Science.gov

Sample records for physical electrochemistry high

  1. Ab-Initio Physics of Electrochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Letchworth Weaver, Kendra; Arias, Tomás

    2010-03-01

    We present a Joint Density Functional Theory (JDFT)footnotetextS. A. Petrosyan, A. A. Rigos, and T. A. Arias, J. Phys. Chem. B, 109, 15436-15444 (2005).^,footnotetextJ. Lischner and T. A. Arias, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 216401 (2008). capturing the key electrostatic interactions between electronic systems and a fluid environment. This novel theory is relevant to the study of electrochemical systems and includes the dielectric properties of the fluid and charge screening due to the presence of ions in solution. We also demonstrate how DFT calculations can address the fundamental physical issues underlying electrochemistry, including the definition of a consistent reference potential, the treatment of charged surfaces under periodic boundary conditions, and the study of the solid-electrolyte interface as a function of the applied potential. Results for interfacial capacitances and potentials of zero charge calculated using these techniques will be compared to experimental values. Our theory allows simulation of a variety of materials, such as intermetallics and complex oxides, in contact with an ionic liquid environment. This method has a wide range of potential applications including catalysis in fuel cells, batteries, and photoelectrochemical cells.

  2. (The latest developments of the physical aspects of electrochemistry)

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, S.H.

    1990-09-24

    The author was one of 26 invited lecturers to discuss the latest developments of the physical aspects of electrochemistry. He interacted extensively with other lecturers and many participants from developing countries. He also visited with the Director of the Italian Synchrotron Radiation Source now under construction in Trieste, Italy.

  3. High-speed electrochemistry using ultramicroelectrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Walsh, M.R.

    1989-01-01

    This research investigates the use of ultramicroelectrodes in performing electrochemistry on microsecond and nanosecond time scales. One purpose of this research was to look at new ways to apply ultramicroelectrodes to high speed experiments. Some of the aspects that are discussed in this thesis are: (a) A novel technique was developed for measuring currents on short time scales that involves conversion of the current to light using a light emitting diode and measuring the light intensity as a function of time using time correlated single photon counting (TCSPC). Computer processing of the light intensity data can convert this data back to current. The technique is capable of measurements on nanosecond time scales, but TCSPC requires tens or hundreds of millions of experiments to obtain a complete set of data and this frequently results in severe electrode fouling problems. (b) Potential step experiments were used instead of potential sweep experiments. Potential step experiments enable the separation in time of the faradaic and charging currents for chemical systems in which the faradaic impedance is greater than the uncompensated solution resistance. (c) For systems in which the faradaic impedance and uncompensated resistance are of the same order of magnitude, a computer simulation was developed which accounts for the interaction of the faradaic and double layer charging processes. (d) Application of short time scale experiments to the study of surface processes. Some processes studied in this work are the oxidation of clean platinum surfaces, electrode reactions of anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonic acid adsorbed on mercury, reductive hydrogen adsorption on platinum and double layer charging. (e) A study of the smallest available time constants was performed, taking into account non-idealities in the electrode such as stray capacitance and resistance of the electrode itself.

  4. An Audio-Tutorial Approach to the Teaching of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lower, Stephen K.

    1981-01-01

    Demonstrates how audiotutorial techniques can be applied to the teaching of more advanced subjects (physical chemistry and electrochemistry), and how this can have significant affect on the overall quality of instruction and the mechanics of teaching the course. Includes a general description of audiotutorial instruction. (SK)

  5. A Conceptual Change Teaching Strategy To Facilitate High School Students' Understanding of Electrochemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niaz, Mansoor; Chacon, Eleazar

    2003-01-01

    Describes a study that used a teaching strategy based on two teaching experiments which could facilitate students' conceptual understanding of electrochemistry. Involves two sections (n=29 and n=28) of 10th grade high school students in Venezuela. Concludes that the teaching experiments facilitated student understanding of electrochemistry.…

  6. Inquiry-Based Laboratory Activities in Electrochemistry: High School Students' Achievements and Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sesen, Burcin Acar; Tarhan, Leman

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of inquiry-based laboratory activities on high school students' understanding of electrochemistry and attitudes towards chemistry and laboratory work. The participants were 62 high school students (average age 17 years) in an urban public high school in Turkey. Students were assigned to experimental (N =…

  7. Inquiry-Based Laboratory Activities in Electrochemistry: High School Students' Achievements and Attitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acar Sesen, Burcin; Tarhan, Leman

    2013-02-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of inquiry-based laboratory activities on high school students' understanding of electrochemistry and attitudes towards chemistry and laboratory work. The participants were 62 high school students (average age 17 years) in an urban public high school in Turkey. Students were assigned to experimental ( N = 30) and control groups ( N = 32). The experimental group was taught using inquiry-based laboratory activities developed by the researchers and the control group was instructed using traditional laboratory activities. The results of the study indicated that instruction based on inquiry-based laboratory activities caused a significantly better acquisition of scientific concepts related to electrochemistry, and produced significantly higher positive attitudes towards chemistry and laboratory. In the light of the findings, it is suggested that inquiry-based laboratory activities should be developed and applied to promote students' understanding in chemistry subjects and to improve their positive attitudes.

  8. Conceptual difficulties experienced by senior high school students of electrochemistry: Electric circuits and oxidation-reduction equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garnett, Pamela J.; Treagust, David F.

    The purpose of this research was to investigate students' understanding of electrochemistry following a course of instruction. A list of conceptual and propositional knowledge statements was formulated to identify the knowledge base necessary for students to understand electric circuits and oxidation-reduction equations. The conceptual and propositional knowledge statements provided the framework for the development of a semistructured interview protocol which was administered to 32 students in their final year of high school chemistry. The interview questions about electric circuits revealed that several students in the sample were confused about the nature of electric current both in metallic conductors and in electrolytes. Students studying both physics and chemistry were more confused about current flow in metallic conductors than students who were only studying chemistry. In the section of the interview which focused on oxidation and reduction, many students experienced problems in identifying oxidation-reduction equations. Several misconceptions relating to the inappropriate use of definitions of oxidation and reduction were identified. The data illustrate how students attempted to make sense of the concepts of electrochemistry with the knowledge they had already developed or constructed. The implications of the research are that teachers, curriculum developers, and textbook writers, if they are to minimize potential misconceptions, need to be cognizant of the relationship between physics and chemistry teaching, of the need to test for erroneous preconceptions about current before teaching about electrochemical (galvanic) and electrolytic cells, and of the difficulties experienced by students when using more than one model to explain scientific phenomena.

  9. Conceptual difficulties experienced by senior high school students of electrochemistry: Electrochemical (galvanic) and electrolytic cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garnett, Pamela J.; Treagust, David F.

    This research investigated students' understanding of electrochemistry following a 7-9-week course of instruction. A list of conceptual and propositional knowledge statements was formulated, and this provided the framework for semistructured interviews that were conducted with 32 students in their final year of high school chemistry, following instruction in electrochemistry. Three misconceptions identified in this study and five which have been reported earlier are incorporated into an alternative framework about electric current. The framework is grounded on the notion that a current always involves drifting electrons, even in solution. Another area where students' misconceptions were prevalent was in relation to the sign of the anode and cathode. Students who thought the anode was negatively charged believed cations would move toward it, and those who thought it was positively charged were unable to explain why electrons move away from it. Electrolytic cells also proved troublesome for students. Many students did not associate the positions of the anode and cathode with the polarity of the applied electromotive force (e.m.f.). Other students attempted to reverse features of electrochemical cells and apply the reversals to electrolytic cells. The implications of the research relate to students' interpretation of the language that is used to describe scientific phenomena and the tendency for students to overgeneralize, due to comments made by teachers or statements in textbooks.

  10. Electrochemistry, past and present

    SciTech Connect

    Stock, J.T. ); Orna, M.V. )

    1989-01-01

    This book is on electrochemistry. The authors discuss its history, development, and present status. Topics covered in this book are: foundations of electrochemistry, organic and biological electrochemistry, electroanalytical chemistry, and industrial electrochemistry.

  11. Supramolecular Electrochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaifer, Angel E.; Gomez-Kaifer, Marielle

    1999-12-01

    This book describes the electrochemical behavior of supramolecular systems. Special emphasis will be given to the electrochemistry of host-guest complexes, monolayer and multilayer assemblies, dendrimers, and other supramolecular assemblies. A fundamental theme throughout the book is to explore the effects that supramolecular structure exerts on the thermodynamics and kinetics of electrochemical reactions. Conversely, attention will be placed to the various ways in which electrochemical or redox conversions can be utilized to control or affect the structure or properties of supramolecular systems. This first book on this topic will be of value for graduate students and advanced researchers in both electrochemistry and supramolecular chemistry.

  12. Phase I and phase II reductive metabolism simulation of nitro aromatic xenobiotics with electrochemistry coupled with high resolution mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Bussy, Ugo; Chung-Davidson, Yu-Wen; Li, Ke; Li, Weiming

    2014-11-01

    Electrochemistry combined with (liquid chromatography) high resolution mass spectrometry was used to simulate the general reductive metabolism of three biologically important nitro aromatic molecules: 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM), niclosamide, and nilutamide. TFM is a pesticide used in the Laurential Great Lakes while niclosamide and nilutamide are used in cancer therapy. At first, a flow-through electrochemical cell was directly connected to a high resolution mass spectrometer to evaluate the ability of electrochemistry to produce the main reduction metabolites of nitro aromatic, nitroso, hydroxylamine, and amine functional groups. Electrochemical experiments were then carried out at a constant potential of -2.5 V before analysis of the reduction products by LC-HRMS, which confirmed the presence of the nitroso, hydroxylamine, and amine species as well as dimers. Dimer identification illustrates the reactivity of the nitroso species with amine and hydroxylamine species. To investigate xenobiotic metabolism, the reactivity of nitroso species to biomolecules was also examined. Binding of the nitroso metabolite to glutathione was demonstrated by the observation of adducts by LC-ESI(+)-HRMS and the characteristics of their MSMS fragmentation. In conclusion, electrochemistry produces the main reductive metabolites of nitro aromatics and supports the observation of nitroso reactivity through dimer or glutathione adduct formation. PMID:25234306

  13. Conceptual Difficulties Experienced by Senior High School Students of Electrochemistry: Electrochemical (Galvanic) and Electrolytic Cells.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garnett, Pamela J.; Treagust, David F.

    1992-01-01

    This research used semistructured interviews to investigate students' (n=32) understanding of electrochemistry following a 7-9 week course of instruction. Three misconceptions were identified and incorporated with five previously reported into an alternative framework about electric current involving drifting electrons. Also noted was the tendency…

  14. Bipolar electrochemistry.

    PubMed

    Fosdick, Stephen E; Knust, Kyle N; Scida, Karen; Crooks, Richard M

    2013-09-27

    A bipolar electrode (BPE) is an electrically conductive material that promotes electrochemical reactions at its extremities (poles) even in the absence of a direct ohmic contact. More specifically, when sufficient voltage is applied to an electrolyte solution in which a BPE is immersed, the potential difference between the BPE and the solution drives oxidation and reduction reactions. Because no direct electrical connection is required to activate redox reactions, large arrays of electrodes can be controlled with just a single DC power supply or even a battery. The wireless aspect of BPEs also makes it possible to electrosynthesize and screen novel materials for a wide variety of applications. Finally, bipolar electrochemistry enables mobile electrodes, dubbed microswimmers, that are able to move freely in solution. PMID:23843205

  15. Electrochemistry in supercritical fluids.

    PubMed

    Branch, Jack A; Bartlett, Philip N

    2015-12-28

    A wide range of supercritical fluids (SCFs) have been studied as solvents for electrochemistry with carbon dioxide and hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) being the most extensively studied. Recent advances have shown that it is possible to get well-resolved voltammetry in SCFs by suitable choice of the conditions and the electrolyte. In this review, we discuss the voltammetry obtained in these systems, studies of the double-layer capacitance, work on the electrodeposition of metals into high aspect ratio nanopores and the use of metallocenes as redox probes and standards in both supercritical carbon dioxide-acetonitrile and supercritical HFCs. PMID:26574527

  16. Electrochemistry in supercritical fluids

    PubMed Central

    Branch, Jack A.; Bartlett, Philip N.

    2015-01-01

    A wide range of supercritical fluids (SCFs) have been studied as solvents for electrochemistry with carbon dioxide and hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) being the most extensively studied. Recent advances have shown that it is possible to get well-resolved voltammetry in SCFs by suitable choice of the conditions and the electrolyte. In this review, we discuss the voltammetry obtained in these systems, studies of the double-layer capacitance, work on the electrodeposition of metals into high aspect ratio nanopores and the use of metallocenes as redox probes and standards in both supercritical carbon dioxide–acetonitrile and supercritical HFCs. PMID:26574527

  17. Conceptual Difficulties Experienced by Senior High School Students of Electrochemistry: Electric Circuits and Oxidation-Reduction Equations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garnett, Pamela J.; Treagust, David F.

    1992-01-01

    Interview data exemplify students' attempts to integrate the concepts of electrochemistry with related knowledge that they had previously constructed or acquired in other classes. The implications for minimizing potential misconceptions center on the difficulties students experience when using more than one model for explaining scientific…

  18. High energy physics

    SciTech Connect

    Kernan, A.; Shen, B.C.; Ma, E.

    1997-07-01

    This proposal is for the continuation of the High Energy Physics program at the University of California at Riverside. In hadron collider physics the authors will complete their transition from experiment UA1 at CERN to the DZERO experiment at Fermilab. On experiment UA1 their effort will concentrate on data analysis at Riverside. At Fermilab they will coordinate the high voltage system for all detector elements. They will also carry out hardware/software development for the D0 muon detector. The TPC/Two-Gamma experiment has completed its present phase of data-taking after accumulating 160 pb{sup {minus}}1 of luminosity. The UC Riverside group will continue data and physics analysis and make minor hardware improvement for the high luminosity run. The UC Riverside group is participating in design and implementation of the data acquisition system for the OPAL experiment at LEP. Mechanical and electronics construction of the OPAL hadron calorimeter strip readout system is proceeding on schedule. Data analysis and Monte Carlo detector simulation efforts are proceeding in preparation for the first physics run when IEP operation comenses in fall 1989.

  19. FSU High Energy Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Prosper, Harrison B.; Adams, Todd; Askew, Andrew; Berg, Bernd; Blessing, Susan K.; Okui, Takemichi; Owens, Joseph F.; Reina, Laura; Wahl, Horst D.

    2014-12-01

    The High Energy Physics group at Florida State University (FSU), which was established in 1958, is engaged in the study of the fundamental constituents of matter and the laws by which they interact. The group comprises theoretical and experimental physicists, who sometimes collaborate on projects of mutual interest. The report highlights the main recent achievements of the group. Significant, recent, achievements of the group’s theoretical physicists include progress in making precise predictions in the theory of the Higgs boson and its associated processes, and in the theoretical understanding of mathematical quantities called parton distribution functions that are related to the structure of composite particles such as the proton. These functions are needed to compare data from particle collisions, such as the proton-proton collisions at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC), with theoretical predictions. The report also describes the progress in providing analogous functions for heavy nuclei, which find application in neutrino physics. The report highlights progress in understanding quantum field theory on a lattice of points in space and time (an area of study called lattice field theory), the progress in constructing several theories of potential new physics that can be tested at the LHC, and interesting new ideas in the theory of the inflationary expansion of the very early universe. The focus of the experimental physicists is the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment at CERN. The report, however, also includes results from the D0 experiment at Fermilab to which the group made numerous contributions over a period of many years. The experimental group is particularly interested in looking for new physics at the LHC that may provide the necessary insight to extend the standard model (SM) of particle physics. Indeed, the search for new physics is the primary task of contemporary particle physics, one motivated by the need to explain certain facts, such as the

  20. Theoretical High Energy Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Christ, Norman H.; Weinberg, Erick J.

    2014-07-14

    we provide reports from each of the six faculty supported by the Department of Energy High Energy Physics Theory grant at Columbia University. Each is followed by a bibliography of the references cited. A complete list of all of the publications in the 12/1/2010-04/30/2014 period resulting from research supported by this grant is provided in the following section. The final section lists the Ph.D. dissertations based on research supported by the grant that were submitted during this period.

  1. High energy physics

    SciTech Connect

    Kernan, A.; Shen, B.C.; Ma, E.

    1997-07-01

    This proposal is for the continuation of the High Energy Physics Program at the University of California, Riverside. In 1990, we will concentrate on analysis of LEP data from the OPAL detector. We expect to record 10{sup 5} Z`s by the end of 1989 and 10{sup 6} in 1990. This data will be used to measure the number of quark-lepton families in the universe. In the second half of 1990 we will also be occupied with the installation of the D-Zero detector in the Tevatron Collider and the preparation of software for the 1991 run. A new initiative made possible by generous university support is a laboratory for detector development at UCR. The focus will be on silicon strip tracking detectors both for the D-Zero upgrade and for SSC physics. The theory program will pursue further various mass-generating radiative mechanisms for understanding small quark and lepton masses as well as some novel phenomenological aspects of supersymmetry.

  2. High School Physics Teaching Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Physics Teacher, 2012

    2012-01-01

    We divided our high school physics teaching experience into three groups: first year teaching physics, second or third year teaching physics, and four or more years of experience teaching physics. We did this because everything is new for teachers teaching a course for the first time. The second and third time through the course, teachers learn…

  3. Synthesis of convex hexoctahedral Pt micro/nanocrystals with high-index facets and electrochemistry-mediated shape evolution.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Jing; Liu, Shuo; Tian, Na; Zhou, Zhi-You; Liu, Hai-Xia; Xu, Bin-Bin; Sun, Shi-Gang

    2013-12-18

    Systematic manipulation of nanocrystal shapes is prerequisite for revealing their shape-dependent physical and chemical properties. Here we successfully prepared a complex shape of Pt micro/nanocrystals: convex hexoctahedron (HOH) enclosed with 48 {15 5 3} high-index facets by electrochemical square-wave-potential (SWP) method. This shape is the last crystal single form that had not been achieved previously for face-centered-cubic (fcc) metals. We further realized the shape evolution of Pt nanocrystals with high-index facets from tetrahexahedron (THH) to the HOH, and finally to trapezohedron (TPH) by increasing either the upper (EU) or lower potential (EL). The shape evolution, accompanied by the decrease of low-coordinated kink atoms, can be correlated with the competitive interactions between preferentially oxidative dissolution of kink atoms at high EU and the redeposition of Pt atoms at the EL. PMID:24299234

  4. Electrochemistry and Storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thaller, L. H.

    1984-01-01

    The term electrochemistry implies the use of devices that convert chemical energy into electrical energy and sometimes vice versa. These devices are usually composed of some number of individual cells that are connected together to form a battery. In the cases where these devices cannot be electrically recharged they are usually referred to as primary batteries, whereas if these batteries can be charged and recharged repeatedly, they are called secondary batteries. The past and present uses of primary and secondary batteries in aerospace applications are discussed.

  5. Improving Advanced High School Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spital, Robin David

    2003-04-01

    A National Research Council study committee recently commissioned a "Physics Panel" to evaluate and make recommendations for improving advanced physics education in American high schools [1]. The Physics Panel recommends the creation of a nationally standardized Newtonian Mechanics Unit that would form the foundation of all advanced physics programs. In a one-year program, the Panel recommends that advanced physics students study at most one other major area of physics, so that sufficient time is available to develop the deep conceptual understanding that is the primary goal of advanced study. The Panel emphasizes that final assessments must be improved to focus on depth of understanding, rather than technical problem-solving skill. The Physics Panel strongly endorses the inclusion of meaningful real-world experiences in advanced physics programs, but believes that traditional "cook-book" laboratory exercises are not worth the enormous amount of time and effort spent on them. The Physics Panel believes that the talent and preparation of teachers are the most important ingredients in effective physics instruction; it therefore calls for a concerted effort by all parts of the physics community to remedy the desperate shortage of highly qualified teachers. [1] Jerry P. Gollub and Robin Spital, "Advanced Physics in the High Schools", Physics Today, May 2002.

  6. An aptamer-based biosensing platform for highly sensitive detection of platelet-derived growth factor via enzyme-mediated direct electrochemistry.

    PubMed

    Deng, Kun; Xiang, Yang; Zhang, Liqun; Chen, Qinghai; Fu, Weiling

    2013-01-01

    In this work, a new label-free electrochemical aptamer-based sensor (aptasensor) was constructed for detection of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) based on the direct electrochemistry of glucose oxidase (GOD). For this proposed aptasensor, poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA)-protected graphene-gold nanoparticles (P-Gra-GNPs) composite was firstly coated on electrode surface to form the interface with biocompatibility and huge surface area for the adsorption of GOD layer. Subsequently, gold nanoclusters (GNCs) were deposited on the surface of GOD to capture PDGF binding aptamer (PBA). Finally, GOD as a blocking reagent was employed to block the remaining active sites of the GNCs and avoid the nonspecific adsorption. With the direct electron transfer of double layer GOD membranes, the aptasensor showed excellent electrochemical response and the peak current decreased linearly with increasing logarithm of PDGF concentration from 0.005 nM to 60 nM with a relatively low limit of detection of 1.7 pM. The proposed aptasensor exhibited high specificity, good reproducibility and long-term stability, which provided a new promising technique for aptamer-based protein detection. PMID:23260677

  7. Dynamic Electrochemistry: Methodology and Applications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Dennis C.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Reviews literature dealing with novel developments or important trends in electrochemistry. Areas examined include mass transfer, electrode kinetics, surface effects, chemically modified electrodes, coulostatic/galvanostatic methods, bioelectrochemistry, spectroelectrochemistry, and electrode instrumentation. Books, textbooks, and literature…

  8. (High energy physics)

    SciTech Connect

    Bonner, B.E.; Roberts, J.B. Jr.

    1991-09-01

    An intense analysis effort on the data we obtained in a seven month run on E704 last year has produced a flood of new results on polarization effects in particle production at 200 GeV/c. We are fortunate to be able to report in detail on those results. Our other Fermilab experiment, E683 (photoproduction of jets) has been delayed an unbelievable amount of time by Fermilab schedule slippages. It was scheduled and ready for beam two years ago As this report is being written, we have been running for two months and are expecting four months of production data taking. In this report we show some of our preliminary results. In addition we are near the end of a six month run on our CERN experiment, NA47 (SMC) which will measure the spin dependent structure functions for the proton and neutron. It is with a sense of relief, mixed with pride, that we report that all the equipment which we constructed for that experiment is currently working as designed. The random coincidence of accelerator schedules has left us slightly dazed, but all experiments are getting done and analyzed in a timely fashion. As members of the Solenoidal Detector Collaboration, we have been preparing for the only currently approved experiment at the SSC. Here we report on our scintillating fiber tracker design and simulation activities. In addition we report the results of our investigation of the detector response to heavy Z particles. Since our last report, we have joined the D0 collaboration with the primary aim of contributing to the D0 upgrade over the next few years. It is also important for us to gain experience in collider physics during the period leading up to the SDC turn-on.

  9. Semiconductor electrochemistry of coal pyrite

    SciTech Connect

    Osseo-Asare, K.; Wei, D.

    1993-02-01

    This project seeks to advance the fundamental understanding of the physics-chemical processes occurring at the pyrite/aqueous interface, in the context of coal cleaning, coal desulfurization, and acid minedrainage. A novel approach to the study of pyrite aqueous electrochemistry is proposed, based on the use of both synthetic and natural ( i.e. coal-derived) pyrite specimens, the utilization of.pyrite both in the form of micro (i.e. colloidal and subcolloidal) and macro (i.e. rotating ring disk) electrodes, and the application of in-situ direct electroanalytical and spectroelectrochemical characterization techniques. The kinetic study of the reaction between sulfide and ferrous ions in solution suggested that the black species formed initially is FeHS[sup +] intermediate. To farther confirm this mechanism, the experiments aimed at establishing the stoichiometry for the intermediate were carried out thermodynamically with a stopped-flow spectrophotometric technique. The results showed that the mole ratio of H[sup [minus

  10. High energy physics

    SciTech Connect

    Kernan, A.; Shen, B.C.; Ma, E.

    1997-07-01

    Hadron collider studies will focus on: (i) the search for the top quark with the newly installed D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron collider, (ii) the upgrade of the D0 detector to match the new main injector luminosity and (iii) R&D on silicon microstrip tracking devices for the SSC. High statistics studies of Z{sup 0} decay will continue with the OPAL detector at LEP. These studies will include a direct measurement of Z decay to neutrinos, the search for Higgs and heavy quark decays of Z. Preparations for the Large Scintillation Neutrino Detector (LSND) to measure neutrino oscillations at LAMPF will focus on data acquisition and testing of photomultiplier tubes. In the theoretical area E. Ma will concentrate on mass-generating radiative mechanisms for light quarks and leptons in renormalizable gauge field theories. J. Wudka`s program includes a detailed investigation of the magnetic-flip approach to the solar neutrino.

  11. High energy physics

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-10

    The Counter Group continues to work on data analysis for Fermilab Experiment E653. Altogether, they expect several thousand reconstructed charm events and approximately 25 B pair events of which 12 have been observed thus far. Preparation continue for Fermilab Experiment E781, a high statistics study of charm baryon production. In the Theory Group, Cutkosky and collaborators study hadron phenomenology and non-perturbative QCD calculations. Levine has a long standing program in computational QED to obtain improved theoretical values for g-2 of the electron. Wolfenstein, Li, and their collaborators have worked on areas of weak interaction phenomenology that may yield insights beyond the standard model, e.g. CP violation and non-zero neutrino masses. Holman has been concerned with phase transitions in gauge theories relevant to cosmological problems. During 1991 most of the group effort was concentrated on the L3 experiment at CERN. Highlights of the results from the analysis of the Z[degrees] resonance include (a) a measurement of the strong coupling constant [alpha][sub s] for b quarks (b) a precision measurement of the average time of B hadrons and (c) a direct determination of the number of light neutrino faculties from the reaction e[sup +]e[sup [minus

  12. High School Physics Teaching Experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2012-04-01

    We divided our high school physics teaching experience into three groups: first year teaching physics, second or third year teaching physics, and four or more years of experience teaching physics. We did this because everything is new for teachers teaching a course for the first time. The second and third time through the course, teachers learn from past experiences and hone their approaches. By the time a teacher is in the fourth year of teaching a course, he or she is more comfortable with the material and better able to understand the ways in which different approaches work with different topics.

  13. High energy physics

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-10

    The Counter Group continues to work on data analysis for Fermilab Experiment E653. Altogether, they expect several thousand reconstructed charm events and approximately 25 B pair events of which 12 have been observed thus far. Preparation continue for Fermilab Experiment E781, a high statistics study of charm baryon production. In the Theory Group, Cutkosky and collaborators study hadron phenomenology and non-perturbative QCD calculations. Levine has a long standing program in computational QED to obtain improved theoretical values for g-2 of the electron. Wolfenstein, Li, and their collaborators have worked on areas of weak interaction phenomenology that may yield insights beyond the standard model, e.g. CP violation and non-zero neutrino masses. Holman has been concerned with phase transitions in gauge theories relevant to cosmological problems. During 1991 most of the group effort was concentrated on the L3 experiment at CERN. Highlights of the results from the analysis of the Z{degrees} resonance include (a) a measurement of the strong coupling constant {alpha}{sub s} for b quarks (b) a precision measurement of the average time of B hadrons and (c) a direct determination of the number of light neutrino faculties from the reaction e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} {yields} {nu}{bar {nu}}{gamma}. We also began a major upgrade of the L3 luminosity monitor by replacing PWC chamber by a Si strip system in front of the BGO calorimeters. Finally we have continued our SSC R&D work on BaF{sub 2} by joining the GEM collaboration.

  14. Flare physics at high energies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramaty, R.

    1990-01-01

    High-energy processes, involving a rich variety of accelerated particle phenomena, lie at the core of the solar flare problem. The most direct manifestation of these processes are high-energy radiations, gamma rays, hard X-rays and neutrons, as well as the accelerated particles themselves, which can be detected in interplanetary space. In the study of astrophysics from the moon, the understanding of these processes should have great importance. The inner solar system environment is strongly influenced by activity on the sun; the physics of solar flares is of great intrinsic interest; and much high-energy astrophysics can be learned from investigations of flare physics at high energies.

  15. High energy electron positron physics

    SciTech Connect

    Ali, A.; Soding, P.

    1987-01-01

    With the termination of the physics program at PETRA in a year from now, and with the start of TRISTAN and the SLC and later LEP, an era of e/sup +/e/sup -/ physics will come to an end and a new one begins. The field is changing from a field of a few specialists, to becoming one of the mainstream efforts of the high energy community. It seems appropriate at this moment to summarize what has been learned over the past years, in a way more useful to any high energy physicist in particular to newcomers in the e/sup +/e/sup -/ field. This is the purpose of the book. This book should be used as a reference for future workers in the field of e/sup +/e/sup -/ interactions. It includes the most relevant data, parametrizations, theoretical background, and a chapter on detectors. Contents: Foreword; Detectors for High Energy e/sup +/e/sup -/ Physics; Lepton Pair Production and Electroweak Parameters; Hadron Production, Strong and Electroweak Properties; tau Physics; Recent Results on the Charm Sector; Bottom Physics; Lifetime Measurements of tau, Charmed and Beauty Hadrons; UPSILON Spectroscopy; Hadronic Decays of the UPSILON; Quark and Gluon Fragmentation in the e/sup +/e/sup -/ Continuum; Jet Production and QCD; Two Photon Physics; Search for New Particles.

  16. Fundamentals and applications of electrochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McEvoy, A. J.

    2013-06-01

    The Voltaic pile, invented here on Lake Como 200 years ago, was a crucial step in the development of electrical engineering. For the first time a controlled and reliable source of electric current was available. The science of electrochemistry developed rapidly and is now a key contributor, not just to energy technology but also, for example, to metallurgy and industrial processes. The basic concepts of electrochemistry are presented, with the practical examples of its application in fuel cells, and with the perspective of the history of the subject.

  17. Chelating ionic liquids for reversible zinc electrochemistry.

    PubMed

    Kar, Mega; Winther-Jensen, Bjorn; Forsyth, Maria; MacFarlane, Douglas R

    2013-05-21

    Advanced, high energy-density, metal-air rechargeable batteries, such as zinc-air, are of intense international interest due to their important role in energy storage applications such as electric and hybrid vehicles, and to their ability to deal with the intermittency of renewable energy sources such as solar and wind. Ionic liquids offer a number of ideal thermal and physical properties as potential electrolytes in such large-scale energy storage applications. We describe here the synthesis and characterisation of a family of novel "chelating" ILs designed to chelate and solubilize the zinc ions to create electrolytes for this type of battery. These are based on quaternary alkoxy alkyl ammonium cations of varying oligo-ether side chains and anions such as p-toluene sulfonate, bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)amide and dicyanoamides. This work shows that increasing the ether chain length in the cation from two to four oxygens can increase the ionic conductivity and reduce the melting point from 67 °C to 15 °C for the tosylate system. Changing the anion also plays a significant role in the nature of the zinc deposition electrochemistry. We show that zinc can be reversibly deposited from [N(222(20201))][NTf2] and [N(222(202020201))][NTf2] beginning at -1.4 V and -1.7 V vs. SHE, respectively, but not in the case of tosylate based ILs. This indicates that the [NTf2] is a weaker coordinating anion with the zinc cation, compared to the tosylate anion, allowing the coordination of the ether chain to dominate the behavior of the deposition and stripping of zinc ions. PMID:23558696

  18. NASA Glenn Research Center Electrochemistry Branch Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzo, Michelle A.; Hoberecht, Mark; Reid, Concha

    2010-01-01

    This presentation covers an overview of NASA Glenn's history and heritage in the development of electrochemical systems for aerospace applications. Current programs related to batteries and fuel cells are addressed. Specific areas of focus are Li-ion batteries and Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel cells systems and their development for future Exploration missions. The presentation covers details of current component development efforts for high energy and ultra high energy Li-ion batteries and non-flow-through fuel cell stack and balance of plant development. Electrochemistry Branch capabilities and facilities are also addressed.

  19. Forensic electrochemistry: the electroanalytical sensing of synthetic cathinone-derivatives and their accompanying adulterants in "legal high" products.

    PubMed

    Smith, Jamie P; Metters, Jonathan P; Irving, Craig; Sutcliffe, Oliver B; Banks, Craig E

    2014-01-21

    The production and abuse of new psychoactive substances, known as "legal highs" which mimic traditional drugs of abuse is becoming a global epidemic. Traditional analytical methodologies exist which can provide confirmatory analysis but there is a requirement for an on-the-spot analytical screening tool that could be used to determine whether a substance, or sample matrix contains such legal, or formally "legal highs". In this paper the electrochemical sensing of (±)-methcathinone and related compounds at a range of commercially available electrode substrates is explored. We demonstrate for the first time that this class of "legal highs" are electrochemically active providing a novel sensing protocol based upon their electrochemical oxidation. Screen-printed graphite sensing platforms are favoured due to their proven ability to be mass-produced providing large numbers of reliable and reproducible electrode sensing platforms that preclude the requirement of surface pre-treatment such as mechanical polishing as is the case in the use of solid/re-usable electrode substrates. Additionally they hold potential to be used on-site potentially being the basis of an on-site legal high screening device. Consequently the electroanalytical sensing of (±)-methcathinone (3a), (±)-4′-methylmethcathinone [3b, 4-MMC, (±)-mephedrone] and (±)-4′-methyl-N-ethylcathinone (3c, 4-MEC) is explored using screen-printed sensing platforms with the effect of pH explored upon the analytical response with their analytical efficiency evaluated towards the target legal highs. Interesting at pH values below 6 the voltammetric response quantitatively changes from that of an electrochemically irreversible response to that of a quasi-reversible signature which can be used analytically. It is demonstrated for the first time that the electroanalytical sensing of (±)-methcathinone (3a), (±)-mephedrone (3b) and 4-MEC (3c) are possible with accessible linear ranges found to correspond to 16

  20. High-temperature plasma physics

    SciTech Connect

    Furth, H.P.

    1988-03-01

    Both magnetic and inertial confinement research are entering the plasma parameter range of fusion reactor interest. This paper reviews the individual and common technical problems of these two approaches to the generation of thermonuclear plasmas, and describes some related applications of high-temperature plasma physics.

  1. Development of an Electrochemistry Teaching Sequence using a Phenomenographic Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez-Velazquez, Sorangel

    Electrochemistry is the area of chemistry that studies electron transfer reactions across an interface. Chemistry education researchers have acknowledged that difficulties in electrochemistry instruction arise due to the level of abstraction of the topic, lack of adequate explanations and representations found in textbooks, and a quantitative emphasis in the application of concepts. Studies have identified conceptions (also referred to as misconceptions, alternative conceptions, etc.) about the electrochemical process that transcends academic and preparation levels (e.g., students and instructors) as well as cultural and educational settings. Furthermore, conceptual understanding of the electrochemical process requires comprehension of concepts usually studied in physics such as electric current, resistance and potential and often neglected in introductory chemistry courses. The lack of understanding of physical concepts leads to students. conceptions with regards to the relation between the concepts of redox reactions and electric circuits. The need for instructional materials to promote conceptual understanding of the electrochemical process motivated the development of the electrochemistry teaching sequence presented in this dissertation. Teaching sequences are educational tools that aim to bridge the gap between student conceptions and the scientific acceptable conceptions that instructors expect students to learn. This teaching sequence explicitly addresses known conceptions in electrochemistry and departs from traditional instruction in electrochemistry to reinforce students. previous knowledge in thermodynamics providing the foundation for the explicit relation of redox reactions and electric circuits during electrochemistry instruction. The scientific foundations of the electrochemical process are explained based on the Gibbs free energy (G) involved rather than on the standard redox potential values (E° ox/red) of redox half-reactions. Representations of

  2. Electrochemistry at carbon nanotubes: perspective and issues.

    PubMed

    Dumitrescu, Ioana; Unwin, Patrick R; Macpherson, Julie V

    2009-12-01

    Electrochemistry at carbon nanotubes (CNTs) is a large and growing field, but one in which there is still uncertainty about the fundamental activity of CNTs as electrode materials. On the one hand, there are many reports which focus on the favourable electrochemical properties of CNT electrodes, such as enhanced detection sensitivity, electrocatalytic effects and reduced fouling. On the other hand, other studies suggest that CNTs may be no more electroactive than graphitic powder. Furthermore, it has been proposed that the catalytic nanoparticles from which CNTs are formed may dominate the electrochemical characteristics in some instances. A considerable body of the literature presumes that the CNT sidewall is inert and that edge-plane-graphite-like open ends and defect sites are responsible for the electron transfer activity observed. In contrast, studies of well characterised single-walled nanotube (SWNT) electrodes, either as individual tubes or as two-dimensional networks, suggest sidewall activity. This review highlights how the various discrepancies in CNT electrochemistry may have arisen, by taking a historical view of the field and identifying crucial issues that still need to be solved. When assessing the behaviour of CNT electrodes, it is vitally important that careful consideration is given to the type of CNT used (SWNT or multi-walled), the quality of the material (presence of impurities), the effect of chemical processing steps in the fabrication of electrodes and the experimental arrangements adopted. Understanding these key features is an essential requirement to develop a fundamental understanding of CNT electrochemistry, to allow a wide range of electroanalytical applications, and to move the field forward rationally. As part of this process, high resolution electrochemical and electrical imaging techniques are expected to play a significant role in the future, as well as theoretical developments which examine the fundamentals of electron transfer

  3. A high energy physics perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Marciano, W.J.

    1997-01-13

    The status of the Standard model and role of symmetry in its development are reviewed. Some outstanding problems are surveyed and possible solutions in the form of additional {open_quotes}Hidden Symmetries {close_quotes} are discussed. Experimental approaches to uncover {open_quotes}New Physics{close_quotes} associated with those symmetries are described with emphasis on high energy colliders. An outlook for the future is given.

  4. Scanning tunneling microscopy and electrochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arvía, A. J.

    1987-03-01

    The experimental gap existing between surface science and heterogeneous chemical kinetics applies also to electrochemistry. Difficulties for modelling the electrode surface topography under equilibrium and non-equilibrium conditions, particularly for solid electrodes, are presented. Attention is focussed on structural problems of metal/solution interfaces encountered in corrosion and passivation of metals and in electrocatalysis, although the analysis also extends to metal electrodeposition and to semiconductor/solution interfaces. STM has already provided important imaging of preferred oriented platinum electrode surfaces as well as large surface area platinum electrodes exhibiting practically no diffusional and ohmic polarization effects. Possible applications of STM to underpotential deposition of metals and to chemically modified electrodes are envisaged among others. Some future perspectives of STM for electrochemistry are advanced.

  5. Duke University high energy physics

    SciTech Connect

    Fortney, L.R.; Goshaw, A.T.; Walker, W.D.

    1992-07-01

    This Progress Report presents a review of the research done in 1992 by the Duke High Energy Physics Group. This is the first year of a three-year grant which was approved by the Office of High Energy Physics at DOE after an external review of our research program during the summer of 1991. Our research is centered at Fermilab where we are involved with two active experiments, one using the Tevatron collider (CDF, the Collider Detector Facility) and the other using a proton beam in the high intensity laboratory (E771, study of beauty production). In addition to these running experiments we are continuing the analysis of data from experiments E735 (collider search for a quark-gluon plasma), E705 (fixed target study of direct photon and {sub {Chi}} meson production) and E597 (particle production from hadron-nucleus collisions). Finally, this year has seen an expansion of our involvement with the design of the central tracking detector for the Solenoidal Detector Collaboration (SDC) and an increased role in the governance of the collaboration. Descriptions of these research activities are presented in this report.

  6. High School Physics, Two-Year Colleges, and Physics Majors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Susan C.

    2013-09-01

    We have just completed the data collection for our 2012-13 Nationwide Survey of High School Physics and expect to have results to report in the spring. In the interim, we will take a look at physics in two-year colleges (TYCs). In 2007, we surveyed undergraduate seniors in degree-granting physics departments, and we asked these students if they had begun the post-secondary career at a TYC. Nine percent of the physics undergraduate seniors in 2007 had started their college education at a TYC, and these students differ significantly from those who did not start at a TYC. The two graphs at right depict the high school physics experience for these two groups of students. More than one-fourth of those who started at a TYC did not take physics in high school, and only 18% took AP physics. The 6% of those who did not start at a TYC and did not take physics is consistent with the 5% of high school seniors who attend a school where physics is not offered. Their apparent difference of interest in physics in high school is also evident from their knowledge about AP physics offerings: 25% of those who started at a TYC did not know if AP physics was offered at their high school versus only 5% of those who did not start at a TYC. Since their high school physics experiences were so different, it is likely that something happened in their physics courses at the TYC that captured these students' interest in physics.

  7. European Physical Society Conference on High Energy Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The European Physical Society Conference on High Energy Physics, organized by the High Energy and Particle Physics Division of the European Physical Society, is a major international conference that reviews biennially since 1971 the state of our knowledge of the fundamental constituents of matter and their interactions. The latest conferences in this series were held in Stockholm, Grenoble, Krakow, Manchester, Lisbon, and Aachen. Jointly organized by the Institute of High Energy Physics of the Austrian Academy of Sciences, the University of Vienna, the Vienna University of Technology, and the Stefan Meyer Institute for Subatomic Physics of the Austrian Academy of Sciences, the 23rd edition of this conference took place in Vienna, Austria. Among the topics covered were Accelerators, Astroparticle Physics, Cosmology and Gravitation, Detector R&D and Data Handling, Education and Outreach, Flavour Physics and Fundamental Symmetries, Heavy Ion Physics, Higgs and New Physics, Neutrino Physics, Non-Perturbative Field Theory and String Theory, QCD and Hadronic Physics, as well as Top and Electroweak Physics.

  8. High School Physics, Two-Year Colleges, and Physics Majors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Susan C.

    2013-01-01

    We have just completed the data collection for our 2012-13 Nationwide Survey of High School Physics and expect to have results to report in the spring. In the interim, we will take a look at physics in two-year colleges (TYCs). In 2007, we surveyed undergraduate seniors in degree-granting physics departments, and we asked these students if they…

  9. Factors that Prevent Learning in Electrochemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Hans-Jurgen; Marohn, Annette; Harrison, Allan G.

    2007-01-01

    Electrochemistry plays an important role in curricula, textbooks, and in everyday life. The purpose of the present study was to identify and understand secondary-school students' problems in learning electrochemistry at an introductory chemistry level. The investigation covered four areas: (a) electrolytes, (b) transport of electric charges in…

  10. Physical Activity Levels in Portuguese High School Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marmeleira, Jose Francisco Filipe; Aldeias, Nuno Micael Carrasqueira; da Graca, Pedro Miguel dos Santos Medeira

    2012-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to evaluate the physical activity (PA) levels of high school Portuguese students during physical education (PE) and investigate the association of PA levels with students' goal orientation and intrinsic motivation. Forty-six students from three high schools participated. Heart rate telemetry and pedometry were used…

  11. High School Student Attitudes about Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rikard, G. Linda; Banville, Dominique

    2006-01-01

    This study examined attitudes of high school students toward fitness and sports activities taught in physical education, and the perceived effectiveness of their physical education curriculum for improving their fitness and skill levels. Students from six high schools and 17 intact physical education classes agreed to participate. Data were…

  12. High School Physics Offerings by Socioeconomic Profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-12-01

    This fall we have been examining physics classes in U.S. high schools by the principal's assessment of the socioeconomic profile of each school. This month we turn our focus to the distribution of high school physics enrollment across the different types of physics offered. Not only do fewer students take physics at "worse off" schools (see the October issue), but the types of physics courses students take also differs by socioeconomic profile. About 10% of the students taking physics at "worse off" schools take AP and second-year physics; almost 20% of the students at "better off" schools take these courses. At "worse off" schools, a higher proportion of students are enrolled in conceptual courses, including Physics First and regular physics taught using a conceptual textbook. The data we have presented over the last four months suggests that differences in physics taking in high school by blacks and Hispanics are driven, in part, by underlying socioeconomic factors. Other factors, such as the availability of additional seats in physics classes and the ability of teachers to attract students to physics, also impact physics taking. It is unlikely that the racial and ethnic differences in physics taking in high school will decrease unless the underlying factors are addressed.

  13. Precision Crystal Calorimeters in High Energy Physics

    ScienceCinema

    Ren-Yuan Zhu

    2010-01-08

    Precision crystal calorimeters traditionally play an important role in high energy physics experiments. In the last two decades, it faces a challenge to maintain its precision in a hostile radiation environment. This paper reviews the performance of crystal calorimeters constructed for high energy physics experiments and the progress achieved in understanding crystal?s radiation damage as well as in developing high quality scintillating crystals for particle physics. Potential applications of new generation scintillating crystals of high density and high light yield, such as LSO and LYSO, in particle physics experiments is also discussed.

  14. Numerical Modeling of the Distributed Electrochemistry and Performance of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Recknagle, Kurtis P.; Ryan, Emily M.; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2011-12-01

    A cell-level distributed electrochemistry (DEC) modeling tool has been developed to enable prediction of solid oxide fuel cell performance by considering the coupled and spatially varying multi-physics that occur within the tri-layer. The approach calculates the distributed electrochemistry within the electrodes, which includes the charge transfer and electric potential fields, ion transport throughout the tri-layer, and gas distributions within the composite and porous electrodes. The thickness of the electrochemically active regions within the electrodes is calculated along with the distributions of charge transfer. The DEC modeling tool can examine the overall SOFC performance based on electrode microstructural parameters, such as particle size, pore size, porosity factor, electrolyte and electrode phase volume fractions, and triple-phase-boundary length. Recent developments in electrode fabrication methods have lead to increased interest in using graded and nano-structured electrodes to improve the electrochemical performance of SOFCs. This paper demonstrates how the DEC modeling tool can be used to help design novel electrode microstructures by optimizing a graded anode for high electrochemical performance.

  15. Semiconductor electrochemistry of coal pyrite

    SciTech Connect

    Osseo-Asare, K.

    1992-05-01

    This project seeks to advance the fundamental understanding of the physicochemical processes occurring at the pyrite/aqueous interface, in the context of coal cleaning, coal desulfurization, and acid mine drainage. A novel approach to the study of pyrite aqueous electrochemistry is proposed, based on the use of both synthetic and natural (i.e. coal-derived) pyrite specimens, the utilization of pyrite both in the form of micro (i.e. colloidal and subcolloidal) and macro (i.e. rotating ring disk)-electrodes, and the application of in-situ direct electroanalytical and spectroelectrochemical characterization techniques. Central to this research is the recognition that pyrite is a semiconductor material. (Photo)electrochemical experiments will be conducted to unravel the mechanisms of anodic and cathodic processes such as those associated with pyrite decomposition and the reduction of oxidants such as molecular oxygen and the ferric ion.

  16. Development of an Electrochemistry Teaching Sequence using a Phenomenographic Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez-Velazquez, Sorangel

    Electrochemistry is the area of chemistry that studies electron transfer reactions across an interface. Chemistry education researchers have acknowledged that difficulties in electrochemistry instruction arise due to the level of abstraction of the topic, lack of adequate explanations and representations found in textbooks, and a quantitative emphasis in the application of concepts. Studies have identified conceptions (also referred to as misconceptions, alternative conceptions, etc.) about the electrochemical process that transcends academic and preparation levels (e.g., students and instructors) as well as cultural and educational settings. Furthermore, conceptual understanding of the electrochemical process requires comprehension of concepts usually studied in physics such as electric current, resistance and potential and often neglected in introductory chemistry courses. The lack of understanding of physical concepts leads to students. conceptions with regards to the relation between the concepts of redox reactions and electric circuits. The need for instructional materials to promote conceptual understanding of the electrochemical process motivated the development of the electrochemistry teaching sequence presented in this dissertation. Teaching sequences are educational tools that aim to bridge the gap between student conceptions and the scientific acceptable conceptions that instructors expect students to learn. This teaching sequence explicitly addresses known conceptions in electrochemistry and departs from traditional instruction in electrochemistry to reinforce students. previous knowledge in thermodynamics providing the foundation for the explicit relation of redox reactions and electric circuits during electrochemistry instruction. The scientific foundations of the electrochemical process are explained based on the Gibbs free energy (G) involved rather than on the standard redox potential values (E° ox/red) of redox half-reactions. Representations of

  17. An Effective Approach to Teaching Electrochemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birss, Viola I.; Truax, D. Rodney

    1990-01-01

    An approach which may be useful for teaching electrochemistry in freshman college chemistry courses is presented. Discussed are the potential problems with teaching this subject and solutions provided by this approach. (CW)

  18. Phun Physics 4 Phemales: Physics Camp for High School Girls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Chuhee; Gu, Jiyeong; Henriquez, Laura

    2014-03-01

    The department of Physics and Astronomy with the department of Science Education at California State University, Long Beach hosted summer program of ``Phun Physics 4 Phemales (PP4P)'' during summer 2012 and summer 2013 with the support from APS public outreach program. PP4P summer camp was hosted along with a two-week summer science camp, Young Scientists Camp, which has been institutionalized for the last 14 years since 1999. More than 2,500 3rd -8th grade students and 250 teachers have participated in the program. PP4P program provided the tools and support that female high school students need to pursue careers in physics and/or science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) field. This girls-only camp created connections among the girls and built confidence. In addition PP4P program introduced students to key principles in physics by a hands-on lab environment and demonstrated the real-world social impact of physics. In summer 2012, high school girls worked on physics experimental project on electronics and in summer 2013 they worked on the mechanics. I would share our experience in this program and the impact on the female high school students. This work was supported by 2012 Public Outreach and Informing the Public Grants from American Physical Society.

  19. Pulsars and high density physics.

    PubMed

    Hewish, A

    1975-06-13

    In outlining the physics of neutron stars, and my good fortune in stumbling upon them, I hope that I have given some idea of the interest and rewards of extending physics beyond the confines of laboratories. These are good times in which to be an astrophysicist. I am also deeply aware of my debt to all my colleagues in the Cavendish Laboratory. Firstly to Sir Martin Ryle for his unique flair in creating so congenial and stimulating a team in which to work. Secondly to Jocelyn Bell for the care, diligence, and persistence that led to our discovery so early in the scintillation program, and finally to my friends who contributed so generously in many aspects of the work. PMID:17798425

  20. PARTICIPATION IN HIGH ENERGY PHYSICS

    SciTech Connect

    White, Christopher

    2012-12-20

    This grant funded experimental and theoretical activities in elementary particles physics at the Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT). The experiments in which IIT faculty collaborated included the Daya Bay Reactor Neutrino Experiment, the MINOS experiment, the Double Chooz experiment, and FNAL E871 - HyperCP experiment. Funds were used to support summer salary for faculty, salary for postdocs, and general support for graduate and undergraduate students. Funds were also used for travel expenses related to these projects and general supplies.

  1. Who's Teaching What in High School Physics?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Susan; Tyler, John

    2015-01-01

    During the 2012-13 school year, approximately 27,000 teachers taught at least one physics course in a U.S. high school. About one-third of those teachers have earned a degree in physics or physics education; the vast majority of the others have earned degrees in a variety of other science fields. About 53,000 physics classes were taught, ranging…

  2. Research in high energy physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosen, Jerome; Block, Martin; Buchholz, David; Gobbi, Bruno; Schellman, Heidi; Miller, Donald; Braaten, Eric; Oakes, Robert; Schellman, Heidi

    1994-07-01

    Progress on Task A centered around data analysis. E835 is now approved. It will extend E760 studies, exploring new charmonium states and featuring an upgraded detector system plus operation at 4--6 times higher luminosity. Results are given on E760 analysis. Task B has 10 papers that have either appeared in print, or have been prepared for publication. They break down into four categories; experimental physics, theoretical physics, and computer computational techniques. They are described here along with an exciting new experimental proposal to use Da(Phi)ne, the (Phi) factory that is being constructed at Frascati National Laboratory. Progress for Task C which includes participating in the D0 project at TeV 1, and the photoproduction experiment, E687, at TeV 2 is given. While Northwestern is not participating in the top quark physics group at D0, they have been involved in the data analysis and the discussions that led to the limits on the top quark mass. Task D comprises the shared services for the Northwestern DOE contract. This includes the maintenance and operation of all computers within the HEP group. The projects supported by Task D during the past year are given. Task E progress was to resolve the apparent conflict between EMC, SMC, and SLAC results on nucleon structure functions and Bjorken sum rules. Task F covered research in hadronic decay of the tau, thermal field theory, plasma effects in astrophysics, and heavy quarkonium. Task G covers E665, a general purpose muon scattering experiment which can detect both the scattered muon and most charged and neutral hadrons produced in the forward region. The Northwest group has collaborated very closely in the past year with the Harvard group on analyses of structure functions and vector meson production in the 1991 data sample.

  3. High Energy Physics Research at Louisiana Tech

    SciTech Connect

    Sawyer, Lee; Greenwood, Zeno; Wobisch, Marcus

    2013-06-28

    The goal of this project was to create, maintain, and strengthen a world-class, nationally and internationally recognized experimental high energy physics group at Louisiana Tech University, focusing on research at the energy frontier of collider-based particle physics, first on the DØ experiment and then with the ATLAS experiment, and providing leadership within the US high energy physics community in the areas of jet physics, top quark and charged Higgs decays involving tau leptons, as well as developing leadership in high performance computing.

  4. High energy physics at UCR

    SciTech Connect

    Kernan, A.; Shen, B.C.

    1997-07-01

    The hadron collider group is studying proton-antiproton interactions at the world`s highest collision energy 2 TeV. Data-taking with the D0 detector is in progress at Fermilab and the authors have begun the search for the top quark. S. Wimpenny is coordinating the effort to detect t{bar t} decaying to two leptons, the most readily identifiable channel. At UC Riverside design and testing for a silicon tracker for the D0 upgrade is in progress; a parallel development for the SDC detector at SSC is also underway. The major group effort of the lepton group has been devoted to the OPAL experiment at LEP. They will continue to focus on data-taking to improve the quality and quantity of their data sample. A large number of papers have been published based on approximately 500,000 events taken so far. The authors will concentrate on physics analysis which provides stringent tests of the Standard Model. The authors are continuing participation in the RD5 experiment at the SPS to study muon triggering and tracking. The results of this experiment will provide critical input for the design of the Compact Muon Solenoid experiment being proposed for the LHC. The theory group has been working on problems concerning the possible vilation of e-{mu}-{tau} universality, effective Lagrangians, neutrino physics, as well as quark and lepton mass matrices.

  5. Electrochemistry at nanometer-sized electrodes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shengli; Liu, Yuwen

    2014-01-14

    Electrodes of nanometer sizes provide a model approach to study the nanoscale electrochemical properties and processes, which are of fundamental and applied significance in a variety of areas including energy and environmental science, scanning probe microscopies, nanofabrication as well as electrochemistry itself. This Perspective reviews recent developments in conceptual understanding, theoretical modelling and simulation, and experimental observation of nanosize-induced properties and phenomena at interfaces between nanometer-sized electrodes and electrolytes. The aim is to provide a view on how the dimension comparability of nanoelectrodes with the electric double layer and the effective electron-tunnelling distance may raise distinct features in interfacial structure and reactivity. The strong coupling between the electrostatic field, the concentration field and the dielectric field of solvent at nanoelectrode/electrolyte interfaces is highlighted. The effects of this coupling on the voltammetric responses of nanoelectrodes are evaluated. Electron transfer kinetics at the nanoelectrode/electrolyte interface is discussed by emphasizing the inappropriateness of the Butler-Volmer (BV) and classic Marcus-Hush (MH) theories at potentials largely departing from the formal potential of the redox moieties and the importance of the long-distance electron tunnelling. The conditions for using the mathematically more straightforward BV and classic MH formalisms as an alternative to the physically more realistic but mathematically unfriendly Marcus-Hush-Chidsey model are analysed. PMID:24276332

  6. GEANT4: Applications in High Energy Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Mahmood, Tariq; Zafar, Abrar Ahmed; Hussain, Talib; Rashid, Haris

    2007-02-14

    GEANT4 is a detector simulation toolkit aimed at studying, mainly experimental high energy physics. In this paper we will give an overview of this software with special reference to its applications in high energy physics experiments. A brief of process methods is given. Object-oriented nature of the simulation toolkit is highlighted.

  7. Solvents' Critical Role in Nonaqueous Lithium-Oxygen Battery Electrochemistry.

    PubMed

    McCloskey, B D; Bethune, D S; Shelby, R M; Girishkumar, G; Luntz, A C

    2011-05-19

    Among the many important challenges facing the development of Li-air batteries, understanding the electrolyte's role in producing the appropriate reversible electrochemistry (i.e., 2Li(+) + O2 + 2e(-) ↔ Li2O2) is critical. Quantitative differential electrochemical mass spectrometry (DEMS), coupled with isotopic labeling of oxygen gas, was used to study Li-O2 electrochemistry in various solvents, including carbonates (typical Li ion battery solvents) and dimethoxyethane (DME). In conjunction with the gas-phase DEMS analysis, electrodeposits formed during discharge on Li-O2 cell cathodes were characterized using ex situ analytical techniques, such as X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. Carbonate-based solvents were found to irreversibly decompose upon cell discharge. DME-based cells, however, produced mainly lithium peroxide on discharge. Upon cell charge, the lithium peroxide both decomposed to evolve oxygen and oxidized DME at high potentials. Our results lead to two conclusions; (1) coulometry has to be coupled with quantitative gas consumption and evolution data to properly characterize the rechargeability of Li-air batteries, and (2) chemical and electrochemical electrolyte stability in the presence of lithium peroxide and its intermediates is essential to produce a truly reversible Li-O2 electrochemistry. PMID:26295320

  8. [Experimental and theoretical high energy physics program

    SciTech Connect

    Finley, J.; Gaidos, J.A.; Loeffler, F.J.; McIlwain, R.L.; Miller, D.H.; Palfrey, T.R.; Shibata, E.I.; Shipsey, I.P.

    1993-04-01

    Experimental and theoretical high-energy physics research at Purdue is summarized in a number of reports. Subjects treated include the following: the CLEO experiment for the study of heavy flavor physics; gas microstrip detectors; particle astrophysics; affine Kac{endash}Moody algebra; nonperturbative mass bounds on scalar and fermion systems due to triviality and vacuum stability constraints; resonance neutrino oscillations; e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} collisions at CERN; {bar p}{endash}p collisions at FNAL; accelerator physics at Fermilab; development work for the SDC detector at SSC; TOPAZ; D-zero physics; physics beyond the standard model; and the Collider Detector at Fermilab. (RWR)

  9. Future of high energy physics

    SciTech Connect

    Panofsky, W.K.H.

    1984-06-01

    A rough overview is given of the expectations for the extension of high energy colliders and accelerators into the xtremely high energy range. It appears likely that the SSC or something like it will be the last gasp of the conventional method of producing high energy proton-proton collisions using synchrotron rings with superconducting magnets. It is likely that LEP will be the highest energy e+e/sup -/ colliding beam storage ring built. The future beyond that depends on the successful demonstrations of new technologies. The linear collider offers hope in this respect for some extension in energy for electrons, and maybe even for protons, but is too early to judge whether, by how much, or when such an extension will indeed take place.

  10. Electrochemistry "Discovery" Course for Undergraduates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    May, Michael Alan; Gupta, Vijay K.

    1997-07-01

    We developed a chemistry selected topics course at Central State University, "Introduction to Laboratory Techniques in Electrochemistry" to: (1) give undergraduates hands-on experience with electrochemical measurements, (2) prepare students for summer research in Fuel Cell and Battery technology. Since students "learn by doing", the course is suitable for undergraduates from sophomore to senior levels. Students complete 6 laboratories, based on a "less is more" philosophy which emphasizes analytic and creative process rather than mandatory topical coverage. Eight electrochemical experiments are available: Construction of Zinc-Copper battery stacks, Lead Acid Battery discharge-charge cycles, Conductimetric titration of aspirin with Ammonium Hydroxide, Ion Selective Electrode determination of Fluoride in water, Cyclic Voltammetry of Potassium Ferricyanide solution, Cyclic Voltammetry of Sulfuric acid on Platinum working electrode, Anodic Stripping Voltammetry of Lead ion in solution, Differential Pulse Polarography of Lead ion in solution. Topics discussed in lecture include: chemical definitions, electrical definitions, Oxidation-Reduction reactions, Electrochemical series, Electrodes, Electrochemical Cells, direct Coulometry, electrolysis, electrochemical process efficiency, equilibrium Potentiometry, real Cell Voltages, Ion Selective Electrode types and designs, reference electrode designs, working electrode materials, pH buffers, Cyclic Voltammetry, Anodic Stripping Voltammetry, Polarography, differential pulse Polarography, and simple electrochemical instrumentation circuits.

  11. Semiconductor electrochemistry of coal pyrite

    SciTech Connect

    Osseo-Asare, K.; Wei, D.

    1992-01-01

    Pyrite synthesis is of interest in many diverse fields, such as geology, fuel processing technology, chemistry, metallurgy, materials science, and so on. Based on fundamental studies of this process, the formation mechanisms of this important sulfide on the earth can be better understood. The studies can also help us to better understand the surface chemistry and electrochemistry of pyrite, thereby assisting in the development of more efficient processes for removal of the sulfide from coal. The work performed during this quarter focuses on the study of the reaction between aqueous sulfide ions and dissolved Fe(II) salts by using a stopped-flow spectrophotometric technique. At a wavelength of 500 mn, no absorption was observed with either aqueous sulfide or dissolved Fe(II) salt alone. However, when the two solutions were mixed, a strong absorbance appeared at the same wavelength. The absorbance-time curve showed that a black material formed at the first few seconds of the reaction, then this material decayed and changed gradually to a lighter dark material within the following several minutes. These processes were pH-dependent. It was more likely to form the black intermediate at the pH range from 7 to 8. This indicates that the reaction between Fe[sup 2+] and HS[sup [minus

  12. UNIVERSITY OF ARIZONA HIGH ENERGY PHYSICS PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect

    Rutherfoord, John P.; Johns, Kenneth A.; Shupe, Michael A.; Cheu, Elliott C.; Varnes, Erich W.; Dienes, Keith; Su, Shufang; Toussaint, William Doug; Sarcevic, Ina

    2013-07-29

    The High Energy Physics Group at the University of Arizona has conducted forefront research in elementary particle physics. Our theorists have developed new ideas in lattice QCD, SUSY phenomenology, string theory phenomenology, extra spatial dimensions, dark matter, and neutrino astrophysics. The experimentalists produced significant physics results on the ATLAS experiment at CERN's Large Hadron Collider and on the D0 experiment at the Fermilab Tevatron. In addition, the experimentalists were leaders in detector development and construction, and on service roles in these experiments.

  13. High energy physics in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Month, M.

    1985-10-16

    The US program in high energy physics from 1985 to 1995 is reviewed. The program depends primarily upon work at the national accelerator centers, but includes a modest but diversified nonaccelerator program. Involvement of universities is described. International cooperation in high energy physics is discussed, including the European, Japanese, USSR, and the People's Republic of China's programs. Finally, new facilities needed by the US high energy physics program are discussed, with particular emphasis given to a Superconducting Super Collider for achieving ever higher energies in the 20 TeV range. (LEW)

  14. Computing in high-energy physics

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Mount, Richard P.

    2016-05-31

    I present a very personalized journey through more than three decades of computing for experimental high-energy physics, pointing out the enduring lessons that I learned. This is followed by a vision of how the computing environment will evolve in the coming ten years and the technical challenges that this will bring. I then address the scale and cost of high-energy physics software and examine the many current and future challenges, particularly those of management, funding and software-lifecycle management. Lastly, I describe recent developments aimed at improving the overall coherence of high-energy physics software.

  15. Guidelines for High School Physics Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of Physics Teachers (NJ1), 2002

    2002-01-01

    The American Association of Physics Teachers (AAPT) developed this document as a resource for high school administrators, parents, and teachers who are interested in developing guidelines for physics curriculum and instruction in their school(s). These guidelines reflect the goals of the AAPT, with an emphasis on instructional strategies and…

  16. Trends in experimental high-energy physics

    SciTech Connect

    Sanford, T.W.L.

    1982-06-01

    Data from a scan of papers in Physical Review Letters and Physical Review are used to demonstrate that American high-energy physicists show a pattern of accelerator and instrumentation usage characteristic of that expected from the logistic-substitution model of Marchetti and of Fischer and Pry.

  17. AAPT/NSTA High School Physics Examination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, James

    1983-01-01

    Discusses development of the American Association of Physics Teachers and National Science Teachers Association (AAPT/NSTA) high school physics examination. Includes sample examination questions and distribution of topics: mechanics (30 percent), waves/optics/sound (20 percent), heat/kinetic theory (10 percent), electricity/magnetism (25 percent),…

  18. Physics at high energy photon photon colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Chanowitz, M.S.

    1994-06-01

    I review the physic prospects for high energy photon photon colliders, emphasizing results presented at the LBL Gamma Gamma Collider Workshop. Advantages and difficulties are reported for studies of QCD, the electroweak gauge sector, supersymmetry, and electroweak symmetry breaking.

  19. Physics Research Methods at Jefferson High.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demchik, Michael

    1989-01-01

    Described are several physics activities developed by a high school: research corner, exploring an invention, construction projects, archives report and archives update, short term research and design projects, essay contest, and special projects. (YP)

  20. Research in High Energy Physics. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Conway, John S.

    2013-08-09

    This final report details the work done from January 2010 until April 2013 in the area of experimental and theoretical high energy particle physics and cosmology at the University of California, Davis.

  1. Connecting High School Physics Experiences, Outcome Expectations, Physics Identity, and Physics Career Choice: A Gender Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hazari, Zahra; Sonnert, Gerhard; Sadler, Philip M.; Shanahan, Marie-Claire

    2010-01-01

    This study explores how students' physics identities are shaped by their experiences in high school physics classes and by their career outcome expectations. The theoretical framework focuses on physics identity and includes the dimensions of student performance, competence, recognition by others, and interest. Drawing data from the Persistence…

  2. Elementary particle physics and high energy phenomena

    SciTech Connect

    Barker, A.R.; Cumalat, J.P.; de Alwis, S.P.; DeGrand, T.A.; Ford, W.T.; Mahanthappa, K.T.; Nauenberg, U.; Rankin, P.; Smith, J.G.

    1992-06-01

    This report discusses the following research in high energy physics: the properties of the z neutral boson with the SLD detector; the research and development program for the SDC muon detector; the fixed-target k-decay experiments; the Rocky Mountain Consortium for HEP; high energy photoproduction of states containing heavy quarks; and electron-positron physics with the CLEO II and Mark II detectors. (LSP).

  3. Tungsten Oxides for Photocatalysis, Electrochemistry, and Phototherapy.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhen-Feng; Song, Jiajia; Pan, Lun; Zhang, Xiangwen; Wang, Li; Zou, Ji-Jun

    2015-09-23

    The conversion, storage, and utilization of renewable energy have all become more important than ever before as a response to ever-growing energy and environment concerns. The performance of energy-related technologies strongly relies on the structure and property of the material used. The earth-abundant family of tungsten oxides (WOx ≤3 ) receives considerable attention in photocatalysis, electrochemistry, and phototherapy due to their highly tunable structures and unique physicochemical properties. Great breakthroughs have been made in enhancing the optical absorption, charge separation, redox capability, and electrical conductivity of WOx ≤3 through control of the composition, crystal structure, morphology, and construction of composite structures with other materials, which significantly promotes the efficiency of processes and devices based on this material. Herein, the properties and synthesis of WOx ≤3 family are reviewed, and then their energy-related applications are highlighted, including solar-light-driven water splitting, CO2 reduction, and pollutant removal, electrochromism, supercapacitors, lithium batteries, solar and fuel cells, non-volatile memory devices, gas sensors, and cancer therapy, from the aspect of function-oriented structure design and control. PMID:26287959

  4. High energy physics at UC Riverside

    SciTech Connect

    1997-07-01

    This report discusses progress made for the following two tasks: experimental high energy physics, Task A, and theoretical high energy physics, Task B. Task A1 covers hadron collider physics. Information for Task A1 includes: personnel/talks/publications; D0: proton-antiproton interactions at 2 TeV; SDC: proton-proton interactions at 40 TeV; computing facilities; equipment needs; and budget notes. The physics program of Task A2 has been the systematic study of leptons and hadrons. Information covered for Task A2 includes: personnel/talks/publications; OPAL at LEP; OPAL at LEP200; CMS at LHC; the RD5 experiment; LSND at LAMPF; and budget notes. The research activities of the Theory Group are briefly discussed and a list of completed or published papers for this period is given.

  5. HIGH ENERGY PHYSICS POTENTIAL AT MUON COLLIDERS

    SciTech Connect

    PARSA,Z.

    2000-04-07

    In this paper, high energy physics possibilities and future colliders are discussed. The {mu}{sup +} {mu}{sup {minus}} collider and experiments with high intensity muon beams as the stepping phase towards building Higher Energy Muon Colliders (HEMC) are briefly reviewed and encouraged.

  6. Advanced Analysis Methods in High Energy Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Pushpalatha C. Bhat

    2001-10-03

    During the coming decade, high energy physics experiments at the Fermilab Tevatron and around the globe will use very sophisticated equipment to record unprecedented amounts of data in the hope of making major discoveries that may unravel some of Nature's deepest mysteries. The discovery of the Higgs boson and signals of new physics may be around the corner. The use of advanced analysis techniques will be crucial in achieving these goals. The author discusses some of the novel methods of analysis that could prove to be particularly valuable for finding evidence of any new physics, for improving precision measurements and for exploring parameter spaces of theoretical models.

  7. Experimental and theoretical high energy physics research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Progress in the various components of the UCLA High-Energy Physics Research program is summarized, including some representative figures and lists of resulting presentations and published papers. Principal efforts were in the following areas: (1) UCLA hadronization model, PEP4/9 e(+)e(-) analysis, and (bar-P) decay; (2) ICARUS and astroparticle physics (physics goals, technical progress on electronics, data acquisition, detector performance, long baseline neutrino beam from CERN to the Gran Sasso and ICARUS, future ICARUS program, and WIMP experiment with xenon), B physics with hadron beams and colliders, high-energy collider physics, and the phi factory project; (3) theoretical high-energy physics; (4) H dibaryon search, search for K(sub L)(sup 0) yields (pi)(sup 0)(gamma)(gamma) and (pi)(sup 0)(nu)(bar-nu), and detector design and construction for the FNAL-KTeV project; (5) UCLA participation in the experiment CDF at Fermilab; and (6) VLPC/scintillating fiber R & D.

  8. [High Energy Physics: Research in high energy physics]. Annual report, FY 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Barish, B C

    1982-12-31

    This report discusses high energy physics research on: Quantum chromodynamics; neutrinos; multiparticle spectrometers; inclusive scattering; Mark III detector; and cascade decays of phi resonances. (LSP)

  9. Teaching Computational Physics to High School Teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cancio, Antonio C.

    2007-10-01

    This talk describes my experience in developing and giving an experimental workshop to expose high school teachers to basic concepts in computer modeling and give them tools to make simple 3D simulations for class demos and student projects. Teachers learned basic techniques of simulating dynamics using high school and introductory college level physics and basic elements of programming. High quality graphics were implemented in an easy to use, open source software package, VPython, currently in use in college introductory courses. Simulations covered areas of everyday physics accessible to computational approaches which would otherwise be hard to treat at introductory level, such as the physics of sports, realistic planetary motion and chaotic motion. The challenges and successes of teaching this subject in an experimental one-week-long workshop format, and to an audience completely new to the subject will be discussed.

  10. Examples from Astronomy for High School Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dieterich, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    A formal course in physics is increasingly becoming a standard requirement in the high school curriculum. With that dissemination comes the challenge of reaching and motivating a population that is more diverse in their academic abilities and intrinsic motivation. The abstract nature of pure physics is often made more accessible when motivated by examples from everyday life, and providing copious mathematical as well as conceptual examples has become standard practice in high school physics textbooks. Astronomy is a naturally captivating subject and astronomical examples are often successful in capturing the curiosity of high school students as well as the general population. This project seeks to diversify the range of pedagogical materials available to the high school physics instructor by compiling and publishing specific examples where an astronomical concept can be used to motivate the physics curriculum. This collection of examples will consist of both short problems suitable for daily homework assignments as well as longer project style activities. Collaborations are encouraged and inquiries should be directed to sdieterich at carnegiescience dot edu.This work is funded by the NSF Astronomy and Astrophysics Postdoctoral Fellowship Program through NSF grant AST-1400680.

  11. A Tape-Lecture Course in Electrochemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheridan, P.

    1978-01-01

    Investigates the possibility of using audio-tapes for self-study courses in technical colleges. This article presents: (1) description of the electrochemistry course taught; (2) results of the assessment of student reaction to the course; and (3) conclusions. (HM)

  12. Electrochemistry in the General Chemistry Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chambers, James Q.

    1983-01-01

    Outlines several ideas on introductory electrochemistry material suitable for college-level general chemistry. These include discussions of conductivity in solids and electrolytes, electrical quantities/properties, electrode potentials, and membrane potentials. Indicates that whatever strategy is used to present this material, the presentation…

  13. COMPILATION OF CURRENT HIGH ENERGY PHYSICS EXPERIMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Wohl, C.G.; Kelly, R.L.; Armstrong, F.E.; Horne, C.P.; Hutchinson, M.S.; Rittenberg, A.; Trippe, T.G.; Yost, G.P.; Addis, L.; Ward, C.E.W.; Baggett, N.; Goldschmidt-Clermong, Y.; Joos, P.; Gelfand, N.; Oyanagi, Y.; Grudtsin, S.N.; Ryabov, Yu.G.

    1981-05-01

    This is the fourth edition of our compilation of current high energy physics experiments. It is a collaborative effort of the Berkeley Particle Data Group, the SLAC library, and nine participating laboratories: Argonne (ANL), Brookhaven (BNL), CERN, DESY, Fermilab (FNAL), the Institute for Nuclear Study, Tokyo (INS), KEK, Serpukhov (SERP), and SLAC. The compilation includes summaries of all high energy physics experiments at the above laboratories that (1) were approved (and not subsequently withdrawn) before about April 1981, and (2) had not completed taking of data by 1 January 1977. We emphasize that only approved experiments are included.

  14. High-Pressure Research in Mineral Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazen, Robert M.

    Advances in high-pressure science and technology have transformed solid Earth geophysics. In the last decade, high-pressure researchers have reproduced the full range of Earth pressure and temperature conditions in the laboratory, and they have synthesized single crystals of dense silicate phases, unknown at the Earth's surface yet suspected to comprise most of the Earth's volume. These and other extraordinary accomplishments are chronicled in High-Pressure Research in Mineral Physics, an outgrowth of the third U.S.-Japan High-Pressure seminar, held in Kahuku, Hawaii, January, 13-16, 1986. The well produced and reasonably priced volume is dedicated to Syun-iti Akimoto, dean of Japanese high-pressure research, who recently retired from the University of Tokyo. Akimoto's fascinating historical account of pressure research at the Institute for Solid State Physics at the University of Tokyo is the leadoff article.

  15. Direct Electrochemistry and Electrocatalysis of Myoglobin Immobilized on Graphene-CTAB-Ionic Liquid Nanocomposite Film

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, Honggang; Wu, Hong; Wang, Jun; Liu, Jun; Jiang, Yanxia; Sun, Shigang; Lin, Yuehe

    2010-10-01

    We have investigated direct electrochemistry and electrocatalysis of myoglobin immobilized on graphene-cetylramethylammonium bromide (CTAB)-ionic liquid nanocomposite film on a glassy carbon electrode. The nanocomposite was characterized by TEM, SEM, XPS, and electrochemistry. It was found that the high surface area of graphene was helpful for immobilizing more proteins and the nanocomposite film can provide a favorable microenvironment for MB to retain its native structure and activity and to achieve reversible direct electron transfer reaction at an electrode. The nanocomposite films also exhibit good stability and catalytic activities for the electrocatalytic reduction of H2O2.

  16. LAPTAG High School Plasma Physics laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Layton, William; Gekelman, Walter; Pribyl, Patrick

    1999-11-01

    Six years ago an alliance of about thirty high schools and community colleges, and the UCLA physics department was initiated. LAPTAG (Los Angeles teachers Alliance Group) started with laboratory tours, a Web based astronomy course and a seismology project funded by the Office of the President of the University of California. Laptag has a website: [ http://coke.physics.ucla.edu/laptag] in which these projects as well as websites of the individual schools may be found. Recently we were funded by DOE to construct a plasma physics laboratory, which will reside at UCLA, but used by the high school teachers and their students. The machine is presently under construction by a team of eight high school teachers under the supervision of UCLA plasma physicists. The plasma will be generated by a helicon source, and then drift into a field free test chamber surrounded by confining permanent magnets. The preliminary experiments will be on ion acoustic waves and the mapping of the p! lasma potential. Presently we are giving the teachers a summer course in plasma Physics after which they will write a laboratory manual and lecture notes for a high school laboratory based course. In some schools this will be offered as part of an "AP" course and at others as a special laboratory. The courses will be taught by the high school teachers and offered this Fall semester. We will present pictures of the device, preliminary data, and course material.

  17. Electrochemistry of Q-Graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randviir, Edward P.; Brownson, Dale A. C.; Gómez-Mingot, Maria; Kampouris, Dimitrios K.; Iniesta, Jesús; Banks, Craig E.

    2012-09-01

    A newly synthesised type of graphene, Q-Graphene, has been physically and electrochemically characterised with Scanning and Transmission Electron Microscopy (SEM, TEM), X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and Cyclic Voltammetry (CV). Interpretation of SEM, TEM and XPS data reveal the material to consist of hollow carbon nanospheres of multi-layer graphene (viz. graphite), which exhibit a total oxygen content of ca. 36.0% (atomic weight via XPS). In addition to the carbon structures present, spherical magnesium oxide particles of <=50 nm in diameter are abundantly present in the sample (ca. 16.2%). Interestingly, although the TEM/SEM images show macroporous carbon structures, Raman spectroscopy shows peaks typically characteristic of graphene, which suggests the material is highly heterogeneous and consists of many types of carbon allotropes. Q-Graphene is electrochemically characterised using both inner-sphere and outer-sphere electrochemical redox probes, namely potassium ferrocyanide(ii), hexaammine-ruthenium(iii) chloride and hexachloroiridate(iii), in addition to the biologically relevant and electroactive analytes, norepinephrine, β-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) and l-ascorbic acid. The electrochemical response of Q-Graphene is benchmarked against edge plane- and basal plane-pyrolytic graphite (EPPG and BPPG respectively), pristine graphene and graphite alternatives. Q-Graphene is found to exhibit fast electron transfer kinetics, likely due to its high proportion of folded edges and surface defects, exhibiting a response similar to that of EPPG - which exhibits fast electron transfer rates due to the high proportion of edge plane sites it possesses. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the specific oxygen content plays a pivotal role in dictating the observed electrochemical response, which is analyte dependant. Consequently there is potential for this new member of the graphene family to be beneficially utilised in various electrochemical

  18. Electrochemistry of Q-graphene.

    PubMed

    Randviir, Edward P; Brownson, Dale A C; Gómez-Mingot, Maria; Kampouris, Dimitrios K; Iniesta, Jesús; Banks, Craig E

    2012-10-21

    A newly synthesised type of graphene, Q-Graphene, has been physically and electrochemically characterised with Scanning and Transmission Electron Microscopy (SEM, TEM), X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and Cyclic Voltammetry (CV). Interpretation of SEM, TEM and XPS data reveal the material to consist of hollow carbon nanospheres of multi-layer graphene (viz. graphite), which exhibit a total oxygen content of ca. 36.0% (atomic weight via XPS). In addition to the carbon structures present, spherical magnesium oxide particles of ≤50 nm in diameter are abundantly present in the sample (ca. 16.2%). Interestingly, although the TEM/SEM images show macroporous carbon structures, Raman spectroscopy shows peaks typically characteristic of graphene, which suggests the material is highly heterogeneous and consists of many types of carbon allotropes. Q-Graphene is electrochemically characterised using both inner-sphere and outer-sphere electrochemical redox probes, namely potassium ferrocyanide(II), hexaammine-ruthenium(III) chloride and hexachloroiridate(III), in addition to the biologically relevant and electroactive analytes, norepinephrine, β-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) and l-ascorbic acid. The electrochemical response of Q-Graphene is benchmarked against edge plane- and basal plane-pyrolytic graphite (EPPG and BPPG respectively), pristine graphene and graphite alternatives. Q-Graphene is found to exhibit fast electron transfer kinetics, likely due to its high proportion of folded edges and surface defects, exhibiting a response similar to that of EPPG - which exhibits fast electron transfer rates due to the high proportion of edge plane sites it possesses. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the specific oxygen content plays a pivotal role in dictating the observed electrochemical response, which is analyte dependant. Consequently there is potential for this new member of the graphene family to be beneficially utilised in various electrochemical

  19. Status of (US) High Energy Physics Networking

    SciTech Connect

    Montgomery, H.E.

    1987-02-01

    The current status of Networking to and between computers used by the High Energy Physics community is discussed. Particular attention is given to developments over the last year and to future prospects. Comparison between the current status and that of two years ago indicates that considerable strides have been made but that much remains to be done to achieve an acceptable level of functionality.

  20. Frontiers for Discovery in High Energy Density Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Davidson, R. C.; Katsouleas, T.; Arons, J.; Baring, M.; Deeney, C.; Di Mauro, L.; Ditmire, T.; Falcone, R.; Hammer, D.; Hill, W.; Jacak, B.; Joshi, C.; Lamb, F.; Lee, R.; Logan, B. G.; Melissinos, A.; Meyerhofer, D.; Mori, W.; Murnane, M.; Remington, B.; Rosner, R.; Schneider, D.; Silvera, I.; Stone, J.; Wilde, B.; Zajc. W.

    2004-07-20

    The report is intended to identify the compelling research opportunities of high intellectual value in high energy density physics. The opportunities for discovery include the broad scope of this highly interdisciplinary field that spans a wide range of physics areas including plasma physics, laser and particle beam physics, nuclear physics, astrophysics, atomic and molecular physics, materials science and condensed matter physics, intense radiation-matter interaction physics, fluid dynamics, and magnetohydrodynamics

  1. Surprises in High Energy Density Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rose, S. J.

    2010-01-01

    Edward Teller's work on what is now called High Energy Density Physics (HEDP) is not so well known as some of his work in other areas of physics. Yet he made substantial contributions since the 1940s and the models that he developed and the problems that he worked on are still relevant today. In this talk we shall look at two major areas in HEDP with the first treated more historically and the second more with a view to recent work that the author and others have undertaken which perhaps indicates future directions.

  2. Controlled thermonuclear fusion, high temperature plasma physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1985-05-01

    The primary source of nuclear energy comes from the fission process of heavy nuclei. To utilize the energy released by a thermonuclear fusion process, methods of controlling the fusion reaction were studied. This is controlled thermonuclear fusion technology. The fuel used in a thermonuclear fusion process are isotopes of hydrogen: deuterium and tritium. They can be extracted from the almost unlimited seawater. Nuclear fusion also produces very little radioactive waste. Thermonuclear fusion is a promising energy source with an almost unlimited supply; it is economical, safe, and relatively clean. Ways to raise plasma temperature to a very high level and to maintain it to allow fusion reactions to take place are studied. The physical laws of high temperature plasma was studied to reach this goal which resulted in the development of high temperature plasma physics.

  3. New accelerators in high-energy physics

    SciTech Connect

    Blewett, J.P.

    1982-01-01

    First, I should like to mention a few new ideas that have appeared during the last few years in the accelerator field. A couple are of importance in the design of injectors, usually linear accelerators, for high-energy machines. Then I shall review some of the somewhat sensational accelerator projects, now in operation, under construction or just being proposed. Finally, I propose to mention a few applications of high-energy accelerators in fields other than high-energy physics. I realize that this is a digression from my title but I hope that you will find it interesting.

  4. UPR/Mayaguez High Energy Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Mendez, Hector

    2014-10-31

    This year the University of Puerto Rico at Mayaguez (UPRM) High Energy Physics (HEP) group continued with the ongoing research program outlined in the grant proposal. The program is centered on the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment at the proton-proton (pp) collisions at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN in Geneva, Switzerland. The main research focus is on data analysis and on the preparation for the High Luminosity (HL) LHC or experiment detector upgrade. The physics data analysis included Higgs Doublet Search and measurement of the (1) Λ0b branching fraction, (2) B meson mass, and (3) hyperon θ-b lifetime. The detector upgrade included work on the preparations for the Forward Pixel (FPIX) detector Silicon Sensor Testing in a production run at Fermilab. In addition, the group has taken responsibilities on the Software Release through our former research associate Dr. Eric Brownson who acted until last December as a Level Two Offline Manager for the CMS Upgrade. In support of the CMS data analysis activities carried out locally, the UPRM group has built and maintains an excellent Tier3 analysis center in Mayaguez. This allowed us to analyze large data samples and to continue the development of algorithms for the upgrade tracking robustness we started several years ago, and we plan to resume in the near future. This project involves computer simulation of the radiation damage to be suffered at the higher luminosities of the upgraded LHC. This year we continued to serve as a source of outstanding students for the field of high energy physics. Three of our graduate students finished their MS work in May, 2014, Their theses research were on data analysis of heavy quark b-physics. All of them are currently enrolled at Ph.D. physics program across the nation. One of them (Hector Moreno) at New Mexico University (Hector Moreno), one at University of New Hampshire (Sandra Santiesteban) and one at University of

  5. Physical Metallurgy of High-Entropy Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, Jien-Wei

    2015-08-01

    Two definitions of high-entropy alloys (HEAs), based on composition and entropy, are reviewed. Four core effects, i.e., high entropy, sluggish diffusion, severe lattice distortion, and cocktail effects, are mentioned to show the uniqueness of HEAs. The current state of physical metallurgy is discussed. As the compositions of HEAs are entirely different from that of conventional alloys, physical metallurgy principles might need to be modified for HEAs. The thermodynamics, kinetics, structure, and properties of HEAs are briefly discussed relating with the four core effects of HEAs. Among these, a severe lattice distortion effect is particularly emphasized because it exerts direct and indirect influences on many aspects of microstructure and properties. Because a constituent phase in HEAs can be regarded as a whole-solute matrix, every lattice site in the matrix has atomic-scale lattice distortion. In such a distorted lattice, point defects, line defects, and planar defects are different from those in conventional matrices in terms of atomic configuration, defect energy, and dynamic behavior. As a result, mechanical and physical properties are significantly influenced by such a distortion. Suitable mechanisms and theories correlating composition, microstructure, and properties for HEAs are required to be built in the future. Only these understandings make it possible to complete the physical metallurgy of the alloy world.

  6. Fundamental Physics Explored with High Intensity Laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tajima, T.; Homma, K.

    2012-10-01

    Over the last century the method of particle acceleration to high energies has become the prime approach to explore the fundamental nature of matter in laboratory. It appears that the latest search of the contemporary accelerator based on the colliders shows a sign of saturation (or at least a slow-down) in increasing its energy and other necessary parameters to extend this frontier. We suggest two pronged approach enabled by the recent progress in high intensity lasers. First we envision the laser-driven plasma accelerator may be able to extend the reach of the collider. For this approach to bear fruit, we need to develop the technology of high averaged power laser in addition to the high intensity. For this we mention that the latest research effort of ICAN is an encouraging sign. In addition to this, we now introduce the concept of the noncollider paradigm in exploring fundamental physics with high intensity (and large energy) lasers. One of the examples we mention is the laser wakefield acceleration (LWFA) far beyond TeV without large luminosity. If we relax or do not require the large luminosity necessary for colliders, but solely in ultrahigh energy frontier, we are still capable of exploring such a fundamental issue. Given such a high energetic particle source and high-intensity laser fields simultaneously, we expect to be able to access new aspects on the matter and the vacuum structure from fundamental physical point of views. LWFA naturally exploits the nonlinear optical effects in the plasma when it becomes of relativistic intensity. Normally nonlinear optical effects are discussed based upon polarization susceptibility of matter to external fields. We suggest application of this concept even to the vacuum structure as a new kind of order parameter to discuss vacuum-originating phenomena at semimacroscopic scales. This viewpoint unifies the following observables with the unprecedented experimental environment we envision; the dispersion relation of

  7. Seminal Publications in Electrochemistry and Electroanalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scholz, Fritz; Inzelt, György; Stojek, Zbigniew

    This compilation of seminal publications in electrochemistry and electroanalysis is neither complete nor are all the listed contributions of the same importance. The authors feel that it might be of interest and very rewarding for people who use electroanalytical methods in the laboratory to go back to the roots and read some of the publications which later initiated strong developments of the science that is presented in this book. Many of the contributions to science cited here became an inherent part of textbooks and common knowledge so that the original work is usually not referred to and access to this information is difficult. The following web pages give access to much more information on the history of electrochemistry and electroanalysis:

  8. High-precision arithmetic in mathematical physics

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Bailey, David H.; Borwein, Jonathan M.

    2015-05-12

    For many scientific calculations, particularly those involving empirical data, IEEE 32-bit floating-point arithmetic produces results of sufficient accuracy, while for other applications IEEE 64-bit floating-point is more appropriate. But for some very demanding applications, even higher levels of precision are often required. Furthermore, this article discusses the challenge of high-precision computation, in the context of mathematical physics, and highlights what facilities are required to support future computation, in light of emerging developments in computer architecture.

  9. Modified fractal iron oxide magnetic nanostructure: A novel and high performance platform for redox protein immobilization, direct electrochemistry and bioelectrocatalysis application.

    PubMed

    Bagheri, Hasan; Ranjbari, Elias; Amiri-Aref, Mohaddeseh; Hajian, Ali; Ardakani, Yalda Hosseinzadeh; Amidi, Salimeh

    2016-11-15

    A novel biosensing platform based on fractal-pattern of iron oxides magnetic nanostructures (FIOMNs) and mixed hemi/ad-micelle of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) was designed for the magnetic immobilization of hemoglobin (Hb) at a screen printed carbon electrode (SPCE). The FIOMNs was successfully synthesized through hydrothermal approach and characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). In order to provide guidelines for the mixed hemi/ad-micelle formation, zeta-potential isotherms were investigated. The construction steps of the biosensor were evaluated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Direct electron transfer of Hb incorporated into the biocomposite film was realized with a pair of quasi-reversible redox peak at the formal potential of -0.355V vs. Ag/AgCl attributing to heme Fe(III)/Fe(II) redox couple. The results suggested that synergistic functions regarding to the hyper-branched and multidirectional structure of FIOMNs and the dual interaction ability of mixed hemi/ad-micelle array of SDS molecules not only induce an effective electron transfer between the Hb and the underlying electrode (high heterogeneous electron transfer rate constant of 2.08s(-1)) but also provide powerful and special microenvironment for the adsorption of the redox proteins. Furthermore, the biosensor displayed an excellent performance to the electrocatalytic reduction of H2O2 with a detection limit of 0.48µM and Michaelis-Menten constant (Km) value of 44.2µM. The fabricated biosensor represented the features of sensitivity, disposable design, low sample volume, rapid and simple preparation step, and acceptable anti-interferences, which offer great perspectives for the screen-determination of H2O2 in real samples. PMID:27290665

  10. Electrochemistry of Silicon: Instrumentation, Science, Materials and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehmann, Volker

    2002-04-01

    Silicon has been and will most probably continue to be the dominant material in semiconductor technology. Although the defect-free silicon single crystal is one of the best understood systems in materails science, its electrochemistry to many people is still a kind of "alchemy". This view is partly due to the interdisciplinary aspects of the topic: Physics meets chemistry at the silicon-electrolyte interface. This book gives a comprehensive overview of this important aspect of silicon technology as well as examples of applications ranging from photonic crystals to biochips. It will serve materials scientists as well as engineers involved in silicon technology as a quick reference with its more than 150 technical tables and diagrams and ca. 1000 references cited for easy access of the original literature.

  11. High energy physics research. Technical progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Piroue, P.A.

    1992-10-01

    The goal of this research is to understand the fundamental constituents of matter and their interactions. At this time, the following activities are underway: e{sup {plus}}e{sup {minus}} interactions and Z{sup 0} physics at CERN; studies to upgrade the L3 detector at LHC; very high statistics charm physics at Fermilab; search for the H particle at BNL; search for the fifth force; rare kaon decay experiments at BNL; study of B-meson physics at hadron colliders; e{sup {plus}}e{sup {minus}} pair creation by light at SLAC; R&D related to SSC experiments and the GEM detector; and theoretical research in elementary particle physics and cosmology. The main additions to the activities described in detail in the original grant proposal are (1) an experiment at SLAC (E-144) to study strong-field QED effects in e-laser and {gamma}-laser collisions, and (2) a search for the H particle at BNL (E-188). The R&D efforts for the GEM detector have also considerably expanded. In this paper we give a brief status report for each activity currently under way.

  12. High Energy Physics and Nuclear Physics Network Requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Dart, Eli; Bauerdick, Lothar; Bell, Greg; Ciuffo, Leandro; Dasu, Sridhara; Dattoria, Vince; De, Kaushik; Ernst, Michael; Finkelson, Dale; Gottleib, Steven; Gutsche, Oliver; Habib, Salman; Hoeche, Stefan; Hughes-Jones, Richard; Ibarra, Julio; Johnston, William; Kisner, Theodore; Kowalski, Andy; Lauret, Jerome; Luitz, Steffen; Mackenzie, Paul; Maguire, Chales; Metzger, Joe; Monga, Inder; Ng, Cho-Kuen; Nielsen, Jason; Price, Larry; Porter, Jeff; Purschke, Martin; Rai, Gulshan; Roser, Rob; Schram, Malachi; Tull, Craig; Watson, Chip; Zurawski, Jason

    2014-03-02

    The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) is the primary provider of network connectivity for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science (SC), the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States. In support of SC programs, ESnet regularly updates and refreshes its understanding of the networking requirements needed by instruments, facilities, scientists, and science programs that it serves. This focus has helped ESnet to be a highly successful enabler of scientific discovery for over 25 years. In August 2013, ESnet and the DOE SC Offices of High Energy Physics (HEP) and Nuclear Physics (NP) organized a review to characterize the networking requirements of the programs funded by the HEP and NP program offices. Several key findings resulted from the review. Among them: 1. The Large Hadron Collider?s ATLAS (A Toroidal LHC Apparatus) and CMS (Compact Muon Solenoid) experiments are adopting remote input/output (I/O) as a core component of their data analysis infrastructure. This will significantly increase their demands on the network from both a reliability perspective and a performance perspective. 2. The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) experiments (particularly ATLAS and CMS) are working to integrate network awareness into the workflow systems that manage the large number of daily analysis jobs (1 million analysis jobs per day for ATLAS), which are an integral part of the experiments. Collaboration with networking organizations such as ESnet, and the consumption of performance data (e.g., from perfSONAR [PERformance Service Oriented Network monitoring Architecture]) are critical to the success of these efforts. 3. The international aspects of HEP and NP collaborations continue to expand. This includes the LHC experiments, the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) experiments, the Belle II Collaboration, the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST), and others. The international nature of these collaborations makes them heavily

  13. High energy flare physics group summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, J. M.; Kurfess, J. D.

    1989-01-01

    The contributions of the High Energy Flare Physics Special Session in the American Astronomical Society Solar Physics Division Meeting are reviewed. Oral and poster papers were presented on observatories and instruments available for the upcoming solar maximum. Among these are the space-based Gamma Ray Observatory, the Solar Flare and Cosmic Burst Gamma Ray Experiment on the Ulysses spacecraft, the Soft X Ray Telescope on the spacecraft Solar-A, and the balloon-based Gamma Ray Imaging Device. Ground based observatories with new capabilities include the BIMA mm-wave interferometer (Univ. of California, Berkeley; Univ. of Illinois; Univ. of Maryland), Owens Valley Radio Observatory and the Very Large Array. The highlights of the various instrument performances are reported and potential data correlations and collaborations are suggested.

  14. Oklahoma Center for High Energy Physics (OCHEP)

    SciTech Connect

    Nandi, S; Strauss, M J; Snow, J; Rizatdinova, F; Abbott, B; Babu, K; Gutierrez, P; Kao, C; Khanov, A; Milton, K A; Neaman, H; H Severini, P Skubic

    2012-02-29

    The DOE EPSCoR implementation grant, with the support from the State of Oklahoma and from the three universities, Oklahoma State University, University of Oklahoma and Langston University, resulted in establishing of the Oklahoma Center for High Energy Physics (OCHEP) in 2004. Currently, OCHEP continues to flourish as a vibrant hub for research in experimental and theoretical particle physics and an educational center in the State of Oklahoma. All goals of the original proposal were successfully accomplished. These include foun- dation of a new experimental particle physics group at OSU, the establishment of a Tier 2 computing facility for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and Tevatron data analysis at OU and organization of a vital particle physics research center in Oklahoma based on resources of the three universities. OSU has hired two tenure-track faculty members with initial support from the grant funds. Now both positions are supported through OSU budget. This new HEP Experimental Group at OSU has established itself as a full member of the Fermilab D0 Collaboration and LHC ATLAS Experiment and has secured external funds from the DOE and the NSF. These funds currently support 2 graduate students, 1 postdoctoral fellow, and 1 part-time engineer. The grant initiated creation of a Tier 2 computing facility at OU as part of the Southwest Tier 2 facility, and a permanent Research Scientist was hired at OU to maintain and run the facility. Permanent support for this position has now been provided through the OU university budget. OCHEP represents a successful model of cooperation of several universities, providing the establishment of critical mass of manpower, computing and hardware resources. This led to increasing Oklahoma's impact in all areas of HEP, theory, experiment, and computation. The Center personnel are involved in cutting edge research in experimental, theoretical, and computational aspects of High Energy Physics with the research areas ranging from the

  15. Physics of intense, high energy radiation effects.

    SciTech Connect

    Hjalmarson, Harold Paul; Hartman, E. Frederick; Magyar, Rudolph J.; Crozier, Paul Stewart

    2011-02-01

    This document summarizes the work done in our three-year LDRD project titled 'Physics of Intense, High Energy Radiation Effects.' This LDRD is focused on electrical effects of ionizing radiation at high dose-rates. One major thrust throughout the project has been the radiation-induced conductivity (RIC) produced by the ionizing radiation. Another important consideration has been the electrical effect of dose-enhanced radiation. This transient effect can produce an electromagnetic pulse (EMP). The unifying theme of the project has been the dielectric function. This quantity contains much of the physics covered in this project. For example, the work on transient electrical effects in radiation-induced conductivity (RIC) has been a key focus for the work on the EMP effects. This physics in contained in the dielectric function, which can also be expressed as a conductivity. The transient defects created during a radiation event are also contained, in principle. The energy loss lead the hot electrons and holes is given by the stopping power of ionizing radiation. This information is given by the inverse dielectric function. Finally, the short time atomistic phenomena caused by ionizing radiation can also be considered to be contained within the dielectric function. During the LDRD, meetings about the work were held every week. These discussions involved theorists, experimentalists and engineers. These discussions branched out into the work done in other projects. For example, the work on EMP effects had influence on another project focused on such phenomena in gases. Furthermore, the physics of radiation detectors and radiation dosimeters was often discussed, and these discussions had impact on related projects. Some LDRD-related documents are now stored on a sharepoint site (https://sharepoint.sandia.gov/sites/LDRD-REMS/default.aspx). In the remainder of this document the work is described in catergories but there is much overlap between the atomistic calculations, the

  16. Bipolar electrochemistry: from materials science to motion and beyond.

    PubMed

    Loget, Gabriel; Zigah, Dodzi; Bouffier, Laurent; Sojic, Neso; Kuhn, Alexander

    2013-11-19

    Bipolar electrochemistry, a phenomenon which generates an asymmetric reactivity on the surface of conductive objects in a wireless manner, is an important concept for many purposes, from analysis to materials science as well as for the generation of motion. Chemists have known the basic concept for a long time, but it has recently attracted additional attention, especially in the context of micro- and nanoscience. In this Account, we introduce the fundamentals of bipolar electrochemistry and illustrate its recent applications, with a particular focus on the fields of materials science and dynamic systems. Janus particles, named after the Roman god depicted with two faces, are currently in the heart of many original investigations. These objects exhibit different physicochemical properties on two opposite sides. This makes them a unique class of materials, showing interesting features. They have received increasing attention from the materials science community, since they can be used for a large variety of applications, ranging from sensing to photosplitting of water. So far the great majority of methods developed for the generation of Janus particles breaks the symmetry by using interfaces or surfaces. The consequence is often a low time-space yield, which limits their large scale production. In this context, chemists have successfully used bipolar electrodeposition to break the symmetry. This provides a single-step technique for the bulk production of Janus particles with a high control over the deposit structure and morphology, as well as a significantly improved yield. In this context, researchers have used the bipolar electrodeposition of molecular layers, metals, semiconductors, and insulators at one or both reactive poles of bipolar electrodes to generate a wide range of Janus particles with different size, composition and shape. In using bipolar electrochemistry as a driving force for generating motion, its intrinsic asymmetric reactivity is again the

  17. High Voltage in Noble Liquids for High Energy Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Rebel, B.; Bernard, E.; Faham, C. H.; Ito, T. M.; Lundberg, B.; Messina, M.; Monrabal, F.; Pereverzev, S. P.; Resnati, F.; Rowson, P. C.; Soderberg, M.; Strauss, T.; Tomas, A.; Va'vra, J.; Wang, H.

    2014-08-22

    A workshop was held at Fermilab November 8-9, 2013 to discuss the challenges of using high voltage in noble liquids. The participants spanned the fields of neutrino, dark matter, and electric dipole moment physics. All presentations at the workshop were made in plenary sessions. This document summarizes the experiences and lessons learned from experiments in these fields at developing high voltage systems in noble liquids.

  18. Seismic Research and High School Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayers, J.

    2004-12-01

    Through a series of summer workshops, seismologists at Indiana University have trained secondary physics and earth science teachers in fundamentals of seismology and basic concepts in seismic research. Teachers and students then gain hands on experience in science research through operation of a research quality seismic station sited at the local schools. Physics and earth science students have operated the Northview High School Seismic Station since 1998. Data from the Northview seismometer are stored locally and also transmitted over the Internet to a database at Indiana University. Students have access to local data as well as seismic databases accessible through the Internet to use for research projects. In this presentation, I will describe how these projects have been incorporated into the physics and earth science programs at Northview High School. I will discuss how our teachers and students have benefited from the opportunity to take part in hands-on collaborative scientific research under the guidance of university faculty. In particular, I will describe our participation in a regional seismic network through seismic data acquisition, data analysis using seismological software, and students' experiences in a university-based student research symposium. I reflect on the some of the successes, such as increased student and community interest, resulting from our work with the seismic station. I comment on some of the barriers, such as time constraints and unintended interference from school personnel, to high-school teachers' and students' involvement in scientific research programs. I conclude with a discussion of a successful student seismology project, an examination of blasts from local surface coal mines, that was a finalist in the 2003 INTEL International Science and Engineering Fair

  19. Center for High Temperature Plasma Physics certified

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Maolian

    1985-05-01

    The construction and functions of a research center for high temperature plasma physics and controlled thermonuclear fusion are discussed. It has four of China's largest d.c. pulse generators capable of producing 80 megawatts of power, an induction coil capable of storing 200 million joules of electric energy, and a capacitor bank that can store 8 million joules of energy. It has equipment for producing deionized water, low temperature equipment, a cooling system using refrigerated circulating water, and a heat supply system. The center is one of China's important bases for thermonuclear fusion research.

  20. Research program in theoretical high energy physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feldman, David; Fried, Herbert M.; Jevicki, Antal; Kang, Kyungsik; Tan, Chung-I.

    1989-06-01

    This year's research has dealt with: superstrings in the early universe; the invisible axion emissions from SN1987A; quartic interaction in Witten's superstring field theory; W-boson associated multiplicity and the dual parton model; cosmic strings and galaxy formation; cosmic strings and baryogenesis; quark flavor mixing; p p(-) scattering at TeV energies; random surfaces; ordered exponentials and differential equations; initial value and back-reaction problems in quantum field theory; string field theory and Weyl invariance; the renormalization group and string field theory; the evolution of scalar fields in an inflationary universe, with and without the effects of gravitational perturbations; cosmic string catalysis of skyrmion decay; inflation and cosmic strings from dynamical symmetry breaking; the physic of flavor mixing; string-inspired cosmology; strings at high-energy densities and complex temperatures; the problem of non-locality in string theory; string statistical mechanics; large-scale structures with cosmic strings and neutrinos; the delta expansion for stochastic quantization; high-energy neutrino flux from ordinary cosmic strings; a physical picture of loop bremsstrahlung; cylindrically-symmetric solutions of four-dimensional sigma models; large-scale structure with hot dark matter and cosmic strings; the unitarization of the odderon; string thermodynamics and conservation laws; the dependence of inflationary-universe models on initial conditions; the delta expansion and local gauge invariance; particle physics and galaxy formation; chaotic inflation with metric and matter perturbations; grand-unified theories, galaxy formation, and large-scale structure; neutrino clustering in cosmic-string-induced wakes; and infrared approximations to nonlinear differential equations.

  1. Highly precise clocks to test fundamental physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bize, S.; Wolf, P.

    2012-12-01

    Highly precise atomic clocks and precision oscillators are excellent tools to test founding principles, such as the Equivalence Principle, which are the basis of modern physics. A large variety of tests are possible, including tests of Local Lorentz Invariance, of Local Position Invariance like, for example, tests of the variability of natural constants with time and with gravitation potential, tests of isotropy of space, etc. Over several decades, SYRTE has developed an ensemble of highly accurate atomic clocks and oscillators using a large diversity of atomic species and methods. The SYRTE clock ensemble comprises hydrogen masers, Cs and Rb atomic fountain clocks, Sr and Hg optical lattice clocks, as well as ultra stable oscillators both in the microwave domain (cryogenic sapphire oscillator) and in the optical domain (Fabry-Perot cavity stabilized ultra stable lasers) and means to compare these clocks locally or remotely (fiber links in the RF and the optical domain, femtosecond optical frequency combs, satellite time and frequency transfer methods). In this paper, we list the fundamental physics tests that have been performed over the years with the SYRTE clock ensemble. Several of these tests are done thanks to the collaboration with partner institutes including the University of Western Australia, the Max Planck Institut für Quantenoptik in Germany, and others.

  2. Grid Computing in High Energy Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avery, Paul

    2004-09-01

    Over the next two decades, major high energy physics (HEP) experiments, particularly at the Large Hadron Collider, will face unprecedented challenges to achieving their scientific potential. These challenges arise primarily from the rapidly increasing size and complexity of HEP datasets that will be collected and the enormous computational, storage and networking resources that will be deployed by global collaborations in order to process, distribute and analyze them. Coupling such vast information technology resources to globally distributed collaborations of several thousand physicists requires extremely capable computing infrastructures supporting several key areas: (1) computing (providing sufficient computational and storage resources for all processing, simulation and analysis tasks undertaken by the collaborations); (2) networking (deploying high speed networks to transport data quickly between institutions around the world); (3) software (supporting simple and transparent access to data and software resources, regardless of location); (4) collaboration (providing tools that allow members full and fair access to all collaboration resources and enable distributed teams to work effectively, irrespective of location); and (5) education, training and outreach (providing resources and mechanisms for training students and for communicating important information to the public). It is believed that computing infrastructures based on Data Grids and optical networks can meet these challenges and can offer data intensive enterprises in high energy physics and elsewhere a comprehensive, scalable framework for collaboration and resource sharing. A number of Data Grid projects have been underway since 1999. Interestingly, the most exciting and far ranging of these projects are led by collaborations of high energy physicists, computer scientists and scientists from other disciplines in support of experiments with massive, near-term data needs. I review progress in this

  3. Electrochemistry at Edge of Single Graphene Layer in a Nanopore

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Shouvik; Shim, Jiwook; Rivera, Jose; Jin, Xiaozhong; Estrada, David; Solovyeva, Vita; You, Xiuque; Pak, James; Pop, Eric; Aluru, Narayana; Bashir, Rashid

    2013-01-01

    We study the electrochemistry of single layer graphene edges using a nanopore-based structure consisting of stacked graphene and Al2O3 dielectric layers. Nanopores, with diameters ranging from 5 to 20 nm, are formed by an electron beam sculpting process on the stacked layers. This leads to unique edge structure which, along with the atomically thin nature of the embedded graphene electrode, demonstrates electrochemical current densities as high as 1.2 × 104 A/cm2. The graphene edge embedded structure offers a unique capability to study the electrochemical exchange at an individual graphene edge, isolated from the basal plane electrochemical activity. We also report ionic current modulation in the nanopore by biasing the embedded graphene terminal with respect to the electrodes in the fluid. The high electrochemical specific current density for a graphene nanopore-based device can have many applications in sensitive chemical and biological sensing, and energy storage devices. PMID:23249127

  4. Development of an Electrochemistry Teaching Sequence Using a Phenomenographic Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez-Velazquez, Sorangel

    2013-01-01

    Electrochemistry is the area of chemistry that studies electron transfer reactions across an interface. Chemistry education researchers have acknowledged that difficulties in electrochemistry instruction arise due to the level of abstraction of the topic, lack of adequate explanations and representations found in textbooks, and a quantitative…

  5. University of Oklahoma - High Energy Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Skubic, Patrick L.

    2013-07-31

    The High Energy Physics program at the University of Oklahoma, Pat Skubic, Principal Investigator, is attempting to understand nature at the deepest level using the most advanced experimental and theoretical tools. The four experimental faculty, Brad Abbott, Phil Gutierrez, Pat Skubic, and Mike Strauss, together with post-doctoral associates and graduate students, are finishing their work as part of the D0 collaboration at Fermilab, and increasingly focusing their investigations at the Large Hadron Collidor (LHC) as part of the ATLAS Collaboration. Work at the LHC has become even more exciting with the recent discovery by ATLAS and the other collaboration, CMS, of the long-sought Higgs boson, which plays a key role in generating masses for the elementary constituents of matter. Work of the OUHEP group has been in the three areas of hardware, software, and analysis. Now that the Higgs boson has been discovered, completing the Standard Model of fundamental physics, new efforts will focus on finding hints of physics beyond the standard model, such as supersymmetry. The OUHEP theory group (Kim Milton, PI) also consists of four faculty members, Howie Baer, Chung Kao, Kim Milton, and Yun Wang, and associated students and postdocs. They are involved in understanding fundamental issues in formulating theories of the microworld, and in proposing models that carry us past the Standard Model, which is an incomplete description of nature. They therefore work in close concert with their experimental colleagues. One also can study fundamental physics by looking at the large scale structure of the universe; in particular the ``dark energy'' that seems to be causing the universe to expand at an accelerating rate, effectively makes up about 3/4 of the energy in the universe, and yet is totally unidentified. Dark energy and dark matter, which together account for nearly all of the energy in the universe, are an important probe of fundamental physics at the very shortest distances

  6. The University of Tennessee Department of Physics and Astronomy High-School Physics Internet Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breinig, Marianne

    1997-04-01

    As part of Tennessee's Bicentennial celebration, the state is providing the opportunity for all public schools to be connected with full text and graphics to the Internet. The University of Tennessee Department of Physics and Astronomy High-School Physics Internet Site helps Tennessee High School physics teachers to take maximum advantage of their Internet connections. It provides a way for all High School physics teachers to quickly communicate with faculty when they have physics questions. It makes it easier for teachers to find mentors for special physics projects. The site also provide a setting for all Tennessee High School physics teachers to communicate with each other. Physics teachers themselves are involved in the design of the Internet site. high_school_physics>High-School Physics Internet Site

  7. The HESP (High Energy Solar Physics) project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kai, K.

    1986-01-01

    A project for space observations of solar flares for the coming solar maximum phase is briefly described. The main objective is to make a comprehensive study of high energy phenomena of flares through simultaneous imagings in both hard and soft X-rays. The project will be performed with collaboration from US scientists. The HESP (High Energy Solar Physics) WG of ISAS (Institute of Space and Astronautical Sciences) has extensively discussed future aspects of space observations of high energy phenomena of solar flares based on successful results of the Hinotori mission, and proposed a comprehensive research program for the next solar maximum, called the HESP (SOLAR-A) project. The objective of the HESP project is to make a comprehensive study of both high energy phenomena of flares and quiet structures including pre-flare states, which have been left uncovered by SMM and Hinotori. For such a study simultaneous imagings with better resolutions in space and time in a wide range of energy will be extremely important.

  8. Conceptual problem solving in high school physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Docktor, Jennifer L.; Strand, Natalie E.; Mestre, José P.; Ross, Brian H.

    2015-12-01

    Problem solving is a critical element of learning physics. However, traditional instruction often emphasizes the quantitative aspects of problem solving such as equations and mathematical procedures rather than qualitative analysis for selecting appropriate concepts and principles. This study describes the development and evaluation of an instructional approach called Conceptual Problem Solving (CPS) which guides students to identify principles, justify their use, and plan their solution in writing before solving a problem. The CPS approach was implemented by high school physics teachers at three schools for major theorems and conservation laws in mechanics and CPS-taught classes were compared to control classes taught using traditional problem solving methods. Information about the teachers' implementation of the approach was gathered from classroom observations and interviews, and the effectiveness of the approach was evaluated from a series of written assessments. Results indicated that teachers found CPS easy to integrate into their curricula, students engaged in classroom discussions and produced problem solutions of a higher quality than before, and students scored higher on conceptual and problem solving measures.

  9. Curriculum Diversity and Young Adult Physical Activity: Reflections from High School Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mears, Derrick

    2008-01-01

    This study was to evaluate if exposure to a diverse curriculum in high school physical education had an impact on young adult physical activity. Students from two universities were surveyed concerning high school physical education content exposure and physical activity in four areas. By investigating relationships between content exposure and…

  10. A Distributed Electrochemistry Modeling Tool for Simulating SOFC Performance and Degradation

    SciTech Connect

    Recknagle, Kurtis P.; Ryan, Emily M.; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2011-10-13

    This report presents a distributed electrochemistry (DEC) model capable of investigating the electrochemistry and local conditions with the SOFC MEA based on the local microstructure and multi-physics. The DEC model can calculate the global current-voltage (I-V) performance of the cell as determined by the spatially varying local conditions through the thickness of the electrodes and electrolyte. The simulation tool is able to investigate the electrochemical performance based on characteristics of the electrode microstructure, such as particle size, pore size, electrolyte and electrode phase volume fractions, and triple-phase-boundary length. It can also investigate performance as affected by fuel and oxidant gas flow distributions and other environmental/experimental conditions such as temperature and fuel gas composition. The long-term objective for the DEC modeling tool is to investigate factors that cause electrode degradation and the decay of SOFC performance which decrease longevity.

  11. Electrochemistry and Storage Panel Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stedman, J. K.; Halpert, G.

    1984-01-01

    Design and performance requirements for electrochemical power storage systems are discussed and some of the approaches towards satisfying these constraints are described. Geosynchronous and low Earth orbit applications, radar type load constraints, and high voltage systems requirements are addressed. In addition, flywheel energy storage is discussed.

  12. Statistical Physics of High Dimensional Inference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Advani, Madhu; Ganguli, Surya

    To model modern large-scale datasets, we need efficient algorithms to infer a set of P unknown model parameters from N noisy measurements. What are fundamental limits on the accuracy of parameter inference, given limited measurements, signal-to-noise ratios, prior information, and computational tractability requirements? How can we combine prior information with measurements to achieve these limits? Classical statistics gives incisive answers to these questions as the measurement density α =N/P --> ∞ . However, modern high-dimensional inference problems, in fields ranging from bio-informatics to economics, occur at finite α. We formulate and analyze high-dimensional inference analytically by applying the replica and cavity methods of statistical physics where data serves as quenched disorder and inferred parameters play the role of thermal degrees of freedom. Our analysis reveals that widely cherished Bayesian inference algorithms such as maximum likelihood and maximum a posteriori are suboptimal in the modern setting, and yields new tractable, optimal algorithms to replace them as well as novel bounds on the achievable accuracy of a large class of high-dimensional inference algorithms. Thanks to Stanford Graduate Fellowship and Mind Brain Computation IGERT grant for support.

  13. Electrochemistry of orthosilicate-based lithium battery cathodes: a perspective.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Stefania; Capsoni, Doretta; Casino, Simone; Destro, Matteo; Gerbaldi, Claudio; Bini, Marcella

    2014-06-14

    Lithium metal orthosilicates are attracting a lot of attention owing to their promising prospects as potential high capacity cathode materials for Li-ion batteries. Currently, great efforts are being made in order to achieve the full theoretical specific capacity of 330 mA h g(-1), but many issues remain unsolved (e.g., poor structural and cycling stability), which limit their practical application. The present perspective highlights the importance of assessing the electrochemical behaviour of Li2(Fe,Mn)SiO4 by combining an arsenal of characterization techniques both spectroscopic and structural, in and ex situ. Here, we review the most recent achievements in the investigation of the electrochemical performance of lithium metal orthosilicate cathodes and, through some of our recent results, we attempt to clarify the relationship between the structure and electrochemistry of these compounds. PMID:24764049

  14. Facile synthesis of cuprous oxide nanoparticles by plasma electrochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jiandi; Chen, Qiang; Li, Junshuai; Xiong, Qing; Yue, Guanghui; Zhang, Xianhui; Yang, Size; Huo Liu, Qing

    2016-07-01

    We report on a simple plasma electrochemistry method for synthesizing cuprous oxide (Cu2O) nanoparticles in the presence of glucose. In this system, Ar plasma in contact with a NaCl solution was used as one electrode, and a Cu plate was immersed in the solution as the counter electrode. The plasma-solution interaction produced many reducing and oxidizing species which can react with the Cu ions released from the Cu electrode. Cu2O nanoparticles, with an average diameter of 22 +/- 6 nm, were formed under the competition of reducing and oxidizing reactions in the solution. The results show that the glucose added in the electrolyte strongly influences the properties of the products. Corresponding to high, medium, and low concentrations of glucose, the products were nanoparticles from amorphous Cu2O, polycrystalline Cu2O, and a mixture of polycrystalline Cu2O and Cu2Cl(OH)3, respectively.

  15. Oxygen electrochemistry as a cornerstone for sustainable energy conversion.

    PubMed

    Katsounaros, Ioannis; Cherevko, Serhiy; Zeradjanin, Aleksandar R; Mayrhofer, Karl J J

    2014-01-01

    Electrochemistry will play a vital role in creating sustainable energy solutions in the future, particularly for the conversion and storage of electrical into chemical energy in electrolysis cells, and the reverse conversion and utilization of the stored energy in galvanic cells. The common challenge in both processes is the development of-preferably abundant-nanostructured materials that can catalyze the electrochemical reactions of interest with a high rate over a sufficiently long period of time. An overall understanding of the related processes and mechanisms occurring under the operation conditions is a necessity for the rational design of materials that meet these requirements. A promising strategy to develop such an understanding is the investigation of the impact of material properties on reaction activity/selectivity and on catalyst stability under the conditions of operation, as well as the application of complementary in situ techniques for the investigation of catalyst structure and composition. PMID:24339359

  16. Physics Contests for High School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Doug; Nelson, Jim

    1983-01-01

    Describes how the Ontario Section of the American Association of Physics Teachers started a "Grade Eleven Prize Physics Contest" to generate interest in physics and recognize outstanding students. Also describes outcomes of contests, adaptation of the contest by Southeastern Pennsylvania Section, and suggestions for others wanting to begin similar…

  17. Identifying High School Physical Education Physical Activity Patterns after High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barney, David; Pleban, Francis T.; Wilkinson, Carol; Prusak, Keven A.

    2015-01-01

    National standards for physical education (PE) encompass five principles for the purpose of defining what high school students should recognize and be able to perform as a result of a quality PE program. The expectation is that youth will develop an active, healthy lifestyle into adulthood from activities and skills taught in PE. Researchers from…

  18. Networking for High Energy and Nuclear Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, Harvey B.

    2007-07-01

    This report gives an overview of the status and outlook for the world's research networks and major international links used by the high energy physics and other scientific communities, network technology advances on which our community depends and in which we have an increasingly important role, and the problem of the Digital Divide, which is a primary focus of ICFA's Standing Committee on Inter-regional Connectivity (SCIC). Wide area networks of sufficient, and rapidly increasing end-to-end capability are vital for every phase of high energy physicists' work. Our bandwidth usage, and the typical capacity of the major national backbones and intercontinental links used by our field have progressed by a factor of more than 1000 over the past decade, and the outlook is for a similar increase over the next decade. This striking exponential growth trend, outstripping the growth rates in other areas of information technology, has continued in the past year, with many of the major national, continental and transoceanic networks supporting research and education progressing from a 10 Gigabits/sec (Gbps) backbone to multiple 10 Gbps links in their core. This is complemented by the use of point-to-point "light paths" to support the most demanding applications, including high energy physics, in a growing list of cases. As we approach the era of LHC physics, the growing need to access and transport Terabyte-scale and later 10 to 100 Terabyte datasets among more than 100 "Tier1" and "Tier2" centers at universities and laboratories spread throughout the world has brought the key role of networks, and the ongoing need for their development, sharply into focus. Bandwidth itself on an increasing scale is not enough. Realizing the scientific wealth of the LHC and our other major scientific programs depends crucially on our ability to use the bandwidth efficiently and reliably, with reliable high rates of data throughput, and effectively, where many parallel large-scale data

  19. Carbon electrochemistry in alkaline systems

    SciTech Connect

    Berk, L.; Zuckerbrod, D.

    1983-08-01

    The electrochemical activity of a high surface area furnace black, Black Pearls 2000 and an acetylene black, Shawinigan Black, were studied in 25% KOH at temperatures from 45/sup 0/C to -15/sup 0/C. A relationship was found between the graphitic character of the carbons and their activities for oxygen formation and surface oxide formation, the furnace black being more active for surface oxide formation and the acetylene black being more active for oxygen generation. The carbons behaved similarly in the cathodic region, exhibiting two distinct peaks apparently related to the reduction of oxygen or of surface oxides.

  20. Fuzzy systems in high-energy physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castellano, Marcello; Masulli, Francesco; Penna, Massimo

    1996-06-01

    Decision making is one of the major subjects of interest in physics. This is due to the intrinsic finite accuracy of measurement that leads to the possible results to span a region for each quantity. In this way, to recognize a particle type among the others by a measure of a feature vector, a decision must be made. The decision making process becomes a crucial point whenever a low statistical significance occurs as in space cosmic ray experiments where searching in rare events requires us to reject as many background events as possible (high purity), keeping as many signal events as possible (high efficiency). In the last few years, interesting theoretical results on some feedforward connectionist systems (FFCSs) have been obtained. In particular, it has been shown that multilayer perceptrons (MLPs), radial basis function networks (RBFs), and some fuzzy logic systems (FLSs) are nonlinear universal function approximators. This property permits us to build a system showing intelligent behavior , such as function estimation, time series forecasting, and pattern classification, and able to learn their skill from a set of numerical data. From the classification point of view, it has been demonstrated that non-parametric classifiers based FFCSs holding the universal function approximation property, can approximate the Bayes optimal discriminant function and then minimize the classification error. In this paper has been studied the FBF when applied to a high energy physics problem. The FBF is a powerful neuro-fuzzy system (or adaptive fuzzy logic system) holding the universal function approximation property and the capability of learning from examples. The FBF is based on product-inference rule (P), the Gaussian membership function (G), a singleton fuzzifier (S), and a center average defuzzifier (CA). The FBF can be regarded as a feedforward connectionist system with just one hidden layer whose units correspond to the fuzzy MIMO rules. The FBF can be identified both by

  1. Satellite data transmission in high energy physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hine, M. G. N.

    1981-04-01

    High energy physicists have today to perform their very complex experiments in large collaborations at the particle accelerators in only two laboratories in Europe, CERN and DESY, while carrying on their university responsibilities and the analysis of the experimental data at home. The whole experimental process forms a vast distributed data processing system, in which better data transmission should help the physicists to work together more effectively than today. The natural speeds for communication between people and around computing equipment are in the region of 50 Kb/s through several Mb/s, and the PTT's are only now beginning to consider offering data services in this region. In the USA several firms are actively creating services based on satellite transmission between small earth stations on the customer's premises. In Europe, a small experiment, STELLA, has been set up to explore the interest of such services for the physics community, and to look at technical problems of achieving high speeds and low error rates. The CEPT is now considering whether to offer similar services using the forthcoming European communication satellites (ECS).

  2. High energy physics at Brookhaven National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Samios, N.P.

    1982-01-01

    The high energy plans at BNL are centered around the AGS and ISABELLE, or a variant thereof. At present the AGS is maintaining a strong and varied program. This last year a total of 4 x 10/sup 19/ protons were delivered on target in a period of approximately 20 weeks. Physics interest is very strong, half of the submitted proposals are rejected (thereby maintaining high quality experiments) and the program is full over the next two years. The future colliding beam facility will utilize the AGS as an injector and will be a dedicated facility. It will have six intersection regions, run > 10/sup 7/ sec/year, and explore a new domain of energy and luminosity. Common to all the considered alternatives is a large aperture proton ring. These possible choices involve pp, ep, and heavy ion variants. The long term philosophy is to run the AGS as much as possible, continuously to upgrade it in performance and reliability, and then to phase it down as the new collider begins operation. (WHK)

  3. Physical chemistry of highly concentrated emulsions.

    PubMed

    Foudazi, Reza; Qavi, Sahar; Masalova, Irina; Malkin, Alexander Ya

    2015-06-01

    This review explores the physics underlying the rheology of highly concentrated emulsions (HCEs) to determine the relationship between elasticity and HCE stability, and to consider whether it is possible to describe all physicochemical properties of HCEs on the basis of a unique physical approach. We define HCEs as emulsions with a volume fraction above the maximum closest packing fraction of monodisperse spheres, φm=0.74, even if droplets are not of polyhedron shape. The solid-like rheological behavior of HCEs is characterized by yield stress and elasticity, properties which depend on droplet polydispersity and which are affected by caging at volume fractions about the jamming concentration, φj. A bimodal size distribution in HCEs diminishes caging and facilitates droplet movement, resulting in HCEs with negligible yield stress and no plateau in storage modulus. Thermodynamic forces automatically move HCEs toward the lowest free energy state, but since interdroplet forces create local minimums - points beyond which free energy temporarily increases before it reaches the global minimum of the system - the free energy of HCEs will settle at a local minimum unless additional energy is added. Several attempts have been undertaken to predict the elasticity of HCEs. In many cases, the elastic modulus of HCEs is higher than the one predicted from classical models, which only take into account spatial repulsion (or simply interfacial energy). Improved models based on free energy calculation should be developed to consider the disjoining pressure and interfacial rheology in addition to spatial repulsion. The disjoining pressure and interfacial viscoelasticity, which result in the deviation of elasticity from the classical model, can be regarded as parameters for quantifying the stability of HCEs. PMID:25869114

  4. Electrochemistry in deep eutectic solvents.

    PubMed

    Nkuku, Chiemela A; LeSuer, Robert J

    2007-11-22

    We report the cyclic voltammetry, chronoamperometry, and scanning electrochemical microscopy of ferrocene dissolved in deep eutectic solvents (DES), consisting of choline chloride (ChCl) and either trifluoroacetamide (TFA) or malonic acid as the hydrogen-bond donor. Despite the use of ultramicroelectrodes, which were required due to the modest conductivities of the DES employed, linear diffusion behavior was observed in cyclic voltammetric experiments. The high viscosity of 1:2 ChCl/TFA relative to non-aqueous electrochemical solvents leads to a low diffusion coefficient, 2.7 x 10(-8) cm2 s(-1) for ferrocene in this medium. Because of the difficulties in achieving steady-state conditions, SECM approach curves were tip velocity dependent. Under certain conditions, SECM approach curves to an insulating substrate displayed a positive-feedback response. Satisfactory simulation of this unexpected behavior was obtained by including convection terms into the mass transport equations typically used for SECM theory. The observance of positive-feedback behavior at an insulating substrate can be described in terms of a dimensionless parameter, the Peclet number, which is the ratio of the convective and diffusive timescales. Fitting insulator approach curves of ferrocene in 1:2 ChCl/TFA shows an apparent increase in the diffusion coefficient with increasing tip velocity, which can be explained by DES behaving as a shear thinning non-Newtonian fluid. PMID:17973421

  5. A Study on Linking High-School Physics and Perfect Teaching Reformation of College Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Xiaolai; Li, Qun; Gao, Jiangtao

    2011-01-01

    For the students who have just entered colleges, learning university physics would be a challenge. This paper discusses how to make students who have just finished senior high school physics won't feel difficult in learning university physics and how to guide and cultivate the students' interest in the study of physics so to stimulate the…

  6. Determinants of College Physical Education Class Enrollment: Implications for High School Physical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hildebrand, Kathryn M.; Johnson, Dewayne J.

    2001-01-01

    Examined whether college students participated in physical activities in which they had had positive prior experiences and felt competent performing, administering surveys on their reasons for taking physical activity classes and their perceptions of the quality of their high school physical education. Reasons for taking physical activity classes…

  7. Precision timing calorimeter for high energy physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Dustin; Apresyan, Artur; Bornheim, Adolf; Duarte, Javier; Peña, Cristián; Spiropulu, Maria; Trevor, Jason; Xie, Si; Ronzhin, Anatoly

    2016-07-01

    Scintillator based calorimeter technology is studied with the aim to achieve particle detection with a time resolution on the order of a few 10 ps for photons and electrons at energies of a few GeV and above. We present results from a prototype of a 1.4×1.4×11.4 cm3 sampling calorimeter cell consisting of tungsten absorber plates and Cerium-doped Lutetium Yttrium Orthosilicate (LYSO) crystal scintillator plates. The LYSO plates are read out with wave lengths shifting fibers which are optically coupled to fast photo detectors on both ends of the fibers. The measurements with electrons were performed at the Fermilab Test Beam Facility (FTBF) and the CERN SPS H2 test beam. In addition to the baseline setup plastic scintillation counter and a MCP-PMT were used as trigger and as a reference for a time of flight measurement (TOF). We also present measurements with a fast laser to further characterize the response of the prototype and the photo sensors. All data were recorded using a DRS4 fast sampling digitizer. These measurements are part of an R&D program whose aim is to demonstrate the feasibility of building a large scale electromagnetic calorimeter with a time resolution on the order of 10 ps, to be used in high energy physics experiments.

  8. Data Preservation in High Energy Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Mount, Richard; Brooks, Travis; Le Diberder, Francois; Dubois-Felsmann, Gregory; Neal, Homer; Bellis, Matt; Boehnlein, Amber; Votava, Margaret; White, Vicky; Wolbers, Stephen; Konigsberg, Jacobo; Roser, Robert; Snider, Rick; Lucchesi, Donatella; Denisov, Dmitri; Soldner-Rembold, Stefan; Li, Qizhong; Varnes, Erich; Jonckheere, Alan; Gasthuber, Martin; Gulzow, Volker; /DESY /Marseille, CPPM /Dortmund U. /DESY /Gent U. /DESY, Zeuthen /KEK, Tsukuba /CC, Villeurbanne /CERN /INFN, Bari /Gjovik Coll. Engineering /Karlsruhe, Forschungszentrum /Beijing, Inst. High Energy Phys. /Carleton U. /Cornell U. /Rutherford

    2012-04-03

    Data from high-energy physics (HEP) experiments are collected with significant financial and human effort and are mostly unique. At the same time, HEP has no coherent strategy for data preservation and re-use. An inter-experimental Study Group on HEP data preservation and long-term analysis was convened at the end of 2008 and held two workshops, at DESY (January 2009) and SLAC (May 2009). This document is an intermediate report to the International Committee for Future Accelerators (ICFA) of the reflections of this Study Group. Large data sets accumulated during many years of detector operation at particle accelerators are the heritage of experimental HEP. These data sets offer unique opportunities for future scientific studies, sometimes long after the shut-down of the actual experiments: new theoretical input; new experimental results and analysis techniques; the quest for high-sensitivity combined analyses; the necessity of cross checks. In many cases, HEP data sets are unique; they cannot and most likely will not be superseded by data from newer generations of experiments. Once lost, or in an unusable state, HEP data samples cannot be reasonably recovered. The cost of conserving this heritage through a collaborative, target-oriented long-term data preservation program would be small, compared to the costs of past experimental projects or to the efforts to re-do experiments. However, this cost is not negligible, especially for collaborations close or past their end-date. The preservation of HEP data would provide today's collaborations with a secure way to complete their data analysis and enable them to seize new scientific opportunities in the coming years. The HEP community will benefit from preserved data samples through reanalysis, combination, education and outreach. Funding agencies would receive more scientific return, and a positive image, from their initial investment leading to the production and the first analysis of preserved data.

  9. Proceedings of the conference on electrochemistry of carbon allotropes: Graphite, fullerenes and diamond

    SciTech Connect

    Kinoshita, K.; Scherson, D.

    1998-02-01

    This conference provided an opportunity for electrochemists, physicists, materials scientists and engineers to meet and exchange information on different carbon allotropes. The presentations and discussion among the participants provided a forum to develop recommendations on research and development which are relevant to the electrochemistry of carbon allotropes. The following topics which are relevant to the electrochemistry of carbon allotropes were addressed: Graphitized and disordered carbons, as Li-ion intercalation anodes for high-energy-density, high-power-density Li-based secondary batteries; Carbons as substrate materials for catalysis and electrocatalysis; Boron-doped diamond film electrodes; and Electrochemical characterization and electrosynthesis of fullerenes and fullerene-type materials. Abstracts of the presentations are presented.

  10. A Statewide High School Physics Question Contest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandin, T. R.

    1983-01-01

    During 1981-82 a physics contest was held in North Carolina in which a new physics question was asked each month. Information is provided for others contemplating a similar task. Areas addressed include costs, prizes (calculators), number of entries, contest rules, contest goals, and such problems as time involvement. (JN)

  11. High School Students' Physical Education Conceptual Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayers, Suzan F.

    2004-01-01

    The value of conceptual physical education knowledge has long been acknowledged (American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, and Recreation, 1969; Kneer, 1981; NASPE, 1995) yet has not been formally measured or assessed. Seven multiple choice tests with established validity and reliability (Ayers, 2001b) were used to assess the concepts…

  12. UPR/Mayaguez High Energy Physics

    SciTech Connect

    López, Angel M.

    2015-10-27

    For the period of sixteen years covered by this report (June 1, 1997 - July 31, 2013) the High Energy Physics Group at the University of Puerto Rico’s Mayaguez Campus (UPRM) carried out an extensive research program that included major experiments at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), the Cornell Electron-positron Collider and CERN. In particular, these were E831 (FOCUS) at Fermilab, CLEOc at Cornell and the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. The group’s history is one of successful execution and growth. Beginning with one faculty researcher in 1985, it eventually included four faculty researchers, one post-doctoral research associate, two undergraduates and as many as six graduate students at one time working on one of the experiments that discovered the Higgs boson. Some of this expansion was due to the group’s leveraging of funds from the Department of Energy’s core grant to attract funds from National Science Foundation programs not targeted to high energy physics. Besides the group’s research productivity, its other major contribution was the training of a large number of MS students who later went on to successful technical careers in industry as well as academia including many who obtained PhD degrees at US universities. In an attempt to document this history, this final report gives a general description of the Group’s work prior to June 1, 2010, the starting date for the last grant renewal period. Much more detail can, of course, be found in the annual reports submitted up to that date. The work during the last grant period is discussed in detail in a separate section. To summarize the group’s scientific accomplishments, one can point to the results of the experiments. Both FOCUS and CLEOc were designed to carry out precise measurements of processes involving the heavy quarks, charm and bottom. Heavy quarks are particularly interesting because, due to their mass, theoretical calculations

  13. Application of Nuclear Microprobes towards Understanding Complex Ore Geo-electrochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laird, J. S.; Szymanski, R.; Large, R.; Ryan, C. G.

    2012-10-01

    We report on recent development on the CSIRO Nuclear Microprobe (NMP) towards catering for long exposure mapping required for large area scanning. A new data collection system based on Labview FPGA highly co-ordinated with beam transport sits at the heart of the upgrade. These upgrades are discussed and an example of the systems use for μ-Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) analysis in the area of complex ore geo-electrochemistry is briefly described.

  14. Gender Differences in Introductory University Physics Performance: The Influence of High School Physics Preparation and Affect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazari, Zahra

    2006-12-01

    The attrition of females studying physics after high school has been a continuing concern for the physics education community. If females are well prepared, feel confident, and do well in introductory college physics, they may be inclined to study physics further. This quantitative study uses HLM to identify factors from high school physics preparation (content, pedagogy, and assessment) and the affective domain that predict female and male performance in introductory college physics. The study includes controls for student demographic and academic background characteristics, and the final dataset consists of 1973 surveys from 54 introductory college physics classes. The results highlight high school physics and affective experiences that differentially predict female and male performance. These experiences include: learning requirements, computer graphing/analysis, long written problems, everyday world examples, community projects cumulative tests/quizzes, father's encouragement, family's belief that science leads to a better career, and the length of time students believe that high school physics would help in university physics. There were also experiences that similarly predict female and male performance. The results paint a dynamic picture of the factors from high school physics and the affective domain that influence the future physics performance of females and males. The implication is that there are many aspects to the teaching of physics in high school that, although widely used and thought to be effective, need reform in their implementation in order to be fully beneficial to females and/or males in college.

  15. 78 FR 50405 - High Energy Physics Advisory Panel

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-19

    ... Energy Physics Advisory Panel AGENCY: Office of Science, Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of Intent... hereby given that the High Energy Physics Advisory Panel will be renewed for a two-year period beginning...-range planning and priorities in the national high-energy physics program. Additionally, the renewal...

  16. 75 FR 17701 - High Energy Physics Advisory Panel

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-07

    ... Energy Physics Advisory Panel AGENCY: Department of Energy, Office of Science. ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a meeting of the High Energy Physics Advisory Panel (HEPAP.... FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: John Kogut, Executive Secretary; High Energy Physics Advisory...

  17. The ATLAS Hadronic Physics Program and High Energy Cosmic Rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinfold, J. L.

    2013-06-01

    The various aspects of the current and future ATLAS programs to explore hadronic physics, including diffraction and forward physic are discussed The emphasis is p laced on those results and future plans that have particular relevance for high-energy, and ultra high-energy, cosmic ray physics. In closing the latest ATLAS resul ts on the search for the Higgs boson are summarized.

  18. What Constitutes a Highly Qualified Physical Education Teacher?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance (NJ1), 2007

    2007-01-01

    It is the position of the National Association for Sport and Physical Education (NASPE) that is it critical to have highly qualified physical education teachers delivering a standards-based curriculum that will assist children in adopting and maintaining healthy lifestyles. NASPE acknowledges that highly qualified physical education teachers will…

  19. What Constitutes a Highly Qualified Physical Education Teacher?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Napper-Owen, Gloria E.; Marston, Rip; Van Volkinburg, Pat; Afeman, Helene; Brewer, Joan

    2008-01-01

    The National Association for Sport and Physical Education (NASPE) is an advocate for having highly qualified physical education teachers deliver developmentally appropriate, standards-based instruction in schools. However, a comprehensive definition of what constitutes a highly qualified physical education teacher did not exist until recently.…

  20. What Is a Highly Qualified Adapted Physical Education Teacher?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lytle, Rebecca; Lavay, Barry; Rizzo, Terry

    2010-01-01

    This article presents information related to the new position statement on the definition of a "highly qualified adapted physical education teacher" published by the Adapted Physical Activity Council (a council of the American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance). It discusses the legal references for "highly qualified"…

  1. Photothermal deflection spectroscopy investigations of uranium electrochemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Rudnicki, J.D.; Russo, R.E.

    1993-12-31

    Photothermal Deflection Spectroscopy (PDS) has been successfully applied successfully applied to the study of uranium oxide electrochemistry. A brief description of PDS and preliminary results that demonstrate the technique are presented. Concentration gradients formed at the electrode surface are measured by this technique. The gradients give insight into the reaction mechanisms. There is some evidence of the initiation of non-electrochemical dissolution of the uranium oxide. Optical absorption by the uranium oxide is measured by PDS and the first results indicate that the absorption of the surface does not change during electrochemical experiments. This result is contrary to literature measurements of bulk samples that indicate that the optical absorption should be strongly changing.

  2. Graphene and its electrochemistry - an update.

    PubMed

    Ambrosi, Adriano; Chua, Chun Kiang; Latiff, Naziah Mohamad; Loo, Adeline Huiling; Wong, Colin Hong An; Eng, Alex Yong Sheng; Bonanni, Alessandra; Pumera, Martin

    2016-05-01

    The electrochemistry of graphene and its derivatives has been extensively researched in recent years. In the aspect of graphene preparation methods, the efficiencies of the top-down electrochemical exfoliation of graphite, the electrochemical reduction of graphene oxide and the electrochemical delamination of CVD grown graphene, are currently on par with conventional procedures. Electrochemical analysis of graphene oxide has revealed an unexpected inherent redox activity with, in some cases, an astonishing chemical reversibility. Furthermore, graphene modified with p-block elements has shown impressive electrocatalytic performances in processes which have been historically dominated by metal-based catalysts. Further progress has also been achieved in the practical usage of graphene in sensing and biosensing applications. This review is an update of our previous article in Chem. Soc. Rev. 2010, 39, 4146-4157, with special focus on the developments over the past two years. PMID:27052352

  3. Electrochemistry-based Battery Modeling for Prognostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daigle, Matthew J.; Kulkarni, Chetan Shrikant

    2013-01-01

    Batteries are used in a wide variety of applications. In recent years, they have become popular as a source of power for electric vehicles such as cars, unmanned aerial vehicles, and commericial passenger aircraft. In such application domains, it becomes crucial to both monitor battery health and performance and to predict end of discharge (EOD) and end of useful life (EOL) events. To implement such technologies, it is crucial to understand how batteries work and to capture that knowledge in the form of models that can be used by monitoring, diagnosis, and prognosis algorithms. In this work, we develop electrochemistry-based models of lithium-ion batteries that capture the significant electrochemical processes, are computationally efficient, capture the effects of aging, and are of suitable accuracy for reliable EOD prediction in a variety of usage profiles. This paper reports on the progress of such a model, with results demonstrating the model validity and accurate EOD predictions.

  4. Perspectives on High-Energy-Density Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drake, R. Paul

    2008-11-01

    Much of 21st century plasma physics will involve work to produce, understand, control, and exploit very non-traditional plasmas. High-energy density (HED) plasmas are often examples, variously involving strong Coulomb interactions and few particles per Debeye sphere, dominant radiation effects, strongly relativistic effects, or strongly quantum-mechanical behavior. Indeed, these and other modern plasma systems often fall outside the early standard theoretical definitions of ``plasma''. This presentation will focus on two types of HED plasmas that exhibit non-traditional behavior. Our first example will be the plasmas produced by extremely strong shock waves. Shock waves are present across the entire realm of plasma densities, often in space or astrophysical contexts. HED shock waves (at pressures > 1 Mbar) enable studies in many areas, from equations of state to hydrodynamics to radiation hydrodynamics. We will specifically consider strongly radiative shocks, in which the radiative energy fluxes are comparable to the mechanical energy fluxes that drive the shocks. Modern HED facilities can produce such shocks, which are also present in dense, energetic, astrophysical systems such as supernovae. These shocks are also excellent targets for advanced simulations due to their range of spatial scales and complex radiation transport. Our second example will be relativistic plasmas. In general, these vary from plasmas containing relativistic particle beams, produced for some decades in the laboratory, to the relativistic thermal plasmas present for example in pulsar winds. Laboratory HED relativistic plasmas to date have been those produced by laser beams of irradiance ˜ 10^18 to 10^22 W/cm^2 or by accelerator-produced HED electron beams. These have applications ranging from generation of intense x-rays to production of proton beams for radiation therapy to acceleration of electrons. Here we will focus on electron acceleration, a spectacular recent success and a rare

  5. Activities report in nuclear and high energy physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    High energy physics research using particle accelerators is summarized. Electron scattering; experiments concerning pions, muons, and antiprotons; theoretical physics; radiochemistry; and technical aspects of the accelerators and associated equipment are discussed.

  6. University of Virginia experimental and theoretical high energy physics

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, B.

    1991-01-10

    This report discusses research being done in high energy physics at the University of Virginia in the following areas: charmonium; B mesons decay; B physics at the SCC; and symmetry and field theory. (LSP)

  7. Analytical Electrochemistry: Theory and Instrumentation of Dynamic Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Dennis C.

    1980-01-01

    Emphasizes trends in the development of six topics concerning analytical electrochemistry, including books and reviews (34 references cited), mass transfer (59), charge transfer (25), surface effects (33), homogeneous reactions (21), and instrumentation (31). (CS)

  8. Analytical Electrochemistry: Methodology and Applications of Dynamic Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heineman, William R.; Kissinger, Peter T.

    1980-01-01

    Reports developments involving the experimental aspects of finite and current analytical electrochemistry including electrode materials (97 cited references), hydrodynamic techniques (56), spectroelectrochemistry (62), stripping voltammetry (70), voltammetric techniques (27), polarographic techniques (59), and miscellany (12). (CS)

  9. Ninth Grade Physics: A Necessity for High School Science Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilt, John R.

    2005-01-01

    The traditional order in which science courses are taught in U.S. high schools is biology, chemistry, physics. The physics course usually is regarded as very difficult because it requires both high-level mathematical skills and high-level thinking skills; it is taught in the final year of high school to provide time for students to develop the…

  10. Nanoplasmonic biosensor: coupling electrochemistry to localized surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy on nanocup arrays.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Diming; Lu, Yanli; Jiang, Jing; Zhang, Qian; Yao, Yao; Wang, Ping; Chen, Bilian; Cheng, Qiaoyuan; Liu, Gang Logan; Liu, Qingjun

    2015-05-15

    The nanoscale Lycurgus cup arrays were hybrid structures of nanocups and nanoparticles with ultrasensitivity to refractive index change. In this study, an electrochemical localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) sensor was developed by coupling electrochemistry to LSPR spectroscopy measurement on the nanoscale cup arrays (nanoCA). Based on the combination of electrochemistry and LSPR measurement, the electrochemical LSPR on nanoCA was observed with significant resonance wavelength shifts in electrochemical modulation. The synchronous implementation of cyclic voltammetry and optical transmission spectrum can be used to obtain multiply sensing information and investigate the enhancement for LSPR from electrochemical scanning. The electrochemical enhanced LSPR was utilized as biosensor to detect biomolecules. The electrochemical LSPR biosensor with synchronous electrochemical and optical implement showed higher sensitivity than that of conventional optical LSPR measurement. Detecting with multi-transducer parameters and high sensitivity, the electrochemical LSPR provided a promising approach for chemical and biological detection. PMID:25172029

  11. Effect of experimental conditions on size control of Au nanoparticles synthesized by atmospheric microplasma electrochemistry.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xunzhi; Li, Yongsheng; Zhong, Xiaoxia

    2014-01-01

    Atmospheric microplasma electrochemistry was utilized to synthesize Au nanoparticles (NPs). The synthesized Au NPs were investigated as a function of reduction current, solution temperature, and stirring (or not) by using ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) absorbance and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). It was illustrated that high current promoted the growth of Au NPs with small size, and more Au NPs with large size were synthesized as a rise of temperature. The Au NPs often with small size were synthesized as a result of stirring. The production rate, the electrostatic repulsion, and the residence time of the Au NPs at the interfacial region play an important role in the growth of Au NPs. The results shed light upon the roadmap to control the size and particle size distribution (PSD) of Au NPs synthesized by atmospheric microplasma electrochemistry. PMID:25364315

  12. The 2013 Nationwide Survey of High School Physics Teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Susan

    2013-01-01

    The data we report on in this column come from the Nationwide Survey of High School Physics Teachers. Since 1987, the American Institute of Physics (AIP) and the American Association of Physics Teachers (AAPT) have sponsored the High School Teacher Survey. Prior to our initial study, much of the previous literature focusing on high school physics employed anecdotal evidence or qualitative surveys for curriculum reviews or explorations of teachers' experiences and pedagogical techniques. As a direct response to this dearth of data, the Nationwide Survey of High School Physics Teachers was initiated in 1986-87 to answer questions about the number of teachers teaching physics, the educational background of these teachers, the number of students enrolled in physics, the variety of physics classes being offered, the demographics of the students and teachers, the textbooks being used, and the number of high schools offering physics regularly. Since the beginning of this study, we have surveyed both public and private high schools in the United States. The results of our study provide the definitive data about physics in U.S. high schools. The initial survey was conducted during the 1986-87 school year. The second was completed during 1989-90. Beginning with the 1992-93 survey, we have conducted the survey every four years. The 2012-13 survey will be the eighth in the series. Thus, we have a rich history of physics teaching in U.S. high schools.

  13. Physics in US High Schools: Truths and Untruths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Susan

    2012-03-01

    Georg Christoph Lichtenberg once noted that ``[t]he most dangerous untruths are truths moderately distorted.'' In this talk, I will look at truths -- and attempt to dispel untruths -- regarding physics in US high schools. Using data from our quadrennial Nationwide Survey of High School Physics Teachers, I'll address questions such as: *Does every student in the US have access to physics in high school? *Does every student take physics in high school? *Does taking physics in high school impact future career paths? *How well do students in different states do with respect to high school physics and preparation for STEM careers? *Do high school physics teachers have physics training? *How well are females and minorities represented in high school physics? *Did every student earning a bachelor's degree in physics from a US institution take physics in high school? I will also consider the impact of high school physics on future academic pursuits in STEM fields using the Science and Engineering Readiness Index (SERI) developed by Paul Cottle and me. SERI provides a way to examine progress in K-12 physical science education on a state-by-state basis. By the way, Lichtenberg was the first person to hold a professorship dedicated to experimental physics in Germany and was one of the first scientists to introduce experiments with apparatus in his lectures. Today he is remembered for his investigations in electricity, for discovering branching discharge patterns on dielectrics now called Lichtenberg figures. As every physicist does, he wanted to get at the truth and avoid distortions. This talk does just that.

  14. Inequities in Physics Access and Enrollment in Urban High Schools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, Angela M.

    2008-10-01

    Despite reports to the contrary, the availability of physics as a course for secondary students is not equitably distributed throughout the U.S. While some schools provide physics access for all, a more common scenario is limited availability to select students. This is particularly true in urban districts, where this study examined access to and availability of high school physics. New York City's secondary schools were surveyed to determine where physics was offered and how many students were enrolled. Statistics were performed to compare differences between physics and non-physics schools. Additionally, organizational factors were examined that relate to physics availability, such as the magnet school configuration, the AP Physics and conceptual physics options, and science curricular sequence. Overall, it was determined that physics availability is limited in NYC schools, a serious inequity that disproportionately affects students of color and poor children. Strategies for improving access and enrollment will be discussed.

  15. Conceptual Problem Solving in High School Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Docktor, Jennifer L.; Strand, Natalie E.; Mestre, José P.; Ross, Brian H.

    2015-01-01

    Problem solving is a critical element of learning physics. However, traditional instruction often emphasizes the quantitative aspects of problem solving such as equations and mathematical procedures rather than qualitative analysis for selecting appropriate concepts and principles. This study describes the development and evaluation of an…

  16. Research activities in high energy physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Electron scattering experiments are described. Construction and testing of the MEA Accelerator and of the instrumentation in the experimental halls was surveyed. Work on the building of a pion channel and a 180 deg electron scattering set-up was also reviewed. Progress in muon and hadron physics, radio and nuclear chemistry and in theoretical and technical departments is outlined.

  17. High energy physics division semiannual report of research activities

    SciTech Connect

    Schoessow, P.; Moonier, P.; Talaga, R.; Wagner, R. )

    1991-08-01

    This report describes the research conducted in the High Energy Physics Division of Argonne National Laboratory during the period of January 1, 1991--June 30, 1991. Topics covered here include experimental and theoretical particle physics, advanced accelerator physics, detector development, and experimental facilities research. Lists of division publications and colloquia are included.

  18. 76 FR 53119 - High Energy Physics Advisory Panel

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-25

    ... Energy Physics Advisory Panel AGENCY: Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of renewal. SUMMARY: Pursuant... Energy Physics Advisory Panel will be renewed for a two-year period, beginning on August 12, 2011. The... priorities in the national High Energy Physics program. Additionally, the renewal of the HEPAP has...

  19. The Physics Front: Resources for High School Physics & Physical Science Teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ezrailson, Cathy M.

    2006-12-01

    The overarching goal of the Physics Front, (part of ComPADRE -Physics and Astronomy digital library) is to provide enhanced accessibility to quality physics teaching resources for all pre-college teachers of physics and the physical sciences with special materials for new and “cross-over” teachers. Some highlights/features of the site are: • A collection of physics-related topics with units of instruction including content, tutorials, labs and reference materials. • Descriptions of some PTRA manuals with example activities. • A “Welcome to the Profession” statement from the New Physics Teacher Manual. • Classroom techniques and best practices. • Simulations and images to enhance instruction for students. • Special features and help for the new physics teacher • Discussion Forums • Filing cabinet for sharing and organizing teaching materials Advantages of using The Physics Front: • Peer -reviewed materials • Connections with other physics teachers nation/worldwide • Content and pedagogy support • Venue for sharing, accessing and archiving exemplary teacher-designed materials • Opportunity to contribute to a dynamic and growing online physics teacher community

  20. Synthesis, structure, electronic spectroscopy, photophysics, electrochemistry, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of highly-electron-deficient [5,10,15,20-tetrakis(perfluoroalkyl)porphinato]zinc(II ) complexes and their free base derivatives

    SciTech Connect

    Goll, J.G.; Moore, K.T.; Therien, M.J.; Ghosh, A.

    1996-09-04

    The synthesis, optical spectroscopy, photophysical properties, electrochemistry, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of a series of [5,10,15,20-tetrakis(perfluoroalkyl)porphinato]zinc(II ) complexes and their free base analogs are reported. The title compounds were prepared by a condensation methodology that utilizes perfluoro-1-(2`-pyrrolyl)-1-alkanol precursors and employs continuous water removal throughout the course of the reaction to yield the meso perfluorocarbon-substituted porphyrins. The nature of the porphyrin-pendant meso-perfluoroalkyl group exerts considerable influence over the macrocycle`s solubility properties. The structure of the monopyridyl adduct of [5,10,15,20-tetrakis(heptafluoropropyl)porphinato] zinc(II) features an S{sub 4}-distorted porphyrin core; X-ray data are given. Electrochemical studies carried out on these porphyrin and (porphinato)zinc(II) complexes indicate that meso-perfluoroalkylporphyrins are among the most electron-deficient porphyrinic species known. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy experiments corroborate the electron poor nature of these systems and evince extreme stabilization of the nitrogen ls orbitals, consonant with particularly effective removal of electron density from the macrocycle by the meso-perfluoroalkyl moieties that is modulated by {sigma}-symmetry orbitals. 27 refs., 8 figs., 6 tabs.

  1. High energy physics research. Final technical report, 1957--1994

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, H.H.

    1995-10-01

    This is the final technical report to the Department of Energy on High Energy Physics at the University of Pennsylvania. It discusses research conducted in the following areas: neutrino astrophysics and cosmology; string theory; electroweak and collider physics; supergravity; cp violation and baryogenesis; particle cosmology; collider detector at Fermilab; the sudbury neutrino observatory; B-physics; particle physics in nuclei; and advanced electronics and detector development.

  2. High energy physics advisory panel`s subpanel on vision for the future of high-energy physics

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    This report was requested by the Secretary of Energy to (1) define a long-term program for pursuing the most important high-energy physics goals since the termination of the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) project, (2) assess the current US high-energy physics program, and (3) make recommendations regarding the future of the field. Subjects on which recommendations were sought and which the report addresses were: high-energy physics funding priorities; facilitating international collaboration for future construction of large high-energy physics facilities; optimizing uses of the investment made in the SSC; how to encourage displaced scientists and engineers to remain in high-energy physics and to attract young scientists to enter the field in the future. The report includes a description of the state of high-energy physics research in the context of history, a summary of the SSC project, and documentation of the report`s own origins and development.

  3. Research in experimental High Energy Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Avery, P.; Yelton, J.

    1996-12-01

    UF Task B has been funded continuously by the DoE since 1986. Formerly it included work on the D0 experiment at Fermilab which is no longer a part of the UF program. With the addition of Prof. Guenakh Mitselmakher, Dr. Jacobo Konigsberg and one more Assistant Professor to the faculty, the group now has a new Task to incorporate their work at Fermilab and Cern. They intend Task B to continue to cover the major research of Paul Avery and John Yelton, which is presently directed towards the CLEO detector with some effort going to B physics at Fermilab.

  4. The Mesoscopic Electrochemistry of Molecular Junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bueno, Paulo R.; Benites, Tiago A.; Davis, Jason J.

    2016-01-01

    Within the context of an electron dynamic (time-dependent) perspective and a voltage driving force acting to redistribute electrons between metallic and addressable molecular states, we define here the associated electron admittance and conductance. We specifically present a mesoscopic approach to resolving the electron transfer rate associated with the electrochemistry of a redox active film tethered to metallic leads and immersed in electrolyte. The methodology is centred on aligning the lifetime of the process of electron exchange with associated resistance and capacitance quantities. Notably, however, these are no longer those empirically known as charge transfer resistance and pseudo-capacitance, but are those derived instead from a consideration of the quantum states contained in molecular films and their accessibility through a scattering region existing between them and the metallic probe. The averaged lifetime (τr) associated with the redox site occupancy is specifically dependent on scattering associated with the quantum channels linking them to the underlying metallic continuum and associated with both a quantum resistance (Rq) and an electrochemical (redox) capacitance (Cr). These are related to electron transfer rate through k = 1/τr = (RqCr)-1. The proposed mesoscopic approach is consistent with Marcus’s (electron transfer rate) theory and experimental measurements obtained by capacitance spectroscopy.

  5. The Mesoscopic Electrochemistry of Molecular Junctions

    PubMed Central

    Bueno, Paulo R.; Benites, Tiago A.; Davis, Jason J.

    2016-01-01

    Within the context of an electron dynamic (time-dependent) perspective and a voltage driving force acting to redistribute electrons between metallic and addressable molecular states, we define here the associated electron admittance and conductance. We specifically present a mesoscopic approach to resolving the electron transfer rate associated with the electrochemistry of a redox active film tethered to metallic leads and immersed in electrolyte. The methodology is centred on aligning the lifetime of the process of electron exchange with associated resistance and capacitance quantities. Notably, however, these are no longer those empirically known as charge transfer resistance and pseudo-capacitance, but are those derived instead from a consideration of the quantum states contained in molecular films and their accessibility through a scattering region existing between them and the metallic probe. The averaged lifetime (τr) associated with the redox site occupancy is specifically dependent on scattering associated with the quantum channels linking them to the underlying metallic continuum and associated with both a quantum resistance (Rq) and an electrochemical (redox) capacitance (Cr). These are related to electron transfer rate through k = 1/τr = (RqCr)−1. The proposed mesoscopic approach is consistent with Marcus’s (electron transfer rate) theory and experimental measurements obtained by capacitance spectroscopy. PMID:26757677

  6. Profiles of Change: Lessons for Improving High School Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doolittle, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    This feature has told stories of high school physical educators who have refused to accept the status quo of high school physical education programs. They have identified problems, initiated innovations in their own classes, implemented changes beyond their classes, and moved toward institutionalizing improvements throughout their programs and…

  7. The Role of Computing in High-Energy Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metcalf, Michael

    1983-01-01

    Examines present and future applications of computers in high-energy physics. Areas considered include high-energy physics laboratories, accelerators, detectors, networking, off-line analysis, software guidelines, event sizes and volumes, graphics applications, event simulation, theoretical studies, and future trends. (JN)

  8. Participation in High Energy Physics at the University of Chicago

    SciTech Connect

    Martinec, Emil J.

    2013-06-27

    This report covers research at the University of Chicago in theoretical high energy physics and its connections to cosmology, over the period Nov. 1, 2009 to April 30, 2013. This research is divided broadly into two tasks: Task A, which covers a broad array of topics in high energy physics; and task C, primarily concerned with cosmology.

  9. Physics of Nuclear Collisions at High Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Hwa, Rudolph C.

    2012-05-01

    A wide range of problems has been investigated in the research program during the period of this grant. Although the major effort has been in the subject of heavy-ion collisions, we have also studied problems in biological and other physical systems. The method of analysis used in reducing complex data in multiparticle production to simple descriptions can also be applied to the study of complex systems of very different nature. Phase transition is an important phenomenon in many areas of physics, and for heavy-ion collisions we study the fluctuations of multiplicities at the critical point. Human brain activities as revealed in EEG also involve fluctuations in time series, and we have found that our experience enables us to find the appropriate quantification of the fluctuations in ways that can differentiate stroke and normal subjects. The main topic that characterizes the research at Oregon in heavy-ion collisions is the recombination model for the treatment of the hadronization process. We have avoided the hydrodynamical model partly because there is already a large community engaged in it, but more significantly we have found the assumption of rapid thermalization unconvincing. Recent results in studying LHC physics lead us to provide more evidence that shower partons are very important even at low p_T, but are ignored by hydro. It is not easy to work in an environment where the conventional wisdom regards our approach as being incorrect because it does not adhere to the standard paradigm. But that is just what a vibrant research community needs: unconventional approach may find evidences that can challenge the orthodoxy. An example is the usual belief that elliptic flow in fluid dynamics gives rise to azimuthal anisotropy. We claim that it is only sufficient but not necessary. With more data from LHC and more independent thinkers working on the subject what is sufficient as a theory may turn out to be incorrect in reality. Another area of investigation that

  10. Moving High School Students toward Physical Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacDonald, Lynn Couturier

    2015-01-01

    This article addresses teaching for skill and knowledge competency in high school based on the National Standards and grade-level outcomes. The outcomes guide teachers away from a curriculum that emphasizes competition through team sports, which appeals to just the highly-skilled and competitive students, toward one that is inclusive of all skill…

  11. Black holes and high energy physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grib, A. A.; Pavlov, Yu. V.

    2016-01-01

    Three mechanisms of getting high energies in particle collisions in the ergosphere of the rotating black holes are considered. The consequences of these mechanisms for observation of ultra high energy cosmic rays particles on the Earth as result of conversion of superheavy dark matter particles into ordinary particles are discussed.

  12. High energy physics in cosmic rays

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Lawrence W.

    2013-02-07

    In the first half-century of cosmic ray physics, the primary research focus was on elementary particles; the positron, pi-mesons, mu-mesons, and hyperons were discovered in cosmic rays. Much of this research was carried out at mountain elevations; Pic du Midi in the Pyrenees, Mt. Chacaltaya in Bolivia, and Mt. Evans/Echo Lake in Colorado, among other sites. In the 1960s, claims of the observation of free quarks, and satellite measurements of a significant rise in p-p cross sections, plus the delay in initiating accelerator construction programs for energies above 100 GeV, motivated the Michigan-Wisconsin group to undertake a serious cosmic ray program at Echo Lake. Subsequently, with the succession of higher energy accelerators and colliders at CERN and Fermilab, cosmic ray research has increasingly focused on cosmology and astrophysics, although some groups continue to study cosmic ray particle interactions in emulsion chambers.

  13. Princeton University High Energy Physics Research

    SciTech Connect

    Marlow, Daniel R.

    2015-06-30

    This is the Final Report on research conducted by the Princeton Elementary Particles group over the approximately three-year period from May 1, 2012 to April 30, 2015. The goal of our research is to investigate the fundamental constituents of matter, their fields, and their interactions; to understand the properties of space and time; and to study the profound relationships between cosmology and particle physics. During the funding period covered by this report, the group has been organized into a subgroup concentrating on the theory of particles, strings, and cosmology; and four subgroups performing major experiments at laboratories around the world: CERN, Daya Bay, Gran Sasso as well as detector R\\&D on the Princeton campus. Highlights in of this research include the discovery of the Higgs Boson at CERN and the measurement of $\\sin^22\\theta_{13}$ by the Daya Bay experiment. In both cases, Princeton researchers supported by this grant played key roles.

  14. High Energy Physics at Tufts University

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-07-15

    This report discusses the following topics: Neutrino Interactions in the 15-foot Bubble Chamber; Pion and Kaon Production of Charm and Charm-Strange States; Study of Heavy Flavors at the Tagged Particle Spectrometer; Neutrino Oscillations at the Fermilab Main Injector; Soudan II Nucleon Decay Project; Physics at the Antiproton-Proton Collider at {radical}{bar s} = 1.8 TeV; Designing the Solenoidal Detector for the Supercollider; Neutrino Telescope Proposal; Polarization in Inclusive Hyperon Production and QCD Subprocesses; Production and Decay Characteristics of Top Quarks; Scattering in Extended Skyrmion Models and Spin Dependence; Search for Top Quark Production at the Tevatron; Polarization Correlations in Hadronic Production of Top Quarks; and Computation and Networking.

  15. University and High School Partnership: Challenging Physics II Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackin, Joan; Sokol, Paul E.

    2003-04-01

    A partnership between Penn State University and a suburban high school allowed high school students to complete a calculus-based high school physics II course in mechanics and electricity/magnetism. This course was not an AP course or a traditional high school second-level course but was modeled on the dynamic physics course at Penn State. This article describes the strategies and technology tools used, data on student outcomes and achievement, and the development and implementation of the course.

  16. High energy collider physics. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Ruchti, R.C.; Biswas, N.N.; Wayne, M.R.

    1997-12-31

    With the demise of the Superconducting Supercollider (SSC) Project, there was great concern that the technological developments for that accelerator and its associated detectors might well be lost in the aftermath. In the case of scintillating fiber tracking, such as not been the case. During the period 1990--1993, several tracking technologies were under development for SDC, including Scintillating Fiber Tracking, Straw-tubes, and Microstrip Gas Chambers. In summer 1990, several members of the Fiber Tracking Group (FTG) proposed the use of Scintillating Fiber Tracking to the D0 experiment at Fermilab. This proposal was accepted, and D0 now is building a 75,000 fiber channel tracking detector with readout via Visible Light Photon Counters (VLPC) which were devices pioneered by the SDC Fiber Tracking Group. In addition, all the preshower detectors for D0 also make use of fiber readout (in this case waveshifting fibers) and VLPC for photosensing. In February 1993, a full 7 months prior to cancellation of the SSC project by Congress, the SDC experiment rejected scintillating fiber tracking for further development. Fortunately for all concerned, the D0 experiment had already embraced this technology, so this important detector concept could be further developed, refined, and utilized for physics experimentation. In early 2000, data will be taken with the D0 fiber tracker to study Top Quarks, Beauty Particles, Electroweak Physics, QCD phenomena, and to search for new phenomena. The University of Notre Dame has played a fundamental and seminal role in the development and implementation of this detector technology. R. Ruchti has served as cospokesman of the Fiber Tracking Group since its inception in 1989, and has been a pioneer of fiber tracking technology since 1980. In addition, at least one other experiment at Fermilab, E835, has utilized scintillating fibers with VLPC readout to study Charmonium in proton-antiproton collisions using a gas-jet target in the Tevatron

  17. High-Precision Computation and Mathematical Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, David H.; Borwein, Jonathan M.

    2008-11-03

    At the present time, IEEE 64-bit floating-point arithmetic is sufficiently accurate for most scientific applications. However, for a rapidly growing body of important scientific computing applications, a higher level of numeric precision is required. Such calculations are facilitated by high-precision software packages that include high-level language translation modules to minimize the conversion effort. This paper presents a survey of recent applications of these techniques and provides some analysis of their numerical requirements. These applications include supernova simulations, climate modeling, planetary orbit calculations, Coulomb n-body atomic systems, scattering amplitudes of quarks, gluons and bosons, nonlinear oscillator theory, Ising theory, quantum field theory and experimental mathematics. We conclude that high-precision arithmetic facilities are now an indispensable component of a modern large-scale scientific computing environment.

  18. The Physical Activity Climate in Minnesota Middle and High Schools

    PubMed Central

    Samuelson, Anne; Lytle, Leslie; Pasch, Keryn; Farbakhsh, Kian; Moe, Stacey; Sirard, John Ronald

    2010-01-01

    Background This article describes policies, practices, and facilities that form the physical activity climate in Minneapolis/St. Paul, Minnesota metro area middle and high schools and examines how the physical activity climate varies by school characteristics, including public/private, school location and grade level. Methods Surveys examining school physical activity practices, policies and environment were administered to principals and physical education department heads from 115 middle and high schools participating in the Transdisciplinary Research on Energetics and Cancer-Identifying Determinants of Eating and Activity (TREC-IDEA) study. Results While some supportive practices were highly prevalent in the schools studied (such as prohibiting substitution of other classes for physical education); other practices were less common (such as providing opportunity for intramural (noncompetitive) sports). Public schools vs. private schools and schools with a larger school enrollment were more likely to have a school climate supportive of physical activity. Conclusions Although schools reported elements of positive physical activity climates, discrepancies exist by school characteristics. Of note, public schools were more than twice as likely as private schools to have supportive physical activity environments. Establishing more consistent physical activity expectations and funding at the state and national level is necessary to increase regular school physical activity. PMID:21088313

  19. Atomic physics with highly charged ions

    SciTech Connect

    Richard, P.

    1991-08-01

    This report discusses: One electron outer shell processes in fast ion-atom collisions; role of electron-electron interaction in two-electron processes; multi-electron processes at low energy; multi-electron processes at high energy; inner shell processes; molecular fragmentation studies; theory; and, JRM laboratory operations.

  20. Gender differences in introductory university physics performance: The influence of high school physics preparation and affect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazari, Zahra Sana

    The attrition of females studying physics after high school is a concern to the science education community. Most undergraduate science programs require introductory physics coursework. Thus, success in introductory physics is necessary for students to progress to higher levels of science study. Success also influences attitudes; if females are well-prepared, feel confident, and do well in introductory physics, they may be inclined to study physics further. This quantitative study using multilevel modeling focused on determining factors from high school physics preparation (content, pedagogy, and assessment) and the affective domain that influenced female and male performance in introductory university physics. The study controlled for some university/course level characteristics as well as student demographic and academic background characteristics. The data consisted of 1973 surveys from 54 introductory physics courses within 35 universities across the US. The results highlight high school physics and affective experiences that differentially influenced female and male performance. These experiences include: learning requirements, computer graphing/analysis, long written problems, everyday world examples, community projects, cumulative tests/quizzes, father's encouragement, family's belief that science leads to a better career, and the length of time students believed that high school physics would help in university physics. There were also experiences that had a similar influence on female and male performance. Positively related to performance were: covering fewer topics for longer periods of time, the history of physics as a recurring topic, physics-related videos, and test/quiz questions that involved calculations and/or were drawn from standardized tests. Negatively related to performance were: student-designed projects, reading/discussing labs the day before performing them, microcomputer based laboratories, discussion after demonstrations, and family

  1. New high power linacs and beam physics

    SciTech Connect

    Wangler, T.P.; Gray, E.R.; Nath, S.; Crandall, K.R.; Hasegawa, K.

    1997-08-01

    New high-power proton linacs must be designed to control beam loss, which can lead to radioactivation of the accelerator. The threat of beam loss is increased significantly by the formation of beam halo. Numerical simulation studies have identified the space-charge interactions, especially those that occur in rms mismatched beams, as a major concern for halo growth. The maximum-amplitude predictions of the simulation codes must be subjected to independent tests to confirm the validity of the results. Consequently, the authors compare predictions from the particle-core halo models with computer simulations to test their understanding of the halo mechanisms that are incorporated in the computer codes. They present and discuss scaling laws that provide guidance for high-power linac design.

  2. Atomic physics with highly charged ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richard, P.

    1993-10-01

    The past year has been a busy one for all three accelerators: the LINAC, EBIS, and the tandem. The EBIS continues to deliver beams of highly charged ions around the clock for the study of low energy collisions with gases and surfaces. The electron beam energy was upgraded to 10 keV, and intensities of highly charged species such as Xe(44+) were greatly increased. The tandem, the traditional source of highly charged binary encounter electron production at zero degrees were studied for medium Z (Si,Cl,Cu) projectiles. Recoil momentum spectroscopy has been used to separate the contributions to collisional ionization of one-electron ions (C(5+), O(7+), F(8+)) from the nucleus and the electrons of a He target. Marked structure in the binary encounter electron spectra for Cu(sup q+) on H2 targets was measured for moderate velocity projectiles. Electron capture by slow multiply charged (EBIS) projectiles from laser excited targets has been carried out. Cross sections for capture from Na(3s) and Na*(3p) were measured for velocities between 0.1 and 1 au. The extension of these experiments to laser excited Rydberg targets is proceeding. Electron capture cross sections and average Q values for Ar(16+) on He at velocities between 0.23 and 1.67 au were measured. The charge state distribution of the He recoils following large angle scattering of C(4+) and C(6+) ions at 7.5 keV/u has been measured. Cross sections have been measured for up to sextuple capture from C60 (buckminsterfullerene) by highly charged slow projectiles. Coupled channel calculations for double capture from He by slow multicharge ions were carried out.

  3. Precision Timing Calorimeter for High Energy Physics

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Anderson, Dustin; Apresyan, Artur; Bornheim, Adolf; Duarte, Javier; Pena, Cristian; Ronzhin, Anatoly; Spiropulu, Maria; Trevor, Jason; Xie, Si

    2016-04-01

    Here, we present studies on the performance and characterization of the time resolution of LYSO-based calorimeters. Results for an LYSO sampling calorimeter and an LYSO-tungsten Shashlik calorimeter are presented. We also demonstrate that a time resolution of 30 ps is achievable for the LYSO sampling calorimeter. Timing calorimetry is described as a tool for mitigating the effects due to the large number of simultaneous interactions in the high luminosity environment foreseen for the Large Hadron Collider.

  4. Bringing Technology into college and High School Physics Classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zettili, Nouredine

    2007-04-01

    We want to present ideas on ways of bringing technology to college and high school physics classrooms. We focus in particular on our outreach initiative in supporting a number of school districts with ways to improve high school physics education. This initiative is part of Project IMPACTSEED (IMproving Physics And Chemistry Teaching in SEcondary Education), a No-Child Left Behind grant funded by the Alabama Commission on Higher Education. This project is motivated by a major local need: A large number of high school physics teachers teach out of field. IMPACTSEED aims at helping high school teachers learn and master the various physics topics required by the Alabama course of study. Teachers are offered year-round support through a rich variety of programs: a two-week long summer institute, a series of five technology workshops, and onsite year-round support. Through our hands-on approach, we have identified a number of ways of bringing technology into physics classrooms. A number of technology projects were assigned to the teachers so as to show their students how physics connects to the technological devices around us. IMPACTSEED aims at providing our students with a physics education that enjoys continuity and consistency from high school to college.

  5. Exploiting plug-and-play electrochemistry for drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Gao, Lixia; Teng, Yong

    2016-04-01

    Electrochemistry has emerged as a powerful analytical technique for chemical analysis of living cells, biologically active molecules and metabolites. Electrochemical biosensor, microfluidics and mass spectrometry are the most frequently used methods for electrochemical detection and monitory, which comprise a collection of extremely useful measurement tools for various fields of biology and medicine. Most recently, electrochemistry has been shown to be coupled with nanotechnology and genetic engineering to generate new enabling technologies, providing rapid, selective, and sensitive detection and diagnosis platforms. The primary focus of this review is to highlight the utility of electrochemical strategies and their conjunction with other approaches for drug metabolism and discovery. Current challenges and possible future developments and applications of electrochemistry in drug studies are also discussed. PMID:27079543

  6. A comparative study of middle school and high school students' views about physics and learning physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Lin

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies of student epistemological beliefs about physics and learning physics focused on college and post-college students in Western countries. However, little is known about early-grade students in Asian countries. This paper reports Chinese middle and high school students' views about the nature of physics and learning physics, measured by the Colorado Learning Attitudes Survey about Science (CLASS). Two variables—school level and gender—are examined for a series of comparative analyses. Results show that although middle school students received fewer years of education in physics, they demonstrated more expert-like conceptions about this subject matter than high school students. Also, male students in general exhibited more expert-like views than their female counterparts. While such a gender difference remained constant across both middle and high schools, for the most part it was a small-size difference.

  7. Computing support for High Energy Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Avery, P.; Yelton, J.

    1996-12-01

    This computing proposal (Task S) is submitted separately but in support of the High Energy Experiment (CLEO, Fermilab, CMS) and Theory tasks. The authors have built a very strong computing base at Florida over the past 8 years. In fact, computing has been one of the main contributions to their experimental collaborations, involving not just computing capacity for running Monte Carlos and data reduction, but participation in many computing initiatives, industrial partnerships, computing committees and collaborations. These facts justify the submission of a separate computing proposal.

  8. Fourth International Conference on High Energy Density Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Beg, Farhat

    2015-01-06

    The Fourth International Conference on High Energy Density Physics (ICHED 2013) was held in Saint Malo, France, at the Palais du Grand Large on 25-28 June 2013 (http://web.luli.polytechnique.fr/ICHED2013/). This meeting was the fourth in a series which was first held in 2008. This conference covered all the important aspects of High Energy Density Physics including fundamental topics from strong-field physics to creating new states of matter (including radiation-dominated, high-pressure quantum and relativistic plasmas) and ultra-fast lattice dynamics on the timescale of atomic transitions.

  9. LAPTAG, Encouraging High School students to Consider Physics Related Careers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Layton, W.; Gekelman, W.; Wise, J.; Rodriguez, N.; Cooperman, S.; Griffen, R.; Altonji, J.; Carrington, F.; Coutts, B.; Barker, K.

    2001-10-01

    The Los Angeles Physics Teachers Alliance Group (LAPTAG) represents high school physics teachers from the entire Los Angeles area. It was formed in 1993 Over the years between twenty and thirty schools have participated. Our Website is at http://coke.physics.ucla.edu/laptag and web service is provided to schools without servers or Internet access. LAPTAG encourages communication between high school and college/university physics teachers by providing regular meetings, tours of laboratories at UCLA and other institutions, and discussion of curricular issues. LAPTAG also provides unique opportunities for student involvement in research projects. Our first project was a distributed seismometer experiment in which ten schools received seismometers. LAPTAG provided a Web based astronomy class in which studied a variable star. During the past three years, we have constructed a plasma device and developed a high school plasma curriculum. These laboratory experiences engage science students and encourage them to enter physics related careers

  10. Physical processes at high field strengths

    SciTech Connect

    Rhodes, C.K.

    1986-01-01

    Measurements of the radiation produced by the high field interaction with the rare gases have revealed the presence of both copious harmonic production and fluorescence. The highest harmonic observed was the seventeenth (14.6 rm) in Ne, the shortest wavelength ever produced by that means. Strong fluorescence was seen in Ar, Kr, and Xe with the shortest wavelengths observed being below 10 nm. Furthermore, radiation from inner-shell excited configurations in Xe, specifically the 4d/sup 9/5s5p ..-->.. 4d/sup 10/5s manifold at approx. 17.7 nm, was detected. The behaviors of the rare gases with respect to multiquantum ionization, harmonic production, and fluorescence were found to be correlated so that the materials fell into two groups, He and Ne in one and Ar, Kr, and Xe in the other. These experimental findings, in alliance with other studies on inner-shell decay processes, give evidence for a role of atomic correlations in a direct nonlinear process of inner-shell excitation. It is expected that an understanding of these high-field processes will enable the generation of stimulated emission in the x-ray range. 59 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

  11. "Why Do I Slog through the Physics?" Understanding High School Students' Difficulties in Learning Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekici, Erhan

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to develop a valid and reliable instrument to assess why physics courses are perceived as one of the most difficult courses among high school students and to investigate the reasons why students have difficulty in learning physics through this scale. This study includes the development and validation studies of the…

  12. Turnover among High School Physics Teachers. Focus On

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Susan; Tesfaye, Casey Langer

    2011-01-01

    In the fall of 2008 the authors contacted a representative sample of over 3,600 high schools in the United States, both public and private, to determine whether or not physics was taught there. They received responses from over 99% of the schools. For the schools which indicated they were offering physics, the authors obtained contact information…

  13. Achievement of U.S. High-School Physics Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandavarkar, Marilda S.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Reports results of the Second International Science Study concerning achievement in physics of U.S. high school students. Makes comparisons between students of 13 other countries and U.S. students, between first- and second-year U.S. physics students, and between U.S. students tested in the mid-1980s and those tested in 1970. (MDH)

  14. Electrochemistry, biosensors and microfluidics: a convergence of fields.

    PubMed

    Rackus, Darius G; Shamsi, Mohtashim H; Wheeler, Aaron R

    2015-08-01

    Electrochemistry, biosensors and microfluidics are popular research topics that have attracted widespread attention from chemists, biologists, physicists, and engineers. Here, we introduce the basic concepts and recent histories of electrochemistry, biosensors, and microfluidics, and describe how they are combining to form new application-areas, including so-called "point-of-care" systems in which measurements traditionally performed in a laboratory are moved into the field. We propose that this review can serve both as a useful starting-point for researchers who are new to these topics, as well as being a compendium of the current state-of-the art for experts in these evolving areas. PMID:25962356

  15. High School Physics Courses & Enrollments: Results from the 2012-13 Nationwide Survey of High School Physics Teachers. Focus On

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Susan; Tesfaye, Casey Langer

    2014-01-01

    This report examines enrollments in high school physics during the 2012-13 school year. Based on data from the most recent survey (which includes both public and private high schools in the U.S.), it is estimated that 39% of the class of 2013 took high school physics before graduating. During the 2012-13 school year, 1.38 million students were…

  16. Indiana University high energy physics, Task A

    SciTech Connect

    Brabson, B.; Crittenden, R.; Dzierba, A.; Hanson, G.; Martin, H.; Marshall, T.; Mir, R.; Mouthy, T.; Ogren, H.; Rust, D.; Teige, S.; Zieminska, D.; Zieminski, A.

    1992-01-01

    During this reporting period the group has been carrying out programs in several areas. These are presented in this paper is follows: The group was a collaborator in the Mark II experiment at the SLC and completed analysis on the experiment. Three students completed their theses this reporting period; the group is the prime mover in (E672), a high mass dimuon experiment which now in its final data collection period. Our group is also a collaborator in the DO collider experiment which is now preparing for the first data run in 1992; the group is a collaborator in the OPAL experiment at LEP which is now taking data. The group also is working on the development of a major offline facility shift and on a silicon vertex chamber for 1993; the group is the prime mover in the construction of a major new experiment (E852) in precision meson spectroscopy. A test run is presently underway and data taking will begin in 1993; and the group is a prime mover in the tracking design of the SDC experiment. The SDC has completed the Technical Design report. Construction will begin in 1993.

  17. High-energy astroparticle physics with CALET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maestro, Paolo

    2013-02-01

    The CALorimetric Electron Telescope (CALET) will be installed on the Exposure Facility of the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM-EF) on the International Space Station (ISS) in 2014 where it will measure the cosmic-ray fluxes for five years. Its main scientific goals are to search for dark matter, investigate the mechanism of cosmic-ray acceleration and propagation in the Galaxy and discover possible astrophysical sources of high-energy electrons nearby the Earth. The instrument, under construction, consists of two layers of segmented plastic scintillators for the cosmic-ray charge identification (CHD), a 3 X0-thick tungsten-scintillating fiber imaging calorimeter (IMC) and a 27 X0-thick lead-tungstate calorimeter (TASC). The CHD can provide single-element separation in the interval of atomic number Z from 1 to 40, while IMC and TASC can measure the energy of cosmic-ray particles with excellent resolution in the range from few GeV up to several hundreds of TeV. Moreover, IMC and TASC provide the longitudinal and lateral development of the shower, a key issue for good electron/hadron discrimination. In this paper, we will review the status of the mission, the instrument configuration and its expected performance, and the CALET capability to measure the different components of the cosmic radiation.

  18. The e-Science for High Energy Physics in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Kihyeon; Kim, Hyunwoo

    In this paper, we report the experiences and results of the integration and utilization of e-Science for high-energy physics in Korea. The e-Science for high-energy physics is to study high-energy physics any time and anywhere even if we are not on-site of accelerator laboratories. The contents are 1) data production, 2) data processing and 3) data analysis anytime and anywhere. The data production is to do remote control and take shifts remotely. The data processing is to run jobs anytime, anywhere using grid farms. The data analysis is to work together to publish papers using collaborative environment such as EVO (Enabling Virtual Organization) system. We apply this concept to high energy physics experiments, especially, ALICE experiment at CERN in Europe and CDF experiment at Fermi-lab. And we show the results.

  19. Theoretical high energy physics research at the University of Chicago

    SciTech Connect

    Rosner, J.L.; Martinec, E.J.; Sachs, R.G.

    1990-09-01

    This report discusses research being done at the University of Chicago in High Energy Physics. Some topic covered are: CP violation; intermediate vector bosons; string models; supersymmetry; and rare decay of kaons. (LSP)

  20. Final Report. Research in Theoretical High Energy Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Greensite, Jeffrey P.; Golterman, Maarten F.L.

    2015-04-30

    Grant-supported research in theoretical high-energy physics, conducted in the period 1992-2015 is briefly described, and a full listing of published articles result from those research activities is supplied.

  1. Physics of a high-luminosity Tau-Charm Factory

    SciTech Connect

    King, M.E.

    1992-10-01

    This paper highlights the physics capabilities of a Tau-Charm Factory; i.e., high luminosity ({approximately}10{sup 33}cm{sup {minus}2}s{sup {minus}1}) e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} collider operating in the center-of-mass energy range of 3-5 GeV, with a high-precision, general-purpose detector. Recent developments in {tau} and charm physics are emphasized.

  2. Who Teaches High School Physics? Results from the 2008-09 Nationwide Survey of High School Physics Teachers. Focus On

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Susan; Tesfaye, Casey Langer

    2010-01-01

    In the fall of 2008, the authors contacted a representative sample of over 3,600 high schools in the U.S., both public and private, to determine whether or not physics was taught there. They received responses from over 99% of the schools. For the schools which indicated they were offering physics, they obtained contact information for the…

  3. High School Physics Availability: Results from the 2008-09 Nationwide Survey of High School Physics Teachers. Focus On

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Susan; Tesfaye, Casey Langer

    2010-01-01

    In the fall of 2008, the authors contacted a representative sample of over 3,600 high schools in the U.S.--both public and private--to determine whether or not physics was taught there. They received responses from over 99% of the schools. For the schools which indicated they were offering physics, they obtained contact information for the…

  4. High School Physics Courses & Enrollments: Results from the 2008-09 Nationwide Survey of High School Physics Teachers. Focus On

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Susan; Tesfaye, Casey Langer

    2010-01-01

    In the fall of 2008, the authors contacted a representative sample of over 3,600 high schools in the U.S., both public and private, to determine whether or not physics was taught there. They received responses from over 99% of the schools. For the schools which indicated they were offering physics, they obtained contact information for the…

  5. XXII International Baldin Seminar on High Energy Physics Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The XXII International Baldin Seminar on High Energy Physics Problems "Relativistic Nuclear Physics and Quantum Chromodynamics", organized by the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research was held from September 15 to 20, 2014 in Dubna, Russia. The Seminar continues the series of traditional meetings and was established by an outstanding scientist Academician A.M. Baldin(1926-2001). Among conferences that were organized by Alexander Mikhailovich Baldin of special importance is just this series of the International Seminars on High-Energy Physics Problems started in 1969 with support of M.A. Markov (1908-1994). They have been given an inofficial, somewhat witty, name "Baldin autumn".

  6. Facilitating Conceptual Change in Students' Understanding of Electrochemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niaz, Mansoor

    2002-01-01

    Constructs a teaching strategy to facilitate conceptual change in freshman students' understanding of electrochemistry. Provides students with the correct response along with alternative responses (teaching experiments), producing a conflicting situation that is conducive to an equilibration of their cognitive structures. Concludes that the…

  7. LCEC: The Combination of Liquid Chromatography and Electrochemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kissinger, Peter T.

    1983-01-01

    Use of combined liquid chromatography and finite-current electrochemistry (LCEC) procedures are discussed. Also discusses the relationship between electroactivity and molecular structure, selectivity in LCEC, and LCEC applications. Because of its selectivity and low detection limits, the procedures are most often applied in biomedical and…

  8. Using a Teaching Model To Correct Known Misconceptions in Electrochemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huddle, Penelope Ann; White, Margaret Dawn; Rogers, Fiona

    2000-01-01

    Describes a concrete teaching model designed to eliminate students' misconceptions about current flow in electrochemistry. The model uses a semi-permeable membrane rather than a salt bridge to complete the circuit and demonstrate the maintenance of cell neutrality. Concludes that use of the model led to improvement in students' understanding at…

  9. Understanding Electrochemistry Concepts Using the Predict-Observe-Explain Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karamustafaoglu, Sevilay; Mamlok-Naaman, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    The current study deals with freshman students who study at the Department of Science at the Faculty of Education. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of teaching electrochemistry concepts using Predict-Observe-Explain (POE) strategy. The study was quasi-experimental design using 20 students each in the experimental group (EG) and…

  10. Common Student Misconceptions in Electrochemistry: Galvanic, Electrolytic, and Concentration Cells.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanger, Michael J.; Greenbowe, Thomas J.

    1997-01-01

    Investigates student (N=16) misconceptions concerning electrochemistry related to galvanic, electrolytic, and concentration cells. Findings indicate that most students demonstrating misconceptions were still able to calculate cell potentials correctly. Discusses common misconceptions and possible sources of these. Contains 33 references.…

  11. Alleviating the Common Confusion Caused by Polarity in Electrochemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moran, P. J.; Gileadi, E.

    1989-01-01

    Discussed is some of the confusion encountered in electrochemistry due to misunderstandings of sign conventions and simple mathematical errors. Clarified are issues involving emf series, IUPAC sign conventions, calculation of cell potentials, reference electrodes, the polarity of electrodes in electrochemical devices, and overpotential. (CW)

  12. Bringing Real Solar Physics to the High School Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seaton, Daniel

    2006-06-01

    UNH's Partnership for Research Opportunities to Benefit Education (PROBE) project sends graduate students into high school classrooms across New Hampshire in order to help introduce students to authentic scientific inquiry. As one of ten graduate fellows, I worked with students in in ninth through twelfth grades in physical science, physics, earth science, and astronomy classes; helping students carry out individual and class projects on physics and solar physics. Projects related to solar physics included the production and analysis of plasma using a microwave oven, measurement of the solar constant, measurement of the solar rotation rate, solar spectroscopy, analysis of data from TRACE and SOHO, and the construction of various solar-powered devices. This work was generously supported by a grant from the National Science Foundation's GK-12 initiative (NSF#0338277).

  13. Experimental And Theoretical High Energy Physics Research At UCLA

    SciTech Connect

    Cousins, Robert D.

    2013-07-22

    This is the final report of the UCLA High Energy Physics DOE Grant No. DE-FG02- 91ER40662. This report covers the last grant project period, namely the three years beginning January 15, 2010, plus extensions through April 30, 2013. The report describes the broad range of our experimental research spanning direct dark matter detection searches using both liquid xenon (XENON) and liquid argon (DARKSIDE); present (ICARUS) and R&D for future (LBNE) neutrino physics; ultra-high-energy neutrino and cosmic ray detection (ANITA); and the highest-energy accelerator-based physics with the CMS experiment and CERN’s Large Hadron Collider. For our theory group, the report describes frontier activities including particle astrophysics and cosmology; neutrino physics; LHC interaction cross section calculations now feasible due to breakthroughs in theoretical techniques; and advances in the formal theory of supergravity.

  14. Lecture note on circuit technology for high energy physics experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikeda, Hirokazu

    1992-07-01

    This lecture discusses the basic ideas and practice of circuit technology in the context of a high energy physics experiment. The program of this lecture gives access to the integrated circuit technology to be applied for a high luminosity hadron collider experiment.

  15. High-Productivity Computing in Computational Physics Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tel-Zur, Guy

    2011-03-01

    We describe the development of a new course in Computational Physics at the Ben-Gurion University. This elective course for 3rd year undergraduates and MSc. students is being taught during one semester. Computational Physics is by now well accepted as the Third Pillar of Science. This paper's claim is that modern Computational Physics education should deal also with High-Productivity Computing. The traditional approach of teaching Computational Physics emphasizes ``Correctness'' and then ``Accuracy'' and we add also ``Performance.'' Along with topics in Mathematical Methods and case studies in Physics the course deals a significant amount of time with ``Mini-Courses'' in topics such as: High-Throughput Computing - Condor, Parallel Programming - MPI and OpenMP, How to build a Beowulf, Visualization and Grid and Cloud Computing. The course does not intend to teach neither new physics nor new mathematics but it is focused on an integrated approach for solving problems starting from the physics problem, the corresponding mathematical solution, the numerical scheme, writing an efficient computer code and finally analysis and visualization.

  16. Recent results in high pT physics from CDF

    SciTech Connect

    G. Veramendi

    2004-03-09

    The authors present the most recent high p{sub T} results from the CDF experiment using p{bar p} collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV produced at the Tevatron Collider at Fermilab. They summarize results in electroweak physics, top physics and searches for physics beyond the Standard Model. Many measurements of important signals like W boson, Z boson, and the top quark have been reestablished. Taking advantage of the increase in energy and detector upgrades, these measurements already begin to be competitive with previous results.

  17. CERN and high energy physics, the grand picture

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2011-10-06

    The lecture will touch on several topics, to illustrate the role of CERN in the present and future of high-energy physics: how does CERN work? What is the role of the scientific community, of bodies like Council and SPC, and of international cooperation, in the definition of CERN's scientific programme? What are the plans for the future of the LHC and of the non-LHC physics programme? What is the role of R&D; and technology transfer at CERN?

  18. CERN and high energy physics, the grand picture

    SciTech Connect

    2010-06-21

    The lecture will touch on several topics, to illustrate the role of CERN in the present and future of high-energy physics: how does CERN work? What is the role of the scientific community, of bodies like Council and SPC, and of international cooperation, in the definition of CERN's scientific programme? What are the plans for the future of the LHC and of the non-LHC physics programme? What is the role of R&D; and technology transfer at CERN?

  19. Experimental and theoretical high energy physics research. [UCLA

    SciTech Connect

    Buchanan, Charles D.; Cline, David B.; Byers, N.; Ferrara, S.; Peccei, R.; Hauser, Jay; Muller, Thomas; Atac, Muzaffer; Slater, William; Cousins, Robert; Arisaka, Katsushi

    1992-01-01

    Progress in the various components of the UCLA High-Energy Physics Research program is summarized, including some representative figures and lists of resulting presentations and published papers. Principal efforts were directed at the following: (I) UCLA hadronization model, PEP4/9 e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} analysis, {bar P} decay; (II) ICARUS and astroparticle physics (physics goals, technical progress on electronics, data acquisition, and detector performance, long baseline neutrino beam from CERN to the Gran Sasso and ICARUS, future ICARUS program, and WIMP experiment with xenon), B physics with hadron beams and colliders, high-energy collider physics, and the {phi} factory project; (III) theoretical high-energy physics; (IV) H dibaryon search, search for K{sub L}{sup 0} {yields} {pi}{sup 0}{gamma}{gamma} and {pi}{sup 0}{nu}{bar {nu}}, and detector design and construction for the FNAL-KTeV project; (V) UCLA participation in the experiment CDF at Fermilab; and (VI) VLPC/scintillating fiber R D.

  20. The use of nuclear physics and high energy physics detectors in medical imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Guerra, Alberto; Bisogni, Maria Giuseppina

    2013-06-01

    The development of radiation detectors in the field of nuclear and particle physics has had a terrific impact in medical imaging since this latter discipline took off in late '70 with the invention of the CT scanners. The massive use in Nuclear Physics and High Energy Physics of position sensitive gas detectors, of high Z and high density scintillators coupled to Photomultiplier (PMT) and Position Sensitive Photomultipliers (PSPMT), and of solid state detectors has triggered during the last 30 years a series of novel applications in Medical Imaging with ionizing radiation. The accelerated scientific progression in genetics and molecular biology has finally generated what it is now called Molecular Imaging. This field of research presents additional challenges not only in the technology of radiation detector, but more and more in the ASIC electronics, fast digital readout and parallel software. In this paper we will try to present how Nuclear Physics/High Energy Physics and Medical Imaging have both benefited by the cross-fertilization of research activities between the two fields and how much they will take advantage in the future.

  1. High Energy Physics at Tufts University Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, Gary R.; Oliver, William P.; Napier, Austin; Gallagher, Hugh R.

    2012-07-18

    In this Final Report, we the researchers of the high energy physics group at Tufts University summarize our works and achievements in three frontier areas of elementary particle physics: (i) Neutrino physics at the Intensity Frontier, (ii) Collider physics at the Energy Frontier, and (iii) Theory investigations of spin structure and quark-gluon dynamics of nucleons using quantum chromodynamics. With our Neutrino research we completed, or else brought to a useful state, the following: Data-taking, physics simulations, physics analysis, physics reporting, explorations of matter effects, and detector component fabrication. We conducted our work as participants in the MINOS, NOvA, and LBNE neutrino oscillation experiments and in the MINERvA neutrino scattering experiment. With our Collider research we completed or else brought to a useful state: Data-taking, development of muon system geometry and tracking codes, software validation and maintenance, physics simulations, physics analysis, searches for new particles, and study of top-quark and B-quark systems. We conducted these activities as participants in the ATLAS proton-proton collider experiment at CERN and in the CDF proton-antiproton collider experiment at Fermilab. In our Theory research we developed QCD-based models, applications of spin phenomenology to fundamental systems, fitting of models to data, presenting and reporting of new concepts and formalisms. The overarching objectives of our research work have always been: 1) to test and clarify the predictions of the Standard Model of elementary particle physics, and 2) to discover new phenomena which may point the way to a more unified theoretical framework.

  2. Problems with the rush toward advanced physics in high schools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gollub, Jerry

    2003-04-01

    The Advanced Placement (AP) Program has a major impact on the physics experience of many high school students. It affects admission to college, course choices and performance in college, and subsequent career decisions. A study committee of the National Research Council published a review of these programs in 2002, and concluded that while the program has many positive features, important problems need to be addressed. [1] The programs are not currently consistent with what we have learned about student learning from cognitive research. Students are often poorly prepared for AP courses, because of lack of coordination within schools. The Physics AP-B (non-calculus) program is too broad to allow most high school students to achieve an adequate level of conceptual understanding. Participation by minority students in these programs is far below that of other students. The AP exams need to be re-evaluated to insure that they actually measure conceptual understanding and complex reasoning. The AP exams are sometimes used inappropriately to rate teachers or schools. College and high school courses are poorly coordinated, with the result that students often take an introductory physics survey as many as three times. Policies on college credit for AP courses differ widely. These problems cannot be fixed by the College Board alone. [1] Jerry P. Gollub and Robin Spital, "Advanced Physics in the High Schools", Physics Today, May 2002.

  3. The Effect of a Female Physical Educator's Physical Appearance on Physical Fitness Knowledge and Attitudes of Junior High Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dean, Melony Blair; Adams, Thomas M., II; Comeau, Matthew J.

    2005-01-01

    This study was designed to determine if a female physical educator's appearance of body fatness affects 1) the cognitive performance of junior high school students on a test of health-related fitness knowledge, and 2) student attitudes toward the instructor. Ninety-three seventh through ninth grade students from two schools, participated in a…

  4. Elementary particle physics and high energy phenomena. [Dept. of Physics, Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Barker, A.R.; Cumalat, J.P.; De Alwis, S.P.; DeGrand, T.A.; Ford, W.T.; Mahanthappa, K.T.; Nauenberg, U.; Rankin, P.; Smith, J.G.

    1992-06-01

    Experimental and theoretical high-energy physics programs at the University of Colorado are reported. Areas of concentration include the following: study of the properties of the Z[sup 0] with the SLD detector; fixed-target K-decay experiments; the R D program for the muon system: the SDC detector; high-energy photoproduction of states containing heavy quarks; electron--positron physics with the CLEO II detector at CESR; lattice QCD; and spin models and dynamically triangulated random surfaces. 24 figs., 2 tabs., 117 refs.

  5. Integration of electrochemistry in micro-total analysis systems for biochemical assays: recent developments.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaoli; Zhang, Song; Chen, Hui; Kong, Jilie

    2009-11-15

    Micro-total analysis systems (microTAS) integrate different analytical operations like sample preparation, separation and detection into a single microfabricated device. With the outstanding advantages of low cost, satisfactory analytical efficiency and flexibility in design, highly integrated and miniaturized devices from the concept of microTAS have gained widespread applications, especially in biochemical assays. Electrochemistry is shown to be quite compatible with microanalytical systems for biochemical assays, because of its attractive merits such as simplicity, rapidity, high sensitivity, reduced power consumption, and sample/reagent economy. This review presents recent developments in the integration of electrochemistry in microdevices for biochemical assays. Ingenious microelectrode design and fabrication methods, and versatility of electrochemical techniques are involved. Practical applications of such integrated microsystem in biochemical assays are focused on in situ analysis, point-of-care testing and portable devices. Electrochemical techniques are apparently suited to microsystems, since easy microfabrication of electrochemical elements and a high degree of integration with multi-analytical functions can be achieved at low cost. Such integrated microsystems will play an increasingly important role for analysis of small volume biochemical samples. Work is in progress toward new microdevice design and applications. PMID:19782186

  6. ITER physics design guidelines at high aspect ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uckan, N. A.

    1991-09-01

    The physics requirements for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) design are formulated in a set of physics design guidelines. These guidelines, established by the ITER Physics Group during the Conceptual Design Activity (CDA, 1988--90), were based on credible extrapolations of the tokamak physics database as assessed during the CDA, and defined a class of tokamak designs (with plasma current I is approximately 20 MA and aspect ratio A is approximately 2.5--3.5) that meet the ITER objectives. Recent U.S. studies have indicated that there may be significant benefits if the ITER-CDA design point is moved from the low aspect ratio, high current baseline (A = 2.79, I = 22 MA) to a high aspect ratio machine at Ais approximately 4, I is approximately 15 MA, especially regarding steady-state, technology-testing performance. To adequately assess the physics and technology testing capability of higher aspect ratio design options, several changes are proposed to the original ITER guidelines to reflect the latest developments in physics understanding at higher aspect ratios. The critical issues for higher aspect ratio design options are the uncertainty in scaling of confinement with aspect ratio, the variation of vertical stability with elongation and aspect ratio, plasma shaping requirements, ability to control and maintain plasma current and q-profiles for MHD stability (and volt-second consumption), access for current drive, restrictions on field ripple and divertor plate incident angles, etc.

  7. Compilation of current high-energy physics experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Wohl, C.G.; Kelly, R.L.; Armstrong, F.E.

    1981-05-01

    This is the fourth edition of the compilation of current high energy physics experiments. It is a collaborative effort of the Berkeley Particle Data Group, the SLAC library, and nine participating laboratories: Argonne (ANL), Brookhaven (BNL), CERN, DESY, Fermilab (FNAL), the Institute for Nuclear Study, Tokyo (INS), KEK, Serpukhov (SERP), and SLAC. The compilation includes summaries of all high energy physics experiments at the above laboratories that (1) were approved (and not subsequently withdrawn) before about April 1981, and (2) had not completed taking of data by 1 January 1977. Only approved experiments are included.

  8. Compilation of current high-energy-physics experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Wohl, C.G.; Kelly, R.L.; Armstrong, F.E.

    1980-04-01

    This is the third edition of a compilation of current high energy physics experiments. It is a collaborative effort of the Berkeley Particle Data Group, the SLAC library, and ten participating laboratories: Argonne (ANL), Brookhaven (BNL), CERN, DESY, Fermilab (FNAL), the Institute for Nuclear Study, Tokyo (INS), KEK, Rutherford (RHEL), Serpukhov (SERP), and SLAC. The compilation includes summaries of all high energy physics experiments at the above laboratories that (1) were approved (and not subsequently withdrawn) before about January 1980, and (2) had not completed taking of data by 1 January 1976.

  9. High Energy Physics at the University of Illinois

    SciTech Connect

    Liss, Tony M.; Thaler, Jon J.

    2013-07-26

    This is the final report for DOE award DE-FG02-91ER40677 (“High Energy Physics at the University of Illinois”), covering the award period November 1, 2009 through April 30, 2013. During this period, our research involved particle physics at Fermilab and CERN, particle physics related cosmology at Fermilab and SLAC, and theoretical particle physics. Here is a list of the activities described in the final report: * The CDF Collaboration at the Fermilab Tevatron * Search For Lepton Flavor Violation in the Mu2e Experiment At Fermilab * The ATLAS Collaboration at the CERN Large Hadron Collider * the Study of Dark Matter and Dark Energy: DES and LSST * Lattice QCD * String Theory and Field Theory * Collider Phenomenology

  10. Laboratory for Nuclear Science. High Energy Physics Program

    SciTech Connect

    Milner, Richard

    2014-07-30

    High energy and nuclear physics research at MIT is conducted within the Laboratory for Nuclear Science (LNS). Almost half of the faculty in the MIT Physics Department carry out research in LNS at the theoretical and experimental frontiers of subatomic physics. Since 2004, the U.S. Department of Energy has funded the high energy physics research program through grant DE-FG02-05ER41360 (other grants and cooperative agreements provided decades of support prior to 2004). The Director of LNS serves as PI. The grant supports the research of four groups within LNS as “tasks” within the umbrella grant. Brief descriptions of each group are given here. A more detailed report from each task follows in later sections. Although grant DE-FG02-05ER41360 has ended, DOE continues to fund LNS high energy physics research through five separate grants (a research grant for each of the four groups, as well as a grant for AMS Operations). We are pleased to continue this longstanding partnership.