and petrochemical industries in the Republic of... and transactions relating to the petroleum and petrochemical industries in the Republic of South...

  2. 31 CFR 538.536 - Activities relating to the petroleum and petrochemical industries in the Republic of South Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Activities relating to the petroleum... Policy § 538.536 Activities relating to the petroleum and petrochemical industries in the Republic of... and transactions relating to the petroleum and petrochemical industries in the Republic of South...

  3. 31 CFR 538.536 - Activities relating to the petroleum and petrochemical industries in the Republic of South Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Activities relating to the petroleum... Policy § 538.536 Activities relating to the petroleum and petrochemical industries in the Republic of... and transactions relating to the petroleum and petrochemical industries in the Republic of South...

  4. 31 CFR 560.505 - Importation of certain Iranian-origin services authorized; activities related to certain visa...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... services authorized; activities related to certain visa categories authorized. 560.505 Section 560.505...; activities related to certain visa categories authorized. (a) The importation of Iranian-origin services into... with that purpose. (b) Persons otherwise qualified for a non-immigrant visa under categories A-3 and...

  5. Repetition-induced activity-related summation of pain in patients with fibromyalgia.

    PubMed

    Lambin, Dorothée Ialongo; Thibault, Pascal; Simmonds, Maureen; Lariviere, Christian; Sullivan, Michael J L

    2011-06-01

    This study compared individuals with fibromyalgia (FM) and individuals with chronic low back pain (CLBP) on repetition-induced summation of activity-related pain (RISP). Fear of movement, pain catastrophizing and depression were examined as potential mediators of group differences. The sample consisted of 50 women with FM and 50 women with CLBP who were matched on age, pain severity and pain duration. Participants were asked to lift a series of 18 weighted canisters. In one trial, participants were asked to rate their pain after each lift. In a second trial, participants estimated the weight of each of the canisters. An index of repetition-induced summation of pain was derived as the change in pain ratings across repeated lifts. Analyses revealed that women with FM obtained higher scores on the index of RISP than women with CLBP. The heightened sensitivity to RISP in individuals with FM was not due to generalized hyperalgesia or a greater work output. Consistent with previous research, fear of movement was positively correlated with RISP. Pain disability was also associated with greater RISP, but not pain catastrophizing or depression. Discussion addresses the processes by which individuals with FM might have increased RISP responses. The findings of this study point to possible neurophysiological mechanisms that could help explain the high levels of pain-related disability seen in individuals with FM. Patients with fibromyalgia showed greater activity-related summation of pain than patients with chronic low back pain. PMID:21439730

  6. Using Activity-Related Behavioural Features towards More Effective Automatic Stress Detection

    PubMed Central

    Giakoumis, Dimitris; Drosou, Anastasios; Cipresso, Pietro; Tzovaras, Dimitrios; Hassapis, George; Gaggioli, Andrea; Riva, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces activity-related behavioural features that can be automatically extracted from a computer system, with the aim to increase the effectiveness of automatic stress detection. The proposed features are based on processing of appropriate video and accelerometer recordings taken from the monitored subjects. For the purposes of the present study, an experiment was conducted that utilized a stress-induction protocol based on the stroop colour word test. Video, accelerometer and biosignal (Electrocardiogram and Galvanic Skin Response) recordings were collected from nineteen participants. Then, an explorative study was conducted by following a methodology mainly based on spatiotemporal descriptors (Motion History Images) that are extracted from video sequences. A large set of activity-related behavioural features, potentially useful for automatic stress detection, were proposed and examined. Experimental evaluation showed that several of these behavioural features significantly correlate to self-reported stress. Moreover, it was found that the use of the proposed features can significantly enhance the performance of typical automatic stress detection systems, commonly based on biosignal processing. PMID:23028461

  7. EEG frequency tagging to explore the cortical activity related to the tactile exploration of natural textures

    PubMed Central

    Moungou, Athanasia; Thonnard, Jean-Louis; Mouraux, André

    2016-01-01

    When sliding our fingertip against a textured surface, complex vibrations are produced in the skin. It is increasingly recognised that the neural transduction and processing of these vibrations plays an important role in the dynamic tactile perception of textures. The aim of the present study was to develop a novel means to tag the cortical activity related to the processing of these vibrations, by periodically modulating the amplitude of texture exploration-induced vibrations such as to record a steady-state evoked potential (SS-EP). The EEG was recorded while the right index fingertip was scanned against four different textures using a constant exploration velocity. Amplitude modulation of the elicited vibrations was achieved by periodically modulating the force applied against the finger. Frequency analysis of the recorded EEG signals showed that modulation of the vibrations induced by the fingertip-texture interactions elicited an SS-EP at the frequency of modulation (3 Hz) as well as its second harmonic (6 Hz), maximal over parietal regions contralateral to the stimulated side. Textures generating stronger vibrations also generated SS-EPs of greater magnitude. Our results suggest that frequency tagging using SS-EPs can be used to isolate and explore the brain activity related to the tactile exploration of natural textures. PMID:26853820

  8. Deriving Age-Activity Relations in M Dwarf Stars Using Clusters of Known Ages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersen, J. M.; West, A. A.; Covey, K. R.; McDonald, M.; Veilleux, S.; Seth, A.

    2011-12-01

    We present preliminary results from a study of M dwarf magnetic activity in clusters of known ages with the ultimate goal of constraining the age-activity relation. The age-activity relation provides clues to the mechanisms generating magnetic dynamos, especially in late-type dwarfs where their stellar interiors become fully convective. Broadband griz photometry was obtained for four clusters with ages ranging from ˜110 Myrs to 4 Gyrs. Narrowband images of each cluster were acquired with the Maryland Magellan Tunable Filter, tuned to the frequency of Hα, including a correction for the cluster's radial velocity, and a nearby, similarly sized bandpass sampling the stellar pseudo-continuum. This permits a "photometric" measurement of the Hα emission for each star, and thus a measure of activity. Cluster membership is determined from broadband photometry and comparison to stellar positions from previous studies. We report on our findings for the cluster NGC 2516. Hα measurements are stronger for cluster stars than for field stars of the same magnitude. A clear correlation is seen between our Hα strengths measured by narrowband imaging and previous spectroscopic activity measurements for stars where spectra have been obtained.

  9. EEG frequency tagging to explore the cortical activity related to the tactile exploration of natural textures.

    PubMed

    Moungou, Athanasia; Thonnard, Jean-Louis; Mouraux, André

    2016-01-01

    When sliding our fingertip against a textured surface, complex vibrations are produced in the skin. It is increasingly recognised that the neural transduction and processing of these vibrations plays an important role in the dynamic tactile perception of textures. The aim of the present study was to develop a novel means to tag the cortical activity related to the processing of these vibrations, by periodically modulating the amplitude of texture exploration-induced vibrations such as to record a steady-state evoked potential (SS-EP). The EEG was recorded while the right index fingertip was scanned against four different textures using a constant exploration velocity. Amplitude modulation of the elicited vibrations was achieved by periodically modulating the force applied against the finger. Frequency analysis of the recorded EEG signals showed that modulation of the vibrations induced by the fingertip-texture interactions elicited an SS-EP at the frequency of modulation (3 Hz) as well as its second harmonic (6 Hz), maximal over parietal regions contralateral to the stimulated side. Textures generating stronger vibrations also generated SS-EPs of greater magnitude. Our results suggest that frequency tagging using SS-EPs can be used to isolate and explore the brain activity related to the tactile exploration of natural textures. PMID:26853820

  10. [Injuries in the elderly patients].

    PubMed

    Hładki, Waldemar; Brongel, Leszek; Lorkowski, Jacek

    2006-01-01

    More and more higher development of civilisation causes constant lengthening of life in humans. Changes, which occur during growing old of organism predispose to increased risk of trauma. Financial cost of medical treatment of injuries in elderly are higher and higher. Degenerative disease of joints, osteoporosis, earlier body injuries and co-existing other diseases are important risk factors of trauma. Deficiencies of eyesight, hearing and prolonged time reaction are other strengthening risk of trauma. Falls and motor-vehicle accidents are the most frequent causes of trauma in elderly. Distal radius fracture, fracture of the proximal femur bone and compressive vertebral fracture of spine are typical fractures in the skeletal system. Head injuries are the most frequent cause of death in this group of patients. Limited functional reserves, especially in the respiratory and circulatory system brings difficulties in the treatment of even not dangerous injuries of chest and increases risks of infectious complications in respiratory system and finally may lead to organ failure. Elderly patients need more precise physical examination and diagnostics because essential information from the patient's history are often difficult to obtain. Indications to hospitalisation should be often widened even at not dangerous injuries, because the patients may demand intensive analgesic treatment and nursing. Necessity of care provided by other persons, poor care in household conditions, and inadequate social circumstances extend also indications to hospitalisation. There is a need to creation of nursing care departments for considerable group of injured persons who finished proper hospital-treatment, but because of the above-mentioned reasons cannot exist at home. PMID:17469514

  11. Optimal management of ankle syndesmosis injuries

    PubMed Central

    Porter, David A; Jaggers, Ryan R; Barnes, Adam Fitzgerald; Rund, Angela M

    2014-01-01

    Syndesmosis injuries occur when there is a disruption of the distal attachment of the tibia and fibula. These injuries occur commonly (up to 18% of ankle sprains), and the incidence increases in the setting of athletic activity. Recognition of these injuries is key to preventing long-term morbidity. Diagnosis and treatment of these injuries requires a thorough understanding of the normal anatomy and the role it plays in the stability of the ankle. A complete history and physical examination is of paramount importance. Patients usually experience an external rotation mechanism of injury. Key physical exam features include detailed documentation about areas of focal tenderness (syndesmosis and deltoid) and provocative maneuvers such as the external rotation stress test. Imaging workup in all cases should consist of radiographs with the physiologic stress of weight bearing. If these images are inconclusive, then further imaging with external rotation stress testing or magnetic resonance imaging are warranted. Nonoperative treatment is appropriate for stable injuries. Unstable injuries should be treated operatively. This consists of stabilizing the syndesmosis with either trans-syndesmotic screw or tightrope fixation. In the setting of a concomitant Weber B or C fracture, the fibula is anatomically reduced and stabilized with a standard plate and screw construct. Proximal fibular fractures, as seen in the Maisonneuve fracture pattern, are not repaired operatively. Recent interest is moving toward repair of the deltoid ligament, which may provide increased stability, especially in rehabilitation protocols that involve early weight bearing. Rehabilitation is focused on allowing patients to return to their pre-injury activities as quickly and safely as possible. Protocols initially focus on controlling swelling and recovery from surgery. The protocols then progress to restoration of motion, early protected weight bearing, restoration of strength, and eventually a

  12. Turco's injury: diagnosis and treatment☆☆☆

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Ana Paula Simões; Shimba, Leandro Girardi; Ribas, Luiz Henrique Boraschi Vieira; de Almeida, Alexandre Simmonds; Naves, Vinicius; Duarte Júnior, Aires

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to alert doctors to the existence of Turco's injury and discus the existing treatments that have been described in the worldwide literature. A bibliographic survey of Lisfranc's injury and Turco's injury covering from 1985 to 2013 was conducted in the SciELO and PubMed databases. Among the 193 articles, those relating to bone-ligament injuries of the Lisfranc joint and high-energy trauma were excluded, as were the case reports. The patients selected were professional or amateur athletes who solely presented a ligament injury to the Lisfranc joint (Turco's injury), which was diagnosed from the history, physical examination, radiographs and magnetic resonance images. Non-athletic patients and those with associated bone injuries were excluded (10). According to the injury classification, the patients were treated by means of either an open or a closed procedure and then a standard rehabilitation protocol. Out of the 10 patients, five underwent conservative treatment and five underwent surgical treatment using different techniques and synthesis materials. We obtained two poor results, one satisfactory, five good and two excellent. We conclude that the correct diagnosis has a direct influence on the treatment and on the final result obtained, and that lack of knowledge of this injury is the main factor responsible for underdiagnosing Turco's injury. There is a need for randomized prospective studies comparing the types of synthesis and evolution of treated cases, in order to define the best treatment for this injury. PMID:26229821

  13. Injuries in Swedish skydiving

    PubMed Central

    Westman, Anton; Björnstig, Ulf

    2007-01-01

    Objective To create a basis for prevention of modern skydiving injuries. Design Descriptive epidemiological study. Setting National total material. Patients Data on all reported injury events (n = 257) in Swedish skydiving 1999–2003 (total 539 885 jumps) were retrieved from the Swedish Parachute Association. Non‐fatally injured skydivers were sent a questionnaire asking for event and injury details (response rate 89%), and supplementary hospital records were retrieved for the most serious injuries (n = 85). Human, equipment and environmental factors were assessed for risk. Main Outcome Measurements Frequency and severity of injuries. Results Incidence of non‐fatal injury events was 48 per 100 000 jumps. The lower extremities, spine and shoulders were important regions of injury. The most serious injuries were experienced by licensed skydivers, but students in training had a higher injury rate and more often left the sport because of the injury. Of two student‐training systems, one had an incidence less than half that of the other. Conclusions A basis for prevention was created, showing a potential for reduction of frequency and severity of injuries with training and technical interventions. PMID:17224436

  14. Spinal injuries in children.

    PubMed

    Babcock, J L

    1975-05-01

    Spinal injuries with neurologic sequelae are a rare but catastrophic injury. Many of these injuries might be preventable through proper parent and child education, particularly in water sports and vehicles accidents. A significant number of neurologic injuries are incomplete at the time of injury and proper rescue and initial care may make the difference between life as a quadriplegic and life as a normal individual. Because of the complexity of the management of the child with spinal injuries and their relative rarity, the definitive care is best undertaken at hospitals which specialize in the care of spinal injuries. Progressive deformity of the spine, a problem unique to childhood and adolescent paralysis, is often preventable with prolonged immobilization and protection of the spine. Progressive deformities which interfere with function or result in neurologic deterioration require an aggressive surgical approach. PMID:1124228

  15. Lisfranc injuries: an update.

    PubMed

    Eleftheriou, Kyriacos I; Rosenfeld, Peter F; Calder, James D F

    2013-06-01

    Lisfranc injuries are a spectrum of injuries to the tarsometatarsal joint complex of the midfoot. These range from subtle ligamentous sprains, often seen in athletes, to fracture dislocations seen in high-energy injuries. Accurate and early diagnosis is important to optimise treatment and minimise long-term disability, but unfortunately, this is a frequently missed injury. Undisplaced injuries have excellent outcomes with non-operative treatment. Displaced injuries have worse outcomes and require anatomical reduction and internal fixation for the best outcome. Although evidence to date supports the use of screw fixation, plate fixation may avoid further articular joint damage and may have benefits. Recent evidence supports the use of limited arthrodesis in more complex injuries. PMID:23563815

  16. Sports injuries in children.

    PubMed

    Buckley, S L

    1994-02-01

    More children are participating in organized sports than ever before. Although improved coaching, equipment, officiating, and rules have been implemented to reduce injuries, a significant number of young athletes continue to be injured. Fortunately, most injuries sustained by young athletes are minor requiring only symptomatic treatment. However, because of the unique features of the immature skeleton, particularly the presence of open physes, these injuries can nonetheless result in permanent alteration of bone growth with long-term morbidity and disability. Furthermore, the prognosis and natural history of sports injuries in children may be different than that for similar injuries in adults. It is important that the practitioner dealing with young athletes be aware of the unique features of children's sports injuries so that proper treatment may be initiated and prognosis and expected outcome may be intelligently discussed with the patient and parents. This review provides current information regarding sports injuries in children by summarizing the most recent pertinent articles. PMID:8205179

  17. Money, Language Barriers Can Affect Kids' Brain Injury Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159124.html Money, Language Barriers Can Affect Kids' Brain Injury Care Those ... included providers of physical and occupational therapy; speech, language and cognitive therapy; and mental health services. The ...

  18. Preventing Unintentional Injuries in the Home Using the Health Impact Pyramid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mack, Karin A.; Liller, Karen D.; Baldwin, Grant; Sleet, David

    2015-01-01

    Injuries continue to be the leading cause of death for the first four decades of life. These injuries result from a confluence of behavioral, physical, structural, environmental, and social factors. Taken together, these illustrate the importance of taking a broad and multileveled approach to injury prevention. Using examples from fall, fire,…

  19. Management of Pelvic Ring Injuries in Unstable Patients.

    PubMed

    Rudloff, Matthew I; Triantafillou, Kostas M

    2016-07-01

    High-energy pelvic ring injuries can represent life-threatening injuries in the polytraumatized patient, particularly when presenting with hemodynamic instability. These injuries mandate a systematic multidisciplinary approach to evaluation, and timely intervention to address hemorrhage while concomitantly addressing mechanical instability. These pelvic injuries are associated with potentially lethal hemorrhage originating from venous, arterial, and osseous sources. A thorough understanding of anatomy, radiographic findings, and initial physical examination can alert one to the presence of pelvic instability necessitating emergent treatment. The focus is on hemorrhage control, using techniques for skeletal stabilization, angiography, and open procedures to decrease mortality in this high-risk patient population. PMID:27241378

  20. The Voluntary Use of Physical Education Safety Guidelines in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothe, J. Peter

    2009-01-01

    About 25 percent of child injuries occur in schools, most of them during physical education activities. Physical education safety guidelines are one strategy to reduce the number of student injuries. However, based on the findings of a recent evaluation of provincial safety guidelines, only two-thirds of physical education teachers use the safety…

  1. Current environmental, health, safety, and socioeconomic research activities related to oil shale: draft

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-09-01

    This document was prepared for DOE Resource Applications. It provides a compilation of information on current environmental, health, safety and socioeconomic research activities related to oil shale. The information is the most recent available through August 29, 1980. Included are the following: (1) project title; (2) adminstering agency; (3) contractor; (4) project status; (5) funding level; (6) project schedule; (7) deliverable; and (8) key personnel. The data contained in these reports can be used in environmental impact analyses relating oil shale to various incentives given in the Alternative Fuels Bill. The information provided was obtained from computer search printouts, review of respective agency documents and communication with agency personnel. A complete list of references is provided. The sponsoring organizations include the Department of Energy, the Environmental Protection Agency, the Department of Agriculture, and the Department of Interior.

  2. Complement Activation-Related Pseudoallergy Caused by Nanomedicines and its Testing In Vitro and In Vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szebeni, Janos; Urbanics, Rudolf

    Nanotechnology has has been giving birth to a variety of therapeutic and diagnostic products, referred to as nanomedicines (NM), whose successes are based on improved efficacy and/or diminished toxicity. However, these benefits are not without a price. The introduction into the clinics of many NM revealed the presence of an acute immune response to the particles, manifested in hypersensitivity reactions (HSR). The phenomenon is often due to the structural similarity of reactogenic NM to viruses, which may trigger the nonspecific arm of humoral immunity, the complement (C) system to an immediate eliminatory response. The clinical manifestations of this reaction, called C activation-related pseudoallergy (CARPA), include cardiopulmonary distress, which is a safety risk for NM, particularly in the case of cardiac patients with atopic constitution. Thus, understanding CARPA and ways of its prediction and prevention represents an important challenge in NM R&D.

  3. School Reentry Following Traumatic Brain Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deidrick, Kathleen K. M.; Farmer, Janet E.

    2005-01-01

    Successful school reentry following traumatic brain injury (TBI) is critical to recovery. Physical, cognitive, behavioral, academic, and social problems can affect a child's school performance after a TBI. However, early intervention has the potential to improve child academic outcomes and promote effective coping with any persistent changes in…

  4. Foot and Ankle Injuries in Professional Soccer Players: Diagnosis, Treatment, and Expectations.

    PubMed

    Nery, Caio; Raduan, Fernando; Baumfeld, Daniel

    2016-06-01

    Soccer is one of the most popular sports in the world. It has undergone many changes in recent years, mainly because of increased physical demands, and this has led to an increased injury risk. Direct contact accounts for half of all injuries in both indoor and outdoor soccer and ankle sprains are the most common foot and ankle injury. There is a spectrum of foot and ankle injuries and their treatment should be individualized in these high-demand patients. An injury prevention program is also important and should the players, the trainer, responsible physician, and physical therapists. PMID:27261812

  5. An overview of war-related thermal injuries.

    PubMed

    Roeder, Rosiane Alfinito; Schulman, Carl I

    2010-07-01

    Thermal injuries have always been a source of morbidity and mortality in times of war. Historically, they constitute 5% to 20% of all injuries and approximately 4% mortality. Although burn patients constitute a small number of casualties, they consume a disproportionate amount of resources and require specialized care. The current conflicts in the Middle East report similar numbers for thermal injuries despite improvement in predeployment education to reduce noncombat-related burns, flame retardant military clothing, and decline of war patterns usually associated with increased thermal injuries. However, the increased use of improvised explosive devices and vehicle-borne improvised explosive devices presents a new source of potential thermal injury. Indeed, the burden of explosion-related burns has increased as has its associated Injury Severity Score. As has been the case in previous conflicts, most burns are hand and head burns. Although usually not life threatening, burns to hands and face lead to significant physical and psychologic morbidities. In this paper, we will review the currently available literature on war-related thermal injuries in Operation Iraqi and Operation Enduring Freedom. We will describe the epidemiology of burn injuries, prewar preparation to prevent and treat thermal injuries, and the assessment, triage, and final treatment of burn patients. In addition, we will discuss the associated physical and psychologic morbidities and, finally, the role of plastic surgeon in burn rehabilitation and reconstruction. PMID:20613571

  6. Prevention, Recognition, and Management of Urologic Injuries During Gynecologic Surgery.

    PubMed

    Sharp, Howard T; Adelman, Marisa R

    2016-06-01

    The urethra, bladder, and ureters are particularly susceptible to injury during gynecologic surgery. When preventive measures fail, prompt recognition and management of injury can avoid long-term sequelae such as fistula formation and loss of renal function. Intraoperative identification should be the primary goal when an injury occurs, although this is not always possible. Postoperative injury recognition requires a high level of suspicion and vigilance. In addition to history and physical examination, appropriate radiologic studies can be useful in localizing injury and planning management strategies. Some injuries may require Foley catheter drainage or ureteral stenting alone, whereas others will require operative intervention with ureteral resection and reanastomosis or reimplantation. Prompt restoration of urinary drainage or diversion will avoid further renal compromise. PMID:27159741

  7. Prevention of Injury and Violence in the USA

    PubMed Central

    Haegerich, Tamara M; Dahlberg, Linda L; Simon, Thomas R; Baldwin, Grant T; Sleet, David A; Greenspan, Arlene I

    2015-01-01

    In the first three decades of life, more individuals in the USA die from injuries and violence than from any other cause. Millions more people survive and are left with physical, emotional, and financial problems. Injuries and violence are not accidents; they are preventable. Prevention has a strong scientific foundation, yet efforts are not fully implemented or integrated into clinical and community settings. In this Series paper, we review the burden of injuries and violence in the USA, note effective interventions, and discuss methods to bring interventions into practice. Alliances between the public health community and medical care organisations, health-care providers, states, and communities can reduce injuries and violence. We encourage partnerships between medical and public health communities to consistently frame injuries and violence as preventable, identify evidence-based interventions, provide scientific information to decision makers, and strengthen the capacity of an integrated health system to prevent injuries and violence. PMID:24996591

  8. Injury control in childhood.

    PubMed

    Grossman, D C; Rivara, F P

    1992-06-01

    The behavior and environment of individuals are key determinants of both unintentional and intentional injuries in childhood and adolescence. These two determinants often interact so that certain behaviors lead to different injury outcomes depending on the environmental context of the injury. For example, depression is more likely to lead to suicide in the presence of alcohol intoxication. Alcohol intoxication is much more likely to lead to the choice of a firearm in a suicide attempt. Children with poor pedestrian crossing skills are far more likely to be hit in a busy urban intersection than in a safer location. The science of injury control has attempted to learn more about both the behavioral, environmental, and agent characteristics that lead to injury. Each of these dimensions offers opportunities for injury prevention or amelioration of the outcome. Despite increasing knowledge about how certain behaviors are associated with specific types of injuries, there has been only limited success achieved by attempts to modify behavior, particularly by persuasion or education. More success has been derived by legislative mandates. The most success, particularly in the prevention of unintentional injury, has been achieved by modification of the environments and the agents that are most often associated with injury. Because intentional injuries involve extremely complex and aberrant behavior, there is a persistent concern that attempts to modify the environment (e.g., handgun control) will be overridden by those with a high level of intent, i.e., they will seek another method. Although this may be true for carefully premeditated acts, suicide attempts and assaults by youth are usually precipitated by an acute stressor that depends on the availability of a weapon at that immediate time. While we develop more sophisticated psychosocial epidemiologic models that accurately predict violent behavior, we must continue to analyze aspects of intentional injuries that offer an

  9. Physical Assault of School Personnel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kajs, Lawrence T.; Schumacher, Gary; Vital, Cheryl A.

    2014-01-01

    Physical assault against school personnel is a serious problem, although not highly publicized. This workplace violence can result in debilitating injury to school employees along with major monetary costs. This article looks at legal issues that address physical assault against school personnel as well as the roles professional associations have…

  10. Injuries are not accidents

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez, María Isabel

    2014-01-01

    Injuries are the result of an acute exposure to exhort of energy or a consequence of a deficiency in a vital element that exceeds physiological thresholds resulting threatens life. They are classified as intentional or unintentional. Injuries are considered a global health issue because they cause more than 5 million deaths per year worldwide and they are an important contributor to the burden of disease, especially affecting people of low socioeconomic status in low- and middle-income countries. A common misconception exists where injuries are thought to be the same as accidents; however, accidents are largely used as chance events, without taken in consideration that all these are preventable. This review discusses injuries and accidents in the context of road traffic and emphasizes injuries as preventable events. An understanding of the essence of injuries enables the standardization of terminology in public use and facilitates the development of a culture of prevention among all of us. PMID:25386040

  11. Lisfranc injuries in sport.

    PubMed

    DeOrio, Matthew; Erickson, Melissa; Usuelli, Federico Giuseppe; Easley, Mark

    2009-06-01

    Injuries to the Lisfranc ligament complex have traditionally been associated with high energy trauma such as motor vehicle collisions and industrial accidents. Recently, there has been a greater appreciation of mid-foot sprains that represent a spectrum of injury to the Lisfranc ligament complex. As a result, there has been an increased incidence of such injury resulting from low-energy trauma in activities ranging from recreational activity to elite athletic activity. This article discusses issues related to anatomy, clinical presentation, mechanism of injury, and diagnosis that are necessary to provide appropriate treatment for these injuries. There should be a high index of suspicion of this injury, and prompt diagnosis is important to allow athletes to return to sport with the best possible outcome. PMID:19501801

  12. [Peripheral Nerve Injuries in Sports].

    PubMed

    Tettenborn, B; Mehnert, S; Reuter, I

    2016-09-01

    Peripheral nerve injuries due to sports are relatively rare but the exact incidence is not known due to a lack of epidemiological studies. Particular sports activities tend to cause certain peripheral nerve injuries including direct acute compression or stretching, repetitive compression and stretching over time, or another mechanism such as ischemia or laceration. These nerve lesions may be severe and delay or preclude the athlete's return to sports, especially in cases with delayed diagnosis. Repetitive and vigorous use or overuse makes the athlete vulnerable to disorders of the peripheral nerves, and sports equipment may cause compression of the nerves. Depending on etiology, the treatment is primarily conservative and includes physiotherapy, modification of movements and sports equipment, shoe inserts, splinting, antiphlogistic drugs, sometimes local administration of glucocorticoids or, lately, the use of extracorporeal shock waves. Most often, cessation of the offending physical activity is necessary. Surgery is only indicated in the rare cases of direct traumatic nerve injury or when symptoms are refractory to conservative therapy. Prognosis mainly depends on the etiology and the available options of modifying measures.This article is based on the publications "Reuter I, Mehnert S. Engpasssyndrome peripherer Nerven bei Sportlern". Akt Neurol 2012;39:292-308 and Sportverl Sportschad 2013;27:130-146. PMID:27607069

  13. Back injuries in college athletes.

    PubMed

    Keene, J S; Albert, M J; Springer, S L; Drummond, D S; Clancy, W G

    1989-09-01

    Frequency and types of back injuries sustained by intercollegiate athletes were determined by examining medical records of 4,790 athletes that competed in 17 varsity sports over a 10-year period. These athletes sustained 333 back injuries, an injury rate of 7 per 100 participants. Injury rates were significantly higher in football and gymnastics, and 80% of the injuries occurred in practice, 6% in competition, and 14% during preseason conditioning. Muscle strains occurred with much greater frequency than other types of injuries, and acute back injuries were much more prevalent (59%) than overuse injuries (12%) or injuries associated with pre-existing conditions (29%). PMID:2520075

  14. Auger injuries in children.

    PubMed Central

    Letts, R. M.; Gammon, W.

    1978-01-01

    A 6-year review of auger injuries in Manitoba children revealed that 23 children sustained major injuries resulting in amputation of 17 limbs. Auger injuries are the main cause of traumatic amputation in children in Manitoba. Improved safety education for the entire farm family as well as better design of safety shields would decrease this carnage. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 3 FIG. 4 FIG. 5 FIG. 6 FIG. 9 PMID:630513

  15. Injuries from hovercraft racing.

    PubMed

    Cattermole, H R

    1997-01-01

    A 31-year-old man presented with a potentially serious neck injury following a racing hovercraft accident. Previous reports of hovercrafting injuries could not be found, and a review of the sport's own records was undertaken. This shows there to be a wide range of injuries sustained from the sport, although most of them are minor. However, there are some worrying trends, and further studies are being undertaking in order to improve the sport's safety record. PMID:9196622

  16. 48 CFR 25.703 - Prohibition on contracting with entities that engage in certain activities relating to Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Prohibition on contracting with entities that engage in certain activities relating to Iran. 25.703 Section 25.703 Federal... to Iran....

  17. 48 CFR 25.703 - Prohibition on contracting with entities that engage in certain activities relating to Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Prohibition on contracting with entities that engage in certain activities relating to Iran. 25.703 Section 25.703 Federal... to Iran....

  18. 48 CFR 25.703 - Prohibition on contracting with entities that engage in certain activities relating to Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Prohibition on contracting with entities that engage in certain activities relating to Iran. 25.703 Section 25.703 Federal... to Iran....

  19. Midfoot and Forefoot Injuries.

    PubMed

    Gorbachova, Tetyana

    2015-08-01

    Sports injuries of the midfoot and forefoot encompass a spectrum of osseous and soft tissue trauma. Magnetic resonance imaging serves as a primary or important supplementary diagnostic modality in evaluation of various injuries, most important of which include Lisfranc complex injury, stress fractures, and injury to the first metatarsophalangeal joint, aka "turf toe." Current technical advances in magnetic resonance and improved knowledge of regional anatomy enable thorough evaluation of the complex anatomic structures of the foot and facilitate accurate diagnosis in the setting of trauma. PMID:26244619

  20. Imaging of Physeal Injury

    PubMed Central

    Jawetz, Shari T.; Shah, Parina H.; Potter, Hollis G.

    2015-01-01

    Context: As the intensity of youth participation in athletic activities continues to rise, the number of overuse injuries has also increased. A subset of overuse injuries involves the physis, which is extremely susceptible to injury. This paper aims to review the utility of the various imaging modalities in the diagnosis and management of physeal injuries in the skeletally immature population. Evidence Acquisition: A search for the keywords pediatric, physis, growth plate, x-ray, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and overuse injury was performed using the PubMed database. No limits were set for the years of publication. Articles were reviewed for relevance with an emphasis on the imaging of growth plate injuries. Study Design: Retrospective literature review. Level of Evidence: Level 4. Results: Three major imaging modalities (radiographs, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging) complement each other in the evaluation of pediatric patients with overuse injuries. However, magnetic resonance imaging is the only modality that offers direct visualization of the physis, and it also offers the best soft tissue contrast for evaluating the other periarticular structures for concomitant injury. Conclusion: Imaging has an important role in the diagnosis of physeal injuries, and the information it provides has a tremendous impact on the subsequent management of these patients. PMID:25984260

  1. Acute injuries in Taekwondo.

    PubMed

    Schlüter-Brust, K; Leistenschneider, P; Dargel, J; Springorum, H P; Eysel, P; Michael, J W-P

    2011-08-01

    Although Taekwondo is becoming an increasingly popular sport, there is a lack of reliable epidemiologic data on Taekwondo injuries. To perform an epidemiologic study on the variety of types of injury in professional and amateur Taekwondo athletes and to find a relation between Taekwondo style, skill level, weight-class and warm-up routine and the occurrence of injuries, we analysed the injury data using a 7-page questionnaire from a total of 356 Taekwondo athletes who were randomly selected. Overall, we registered a total of 2,164 injuries in 356 athletes. Most traumas were contusions and sprains in the lower extremities. Professional Taekwondo athletes have an increased risk of injury in comparison to recreational athletes. Taekwondo style, weight class and tournament frequency have an influence on the athlete's injury profile. Warm-up routines were found to have a positive effect on injury rates. Overall, Taekwondo may be considered a rather benign activity, if injuries during Taekwondo tournaments can be avoided. If not, Taekwondo can result in serious musculoskeletal problems. PMID:21563037

  2. MUSCLE INJURIES IN ATHLETES

    PubMed Central

    Barroso, Guilherme Campos; Thiele, Edilson Schwansee

    2015-01-01

    This article had the aim of demonstrating the physiology, diagnosis and treatment of muscle injuries, focusing on athletes and their demands and expectations. Muscle injuries are among the most common complaints in orthopedic practice, occurring both among athletes and among non-athletes. These injuries present a challenge for specialists, due to the slow recovery, during which time athletes are unable to take part in training and competitions, and due to frequent sequelae and recurrences of the injuries. Most muscle injuries (between 10% and 55% of all injuries) occur during sports activities. The muscles most commonly affected are the ischiotibial, quadriceps and gastrocnemius. These muscles go across two joints and are more subject to acceleration and deceleration forces. The treatment for muscle injuries varies from conservative treatment to surgery. New procedures are being used, like the hyperbaric chamber and the use of growth factors. However, there is still a high rate of injury recurrence. Muscle injury continues to be a topic of much controversy. New treatments are being researched and developed, but prevention through muscle strengthening, stretching exercises and muscle balance continues to be the best “treatment”. PMID:27027021

  3. Lightning and thermal injuries.

    PubMed

    Sanford, Arthur; Gamelli, Richard L

    2014-01-01

    Electrical burns are classified as either high voltage (1000 volts and higher) or low voltage (<1000 volts). The typical injury with a high-voltage electrical contact is one where subcutaneous fat, muscles, and even bones are injured. Lower voltages may have lesser injuries. The electrical current has the potential to injure via three mechanisms: injury caused by current flow, an arc injury as the current passes from source to an object, and a flame injury caused by ignition of material in the local environment. Different tissues also have different resistance to the conduction of electricity. Voltage, current (amperage), type of current (alternating or direct), path of current flow across the body, duration of contact, and individual susceptibility all determine what final injury will occur. Devitalized tissue must be evaluated and debrided. Ocular cataracts may develop over time following electrical injury. Lightning strikes may conduct millions of volts of electricity, yet the effects can range from minimal cutaneous injuries to significant injury comparable to a high-voltage industrial accident. Lightning strikes commonly result in cardiorespiratory arrest, for which CPR is effective when begun promptly. Neurologic complications from electrical and lightning injuries are highly variable and may present early or late (up to 2 years) after the injury. The prognosis for electricity-related neurologic injuries is generally better than for other types of traumatic causes, suggesting a conservative approach with serial neurologic examinations after an initial CT scan to rule out correctable causes. One of the most common complications of electrical injury is a cardiac dysrhythmia. Because of the potential for large volumes of muscle loss and the release of myoglobin, the presence of heme pigments in the urine must be evaluated promptly. Presence of these products of breakdown of myoglobin and hemoglobin puts the injured at risk for acute renal failure and must be

  4. Tendon and ligament injuries: the genetic component

    PubMed Central

    September, Alison V; Schwellnus, Martin P; Collins, Malcolm

    2007-01-01

    Tendons and ligaments within the upper and lower limbs are some of the more common sites of musculoskeletal injuries during physical activity. Several extrinsic and intrinsic factors have been shown to be associated with these injuries. More recently, studies have suggested that there is also, at least in part, a genetic component to the Achilles tendon, rotator cuff and anterior cruciate ligament injuries. However, specific genes have not been suggested to be associated with rotator cuff or anterior cruciate ligament injuries. Sequence variants of the tenascin C (TNC) gene, on the other hand, have been shown to be associated with Achilles tendinopathies and Achilles tendon ruptures, whereas a variant of the collagen V α 1 (COL5A1) gene has also been shown to be associated with Achilles tendinopathies. Both genes encode for important structural components of tendons and ligaments. The COL5A1 gene encodes for a component of type V collagen, which has an important role in regulating collagen fibre assembly and fibre diameters. The TNC gene, on the other hand, encodes for TNC, which regulates the tissue's response to mechanical load. To date, only variants in two genes have been shown to be associated with Achilles tendon injuries. In addition, although specific genes have not been identified, investigators have suggested that there is also a genetic component to both rotator cuff and anterior cruciate ligament injuries. In future, specific genotypes associated with increased risk of injury to specific tendons and ligaments can prevent these injuries by identifying individuals at higher risk. PMID:17261551

  5. A prospective investigation of injury incidence and injury risk factors among army recruits in military police training

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background United States Army military police (MP) training is a 19-week course designed to introduce new recruits to basic soldiering skills, Army values and lifestyle, and law enforcement skills and knowledge. The present investigation examined injury rates and injury risk factors in MP training. Methods At the start of training, 1,838 male and 553 female MP recruits were administered a questionnaire containing items on date of birth, height, weight, tobacco use, prior physical activity, injury history, and menstrual history. Injuries during training were obtained from electronic medical records and the training units provided data on student graduation and attrition. Results Successfully graduating from the course were 94.3% of the men and 83.7% of the women. Experiencing at least one injury during training were 34.2% of the men and 66.7% of the women (risk ratio (women/men) = 1.95, 95% confidence interval = 1.79-2.13). Recruits were at higher injury risk if they reported that they were older, had smoked in the past, or had performed less frequent exercise or sports prior to MP training. Men were at higher injury risk if they reported a prior injury and women were at higher risk if they reported missing at least six menstrual cycles in the last year or had previously been pregnant. Conclusion The present investigation was the first to identify injury rates and identify specific factors increasing injury risk during MP training. PMID:23327563

  6. Soccer injury in the lower extremities.

    PubMed

    Wong, P; Hong, Y

    2005-08-01

    Information about soccer injuries is required to develop prevention and rehabilitation programmes. Most soccer injuries occur in the lower extremities. This type of injury is reviewed here. Definitions of injury, injury rate, injury percentage, mechanism of injury, anatomical region of injury, type of injury, and severity of injury are summarised. In each section, a description and summary of the data are provided. Finally, the limitations of the studies and suggestions to improve the investigation of soccer injuries are provided. PMID:16046325

  7. Core Injuries Remote from the Pubic Symphysis.

    PubMed

    Belair, Jeffrey A; Hegazi, Tarek M; Roedl, Johannes B; Zoga, Adam C; Omar, Imran M

    2016-09-01

    The core, or central musculoskeletal system of the torso, is essential for participating in sports and other physical activities. Core injuries are commonly encountered in athletes and active individuals. The importance of the midline pubic plate and rectus abdominis-adductor aponeurosis for core stability and function is discussed in the literature. This review article examines other important core injuries remote from the pubic symphysis, relevant clinical features, and preferred approaches to imaging. Several specific syndromes encountered in the core are reviewed. By protocoling imaging studies and identifying pathology, radiologists can add value to the clinical decision-making process and help guide therapeutic options. PMID:27545427

  8. Gyrochronology of Low-mass Stars - Age-Rotation-Activity Relations for Young M Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kidder, Benjamin; Shkolnik, E.; Skiff, B.

    2014-01-01

    New rotation periods for 34 young <300 Myr), early-M dwarfs within 25 parsecs were measured using photometric data collected with telescopes at Lowell Observatory during 2012 and 2013. An additional 25 rotation periods for members of the same sample were found in the literature. Ages were derived from Hα and X-ray emission, lithium absorption, surface gravity, and kinematic association of members of known young moving groups (YMGs). We compared rotation periods with the estimated ages as well as indicators of magnetic activity, with the intention of strengthening age-rotation-activity relations and assessing the possible use of gyrochronology in young, low-mass stars. We compared ages and rotation periods of our target stars to cluster members spanning 1-600 Myr. Rotation periods at every age exhibit a large scatter, with values typically ranging from 0.2 to 15 days. This suggests that gyrochronology for individual field stars will not be possible without a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms that govern angular momentum evolution. Yet, on average, the data still support the predicted trends for spin-up during contraction and spin-down on the main sequence, with the turnover occurring at around 150 Myr for early Ms. This suggests that rotation period distributions can be helpful in evaluating the ages of coeval groups of stars. Many thanks to the National Science Foundation for their support through the Research Experience for Undergraduates Grant AST- 1004107.

  9. Unobtrusive behavioral and activity-related multimodal biometrics: The ACTIBIO Authentication concept.

    PubMed

    Drosou, A; Ioannidis, D; Moustakas, K; Tzovaras, D

    2011-01-01

    Unobtrusive Authentication Using ACTIvity-Related and Soft BIOmetrics (ACTIBIO) is an EU Specific Targeted Research Project (STREP) where new types of biometrics are combined with state-of-the-art unobtrusive technologies in order to enhance security in a wide spectrum of applications. The project aims to develop a modular, robust, multimodal biometrics security authentication and monitoring system, which uses a biodynamic physiological profile, unique for each individual, and advancements of the state of the art in unobtrusive behavioral and other biometrics, such as face, gait recognition, and seat-based anthropometrics. Several shortcomings of existing biometric recognition systems are addressed within this project, which have helped in improving existing sensors, in developing new algorithms, and in designing applications, towards creating new, unobtrusive, biometric authentication procedures in security-sensitive, Ambient Intelligence environments. This paper presents the concept of the ACTIBIO project and describes its unobtrusive authentication demonstrator in a real scenario by focusing on the vision-based biometric recognition modalities. PMID:21380485

  10. Activity Related Energy Expenditure, Appetite and Energy Intake: Potential Implications for Weight Management

    PubMed Central

    Harrington, D.M.; Martin, C.K.; Ravussin, E.; Katzmarzyk, P.T.

    2013-01-01

    The aim was to investigate relationships between activity related energy expenditure (AREE), appetite ratings and energy intake (EI) in a sample of 40 male (26.4 years; BMI 23.5 kg/m2) and 42 female (26.9 years; BMI 22.4 kg/m2) participants. AREE was expressed as the residual value of the regression between total daily EE (by doubly labeled water) and resting EE (by indirect calorimetry). EI was measured using an ad libitum buffet meal and visual analogue scales measured subjective appetite ratings before and after the meal. AREE was divided into low, middle and high sex-specific tertiles. General linear models were used to investigate differences in appetite ratings and EI across AREE tertiles. Before the meal, males in the high AREE tertile had significantly lower desire to eat and lower prospective food consumption and higher feelings of fullness compared to those in the low tertile. Males in the middle tertile had significantly higher satiety quotients after the meal and lower EI compared to the other tertiles. No significant differences across tertiles were found in females. Sex differences in relationships between AREE, appetite ratings and EI may lead to differing patterns of EI and subsequent weight maintenance. PMID:23523668

  11. Low-frequency wave activity related to dipolarization fronts detected by MMS in the magnetotail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Contel, O.; Retino, A.; Breuillard, H.; Mirioni, L.; Roux, A.; Chust, T.; Chasapis, A.; Lavraud, B.; Lindqvist, P. A.; Khotyaintsev, Y. V.; Vaivads, A.; Fu, H.; Marklund, G. T.; Nakamura, R.; Burch, J. L.; Torbert, R. B.; Moore, T. E.; Ergun, R.; Goodrich, K.; Needell, J.; Chutter, M.; Rau, D.; Dors, I.; Russell, C. T.; Magnes, W.; Strangeway, R. J.; Le, G.; Bromund, K. R.; Plaschke, F.; Fischer, D.; Leinweber, H. K.; Anderson, B. J.; Argall, M. R.; Slavin, J. A.; Kepko, L.; Baumjohann, W.; Pollock, C. J.; Mauk, B.; Fuselier, S. A.

    2015-12-01

    Dipolarization fronts are often associated to reconnection jets in the magnetotail current sheet and are sites of important energy dissipation and particle energization. Since the launch on March 12th and until the 9th of July 2015, the MMS constellation has been moving from dawn to dusk in a string of pearls formation. Although particle instruments were rarely operating and only FIELDS instrument suite was often gathering data, the MMS spacecraft have detected numerous dipolarization fronts, in particular on May 15th. Since 9th of July, the MMS evolved into a tetrahedral configuration with an average inter-satellite distance of 160 km and was still able to detect dipolarization fronts in the dusk magnetotail. As the Larmor radius of thermal protons is about 500 km in this region and dipolarization fronts have a typical thickness of the order of the Larmor radius, such a separation allows us to investigate in detail the microphysics of dipolarization fronts. In this study, we focus in particular on low-frequency electromagnetic wave activity related to the fronts and discuss possible mechanisms of particle heating and acceleration both at large scales (string of pearls configuration) and at kinetic scales (tetrahedral configuration).

  12. Burn injury in children.

    PubMed

    Zámecníková, I; Stĕtinský, J; Tymonová, J; Kadlcík, M

    2005-01-01

    The authors have analyzed the data files of 580 child patients up to 15 years of age who were hospitalized at the Burn Center of the FNsP Hospital in Ostrava in the years 1999 - 2003. The authors focused on mechanisms of burn injury in relation to the age of a child as well as extent, depth, localization, and local treatment of the injury. The data file was divided to four age groups: up to two years of age, 2 - 5 years of age, 5 - 10 years of age, and 10 - 15 years of age. As regards the mechanisms of injury, the authors have analyzed scalding by hot liquids, burns due to contact with a hot object, burns due to electric current, explosion, and injury caused by burning clothing. Injury by scalding prevails to a very significant degree in the youngest children. In the second age group the incidence of burn following contact with hot objects increases, as does the percentage of children injured by burning of clothing in children aged 5 - 10. The older children have increased prevalence of injuries caused by explosions. The greatest average extent of an injury is from burning of clothing. Most of the areas are burned deeply, localized in more areas of the body, and almost half of the cases required surgical intervention. Scalding comes second in terms of average extent of an injury. More than half of the injured areas are superficial, and areas of injury are different in the individual age groups. We addressed about a fifth of the cases surgically. The explosion of combustible materials caused a smaller extent of injury, on average, taking third place. The injuries were predominantly superficial, most commonly involving the head, trunk, and upper extremities. In none of the cases it was necessary for us to operate. Burn injuries caused by contact with hot objects are of a smaller extent. More than half of the burned areas are deep, localized most commonly in the upper extremities. Surgical intervention was necessary in more than half the cases. In terms of average

  13. Hand injuries as an indicator of other associated severe injuries.

    PubMed

    Vossoughi, Faranak; Krantz, Brent; Fann, Stephen

    2007-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the incidence of disabling or life-threatening injuries in patients with hand injuries. Retrospective data were collected from a level 1 trauma center registry. A total of 472 patients with hand injuries were admitted to the trauma unit between January 2000 and March 2004. Forty-four per cent of patients with hand injuries had life-threatening injuries. Fifty-one per cent of them had motor vehicle crash-related injuries. Motorcycle crashes were the next most common cause followed by explosions, falls, gunshots, machinery, stabs, bites, crushes, and so on. Frequency of associated injuries was as follows: head injuries, 31 per cent, including skull fractures, 22 per cent; spine injuries, 18 per cent, including spine fractures 18 per cent; chest injuries, 36 per cent, including rib fractures, 15 per cent; and abdominal injuries, 13 per cent. The authors focused on the incidence of disabling or life-threatening injuries in patients with hand injuries. Motor vehicle crashes were most common cause of hand injuries. The most common organs to be injured were chest and head. The most common head injury was skull fracture. Other injuries in decreasing order were spine and rib fractures. These data may be helpful in assessing ambulatory patients in the emergency room, in those hand injuries maybe indicative of other simultaneous life-threatening or disabling injuries. PMID:17674946

  14. Injuries in professional modern dancers: incidence, risk factors, and management.

    PubMed

    Shah, Selina; Weiss, David S; Burchette, Raoul J

    2012-03-01

    Modern (or contemporary) dance has become increasingly popular, yet little has been reported with respect to modern dance injuries and their consequences. The purpose of this study is to define the incidence, risk factors, and management of musculoskeletal injuries in professional modern dancers. A total of 184 dancers in the United States completed an anonymous 17-page questionnaire on their injuries, including extensive details regarding the two most severe injuries that had occurred in the prior 12 months. According to their self-reports, a total of 82% of the dancers had suffered between one and seven injuries. The foot and ankle (40%) was the most common site of injury, followed by the lower back (17%) and the knee (16%). The rate of injuries was 0.59 per 1,000 hours of class and rehearsal. Injured male dancers returned to full dancing after a median of 21 days, while females returned after a median of 18 days. Most dancers missed no performances due to injury. Of the medical consultations sought by dancers for their injuries, 47% were made to physicians, 41% to physical therapists, and 34% to chiropractors. The majority of dancers adhered to the advice given them by consultants (87% of males and 78% of females for the most severe injury). While the majority of injuries were considered work-related (61% of the most severe injury and 69% of the second most severe), few were covered by Workers' Compensation insurance (12% and 5% respectively). These professional modern dancers suffer from a rate of injury similar to other groups of professional dancers. Most dancers return to a partial level of dancing several weeks before attempting full-capacity dancing. PMID:22390950

  15. Injuries in Female Dancers Aged 8 to 16 Years

    PubMed Central

    Steinberg, Nili; Siev-Ner, Itzhak; Peleg, Smadar; Dar, Gali; Masharawi, Youssef; Zeev, Aviva; Hershkovitz, Israel

    2013-01-01

    Context Most studies of injured dancers have been carried out on professional adult dancers; data on young, nonprofessional injured dancers are sparse. Objective To identify the types of injuries sustained by recreational dancers and to examine their association with age, joint range of motion, body structure, age at menarche, presence of anatomic anomalies, and physical burden (ie, practice hours en pointe). Design Descriptive epidemiology study. Setting The Israel Performing Arts Medicine Center, Tel Aviv. Patients or Other Participants A total of 569 injured female dancers, aged 8 to 16 years. Main Outcome Measure(s) Dependent variables were 61 types of current injuries that were later classified into 4 major categories: knee injuries, foot and ankle tendinopathy, back injuries, and other injuries. Independent variables were age, joint range of motion, body size and shape, age at menarche, anatomic anomalies, and dance discipline (eg, hours of practice per week en pointe). Results At least 1 previous injury had been sustained by 42.4% of the dancers. The most common injuries involved the knee (40.4%), followed by other injuries (23.4%). The relative frequency of back injuries and tendinopathy decreased with age, whereas knee injuries increased. Types of injuries were significantly associated with ankle plantar flexion, hip external rotation, hip abduction, and knee flexion. Multinomial regression analysis revealed only 3 predictive variables (with other as baseline), all for back injury: scoliosis, age, and hip external rotation. Conclusions Joint range of motion and scoliosis may signal the potential for future injury. Young dancers (less than 10 years of age) should not be exposed to overload (especially of the back) or extensive stretching exercises. PMID:23672333

  16. Injury Free Coalition for Kids

    MedlinePlus

    ... Sites Awards Safety Resources Staff Donate Online! Injury Free News The Great Trade-In Event Returns to ... Free Site -- Injury Free Call for Proposals Injury Free is supported by the generous contributions of organizations ...

  17. What Are Growth Plate Injuries?

    MedlinePlus

    ... activities. Other reasons for growth plate injuries are:  Child abuse  Injury from extreme cold (for example, frostbite)  Radiation ( ... problems) treats most growth plate injuries. At other times, the child will see a pediatric orthopaedic surgeon (a doctor ...

  18. What Are Growth Plate Injuries?

    MedlinePlus

    ... activities. Other reasons for growth plate injuries are: Child abuse Injury from extreme cold (for example, frostbite) Radiation ( ... problems) treats most growth plate injuries. At other times, the child will see a pediatric orthopaedic surgeon (a doctor ...

  19. Conquering Athletic Injuries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Paul M., Ed.; Taylor, Diane K., Ed.

    The purpose of this book is to be a source of complete, reliable, and practical sports medicine information. Experts from the American Running and Fitness Association describe in clear language how overuse injuries occur, how to recognize and self-treat them, when to seek professional help, and how to prevent future injuries. The book also…

  20. FIREARM INJURY SURVEILLANCE STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC), within the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, established an interagency agreement with CPSC to begin collecting data on nonfatal firearm-related injuries to monitor the incidence and characteristics of perso...

  1. Preventing Eye Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... Eye Injuries Reviewed by: Brenda Pagan-Duran MD Mar. 01, 2016 Protecting your eyes from injury is one of the most basic things you can do to keep your vision healthy throughout your life. You may be somewhat aware of the possible ...

  2. Healing of Genital Injuries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkowitz, Carol D.

    2011-01-01

    Child sexual abuse as well as accidental trauma may cause acute injuries in the anogenital area. Most data on residual findings following genital trauma come from longitudinal studies of children who have been sexually assaulted, undergone surgical procedures, or experienced accidental trauma. Like injuries in other part parts of the body, such…

  3. Management of Tracheobronchial Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Altinok, Tamer; Can, Atilla

    2014-01-01

    Tracheobronchial injury is one of cases which are relatively uncommon, but must be suspected to make the diagnosis and managed immediately. In such a case, primary initial goals are to stabilize the airway and localize the injury and then determine its extend. These can be possible mostly with flexible bronchoscopy conducted by a surgeon who can repair the injury. Most of the penetrating injuries occur in the cervical region. On the other hand, most of the blunt injuries occur in the distal trachea and right main bronchus and they can be best approached by right posterolateral thoracotomy. The selection of the manner and time of approaching depends on the existence and severity of additional injuries. Most of the injuries can be restored by deploying simple techniques such as individual sutures, while some of them requires complex reconstruction techniques. Apart from paying attention to the pulmonary toilet, follow-up is crucial for determination of anastomotic technique or stenosis. Conservative treatment may be considered an option with a high probability of success in patients meeting the criteria, especially in patients with iatrogenic tracheobronchial injury. PMID:25610327

  4. Injuries in Preschool Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obeng, Cecilia

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The primary purpose of this paper is to examine the kinds of injuries that preschool teachers working in Indiana, USA, believed to be the most common in their preschool (3-6 year olds) classrooms, the causes of such injuries, and the most important precautions they take to prevent them. Also examined are the measures the teachers take…

  5. Greater arch injuries.

    PubMed

    Shivanna, Deepak; Manjunath, Dayanand; Amaravathi, Rajkumar

    2014-12-01

    Dislocations and fracture dislocations of carpal bones are uncommon injuries which invariably poses challenges in the management. Perilunate fracture dislocations are the combination of ligamentous and osseous injury that involve the "greater arc" of the perilunate associated instability. Despite their severity, these injuries often go unrecognized in the emergency department leading to delayed diagnosis and treatment. A Prospective study was done from June 2008 to December 2013 in 15 cases of complex wrist injuries which included of greater arch injuries, perilunate fracture dislocation and one dorsal dislocation of Scaphoid. 10 cases of perilunate fracture dislocation underwent open reduction and internal fixation with Herbert screw and k-wire, 4 cases of greater arch injury underwent closed reduction and kwire fixation and one case of neglected dorsal dislocation underwent proximal row carpectomy. One patient had Sudecks osteodystrophy 1 had Scaphoid nonunion and 6 had median nerve compression. Overall outcome according to Mayo wrist score was 53 % excellent, 33 % good and 14 % fair. Greater arch injuries are difficult to treat because injuries to many ligaments are involved and failure to recognize early leads to persistent pain, disability and early onset of arthritis. Prompt recognition requires CT scan and MRI. Management requires reduction and multiple K-Wiring according to merits of the case. PMID:25414554

  6. Sports injuries and society.

    PubMed Central

    Davies, J. E.

    1981-01-01

    Injuries are classified and examples of the ways in which they can arise are given. Treatment, rehabilitation and the value of exercise are considered. A review of the effects of increasing leisure time and sports have been given, the value of legislation, education, protective clothing and close supervision in preventing the occurrence of injuries in sport is discussed. Images p80-a PMID:7248691

  7. Traumatic Brain Injury

    MedlinePlus

    ... a concussion may feel dazed and may lose vision or balance for a while after the injury A brain contusion is a bruise of the brain. This ... consciousness Headache Confusion Feeling dizzy or lightheaded Blurry vision ... or severe traumatic brain injury include all of the symptoms listed above ...

  8. Prevention of pediatric sports injuries.

    PubMed

    Demorest, Rebecca A; Landry, Gregory L

    2003-12-01

    With over 30 million children participating in sports each year across the United States, a number of significant injuries are to be expected. Although mild injuries such as strains, sprains, and contusions predominate, catastrophic injuries do occur. Young athletes are at an increased risk for growth plate and apophyseal injuries, overuse injuries, and heat illness. Many of these sports injuries can be prevented. Prevention strategies include protective equipment, rule changes, preseason and season prevention interventions, safety measures, better coaching, education, and a societal awareness of injury and prevention. This article discusses current injury prevention for children participating in baseball, football, soccer, and ice hockey. PMID:14583164

  9. Prevention of running injuries.

    PubMed

    Fields, Karl B; Sykes, Jeannie C; Walker, Katherine M; Jackson, Jonathan C

    2010-01-01

    Evidence for preventive strategies to lessen running injuries is needed as these occur in 40%-50% of runners on an annual basis. Many factors influence running injuries, but strong evidence for prevention only exists for training modification primarily by reducing weekly mileage. Two anatomical factors - cavus feet and leg length inequality - demonstrate a link to injury. Weak evidence suggests that orthotics may lessen risk of stress fracture, but no clear evidence proves they will reduce the risk of those athletes with leg length inequality or cavus feet. This article reviews other potential injury variables, including strength, biomechanics, stretching, warm-up, nutrition, psychological factors, and shoes. Additional research is needed to determine whether interventions to address any of these will help prevent running injury. PMID:20463502

  10. Longitudinal Lisfranc injury.

    PubMed

    Oak, Nikhil R; Manoli, Arthur; Holmes, James R

    2014-01-01

    Most Lisfranc or tarsometatarsal (TMT) joint injuries result from a horizontally directed force in which the metatarsals are displaced relative to the midfoot. The injury pattern that is described in this article is one of a longitudinal force through the first ray and cuneiform. A reliable measure to recognize the longitudinal Lisfranc variant injury has been the height difference between the distal articular surfaces of the first and second cuneiform bones in an anteroposterior (AP) weight-bearing radiograph. This measure helps identify subtle injuries in which there is a proximal and medial subluxation of the first cuneiform-metatarsal complex. Delayed diagnosis and treatment have been associated with poorer results and significant functional consequences. This article describes a simple radiographic measurement to recognize the longitudinal injury pattern and to aid in determining whether operative intervention is required. PMID:25785475

  11. Mole gun injury.

    PubMed

    Pistré, V; Rezzouk, J

    2013-09-01

    A mole gun is a weapon, which is used to trap and kill moles. This report provides an overview of the state of knowledge of mole gun injuries, comparable to blast injuries caused by fireworks, explosive or gunshot. Over a 2-year period, the authors reported their experience with ten hand injuries caused by mole gun. Radial side of the hand was often concerned, particularly the thumb. The authors explain their choices in the management of such lesions. Surgery was performed primarily and a large debridement currently seemed to offer the best outcome for the patient. Blast, crush, burns and lacerations may explain the higher rate of amputation to the digits. A long period of physiotherapy, specifically of the hand, was needed before the patient could return to work. This ballistic hand trauma encountered by surgeons requires knowledge and understanding of these injuries. It should be in accordance with firearms law because of severe injuries encountered and possible lethal wounds. PMID:23746826

  12. [Traumatic lung injury].

    PubMed

    Hara, Hidenori; Yoshimura, Hirokuni

    2004-07-01

    Pulmonary injuries include a wide variety of clinical conditions. Most patients with blunt chest trauma can be managed with conservative treatment. Only about 10 to 15% of patients with severe chest injuries require major thoracotomy. Management of pulmonary contusion, pulmonary laceration, pneumothorax or hemothorax by oxygen inhalation, respirator assist and chest drainage can usually result in complete recovery. However, pulmonary injuries sometimes lapse into fatal condition if they are improperly treated. Open thoracotomy is required in cases with persistent massive air leakage or massive bleeding with the use of chest drainage. It is crucial to evaluate the extent and severity of the injuries based on chest X-ray and computed tomography (CT) findings for the proper initial treatment in patients with pulmonary injuries. PMID:15362557

  13. Prevention of youth injuries.

    PubMed Central

    Laraque, D.; Barlow, B.; Durkin, M.

    1999-01-01

    There are four categories of causes responsible for the majority of injuries in youth 10-19 years of age: 1) motor vehicle traffic; 2) violence (intra-familial, extra-familial, self, pregnancy-related); 3) recreational; and 4) occupational. This article presents data from the National Center for Health Statistics mortality data and the National Pediatric Trauma Registry morbidity data. Nationwide, the pediatric injury death rate is highest among adolescents 15-19 years of age. Motor vehicle-related deaths account for 41% and firearm-related deaths account for 36% of injury deaths in this age group. For youths aged 10-14 years, motor vehicle-related deaths account for 38% and; firearm-related deaths account for 26% of injury deaths. For both age groups, occupant motor vehicle-related deaths account for the majority of deaths and underscore the need for seat belt use. Using theoretical principles based on the Haddon matrix and a knowledge of adolescent development, proposed interventions to decrease injuries and deaths related to motor vehicles and firearms include graduated licensing, occupant restraint, speed limits, conflict resolution, and gun control. Occupational injuries, particularly injury associated with agricultural production, account for an estimated 100,000 injuries per year. Preventive strategies include OSHA regulations imposing standards for protective devices and further study for guidelines for adolescent work in agriculture. Injuries related to recreation include drowning and sports injuries. Preventive strategies may include proper supervision and risk reduction with respect to use of alcohol/drugs. The data presented support the use of primary prevention to achieve the most effective, safe community interventions targeting adolescents. PMID:10599188

  14. Tissue Engineered Strategies for Skeletal Muscle Injury

    PubMed Central

    Longo, Umile Giuseppe; Loppini, Mattia; Berton, Alessandra; Spiezia, Filippo; Maffulli, Nicola; Denaro, Vincenzo

    2012-01-01

    Skeletal muscle injuries are common in athletes, occurring with direct and indirect mechanisms and marked residual effects, such as severe long-term pain and physical disability. Current therapy consists of conservative management including RICE protocol (rest, ice, compression and elevation), nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and intramuscular corticosteroids. However, current management of muscle injuries often does not provide optimal restoration to preinjury status. New biological therapies, such as injection of platelet-rich plasma and stem-cell-based therapy, are appealing. Although some studies support PRP application in muscle-injury management, reasons for concern persist, and further research is required for a standardized and safe use of PRP in clinical practice. The role of stem cells needs to be confirmed, as studies are still limited and inconsistent. Further research is needed to identify mechanisms involved in muscle regeneration and in survival, proliferation, and differentiation of stem cells. PMID:25098362

  15. Ballistic injuries in the emergency department.

    PubMed

    Bruner, David; Gustafson, Corey G; Visintainer, Catherine

    2011-12-01

    According to 2007 data, gunshot wounds from homicides, suicides, and accidents caused 31,000 deaths in the United States, with even higher numbers of serious, nonfatal injuries. In recent years, new evidence on effective treatment of patients with gunshot wounds has come from military settings and is being adapted for civilian emergency departments (EDs). Effective, evidence-based management of ballistic injuries in the ED is vital. This issue reviews the physics of ballistics as it relates to the tracts and patterns of tissue injury caused by different types of firearms and missiles, and it takes a regional approach to reviewing the current evidence for managing gunshot wounds to the head, neck, thorax, abdomen, genitourinary (GU) system, extremities, and soft tissues. Current guidelines as well as new research and evidence regarding fluid resuscitation, airway management, evaluation strategies, drug therapies, and documentation are discussed. PMID:22232864

  16. COX-2 inhibitors are contraindicated for treatment of combined injury.

    PubMed

    Jiao, W; Kiang, J G; Cary, L; Elliott, T B; Pellmar, T C; Ledney, G D

    2009-12-01

    Casualties of radiation dispersal devices, nuclear detonation or major ionizing radiation accidents, in addition to radiation exposure, may sustain physical and/or thermal trauma. Radiation exposure plus additional tissue trauma is known as combined injury. There are no definitive therapeutic agents. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), an inducible enzyme expressed in pathological disorders and radiation injury, plays an important role in inflammation and the production of cytokines and prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) and could therefore affect the outcome for victims of combined injury. The COX-2 inhibitors celecoxib and meloxicam were evaluated for their therapeutic value against combined injury in mice. In survival studies, the COX-2 inhibitors had no beneficial effect on 30-day survival, wound healing or body weight gain after radiation injury alone or after combined injury. Meloxicam accelerated death in both wounded and combined injury mice. These drugs also induced severe hepatic toxicity, exaggerated inflammatory processes, and did not enhance hematopoietic cell regeneration. This study points to potential contraindications for use of COX-2 inhibitors in patients undergoing therapy for radiation injury and combined injury. PMID:19929415

  17. Physical Education Through Movement in the City.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munz, Lorraine

    The product of a Special Studies Institute, this teacher developed resource guide for the emotionally handicapped (K-6) presents concepts and activities relative to physical education in the urban out-of-doors. Focus is on adapting physical education to an urban environment, utilizing city resources and instilling skills necessary to cope with…

  18. Intimate partner violence injuries--Oklahoma, 2002.

    PubMed

    2005-10-21

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a serious public health problem in the United States and a common cause of injury. Prevalence rates of IPV vary by the surveillance methods and definitions used. National data from the 1995 National Violence Against Women Survey indicate that 22.1% of women and 7.4% of men experience IPV during their lifetimes and that 1.3% of women and 0.9% of men experience IPV annually. IPV results in an estimated 4.1 billion dollars each year in direct medical and mental health-care costs, including 159 million dollars in emergency department (ED) treatments for IPV physical assaults. IPV might constitute as much as 17% of all violence-related injuries treated in EDs. To determine the magnitude of the IPV problem in Oklahoma, including IPV-related injuries and medical service utilization, researchers analyzed injury surveillance data from ED medical records and data from the Oklahoma Women's Health Survey (OWHS). This report summarizes the findings, which indicated that, during 2002 in Oklahoma, approximately 16% of all ED visits for assaults were for IPV injuries, including 35% of assault visits among females and 3% of assault visits among males. In addition, results of the OWHS for 2001-2003 indicated that 5.9% of surveyed Oklahoma women aged 18-44 years sustained an IPV injury during the preceding year. Overall, IPV resulted in a substantial number of injuries, particularly to women, many of whom required treatment in EDs. Medical recognition and documentation of IPV are important for identification of persons in need of services. PMID:16237374

  19. Fractured identities: injury and the balletic body.

    PubMed

    Wainwright, Steven P; Williams, Clare; Turner, Bryan S

    2005-01-01

    Social worlds shape human bodies and so it is inevitable that there are strong relationships between the body, professional dance and identity. In this article we draw on Bourdieu's notions of habitus, and various forms of capital, as the main theoretical framework for our discussion. Our ethnography of the balletic body elicited dancers and ex-dancers' perceptions of their bodies and sought to reveal some of the facets of their embodied habitus. The sheer physicality of their working lives - of feeling exhausted, sweaty and out of breath - is something dancers (like all athletes) become 'addicted to'. Ageing and injury can reveal this compulsion to dance and so dancers invariably find it very difficult to, for example, give up class once they retire from the stage; or miss a performance if they have a 'slight injury'. In other words, the vocational calling to dance is so overwhelming that their balletic body is their identity. In addition, there is an unremitting loop between individual habitus and institutional habitus (the ballet company), which affects both the meaning and management of injury. All our informants at the Royal Ballet (London: n = 20) had suffered dance injuries. The injured, dancing body is perceived as an inevitable part of a career in ballet. Everyone spoke of the improved athleticism of dancers, and of the expansion in facilities to maintain healthy dancers. However, most dancers can expect several major injuries during their careers. Such epiphanies force dancers to confront their embodiment, and their thoughts invariably turn to their body, career and self. Critical injuries threaten to terminate a dancer's career and so endanger their embodied sense of self. On a more everyday level, dancing and performing with painful, niggling injuries is the norm. PMID:15576424

  20. Findings from the preparticipation athletic examination and athletic injuries.

    PubMed

    DuRant, R H; Pendergrast, R A; Seymore, C; Gaillard, G; Donner, J

    1992-01-01

    This study investigated the relationships between the findings from a standardized preparticipation athletic examination, the sport played, and athletic injuries requiring treatment by a physician and/or requiring the athlete to miss one or more games. Of public high school students receiving a preparticipation athletic examination during the 1989-1990 academic year, 674 (56%) either completed a telephone interview or returned a mailed questionnaire at the end of the academic year. The sample consisted of 408 (60.5%) blacks and 243 (36.1%) whites; 470 (69.7%) of the subjects were males. The subjects ranged in age from 13 to 20 years (mean +/- SD, 16.1 +/- 1.2 years), and participated in at least 10 school sports. Injuries were reported by 29.5% of the athletes. The highest proportion of athletes injured occurred among male football (36.3%), female basketball (33.3%), male baseball (19.4%), male soccer (17.2%), and female track and field (15.8%) participants. Responses by the athletes and their parents on the standardized health history were significantly associated with injuries in several specific areas. Knee injuries were associated with previous knee injuries, knee surgery, and history of injuries requiring medical treatment. Ankle injuries were associated with previous ankle injuries and previous injuries requiring medical treatment. Both arm and other leg injuries were associated with previous fractures. Male athletes with either abnormal knee or ankle findings from the physical examination were more likely to injure the knee or ankle, respectively. However, the sensitivities and positive predictive values of these relationships are weak. These data suggest that the preparticipation athletic examination may not predict certain athletic injuries and that additional prevention efforts for specific body areas of injury are needed in certain sports. PMID:1736652

  1. Mechanical cornpicker hand injuries.

    PubMed

    Momcilović, Dragan; Prokes, Bela; Janjić, Zlata

    2005-01-01

    Mechanical cornpicker hand injuries are not frequent in comparison to general hand trauma, but they have a specific mechanism of occurrence and are very severe. This investigation included 221 hand injuries. The sex distribution shows a general male dominance (85.25%) in their active age (84.44%). These are, seasonal injuries mostly occurring in October (75.11%). By type of injuries, mutilating crush injuries are most frequent (64.25%). After completing the treatment, in most cases the functional result were estimated as bad (50.68%). Data concerning education and trainig for operating agricultural machines (96.38%--patients without training) and carrying out safety measures (63.35% of injured patients did not apply any protection measures) are devastating. The number of these injuries, as well as consequent permanent disabilities, may be considerably reduced by preventive measures, inclulding public health services and media. Use of contempoarary agricultural machinery, as well as obligatory training for operating these machines and application of protective measures, may also reduce the incidence of hand injuries during corn picking. PMID:16526250

  2. Power lawnmower injuries.

    PubMed

    Robertson, William W

    2003-04-01

    Power lawnmowers are among the most ubiquitous household tools, yet they pose significant danger to operator and bystanders. Despite of the United States Consumer Products Safety Commission's push to have safety standards established for walk-behind mowers in 1982 and for ride-on mowers in 1986, by 2000 approximately 80,000 injuries nationwide were estimated to be associated with power mowers. Large numbers of these injuries are thought to be preventable, especially those to individuals younger than 14 years. Orthopaedic surgeons treat a significant number of the injuries associated with mower use including lacerations, amputations, fractures, infections, and skin defects. Therefore, the orthopaedic community has a stake in the prevention and outcome of these injuries. To date, changes in mower design have seemed to be more successful than user education programs in decreasing the numbers of these injuries. Involving orthopaedists in safety education programs to help prevent injuries associated with power mower use may be one method of increasing user knowledge and preventing injury. PMID:12671483

  3. Penetrating cardiac injuries.

    PubMed

    Mittal, V; McAleese, P; Young, S; Cohen, M

    1999-05-01

    Our objective was to determine the influence of several clinical factors on the survival of patients with penetrating wounds to the heart. A retrospective review of 80 consecutive penetrating cardiac injuries treated in a Level II urban trauma center from 1980 through 1994 were examined. Thirty-six patients (45%) had gunshot wounds (including 1 shotgun wound), and 44 (55%) had stab wounds. Intervention consisted of emergency room (ER) or operating room thoracotomy. We measured the effect of several clinical factors on morbidity and patient survival. Survival rate was 17 of 36 (47%) in gunshot injuries and 35 of 44 (80%) in stab injuries, with an overall survival rate of 52 of 80 patients (65%). The average age was 24 years (range, 9-53), and there were 3 female patients. Twelve patients (15%) had multiple cardiac injuries, and 63 (79%) had other associated injuries. Fourteen patients (17%) presented with no blood pressure, and 55 (69%) were hypotensive on admission. ER thoracotomy was performed on 7 of 52 survivors (13%) and 24 of 28 nonsurvivors (86%). Survival after ER thoracotomy was 7 of 31 patients (22%). A selective approach is recommended, because ER thoracotomy has a limited role in penetrating cardiac injury. A high index of suspicion, prompt resuscitation, and immediate definitive surgical management resulted in a high survival rate for these frequently lethal injuries. PMID:10231214

  4. Injuries and Footwear (Part 1): Athletic Shoe History and Injuries in Relation to Foot Arch Height and Training in Boots.

    PubMed

    Knapik, Joseph J; Pope, Rodney; Orr, Robin; Grier, Tyson

    2015-01-01

    This article traces the history of the athletic shoe, examines whether selecting running shoes based on foot arch height influences injuries, and examines historical data on injury rates when physical training (PT) is performed in boots versus running shoes. In the 1980s and into the 2000s, running shoe companies were advertising specialized shoes with "motion control," "stability," and "cushioning," designed for individuals with low, normal, and high arches, respectively. Despite marketing claims that these shoes would reduce injury rates, coordinated studies in Army, Air Force, and Marine Corps basic training showed that assigning or selecting shoes on this basis had no effect on injury rates. Consistent with this finding, biomechanical studies have shown that the relationships between arch height, foot joint mobility, and rear-foot motion are complex, variable, and frequently not as strong as often assumed. In 1982, the US Army switched from PT in boots to PT in running shoes because of the belief that boots were causing injuries and that running shoes would reduce injury rates. However, a historical comparison of injury rates before and after the switch to running shoes showed virtually no difference in injury risk between the two periods. It is not clear at this point if the type of footwear effects injury incidence. PMID:26630104

  5. Factors Influencing Running-Related Musculoskeletal Injury Risk Among U.S. Military Recruits.

    PubMed

    Molloy, Joseph M

    2016-06-01

    Running-related musculoskeletal injuries among U.S. military recruits negatively impact military readiness. Low aerobic fitness, prior injury, and weekly running distance are known risk factors. Physical fitness screening and remedial physical training (or discharging the most poorly fit recruits) before entry-level military training have tended to reduce injury rates while decreasing attrition, training, and medical costs. Incorporating anaerobic running sessions into training programs can offset decreased weekly running distance and decrease injury risk. Varying lower extremity loading patterns, stride length or cadence manipulation, and hip stability/strengthening programming may further decrease injury risk. No footstrike pattern is ideal for all runners; transitioning to forefoot striking may reduce risk for hip, knee, or tibial injuries, but increase risk for calf, Achilles, foot or ankle injuries. Minimal evidence associates running surfaces with injury risk. Footwear interventions should focus on proper fit and comfort; the evidence does not support running shoe prescription per foot type to reduce injury risk among recruits. Primary injury mitigation efforts should focus on physical fitness screening, remedial physical training (or discharge for unfit recruits), and continued inclusion of anaerobic running sessions to offset decreased weekly running distance. PMID:27244060

  6. Lateral Pectoral Nerve Injury Mimicking Cervical Radiculopathy.

    PubMed

    Aktas, Ilknur; Palamar, Deniz; Akgun, Kenan

    2015-07-01

    The lateral pectoral nerve (LPN) is commonly injured along with the brachial plexus, but its isolated lesions are rare. Here, we present a case of an isolated LPN lesion confused with cervical radiculopathy. A 41-year-old man was admitted to our clinic because of weakness in his right arm. Previous magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examination revealed right posterolateral protrusion at the C6-7 level. At the initial assessment, atrophy of the right pectoralis major muscle was evident, and mild weakness of the right shoulder adductor, internal rotator, and flexor muscles was observed. Therefore, electrodiagnostic evaluation was performed, and a diagnosis of isolated LPN injury was made. Nerve injury was thought to have been caused by weightlifting exercises and traction injury. Lateral pectoral nerve injury can mimic cervical radiculopathy, and MRI examination alone may lead to misdiagnosis. Repeated physical examinations during the evaluation and treatment phase will identify the muscle atrophy that occurs 1 or more months after the injury. PMID:25290103

  7. Gastrointestinal radiation injury: Prevention and treatment

    PubMed Central

    Shadad, Abobakr K; Sullivan, Frank J; Martin, Joseph D; Egan, Laurence J

    2013-01-01

    With the recent advances in detection and treatment of cancer, there is an increasing emphasis on the efficacy and safety aspects of cancer therapy. Radiation therapy is a common treatment for a wide variety of cancers, either alone or in combination with other treatments. Ionising radiation injury to the gastrointestinal tract is a frequent side effect of radiation therapy and a considerable proportion of patients suffer acute or chronic gastrointestinal symptoms as a result. These side effects often cause morbidity and may in some cases lower the efficacy of radiotherapy treatment. Radiation injury to the gastrointestinal tract can be minimised by either of two strategies: technical strategies which aim to physically shift radiation dose away from the normal intestinal tissues, and biological strategies which aim to modulate the normal tissue response to ionising radiation or to increase its resistance to it. Although considerable improvement in the safety of radiotherapy treatment has been achieved through the use of modern optimised planning and delivery techniques, biological techniques may offer additional further promise. Different agents have been used to prevent or minimize the severity of gastrointestinal injury induced by ionising radiation exposure, including biological, chemical and pharmacological agents. In this review we aim to discuss various technical strategies to prevent gastrointestinal injury during cancer radiotherapy, examine the different therapeutic options for acute and chronic gastrointestinal radiation injury and outline some examples of research directions and considerations for prevention at a pre-clinical level. PMID:23345942

  8. Driving, brain injury and assistive technology.

    PubMed

    Lane, Amy K; Benoit, Dana

    2011-01-01

    Individuals with brain injury often present with cognitive, physical and emotional impairments which impact their ability to resume independence in activities of daily living. Of those activities, the resumption of driving privileges is cited as one of the greatest concerns by survivors of brain injury. The integration of driving fundamentals within the hierarchical model proposed by Keskinen represents the complexity of skills and behaviors necessary for driving. This paper provides a brief review of specific considerations concerning the driver with TBI and highlights current vehicle technology which has been developed by the automotive industry and by manufacturers of adaptive driving equipment that may facilitate the driving task. Adaptive equipment technology allows for compensation of a variety of operational deficits, whereas technological advances within the automotive industry provide drivers with improved safety and information systems. However, research has not yet supported the use of such intelligent transportation systems or advanced driving systems for drivers with brain injury. Although technologies are intended to improve the safety of drivers within the general population, the potential of negative consequences for drivers with brain injury must be considered. Ultimately, a comprehensive driving evaluation and training by a driving rehabilitation specialist is recommended for individuals with brain injury. An understanding of the potential impact of TBI on driving-related skills and knowledge of current adaptive equipment and technology is imperative to determine whether return-to-driving is a realistic and achievable goal for the individual with TBI. PMID:21558628

  9. Measuring sports injuries on the pitch: a guide to use in practice

    PubMed Central

    Hespanhol, Luiz C.; Barboza, Saulo D.; van Mechelen, Willem; Verhagen, Evert

    2015-01-01

    Sports participation is a major ally for the promotion of physical activity. However, sports injuries are important adverse effects of sports participation and should be monitored in sports populations. The purpose of this paper is to review the basic concepts of injury monitoring and discuss the implementation of these concepts in practice. The aspects discussed are: (1) sports injury definition; (2) classification of sports injuries; (3) population at risk, prevalence, and incidence; (4) severity measures; (5) economic costs; (6) systems developed to monitor sports injuries; and (7) online technology. Only with reliable monitoring systems applied in a continuous and long-term manner will it be possible to identify the burden of injuries, to identify the possible cases at an early stage, to implement early interventions, and to generate data for sports injury prevention. The implementation of sports injuries monitoring systems in practice is strongly recommended. PMID:26537807

  10. Gasoline immersion injury

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, L.A.; Cruse, C.W.

    1981-01-01

    Chemical burns and pulmonary complications are the most common problems encountered in the patient immersed in gasoline. Our patient demonstrated a 46-percent total-body-surface area, partial-thickness chemical burn. Although he did not develop bronchitis or pneumonitis, he did display persistent atelectasis, laryngeal edema, and subsequent upper airway obstruction. This had not previously been reported in gasoline inhalation injuries. Hydrocarbon hepatitis secondary to the vascular endothelial damage is apparently a reversible lesion with no reported long-term sequelae. Gasoline immersion injuries may be a series multisystem injury and require the burn surgeon to take a multisystem approach to its diagnosis and treatment.

  11. Assessment of temporomandibular injury and orofacial pain.

    PubMed

    Talley, R L

    1995-01-01

    Every individual has physical faults which makes him less than a perfect biological specimen. This is the foundation for the legal "eggshell principal." Most of us do not have perfect skeletal formation, muscular adaptation, neurological or vascular systems. Additionally, we may not have complete symmetry and ideal form to our cranium or mandible. Our dentitions are imperfect. All of these imperfections play a role in every injury. The variances of normal that are seen in any medical or dental population, must be accepted; therefore, a given injury can have tremendously varied sequelae, depending on the person receiving it. The patho-physiology resultant from an accident may not parallel the severity of the motor vehicle accident, fall or blow. Prompt and proper evaluation of the individual-turned-patient is imperative. Referral to a dentist, competent in providing the necessary evaluation of the injury, is the responsibility of those individuals attending to the injured person's physical, emotional, and financial trauma. Their physician, dentist, attorney or counselor should take the responsibility of providing proper referral. The four most dangerous words in medicine and dentistry today are: "It Will Go Away." People often develop serious sequelae by assuming that their problem will "go away" by just leaving it alone long enough or by simply ignoring it. With proper evaluation and management, most trauma related temporomandibular injuries can be corrected or at least be properly managed. PMID:9526244

  12. Duodenal Transection without Pancreatic Injury following Blunt Abdominal Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Bankar, Sanket Subhash; Gosavi, Vikas S.; Hamid, Mohd.

    2014-01-01

    With the inventions of faster cars and even more faster motorbikes there is a worldwide increase in road traffic accidents, which has increased the incidence of blunt abdominal trauma but still duodenal injury following a blunt abdominal trauma is uncommon and can pose a formidable challenge to the surgeon and failure to manage it properly can result in devastating results. It may typically occur in isolation or with pancreatic injury. Here, we report a case of an isolated transection of the third part of the duodenum with normal pancreas following a blunt abdominal trauma. The initial clinical changes in isolated duodenal injury may be extremely subtle before life-threatening, peritonitis develops. Hence, a high index of suspicion, on the basis of mechanism of injury and physical examination is the key in early detection of duodenal injury especially in a rural hospital like ours where the facilities for computed tomography scan are not available. PMID:25598947

  13. Duodenal Transection without Pancreatic Injury following Blunt Abdominal Trauma.

    PubMed

    Bankar, Sanket Subhash; Gosavi, Vikas S; Hamid, Mohd

    2014-01-01

    With the inventions of faster cars and even more faster motorbikes there is a worldwide increase in road traffic accidents, which has increased the incidence of blunt abdominal trauma but still duodenal injury following a blunt abdominal trauma is uncommon and can pose a formidable challenge to the surgeon and failure to manage it properly can result in devastating results. It may typically occur in isolation or with pancreatic injury. Here, we report a case of an isolated transection of the third part of the duodenum with normal pancreas following a blunt abdominal trauma. The initial clinical changes in isolated duodenal injury may be extremely subtle before life-threatening, peritonitis develops. Hence, a high index of suspicion, on the basis of mechanism of injury and physical examination is the key in early detection of duodenal injury especially in a rural hospital like ours where the facilities for computed tomography scan are not available. PMID:25598947

  14. Diagnosis and management of lisfranc injuries and metatarsal fractures.

    PubMed

    Gotha, Heather E; Lareau, Craig R; Fellars, Todd A

    2013-05-01

    Forefoot and midfoot injuries are relatively common and can lead to chronic disability, especially if they are not promptly diagnosed and appropriately treated. A focused history and physical examination must be coupled with a thorough review of imaging studies to identify the correct diagnosis. Subtle radiographic changes can represent significant ligamentous Lisfranc injury. Midfoot swelling in the presence of plantar ecchymosis should be considered to be a Lisfranc injury until proven otherwise. While most metatarsal fractures can be treated with some form of immobilization and protected weight-bearing, this article will distinguish these more common injuries from those requiring surgical intervention. We will review relevant anatomy and biomechanics, mechanisms of injury, clinical presentation, imaging studies, and diagnostic techniques and treatment. PMID:23641461

  15. Adjustment to Spinal Cord Injury

    MedlinePlus

    ... of injury are alive and easily get educational information on the Internet. Web happy. sites such as the National Spinal Cord Injury Association (www.spinalcord.org) and SPINAL CORD Injury ♦ “Because of my injury, it is now impossible for me Information Network (www.spinalcord.uab.edu) have to ever ...

  16. Prevention and Control of Injuries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuchfarber, Barbara S.; Zins, Joseph E.; Jason, Leonard A.

    Childhood injury continues to be a major public health crisis in the United States, with a large percentage of injuries being preventable and controllable. This chapter provides information related to understanding child and youth injury. Studies have shown that injuries affect identifiable high-risk groups. Such host factors that put children at…

  17. Soda pop vending machine injuries.

    PubMed

    Cosio, M Q

    1988-11-11

    Fifteen male patients, 15 to 24 years of age, sustained injuries after rocking soda machines. The machines fell onto the victims, resulting in a variety of injuries. Three were killed. The remaining 12 required hospitalization for their injuries. Unless changes are made to safeguard these machines, people will continue to suffer severe and possibly fatal injuries from what are largely preventable accidents. PMID:3184337

  18. Iatrogenic Hepatopancreaticobiliary Injuries: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Vachhani, Prasanti G.; Copelan, Alexander; Remer, Erick M.; Kapoor, Baljendra

    2015-01-01

    Iatrogenic hepatopancreaticobiliary injuries occur after various types of surgical and nonsurgical procedures. Symptomatically, these injuries may lead to a variety of clinical presentations, including tachycardia and hypotension from hemobilia or hemorrhage. Iatrogenic injuries may be identified during the intervention, immediately afterwards, or have a delayed presentation. These injuries are categorized into nonvascular and vascular injuries. Nonvascular injuries include biliary injuries such as biliary leak or stricture, pancreatic injury, and the development of fluid collections such as abscesses. Vascular injuries include pseudoaneurysms, arteriovenous fistulas, dissection, and perforation. Imaging studies such as ultrasound, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and digital subtraction angiography are critical for proper diagnosis of these conditions. In this article, we describe the clinical and imaging presentations of these iatrogenic injuries and the armamentarium of minimally invasive procedures (percutaneous drainage catheter placement, balloon dilatation, stenting, and coil embolization) that are useful in their management. PMID:26038625

  19. Survey of laser injury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Thomas E.; Dunn, J. C., II; Roach, William P.

    2002-06-01

    Laser use is pervasive and steadily expanding both in the private sector and the Department of Defense (DoD). For more than 20 years, Rockwell Laser Industries, the U.S. Army, and the Food and Drug Administration's Center for Devices and Radiological Health have separately collected data on injuries occurring during, or resultant from, the use of lasers. However, data from these sources is incomplete and has not recently undergone a thorough compiling, statistical analysis, review and summarization. It is our belief that in order to evaluate current related medical surveillance, safety and training procedures, this data needs such an examination. Persons maintaining these databases were contacted and any available data on laser injury was collected. The data was analyzed and examined for pertinent similarities and differences among a wide range of parameters. We summarize these findings in this paper and also comment on the injuries, current safety measures and injury reporting protocols associated with laser use.

  20. Investigation of laser injuries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Thomas E.; Keeler, Natalie; Dennis, Jerome E.; Figueroa, Colin L.; Press, Howard A.; Rockwell, R. James, Jr.; Stuck, Bruce E.; Roach, William P.; Wartick, Ardith L.

    2003-06-01

    Recently a review of multiple laser injury and accident databases was initiated. Last year we reported on preliminary findings in this area. This past year the search for laser injury and accident reports was expanded, and a significant number of additional laser incidents were located. The database from the Food and Drug Administration"s Center for Devices and Radiological Health was supplemented with more up to date information and non-medical laser incidents were added. Rockwell Laser Industries database was verified to not contain duplicates from the new information, as was the Army"s Laser Accidents and Incidents Registry. Information from the Federal Aviation Administration regarding laser accidents and incidents were also included. Incidents not resulting in laser specific injuries has been tracked. This information was not included in our previous report. In this study, case reports are used to show gross trends in laser injury, accident and incident reporting. This study is still in progress, and evaluation is incomplete.

  1. Photobiomodulation on sports injuries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiao-Guang; Liu, Timon C.; Jiao, Jian-Ling; Li, Cheng-Zhang; Xu, Xiao-Yang

    2003-12-01

    Sports injuries healing has long been an important field in sports medicine. The stimulatory effects of Low intensity laser (LIL) irradiation have been investigated in several medical fields, such as cultured cell response, wound healing, hormonal or neural stimulation, pain relief and others. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether LIL irradiation can accelerate sports injuries healing. Some experimental and clinical studies have shown the laser stimulation effects on soft tissues and cartilage, however, controversy still exists regarding the role of LIL when used as a therapeutic device. Summarizing the data of cell studies and animal experiments and clinic trials by using the biological information model of photobiomodulation, we conclude that LIL irradiation is a valuable treatment for superficial and localized sports injuries and that the injuries healing effects of the therapy depend on the dosage of LIL irradiation.

  2. Traumatic Brain Injury

    MedlinePlus

    ... disabilities include problems with cognition (thinking, memory, and reasoning), sensory processing (sight, hearing, touch, taste, and smell), ... barrier. NIH Patient Recruitment for Traumatic Brain Injury Clinical Trials At NIH Clinical Center Throughout the U.S. ...

  3. Eye Injuries (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... eye nausea or vomiting after an eye injury Think Prevention! Kids who play sports should wear protective goggles or unbreakable glasses as needed. Keep chemicals and other potentially dangerous objects out of the reach of children. Reviewed by: ...

  4. [Treating frostbite injuries].

    PubMed

    Berendsen, Remco R; Kolfschoten, Nikki E; de Jong, Vincent M; Frima, Herman; Daanen, Hein A M; Anema, Helen A

    2012-01-01

    Frostbite injuries rarely occur in healthy Dutch persons. However, as the number of people engaging in winter and outdoor activities and travelling to high altitudes increases, the risk of frostbite also increases. Frostbite is a cold-induced injury which results from two processes: freezing and microvascular occlusion. Adequate first aid, which focuses on the prevention of refreezing and mechanical injury, and rapid rewarming together with the administration of ibuprofen, are of the greatest importance for limiting eventual tissue damage. Iloprost infusion and possibly (r)tPA are indicated if a patient presents within 24 hours after the tissue has thawed and the injury is such that severe morbidity can be expected. If the patient presents after this time period, hyperbaric oxygen therapy may be considered; however, the evidence available on this type of treatment is limited. PMID:22748369

  5. Traumatic flexor tendon injuries.

    PubMed

    Lapegue, F; Andre, A; Brun, C; Bakouche, S; Chiavassa, H; Sans, N; Faruch, M

    2015-12-01

    The flexor system of the fingers consisting of flexor tendons and finger pulleys is a key anatomic structure for the grasping function. Athletes and manual workers are particularly at risk for closed injuries of the flexor system: ruptured pulleys, ruptures of the flexor digitorum profundus from its distal attachment ("jersey finger"), and less frequently, ruptures of the flexor digitorum superficialis and of the lumbrical muscles. Open injuries vary more and their imaging features are more complex since tendons may be torn in several locations, the locations may be unusual, the injuries may be associated with nerve and vascular injuries, fibrosis… Sonography is the best imaging modality to associate with the clinical exam for it allows an experienced physician to make an accurate and early diagnosis, crucial to appropriate early treatment planning. PMID:26564614

  6. Preventing Children's Sports Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... ups and training sessions before practices and before games. This will help ensure that they have fun ... be allowed periods of rest during practices and games. previous continue Common Types of Sports Injuries Three ...

  7. Spinal Cord Injury

    MedlinePlus

    ... Dramatically Improves Function After Spinal Cord Injury in Rats May 2004 press release on an experimental treatment ... NINDS). Signaling Molecule Improves Nerve Cell Regeneration in Rats August 2002 news summary on a signaling molecule ...

  8. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... Braingate" research? What is the status of stem-cell research? How would stem-cell therapies work in the treatment of spinal cord injuries? What does stem-cell research on animals tell us? When can we ...

  9. Traumatic Brain Injury

    MedlinePlus

    ... a wide range of changes affecting thinking, sensation, language, or emotions. TBI can be associated with post-traumatic stress disorder. People with severe injuries usually need rehabilitation. NIH: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke

  10. Biomarkers of Lung Injury

    EPA Science Inventory

    Unlike the hepatic, cardiovascular, nervous, or excretory organ systems, where there .ls a strong contribution of host factors or extracellular biochemical milieu in causing organ damage, the causes of lung injuries and subsequent diseases are primarily from direct environmental ...

  11. Sciatic nerve injection injury.

    PubMed

    Jung Kim, Hyun; Hyun Park, Sang

    2014-06-11

    Nerve injury is a common complication following intramuscular injection and the sciatic nerve is the most frequently affected nerve, especially in children, the elderly and underweight patients. The neurological presentation may range from minor transient pain to severe sensory disturbance and motor loss with poor recovery. Management of nerve injection injury includes drug treatment of pain, physiotherapy, use of assistive devices and surgical exploration. Early recognition of nerve injection injury and appropriate management are crucial in order to reduce neurological deficit and to maximize recovery. Sciatic nerve injection injury is a preventable event. Total avoidance of intramuscular injection is recommended if other administration routes can be used. If the injection has to be administered into the gluteal muscle, the ventrogluteal region (gluteal triangle) has a more favourable safety profile than the dorsogluteal region (the upper outer quadrant of the buttock). PMID:24920643

  12. Genital injuries in adults.

    PubMed

    White, Catherine

    2013-02-01

    The examination of the rape victim should focus on the therapeutic, forensic and psychological needs of the individual patient. One aspect will be an examination for ano-genital injuries. From a medical perspective, they tend to be minor and require little in the way of treatment. They must be considered when assessing the risk of blood-borne viruses and the need for prophylaxis. From a forensic perspective, an understanding of genital injury rates, type of injury, site and healing may assist the clinician to interpret the findings in the context of the allegations that have been made. There are many myths and misunderstandings about ano-genital injuries and rape. The clinician has a duty to dispel these. PMID:23219384

  13. Toe Injuries and Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... include Corns and bunions Ingrown toenails Toe joint sprains and dislocations Fractured toe bones Treatments for toe injuries and disorders vary. They might include shoe inserts or special shoes, padding, taping, medicines, rest, and in severe cases, surgery.

  14. Head and neck injuries in college football: an eight-year analysis.

    PubMed

    Albright, J P; McAuley, E; Martin, R K; Crowley, E T; Foster, D T

    1985-01-01

    The present study documented head and neck injuries in a study group of 342 college football players at a single institution for a period of 8 years. All freshmen players were screened for evidence of: (1) past history of head and neck injuries, and (2) abnormalities of the cervical spine on physical examination and x-ray film. By recording all head injuries and those neck injuries with time loss, incidence rates and patterns of injury incurred in college competition were determined. A total of 175 head and neck injuries were sustained by 100 players over the 8 year period. Those players with abnormal findings on screening examination were twice as likely to have a head or neck injury at some point in their college careers as those players with a normal screening examination. The greater the degree of abnormality on freshman screening examination, the more severe the neck injury in college was likely to be. Twenty-nine percent of all players in the study group sustained a head or neck injury during their college careers. The probability of a subsequent head or neck injury escalated sharply following a single incident. The overall incidence of injury was found to have been dramatically reduced over the 8 years. Influential factors such as legislative rule changes, medical status of recruits, and general coaching philosophies are discussed with regard to injury reduction and prevention of head and neck injuries in college football. PMID:4014528

  15. Traumatic injuries to athletes.

    PubMed

    Sigurdsson, Asgeir; Bourguignon, Cecilia

    2015-01-01

    The timeliness of treatment after dental trauma is crucial to successful tooth preservation. This article focuses on the emergency treatment of common forms of dental trauma in athletes, both at the site of the injury and at the dental office. When dental injuries happen to young patients, saving the tooth is an absolute priority, because few long-term replacement solutions can be performed in a growing child. Preserving pulpal vitality of immature teeth is essential to allow continued root development. PMID:26545271

  16. Pars Injuries in Athletes.

    PubMed

    Oren, Jonathan H; Gallina, Jason M

    2016-03-01

    Pars injuries are common causes of low back pain in adolescent athletes. Workup traditionally has included lumbar radiographs with oblique views and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). However, recent literature has demonstrated the accuracy of MRI as a diagnostic modality. Acute injuries may be amenable to bracing with the goal of a healed lesion. Most cases of spondylolysis will result in asymptomatic non-union, though pars repair is an option for symptomatic pars defects without spondylolisthesis. PMID:26977552

  17. Abdominopelvic vascular injuries.

    PubMed

    Sriussadaporn, S

    2000-01-01

    The clinical records of 25 patients with 32 abdominopelvic vascular injuries were reviewed. Sixty per cent of patients sustained blunt trauma and 40 per cent sustained penetrating trauma. Nineteen patients (76%) were in shock on arrival, 2 of them underwent ER thoracotomy when they first arrived in the emergency room. Nine patients (36%) had signs of lower extremity ischemia. The Injury Severity Score (ISS) ranged from 16-50, mean 29 +/- 10.0. Nineteen patients (76%) had 35 associated injuries. Of the 32 injured vessels; 8 were external iliac artery, 5 were renal vein, 4 were abdominal aorta, 3 were common iliac artery, common iliac vein, external iliac vein and inferior vena cava, and 1 was superior mesenteric artery, superior mesenteric vein and median sacral artery. Treatments included: 13 lateral repair, 4 prosthetic grafting, 4 nephrectomy, 3 ligation, 3 reversed saphenous vein grafting, 2 end to end anastomosis, 1 internal iliac artery grafting, 1 intravascular shunt and packing and 1 perihepatic packing. Nine patients (36%) died. High mortality was observed in injuries to the abdominal aorta (75%), inferior vena cava (66.7%), common iliac vein (66.7%) and associated major pelvic fractures (50%). Factors significantly associated with mortality were the presence of shock on arrival, associated injuries and high Injury Severity Score. The author concludes that short prehospital time, effective resuscitation and proper surgical decision making are important for survival in these critically injured patients. PMID:10710864

  18. Pediatric equestrian injuries.

    PubMed

    Bixby-Hammett, D M

    1992-06-01

    Using data from four sources, horse-related injuries are summarized for persons younger than 25 years of age. Head injury caused 57% of deaths. The upper extremity was the most common area injured, with the next most frequent areas the lower extremity (National Park Service data) and the head (United States Pony Clubs [USPC] data). Injured females outnumbered injured males and had a greater percentage of participants injured (USPC data). Injuries occurred at home in 41% (National Electronic Injury Surveillance System data). USPC figures suggest that greater knowledge may reduce the severity of horse-related injuries. Previous horse-related injury had occurred in 1 of 4 of those injured (USPC data). One third of accidents occurred during lessons (USPC data). Riding instructors should be certified by a recognized organization, and parents should evaluate an instructor's personal riding and their safety records with students. The pediatrician's role should be in counseling parents with children who ride and in offering recommendations for safety to governing boards of youth horse activities. PMID:1594372

  19. Peroxisomes and Kidney Injury

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Peroxisomes are organelles present in most eukaryotic cells. The organs with the highest density of peroxisomes are the liver and kidneys. Peroxisomes possess more than fifty enzymes and fulfill a multitude of biological tasks. They actively participate in apoptosis, innate immunity, and inflammation. In recent years, a considerable amount of evidence has been collected to support the involvement of peroxisomes in the pathogenesis of kidney injury. Recent Advances: The nature of the two most important peroxisomal tasks, beta-oxidation of fatty acids and hydrogen peroxide turnover, functionally relates peroxisomes to mitochondria. Further support for their communication and cooperation is furnished by the evidence that both organelles share the components of their division machinery. Until recently, the majority of studies on the molecular mechanisms of kidney injury focused primarily on mitochondria and neglected peroxisomes. Critical Issues: The aim of this concise review is to introduce the reader to the field of peroxisome biology and to provide an overview of the evidence about the contribution of peroxisomes to the development and progression of kidney injury. The topics of renal ischemia–reperfusion injury, endotoxin-induced kidney injury, diabetic nephropathy, and tubulointerstitial fibrosis, as well as the potential therapeutic implications of peroxisome activation, are addressed in this review. Future Directions: Despite recent progress, further studies are needed to elucidate the molecular mechanisms induced by dysfunctional peroxisomes and the role of the dysregulated mitochondria–peroxisome axis in the pathogenesis of renal injury. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 25, 217–231. PMID:26972522

  20. Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Schaller, Alexandra L; Lakhani, Saquib A; Hsu, Benson S

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide a better understanding of pediatric traumatic brain injury and its management. Within the pediatric age group, ages 1 to 19, injuries are the number one cause of death with traumatic brain injury being involved in almost 50 percent of these cases. This, along with the fact that the medical system spends over $1 billion annually on pediatric traumatic brain injury, makes this issue both timely and relevant to health care providers. Over the course of this article the epidemiology, physiology, pathophysiology, and treatment of pediatric traumatic brain injury will be explored. Emphasis will be placed on the role of the early responder and the immediate interventions that should be considered and/or performed. The management discussed in this article follows the most recent recommendations from the 2012 edition of the Guidelines for the Acute Medical Management of Severe Traumatic Brain Injury in Infants, Children, and Adolescents. Despite the focus of this article, it is important not to lose sight of the fact that an ounce of prevention is worth a pound--or, to be more precise and use the average human's brain measurements, just above three pounds--of cure. PMID:26630835

  1. Diagnosis and management of ulnar collateral ligament injuries in throwers.

    PubMed

    Freehill, Michael T; Safran, Marc R

    2011-01-01

    Although ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) injuries are reported most commonly in baseball players (especially in pitchers), these also have been observed in other throwing sports including water polo, javelin throw, tennis, and volleyball. This article reviews the functional anatomy and biomechanics of the UCL with associated pathophysiology of UCL injuries of the elbow of the athlete participating in overhead throwing. Evaluation, including pertinent principles in history, physical examination, and imaging modalities, is discussed, along with the management options. PMID:23531973

  2. 31 CFR 542.529 - Policy on activities related to petroleum and petroleum products of Syrian origin for the benefit...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... petroleum and petroleum products of Syrian origin for the benefit of the National Coalition of Syrian... activities related to petroleum and petroleum products of Syrian origin for the benefit of the National... the purchase, trade, export, import, or production of petroleum or petroleum products of Syrian...

  3. 76 FR 81508 - Communications and Activities Related to Off-Label Uses of Marketed Products and Use of Products...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-28

    ... investigational products. For example, in the Federal Register of May 22, 1987 (52 FR 19466), the Agency published....'' (52 FR 19466 at 19475). II. FDA Is Seeking Comments on Communications and Activities Related to Off... ``commercialization'' of the drug (see 74 FR 40872 at 40890, August 13, 2009; 52 FR 19466 at 19467). What...

  4. 14 CFR 1266.102 - Cross-waiver of liability for agreements for activities related to the International Space Station.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... exploration, exploitation, and use of outer space through the International Space Station (ISS). The IGA... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cross-waiver of liability for agreements for activities related to the International Space Station. 1266.102 Section 1266.102 Aeronautics...

  5. 14 CFR 1266.102 - Cross-waiver of liability for agreements for activities related to the International Space Station.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... exploration, exploitation, and use of outer space through the International Space Station (ISS). The IGA... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cross-waiver of liability for agreements for activities related to the International Space Station. 1266.102 Section 1266.102 Aeronautics...

  6. 14 CFR 1266.102 - Cross-waiver of liability for agreements for activities related to the International Space Station.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... exploration, exploitation, and use of outer space through the International Space Station (ISS). The IGA... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cross-waiver of liability for agreements for activities related to the International Space Station. 1266.102 Section 1266.102 Aeronautics...

  7. 14 CFR 1266.102 - Cross-waiver of liability for agreements for activities related to the International Space Station.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... exploration, exploitation, and use of outer space through the International Space Station (ISS). The IGA... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Cross-waiver of liability for agreements for activities related to the International Space Station. 1266.102 Section 1266.102 Aeronautics and...

  8. Intraoperative peripheral nerve injury in colorectal surgery. An update.

    PubMed

    Colsa Gutiérrez, Pablo; Viadero Cervera, Raquel; Morales-García, Dieter; Ingelmo Setién, Alfredo

    2016-03-01

    Intraoperative peripheral nerve injury during colorectal surgery procedures is a potentially serious complication that is often underestimated. The Trendelenburg position, use of inappropriately padded armboards and excessive shoulder abduction may encourage the development of brachial plexopathy during laparoscopic procedures. In open colorectal surgery, nerve injuries are less common. It usually involves the femoral plexus associated with lithotomy position and self-retaining retractor systems. Although in most cases the recovery is mostly complete, treatment consists of physical therapy to prevent muscular atrophy, protection of hypoesthesic skin areas and analgesics for neuropathic pain. The aim of the present study is to review the incidence, prevention and management of intraoperative peripheral nerve injury. PMID:26008880

  9. Common injuries of the shoulder. Diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed Central

    Donovan, P J; Paulos, L E

    1995-01-01

    Shoulder pain is often the presenting complaint of patients seeing their primary care physicians. Overuse and traumatic injuries make up most of the causes. A physical examination with minimal diagnostic tests can lead to the correct diagnosis in most cases. Most conditions can be treated conservatively (nonsurgically). Appropriate referral to a specialist depends on the severity of the initial injury or the patient's lack of response to conservative treatment (or both). We discuss common injuries of the shoulder, emphasizing a practical diagnostic and therapeutic approach. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5. PMID:7483592

  10. Pain following spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Siddall, P J; Loeser, J D

    2001-02-01

    Chronic pain is an important problem following spinal cord injury (SCI) and is a major impediment to effective rehabilitation. The reported prevalence of chronic SCI pain is variable but averages 65% with around one third of these people rating their pain as severe. The mechanisms responsible for the presence of pain are poorly understood. However, evidence from clinical observations and the use of animal models of SCI pain suggests that a number of processes may be important. These include functional and structural plastic changes in the central nervous system following injury, with changes in receptor function and loss of normal inhibition resulting in an increased neuronal excitability. A number of specific types of SCI pain can be distinguished based on descriptors, location and response to treatment. Nociceptive pain can arise from musculoskeletal structures and viscera and neuropathic pain can arise from spinal cord and nerve damage. The role of psychological and environmental factors also needs to be considered. Accurate identification of these pain types will help in selecting appropriate treatment approaches. Current treatments employ a variety of pharmacological, surgical, physical and psychological approaches. However, evidence for many of the treatments in use is still limited. It is hoped that future research will identify effective treatment strategies that accurately target specific mechanisms. PMID:11402361

  11. Road traffic injuries in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Deysi Yasmin; Fernández, Francisco José; Acero Velásquez, Hugo

    2003-01-01

    Road traffic injuries are a leading public health problem in Colombia. Pedestrians are the most vulnerable road users, especially in the main urban centers of Bogotá, Medellin and Cali. Data analyzed in this report include official statistics from the National Police and the National Institute of Legal Medicine and Forensic Sciences for 1996-2000, and results of a study conducted at the National University of Colombia in 2000. Methods from the Highway Capacity Manual were used for determining physical and technical variables, and a Geographical Information System tool was used for the location and spatial analysis of the road traffic crashes. Pedestrians accounted for close to 32% of injuries and 40% of the deaths from road traffic crashes. The problem of road traffic crashes existed predominately in urban areas. In the main urban centers, pedestrians constituted nearly 68% of road traffic crash victims. The high level of risky road use behaviors demonstrated by pedestrians and drivers, and inadequate infrastructure for safe mobility of pedestrians in some sections of the road network were the main contributing factors. Major improvements were achieved in Bogotá following enhancements to the municipal transport system and other policies introduced since 1995. In conclusion, policies and programs for improving road safety, in particular pedestrian safety, and strengthening urban planning are top priority. PMID:12772483

  12. Rugby union injuries to the cervical spine and spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Quarrie, Kenneth L; Cantu, Robert C; Chalmers, David J

    2002-01-01

    Injuries to the cervical spine are among the most serious injuries occurring as a result of participation in rugby. Outcomes of such injuries range from complete recovery to death, depending on the degree of spinal cord damage sustained. Much information has been gained regarding the mechanisms and frequency of such injuries, from case reports and case series studies. The most commonly reported mechanism of injury has been hyperflexion of the cervical spine, resulting in fracture dislocation of C4-C5 or C5-C6. Tracking both the trends of incidence of spinal injuries, and the effectiveness of injury prevention initiatives has proved difficult because of a lack of properly conducted epidemiological studies. Within the constraints of the research published to date, it appears that hookers and props have been at disproportionate risk of cervical spine injury, predominantly because of injuries sustained during scrummaging. While the scrum was the phase of play most commonly associated with spinal injuries throughout the 1980s in most rugby playing countries, there has been a trend through the 1990s of an increasing proportion of spinal injuries occurring in the tackle situation. The majority of injuries have occurred early in the season, when grounds tend to be harder, and players are lacking both practice and physical conditioning for the physical contact phases of the sport. A number of injury prevention measures have been launched, including changes to the laws of the game regarding scrummaging, and education programmes aimed at enforcing safe techniques and eliminating illegal play. Calls for case-registers and effective epidemiological studies have been made by researchers and physicians in most countries where rugby is widespread, but it appears to be only recently that definite steps have been made towards this goal. Well-designed epidemiological studies will be able to provide more accurate information about potential risk factors for injury such as age, grade

  13. Neurorestoration after traumatic brain injury through angiotensin II receptor blockage.

    PubMed

    Villapol, Sonia; Balarezo, María G; Affram, Kwame; Saavedra, Juan M; Symes, Aviva J

    2015-11-01

    See Moon (doi:10.1093/awv239) for a scientific commentary on this article.Traumatic brain injury frequently leads to long-term cognitive problems and physical disability yet remains without effective therapeutics. Traumatic brain injury results in neuronal injury and death, acute and prolonged inflammation and decreased blood flow. Drugs that block angiotensin II type 1 receptors (AT1R, encoded by AGTR1) (ARBs or sartans) are strongly neuroprotective, neurorestorative and anti-inflammatory. To test whether these drugs may be effective in treating traumatic brain injury, we selected two sartans, candesartan and telmisartan, of proven therapeutic efficacy in animal models of brain inflammation, neurodegenerative disorders and stroke. Using a validated mouse model of controlled cortical impact injury, we determined effective doses for candesartan and telmisartan, their therapeutic window, mechanisms of action and effect on cognition and motor performance. Both candesartan and telmisartan ameliorated controlled cortical impact-induced injury with a therapeutic window up to 6 h at doses that did not affect blood pressure. Both drugs decreased lesion volume, neuronal injury and apoptosis, astrogliosis, microglial activation, pro-inflammatory signalling, and protected cerebral blood flow, when determined 1 to 3 days post-injury. Controlled cortical impact-induced cognitive impairment was ameliorated 30 days after injury only by candesartan. The neurorestorative effects of candesartan and telmisartan were reduced by concomitant administration of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ, encoded by PPARG) antagonist T0070907, showing the importance of PPARγ activation for the neurorestorative effect of these sartans. AT1R knockout mice were less vulnerable to controlled cortical impact-induced injury suggesting that the sartan's blockade of the AT1R also contributes to their efficacy. This study strongly suggests that sartans with dual AT1R blocking and

  14. Analysis of 344 Hand Injuries in a Pediatric Population

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Byung-Joon; Lee, Jung-Il; Kim, Jin Soo; Lee, Dong Chul; Lee, Kyung Jin

    2016-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to identify comprehensive hand injury patterns in different pediatric age groups and to assess their risk factors. Methods This retrospective study was conducted among patients younger than 16-year-old who presented to the emergency room of a general hospital located in Gyeonggi-do, Republic of Korea, and were treated for an injury of the finger or hand from January 2010 to December 2014. The authors analyzed the medical records of 344 patients. Age was categorized according to five groups. Results A total of 391 injury sites of 344 patients were evaluated for this study. Overall and in each group, male patients were in the majority. With regard to dominant or non-dominant hand involvement, there were no significant differences. Door-related injuries were the most common cause in the age groups of 0 to 3, 4 to 6, and 7 to 9 years. Sport/recreational activities or physical conflict injuries were the most common cause in those aged 10 to 12 and 13 to 15. Amputation and crushing injury was the most common type in those aged 0 to 3 and 4 to 6 years. However, in those aged 10 to 12 and 13 to 15, deep laceration and closed fracture was the most common type. With increasing age, closed injuries tended to increase more sharply than open injuries, extensor tendon rupture more than flexor injuries, and the level of injury moved proximally. Conclusions This study provides a comprehensive overview of the epidemiology of hand injuries in the pediatric population. PMID:26848449

  15. Match and training injuries in rugby league: a review of published studies.

    PubMed

    King, Doug A; Hume, Patria A; Milburn, Peter D; Guttenbeil, Dain

    2010-02-01

    Rugby league is an international collision sport played by junior, amateur, semiprofessional and professional players. The game requires participants to be involved in physically demanding activities such as running, tackling, passing and sprinting, and musculoskeletal injuries are common. A review of injuries in junior and senior rugby league players published in Sports Medicine in 2004 reported that injuries to the head and neck and muscular injuries were common in senior rugby league players, while fractures and injuries to the knee were common in junior players. This current review updates the descriptive data on rugby league epidemiology and adds information for semiprofessional, amateur and junior levels of participation in both match and training environments using studies identified through searches of PubMed, CINHAL, Ovid, MEDLINE, SCOPUS and SportDiscus databases. This review also discusses the issues surrounding the definitions of injury exposure, injury rate, injury severity and classification of injury site and type for rugby league injuries. Studies on the incidence of injuries in rugby league have suffered from inconsistencies in the injury definitions utilized. Some studies on rugby league injuries have utilized a criterion of a missed matchas an injury definition, total injury incidences or a combination of both time-loss and non-time-loss injuries, while other studies have incorporated a medical treatment injury definition. Efforts to establish a standard definition for rugby league injuries have been difficult, especially as some researchers were not in favour of a definition that was all-encompassing and enabled non-time-loss injuries to be recorded. A definition of rugby league injury has been suggested based on agreement by a group of international researchers. The majority of injuries occur in the match environment, with rates typically increasing as the playing level increases. However, professional level injury rates were reportedly less

  16. Back injuries in a cohort of schoolchildren aged 6-12: A 2.5-year prospective study.

    PubMed

    Franz, C; Jespersen, E; Rexen, C T; Leboeuf-Yde, C; Wedderkopp, N

    2016-08-01

    The aims of this prospective school cohort study were to describe the epidemiology of diagnosed back pain in childhood, classified as either nontraumatic or traumatic back injury, and to estimate the association with physical activity in different settings. Over 2.5 years, 1240 children aged 6-12 years were surveyed weekly using mobile text messages to ask about the presence or absence of back pain. Pain was clinically diagnosed and injuries were classified using the International Classification of Diseases version 10. Physical activity data were obtained from text messages and accelerometers. Of the 315 back injuries diagnosed, 186 injuries were nontraumatic and 129 were traumatic. The incidence rate ratio was 1.5 for a nontraumatic back injury compared with a traumatic injury. The overall estimated back injury incidence rate was 0.20 per 1000 physical activity units (95% confidence interval 0.18-0.23). The back injury incidence rates were higher for sports when exposure per 1000 physical activity units was taken into consideration and especially children horse-riding had a 40 times higher risk of sustaining a traumatic back injury compared to the risk during non-organized leisure time physical activity. However, the reasonably low injury incidence rates support the recommendations of children continuously being physically active. PMID:26130046

  17. [Prospective study on injuries of the German national ice hockey teams in more than 1000 games].

    PubMed

    Gröger, A; Kuropkat, C; Mang, A; Gradinger, R

    2010-06-01

    Due to the fast and physical nature of the game, prevention of injuries is an important issue in ice hockey. The injuries of the German male senior and junior (U16, U17, U18, U19, U20) national ice hockey teams were documented and analyzed in 1006 games between 1986 and 2006. This unique long observation period over 20 years, as well as the standardized protocol of documentation provides reliable data concerning injury pattern in German international ice hockey. Overall 277 injuries were recorded. Comparing the first and the last ten years of observation, the number did not decline over the time, despite various national and international efforts of injury prevention. The majority of the injuries, almost 60%, were caused by body contact with increasing tendency. Remarkably, the injuries with no body or puck/stick contact more than doubled in the last ten years compared to the first ten years of observation. Most injuries happened to the extremities with decreasing tendency to lower body and increasing tendency to upper body injuries. The number of head injuries did not change significantly. More injuries occurred in the second and third period compared to the first period of the game. The data of this study indicate that many injuries might be due to insufficient physical condition with consecutive lack of concentration and coordination. Players do not seem to meet the increasing technical and athletic requirements of international ice-hockey. The increasing speed and physical energy in international ice-hockey make the game unique and fascinating. Therefore, the aim must be to decrease the number and above all the severity of injuries by further development and adjustment of the player's equipment. Also, a better cooperation of players, coaches, sports medicine and referees seems to be necessary for injury prevention in the future. PMID:20517801

  18. Association between preseason functional tests and injuries in youth football: a prospective follow-up.

    PubMed

    Frisch, A; Urhausen, A; Seil, R; Croisier, J L; Windal, T; Theisen, D

    2011-12-01

    This prospective cohort study aimed at identifying player-related risk factors for injuries in youth football as determined by extensive preseasonal screening. All male U15-U19 players from a regional football school (season 2007-2008; n = 67) underwent preseason evaluations assessing physical fatigue, emotional stress and injury history (questionnaire), anthropometric variables, general joint laxity (Beighton score), lower limb coordination (functional hop tests), aerobic fitness (shuttle run test), strength of knee extensor and flexor muscles (isokinetic tests), static and dynamic balance (force plate tests), and explosive strength (jump tests on force plate). Football exposure and all football-related injuries (n = 163) were recorded during the entire subsequent season (44 weeks). Total injury incidence was 10.4 injuries/1000  h and was higher in competition than in training [relative risk = 3.3; CI(95%) (2.39; 4.54); P < 0.001]. Lower limb injuries were most frequent (87%). Acute contact injuries represented 37%, while intrinsic (noncontact and chronic) injuries amounted to 63%. Of all the variables tested, only physical fatigue was significantly associated with injury, as revealed by univariate and multivariate analyses. The same result was observed when considering only intrinsic injuries as outcome. A single preseason test session may be of limited interest in the framework of an injury prevention strategy. PMID:22017708

  19. Beyond the basics: lightning-strike injuries.

    PubMed

    Mistovich, Joseph J; Krost, William S; Limmer, Daniel D

    2008-03-01

    It is estimated that a lightning flash occurs approximately 8 million times per day throughout the world. Most strikes are benign and cause little damage to property and physical structures; however, when lightning strikes a person or group of people, it is a significant medical and potentially traumatic event that could lead to immediate death or permanent disability. By understanding some basic physics of lightning and pathophysiology of injuries associated with lightning strikes, EMS providers will be better prepared to identify assessment findings, anticipate complications and provide effective emergency care. PMID:18814638

  20. [Extragenital injuries in rape].

    PubMed

    Kernbach, G; Püschel, K; Brinkmann, B

    1984-10-01

    The documentation of extragenital injuries to verify violent cohabitation has considerable forensic relevance. 1,875 police files in Hamburg were investigated. Injuries were analysed under the following aspects: kinds, localisations and patterns. According to the most frequent conduct of the doer (manual fixation of the victim and beats in 60% of all cases), consequences of contused violence (i.e. effusions of blood, contusions, dehiscences) were found in 50% of all cases. Injuries due to semi-sharp violence, wounds of genitals or signs of choke were relatively rare (15-3-3%). An isolated state of genital organs is of minor importance. The most frequent localisations of injuries were face and arms, less frequently legs and back. Injuries as result of manual fixation, defence or abutment formed the main patterns. "Banal" hurts were also found. In numerous cases, the outer appearance of the lesions enabled conclusions regarding the instrument used (i.e. double wales after beats with a stick). Self-inflicted injuries can mostly be discerned by their kind and localisation. Rape without any injuries is conceivable as the result of missing defence in the presence of severe threat. Psychic alterations were found in 20% of the cases, half of them continuing for a long time. The medical examination of the suspected man must include the search of signs of a fight (scratch marks, bites), localised at the hands, face and neck (besides ascertainment of traces, for example, smears of semen and smegma, i.e. from the glans penis). Extent and thoroughness of medical examinations as presently practised are discussed critically. The manner in which these examinations are conducted, is considered to be the main cause of a "secondary victimisation" of the raped woman. PMID:6569844

  1. Brain injury in sports.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, John; Conidi, Frank

    2016-03-01

    OBJECT Helmets are used for sports, military, and transportation to protect against impact forces and associated injuries. The common belief among end users is that the helmet protects the whole head, including the brain. However, current consensus among biomechanists and sports neurologists indicates that helmets do not provide significant protection against concussion and brain injuries. In this paper the authors present existing scientific evidence on the mechanisms underlying traumatic head and brain injuries, along with a biomechanical evaluation of 21 current and retired football helmets. METHODS The National Operating Committee on Standards for Athletic Equipment (NOCSAE) standard test apparatus was modified and validated for impact testing of protective headwear to include the measurement of both linear and angular kinematics. From a drop height of 2.0 m onto a flat steel anvil, each football helmet was impacted 5 times in the occipital area. RESULTS Skull fracture risk was determined for each of the current varsity football helmets by calculating the percentage reduction in linear acceleration relative to a 140-g skull fracture threshold. Risk of subdural hematoma was determined by calculating the percentage reduction in angular acceleration relative to the bridging vein failure threshold, computed as a function of impact duration. Ranking the helmets according to their performance under these criteria, the authors determined that the Schutt Vengeance performed the best overall. CONCLUSIONS The study findings demonstrated that not all football helmets provide equal or adequate protection against either focal head injuries or traumatic brain injuries. In fact, some of the most popular helmets on the field ranked among the worst. While protection is improving, none of the current or retired varsity football helmets can provide absolute protection against brain injuries, including concussions and subdural hematomas. To maximize protection against head and

  2. Pediatric elbow injuries in athletes.

    PubMed

    Makhni, Eric C; Jegede, Kola A; Ahmad, Christopher S

    2014-09-01

    Elbow injuries in pediatric and adolescent population represent a spectrum of pathology that can range from medial tension injuries to posterior shear injuries. Elbow injuries in this population continue to rise in parallel with the increase in youth participation in sports both throughout the calendar year and across multiple sports. Many of these injuries are noncontact and are attributed to overuse. Evaluation and management of youth and adolescent athletic elbow injuries requires knowledge of developmental anatomy, injury pathophysiology, and established treatment algorithms. Furthermore, risk factors contributing to elbow injuries must be recognized, with education and recommendations for safe play continually advocated. This education--of parents, athletes, and coaches--is paramount in reducing the climbing incidence of elbow injuries in our youth athletes. PMID:25077752

  3. Medical evaluation for child physical abuse: what the PNP needs to know.

    PubMed

    Hornor, Gail

    2012-01-01

    Physical abuse is a problem of epidemic proportions. Pediatric nurse practitioners (PNPs) will most likely encounter physically abused children in their practice. This continuing education offering will help PNPs develop the skills necessary to recognize an injury that raises the concern for abuse based on characteristics of the injury such as appearance, location, or severity and characteristics of the history given for the injury. The link between corporal punishment and physical abuse will be discussed. Cutaneous findings of abuse, oral injuries, skeletal injuries, abdominal trauma, and abusive head trauma will also be discussed. PMID:22525996

  4. Adolescent Girls' Perceptions of Physical Activity: A Focus Group Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitehead, Sarah; Biddle, Stuart

    2008-01-01

    Low levels of physical activity among adolescent girls are a cause for concern. Examining girls' physical activity perceptions and motivations through in-depth qualitative research allows for greater understanding of the reasons behind their physical activity-related choices. Forty-seven girls aged 14 to 16 years participated in exploratory focus…

  5. Young Thinkers in Motion: Problem Solving and Physics in Preschool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoll, Julia; Hamilton, Ashley; Oxley, Emilie; Eastman, Angela Mitroff; Brent, Rachael

    2012-01-01

    Physics is the study of forces and motion--the science of matter and energy and the interaction between the two. The big idea the children explore, as well as the question they ask as they engage in physical knowledge activities related to physics, is "How does it move?" Many teachers translate naturally as they come to know the children they…

  6. Questionable Supervision by Physical Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawyer, Thomas H.; Gimbert, Tonya L.

    2013-01-01

    According to Court records, student Pedro Godoy (Godoy) filed a suit against the school district (Central Islip Union Free School District) and teacher Otis R. Scerbo (Scerbo), seeking to recover damages for personal injuries allegedly sustained by Godoy while participating in a game of floor hockey during physical education class. Scerbo (the…

  7. Striding Towards Better Physical Therapy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a discussion on a new rehabilitative device that promises to improve physical therapy for patients working to regain the ability to walk after facing traumatic injuries or a degenerative illness. Produced by Enduro Medical Technology, of East Hartford, Connecticut, the Secure Ambulation Module (S.A.M.) creates a stable and secure environment for patients as they stand during ambulation therapy.

  8. The Relationship of Freshmen's Physics Achievement and Their Related Affective Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gungor, Almer (Abak); Eryilmaz, Ali; Fakioglu, Turgut

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the best-fitting structural equation model between the freshmen's physics achievement and selected affective characteristics related to physics. These characteristics are students' situational interest in physics, personal interest in physics, aspiring extra activities related to physics, importance of…

  9. The survey of the causes of eye injury of various services in China.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Huai-Yu; Zhang, Mao-Nian; Zhang, Ying; Jiang, Cai-Hui

    2011-09-01

    The cause of eye injury in various services may be different. Preventing the injury according to the cause would be more effective. We investigated 502 (549 eyes) cases of ocular injury in 21 military hospitals in China. Sports-related injury was the first cause of ocular injury (181/502, 36.1%), and it was more often seen in navy and air force personnel. A total of 69.1% of sports-related ocular injuries were caused by playing basketball and 18.8% by playing football. Work-related injury was the second cause (140/502). The highest ratio of work-related injury was in the surface warship force (31/67, 46.3%). The ratios of military training-related injury in the army and armed police were 21.4% and 21.3%, respectively, but it is only 4.4% in the navy. The analysis of training subjects showed that about 49.2% of injuries occured during skill training, such as parachuting and operating firearms, and 29.5% occurred during physical exercise or counter-acting exercises. We also found that the ratio of sports-related injury increased and military training-related injury decreased with the level of education. PMID:21987965

  10. Blast Injuries: From Improvised Explosive Device Blasts to the Boston Marathon Bombing.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ajay K; Ditkofsky, Noah G; York, John D; Abujudeh, Hani H; Avery, Laura A; Brunner, John F; Sodickson, Aaron D; Lev, Michael H

    2016-01-01

    Although most trauma centers have experience with the imaging and management of gunshot wounds, in most regions blast wounds such as the ones encountered in terrorist attacks with the use of improvised explosive devices (IEDs) are infrequently encountered outside the battlefield. As global terrorism becomes a greater concern, it is important that radiologists, particularly those working in urban trauma centers, be aware of the mechanisms of injury and the spectrum of primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary blast injury patterns. Primary blast injuries are caused by barotrauma from the initial increased pressure of the explosive detonation and the rarefaction of the atmosphere immediately afterward. Secondary blast injuries are caused by debris carried by the blast wind and most often result in penetrating trauma from small shrapnel. Tertiary blast injuries are caused by the physical displacement of the victim and the wide variety of blunt or penetrating trauma sustained as a result of the patient impacting immovable objects such as surrounding cars, walls, or fences. Quaternary blast injuries include all other injuries, such as burns, crush injuries, and inhalational injuries. Radiography is considered the initial imaging modality for assessment of shrapnel and fractures. Computed tomography is the optimal test to assess penetrating chest, abdominal, and head trauma. The mechanism of blast injuries and the imaging experience of the victims of the Boston Marathon bombing are detailed, as well as musculoskeletal, neurologic, gastrointestinal, and pulmonary injury patterns from blast injuries. PMID:26761543

  11. Development of brain injury criteria (BrIC).

    PubMed

    Takhounts, Erik G; Craig, Matthew J; Moorhouse, Kevin; McFadden, Joe; Hasija, Vikas

    2013-11-01

    Rotational motion of the head as a mechanism for brain injury was proposed back in the 1940s. Since then a multitude of research studies by various institutions were conducted to confirm/reject this hypothesis. Most of the studies were conducted on animals and concluded that rotational kinematics experienced by the animal's head may cause axonal deformations large enough to induce their functional deficit. Other studies utilized physical and mathematical models of human and animal heads to derive brain injury criteria based on deformation/pressure histories computed from their models. This study differs from the previous research in the following ways: first, it uses two different detailed mathematical models of human head (SIMon and GHBMC), each validated against various human brain response datasets; then establishes physical (strain and stress based) injury criteria for various types of brain injury based on scaled animal injury data; and finally, uses Anthropomorphic Test Devices (ATDs) (Hybrid III 50th Male, Hybrid III 5th Female, THOR 50th Male, ES-2re, SID-IIs, WorldSID 50th Male, and WorldSID 5th Female) test data (NCAP, pendulum, and frontal offset tests) to establish a kinematically based brain injury criterion (BrIC) for all ATDs. Similar procedures were applied to college football data where thousands of head impacts were recorded using a six degrees of freedom (6 DOF) instrumented helmet system. Since animal injury data used in derivation of BrIC were predominantly for diffuse axonal injury (DAI) type, which is currently an AIS 4+ injury, cumulative strain damage measure (CSDM) and maximum principal strain (MPS) were used to derive risk curves for AIS 4+ anatomic brain injuries. The AIS 1+, 2+, 3+, and 5+ risk curves for CSDM and MPS were then computed using the ratios between corresponding risk curves for head injury criterion (HIC) at a 50% risk. The risk curves for BrIC were then obtained from CSDM and MPS risk curves using the linear relationship

  12. The Role of Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Athletic Pubalgia and Core Muscle Injury.

    PubMed

    Coker, Dana J; Zoga, Adam C

    2015-08-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become the standard of care imaging modality for a difficult, often misunderstood spectrum of musculoskeletal injury termed athletic pubalgia or core muscle injury. Armed with a dedicated noncontrast athletic pubalgia protocol and a late model phased array receiver coil, the musculoskeletal imager can play a great role in effective diagnosis and treatment planning for lesions, including osteitis pubis, midline pubic plate lesions, and rectus abdominis/adductor aponeurosis injury. Beyond these established patterns of MRI findings, there are many confounders and contributing pathologies about the pelvis in patients with activity related groin pain, including internal and periarticular derangements of the hip. The MRI is ideally suited to delineate the extent of expected injury and to identify the unexpected visceral and musculoskeletal lesions. PMID:26244616

  13. Prevention of Eye Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Pashby, Tom

    1981-01-01

    In Canada 30,000 people are registered as blind; in one third of these, blindness might have been avoided. Prevention is the key to reducing the number of eye injuries and blind eyes. The role of the family physician in early identification of treatable conditions and in the education of patients is discussed, but responsibility for prevention belongs to all physicians. The success of prevention is seen in the great reduction in eye injuries in industry and sports since eye protectors have been commonly used. However, many dangers to the eyes are either not recognized or are not taken seriously enough. This paper discusses some of the common causes of serious eye injuries in the home, in sports and in industry. Imagesp464-aFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4 PMID:21289691

  14. Catastrophic pediatric sports injuries.

    PubMed

    Luckstead, Eugene F; Patel, Dilip R

    2002-06-01

    The high school sports of wrestling, gymnastics, ice hockey, baseball, track, and cheerleading should receive closer attention to prevent injury. Safer equipment and sport-specific conditioning should be provided and injuries strictly monitored. Greater attention must also be paid to swimming and diving techniques, and continued observation is needed for heat stroke and heat intolerance in sports such as football, wrestling, basketball, track and field, and cross-country. An increased awareness of commotio cordis in sports other than baseball should include ice hockey, football, track field events, and lacrosse. American football because of the sheer numbers and associated catastrophic injury potential must continue to be monitored at the highest medical levels! PMID:12119866

  15. Renal injury in sport.

    PubMed

    Holmes, F Clarke; Hunt, Jeremy J; Sevier, Thomas L

    2003-04-01

    Hematuria is the most common presenting sign of renal injury. Its presence in athletes may indicate a benign entity such as exercise-induced hematuria or a more serious injury in the presence of trauma. Exercise-induced hematuria can originate in the kidney, bladder, urethra, or prostate. The type of activity, as well as activity duration and intensity, contributes to its development. A wide differential diagnosis must be considered if hematuria persists longer than 24 to 72 hours. Trauma to the kidney can occur from a direct blow or deceleration; contact and collision sports are most commonly involved. Fortunately, most sports-related renal trauma is mild, and can be managed expectantly. A sporting injury rarely results in nephrectomy. Determining return to play for the athlete with a single kidney remains a controversial issue that requires patient education and an individualized approach. PMID:12831667

  16. A season of football injuries.

    PubMed

    Stokes, M A; McKeever, J A; McQuillan, R F; O'Higgins, N J

    1994-06-01

    All rugby and soccer players presenting to the Accident & Emergency department during the football season 1992-1993 (a total of 871) were prospectively studied to compare the injuries sustained in the two sports. The nature and site of injury, treatment required, age, fitness, experience and position of the player, situation giving rise to injury, and medical attention at the grounds were all analysed. The results show that rugby and soccer players had the same number of injuries, and while there were some differences in the nature of the injuries, there was no difference in overall severity. Rugby flankers and soccer goalkeepers are particularly at risk. Competitive matches produce more injuries than training sessions. Experience or fitness did not appear to be a factor and 45% of rugby injuries and 15% of soccer injuries were from school matches. Law changes (e.g. the rugby scrum and the use of gum-shields) have reduced some injuries, but other areas (e.g. jumping for the ball in soccer, rucks and mauls in rugby) also warrant consideration. There was one death, but no spinal cord injuries. Medical attention at the grounds was limited. Rugby injuries, therefore, do not appear to be more numerous or severe than soccer injuries. Law changes have been of benefit but they need to be enforced and perhaps more should be considered. Medical attention at sports grounds could be improved and Registers of injuries kept by the sporting bodies would be of benefit. PMID:8050871

  17. Mountain biking injuries: an update.

    PubMed

    Kronisch, Robert L; Pfeiffer, Ronald P

    2002-01-01

    This article reviews the available literature regarding injuries in off-road bicyclists. Recent progress in injury research has allowed the description of several patterns of injury in this sport. Mountain biking remains popular, particularly among young males, although sales and participation figures have decreased in the last several years. Competition in downhill racing has increased, while cross-country racing has decreased somewhat in popularity. Recreational riders comprise the largest segment of participants, but little is known about the demographics and injury epidemiology of noncompetitive mountain cyclists. Most mountain bikers participating in surveys reported a history of previous injuries, but prospective studies conducted at mountain bike races have found injury rates of <1%. The most common mechanism of injury involves a forward fall over the handlebars, usually while riding downhill, which can result in direct trauma to the head, torso and upper extremities. A variety of factors can be associated with this type of fall, including trail surface irregularities, mechanical failures and loss of control. In mountain bike racing the risk of injury may be higher for women than men. Minor injuries such as abrasions and contusions occur frequently, but are usually of little consequence. Fractures usually involve the torso or upper extremities, and shoulder injuries are common. Head and face injuries are not always prevented by current helmet designs. Fatal injuries are rare but have been reported. Improvements in safety equipment, rider training and racecourse design are suggested injury prevention measures. The authors encourage continued research in this sport. PMID:12076178

  18. Head Injury and Aging: The Importance of Bleeding Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Mallory, Ann

    The current study analyzed 1993–2007 data from NASS/CDS (National Automotive Sampling System / Crashworthiness Data System) to explore the types of serious head injuries sustained by adult motor vehicle crash occupants and how the types of head injuries sustained shifted with age. The purpose was to determine which head injuries are most important for older occupants by identifying specific injuries that become more likely for aging occupants and taking into consideration previous reports on the potential outcome of those injuries for an older population. Results confirmed previous reports that older head injury victims in motor vehicle collisions were more likely to sustain bleeding injuries than younger head injury victims. The current study showed that, in particular, the rate of extra-axial bleeding injury (which includes epidural, subdural, and subarachnoid bleeding) increased with age. The increase in extra-axial bleeding injury rate was especially prominent in relatively low Delta-V crashes. Among the extra-axial bleeding injuries that had increased odds of injury for older occupants, subdural hematoma and subarachnoid hemorrhage were notable, with increased odds of injury for occupants age 50 to 69 as well as for occupants age 70 and older. The importance of subdural hematoma for aging occupants is emphasized by previous studies showing its high mortality rate, while the impact of subarachnoid hemorrhage is linked in previous studies to its aggravating effect on other injuries. The results highlight a need to further explore the injury mechanisms of subdural hematoma and subarachnoid hemorrhage in older occupants in order to define age-adjusted injury tolerance and develop countermeasures. PMID:21050591

  19. Neuropathology of explosive blast traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Magnuson, John; Leonessa, Fabio; Ling, Geoffrey S F

    2012-10-01

    During the conflicts of the Global War on Terror, which are Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) in Afghanistan and Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF), there have been over a quarter of a million diagnosed cases of traumatic brain injury (TBI). The vast majority are due to explosive blast. Although explosive blast TBI (bTBI) shares many clinical features with closed head TBI (cTBI) and penetrating TBI (pTBI), it has unique features, such as early cerebral edema and prolonged cerebral vasospasm. Evolving work suggests that diffuse axonal injury (DAI) seen following explosive blast exposure is different than DAI from focal impact injury. These unique features support the notion that bTBI is a separate and distinct form of TBI. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge pertaining to bTBI. Areas of discussion are: the physics of explosive blast generation, blast wave interaction with the bony calvarium and brain tissue, gross tissue pathophysiology, regional brain injury, and cellular and molecular mechanisms of explosive blast neurotrauma. PMID:22836523

  20. Preventing injuries from all-terrain vehicles.

    PubMed

    Yanchar, Natalie L

    2012-11-01

    All-terrain vehicles (ATVs) are widely used in Canada for recreation, transportation and occupations such as farming. As motorized vehicles, they can be especially dangerous when used by children and young adolescents who lack the knowledge, physical size, strength, and cognitive and motor skills to operate them safely. The magnitude of injury risk to young riders is reflected in explicit vehicle manual warnings and the warning labels on current models, and evidenced by the significant number of paediatric hospitalizations and deaths due to ATV-related trauma. However, helmet use is far from universal among youth operators, and unsafe riding behaviours, such as driving unsupervised and/or driving with passengers, remain common. Despite industry warnings and public education that emphasize the importance of safety behaviours and the risks of significant injury to children and youth, ATV-related injuries and fatalities continue to occur. Until measures are taken that clearly effect substantial reductions in these injuries, restricting ridership by young operators, especially those younger than 16 years of age, is critical to reducing the burden of ATV-related trauma in children and youth. This document replaces a previous Canadian Paediatric Society position statement published in 2004. PMID:24179426