Science.gov

Sample records for physical science multiple-choice

  1. Gender Differences in Introductory Atmospheric and Oceanic Science Exams: Multiple Choice versus Constructed Response Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, Andrew J.; Raptis, Helen

    2001-01-01

    Analyzes 295 male and 194 female examinations from introductory atmospheric and oceanic science courses to determine whether or not there exist gender differences in the performance on multiple choice versus constructed response sections of the exams. (Author/SAH)

  2. Using a Classroom Response System to Improve Multiple-Choice Performance in AP® Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertrand, Peggy

    2009-04-01

    Participation in rigorous high school courses such as Advanced Placement (AP®) Physics increases the likelihood of college success, especially for students who are traditionally underserved. Tackling difficult multiple-choice exams should be part of any AP program because well-constructed multiple-choice questions, such as those on AP exams and on the Force Concept Inventory,2 are particularly good at rooting out common and persisting student misconceptions. Additionally, there are barriers to multiple-choice performance that have little to do with content mastery. For example, a student might fail to read the question thoroughly, forget to apply a reasonableness test to the answer, or simply work too slowly.

  3. Multiple-Choice Exams: An Obstacle for Higher-Level Thinking in Introductory Science Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanger-Hall, Kathrin F.

    2012-01-01

    Learning science requires higher-level (critical) thinking skills that need to be practiced in science classes. This study tested the effect of exam format on critical-thinking skills. Multiple-choice (MC) testing is common in introductory science courses, and students in these classes tend to associate memorization with MC questions and may not…

  4. Multiple-Choice Exams: An Obstacle for Higher-Level Thinking in Introductory Science Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanger-Hall, Kathrin F.

    2012-01-01

    Learning science requires higher-level (critical) thinking skills that need to be practiced in science classes. This study tested the effect of exam format on critical-thinking skills. Multiple-choice (MC) testing is common in introductory science courses, and students in these classes tend to associate memorization with MC questions and may not…

  5. Visual Attention for Solving Multiple-Choice Science Problem: An Eye-Tracking Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Meng-Jung; Hou, Huei-Tse; Lai, Meng-Lung; Liu, Wan-Yi; Yang, Fang-Ying

    2012-01-01

    This study employed an eye-tracking technique to examine students' visual attention when solving a multiple-choice science problem. Six university students participated in a problem-solving task to predict occurrences of landslide hazards from four images representing four combinations of four factors. Participants' responses and visual attention…

  6. Visual Attention for Solving Multiple-Choice Science Problem: An Eye-Tracking Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Meng-Jung; Hou, Huei-Tse; Lai, Meng-Lung; Liu, Wan-Yi; Yang, Fang-Ying

    2012-01-01

    This study employed an eye-tracking technique to examine students' visual attention when solving a multiple-choice science problem. Six university students participated in a problem-solving task to predict occurrences of landslide hazards from four images representing four combinations of four factors. Participants' responses and visual attention…

  7. An Investigation of Explanation Multiple-Choice Items in Science Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Ou Lydia; Lee, Hee-Sun; Linn, Marcia C.

    2011-01-01

    Both multiple-choice and constructed-response items have known advantages and disadvantages in measuring scientific inquiry. In this article we explore the function of explanation multiple-choice (EMC) items and examine how EMC items differ from traditional multiple-choice and constructed-response items in measuring scientific reasoning. A group…

  8. Multiple-choice exams: an obstacle for higher-level thinking in introductory science classes.

    PubMed

    Stanger-Hall, Kathrin F

    2012-01-01

    Learning science requires higher-level (critical) thinking skills that need to be practiced in science classes. This study tested the effect of exam format on critical-thinking skills. Multiple-choice (MC) testing is common in introductory science courses, and students in these classes tend to associate memorization with MC questions and may not see the need to modify their study strategies for critical thinking, because the MC exam format has not changed. To test the effect of exam format, I used two sections of an introductory biology class. One section was assessed with exams in the traditional MC format, the other section was assessed with both MC and constructed-response (CR) questions. The mixed exam format was correlated with significantly more cognitively active study behaviors and a significantly better performance on the cumulative final exam (after accounting for grade point average and gender). There was also less gender-bias in the CR answers. This suggests that the MC-only exam format indeed hinders critical thinking in introductory science classes. Introducing CR questions encouraged students to learn more and to be better critical thinkers and reduced gender bias. However, student resistance increased as students adjusted their perceptions of their own critical-thinking abilities. PMID:22949426

  9. The Development and Validation of a Two-Tiered Multiple-Choice Instrument to Identify Alternative Conceptions in Earth Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangione, Katherine Anna

    2010-01-01

    This study was to determine reliability and validity for a two-tiered, multiple- choice instrument designed to identify alternative conceptions in earth science. Additionally, this study sought to identify alternative conceptions in earth science held by preservice teachers, to investigate relationships between self-reported confidence scores and…

  10. The Development and Validation of a Two-Tiered Multiple-Choice Instrument to Identify Alternative Conceptions in Earth Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangione, Katherine Anna

    2010-01-01

    This study was to determine reliability and validity for a two-tiered, multiple- choice instrument designed to identify alternative conceptions in earth science. Additionally, this study sought to identify alternative conceptions in earth science held by preservice teachers, to investigate relationships between self-reported confidence scores and…

  11. Learning Physics Teaching through Collaborative Design of Conceptual Multiple-Choice Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milner-Bolotin, Marina

    2015-01-01

    Increasing student engagement through Electronic Response Systems (clickers) has been widely researched. Its success largely depends on the quality of multiple-choice questions used by instructors. This paper describes a pilot project that focused on the implementation of online collaborative multiple-choice question repository, PeerWise, in a…

  12. Multiple-Choice Cloze Exercises: Textual Domain, Science. SPPED Test Development Notebook, Form 81-S [and] Answer Key for Multiple-Choice Cloze Exercises: Textual Domain, Science. SPPED Test Development Notebook, Form 85-S. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Div. of Research.

    The "Test Development Notebook" is a resource designed for the preparation of tests of literal comprehension for students in grades 1 through 12. This volume contains 200 multiple-choice cloze exercises taken from textbooks in science, and the accompanying answer key. Each exercise carries the code letter of the section to which it belongs. The…

  13. Identifying student mental models from their response pattern to a physics multiple-choice test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montenegro Maggio, Maximiliano Jose

    Previous work has shown that students present different misconceptions across different but similar physical situations, but the cause of these differences is still not clear. In this study, a novel analysis method was introduced to help to gain a better understanding of how different physical situations affect students' responses and learning. This novel analysis groups students into mental model groups (MMG) by similarities in their responses to multiple-choice test items, under the assumption that they have similar mental models. The Mass and Energy Conservation test was developed to probe the common misconception that objects with greater mass fall faster than objects with lesser mass across four physical situations and four knowledge sub-domains: information, dynamics, work, and energy. The test was applied before and after energy instruction to 144 college students in a large Midwestern university attending a calculus-based introductory physics course. Test time along with instruction and physical situation were the two factors. It was found that physical situation did not have a significant effect on mental models: The number of MMGs identified and the fraction of students belonging to the same MMG were not significantly different (p > .05) across physical situations. However, there was a significant effect of test time on mental models (p < .05): the fraction of students belonging to the same MMG changed from the pretest to the posttest, in that the MMG representing higher performance became predominant than the MMG with lower performance for the posttest results. A MANOVA for the average scores for each sub-domain and physical situation combination was applied to validate the previous results. It was found that a significant effect (p < .01) by physical situation resulted due to a lower average dynamics sub-domain score for the friction physical-situation attribute when compared to the no-friction physical-situation attribute. A significant effect (p < .01) was found for test time. This was due to an increase of the average energy sub-domain score from the pretest to the posttest. No significant interaction effect ( p > .05) was found. The MANOVA results obtained can be explained through the change in proportion of the MMGs present in the sample.

  14. A Case Study on Multiple-Choice Testing in Anatomical Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golda, Stephanie DuPont

    2011-01-01

    Objective testing techniques, such as multiple-choice examinations, are a widely accepted method of assessment in gross anatomy. In order to deter cheating on these types of examinations, instructors often design several versions of an examination to distribute. These versions usually involve the rearrangement of questions and their corresponding…

  15. The development and validation of a two-tiered multiple-choice instrument to identify alternative conceptions in earth science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangione, Katherine Anna

    This study was to determine reliability and validity for a two-tiered, multiple- choice instrument designed to identify alternative conceptions in earth science. Additionally, this study sought to identify alternative conceptions in earth science held by preservice teachers, to investigate relationships between self-reported confidence scores and understanding of earth science concepts, and to describe relationships between content knowledge and alternative conceptions and planning instruction in the science classroom. Eighty-seven preservice teachers enrolled in the MAT program participated in this study. Sixty-eight participants were female, twelve were male, and seven chose not to answer. Forty-seven participants were in the elementary certification program, five were in the middle school certification program, and twenty-nine were pursuing secondary certification. Results indicate that the two-tiered, multiple-choice format can be a reliable and valid method for identifying alternative conceptions. Preservice teachers in all certification areas who participated in this study may possess common alternative conceptions previously identified in the literature. Alternative conceptions included: all rivers flow north to south, the shadow of the Earth covers the Moon causing lunar phases, the Sun is always directly overhead at noon, weather can be predicted by animal coverings, and seasons are caused by the Earth's proximity to the Sun. Statistical analyses indicated differences, however not all of them significant, among all subgroups according to gender and certification area. Generally males outperformed females and preservice teachers pursuing middle school certification had higher scores on the questionnaire followed by those obtaining secondary certification. Elementary preservice teachers scored the lowest. Additionally, self-reported scores of confidence in one's answers and understanding of the earth science concept in question were analyzed. There was a slight positive correlation between overall score and both confidence and understanding. Responses on the questionnaire were investigated with respect to pedagogical choices. Evidence suggests that content knowledge and having alternative conceptions or science fragments may impact a teacher's pedagogical choices. Through careful development of instruments like ACES-Q II-R and other two- tiered, multiple-choice instruments, educators and researchers car not only identify possible alternative conceptions, they can raise an awareness of alternative conceptions held by children and adults.

  16. A Novel Multiple Choice Question Generation Strategy: Alternative Uses for Controlled Vocabulary Thesauri in Biomedical-Sciences Education

    PubMed Central

    Lopetegui, Marcelo A.; Lara, Barbara A.; Yen, Po-Yin; Çatalyürek, Ümit V.; Payne, Philip R.O.

    2015-01-01

    Multiple choice questions play an important role in training and evaluating biomedical science students. However, the resource intensive nature of question generation limits their open availability, reducing their contribution to evaluation purposes mainly. Although applied-knowledge questions require a complex formulation process, the creation of concrete-knowledge questions (i.e., definitions, associations) could be assisted by the use of informatics methods. We envisioned a novel and simple algorithm that exploits validated knowledge repositories and generates concrete-knowledge questions by leveraging concepts’ relationships. In this manuscript we present the development and validation of a prototype which successfully produced meaningful concrete-knowledge questions, opening new applications for existing knowledge repositories, potentially benefiting students of all biomedical sciences disciplines. PMID:26958222

  17. An analysis of complex multiple-choice science-technology-society items: Methodological development and preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vázquez-Alonso, Ángel; Manassero-Mas, María-Antonia; Acevedo-Díaz, José-Antonio

    2006-07-01

    The scarce attention to the assessment and evaluation in science education research has been especially harmful for teaching science-technology-society (STS) issues, due to the dialectical, tentative, value-laden, and polemic nature of most STS topics. This paper tackles the methodological difficulties of the instruments that monitor views related to STS topics and rationalizes a quantitative methodology and an analysis technique to improve the utility of an empirically developed multiple-choice item pool, the Questionnaire of Opinions on STS. This methodology embraces an item-scaling psychometrics based on the judgments by a panel of experts, a multiple response model, a scoring system, and the data analysis. The methodology finally produces normalized attitudinal indices that represent the respondent's reasoned beliefs toward STS statements, the respondent's position on an item that comprises several statements, or the respondent's position on an entire STS topic that encompasses a set of items. Some preliminary results show the methodology's ability to evaluate the STS attitudes in a qualitative and quantitative way and for statistical hypothesis testing. Lastly, some applications for teacher training and STS curriculum development in science classrooms are discussed.

  18. An Analysis of Complex Multiple-Choice Science-Technology-Society Items: Methodological Development and Preliminary Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vazquez-Alonso, Angel; Manassero-Mas, Maria-Antonia; Acevedo-Diaz, Jose-Antonio

    2006-01-01

    The scarce attention to the assessment and evaluation in science education research has been especially harmful for teaching science-technology-society (STS) issues, due to the dialectical, tentative, value-laden, and polemic nature of most STS topics. This paper tackles the methodological difficulties of the instruments that monitor views related…

  19. General Chemistry Students' Understanding of the Chemistry Underlying Climate Science and the Development of a Two-Tiered Multiple-Choice Diagnostic Instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Versprille, A.; Towns, M.; Mahaffy, P.; Martin, B.; McKenzie, L.; Kirchhoff, M.

    2013-12-01

    As part of the NSF funded Visualizing the Chemistry of Climate Change (VC3) project, we have developed a chemistry of climate science diagnostic instrument for use in general chemistry courses based on twenty-four student interviews. We have based our interview protocol on misconceptions identified in the research literature and the essential principles of climate change outlined in the CCSP document that pertain to chemistry (CCSP, 2009). The undergraduate student interviews elicited their understanding of the greenhouse effect, global warming, climate change, greenhouse gases, climate, and weather, and the findings from these interviews informed and guided the development of the multiple-choice diagnostic instrument. Our analysis and findings from the interviews indicate that students seem to confuse the greenhouse effect, global warming, and the ozone layer and in terms of chemistry concepts, the students lack a particulate level understanding of greenhouse gases causing them to not fully conceptualize the greenhouse effect and climate change. Details of the findings from the interviews, development of diagnostic instrument, and preliminary findings from the full implementation of the diagnostic instrument will be shared.

  20. Student-Generated Content: Enhancing Learning through Sharing Multiple-Choice Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardy, Judy; Bates, Simon P.; Casey, Morag M.; Galloway, Kyle W.; Galloway, Ross K.; Kay, Alison E.; Kirsop, Peter; McQueen, Heather A.

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between students' use of PeerWise, an online tool that facilitates peer learning through student-generated content in the form of multiple-choice questions (MCQs), and achievement, as measured by their performance in the end-of-module examinations, was investigated in 5 large early-years science modules (in physics, chemistry…

  1. Improving Multiple-Choice Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torres, Cristina; Lopes, Ana Paula; Babo, Lurdes; Azevedo, Jose

    2011-01-01

    A MC (multiple-choice) question can be defined as a question in which students are asked to select one alternative from a given set of alternatives in response to a question stem. The objective of this paper is to analyse if MC questions may be considered as an interesting alternative for assessing knowledge, particularly in the mathematics area,…

  2. Making the Most of Multiple Choice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookhart, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    Multiple-choice questions draw criticism because many people perceive they test only recall or atomistic, surface-level objectives and do not require students to think. Although this can be the case, it does not have to be that way. Susan M. Brookhart suggests that multiple-choice questions are a useful part of any teacher's questioning repertoire…

  3. Making the Most of Multiple Choice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookhart, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    Multiple-choice questions draw criticism because many people perceive they test only recall or atomistic, surface-level objectives and do not require students to think. Although this can be the case, it does not have to be that way. Susan M. Brookhart suggests that multiple-choice questions are a useful part of any teacher's questioning repertoire…

  4. Constructive Multiple-Choice Testing System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Jooyong

    2010-01-01

    The newly developed computerized Constructive Multiple-choice Testing system is introduced. The system combines short answer (SA) and multiple-choice (MC) formats by asking examinees to respond to the same question twice, first in the SA format, and then in the MC format. This manipulation was employed to collect information about the two…

  5. An Item Bank for Multiple-Choice Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chelu, C. J.; Elton, L. R. B.

    1977-01-01

    Provided is information on the development, operation, and evaluation of an item bank for multiple choice questions in physics. While the users of the bank are presently limited, the item banks has saved its members time and provided items and ideas for items. (MA)

  6. Approaches to data analysis of multiple-choice questions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Lin; Beichner, Robert

    2009-12-01

    This paper introduces five commonly used approaches to analyzing multiple-choice test data. They are classical test theory, factor analysis, cluster analysis, item response theory, and model analysis. Brief descriptions of the goals and algorithms of these approaches are provided, together with examples illustrating their applications in physics education research. We minimize mathematics, instead placing emphasis on data interpretation using these approaches.

  7. Middle School Students' Conceptual Learning from the Implementation of a New NSF Supported Curriculum: Interactions in Physical Science[TM

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eick, Charles J.; Dias, Michael; Smith, Nancy R. Cook

    2009-01-01

    A new National Science Foundation supported curriculum, Interactions in Physical Science[TM], was evaluated on students' conceptual change in the twelve concept areas of the national physical science content standard (B) for grades 5-8. Eighth grade students (N = 66) were evaluated pre and post on a 31-item multiple-choice test of conceptual…

  8. Middle School Students' Conceptual Learning from the Implementation of a New NSF Supported Curriculum: Interactions in Physical Science[TM

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eick, Charles J.; Dias, Michael; Smith, Nancy R. Cook

    2009-01-01

    A new National Science Foundation supported curriculum, Interactions in Physical Science[TM], was evaluated on students' conceptual change in the twelve concept areas of the national physical science content standard (B) for grades 5-8. Eighth grade students (N = 66) were evaluated pre and post on a 31-item multiple-choice test of conceptual…

  9. Science Library of Test Items. Volume Twenty. A Collection of Multiple Choice Test Items Relating Mainly to Physics, 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New South Wales Dept. of Education, Sydney (Australia).

    As one in a series of test item collections developed by the Assessment and Evaluation Unit of the Directorate of Studies, items are made available to teachers for the construction of unit tests or term examinations or as a basis for class discussion. Each collection was reviewed for content validity and reliability. The test items meet syllabus…

  10. Can free-response questions be approximated by multiple-choice equivalents?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Shih-Yin; Singh, Chandralekha

    2013-08-01

    We discuss a study to evaluate the extent to which free-response questions can be approximated by multiple-choice equivalents. Two carefully designed research-based multiple-choice questions were transformed into a free-response format and administered on the final exam in a calculus-based introductory physics course. The original multiple-choice questions were administered in another, similar introductory physics course on the final exam. Our findings suggest that carefully designed multiple-choice questions can reflect the relative performance on the free-response questions while maintaining the benefits of ease of grading and quantitative analysis, especially if the different choices in the multiple-choice questions are weighted to reflect the different levels of understanding that students display.

  11. Formatting Issues in Multiple Choice Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siskind, Theresa G.; And Others

    The purposes of the present study were to ascertain whether or not two particular formatting characteristics influenced seventh grade student performance on math tests. One research question focused on the effects of decimal positioning in multiple choice options for computational items. In a second question, labeling format was compared with…

  12. Australian Item Bank Program: Science Item Bank. Book l: Physics and Astronomy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian Council for Educational Research, Hawthorn.

    The Australian Science Item Bank consists of three volumes of multiple-choice questions. Book 1 contains questions on Physics and Astronomy. The questions are designed to be suitable for high school students (year 8 to year 12 in Australian schools). The questions are classified by the subject content of the question, the cognitive skills required…

  13. Spelling Correlation on Handwritten vs. Multiple-Choice Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelso, Genell

    In order to determine if multiple choice spelling tests are as effective as handwritten tests, 265 college freshmen were tested on the same spelling words by traditional oral dictation and then by five-option multiple choice questions. Results were compared to examine the efficacy of multiple choice testing. Of a possible 20 points, the mean score…

  14. Genetic Algorithms for Multiple-Choice Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aickelin, Uwe

    2010-04-01

    This thesis investigates the use of problem-specific knowledge to enhance a genetic algorithm approach to multiple-choice optimisation problems.It shows that such information can significantly enhance performance, but that the choice of information and the way it is included are important factors for success.Two multiple-choice problems are considered.The first is constructing a feasible nurse roster that considers as many requests as possible.In the second problem, shops are allocated to locations in a mall subject to constraints and maximising the overall income.Genetic algorithms are chosen for their well-known robustness and ability to solve large and complex discrete optimisation problems.However, a survey of the literature reveals room for further research into generic ways to include constraints into a genetic algorithm framework.Hence, the main theme of this work is to balance feasibility and cost of solutions.In particular, co-operative co-evolution with hierarchical sub-populations, problem structure exploiting repair schemes and indirect genetic algorithms with self-adjusting decoder functions are identified as promising approaches.The research starts by applying standard genetic algorithms to the problems and explaining the failure of such approaches due to epistasis.To overcome this, problem-specific information is added in a variety of ways, some of which are designed to increase the number of feasible solutions found whilst others are intended to improve the quality of such solutions.As well as a theoretical discussion as to the underlying reasons for using each operator,extensive computational experiments are carried out on a variety of data.These show that the indirect approach relies less on problem structure and hence is easier to implement and superior in solution quality.

  15. Benford's Law: textbook exercises and multiple-choice testbanks.

    PubMed

    Slepkov, Aaron D; Ironside, Kevin B; DiBattista, David

    2015-01-01

    Benford's Law describes the finding that the distribution of leading (or leftmost) digits of innumerable datasets follows a well-defined logarithmic trend, rather than an intuitive uniformity. In practice this means that the most common leading digit is 1, with an expected frequency of 30.1%, and the least common is 9, with an expected frequency of 4.6%. Currently, the most common application of Benford's Law is in detecting number invention and tampering such as found in accounting-, tax-, and voter-fraud. We demonstrate that answers to end-of-chapter exercises in physics and chemistry textbooks conform to Benford's Law. Subsequently, we investigate whether this fact can be used to gain advantage over random guessing in multiple-choice tests, and find that while testbank answers in introductory physics closely conform to Benford's Law, the testbank is nonetheless secure against such a Benford's attack for banal reasons. PMID:25689468

  16. Strategies for the Meaningful Evaluation of Multiple-Choice Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chesbro, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Too many multiple-choice tests are administered without an evaluative component. Teachers often return student assessments or Scantron cards--computerized bubble forms--without review, assuming that the printing of the correct answer will suffice. However, a more constructivist approach to follow up multiple-choice tests can make for more…

  17. Nested Logit Models for Multiple-Choice Item Response Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suh, Youngsuk; Bolt, Daniel M.

    2010-01-01

    Nested logit item response models for multiple-choice data are presented. Relative to previous models, the new models are suggested to provide a better approximation to multiple-choice items where the application of a solution strategy precedes consideration of response options. In practice, the models also accommodate collapsibility across all…

  18. The Effectiveness of Several Multiple-Choice Formats.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haladyna, Thomas A.

    1992-01-01

    Several multiple-choice item formats are examined in the current climate of test reform. The reform movement is discussed as it affects use of the following formats: (1) complex multiple-choice; (2) alternate choice; (3) true-false; (4) multiple true-false; and (5) the context dependent item set. (SLD)

  19. Reducing the Need for Guesswork in Multiple-Choice Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bush, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The humble multiple-choice test is very widely used within education at all levels, but its susceptibility to guesswork makes it a suboptimal assessment tool. The reliability of a multiple-choice test is partly governed by the number of items it contains; however, longer tests are more time consuming to take, and for some subject areas, it can be…

  20. Reducing the Need for Guesswork in Multiple-Choice Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bush, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The humble multiple-choice test is very widely used within education at all levels, but its susceptibility to guesswork makes it a suboptimal assessment tool. The reliability of a multiple-choice test is partly governed by the number of items it contains; however, longer tests are more time consuming to take, and for some subject areas, it can be…

  1. The Relationship of Constrained Free-Response to Multiple-Choice and Open-Ended Items.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Randy Elliot; And Others

    This study examined the relationship of a machine-scorable, constrained free-response computer science item that required the student to debug a faulty program to two other types of items: multiple-choice and free-response requiring production of a computer program. The free-response items were from the College Board's Advanced Placement Computer…

  2. A Two-Tier Multiple Choice Questions to Diagnose Thermodynamic Misconception of Thai and Laos Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamcharean, Chanwit; Wattanakasiwich, Pornrat

    The objective of this study was to diagnose misconceptions of Thai and Lao students in thermodynamics by using a two-tier multiple-choice test. Two-tier multiple choice questions consist of the first tier, a content-based question and the second tier, a reasoning-based question. Data of student understanding was collected by using 10 two-tier multiple-choice questions. Thai participants were the first-year students (N = 57) taking a fundamental physics course at Chiang Mai University in 2012. Lao participants were high school students in Grade 11 (N = 57) and Grade 12 (N = 83) at Muengnern high school in Xayaboury province, Lao PDR. As results, most students answered content-tier questions correctly but chose incorrect answers for reason-tier questions. When further investigating their incorrect reasons, we found similar misconceptions as reported in previous studies such as incorrectly relating pressure with temperature when presenting with multiple variables.

  3. Guide to Developing High-Quality, Reliable, and Valid Multiple-Choice Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Towns, Marcy H.

    2014-01-01

    Chemistry faculty members are highly skilled in obtaining, analyzing, and interpreting physical measurements, but often they are less skilled in measuring student learning. This work provides guidance for chemistry faculty from the research literature on multiple-choice item development in chemistry. Areas covered include content, stem, and…

  4. Multiple choice health insurance: the lessons and challenge to employers.

    PubMed

    Enthoven, A C

    1990-01-01

    This paper offers a second opinion on the issues discussed by Stanley B. Jones in his paper, "Multiple Choice Health Insurance: The Lessons and Challenge to Private Insurers" in the Summer 1990 issue of Inquiry. Multiple choice of health plans is not containing costs of health care or insurance premiums because employers have not yet tried price competition with cost-conscious consumer choice. HMOs in multiple choice arrangements have not saved employers money because of the way employers manage competition. Effective management of competition must be an active process employing an array of tools to create incentives that reward production of high quality economical care. PMID:2148310

  5. Usage of Multiple-Choice Examinations in Chemical Engineering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sommerfeld, Jude T.

    1981-01-01

    Discusses rationale for and use of multiple choice examinations in material balances, unit operations, reactor design, and process control courses. Describes computer scoring of student reaction to, and future plans for these examinations. (SK)

  6. Events | Physical Sciences in Oncology

    Cancer.gov

    The 2015 AAAS Annual Meeting will include exciting work at the intersection of the physical and life sciences, including two sessions organized by NCI Physical Sciences-Oncology Network (PS-ON) Program Directors.

  7. Physical Sciences 2007 Science & Technology Highlights

    SciTech Connect

    Hazi, A U

    2008-04-07

    The Physical Sciences Directorate applies frontier physics and technology to grand challenges in national security. Our highly integrated and multidisciplinary research program involves collaborations throughout Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, the National Nuclear Security Administration, the Department of Energy, and with academic and industrial partners. The Directorate has a budget of approximately $150 million, and a staff of approximately 350 employees. Our scientists provide expertise in condensed matter and high-pressure physics, plasma physics, high-energy-density science, fusion energy science and technology, nuclear and particle physics, accelerator physics, radiation detection, optical science, biotechnology, and astrophysics. This document highlights the outstanding research and development activities in the Physical Sciences Directorate that made news in 2007. It also summarizes the awards and recognition received by members of the Directorate in 2007.

  8. Physical Science Curriculum Support Document

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Carolyn C.; Brown, Tim; Harris, Jeff; Lovin, Pamela

    2004-01-01

    This document was developed in response to the expressed need of physical science teachers for materials designed to facilitate and enhance the teaching of the 1999 North Carolina Standard Course of Study for Physical Science. The materials provide a guide to translating the goals and objectives of the Physical Science curriculum into good…

  9. General Physics, Physics 12 [Science Curriculum Materials].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rochester City School District, NY.

    The Physics 12 curriculum guide represents one in a series of science guides especially designed to provide for the pupil whose primary interests are in non-science fields. The program provides study in physics in which fundamental concepts and understandings are developed, mathematical concepts are limited, and students are encouraged to relate…

  10. UFOs and Physical Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teodorani, M.

    1999-03-01

    The psycho-sociological reasons why the academic science is not willing to face operatively and officially a hard problem such as the 'UFO phenomenon', are introduced in the ambit of an episthemological discussion. It is shown how such a phenomenon, due to his peculiar nature, might impose a drastic revision of the laws of physics which are commonly accepted. It is demonstrated how a strict application of the measurement methods which are normally adopted by physics can permit to obtain relevant quantitative results, whatever they are. As an example of such a procedure, the anomalous light phenomenology which reoccurs in the Hessdalen valley in Norway is presented, by showing that it represents so far the ideal worldly physical laboratory for the study of luminous phenomena in the low atmosphere. After describing the multiform morphologic and dynamic characteristics of the luminous component of the phenomenon as they are deduced from visual and photographic reports, the results coming out from the magnetometric, radiometric and radar monitoring operations which were carried out by Project Hessdalen in 1984, are presented in detail. Subsequently, the postumous analysis carried out by the author is shown, by pointing out the clear cohexistence of the magnetic and the optical phenomenology and the apparent correlation of the magnetic component of the phenomenon with maxima of solar activity. In a subsequent phase, the most credited physical theories, which have been proposed so far in order to interpret the phenomenon, are described and discussed, together with 'non-canonical hypotheses'. Finally, it is pointed out how the physical parameters which are expected to be measured with the proper instrumented equipment and aimed tactics and strategies, resemble strictly the methodology which is normally used during astrophysical observations.

  11. FormScanner: Open-Source Solution for Grading Multiple-Choice Exams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Chadwick; Lo, Glenn; Young, Kaisa; Borsetta, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    The multiple-choice exam remains a staple for many introductory physics courses. In the past, people have graded these by hand or even flaming needles. Today, one usually grades the exams with a form scanner that utilizes optical mark recognition (OMR). Several companies provide these scanners and particular forms, such as the eponymous "Scantron." OMR scanners combine hardware and software—a scanner and OMR program—to read and grade student-filled forms.

  12. Science and the Physically Handicapped.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ricker, Kenneth S.

    1979-01-01

    The integration of physically (sensory and orthopedic) handicapped students into science classes creates a complex problem for science educators. Suggestions are offered for teacher preparation and for the development of specialized materials and modifications for instructional strategies. (JMF)

  13. Teaching Science through Physical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumar, David; Whitehurst, Michael

    1997-01-01

    Physical education can serve as a vehicle for teaching science and make student understanding of certain personal health-related science concepts meaningful. Describes activities involving the musculoskeletal system, the nervous system, and the cardiovascular system. (DKM)

  14. Valuing Assessment in Teacher Education - Multiple-Choice Competency Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Dona L.; Itter, Diane

    2014-01-01

    When our focus is on assessment educators should work to value the nature of assessment. This paper presents a new approach to multiple-choice competency testing in mathematics education. The instrument discussed here reflects student competence, encourages self-regulatory learning behaviours and links content with current curriculum documents and…

  15. Using the Multiple Choice Procedure to Measure College Student Gambling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Leon Harvey

    2010-01-01

    Research suggests that gambling is similar to addictive behaviors such as substance use. In the current study, gambling was investigated from a behavioral economics perspective. The Multiple Choice Procedure (MCP) with gambling as the target behavior was used to assess for relative reinforcing value, the effect of alternative reinforcers, and…

  16. Analyzing Student Confidence in Classroom Voting with Multiple Choice Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Ann; Storm, Christopher; VonEpps, Lahna

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present results of a recent study in which students voted on multiple choice questions in mathematics courses of varying levels. Students used clickers to select the best answer among the choices given; in addition, they were also asked whether they were confident in their answer. In this paper we analyze data…

  17. Samejima Items in Multiple-Choice Tests: Identification and Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahman, Nazia

    2013-01-01

    Samejima hypothesized that non-monotonically increasing item response functions (IRFs) of ability might occur for multiple-choice items (referred to here as "Samejima items") if low ability test takers with some, though incomplete, knowledge or skill are drawn to a particularly attractive distractor, while very low ability test takers…

  18. Initial Correction versus Negative Marking in Multiple Choice Examinations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Hecke, Tanja

    2015-01-01

    Optimal assessment tools should measure in a limited time the knowledge of students in a correct and unbiased way. A method for automating the scoring is multiple choice scoring. This article compares scoring methods from a probabilistic point of view by modelling the probability to pass: the number right scoring, the initial correction (IC) and…

  19. Approaches to Data Analysis of Multiple-Choice Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ding, Lin; Beichner, Robert

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces five commonly used approaches to analyzing multiple-choice test data. They are classical test theory, factor analysis, cluster analysis, item response theory, and model analysis. Brief descriptions of the goals and algorithms of these approaches are provided, together with examples illustrating their applications in physics…

  20. Challenging Multiple-Choice Questions to Engage Critical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerkman, Dennis D.; Johnson, Andrew T.

    2014-01-01

    This article examines a technique for engaging critical thinking on multiple-choice exams. University students were encouraged to "challenge" the validity of any exam question they believed to be unfair (e.g., more than one equally correct answer, ambiguous wording, etc.). The number of valid challenges a student wrote was a better…

  1. Using the Multiple Choice Procedure to Measure College Student Gambling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Leon Harvey

    2010-01-01

    Research suggests that gambling is similar to addictive behaviors such as substance use. In the current study, gambling was investigated from a behavioral economics perspective. The Multiple Choice Procedure (MCP) with gambling as the target behavior was used to assess for relative reinforcing value, the effect of alternative reinforcers, and…

  2. Initial Correction versus Negative Marking in Multiple Choice Examinations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Hecke, Tanja

    2015-01-01

    Optimal assessment tools should measure in a limited time the knowledge of students in a correct and unbiased way. A method for automating the scoring is multiple choice scoring. This article compares scoring methods from a probabilistic point of view by modelling the probability to pass: the number right scoring, the initial correction (IC) and…

  3. Correcting Grade Deflation Caused by Multiple-Choice Scoring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baranchik, Alvin; Cherkas, Barry

    2000-01-01

    Presents a study involving three sections of pre-calculus (n=181) at four-year college where partial credit scoring on multiple-choice questions was examined over an entire semester. Indicates that grades determined by partial credit scoring seemed more reflective of both the quantity and quality of student knowledge than grades determined by…

  4. Scores Based on Dangerous Responses to Multiple-Choice Items.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grosse, Martin E.

    1986-01-01

    Scores based on the number of correct answers were compared with scores based on dangerous responses to items in the same multiple choice test developed by American Board of Orthopaedic Surgery. Results showed construct validity for both sets of scores. However, both scores were redundant when evaluated by correlation coefficient. (Author/JAZ)

  5. Analysis of Distractor Difficulty in Multiple-Choice Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Revuelta, Javier

    2004-01-01

    Two psychometric models are presented for evaluating the difficulty of the distractors in multiple-choice items. They are based on the criterion of rising distractor selection ratios, which facilitates interpretation of the subject and item parameters. Statistical inferential tools are developed in a Bayesian framework: modal a posteriori…

  6. Further Support for Changing Multiple-Choice Answers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fabrey, Lawrence J.; Case, Susan M.

    1985-01-01

    The effect on test scores of changing answers to multiple-choice questions was studied and compared to earlier research. The current setting was a nationally administered, in-training, specialty examination for medical residents in obstetrics and gynecology. Both low and high scorers improved their scores when they changed answers. (SW)

  7. Analyzing Student Confidence in Classroom Voting with Multiple Choice Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Ann; Storm, Christopher; VonEpps, Lahna

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present results of a recent study in which students voted on multiple choice questions in mathematics courses of varying levels. Students used clickers to select the best answer among the choices given; in addition, they were also asked whether they were confident in their answer. In this paper we analyze data…

  8. Physical Science in Barcelona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roca-Rosell, Antoni; Roqué, Xavier

    2013-12-01

    We provide a tour of Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain, following four routes through the city and one elsewhere in the city and beyond, focusing on sites of importance in physics. Route 1 covers the Old Town, its Gothic Quarter, Plaça del Rei, Plaça de Sant Jaume, and Jewish Quarter. Route 2 identifies sites on and close to La Rambla, the main promenade in the city. Route 3 goes from the medieval shipyards to the Board of Commerce to Citadel Park. Route 4 concentrates on the Extension ( Eixample) and covers the restored University, the Industrial University, and the new campus of the University of Barcelona. Elsewhere in the city and beyond are the Fabra Observatory; the Plaça de les Glòries with its large steel sculpture depicting the meridian arc from Dunkirk to Barcelona; Montjuïc, the site of the National Art Museum of Catalonia; and the National Museum of Science and Technology in Terrassa.

  9. Reports | Physical Sciences in Oncology

    Cancer.gov

    Contributions from outside the field of cancer biology are the cornerstone of the Physical Sciences in Oncology initiative. In order to gather ideas and suggestions from the research community about the latest science and new opportunities, the NCI organizes Workshops and Think Tanks that bring together thought leaders from the fields of cancer biology, physics, chemistry, mathematics, modeling, engineering, and nanotechnology.

  10. Concepts in Physical Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puri, O. P.

    Contained in this experimental test are instructional materials for a one-semester course designed to give liberal arts students an appreciation of (1) the nature of science, (2) the development of science, (3) the contributions of scientists, (4) the impact of scientific discoveries on mankind, and (5) the possible future effects of science. The…

  11. The Growth of Physical Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeans, James

    2009-07-01

    1. The remote beginnings; 2. Ionia and early Greece; 3. Science and Alexandria; 4. Science in the dark ages; 5. The birth of modern science; 6. The century of genius; 7. The two centuries after Newton; 8. The era of modern physics.

  12. The Impact of Student Ability and Method for Varying the Position of Correct Answers in Classroom Multiple-Choice Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joseph, Dane Christian

    2010-01-01

    Multiple-choice item-writing guideline research is in its infancy. Haladyna (2004) calls for a science of item-writing guideline research. The purpose of this study is to respond to such a call. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of student ability and method for varying the location of correct answers in classroom multiple-choice…

  13. Training College Physics and Physical Science Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, R. B.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    Summarizes survey data about the need and appropriate character of graduate degree programs designed to prepare two-year and four-year college physics and physical science teachers. Indicates that future employment favors two-year college teachers with a master's degree in the region west of the Mississippi River. (CC)

  14. Assessing students' abilities to construct and interpret line graphs: Disparities between multiple-choice and free-response instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berg, Craig A.; Smith, Philip

    The author is concerned about the methodology and instrumentation used to assess both graphing abilities and the impact of microcomputer-based laboratories (MBL) on students' graphing abilities for four reasons: (1) the ability to construct and interpret graphs is critical for developing key ideas in science; (2) science educators need to have valid information for making teaching decisions; (3) educators and researchers are heralding the arrival of MBL as a tool for developing graphing abilities; and (4) some of the research which supports using MBL appears to have significant validity problems. In this article, the author will describe the research which challenges the validity of using multiple-choice instruments to assess graphing abilities. The evidence from this research will identify numerous disparities between the results of multiple-choice and free-response instruments. In the first study, 72 subjects in the seventh, ninth, and eleventh grades were administered individual clinical interviews to assess their ability to construct and interpret graphs. A wide variety of graphs and situations were assessed. In three instances during the interview, students drew a graph that would best represent a situation and then explained their drawings. The results of these clinical graphing interviews were very different from similar questions assessed through multiple-choice formats in other research studies. In addition, insights into students' thinking about graphing reveal that some multiple-choice graphing questions from prior research studies and standardized tests do not discriminate between right answers/right reasons, right answers/wrong reasons, and answers scored wrong but correct for valid reasons. These results indicate that in some instances multiple-choice questions are not a valid measure of graphing abilities. In a second study, the researcher continued to pursue the questions raised about the validity of multiple-choice tests to assess graphing, researching the following questions: What can be learned about subjects' graphing abilities when students draw their own graphs compared to assessing by means of a multiple-choice instrument? Does the methodology used to assess graphing abilities: (1) affect the percentage of subjects who answer correctly; (2) alter the percentage of subjects affected by the picture of the event phenomenon? Instruments were constructed consisting of three graphing questions that asked students: (a) multiple-choice-choose a graph that best represents the situation; (b) free-response-draw a graph that best represents the situation. The sample of 1416 subjects from an urbadsuburban area in cluded 50% boys/50% girls from grades 8 through 12; subjects from high, medium, and low ability groups; and subjects from both public and private schools. The subjects completed either the multiple-choice or the free draw instrument. The free draw instrument was scored by comparing the subject's response to categories of possible answers that had been identified from the first study. The results show as much as 19% difference in correct responses, three times as many picture of the events from multiple-choice instruments, and significant differences in how multiple-choice and free-response affect various ability levels and grade levels. As such, some of the research studies that used multiple-choice instruments to examine giaphing and the impact of MBL on student's graphing abilities may be invalid.

  15. Physical experience enhances science learning.

    PubMed

    Kontra, Carly; Lyons, Daniel J; Fischer, Susan M; Beilock, Sian L

    2015-06-01

    Three laboratory experiments involving students' behavior and brain imaging and one randomized field experiment in a college physics class explored the importance of physical experience in science learning. We reasoned that students' understanding of science concepts such as torque and angular momentum is aided by activation of sensorimotor brain systems that add kinetic detail and meaning to students' thinking. We tested whether physical experience with angular momentum increases involvement of sensorimotor brain systems during students' subsequent reasoning and whether this involvement aids their understanding. The physical experience, a brief exposure to forces associated with angular momentum, significantly improved quiz scores. Moreover, improved performance was explained by activation of sensorimotor brain regions when students later reasoned about angular momentum. This finding specifies a mechanism underlying the value of physical experience in science education and leads the way for classroom practices in which experience with the physical world is an integral part of learning. PMID:25911125

  16. Physical Sciences in Lisbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simőes, Ana; Diogo, Maria Paula; Carneiro, Ana

    2012-09-01

    We provide a two-day tour of Lisbon, Portugal, focusing on sites of scientific and technological importance, setting them within their historical contexts. On the first day we visit the Academy of Sciences of Lisbon, the building that successively housed the College of Nobles, the Polytechnic School, and the University of Lisbon Faculty of Sciences, and then go on to the Arpad Szenes-Vieira da Silva Museum and the Astronomical Observatory of Lisbon. On the second day we visit the Industrial Institute and Museum, the Geographical Society of Lisbon, the Jesuit College of Santo Antăo, and the Technical Institute.

  17. Inference for the physical sciences

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Nick S.; Maccarone, Thomas J.

    2013-01-01

    There is a disconnect between developments in modern data analysis and some parts of the physical sciences in which they could find ready use. This introduction, and this issue, provides resources to help experimental researchers access modern data analysis tools and exposure for analysts to extant challenges in physical science. We include a table of resources connecting statistical and physical disciplines and point to appropriate books, journals, videos and articles. We conclude by highlighting the relevance of each of the articles in the associated issue. PMID:23277613

  18. Effects of Test Expectation on Multiple-Choice Performance and Subjective Ratings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balch, William R.

    2007-01-01

    Undergraduates studied the definitions of 16 psychology terms, expecting either a multiple-choice (n = 132) or short-answer (n = 122) test. All students then received the same multiple-choice test, requiring them to recognize the definitions as well as novel examples of the terms. Compared to students expecting a multiple-choice test, those…

  19. Effective Use of Multiple-Choice Items in the Mathematics Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barlow, Angela T.; Marolt, Amy M.

    2012-01-01

    Multiple-choice items are commonly viewed as a summative check for skill attainment, but they can be used to assess other dimensions of student learning. The purpose of this article is to offer an expanded view of the use of multiple-choice items in the middle level mathematics classroom. It presents three alternative uses of multiple-choice items…

  20. Semantic physical science

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The articles in this special issue arise from a workshop and symposium held in January 2012 (Semantic Physical Science’). We invited people who shared our vision for the potential of the web to support chemical and related subjects. Other than the initial invitations, we have not exercised any control over the content of the contributed articles. PMID:22856527

  1. Physical Science in Oslo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedersen, Bjřrn

    2011-06-01

    I provide a tour of Oslo, Norway, concentrating on the city center and the suburbs of Blindern and Třyen. I focus on the buildings used by the University of Oslo from its foundation in 1811 and on the physical scientists who worked in them. I also point out the cemeteries where some of them are buried.

  2. Physical Science in Bologna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dragoni, Giorgio; Stojanovic, Ivana

    2013-03-01

    We provide a guide to Bologna, Italy, focusing particularly on sites of interest to physicists. Our first tour is in the city center; it begins in the Piazza Maggiore at the Palazzo d'Accursio, the Basilica di San Petronio, and the Archiginnasio (Old University) and then proceeds to the Two Towers and the Palazzo Poggi, which houses the Astronomical Observatory Museum and other important instrument and art collections; it concludes at the Physics Museum, Department of Physics and Astronomy. Our second tour again begins in the Piazza Maggiore but goes to sites beyond the city center where famous Bolognese physicists and other scientists were born, lived, and are buried. Finally, we point out important museums and other institutions on the outskirts of Bologna.

  3. Physical science: A dynamic approach

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, R.T.

    1986-01-01

    A partial table of contents is: Early concepts of nature. The rebirth of science. Energy, work, and power. Relativity. The atom. The periodic nature of elements. Chemical energy. The dynamic Earth. The solar system. Stars and nebulae. Extraterrestrial life. The author presents an introduction to physical science and the spirit of scientific inquiry through a historical survey of scientific thought. Specific forces, processes, energies and phenomena are outlined. Various tables, illustrations and questions accompany the text.

  4. About | Physical Sciences in Oncology

    Cancer.gov

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI) is exploring new and innovative scientific approaches to better understand and control cancer. The Division of Cancer Biology’s Physical Sciences in Oncology Initiative seeks to establish research projects that bring together cancer biologists and oncologists with scientists from the fields of physics, mathematics, chemistry, and engineering to address some of the major questions and barriers in cancer research.

  5. Centers | Physical Sciences in Oncology

    Cancer.gov

    The Methodist Hospital Research Institute The Methodist Hospital Research Institute Physical Sciences-Oncology Center evaluates the process of mass transport in cancer to generate novel methods to improve diagnosis and treatment of cancer. This center focuses on hepatic, breast, colorectal, and pancreatic primary cancers as well on liver metastasis of the last three conditions. The investigators show that transport differentials are very important in the ability to efficiently treat malignancies.

  6. Item Analysis of Multiple-Choice Questions in Teaching Prosthodontics.

    PubMed

    Madhav, V N V

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze multiple-choice questions used in teaching prosthodontics to dental students based on the items' distractor effectiveness and their difficulty and discrimination capacity. The overall goals were to assist the prosthodontics department in modifying its existing question bank and creating a set of prevalidated questions of known difficulty and discrimination capacity. The items selected for this study were from the three formative examinations in prosthodontics for fourth-year BDS students at Sinhgad Dental College and Hospital, Pune, Maharastra, India, during academic year 2011-12. As all the students' completed exams and scores were available, the task was to evaluate the efficacy of items already administered. Based on the item analysis of the questions, the following results were noted. None of the three examinations had items that were too difficult or defective. However, all three examinations had large percentages of easy items and many items had a low discrimination index. More than 60-70% of the items on all three examinations included ineffective distractors. All items therefore needed modifications based on their distractor effectiveness and difficulty and discrimination indices. After the study was completed, the results were discussed in a meeting with all teachers in the prosthodontics department and the test constructors, and suggestions were made with regard to improving the items for better evaluation of students. PMID:26522636

  7. The detection of cheating in multiple choice examinations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richmond, Peter; Roehner, Bertrand M.

    2015-10-01

    Cheating in examinations is acknowledged by an increasing number of organizations to be widespread. We examine two different approaches to assess their effectiveness at detecting anomalous results, suggestive of collusion, using data taken from a number of multiple-choice examinations organized by the UK Radio Communication Foundation. Analysis of student pair overlaps of correct answers is shown to give results consistent with more orthodox statistical correlations for which confidence limits as opposed to the less familiar "Bonferroni method" can be used. A simulation approach is also developed which confirms the interpretation of the empirical approach. Then the variables Xi =(1 -Ui) Yi +Ui Z are a system of symmetric dependent binary variables (0 , 1 ; p) whose correlation matrix is ?ij = r. The proof is easy and given in the paper. Let us add two remarks. • We used the expression "symmetric variables" to reflect the fact that all Xi play the same role. The expression "exchangeable variables" is often used with the same meaning. • The correlation matrix has only positive elements. This is of course imposed by the symmetry condition. ?12 < 0 and ?23 < 0 would imply ?13 > 0, thus violating the symmetry requirement. In the following subsections we will be concerned with the question of uniqueness of the set of Xi generated above. Needless to say, it is useful to know whether the proposition gives the answer or only one among many. More precisely, the problem can be stated as follows.

  8. 2013 Events | Physical Sciences in Oncology

    Cancer.gov

    This joint conference organized by the American Association of Physicists in Medicine and the Physical Sciences-Oncology Center will explore novel areas of interaction between physical and medical sciences and work towards a roadmap for future collaborative efforts.

  9. 2012 Events | Physical Sciences in Oncology

    Cancer.gov

    Final report on the Assessment of Physical Sciences and Engineering Advances in Life Sciences and Oncology (APHELION) study The NCI OPSO and the NSF gathered an expert panel consisting of prominent scientists to conduct an international Assessment of PHysical sciences and Engineering advances in LIfe sciences and ONcology (APHELION). The findings of the APHELION study provide a comprehensive, peer-reviewed set of evaluations of physical sciences-oncology research overseas in comparison to research being conducted in the United States.

  10. 2008 Events | Physical Sciences in Oncology

    Cancer.gov

    BSA Approves Physical Sciences Oncology Program November 6, 2008 NCI's Deputy Director, Dr. Anna D. Barker, presents a concept to the Board of Scientific Advisors (BSA) about supporting the development of Physical Sciences in Oncology Centers. View the webcast of the deliberations and approval to launch the Physical Sciences in Oncology Program.

  11. Using Multiple Choice Examination Items To Measure Teachers' Content-Specific Pedagogical Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kromrey, Jeffrey D.; Renfrow, Donata D.

    The use of multiple-choice test items measuring content-specific pedagogical knowledge (C-P) as a viable method of increasing the validity of teacher tests is described. The purposes of the paper are to: (1) present examples of multiple-choice test items used for the assessment of C-P and contrast these items with items used for assessing content…

  12. Sample Selection Effect on AP Multiple-Choice Score to Composite Score Scaling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Wen-Ling; Dorans, Neil J.; Tateneni, Krishna

    Scores on the multiple-choice sections of alternate forms are equated through anchor-test equating for the Advanced Placement Program (AP) examinations. There is no linkage of free-response sections since different free-response items are given yearly. However, the free-response and multiple-choice sections are combined to produce a composite.…

  13. On the Equivalence of Constructed-Response and Multiple-Choice Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Traub, Ross E.; Fisher, Charles W.

    Two sets of mathematical reasoning and two sets of verbal comprehension items were cast into each of three formats--constructed response, standard multiple-choice, and Coombs multiple-choice--in order to assess whether tests with indentical content but different formats measure the same attribute, except for possible differences in error variance…

  14. On the Equivalence of Constructed-Response and Multiple-Choice Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Traub, Ross E.; Fisher, Charles W.

    1977-01-01

    Two sets of mathematical reasoning and two sets of verbal comprehension items were cast into each of three formats--constructed response, standard multiple-choice, and Coombs multiple-choice--in order to assess whether tests with identical content but different formats measure the same attribute. (Author/CTM)

  15. The Great Essay/Multiple Choice Debate: Different Strokes for Different Folks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svinicki, Marilla; Koch, Bill

    1984-01-01

    The decision of whether to use essay tests or multiple choice tests depends on several qualifiers related to the different characteristics of the tests and the needs of the situation. The most important qualifier involves matching the type of test to the instructional objectives being tested, with multiple choice tests being used to measure a…

  16. Evidence-Based Decision about Test Scoring Rules in Clinical Anatomy Multiple-Choice Examinations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Severo, Milton; Gaio, A. Rita; Povo, Ana; Silva-Pereira, Fernanda; Ferreira, Maria Amélia

    2015-01-01

    In theory the formula scoring methods increase the reliability of multiple-choice tests in comparison with number-right scoring. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of the formula scoring method in clinical anatomy multiple-choice examinations, and to compare it with that from the number-right scoring method, hoping to achieve an…

  17. The Use of a Comprehensive Multiple Choice Final Exam in the Macroeconomics Principles Course: An Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petrowsky, Michael C.

    This paper analyzes the results of a pilot study at Glendale Community College (Arizona) to assess the effectiveness of a comprehensive multiple choice final exam in the macroeconomic principles course. The "pilot project" involved the administration of a 50-question multiple choice exam to 71 students in three macroeconomics sections. The…

  18. A Diagnostic Study of Pre-Service Teachers' Competency in Multiple-Choice Item Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asim, Alice E.; Ekuri, Emmanuel E.; Eni, Eni I.

    2013-01-01

    Large class size is an issue in testing at all levels of Education. As a panacea to this, multiple choice test formats has become very popular. This case study was designed to diagnose pre-service teachers' competency in constructing questions (IQT); direct questions (DQT); and best answer (BAT) varieties of multiple choice items. Subjects were 88…

  19. Using Multiple-Choice Questions to Evaluate In-Depth Learning of Economics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckles, Stephen; Siegfried, John J.

    2006-01-01

    Multiple-choice questions are the basis of a significant portion of assessment in introductory economics courses. However, these questions, as found in course assessments, test banks, and textbooks, often fail to evaluate students' abilities to use and apply economic analysis. The authors conclude that multiple-choice questions can be used to…

  20. A Diagnostic Study of Pre-Service Teachers' Competency in Multiple-Choice Item Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asim, Alice E.; Ekuri, Emmanuel E.; Eni, Eni I.

    2013-01-01

    Large class size is an issue in testing at all levels of Education. As a panacea to this, multiple choice test formats has become very popular. This case study was designed to diagnose pre-service teachers' competency in constructing questions (IQT); direct questions (DQT); and best answer (BAT) varieties of multiple choice items. Subjects were 88…

  1. An Empirical Evaluation of Selected Multiple-Choice Item Writing Guidelines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sireci, Stephen G.; Wiley, Andrew; Keller, Lisa A.

    Seven specific guidelines included in the taxonomy proposed by T. Haladyna and S. Downing (1998) for writing multiple-choice test items were evaluated. These specific guidelines are: (1) avoid the complex multiple-choice, K-type format; (2) state the stem in question format; (3) word the stem positively; (4) avoid the phrase "all of the above";…

  2. Testing Collective Memory: Representing the Soviet Union on Multiple-Choice Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reich, Gabriel A.

    2011-01-01

    This article tests the assumption that state-mandated multiple-choice history exams are a cultural tool for disseminating an "official" collective memory. Findings from a qualitative study of a collection of multiple-choice questions that relate to the history of the Soviet Union are presented. The 263 questions all come from New York State…

  3. The Answering Process for Multiple-Choice Questions in Collaborative Learning: A Mathematical Learning Model Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakamura, Yasuyuki; Nishi, Shinnosuke; Muramatsu, Yuta; Yasutake, Koichi; Yamakawa, Osamu; Tagawa, Takahiro

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a mathematical model for collaborative learning and the answering process for multiple-choice questions. The collaborative learning model is inspired by the Ising spin model and the model for answering multiple-choice questions is based on their difficulty level. An intensive simulation study predicts the possibility of…

  4. Using Multiple-Choice Questions to Evaluate In-Depth Learning of Economics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckles, Stephen; Siegfried, John J.

    2006-01-01

    Multiple-choice questions are the basis of a significant portion of assessment in introductory economics courses. However, these questions, as found in course assessments, test banks, and textbooks, often fail to evaluate students' abilities to use and apply economic analysis. The authors conclude that multiple-choice questions can be used to…

  5. Testing Collective Memory: Representing the Soviet Union on Multiple-Choice Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reich, Gabriel A.

    2011-01-01

    This article tests the assumption that state-mandated multiple-choice history exams are a cultural tool for disseminating an "official" collective memory. Findings from a qualitative study of a collection of multiple-choice questions that relate to the history of the Soviet Union are presented. The 263 questions all come from New York State…

  6. Teaching Critical Thinking without (Much) Writing: Multiple-Choice and Metacognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bassett, Molly H.

    2016-01-01

    In this essay, I explore an exam format that pairs multiple-choice questions with required rationales. In a space adjacent to each multiple-choice question, students explain why or how they arrived at the answer they selected. This exercise builds the critical thinking skill known as metacognition, thinking about thinking, into an exam that also…

  7. Multiple-Choice and Short-Answer Exam Performance in a College Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Funk, Steven C.; Dickson, K. Laurie

    2011-01-01

    The authors experimentally investigated the effects of multiple-choice and short-answer format exam items on exam performance in a college classroom. They randomly assigned 50 students to take a 10-item short-answer pretest or posttest on two 50-item multiple-choice exams in an introduction to personality course. Students performed significantly…

  8. Teaching Critical Thinking without (Much) Writing: Multiple-Choice and Metacognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bassett, Molly H.

    2016-01-01

    In this essay, I explore an exam format that pairs multiple-choice questions with required rationales. In a space adjacent to each multiple-choice question, students explain why or how they arrived at the answer they selected. This exercise builds the critical thinking skill known as metacognition, thinking about thinking, into an exam that also…

  9. A comparative study of students' performance in preclinical physiology assessed by multiple choice and short essay questions.

    PubMed

    Oyebola, D D; Adewoye, O E; Iyaniwura, J O; Alada, A R; Fasanmade, A A; Raji, Y

    2000-01-01

    This study was designed to compare the performance of medical students in physiology when assessed by multiple choice questions (MCQs) and short essay questions (SEQs). The study also examined the influence of factors such as age, sex, O/level grades and JAMB scores on performance in the MCQs and SEQs. A structured questionnaire was administered to 264 medical students' four months before the Part I MBBS examination. Apart from personal data of each student, the questionnaire sought information on the JAMB scores and GCE O' Level grades of each student in English Language, Biology, Chemistry, Physics and Mathematics. The physiology syllabus was divided into five parts and the students were administered separate examinations (tests) on each part. Each test consisted of MCQs and SEQs. The performance in MCQs and SEQs were compared. Also, the effects of JAMB scores and GCE O/level grades on the performance in both the MCQs and SEQs were assessed. The results showed that the students performed better in all MCQ tests than in the SEQs. JAMB scores and O' level English Language grade had no significant effect on students' performance in MCQs and SEQs. However O' level grades in Biology, Chemistry, Physics and Mathematics had significant effects on performance in MCQs and SEQs. Inadequate knowledge of physiology and inability to present information in a logical sequence are believed to be major factors contributing to the poorer performance in the SEQs compared with MCQs. In view of the finding of significant association between performance in MCQs and SEQs and GCE O/level grades in science subjects and mathematics, it was recommended that both JAMB results and the GCE results in the four O/level subjects above may be considered when selecting candidates for admission into the medical schools. PMID:11713989

  10. The Next Generation Science Standards: A Focus on Physical Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krajcik, Joe

    2013-01-01

    This article describes ways to adapt U.S. science curriculum to the U.S. National Research Council (NRC) "Framework for K-12 Science Education" and "Next Generation of Science Standards" (NGSS), noting their focus on teaching the physical sciences. The overall goal of the Framework and NGSS is to help all learners develop the…

  11. The Next Generation Science Standards: A Focus on Physical Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krajcik, Joe

    2013-01-01

    This article describes ways to adapt U.S. science curriculum to the U.S. National Research Council (NRC) "Framework for K-12 Science Education" and "Next Generation of Science Standards" (NGSS), noting their focus on teaching the physical sciences. The overall goal of the Framework and NGSS is to help all learners develop the…

  12. BOOK REVIEW: Key Science Physics: New Edition and Key Science Physics for International Schools: Extension File

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maybank, Maureen

    1999-09-01

    When handling , I recalled how one set of sixth-form students that I taught affectionately referred to Jim Breithaupt's large format book Understanding Physics for Advanced Level as `Big Jim'. This package, for GCSE students and teachers, is its younger brother. Key Science Physics was reviewed in this journal over four years ago. Now it is in a new edition with an expanded ring file of teacher resources (a Teacher's Guide and Extension File). It has been expanded for a wider range of students to meet the requirements of all GCSE syllabuses with additional topics for IGCSE and IB. The international bit seems to be among materials in the file of resources and does not appear in the title of the students' textbook. This is not one of those purchases that will only get occasional use and be left in a department library but it is one that contains sufficient excellent material to become central to any GCSE Physics course. For the students there is a single-volume 396-page textbook in full colour (not a heavyweight book). Marginal comments point out places where an Activity or Assignment from the Extension File fits in. All the materials in the teacher's Extension File are cross referenced to the numbering of this textbook, i.e. its Themes, Topics, Checkpoints, Tests etc, not to page numbers. The margin is used in other attractive ways to highlight a summary, propose a first thought or provide a topic summary. The text is fruitful mix of pure physics, applications and personalities. To support the students' practical work the Extension File contains photocopiable sheets. For the activities and assignments a few contain a harder version to give access to the higher levels of attainment. Four alternatives to practical questions are given; there are also exam questions and multiple choice questions for each topic. These all have helpful mark schemes on the teacher's answers pages. What else do you get? A Glossary collection of sheets to photocopy with space to enter a definition in a second language. Versions of many key diagrams in the student book are enlarged and reworked in clear black and white to make OHP transparencies. There is a mention of these also being in colour on a CD-ROM. The organization of the Extension File is as clear as is reasonably possible. As a user, I would add coloured page dividers to mark the sections within it. The Teacher's Guide is admirable in its restraint - just 26 sides of topic notes - which includes the answers to the non-numerical checkpoint questions missing in the student book. It is not wordy or full of educational theory but succinct and relevant to the day-to-day business of learning with these materials. Reading it, I was aware of the snags that a novice teacher might be glad to know but were missing. As always, materials like these should come with a health warning - try out all homework sheets, instructions for activities and assignments before your students!

  13. Biofield Science: Current Physics Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Chevalier, Gaétan; Chopra, Deepak; Hubacher, John; Kak, Subhash; Theise, Neil D.

    2015-01-01

    This article briefly reviews the biofield hypothesis and its scientific literature. Evidence for the existence of the biofield now exists, and current theoretical foundations are now being developed. A review of the biofield and related topics from the perspective of physical science is needed to identify a common body of knowledge and evaluate possible underlying principles of origin of the biofield. The properties of such a field could be based on electromagnetic fields, coherent states, biophotons, quantum and quantum-like processes, and ultimately the quantum vacuum. Given this evidence, we intend to inquire and discuss how the existence of the biofield challenges reductionist approaches and presents its own challenges regarding the origin and source of the biofield, the specific evidence for its existence, its relation to biology, and last but not least, how it may inform an integrated understanding of consciousness and the living universe. PMID:26665039

  14. Biofield Science: Current Physics Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Kafatos, Menas C; Chevalier, Gaétan; Chopra, Deepak; Hubacher, John; Kak, Subhash; Theise, Neil D

    2015-11-01

    This article briefly reviews the biofield hypothesis and its scientific literature. Evidence for the existence of the biofield now exists, and current theoretical foundations are now being developed. A review of the biofield and related topics from the perspective of physical science is needed to identify a common body of knowledge and evaluate possible underlying principles of origin of the biofield. The properties of such a field could be based on electromagnetic fields, coherent states, biophotons, quantum and quantum-like processes, and ultimately the quantum vacuum. Given this evidence, we intend to inquire and discuss how the existence of the biofield challenges reductionist approaches and presents its own challenges regarding the origin and source of the biofield, the specific evidence for its existence, its relation to biology, and last but not least, how it may inform an integrated understanding of consciousness and the living universe. PMID:26665039

  15. Measuring University students' understanding of the greenhouse effect - a comparison of multiple-choice, short answer and concept sketch assessment tools with respect to students' mental models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gold, A. U.; Harris, S. E.

    2013-12-01

    The greenhouse effect comes up in most discussions about climate and is a key concept related to climate change. Existing studies have shown that students and adults alike lack a detailed understanding of this important concept or might hold misconceptions. We studied the effectiveness of different interventions on University-level students' understanding of the greenhouse effect. Introductory level science students were tested for their pre-knowledge of the greenhouse effect using validated multiple-choice questions, short answers and concept sketches. All students participated in a common lesson about the greenhouse effect and were then randomly assigned to one of two lab groups. One group explored an existing simulation about the greenhouse effect (PhET-lesson) and the other group worked with absorption spectra of different greenhouse gases (Data-lesson) to deepen the understanding of the greenhouse effect. All students completed the same assessment including multiple choice, short answers and concept sketches after participation in their lab lesson. 164 students completed all the assessments, 76 completed the PhET lesson and 77 completed the data lesson. 11 students missed the contrasting lesson. In this presentation we show the comparison between the multiple-choice questions, short answer questions and the concept sketches of students. We explore how well each of these assessment types represents student's knowledge. We also identify items that are indicators of the level of understanding of the greenhouse effect as measured in correspondence of student answers to an expert mental model and expert responses. Preliminary data analysis shows that student who produce concept sketch drawings that come close to expert drawings also choose correct multiple-choice answers. However, correct multiple-choice answers are not necessarily an indicator that a student produces an expert-like correlating concept sketch items. Multiple-choice questions that require detailed knowledge of the greenhouse effect (e.g. direction of re-emission of infrared energy from greenhouse gas) are significantly more likely to be answered correctly by students who also produce expert-like concept sketch items than by students who don't include this aspect in their sketch and don't answer the multiple choice questions correctly. This difference is not as apparent for less technical multiple-choice questions (e.g. type of radiation emitted by Sun). Our findings explore the formation of student's mental models throughout different interventions and how well the different assessment techniques used in this study represent the student understanding of the overall concept.

  16. 2009 Events | Physical Sciences in Oncology

    Cancer.gov

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI) has awarded multiple institutional grants to establish twelve Physical Sciences-Oncology Centers (PS-OC) as part of its Physical Sciences in Oncology initiative to better understand the physical laws and principles that shape and govern the emergence and behavior of cancer. The goal of the five year initiative is to engage trans-disciplinary scientific teams from fields of physics, mathematics, chemistry and engineering to examine new, non-traditional approaches to cancer research.

  17. A New Approach to the Problem of Changing Initial Responses to Multiple Choice Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reiling, Eldon; Taylor, Ryland

    1972-01-01

    The hypothesis that it is unwise to change answers to multiple choice questions was tested using multiple regression analysis. The hypothesis was rejected as results showed that there are gains to be made by changing responses. (Author/CK)

  18. Quality Multiple-Choice Test Questions: Item-Writing Guidelines and an Analysis of Auditing Testbanks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, James D.; Dexter, Lee

    1997-01-01

    Analysis of test item banks in 10 auditing textbooks found that 75% of questions violated one or more guidelines for multiple-choice items. In comparison, 70% of a certified public accounting exam bank had no violations. (SK)

  19. Multiple Choice Versus True-False: A Comparison of Reliabilities and Concurrent Validities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frisbee, David A.

    1973-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to gather empirical evidence to compare the reliabilities and concurrent validities of multiple choice and true-false tests that were written to measure understandings and relationships in the same content areas. (Author)

  20. Comparing comprehension measured by multiple-choice and open-ended questions.

    PubMed

    Ozuru, Yasuhiro; Briner, Stephen; Kurby, Christopher A; McNamara, Danielle S

    2013-09-01

    This study compared the nature of text comprehension as measured by multiple-choice format and open-ended format questions. Participants read a short text while explaining preselected sentences. After reading the text, participants answered open-ended and multiple-choice versions of the same questions based on their memory of the text content. The results indicated that performance on open-ended questions was correlated with the quality of self-explanations, but performance on multiple-choice questions was correlated with the level of prior knowledge related to the text. These results suggest that open-ended and multiple-choice format questions measure different aspects of comprehension processes. The results are discussed in terms of dual process theories of text comprehension. PMID:24041303

  1. Benford’s Law: Textbook Exercises and Multiple-Choice Testbanks

    PubMed Central

    Slepkov, Aaron D.; Ironside, Kevin B.; DiBattista, David

    2015-01-01

    Benford’s Law describes the finding that the distribution of leading (or leftmost) digits of innumerable datasets follows a well-defined logarithmic trend, rather than an intuitive uniformity. In practice this means that the most common leading digit is 1, with an expected frequency of 30.1%, and the least common is 9, with an expected frequency of 4.6%. Currently, the most common application of Benford’s Law is in detecting number invention and tampering such as found in accounting-, tax-, and voter-fraud. We demonstrate that answers to end-of-chapter exercises in physics and chemistry textbooks conform to Benford’s Law. Subsequently, we investigate whether this fact can be used to gain advantage over random guessing in multiple-choice tests, and find that while testbank answers in introductory physics closely conform to Benford’s Law, the testbank is nonetheless secure against such a Benford’s attack for banal reasons. PMID:25689468

  2. Test of understanding of vectors: A reliable multiple-choice vector concept test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barniol, Pablo; Zavala, Genaro

    2014-06-01

    In this article we discuss the findings of our research on students' understanding of vector concepts in problems without physical context. First, we develop a complete taxonomy of the most frequent errors made by university students when learning vector concepts. This study is based on the results of several test administrations of open-ended problems in which a total of 2067 students participated. Using this taxonomy, we then designed a 20-item multiple-choice test [Test of understanding of vectors (TUV)] and administered it in English to 423 students who were completing the required sequence of introductory physics courses at a large private Mexican university. We evaluated the test's content validity, reliability, and discriminatory power. The results indicate that the TUV is a reliable assessment tool. We also conducted a detailed analysis of the students' understanding of the vector concepts evaluated in the test. The TUV is included in the Supplemental Material as a resource for other researchers studying vector learning, as well as instructors teaching the material.

  3. Physics. Teacher's Guide. Investigations in Natural Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renner, John W.; And Others

    Investigations in Natural Science is a program in secondary school biology, chemistry, and physics based upon the description of science as a quest for knowledge, not the knowledge itself. This teaching guide is designed for use with the 36 physics investigations found in the student manual. These investigations focus on concepts related to:…

  4. Physics. Teacher's Guide. Investigations in Natural Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renner, John W.; And Others

    Investigations in Natural Science is a program in secondary school biology, chemistry, and physics based upon the description of science as a quest for knowledge, not the knowledge itself. This teaching guide is designed for use with the 36 physics investigations found in the student manual. These investigations focus on concepts related to:…

  5. Physical Science in Constructivist Early Childhood Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kato, Tsuguhiko; Van Meeteren, Beth Dykstra

    2008-01-01

    Teachers at the Freeburg Early Childhood Program know that experimentation with physical science is of great interest to young children, and can begin as early as the age of 3. The constructivist teachers at this experimental school at the University of Northern Iowa worked for six years to develop a center-based approach to physical science with…

  6. Physical Science Experiments for Scientific Glassblowing Technicians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tillis, Samuel E.; Donaghay, Herbert C.

    The twenty experiments in this text have been designed to give the scientific glassblowing technician the opportunity to use scientific glass apparatus in the study of physical science. Primary emphasis of these experiments is on the practical application of the physical science program as a working tool for the scientific glassblowing technician.…

  7. Physical Science Laboratory Manual, Experimental Version.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooperative General Science Project, Atlanta, GA.

    Provided are physical science laboratory experiments which have been developed and used as a part of an experimental one year undergraduate course in general science for non-science majors. The experiments cover a limited number of topics representative of the scientific enterprise. Some of the topics are pressure and buoyancy, heat, motion,…

  8. A participatory learning approach to biochemistry using student authored and evaluated multiple-choice questions.

    PubMed

    Bottomley, Steven; Denny, Paul

    2011-01-01

    A participatory learning approach, combined with both a traditional and a competitive assessment, was used to motivate students and promote a deep approach to learning biochemistry. Students were challenged to research, author, and explain their own multiple-choice questions (MCQs). They were also required to answer, evaluate, and discuss MCQs written by their peers. The technology used to support this activity was PeerWise--a freely available, innovative web-based system that supports students in the creation of an annotated question repository. In this case study, we describe students' contributions to, and perceptions of, the PeerWise system for a cohort of 107 second-year biomedical science students from three degree streams studying a core biochemistry subject. Our study suggests that the students are eager participants and produce a large repository of relevant, good quality MCQs. In addition, they rate the PeerWise system highly and use higher order thinking skills while taking an active role in their learning. We also discuss potential issues and future work using PeerWise for biomedical students. PMID:21948507

  9. Physical Science Rocks! Outreach for Elementary Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKone, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    Students at Copiah-Lincoln Community College (Co-Lin) have been hesitant to take courses in the physical sciences, mostly because of a lack of exposure to them in K-12 or a bad experience in this area. The college is addressing this need by exposing students to the physical sciences early on in their education. The science division at Co-Lin has…

  10. Physical Science Rocks! Outreach for Elementary Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKone, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    Students at Copiah-Lincoln Community College (Co-Lin) have been hesitant to take courses in the physical sciences, mostly because of a lack of exposure to them in K-12 or a bad experience in this area. The college is addressing this need by exposing students to the physical sciences early on in their education. The science division at Co-Lin has…

  11. Force Concept Inventory-based multiple-choice test for investigating students' representational consistency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieminen, Pasi; Savinainen, Antti; Viiri, Jouni

    2010-07-01

    This study investigates students’ ability to interpret multiple representations consistently (i.e., representational consistency) in the context of the force concept. For this purpose we developed the Representational Variant of the Force Concept Inventory (R-FCI), which makes use of nine items from the 1995 version of the Force Concept Inventory (FCI). These original FCI items were redesigned using various representations (such as motion map, vectorial and graphical), yielding 27 multiple-choice items concerning four central concepts underpinning the force concept: Newton’s first, second, and third laws, and gravitation. We provide some evidence for the validity and reliability of the R-FCI; this analysis is limited to the student population of one Finnish high school. The students took the R-FCI at the beginning and at the end of their first high school physics course. We found that students’ (n=168) representational consistency (whether scientifically correct or not) varied considerably depending on the concept. On average, representational consistency and scientifically correct understanding increased during the instruction, although in the post-test only a few students performed consistently both in terms of representations and scientifically correct understanding. We also compared students’ (n=87) results of the R-FCI and the FCI, and found that they correlated quite well.

  12. Astronomical Approach to Physical Science Curriculum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manning, H. L. K.; Churukian, A. D.

    2004-11-01

    The Astronomical Approach to Physical Science Curriculum (AAPS Curriculum) is an innovative curriculum that incorporates an astronomy theme into an inquiry-based physical science curriculum for pre-service, elementary school teachers. Many physical science courses are a non-cohesive collection of topics required for the state teaching license. Through the use of astronomy and space science examples, the AAPS Curriculum will have a coherent theme that ties the wide variety of physical science topics together and provides many real world applications for the topics covered in the course. This new curriculum will incorporate the applications of knowledge to complete the learning cycle-exploration, concept introduction, application. Astronomy and space science applications will be emphasized throughout the curriculum. The theme of astronomy was chosen to prepare elementary school teachers for teaching astronomy and space science in their classroom, as this is a topic in which many school children are consistently interested. Since astronomy is a topic that can be used as a springboard to teach many other areas of study, we want teachers who are knowledgeable in topics of astronomy so they are capable of preparing creative lessons throughout their entire curriculum that are exciting to their students. The AAPS Curriculum will train college students to become teachers who are comfortable with physical science and astronomy topics and who are excited to teach these topics in their classroom. Funding for this work is provided by the IDEAS grant program of the Space Telescope Science Institute.

  13. Prior Preparation in Math and Science and its Effect on Student Performance in an Introductory Physics Course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudol, Jeffrey J.

    2011-01-01

    I developed a test, hereafter the Baseline Test, to measure the extent to which students meet the expectations of a college level, algebra-based, introductory physics course with regard to prior preparation in math and science. The average Baseline Test score for a sample of N=182 undergraduate students is 0.55 ± 0.18, consistent with past efforts to make similar measurements. Positive correlation is found between Baseline Test scores and average exam scores (r=0.57, p < 0.0001, N=144). Positive correlation is also found between Baseline Test scores and Force Concept Inventory gains (r=0.45, p < 0.0001, N=141). An analysis of the complete record of student responses to each of the Baseline Test questions and the multiple choice questions on exams reveals no apparent, causal relationship between prior preparation in math and science and student performance on exams. The data suggest the presence of a hidden variable.

  14. Multiple choice of gauge generators and consistency of interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyakhovich, S. L.; Sharapov, A. A.

    2014-10-01

    It is usually assumed that any consistent interaction either deforms or retains the gauge symmetries of the corresponding free theory. We propose a simple model where an obvious irreducible gauge symmetry does not survive an interaction, while the interaction is consistent as it preserves the number of physical degrees of freedom. The model turns out admitting a less obvious reducible set of gauge generators which is compatible with the interaction and smooth in coupling constant. Possible application to gravity models is discussed.

  15. Physical and Life Sciences 2008 Science & Technology Highlights

    SciTech Connect

    Correll, D L; Hazi, A U

    2009-05-06

    This document highlights the outstanding research and development activities in the Physical and Life Sciences Directorate that made news in 2008. It also summarizes the awards and recognition received by members of the Directorate in 2008.

  16. Simple model for multiple-choice collective decision making.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ching Hua; Lucas, Andrew

    2014-11-01

    We describe a simple model of heterogeneous, interacting agents making decisions between n≥2 discrete choices. For a special class of interactions, our model is the mean field description of random field Potts-like models and is effectively solved by finding the extrema of the average energy E per agent. In these cases, by studying the propagation of decision changes via avalanches, we argue that macroscopic dynamics is well captured by a gradient flow along E. We focus on the permutation symmetric case, where all n choices are (on average) the same, and spontaneous symmetry breaking (SSB) arises purely from cooperative social interactions. As examples, we show that bimodal heterogeneity naturally provides a mechanism for the spontaneous formation of hierarchies between decisions and that SSB is a preferred instability to discontinuous phase transitions between two symmetric points. Beyond the mean field limit, exponentially many stable equilibria emerge when we place this model on a graph of finite mean degree. We conclude with speculation on decision making with persistent collective oscillations. Throughout the paper, we emphasize analogies between methods of solution to our model and common intuition from diverse areas of physics, including statistical physics and electromagnetism. PMID:25493831

  17. Simple model for multiple-choice collective decision making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Ching Hua; Lucas, Andrew

    2014-11-01

    We describe a simple model of heterogeneous, interacting agents making decisions between n ?2 discrete choices. For a special class of interactions, our model is the mean field description of random field Potts-like models and is effectively solved by finding the extrema of the average energy E per agent. In these cases, by studying the propagation of decision changes via avalanches, we argue that macroscopic dynamics is well captured by a gradient flow along E . We focus on the permutation symmetric case, where all n choices are (on average) the same, and spontaneous symmetry breaking (SSB) arises purely from cooperative social interactions. As examples, we show that bimodal heterogeneity naturally provides a mechanism for the spontaneous formation of hierarchies between decisions and that SSB is a preferred instability to discontinuous phase transitions between two symmetric points. Beyond the mean field limit, exponentially many stable equilibria emerge when we place this model on a graph of finite mean degree. We conclude with speculation on decision making with persistent collective oscillations. Throughout the paper, we emphasize analogies between methods of solution to our model and common intuition from diverse areas of physics, including statistical physics and electromagnetism.

  18. HSC Physical Science (Man and the Physical World)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malcolm, Cliff K.

    1977-01-01

    Reports on this recently developed program which is a single subject alternative to physics and chemistry. In the program, the interrelationships of science and technology are examined. Teaching methodologies and instructional materials are described. (CP)

  19. The "Next Generation Science Standards": A Focus on Physical Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krajcik, Joe

    2013-01-01

    What should all students know about the physical sciences? Why should all students have a basic understanding of these ideas? An amazing number of new scientific breakthroughs have occurred in the last 20 years that impact daily lives. This article focuses on the "Next Generation Science Standards" (NGSS) disciplinary core ideas in…

  20. The "Next Generation Science Standards": A Focus on Physical Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krajcik, Joe

    2013-01-01

    What should all students know about the physical sciences? Why should all students have a basic understanding of these ideas? An amazing number of new scientific breakthroughs have occurred in the last 20 years that impact daily lives. This article focuses on the "Next Generation Science Standards" (NGSS) disciplinary core ideas in…

  1. Northwestern University | Physical Sciences in Oncology

    Cancer.gov

    Northwestern University Physical Sciences-Oncology Center's (NU PS-OC) main focus is to probe the molecular basis of information flow within malignant cells. This center’s studies will highlight diverse characteristics of gene expression and storage. Moreover, these investigators postulate that in the cancerous state, the epigenome is significantly mutated. By merging experimental molecular and cellular biology with the physical sciences, these investigators will examine the regulation and expression of genes.

  2. The Development and Analysis of a Grade Eight Physical Science Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Balwant; And Others

    This 46-question multiple choice test deals with the physical and chemical properties of matter, wave motion and types of energy, simple machines, equipment safety and measurement. The test is meant for administration to grade 8 students before and after instruction. Item analysis of the pre- post data are included, as are reliability estimates…

  3. "Physics and Life" for Europe's Science Teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-04-01

    The EIROforum Contribution to the European Science and Technology Week 2003 [Physics on Stage 3 Logo] What do you know about modern science? Was your school science teacher inspiring and enthusiastic? Or was physics class a good time to take a nap? Unfortunately, many young Europeans don't have the fondest memories of science in school, and the result is a widespread disinterest and lack of understanding of science among adults. This has become a real problem - especially at a time when science is having a growing impact on our daily lives, and when society needs more scientists than ever! What can be done? Some of Europe's leading research organisations, scientists and teachers have put their heads together and come up with a unique approach called "Physics on Stage" . This will be the third year that these institutes, with substantial support from the European Commission, are running this project - attacking the problem at its roots. EIROforum and "Physics on Stage 3" [EIROforum Logo] "Physics On Stage 3" is based on the very successful "Physics On Stage" concept that was introduced in 2000. It is directed towards science teachers and students in Europe's secondary schools. It is a part of the year-long build-up to the European Science and Technology Week 2003 (3-9 November), an initiative by the European Commission, and is run by seven of Europe's leading Intergovernmental Research Organizations (the EIROforum) [1]. The project addresses the content and format of science teaching in European schools , seeking to improve the quality of teaching and to find new ways to stimulate pupils to take an interest in science. Innovative and inspirational science teaching is seen as a key component to attract young people to deal with scientific issues, whether or not they finally choose a career in science. Hence, "Physics On Stage 3" aims to stimulate the interest of young people through the school teachers, who can play a key role in reversing the trend of falling interest in science and current scientific research. The goals of "Physics On Stage 3" [EWST Logo] "Physics on Stage 3" also aims to facilitate the exchange of good practice and innovative ideas among Europe's science teachers and to provide a forum for a broad debate among educators, administrators and policy-makers about the key problems in science education today. Moreover, it will make available the considerable, combined expertise of the EIROforum organisations to the European scientific teaching community, in order to promote the introduction of "fresh" science into the curricula and thus to convey a more realistic image of modern science to the pupils. "Physics on Stage 3" is concerned with basic science and also with the cross-over between different science disciplines - a trend becoming more and more important in today's science, which is not normally reflected in school curricula. A key element of the programme is to give teachers an up-to-date "insiders'" view of what is happening in science and to tell them about new, highly-diverse and interesting career opportunities for their pupils. Theme of the activities The theme of "Physics on Stage" this year is "Physics and Life" , reflecting the decision to broaden the Physics on Stage activities to encompass all the natural sciences. Including other sciences will augment the already successful concept, introducing a mixture of cross-over projects that highlight the multidisciplinary aspects of modern science. Among the many subjects to be presented are radiation, physics and the environment, astrobiology (the search for life beyond earth), complex systems, self-organising systems, sports science, the medical applications of physics, mathematics and epidemiology, etc. The main elements National activities "Physics on Stage 3" has already started and National Steering Committees in 22 countries, composed of eminent science teachers, scientists, administrators and others involved in setting school curricula, are now preparing related programs in their countries. Through these national activities, outstanding individuals will be selected to represent their teachers' communities at the final international event, the "Physics on Stage 3" festival. A list of national contact points is attached below. International festival The high-profile "festival" during the European Science and Technology Week 2003 will stimulate the dissemination of successful education tools and methods, identify the most effective ways to support teachers and motivate novel developments in science education. It will take place at the ESA-ESTEC site in Noordwijk (The Netherlands), from November 8 - 15, 2003 . The climax of the event will be the presentation of the European Science Teaching Awards , in recognition of teaching excellence, inspiration and motivation of young people. Online Resource Archive An online archive of the best teaching materials and practices in Europe will be established, forming a unique 'resource centre', which will make available all of the interesting materials identified through the programme and provide a forum for exchange which will last well beyond the duration of the activity. More information Full information about "Physics on Stage 3" is available at the central website: www.physicsonstage.net From here there is also direct connection to the national websites and the many related activities all over Europe. Be sure to check the site at regular intervals for new information about the developments!

  4. Home | Physical Sciences in Oncology

    Cancer.gov

    Video of the NCI's recent symposium on this new and exciting frontier of cancer research. Topics include information transfer in time and space, physics of cancer, advancing cancer technologies, evolutionary dynamics in cancer, and links to clinical perspectives.

  5. Can Peer Instruction Be Effective in Upper-Division Computer Science Courses?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey Lee, Cynthia; Garcia, Saturnino; Porter, Leo

    2013-01-01

    Peer Instruction (PI) is an active learning pedagogical technique. PI lectures present students with a series of multiple-choice questions, which they respond to both individually and in groups. PI has been widely successful in the physical sciences and, recently, has been successfully adopted by computer science instructors in lower-division,…

  6. Can Peer Instruction Be Effective in Upper-Division Computer Science Courses?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey Lee, Cynthia; Garcia, Saturnino; Porter, Leo

    2013-01-01

    Peer Instruction (PI) is an active learning pedagogical technique. PI lectures present students with a series of multiple-choice questions, which they respond to both individually and in groups. PI has been widely successful in the physical sciences and, recently, has been successfully adopted by computer science instructors in lower-division,…

  7. Career Exploration in the Physical Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center for Vocational and Technical Education.

    The purpose of the teacher's guide is to acquaint ninth grade students with the areas of physical science and the possible occupations within those areas. By exploring some of the basic concepts of chemistry, physics, metallurgy, and geology, students gain insight into the knowledge and skill required by those in occupations related to these…

  8. Contact Information | Physical Sciences in Oncology

    Cancer.gov

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI) is exploring new and innovative scientific approaches to better understand and control cancer. The Office of Physical Sciences - Oncology (OPSO) leads the NCI's efforts to establish research projects that bring together cancer biologists and oncologists with scientists from the fields of physics, mathematics, chemistry, and engineering to address some of the major questions and barriers in cancer research.

  9. Arizona State University | Physical Sciences in Oncology

    Cancer.gov

    Arizona State University Physical Sciences-Oncology Center's (ASU PS-OC) foremost aim is to rigorously question the central tenets of cancer biology and to innovate paradigm shifting tactics that challenge the barriers of contemporary cancer research and treatments. These investigators hypothesize that cancer progression is linked to systematic physical differences in cells.

  10. Science for physically and mentally challenged students

    SciTech Connect

    Whalen, L.

    1994-12-31

    Science is all around us in everything we do, but science education is not always provided to youngsters who are physically and mentally challenged. The problem is not that most children can`t learn, it is that we are not explaining or modeling to meet each child`s needs. We must rethink our ways of teaching and enthusing. Science can be taught to, and enjoyed by, challenged youth to explain the world around them. The science should be friendly. Scientific vocabulary can be intimidating and everyday words must be used. Increased tactile and visualization methods based on social concepts and sign language can be used to improve science education for physically and mentally challenged students.

  11. TEACHING PHYSICS: Preparing teachers to teach physics and physical science by inquiry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDermott, Lillian C.; Shaffer, Peter S.; Constantinou, C. P.

    2000-11-01

    In physics, neither courses for majors nor for non-majors provide the kind of preparation required for teaching physics or physical science by inquiry. Science methods courses cannot help teachers develop the depth of understanding needed for this type of teaching. Since appropriate preparation is not available through the standard curriculum, a practical alternative is to offer special physics courses for teachers.

  12. Teaching Triple Science: GCSE Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Learning and Skills Network (NJ3), 2007

    2007-01-01

    This publication provides an introduction to teaching and learning approaches for the extension topics within GCSE Physics. It highlights some specific ideas that teachers can adopt and where to find further information. It also outlines issues for managing the change. This guide contains sevens sections: Section 1 presents the policy context;…

  13. Teaching Triple Science: GCSE Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Learning and Skills Network (NJ3), 2007

    2007-01-01

    This publication provides an introduction to teaching and learning approaches for the extension topics within GCSE Physics. It highlights some specific ideas that teachers can adopt and where to find further information. It also outlines issues for managing the change. This guide contains sevens sections: Section 1 presents the policy context;…

  14. The Philosophy of Physical Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eddington, Arthur

    2012-10-01

    Preface; 1. Scientific epistemology; 2. Selective subjectivism; 3. Unobservables; 4. The scope of epistemological method; 5. Epistemology and relativity theory; 6. Epistemology and quantum theory; 7. Discovery or manufacture; 8. The concept of analysis; 9. The concept of structure; 10. The concept of existence; 11. The physical universe; 12. The beginnings of knowledge; 13. The synthesis of knowledge; Index.

  15. Test-Taking Skills for Multiple-Choice Formats: Implications for School Psychologists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chittooran, Mary M.; Miles, Dorothy D.

    School psychologists face the challenge of completing standardized, multiple choice tests for professional development in order to meet the competency standards set by organizations and regulatory agencies. Research has indicted that adequate preparation in test-taking skills can significantly improve attitudes toward test taking and actual…

  16. Reading for a Multiple-Choice Test: Headings as Schema Activators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilhite, Stephen C.

    1988-01-01

    Examines the effect of headings on memory as a function of readers' preexisting knowledge of passage topic. Employs a multiple-choice retention test. Finds that headings facilitate recognition memory by activating schemas and that such organizational effects of headings benefit main-idea information more than detail information. (RS)

  17. Multiple-Choice Glosses and Incidental Vocabulary Learning: A Case of an EFL Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghahari, Shima; Heidarolad, Meissam

    2015-01-01

    Provision of multiple-choice (MC) glosses, which combines the advantages of glosses and inferring, has recently gained its share of supporters as a potential technique for enhancing L2 texts and increasing word gain for L2 learners. Upon taking an actual TOEFL, the participants underwent a vocabulary pretest to ensure that the target words were…

  18. The Subset Selection Technique for Multiple-Choice Tests: An Empirical Inquiry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaradat, Derar; Sawaged, Sari

    1986-01-01

    The impact of the Subset Selection Technique (SST) for multiple-choice items on certain properties of a test was compared with that of two other methods, the Number Right and the Correction for Guessing Formula. Results indicated that SST outperformed the other two, producing higher reliability and validity without favoring high risk takers.…

  19. Writing Multiple-Choice Items to Measure Higher-Order Educational Objectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aiken, Lewis R.

    1982-01-01

    Five types of multiple-choice items that can be used to assess higher-order educational objectives are examined. The item types do not exhaust the possibilities, but they are standard forms found helpful in writing items to measure more than recognitive memory. (Author/CM)

  20. Finding Relationships between Multiple-Choice Math Tests and Their Stem-Equivalent Constructed Responses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaoui, Nayla Aad

    2011-01-01

    The study takes a close look at relationships between scores on a Mathematics standardized test in two different testing formats--Multiple-Choice (MC) and Constructed Response (CR). Many studies have been dedicated to finding correlations between item format characteristics with regards to race and gender. Few studies, however, have attempted to…

  1. Pick-N Multiple Choice-Exams: A Comparison of Scoring Algorithms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Daniel; Holzer, Matthias; Kopp, Veronika; Fischer, Martin R.

    2011-01-01

    To compare different scoring algorithms for Pick-N multiple correct answer multiple-choice (MC) exams regarding test reliability, student performance, total item discrimination and item difficulty. Data from six 3rd year medical students' end of term exams in internal medicine from 2005 to 2008 at Munich University were analysed (1,255 students,…

  2. A Review of Multiple-Choice Item-Writing Guidelines for Classroom Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haladyna, Thomas M.; Downing, Steven M.; Rodriguez, Michael C.

    2002-01-01

    Validated a taxonomy of 31 multiple-choice item-writing guidelines through a logical process that included reviewing 27 textbooks on educational testing and the results of 27 studies and reviews published since 1990. Presents the taxonomy, which is intended for classroom assessment. (SLD)

  3. A New Approach to Multiple-Choice Question Writing: Example, Transparency, and Variation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Figueiredo, Carlos A.; Contreras, Luis C.; Blanco, Lorenzo J.; Cárdenas, Janeth A.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of the present article is to provide the teacher with an alternative perspective in writing multiple-choice questions. To the techniques and advice available in the literature on the topic, three further aspects are added whose provenance is an emerging line of research--the exemplification of concepts. The objective is to expand…

  4. Statistical Detection of Multiple-Choice Test Answer Copying: State of the Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frary, Robert B.

    Practical and effective methods for detecting copying of multiple-choice test responses have been available for many years. These methods have been used routinely by large admissions and licensing testing programs. However, these methods are seldom applied in the areas of standardized or classroom testing in schools or colleges, and knowledge…

  5. Grading Multiple Choice Exams with Low-Cost and Portable Computer-Vision Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisteus, Jesus Arias; Pardo, Abelardo; García, Norberto Fernández

    2013-01-01

    Although technology for automatic grading of multiple choice exams has existed for several decades, it is not yet as widely available or affordable as it should be. The main reasons preventing this adoption are the cost and the complexity of the setup procedures. In this paper, "Eyegrade," a system for automatic grading of multiple…

  6. Does Correction for Guessing Reduce Students' Performance on Multiple-Choice Examinations? Yes? No? Sometimes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betts, Lucy R.; Elder, Tracey J.; Hartley, James; Trueman, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Multiple-choice (MC) examinations are becoming increasingly popular in higher education because they can be used effectively to assess breadth of knowledge in large cohorts of students. This present research investigated psychology students' performance on, and experiences of, MC examinations with and without correction for guessing. In Study 1,…

  7. A New Method for Administering and Scoring Multiple-Choice Tests: Theoretical Considerations and Empirical Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, Lawrence H.; And Others

    A new scoring procedure for multiple choice tests attempts to assess partial knowledge and to restrict guessing. It is a variant of Coombs' elimination scoring method, adapted for use with the carbon-shield answer sheets commonly used with answer-until-correct scoring. Examinees are directed to erase the carbon shields of choices they are certain…

  8. An Alternate Multiple-Choice Scoring Procedure in a Macroeconomics Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradbard, David A.; Parker, Darrell F.; Stone, Gary L.

    2004-01-01

    In the standard scoring procedure for multiple-choice exams, students must choose exactly one response as correct. Often students may be unable to identify the correct response, but can determine that some of the options are incorrect. This partial knowledge is not captured in the standard scoring format. The Coombs elimination procedure is an…

  9. Expected Multiple-Choice Test Item Scores Under Ordinal Response Modes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frary, Robert B.

    Ordinal response modes for multiple choice tests are those under which the examinee marks one or more choices in an effort to identify the correct choice, or include it in a proper subset of the choices. Two ordinal response modes: answer-until-correct, and Coomb's elimination of choices which examinees identify as wrong, were analyzed for scoring…

  10. An Alternate Multiple-Choice Scoring Procedure in a Macroeconomics Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradbard, David A.; Parker, Darrell F.; Stone, Gary L.

    2004-01-01

    In the standard scoring procedure for multiple-choice exams, students must choose exactly one response as correct. Often students may be unable to identify the correct response, but can determine that some of the options are incorrect. This partial knowledge is not captured in the standard scoring format. The Coombs elimination procedure is an…

  11. A New Method for Administering and Scoring Multiple-Choice Tests: Theoretical Considerations and Empirical Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, Lawrence H.; And Others

    A new scoring procedure for multiple choice tests attempts to assess partial knowledge and to restrict guessing. It is a variant of Coombs' elimination scoring method, adapted for use with the carbon-shield answer sheets commonly used with answer-until-correct scoring. Examinees are directed to erase the carbon shields of choices they are certain…

  12. Expected Multiple-Choice Test Item Scores Under Ordinal Response Modes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frary, Robert B.

    Ordinal response modes for multiple choice tests are those under which the examinee marks one or more choices in an effort to identify the correct choice, or include it in a proper subset of the choices. Two ordinal response modes: answer-until-correct, and Coomb's elimination of choices which examinees identify as wrong, were analyzed for scoring…

  13. A Self-Correcting Approach to Multiple-Choice Exams Improves Students' Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grühn, Daniel; Cheng, Yanhua

    2014-01-01

    Montepare suggested the use of a self-correcting approach to multiple-choice tests: Students first take the exam as usual, but are allowed to hand in a self-corrected version afterwards. The idea of this approach is that the additional interaction with the material may foster further learning. To examine whether such an approach actually improves…

  14. Multiple-Choice Question Tests: A Convenient, Flexible and Effective Learning Tool? A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglas, Mercedes; Wilson, Juliette; Ennis, Sean

    2012-01-01

    The research presented in this paper is part of a project investigating assessment practices, funded by the Scottish Funding Council. Using established principles of good assessment and feedback, the use of online formative and summative multiple choice tests (MCT's) was piloted to support independent and self-directed learning and improve…

  15. Multiple-Choice Exams: How Well Do We Know the Result?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higbie, Jack

    1993-01-01

    Presents a discussion of trying to best account for the variation resulting from guessing on a multiple-choice exam. A mathematical process is given to determine the amount of variance that could be added or subtracted from a student's score to account for guessing. Examples are provided. (MVL)

  16. Multiple Choice Questions Can Be Designed or Revised to Challenge Learners' Critical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tractenberg, Rochelle E.; Gushta, Matthew M.; Mulroney, Susan E.; Weissinger, Peggy A.

    2013-01-01

    Multiple choice (MC) questions from a graduate physiology course were evaluated by cognitive-psychology (but not physiology) experts, and analyzed statistically, in order to test the independence of content expertise and cognitive complexity ratings of MC items. Integration of higher order thinking into MC exams is important, but widely known to…

  17. Comparison of Oral Examination and Electronic Examination Using Paired Multiple-Choice Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ventouras, Errikos; Triantis, Dimos; Tsiakas, Panagiotis; Stergiopoulos, Charalampos

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present research was to compare the use of multiple-choice questions (MCQs) as an examination method against the oral examination (OE) method. MCQs are widely used and their importance seems likely to grow, due to their inherent suitability for electronic assessment. However, MCQs are influenced by the tendency of examinees to guess…

  18. A Participatory Learning Approach to Biochemistry Using Student Authored and Evaluated Multiple-Choice Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bottomley, Steven; Denny, Paul

    2011-01-01

    A participatory learning approach, combined with both a traditional and a competitive assessment, was used to motivate students and promote a deep approach to learning biochemistry. Students were challenged to research, author, and explain their own multiple-choice questions (MCQs). They were also required to answer, evaluate, and discuss MCQs…

  19. Multiple-Choice Exam Question Order Influences on Student Performance, Completion Time, and Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pettijohn, Terry F., II; Sacco, Matthew F.

    2007-01-01

    We conducted 2 studies to investigate undergraduate performance, perceptions, and time required in completing sequentially ordered, randomly ordered, or reverse ordered exams in introductory psychology classes. Study 1 compared the outcomes and perceptions of students (N = 66) on 3 non-comprehensive multiple-choice exams which were sequentially,…

  20. Predictive Validity of a Multiple-Choice Test for Placement in a Community College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verbout, Mary F.

    2013-01-01

    Multiple-choice tests of punctuation and usage are used throughout the United States to assess the writing skills of new community college students in order to place them in either a basic writing course or first-year composition. To determine whether using the COMPASS Writing Test (CWT) is a valid placement at a community college, student test…

  1. Are Faculty Predictions or Item Taxonomies Useful for Estimating the Outcome of Multiple-Choice Examinations?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kibble, Jonathan D.; Johnson, Teresa

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether multiple-choice item difficulty could be predicted either by a subjective judgment by the question author or by applying a learning taxonomy to the items. Eight physiology faculty members teaching an upper-level undergraduate human physiology course consented to participate in the study. The…

  2. A Practical Methodology for the Systematic Development of Multiple Choice Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blumberg, Phyllis; Felner, Joel

    Using Guttman's facet design analysis, four parallel forms of a multiple-choice test were developed. A mapping sentence, logically representing the universe of content of a basic cardiology course, specified the facets of the course and the semantic structural units linking them. The facets were: cognitive processes, disease priority, specific…

  3. "I Don't Know" and Multiple Choice Analysis of Pre- and Post-Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spears, Karen; Wilson, Mary

    2010-01-01

    Evaluation is an essential component of any Extension education program. One tool, the pre- and post-test, provides measurable evaluation data. Yet often the answer "I don't know" or all possible answers to a multiple choice question are not included in the repeated measure analysis. Because more than two answers are offered, the test of marginal…

  4. A Statistical Analysis of Infrequent Events on Multiple-Choice Tests that Indicate Probable Cheating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sundermann, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    A statistical analysis of multiple-choice answers is performed to identify anomalies that can be used as evidence of student cheating. The ratio of exact errors in common (EEIC: two students put the same wrong answer for a question) to differences (D: two students get different answers) was found to be a good indicator of cheating under a wide…

  5. Comparing Assessments of Students' Knowledge by Computerized Open-Ended and Multiple-Choice Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anbar, Michael

    1991-01-01

    Interactive computerized tests accepting unrestricted natural-language input were used to assess knowledge of clinical biophysics at the State University of New York at Buffalo. Comparison of responses to open-ended sequential questions and multiple-choice questions on the same material found the two formats test different aspects of competence.…

  6. Multiple-Choice Tests and Student Understanding: What Is the Connection?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simkin, Mark G.; Kuechler, William L.

    2005-01-01

    Instructors can use both "multiple-choice" (MC) and "constructed response" (CR) questions (such as short answer, essay, or problem-solving questions) to evaluate student understanding of course materials and principles. This article begins by discussing the advantages and concerns of using these alternate test formats and…

  7. Basic Item Analysis for Multiple-Choice Tests. ERIC/AE Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kehoe, Jerard

    This digest presents a list of recommendations for writing multiple-choice test items, based on psychometrics statistics are typically provided by a measurement, or test scoring, service, where tests are machine-scored or by testing software packages. Test makers can capitalize on the fact that "bad" items can be differentiated from "good" items…

  8. Illusion of Linearity in Geometry: Effect in Multiple-Choice Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vlahovic-Stetic, Vesna; Pavlin-Bernardic, Nina; Rajter, Miroslav

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine if there is a difference in the performance on non-linear problems regarding age, gender, and solving situation, and whether the multiple-choice answer format influences students' thinking. A total of 112 students, aged 15-16 and 18-19, were asked to solve problems for which solutions based on proportionality…

  9. Can Multiple-Choice Testing Induce Desirable Difficulties? Evidence from the Laboratory and the Classroom.

    PubMed

    Bjork, Elizabeth Ligon; Soderstrom, Nicholas C; Little, Jeri L

    2015-01-01

    The term desirable difficulties (Bjork, 1994) refers to conditions of learning that, though often appearing to cause difficulties for the learner and to slow down the process of acquisition, actually improve long-term retention and transfer. One known desirable difficulty is testing (as compared with restudy), although typically it is tests that clearly involve retrieval--such as free and cued recall tests--that are thought to induce these learning benefits and not multiple-choice tests. Nonetheless, multiple-choice testing is ubiquitous in educational settings and many other high-stakes situations. In this article, we discuss research, in both the laboratory and the classroom, exploring whether multiple-choice testing can also be fashioned to promote the type of retrieval processes known to improve learning, and we speculate about the necessary properties that multiple-choice questions must possess, as well as the metacognitive strategy students need to use in answering such questions, to achieve this goal. PMID:26255442

  10. A Response Model for Multiple Choice Items. Psychometric Technical Report No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thissen, David; Steinberg, Lynne

    An extension of the Bock-Samejima model for multiple choice items is introduced. The model provides for varying probabilities of the response alternative when the examinee guesses. A marginal maximum likelihood method is devised for estimating the item parameters, and likelihood ratio tests for comparing more and less constrained forms of the…

  11. Difficulty and Discriminating Indices of Three-Multiple Choice Tests Using the Confidence Scoring Procedure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Omirin, M. S.

    2007-01-01

    The study investigated the comparison of the difficulty and discrimination incides of three multiple choice tests using the confidence scoring procedure (CSP). The study was also set to determine whether or not the difficulty and discrimination indices would be improved, if the tests were scored by the confidence scoring procedure. Two null…

  12. Not Read, but Nevertheless Solved? Three Experiments on PIRLS Multiple Choice Reading Comprehension Test Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparfeldt, Jorn R.; Kimmel, Rumena; Lowenkamp, Lena; Steingraber, Antje; Rost, Detlef H.

    2012-01-01

    Multiple-choice (MC) reading comprehension test items comprise three components: text passage, questions about the text, and MC answers. The construct validity of this format has been repeatedly criticized. In three between-subjects experiments, fourth graders (N[subscript 1] = 230, N[subscript 2] = 340, N[subscript 3] = 194) worked on three…

  13. Multiple-Choice Glosses and Incidental Vocabulary Learning: A Case of an EFL Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghahari, Shima; Heidarolad, Meissam

    2015-01-01

    Provision of multiple-choice (MC) glosses, which combines the advantages of glosses and inferring, has recently gained its share of supporters as a potential technique for enhancing L2 texts and increasing word gain for L2 learners. Upon taking an actual TOEFL, the participants underwent a vocabulary pretest to ensure that the target words were…

  14. Does Correction for Guessing Reduce Students' Performance on Multiple-Choice Examinations? Yes? No? Sometimes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betts, Lucy R.; Elder, Tracey J.; Hartley, James; Trueman, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Multiple-choice (MC) examinations are becoming increasingly popular in higher education because they can be used effectively to assess breadth of knowledge in large cohorts of students. This present research investigated psychology students' performance on, and experiences of, MC examinations with and without correction for guessing. In Study 1,…

  15. "I Don't Know" and Multiple Choice Analysis of Pre- and Post-Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spears, Karen; Wilson, Mary

    2010-01-01

    Evaluation is an essential component of any Extension education program. One tool, the pre- and post-test, provides measurable evaluation data. Yet often the answer "I don't know" or all possible answers to a multiple choice question are not included in the repeated measure analysis. Because more than two answers are offered, the test of marginal…

  16. Pick-N Multiple Choice-Exams: A Comparison of Scoring Algorithms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Daniel; Holzer, Matthias; Kopp, Veronika; Fischer, Martin R.

    2011-01-01

    To compare different scoring algorithms for Pick-N multiple correct answer multiple-choice (MC) exams regarding test reliability, student performance, total item discrimination and item difficulty. Data from six 3rd year medical students' end of term exams in internal medicine from 2005 to 2008 at Munich University were analysed (1,255 students,…

  17. E-Assessment by Design: Using Multiple-Choice Tests to Good Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicol, David

    2007-01-01

    Over the last decade, larger student numbers, reduced resources and increasing use of new technologies have led to the increased use of multiple-choice questions (MCQs) as a method of assessment in higher education courses. This paper identifies some limitations associated with MCQs from a pedagogical standpoint. It then provides an assessment…

  18. Automated Multiple-Choice Testing for Summative Assessment: What Do Students Think?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridge, Pete; Appleyard, Rob; Wilson, Rob

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports undergraduate student feedback contrasting conventional "Long-answer" examinations with automated multiple-choice question (MCQ) assessment. Feedback was gathered after students had undertaken formative MCQ assessments as a revision aid. Feedback was generally supportive of MCQ summative tests, with 74% expressing a preference…

  19. The "None of the Above" Option in Multiple-Choice Testing: An Experimental Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiBattista, David; Sinnige-Egger, Jo-Anne; Fortuna, Glenda

    2014-01-01

    The authors assessed the effects of using "none of the above" as an option in a 40-item, general-knowledge multiple-choice test administered to undergraduate students. Examinees who selected "none of the above" were given an incentive to write the correct answer to the question posed. Using "none of the above" as the…

  20. A New Approach to Multiple-Choice Question Writing: Example, Transparency, and Variation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Figueiredo, Carlos A.; Contreras, Luis C.; Blanco, Lorenzo J.; Cárdenas, Janeth A.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of the present article is to provide the teacher with an alternative perspective in writing multiple-choice questions. To the techniques and advice available in the literature on the topic, three further aspects are added whose provenance is an emerging line of research--the exemplification of concepts. The objective is to expand…

  1. Gender Differences in Mathematics Self-Efficacy and Back Substitution in Multiple-Choice Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, K. Shane; Ostrom, Lee; Scott, Karen Wilson

    2009-01-01

    A quantitative observational study exploring the relationship of gender to mathematics self-efficacy and the frequency of back substitution in multiple-choice assessment sampled undergraduates at a western United States parochial university. Research questions addressed: to what extent are there gender differences in mathematics self-efficacy, as…

  2. Multiple Choice Questions Can Be Designed or Revised to Challenge Learners' Critical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tractenberg, Rochelle E.; Gushta, Matthew M.; Mulroney, Susan E.; Weissinger, Peggy A.

    2013-01-01

    Multiple choice (MC) questions from a graduate physiology course were evaluated by cognitive-psychology (but not physiology) experts, and analyzed statistically, in order to test the independence of content expertise and cognitive complexity ratings of MC items. Integration of higher order thinking into MC exams is important, but widely known to…

  3. Writing Multiple-Choice Test Items that Promote and Measure Critical Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Susan; Free, Kathleen Walsh

    2001-01-01

    Presents guidelines for developing multiple-choice tests to measure critical thinking in nursing. Explains the rationale for test items and describes item criteria, including measurement of cognition at the application level and above, multilogical thinking, and high level of discrimination. (Contains 38 references.) (SK)

  4. Gender Differences in Performance on Multiple-Choice and Constructed Response Mathematics Items.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garner, Mary; Engelhard, George, Jr.

    1999-01-01

    Gender differences in performance on multiple-choice and constructed-response items in mathematics were studied with 3592 11th graders taking a high school graduation examination. Results suggest that gender differences in mathematics may be linked to content and item format, thus supporting the usefulness of a many-faceted Rasch model for…

  5. Application of a Multidimensional Nested Logit Model to Multiple-Choice Test Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolt, Daniel M.; Wollack, James A.; Suh, Youngsuk

    2012-01-01

    Nested logit models have been presented as an alternative to multinomial logistic models for multiple-choice test items (Suh and Bolt in "Psychometrika" 75:454-473, 2010) and possess a mathematical structure that naturally lends itself to evaluating the incremental information provided by attending to distractor selection in scoring. One potential…

  6. Modeling Incorrect Responses to Multiple-Choice Items with Multilinear Formula Score Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drasgow, Fritz; And Others

    This paper addresses the information revealed in incorrect option selection on multiple choice items. Multilinear Formula Scoring (MFS), a theory providing methods for solving psychological measurement problems of long standing, is first used to estimate option characteristic curves for the Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery Arithmetic…

  7. ITANA-III: A FORTRAN IV Program for Multiple-Choice Tests and Item Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nevo, Barukh; And Others

    1975-01-01

    A two-phase FORTRAN IV program called ITANA-III for an IBM 1130 computer is described that permits computation of psychometric characteristics of multiple-choice examinations including test statistics (phase I) and item statistics (phase II). Consisting of 280 statements, the program can handle up to 200 items with not more than 9 alternatives…

  8. Using Science Fiction Movies in Introductory Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dark, Marta L.

    2005-10-01

    This paper discusses the use of science fiction movies in introductory physics courses at Spelman College. There are several reasons to use these movies in the classroom environment. Movies are a visual learning aid. Introductory physics students show a strong interest in participating in movie-related activities compared to standard group problem-solving sessions. Finally, these activities encourage creative thinking and can be used to develop writing skills. The students involved with these movie-based activities have included biology and pre-medical majors taking general physics. In the introductory level courses, physics, chemistry, and engineering majors worked on movie-based activities.

  9. Bioresource Core | Physical Sciences in Oncology

    Cancer.gov

    The Physical Sciences-Oncology Network Bioresource Core Facility (PBCF) at ATCC is a central resource for all members of the Physical Sciences-Oncology Network (PS-ON) and collaborators. The PBCF serves as a centralized distributor and repository providing the Network with common stocks of an authenticated set of non-malignant and cancerous cell lines, their derivatives, cell culture reagents, and related standard operating protocols. Investigators outside of the Network who agree to actively participate in data sharing and integration efforts are welcome to join the Network.

  10. Princeton University | Physical Sciences in Oncology

    Cancer.gov

    Princeton University Physical Sciences-Oncology Center (PU PS-OC) will focus on how to control the evolution of cancer resistance to chemotherapy. Drug resistance is the major barrier to successful cancer treatment, and understanding its development will facilitate the creation of new agents with improved efficacy. These investigators will use the basics of physics to evaluate stress response mechanisms in a variety of fundamental as well as clinically relevant studies.

  11. DISCUS Eighth Grade, Physical Sciences, Part I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duval County School Board, Jacksonville, FL. Project DISCUS.

    Included are instructional materials designed for use with disadvantaged students who have a limited reading ability and poor command of English. The guide is the first volume of a two volume, one year program in physical science, and contains these five units and activities: First Class Levers, six activities; Inclined Plane, six activities; The…

  12. Theme: Teaching Physical Science Applications in Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osborne, Edward W.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Includes "Preparing Teachers to Teach Agriscience" (Osborne); "Physical Sciences and Agriculture" (Buriak); "Using Experiments to Teach Agriculture" (Miller); "Oooh-Ahhh: So That's How It Works!" (Loschen); "Keeping Agriculture in Agriscience" (Moss); "Sharpening Twist Drills" (McHargue, Hood); and "Safety in the Agriscience Laboratory"…

  13. DISCUS Eighth Grade, Physical Sciences, Part 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duval County School Board, Jacksonville, FL. Project DISCUS.

    Included are instructional materials designed for use with disadvantaged students who have a limited reading ability and poor command of English. The guide is the second volume of a two volume, one year program in physical science, and contains these four units and activities: Buoyancy, nine activities; Solubility, six activities; Crystals and…

  14. Physical sciences contribute 22% to Australian economy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dineley, Jude

    2015-05-01

    Advances in the physical and mathematical sciences over the last two decades contributed some A292bn (about Ă‚ÂŁ151bn) to the Australian economy each year, according to a report carried out by the Centre for International Economics, an economic consultancy.

  15. Johns Hopkins University | Physical Sciences in Oncology

    Cancer.gov

    Johns Hopkins University Physical Sciences-Oncology Center (JHU PS-OC) will explore the mechanical forces in cancer that bolster the tumor metastatic cascade. Metastatic disease is the cause for the preponderance of deaths related to cancer. In fact, relative survival significantly decreases for cancer patients who present with metastases at the time of their diagnosis.

  16. Ideas and Activities for Physical Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiappetta, Eugene L., Ed.

    This manual is designed to supplement an existing physical science curriculum and to assist in providing the learning experiences required to implement an effective course. The first chapter outlines the purposes of this manual and provides a set of teaching tips. Topics such as electricity, wave motion, light, sound, periodic table and nuclear…

  17. Comparison of Performance on Multiple-Choice Questions and Open-Ended Questions in an Introductory Astronomy Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wooten, Michelle M.; Cool, Adrienne M.; Prather, Edward E.; Tanner, Kimberly D.

    2014-01-01

    When considering the variety of questions that can be used to measure students' learning, instructors may choose to use multiple-choice questions, which are easier to score than responses to open-ended questions. However, by design, analyses of multiple-choice responses cannot describe all of students' understanding. One method that can…

  18. Sex Differences in the Relationship of Advanced Placement Essay and Multiple-Choice Scores to Grades in College Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridgeman, Brent; Lewis, Charles

    Essay and multiple-choice scores from Advanced Placement (AP) examinations in American History, European History, English Language and Composition, and Biology were matched with freshman grades in a sample of 32 colleges. Multiple-choice scores from the American History and Biology examinations were superior to essays for predicting overall grade…

  19. The Relationship of Deep and Surface Study Approaches on Factual and Applied Test-Bank Multiple-Choice Question Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yonker, Julie E.

    2011-01-01

    With the advent of online test banks and large introductory classes, instructors have often turned to textbook publisher-generated multiple-choice question (MCQ) exams in their courses. Multiple-choice questions are often divided into categories of factual or applied, thereby implicating levels of cognitive processing. This investigation examined…

  20. The Effect of Multiple-Choice L1 Glosses and Input-Output Cycles on Lexical Acquisition and Retention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rott, Susanne; Williams, Jessica; Cameron, Richard

    2002-01-01

    Examined the effect on lexical acquisition and retention of first language (L1) multiple-choice glosses, second language (L2) text reconstruction with opportunities to recheck input, and combined treatments. Findings suggests that the multiple-choice gloss treatment resulted in significantly deeper productive and receptive word gains immediately…

  1. Application of Item Analysis to Assess Multiple-Choice Examinations in the Mississippi Master Cattle Producer Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parish, Jane A.; Karisch, Brandi B.

    2013-01-01

    Item analysis can serve as a useful tool in improving multiple-choice questions used in Extension programming. It can identify gaps between instruction and assessment. An item analysis of Mississippi Master Cattle Producer program multiple-choice examination responses was performed to determine the difficulty of individual examinations, assess the…

  2. Application of Item Analysis to Assess Multiple-Choice Examinations in the Mississippi Master Cattle Producer Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parish, Jane A.; Karisch, Brandi B.

    2013-01-01

    Item analysis can serve as a useful tool in improving multiple-choice questions used in Extension programming. It can identify gaps between instruction and assessment. An item analysis of Mississippi Master Cattle Producer program multiple-choice examination responses was performed to determine the difficulty of individual examinations, assess the…

  3. Manipulations of Choice Familiarity in Multiple-Choice Testing Support a Retrieval Practice Account of the Testing Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jang, Yoonhee; Pashler, Hal; Huber, David E.

    2014-01-01

    We performed 4 experiments assessing the learning that occurs when taking a test. Our experiments used multiple-choice tests because the processes deployed during testing can be manipulated by varying the nature of the choice alternatives. Previous research revealed that a multiple-choice test that includes "none of the above" (NOTA)…

  4. Plasma Physics, Fusion Science, and California High School Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Correll, Donald

    2004-11-01

    In order to further engage California HIgh School science teachers in plasma physics and fusion science, a collaboration was formed between LLNL's Fusion Energy Program and the University of California's Edward Teller Education Center (etec.ucdavis.edu). California's Science Content Standards for high school physics (www.cde.ca.gov/be/st/ss/scphysics.asp) were used to create a public lecture (education.llnl.gov/sos/) that covered "students are expected to achieve" physics topics relevant to astrophysical and fusion plasma research. In addition to the lecture, a two day workshop for the Edward Teller Education Symposium, September 24 - 25, 2004 (education.llnl.gov/symposium2004) was designed around plasma spectroscopy (education.llnl.gov/symposium2004/agenda_astro.html). Plasma spectroscopy was chosen as the "anchor" to the workshop given the breadth and depth of the field to both astrophysical and fusion plasma research. Workshop participation includes lectures, tours, spectroscopic measurements, and building a 'spectroscope' for use in the teachers' respective high school classrooms. Accomplishments will be reported and future plans will be presented that include development of a one to two week expanded workshop that includes plasma research methods and advanced science skills essential to guiding students to conduct research projects.

  5. A Science Strategy for Space Physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    This report by the Committee on Solar and Space Physics and the Committee on Solar-Terrestrial Research recommends the major directions for scientific research in space physics for the coming decade. As a field of science, space physics has passed through the stage of simply looking to see what is out beyond Earth's atmosphere. It has become a 'hard' science, focusing on understanding the fundamental interactions between charged particles, electromagnetic fields, and gases in the natural laboratory consisting of the galaxy, the Sun, the heliosphere, and planetary magnetospheres, ionospheres, and upper atmospheres. The motivation for space physics research goes far beyond basic physics and intellectual curiosity, however, because long-term variations in the brightness of the Sun virtually affect the habitability of the Earth, while sudden rearrangements of magnetic fields above the solar surface can have profound effects on the delicate balance of the forces that shape our environment in space and on the human technology that is sensitive to that balance. The several subfields of space physics share the following objectives: to understand the fundamental laws or processes of nature as they apply to space plasmas and rarefied gases both on the microscale and in the larger complex systems that constitute the domain of space physics; to understand the links between changes in the Sun and the resulting effects at the Earth, with the eventual goal of predicting the significant effects on the terrestrial environment; and to continue the exploration and description of the plasmas and rarefied gases in the solar system.

  6. Linguistic and cultural adaptation needs of Mexican American nursing students related to multiple-choice tests.

    PubMed

    Lujan, Josefina

    2008-07-01

    Hispanic nurses represent less than 2% of the current U.S. nursing workforce, despite that approximately 14% of the nation's population is Hispanic. There is an urgent need to correct the gross underrepresentation of Mexican Americans, the largest subgroup among Hispanics, in the U.S. nursing workforce to provide culturally concordant care. One solution is to increase the academic success of Mexican American nursing students with English as a second language through improved linguistic and cultural adaptation to multiple-choice tests. This article will discuss these students' linguistic and cultural adaptation needs related to multiple-choice tests and will also present several intervention strategies and a case study. PMID:18630719

  7. [A factor analysis method for contingency table data with unlimited multiple choice questions].

    PubMed

    Toyoda, Hideki; Haiden, Reina; Kubo, Saori; Ikehara, Kazuya; Isobe, Yurie

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to propose a method of factor analysis for analyzing contingency tables developed from the data of unlimited multiple-choice questions. This method assumes that the element of each cell of the contingency table has a binominal distribution and a factor analysis model is applied to the logit of the selection probability. Scree plot and WAIC are used to decide the number of factors, and the standardized residual, the standardized difference between the sample, and the proportion ratio, is used to select items. The proposed method was applied to real product impression research data on advertised chips and energy drinks. Since the results of the analysis showed that this method could be used in conjunction with conventional factor analysis model, and extracted factors were fully interpretable, and suggests the usefulness of the proposed method in the study of psychology using unlimited multiple-choice questions. PMID:26964368

  8. Writing multiple-choice test items that promote and measure critical thinking.

    PubMed

    Morrison, S; Free, K W

    2001-01-01

    Faculties are concerned about measurement of critical thinking especially since the National League for Nursing Accrediting Commission cited such measurement as a requirement for accreditation (NLNAC, 1997). Some writers and researchers (Alfaro-LeFevre, 1995; Blat, 1989; McPeck, 1981, 1990) describe the need to measure critical thinking within the context of a specific discipline. Based on McPeck's position that critical thinking is discipline-specific, guidelines for developing multiple-choice test items as a means of measuring critical thinking within the discipline of nursing are discussed. Specifically, criteria described by Morrison, Smith, and Britt (1996) for writing critical-thinking multiple-choice test items are reviewed and explained for promoting and measuring critical thinking. PMID:11198905

  9. The Physical Sciences. Report of the National Science Board Submitted to the Congress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Handler, Philip

    Recent advances in the physical sciences, including astronomy, chemical synthesis, chemical dynamics, solid-state sciences, atomic and nuclear science, and elementary particles and high-energy physics are summarized in this report to Congress. The nature of physical science, including its increasing unity, the relationship between science and…

  10. Comparison of performance on multiple-choice questions and open-ended questions in an introductory astronomy laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wooten, Michelle M.; Cool, Adrienne M.; Prather, Edward E.; Tanner, Kimberly D.

    2014-12-01

    When considering the variety of questions that can be used to measure students' learning, instructors may choose to use multiple-choice questions, which are easier to score than responses to open-ended questions. However, by design, analyses of multiple-choice responses cannot describe all of students' understanding. One method that can be used to learn more about students' learning is the analysis of the open-ended responses students' provide when explaining their multiple-choice response. In this study, we examined the extent to which introductory astronomy students' performance on multiple-choice questions was comparable to their ability to provide evidence when asked to respond to an open-ended question. We quantified students' open-ended responses by developing rubrics that allowed us to score the amount of relevant evidence students' provided. A minimum rubric score was determined for each question based on two astronomy educators perception of the minimum amount of evidence needed to substantiate a scientifically accurate multiple-choice response. The percentage of students meeting both criteria of (1) attaining the minimum rubric score and (2) selecting the correct multiple-choice response was examined at three different phases of instruction: directly before lab instruction, directly after lab instruction, and at the end of the semester. Results suggested that a greater proportion of students were able to choose the correct multiple-choice response than were able to provide responses that attained the minimum rubric score at both the post-lab and post-instruction phases.

  11. Theme: Physical Science in Agriscience--The New Ag Mech.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buriak, Phil; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Seven theme articles discuss strategies for teaching mechanics, physical sciences in the study of foods, scientific principles in the agricultural curriculum, environmental issues in agriculture, and applied physical sciences. (SK)

  12. 77 FR 17102 - Advisory Committee for Mathematical and Physical Sciences

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Advisory Committee for Mathematical and Physical Sciences Correction The National Science Foundation...: Directorate for Mathematical and Physical Sciences Advisory Committee (66). Date/Time: April 5, 2012, 9...

  13. Larry A. Nagahara, Ph.D. | Physical Sciences in Oncology

    Cancer.gov

    Dr. Nagahara is Director of the Office of Physical Sciences-Oncology in the Center for Strategic Scientific Initiatives (CSSI), National Cancer Institute (NCI), where he coordinates and directs program and research activities related to expanding the role of the physical sciences in cancer research, including the Physical Sciences-Oncology Centers (PS-OC) Program.

  14. Rockets: Physical science teacher's guide with activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogt, Gregory L.; Rosenberg, Carla R.

    1993-07-01

    This guide begins with background information sections on the history of rocketry, scientific principles, and practical rocketry. The sections on scientific principles and practical rocketry are based on Isaac Newton's three laws of motion. These laws explain why rockets work and how to make them more efficient. The background sections are followed with a series of physical science activities that demonstrate the basic science of rocketry. Each activity is designed to be simple and take advantage of inexpensive materials. Construction diagrams, materials and tools lists, and instructions are included. A brief discussion elaborates on the concepts covered in the activities and is followed with teaching notes and discussion questions. The guide concludes with a glossary of terms, suggested reading list, NASA educational resources, and an evaluation questionnaire with a mailer.

  15. Rockets: Physical science teacher's guide with activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vogt, Gregory L.; Rosenberg, Carla R. (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    This guide begins with background information sections on the history of rocketry, scientific principles, and practical rocketry. The sections on scientific principles and practical rocketry are based on Isaac Newton's three laws of motion. These laws explain why rockets work and how to make them more efficient. The background sections are followed with a series of physical science activities that demonstrate the basic science of rocketry. Each activity is designed to be simple and take advantage of inexpensive materials. Construction diagrams, materials and tools lists, and instructions are included. A brief discussion elaborates on the concepts covered in the activities and is followed with teaching notes and discussion questions. The guide concludes with a glossary of terms, suggested reading list, NASA educational resources, and an evaluation questionnaire with a mailer.

  16. Using Environmental Science as a Motivational Tool to Teach Physics to Non-Science Majors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busch, Hauke C.

    2010-01-01

    A traditional physical science course was transformed into an environmental physical science course to teach physics to non-science majors. The objective of the new course was to improve the learning of basic physics principles by applying them to current issues of interest. A new curriculum was developed with new labs, homework assignments,…

  17. Using Environmental Science as a Motivational Tool to Teach Physics to Non-Science Majors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busch, Hauke C.

    2010-01-01

    A traditional physical science course was transformed into an environmental physical science course to teach physics to non-science majors. The objective of the new course was to improve the learning of basic physics principles by applying them to current issues of interest. A new curriculum was developed with new labs, homework assignments,…

  18. Developing the Learning Physical Science Curriculum: Adapting a Small Enrollment, Laboratory and Discussion Based Physical Science Course for Large Enrollments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Fred; Price, Edward; Robinson, Stephen; Boyd-Harlow, Danielle; McKean, Michael

    2012-01-01

    We report on the adaptation of the small enrollment, lab and discussion based physical science course, "Physical Science and Everyday Thinking" (PSET), for a large-enrollment, lecture-style setting. Like PSET, the new "Learning Physical Science" (LEPS) curriculum was designed around specific principles based on research on learning to meet the…

  19. Technology-Enhanced Physics Programme for Community-Based Science Learning: Innovative Design and Programme Evaluation in a Theme Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tho, Siew Wei; Chan, Ka Wing; Yeung, Yau Yuen

    2015-10-01

    In this study, a new physics education programme is specifically developed for a famous theme park in Hong Kong to provide community-based science learning to her visitors, involving her three newly constructed rides. We make innovative use of digital technologies in this programme and incorporate a rigorous evaluation of the learning effectiveness of the programme. A total of around 200 students from nine local secondary schools participated in both the physics programme and its subsequent evaluation which consists of a combination of research and assessment tools, including pre- and post-multiple-choice tests, a questionnaire survey and an interview as specifically developed for this programme, or adopted from some well-accepted research instruments. Based on the evaluation of students' academic performance, there are two educationally significant findings on enhancing the students' physics learning: (a) traditionally large gender differences in physics performance and interest of learning are mostly eliminated; and (b) a less-exciting ride called the aviator (instead of the most exciting roller-coaster ride) can induce the largest learning effect (or gain in academic performance) amongst teenagers. Besides, findings from the questionnaire survey and interviews of participants are reported to reveal their views, perceptions, positive and negative comments or feedback on this programme which could provide valuable insights for future development of other similar community-based programmes.

  20. Scope and Sequence. Life Sciences, Physical Sciences, Earth and Space Sciences. A Summer Curriculum Development Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cortland-Madison Board of Cooperative Educational Services, Cortland, NY.

    Presented is a booklet containing scope and sequence charts for kindergarten and grades 1 to 6 science units. Overviews and lists of major concepts for units in the life, physical, and earth/space sciences are provided in tables for each grade level. Also presented are seven complete units, one for each grade level. Following a table of contents,…

  1. Scope and Sequence. Life Sciences, Physical Sciences, Earth and Space Sciences. A Summer Curriculum Development Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cortland-Madison Board of Cooperative Educational Services, Cortland, NY.

    Presented is a booklet containing scope and sequence charts for kindergarten and grades 1 to 6 science units. Overviews and lists of major concepts for units in the life, physical, and earth/space sciences are provided in tables for each grade level. Also presented are seven complete units, one for each grade level. Following a table of contents,…

  2. Minimum Learning Essentials: Science. Chemistry, Earth Science, Biology, Physics, General Science. Experimental Edition 0/4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Div. of Curriculum and Instruction.

    This guide presents the "minimum teaching essentials" published by the New York City Board of Education, for science education in grades 9-12. Covered are: biology, physics, earth science, and chemistry. Work study skills for all subjects are given with content areas, performance objectives, and suggested classroom activities. (APM)

  3. Designing physics video hooks for science students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McHugh, M.; McCauley, V.

    2016-01-01

    This paper offers an insight into the design structure of physics video hooks that were developed by the Science Education Resource design team in the school of education (SOE) in National University of Ireland, Galway (NUI Galway). A hook, is an instructional technique used to stimulate student attention (Hunter 1994, Lemov 2010), interest (Jewett 2013) and engagement (McCrory 2011, Riendeau 2013). The physics video hooks followed a design framework that is illustrated below by breaking down the centre of gravity (COG) hook. Various design principles and elements embedded within the COG hook are presented with examples and the time they occur within the video. The intention of this article is that the design can be replicated and modified to aid teachers and designers in the development of a multitude of classroom based multimedia resources.

  4. The Relationship between Students' Views of the Nature of Science and Their Views of the Nature of Scientific Measurement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buffler, Andy; Lubben, Fred; Ibrahim, Bashirah

    2009-01-01

    The present study explores the relationship between students' views of the nature of science (NOS) and their views of the nature of scientific measurement. A questionnaire with two-tier diagnostic multiple-choice items on both the NOS and measurement was administered to 179 first-year physics students with diverse school experiences. Students'…

  5. The Relationship between Students' Views of the Nature of Science and Their Views of the Nature of Scientific Measurement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buffler, Andy; Lubben, Fred; Ibrahim, Bashirah

    2009-01-01

    The present study explores the relationship between students' views of the nature of science (NOS) and their views of the nature of scientific measurement. A questionnaire with two-tier diagnostic multiple-choice items on both the NOS and measurement was administered to 179 first-year physics students with diverse school experiences. Students'…

  6. Grading Multiple Choice Exams with Low-Cost and Portable Computer-Vision Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisteus, Jesus Arias; Pardo, Abelardo; García, Norberto Fernández

    2013-08-01

    Although technology for automatic grading of multiple choice exams has existed for several decades, it is not yet as widely available or affordable as it should be. The main reasons preventing this adoption are the cost and the complexity of the setup procedures. In this paper, Eyegrade, a system for automatic grading of multiple choice exams is presented. While most current solutions are based on expensive scanners, Eyegrade offers a truly low-cost solution requiring only a regular off-the-shelf webcam. Additionally, Eyegrade performs both mark recognition as well as optical character recognition of handwritten student identification numbers, which avoids the use of bubbles in the answer sheet. When compared with similar webcam-based systems, the user interface in Eyegrade has been designed to provide a more efficient and error-free data collection procedure. The tool has been validated with a set of experiments that show the ease of use (both setup and operation), the reduction in grading time, and an increase in the reliability of the results when compared with conventional, more expensive systems.

  7. Assessment of driving expertise using multiple choice questions including static vs. animated presentation of driving scenarios.

    PubMed

    Malone, Sarah; Brünken, Roland

    2013-03-01

    Novice drivers have a high collision risk compared to more experienced drivers. The optimization of driving assessment's validity should lead to a better identification of those examinees that need further training before solo driving. The aim of the present two studies was to find out whether the integration of animated traffic scenarios can enhance some quality aspects of selected multiple choice items of the official German driving test. For the first study, we developed a static version of a set of multiple choice questions each containing a computerized still picture of a traffic scenario and a dynamic version that included animated instead of still pictures of the same situations. Driving novices (n=57) and experts (n=63) were presented 22 items either in the static or in the dynamic version. Only the novices benefited from the dynamic presentation. Fifty novices and 50 experts participated in a second longitudinal study including three measurements with parallel tests of the dynamic testing materials at intervals of three to four months. The novices, who were currently attending driving school, improved over time whereas the experts' performance remained stable. The results indicate that animation has positive effects on some quality aspects of driving assessment, but the problem of low criterion validity has to be addressed by the means of further approaches. PMID:23207840

  8. An intuitive graphical webserver for multiple-choice protein sequence search.

    PubMed

    Banky, Daniel; Szalkai, Balazs; Grolmusz, Vince

    2014-04-10

    Every day tens of thousands of sequence searches and sequence alignment queries are submitted to webservers. The capitalized word "BLAST" becomes a verb, describing the act of performing sequence search and alignment. However, if one needs to search for sequences that contain, for example, two hydrophobic and three polar residues at five given positions, the query formation on the most frequently used webservers will be difficult. Some servers support the formation of queries with regular expressions, but most of the users are unfamiliar with their syntax. Here we present an intuitive, easily applicable webserver, the Protein Sequence Analysis server, that allows the formation of multiple choice queries by simply drawing the residues to their positions; if more than one residue are drawn to the same position, then they will be nicely stacked on the user interface, indicating the multiple choice at the given position. This computer-game-like interface is natural and intuitive, and the coloring of the residues makes possible to form queries requiring not just certain amino acids in the given positions, but also small nonpolar, negatively charged, hydrophobic, positively charged, or polar ones. The webserver is available at http://psa.pitgroup.org. PMID:24525401

  9. Earth science contexts for teaching physics. Part 1: Why teach physics in an Earth science context?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Chris; Kennett, Peter

    2002-11-01

    Physics teaching can be made more relevant to 11-16 year-old students by setting the physics content in Earth contexts that pupils can relate to and understand. Thus the physics curriculum commonly taught to 11-16 year-olds has been analysed for appropriate Earth contexts. Some 25 contexts have been identified and each is briefly described in the following two articles. Enough detail is provided to enable physics teachers to use them in their teaching and, where practical demonstrations are available, details of these are also given. Moves towards scientific literacy in science curricula across the world will require science teaching to be set in relevant contexts in the future, and the Earth provides ideal contexts for this purpose.

  10. Integrating social and physical sciences in water management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lund, Jay R.

    2015-08-01

    Water management has always required more than physical science. This paper reviews the accomplishments of integrating social with physical sciences for water management in the last 50 years. Particular successes are highlighted to illustrate how fundamentals from both physical science and social science have been brought together to improve the performance of water management systems. Some forward-looking lessons for managing practical and academic interdisciplinary research for water management are also provided.

  11. Grade 12 Diploma Examination: Physics 30. June 1989 = Examen en vue du diplome douzieme annee: Physique 30. Juin 1989.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.

    Physics 30 is a 12th-grade science course for students in Alberta, Canada. This document is the final test for the course. Intended for administration during June 1989, it contains 49 multiple-choice questions and 4 written-response questions. Two-and-one-half hours are allowed for completing the test. No answer key is included since scoring is…

  12. Grade 12 Diploma Examination: Physics 30. January 1988 = Examen en vue du diplome douzieme annee: Physique 30. Janvier 1988.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.

    Physics 30 is a 12th-grade science course for students in Alberta, Canada. This document is the major examination for the course. Both English and French versions are provided. Intended for administration during January 1988, it contains 56 multiple-choice questions and three written-response questions. Two-and-one-half hours are allowed for…

  13. Grade 12 Diploma Examination: Physics 30. January 1989 = Examen en vue du diplome douzieme annee: Physique 30. Janvier 1989.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.

    Physics 30 is a 12th-grade science course for students in Alberta, Canada. This document is the final test for the course. Intended for administration during January 1989, it contains 49 multiple-choice questions and four written-response questions. Two-and-one-half hours are allowed for completing the test. No answer key is included since scoring…

  14. Impact of inquiry based distance learning and availability of classroom materials on physical science content knowledge of teachers and students in central Appalachia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradshaw, Timothy John

    Physical science is important for developing scientific literacy yet a majority of teachers responsible for physical science courses do not have an academic degree in physical science. Programs aimed at increasing teacher content knowledge can be time consuming. This dissertation examines the impact of an inquiry based, professional development program offered via distance learning on teacher content knowledge and the role of teacher content knowledge on student understanding and attitudes toward science. Seventy-three teachers participated in the study, including Group I teachers (n = 39) who completed a distance learning course, a control group (Group II) with no intervention (n = 17), and Group III teachers (n = 17) who received classroom materials and no course intervention. A multiple-choice assessment was administered to teachers at the beginning and end of the summer. A similar multiple-choice assessment was administered during the school year to students (n=3,790) of those teachers. A teacher survey assessing the frequency of activity use and teachers' perceptions of the kit was administered to teachers at the end of the school year. A student survey assessing frequency of activities in the classroom, opinions of how to learn science, and attitudes toward science was administered to students during the school year. While Group II (50.6%) and Group III (52.2%) teacher scores were both lower than Group I teacher scores (67.4%), students in Group III (42.9%) outperformed students in Group II (39.4%) following instruction, at a level equal to Group I students (43.6%). Thus, providing materials/activities was as effective at increasing student understanding as providing materials/activities and increasing teacher understanding. However, while teachers in Group I and III report similar use of and satisfaction with the materials/activities, the percentage of Group I students reporting frequent use of inquiry based activities in the classroom, strong belief that inquiry based activities help them learn science, and positive attitudes toward science increased, while the percentages of students in Groups II and III decreased. These results suggest that in order to maximize students' understanding of and attitudes toward science, professional development programs should not only include inquiry pedagogy and laboratory materials but also emphasize teacher understanding. KEYWORDS: Professional development, distance learning, classroom materials, student content knowledge, teacher content knowledge

  15. Physical Sciences Research Priorities and Plans in OBPR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trinh, Eugene

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents viewgraphs of physical sciences research priorities and plans at the Office of Biological and Physical Sciences Research (OBPR). The topics include: 1) Sixth Microgravity Fluid Physics and Transport Phenomena Conference; 2) Beneficial Characteristics of the Space Environment; 3) Windows of Opportunity for Research Derived from Microgravity; 4) Physical Sciences Research Program; 5) Fundamental Research: Space-based Results and Ground-based Applications; 6) Nonlinear Oscillations; and 7) Fundamental Research: Applications to Mission-Oriented Research.

  16. Does Physics Teaching Affect Gender-based Science Anxiety?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Udo, M. K.; Ramsey, G. P.; Reynolds-Alpert, S.; Mallow, J. V.

    2001-01-01

    Presents the results of a study designed to measure the level of science anxiety in students enrolled in physics courses at Loyola University in Chicago. The leading factors contributing to science anxiety include nonscience anxiety and gender. Concludes that the teaching of an introductory physics course can reduce acute levels of science

  17. The Question Complexity Rubric: Development and Application for a National Archive of Astro 101 Multiple-Choice Questions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cormier, Sebastien; Prather, E. E.; Brissenden, G.; Collaboration of Astronomy Teaching Scholars CATS

    2011-01-01

    For the last two years we have been developing an online national archive of multiple-choice questions for use in the Astro 101 classroom. These questions are intended to either supplement an instructor's implementation of Think-Pair-Share or be used for assessment purposes (i.e. exams and homework). In this talk we will describe the development, testing and implementation of the Question Complexity Rubric (QCR), which is designed to guide the ranking of questions in this archive based on their conceptual complexity. Using the QCR, a score is assigned to differentiate each question based on the cognitive steps necessary to comprehensively explain the reasoning pathway to the correct answer. The lowest QCR score is given to questions with a reasoning pathway requiring only declarative knowledge whereas the highest QCR score is given to questions that require multiple pathways of multi-step reasoning. When completed, the online question archive will provide users with the utility to 1) search for and download questions based on subject and average QCR score, 2) use the QCR to score questions, and 3) add their own questions to the archive. We will also discuss other potential applications of the QCR, such as how it informs our work in developing and testing of survey instruments by allowing us to calibrate the range of question complexity. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. 0715517, a CCLI Phase III Grant for the Collaboration of Astronomy Teaching Scholars (CATS). Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation.

  18. Prospective Outlook of Mechanics in Oncology | Physical Sciences in Oncology

    Cancer.gov

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI) Physical Sciences in Oncology Initiative within the Division of Cancer Biology (DCB) aims to enrich our current understanding of cancer by facilitating the formation of teams of physical scientists and cancer researchers who work together to bring a novel “physical sciences perspective” to cancer biology.

  19. The Health Physics Society Science Teacher Workshops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Albert E.

    2001-03-01

    The South Texas Chapter of the Health Physics Society (STC) maintains a program of education for science teachers, grades 4-12. This program, originally funded by the U.S. Department of Energy but now supported by STC, is intended to teach fundamentals of radiation and radiation safety at a level suitable for comprehension by lay persons. Course topics include Fundamentals of Radiation, Cellular Biology and Radiation Health Effects, Exposure to Radiation in Modern Life, Radioactive Waste, and Radiation Safety. The 8-hour course is usually given on Saturdays at locations in Texas as requested by educational or other groups. Classes of up to 25 teacher-students are ideal. Lesson plans, reference materials, a video tape, software, and a radiation detector are provided to each participant. To schedule a workshop in your area, contact alevans@swbell.net or David Fogle, david.fogle@tdh.state.tx.us.

  20. The Atomic Relay: Integrating Physical Education and Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menelly, Daniel J.

    1997-01-01

    Presents a lesson plan for teaching abstract science concepts to gifted middle school students. The lesson integrates a physical education component into science instruction to reinforce the abstract notion that electrons emit energy in the form of visible light. (CR)

  1. Are faculty predictions or item taxonomies useful for estimating the outcome of multiple-choice examinations?

    PubMed

    Kibble, Jonathan D; Johnson, Teresa

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether multiple-choice item difficulty could be predicted either by a subjective judgment by the question author or by applying a learning taxonomy to the items. Eight physiology faculty members teaching an upper-level undergraduate human physiology course consented to participate in the study. The faculty members annotated questions before exams with the descriptors "easy," "moderate," or "hard" and classified them according to whether they tested knowledge, comprehension, or application. Overall analysis showed a statistically significant, but relatively low, correlation between the intended item difficulty and actual student scores (? = -0.19, P < 0.01), indicating that, as intended item difficulty increased, the resulting student scores on items tended to decrease. Although this expected inverse relationship was detected, faculty members were correct only 48% of the time when estimating difficulty. There was also significant individual variation among faculty members in the ability to predict item difficulty (?(2) = 16.84, P = 0.02). With regard to the cognitive level of items, no significant correlation was found between the item cognitive level and either actual student scores (? = -0.09, P = 0.14) or item discrimination (? = 0.05, P = 0.42). Despite the inability of faculty members to accurately predict item difficulty, the examinations were of high quality, as evidenced by reliability coefficients (Cronbach's ?) of 0.70-0.92, the rejection of only 4 of 300 items in the postexamination review, and a mean item discrimination (point biserial) of 0.37. In conclusion, the effort of assigning annotations describing intended difficulty and cognitive levels to multiple-choice items is of doubtful value in terms of controlling examination difficulty. However, we also report that the process of annotating questions may enhance examination validity and can reveal aspects of the hidden curriculum. PMID:22139777

  2. Structured synaptic inhibition has a critical role in multiple-choice motion-discrimination tasks.

    PubMed

    Xue, Cheng; Liu, Feng

    2014-10-01

    Neural network models have been constructed to explore the underlying neural mechanisms for decision-making in multiple-choice motion-discrimination tasks. Despite great progress made, several key experimental observations have not been interpreted. In contrast to homogeneous connectivity between pyramidal cells and interneurons in previous models, here their connectivity is totally structured in a continuous recurrent network model. Specifically, we assume two types of inhibitory connectivity: opposite-feature and similar-feature inhibition, representing that the connectivity strength has a maximum between neural pairs with opposite and identical preferred directions, respectively. With a common parameter set, the model accounted for a wide variety of physiological and behavioral data from monkey experiments, including those that previous models failed to reproduce. We found that the opposite-feature inhibition endows the decision-making circuit with an elimination strategy, which effectively reduces the number of choice alternatives for inspection to speed up the decision process at the cost of decision accuracy. Conversely, the similar-feature inhibition markedly enhances the ability of the network to make a choice among multiple options and improves the accuracy of decisions, while slowing down the decision process. A simplified mean-field model was also presented to analytically characterize the effect of structured inhibition on fine discrimination. We made a testable prediction: only the combination of cross-feature and similar-feature inhibition enables the circuit to make a categorical choice among 12 alternatives. Together, the current work highlights the importance of structured synaptic inhibition in multiple-choice decision-making processes and sheds light on the neural mechanisms for visual motion perception. PMID:25274822

  3. Multiple choice questions can be designed or revised to challenge learners' critical thinking.

    PubMed

    Tractenberg, Rochelle E; Gushta, Matthew M; Mulroney, Susan E; Weissinger, Peggy A

    2013-12-01

    Multiple choice (MC) questions from a graduate physiology course were evaluated by cognitive-psychology (but not physiology) experts, and analyzed statistically, in order to test the independence of content expertise and cognitive complexity ratings of MC items. Integration of higher order thinking into MC exams is important, but widely known to be challenging-perhaps especially when content experts must think like novices. Expertise in the domain (content) may actually impede the creation of higher-complexity items. Three cognitive psychology experts independently rated cognitive complexity for 252 multiple-choice physiology items using a six-level cognitive complexity matrix that was synthesized from the literature. Rasch modeling estimated item difficulties. The complexity ratings and difficulty estimates were then analyzed together to determine the relative contributions (and independence) of complexity and difficulty to the likelihood of correct answers on each item. Cognitive complexity was found to be statistically independent of difficulty estimates for 88 % of items. Using the complexity matrix, modifications were identified to increase some item complexities by one level, without affecting the item's difficulty. Cognitive complexity can effectively be rated by non-content experts. The six-level complexity matrix, if applied by faculty peer groups trained in cognitive complexity and without domain-specific expertise, could lead to improvements in the complexity targeted with item writing and revision. Targeting higher order thinking with MC questions can be achieved without changing item difficulties or other test characteristics, but this may be less likely if the content expert is left to assess items within their domain of expertise. PMID:23288470

  4. Delayed, but not immediate, feedback after multiple-choice questions increases performance on a subsequent short-answer, but not multiple-choice, exam: evidence for the dual-process theory of memory.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Neha; Glass, Arnold Lewis

    2015-01-01

    Three experiments, two performed in the laboratory and one embedded in a college psychology lecture course, investigated the effects of immediate versus delayed feedback following a multiple-choice exam on subsequent short answer and multiple-choice exams. Performance on the subsequent multiple-choice exam was not affected by the timing of the feedback on the prior exam; however, performance on the subsequent short answer exam was better following delayed than following immediate feedback. This was true regardless of the order in which immediate versus delayed feedback was given. Furthermore, delayed feedback only had a greater effect than immediate feedback on subsequent short answer performance following correct, confident responses on the prior exam. These results indicate that delayed feedback cues a student's prior response and increases subsequent recollection of that response. The practical implication is that delayed feedback is better than immediate feedback during academic testing. PMID:25832741

  5. Gender and physics: feminist philosophy and science education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rolin, Kristina

    2008-11-01

    Physics education reform movements should pay attention to feminist analyses of gender in the culture of physics for two reasons. One reason is that feminist analyses contribute to an understanding of a ‘chilly climate’ women encounter in many physics university departments. Another reason is that feminist analyses reveal that certain styles of doing science are predominant in the culture of physics. I introduce recent philosophical work in social epistemology to argue that the predominance of certain styles of doing science is not good for science. Scientific communities would benefit from greater diversity in styles of doing science.

  6. Research Misconduct and the Physical Sciences

    SciTech Connect

    HM Kerch; JJ Dooley

    1999-10-11

    Research misconduct includes the fabrication, falsification, and plagiarism (FFP) of concepts or ideas; some institutions have expanded this concept to include ''other serious deviations (OSD) from accepted research practice.'' An action can be evaluated as research misconduct if it involves activities unique to the practice of science and could negatively affect the scientific record. Although the number of cases of research misconduct is uncertain (formal records are kept only by the NIH and the NSF), the costs are high in integrity of the scientific record, diversions from research to investigate allegations, ruined careers of those eventually exonerated, and erosion of public confidence in science. Currently, research misconduct policies vary from institution to institution and from government agency to government agency; some have highly developed guidelines that include OSD, others have no guidelines at ail. One result has been that the federal False Claims Act has been used to pursue allegations of research misconduct and have them adjudicated in the federal court, rather than being judged by scientific peers. The federal government will soon establish a first-ever research misconduct policy that would apply to all research funded by the federal government regardless of what agency funded the research or whether the research was carried out in a government, industrial or university laboratory. Physical scientists, who up to now have only infrequently been the subject or research misconduct allegations, must none-the-less become active in the debate over research misconduct policies and how they are implemented since they will now be explicitly covered by this new federal wide policy.

  7. The physical science behind climate change

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, William; Collins, William; Colman, Robert; Haywood, James; Manning, Martin R.; Mote, Philip

    2007-07-01

    For a scientist studying climate change, 'eureka' moments are unusually rare. Instead progress is generally made by a painstaking piecing together of evidence from every new temperature measurement, satellite sounding or climate-model experiment. Data get checked and rechecked, ideas tested over and over again. Do the observations fit the predicted changes? Could there be some alternative explanation? Good climate scientists, like all good scientists, want to ensure that the highest standards of proof apply to everything they discover. And the evidence of change has mounted as climate records have grown longer, as our understanding of the climate system has improved and as climate models have become ever more reliable. Over the past 20 years, evidence that humans are affecting the climate has accumulated inexorably, and with it has come ever greater certainty across the scientific community in the reality of recent climate change and the potential for much greater change in the future. This increased certainty is starkly reflected in the latest report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), the fourth in a series of assessments of the state of knowledge on the topic, written and reviewed by hundreds of scientists worldwide. The panel released a condensed version of the first part of the report, on the physical science basis of climate change, in February. Called the 'Summary for Policymakers,' it delivered to policymakers and ordinary people alike an unambiguous message: scientists are more confident than ever that humans have interfered with the climate and that further human-induced climate change is on the way. Although the report finds that some of these further changes are now inevitable, its analysis also confirms that the future, particularly in the longer term, remains largely in our hands--the magnitude of expected change depends on what humans choose to do about greenhouse gas emissions. The physical science assessment focuses on four topics: drivers of climate change, changes observed in the climate system, understanding cause-and-effect relationships, and projection of future changes. Important advances in research into all these areas have occurred since the IPCC assessment in 2001. In the pages that follow, we lay out the key findings that document the extent of change and that point to the unavoidable conclusion that human activity is driving it.

  8. Science Education Research vs. Physics Education Research: A Structural Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akarsu, Bayram

    2010-01-01

    The main goal of this article is to introduce physics education research (PER) to researchers in other fields. Topics include discussion of differences between science education research (SER) and physics education research (PER), physics educators, research design and methodology in physics education research and current research traditions and…

  9. The Physics Front: Resources for High School Physics & Physical Science Teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ezrailson, Cathy M.

    2006-12-01

    The overarching goal of the Physics Front, (part of ComPADRE -Physics and Astronomy digital library) is to provide enhanced accessibility to quality physics teaching resources for all pre-college teachers of physics and the physical sciences with special materials for new and “cross-over” teachers. Some highlights/features of the site are: • A collection of physics-related topics with units of instruction including content, tutorials, labs and reference materials. • Descriptions of some PTRA manuals with example activities. • A “Welcome to the Profession” statement from the New Physics Teacher Manual. • Classroom techniques and best practices. • Simulations and images to enhance instruction for students. • Special features and help for the new physics teacher • Discussion Forums • Filing cabinet for sharing and organizing teaching materials Advantages of using The Physics Front: • Peer -reviewed materials • Connections with other physics teachers nation/worldwide • Content and pedagogy support • Venue for sharing, accessing and archiving exemplary teacher-designed materials • Opportunity to contribute to a dynamic and growing online physics teacher community

  10. 77 FR 42768 - Advisory Committee for Mathematical and Physical Sciences; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-20

    ..., Senior Science Associate, Directorate for Mathematical and Physical Sciences, Room 1005, National Science... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Advisory Committee for Mathematical and Physical Sciences; Notice of Meeting In accordance with...

  11. 75 FR 29369 - Advisory Committee for Mathematical and Physical Sciences; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-25

    ..., Senior Science Associate, Directorate for Mathematical and Physical Sciences, Room 1005, National Science... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Advisory Committee for Mathematical and Physical Sciences; Notice of Meeting In accordance with...

  12. 75 FR 10328 - Advisory Committee for Mathematical and Physical Sciences; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-05

    ..., Senior Science Associate, Directorate for Mathematical and Physical Sciences, Room 1005, National Science... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Advisory Committee for Mathematical and Physical Sciences; Notice of Meeting In accordance...

  13. 76 FR 14996 - Advisory Committee for Mathematical and Physical Sciences; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-18

    ... Science Associate, Directorate for Mathematical and Physical Sciences, Room 1005, National Science... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Advisory Committee for Mathematical and Physical Sciences; Notice of Meeting In accordance with...

  14. Physics. Student Investigations and Readings. Investigations in Natural Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renner, John W.; And Others

    Investigations in Natural Science is a program in secondary school biology, chemistry, and physics based upon the description of science as a quest for knowledge, not the knowledge itself. This student manual contains the 36 physics investigations which focus on concepts related to: movement; vectors; falling objects; force and acceleration; a…

  15. Physical Science. A Handbook for Spanish Speaking Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindauer, Lawrence; And Others

    This bilingual physical sciences handbook is one of a series developed to help high school students who are literate in Spanish, but not in English, to meet graduate requirements. The first half of the document gives, in Spanish, major physical science concepts and a glossary of important and commonly used terms. The second half gives an English…

  16. Physical Science. A Handbook for Vietnamese Speaking Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindauer, Lawrence; And Others

    The physical sciences are the subject of this bilingual glossary, one in a series developed to help Vietnamese-American high school students who are literate in their native language, but not in English, to meet graduation requirements. Major physical science concepts and definitions of important and commonly used terms are given in both…

  17. Physical Science. A Handbook for Laotian Speaking Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindauer, Lawrence; And Others

    Physical science is the subject of this bilingual glossary, one of a series developed to help high school students who are literate in their native Lao, but limited-English-proficient, to meet their graduation requirements. Major physical science concepts and definitions of important and commonly used terms appear in Lao and in English. (CMG)

  18. Physics. Student Investigations and Readings. Investigations in Natural Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renner, John W.; And Others

    Investigations in Natural Science is a program in secondary school biology, chemistry, and physics based upon the description of science as a quest for knowledge, not the knowledge itself. This student manual contains the 36 physics investigations which focus on concepts related to: movement; vectors; falling objects; force and acceleration; a…

  19. Powerful Ideas in Physical Science: A Course Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ukens, Leon; Hein, Warren W.; Johnson, Patsy Ann; Layman, John W.

    2004-01-01

    Powerful Ideas in Physical Science (PIPS) is a preservice curriculum that provides modules for physical science courses designed for elementary education majors. Because the courses are built on the learning cycle approach, students develop concepts from activities and then apply this conceptual knowledge. A summative evaluation done by Horizon…

  20. Electricity. Physical Science in Action. Teacher's Manual and Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Elaine; And Others

    The Science in Action series is designed to teach practical science concepts to special-needs students. It is intended to develop students' problem-solving skills by teaching them to observe, record, analyze, conclude, and predict. This document contains a student workbook which deals with basic principles of physical science. Seven separate units…

  1. Pre-Service Physics Teachers' Conceptions of Nature of Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buaraphan, Khajornsak

    2011-01-01

    Understanding of NOS (nature of science) appears as a prerequisite of a scientifically literate person. Promoting adequate understanding of NOS in pre-service physics teachers is, therefore, an important task of science educators. Before doing that, science educators must have information concerning their pre-service teachers' conceptions of NOS.…

  2. Bush Research Budget again Focuses on Physical Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brainard, Jeffrey; Hebel, Sara

    2007-01-01

    This article presents compelling reasons why President George W. Bush decided to double federal funds for agencies supporting physical-science research. The biggest beneficiaries of Mr. Bush's plan for 2008 would be the National Science Foundation and the Department of Energy's Office of Science. Those agencies, together with the National…

  3. Physical Change. Learning in Science Project. Working Paper No. 26.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cosgrove, Mark; Osborne, Roger

    One area explored in the second (in-depth) phase of the Learning in Science Project was "children's science," defined as views of the world and the meanings for words that children have and bring with them to science lessons. The investigation reported focuses on students' (N=43) views of physical change associated with boiling, melting,…

  4. Physical Change. Learning in Science Project. Working Paper No. 26.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cosgrove, Mark; Osborne, Roger

    One area explored in the second (in-depth) phase of the Learning in Science Project was "children's science," defined as views of the world and the meanings for words that children have and bring with them to science lessons. The investigation reported focuses on students' (N=43) views of physical change associated with boiling, melting,…

  5. BOOK REVIEW: Science Fair Projects: Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynolds, Helen

    2000-11-01

    I have often thought that the notion of a Science Fair is intrinsically a good one but have never set one up. With this book such an undertaking is possible, with 47 projects from which you can choose. Each project has a clearly stated purpose with an overview that contains the physics you need to get started. A hypothesis, or sometimes two, and a procedure detailing what the student should do follow this. The materials to be used are those you should be able to find at home, and safety guidelines as well as places the student needs adult help are clearly marked. Every project asks the student to write down the results of their experiment and decide whether or not their hypothesis was correct. There are also suggestions for taking each project further. Some of these projects are standard experiments that you may already do with students in class, for example, making plasticine boats, string telephones and levers. Most are interesting twists on standard experiments such as using a wedge as a simple machine, home-made spinning toys and the experiments with light bulbs. The latter are the only real cause for concern if students were to do these things at home as adult supervision would be essential. This is obviously an American book, though. Teachers in British classrooms would need to work out how to deal with the references to temperature in Fahrenheit and mass in ounces. Length is usually given in centimetres as well as inches. Translations of soda bottles and bobby pins would also be needed. This book is designed to be full of ideas and to give structure to projects students can do at home, not to provide ideas that you can transport into the classroom. It does this very well and I would recommend it to anyone thinking of starting up a Science Fair. Alternatively, this is an excellent resource for more interesting homework assignments that would put more responsibility on the student and give them something fun to do.

  6. The Influence of Accelerator Science on Physics Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haussecker, Enzo F.; Chao, Alexander W.

    2011-06-01

    We evaluate accelerator science in the context of its contributions to the physics community. We address the problem of quantifying these contributions and present a scheme for a numerical evaluation of them. We show by using a statistical sample of important developments in modern physics that accelerator science has influenced 28% of post-1938 physicists and also 28% of post-1938 physics research. We also examine how the influence of accelerator science has evolved over time, and show that on average it has contributed to a physics Nobel Prize-winning research every 2.9 years.

  7. Efficient validation of teaching and learning using multiple-choice exams.

    PubMed

    DeSantis, Mark; McKean, Thomas A

    2003-12-01

    One purpose of this study was to quantify, by means of single-format, multiple-choice questions at the beginning and end of the course, the extent to which first-year medical students learn neuroscience material from an introductory course in their curriculum. Compared with their precourse test performance (mean = 41.8%), collectively, the students nearly doubled their grade by the end of the course (mean = 81.4%). Their scores in subcategories of the material improved in inverse proportion to what they knew initially. A second goal was to evaluate a two-dimensional, computer-generated matrix as a way to assess test question validity and value. The evaluation of individual test questions as assessed from the matrix often, but not always, was similar to the classical pedagogical analysis that uses difficulty and discrimination indexes. Strengths of the matrix are its ability to render data as a gestalt, as well as flexibility and intuitive ease of use. PMID:12594068

  8. Use of a multiple-choice procedure with college student drinkers.

    PubMed

    Little, Carrie; Correia, Christopher J

    2006-12-01

    The Multiple-Choice Procedure (MCP) was developed to investigate the relationship between drug preferences and alternative reinforcers. The current studies were designed to validate survey and laboratory versions of the MCP with college student drinkers. In Study 1, 320 undergraduates with a recent history of alcohol consumption used a survey version of the MCP to make 120 discrete hypothetical choices between two amounts of alcohol and escalating amounts of money delivered immediately or after a 1-week delay. In Study 2, 21 undergraduates completed a laboratory version of the MCP to make 120 discrete choices involving real alcohol and monetary payments. Responses to both versions of the MCP were related to measures of alcohol use and varied as a function of delay associated with the money choice. Responses to the survey version of the MCP also varied as a function of the amount of alcohol hypothetically available. The results of the 2 studies are consistent with a behavioral choice perspective of alcohol use, which focuses on preferences in the context of competing alternative reinforcers. PMID:17176179

  9. [Development of a Set of Rehabilitation Related Multiple-choice-questions in Medical Education].

    PubMed

    Gutt, S; Bergelt, C; Faller, H; Krischak, G; Spyra, K; Uhlmann, A; Mau, W

    2015-08-01

    In the rehabilitation related teaching as in other subjects of the medical training multiple choice (MC) examinations are the most frequent type of examinations. Compared to other subjects only a few MC questions are available for the interdisciplinary subject Rehabilitation. Therefore an internet-based online platform "Pool of rehabilitation related MC questions" was developed to assist teachers regarding the provision, design and organization of high-quality rehabilitation related MC questions. A total of 502 existing MC questions were collected from 12 German Medical Faculties. After removal of 59 questions not suitable for formal and content reasons a total of 443 questions were presented to 6 reviewers for triple reviews (a total of 1?329 expert reviews received). Of the 502 questions 335 (67%) were included in the final pool including short cases with 46 case studies. The questions refer to the following learning objectives: principles of rehabilitation (40%), rehabilitative interventions (20%), diagnosis and assessment (18%), initiation and control of the rehabilitation process (12%) and methods/quality of rehabilitative interventions (10%). The use of the online platform modules resp. the questions are for free for lecturers. This includes the compilation and output of complete examinations, the statistical evaluation, and other audit-related materials. This examination pool counteracts the current lack of quality-assured rehabilitation-related MC questions and contributes to set common standards for the Medical Faculties to rehabilitation related examinations. PMID:26080058

  10. Faculty development programs improve the quality of Multiple Choice Questions items' writing

    PubMed Central

    Abdulghani, Hamza Mohammad; Ahmad, Farah; Irshad, Mohammad; Khalil, Mahmoud Salah; Al-Shaikh, Ghadeer Khalid; Syed, Sadiqa; Aldrees, Abdulmajeed Abdurrahman; Alrowais, Norah; Haque, Shafiul

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the utility of long term faculty development programs (FDPs) in order to improve the quality of multiple choice questions (MCQs) items' writing. This was a quasi-experimental study, conducted with newly joined faculty members. The MCQ items were analyzed for difficulty index, discriminating index, reliability, Bloom's cognitive levels, item writing flaws (IWFs) and MCQs' nonfunctioning distractors (NFDs) based test courses of respiratory, cardiovascular and renal blocks. Significant improvement was found in the difficulty index values of pre- to post-training (p = 0.003). MCQs with moderate difficulty and higher discrimination were found to be more in the post-training tests in all three courses. Easy questions were decreased from 36.7 to 22.5%. Significant improvement was also reported in the discriminating indices from 92.1 to 95.4% after training (p = 0.132). More number of higher cognitive level of Bloom's taxonomy was reported in the post-training test items (p<0.0001). Also, NFDs and IWFs were reported less in the post-training items (p<0.02). The MCQs written by the faculties without participating in FDPs are usually of low quality. This study suggests that newly joined faculties need active participation in FDPs as these programs are supportive in improving the quality of MCQs' items writing. PMID:25828516

  11. Discrepant Performance on Multiple-Choice and Short Answer Assessments and the Relation of Performance to General Scholastic Aptitude

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bleske-Rechek, April; Zeug, Nicole; Webb, Rose Mary

    2007-01-01

    We conducted correlational and performance discrepancy analyses on exam and achievement data taken from students in three psychology courses. Across courses, the same findings emerged. First, only a small fraction of students consistently performed more strongly on one type of assessment (e.g., multiple-choice) than on another (e.g., short…

  12. Polytomous versus Dichotomous Scoring on Multiple-Choice Examinations: Development of a Rubric for Rating Partial Credit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grunert, Megan L.; Raker, Jeffrey R.; Murphy, Kristen L.; Holme, Thomas A.

    2013-01-01

    The concept of assigning partial credit on multiple-choice test items is considered for items from ACS Exams. Because the items on these exams, particularly the quantitative items, use common student errors to define incorrect answers, it is possible to assign partial credits to some of these incorrect responses. To do so, however, it becomes…

  13. Developing an Array Binary Code Assessment Rubric for Multiple- Choice Questions Using Item Arrays and Binary-Coded Responses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haro, Elizabeth K.; Haro, Luis S.

    2014-01-01

    The multiple-choice question (MCQ) is the foundation of knowledge assessment in K-12, higher education, and standardized entrance exams (including the GRE, MCAT, and DAT). However, standard MCQ exams are limited with respect to the types of questions that can be asked when there are only five choices. MCQs offering additional choices more…

  14. Polytomous versus Dichotomous Scoring on Multiple-Choice Examinations: Development of a Rubric for Rating Partial Credit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grunert, Megan L.; Raker, Jeffrey R.; Murphy, Kristen L.; Holme, Thomas A.

    2013-01-01

    The concept of assigning partial credit on multiple-choice test items is considered for items from ACS Exams. Because the items on these exams, particularly the quantitative items, use common student errors to define incorrect answers, it is possible to assign partial credits to some of these incorrect responses. To do so, however, it becomes…

  15. The Development of Multiple-Choice Items Consistent with the AP Chemistry Curriculum Framework to More Accurately Assess Deeper Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Domyancich, John M.

    2014-01-01

    Multiple-choice questions are an important part of large-scale summative assessments, such as the advanced placement (AP) chemistry exam. However, past AP chemistry exam items often lacked the ability to test conceptual understanding and higher-order cognitive skills. The redesigned AP chemistry exam shows a distinctive shift in item types toward…

  16. Set of Criteria for Efficiency of the Process Forming the Answers to Multiple-Choice Test Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rybanov, Alexander Aleksandrovich

    2013-01-01

    Is offered the set of criteria for assessing efficiency of the process forming the answers to multiple-choice test items. To increase accuracy of computer-assisted testing results, it is suggested to assess dynamics of the process of forming the final answer using the following factors: loss of time factor and correct choice factor. The model…

  17. Diagnosing Secondary Students' Misconceptions of Photosynthesis and Respiration in Plants Using a Two-Tier Multiple Choice Instrument.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haslam, Filocha; Treagust, David F.

    1987-01-01

    Describes a multiple-choice instrument that reliably and validly diagnoses secondary students' understanding of photosynthesis and respiration in plants. Highlights the consistency of students' misconceptions across secondary levels and indicates a high percentage of students have misconceptions regarding plant physiology. (CW)

  18. Second Language Reading Topic Familiarity and Test Score: Test-Taking Strategies for Multiple-Choice Comprehension Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jia-Ying

    2011-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to compare the strategies used by Chinese-speaking students when confronted with familiar versus unfamiliar topics in a multiple-choice format reading comprehension test. The focus was on describing what students do when they are taking reading comprehension tests by asking students to verbalize their thoughts.…

  19. The Development of Multiple-Choice Items Consistent with the AP Chemistry Curriculum Framework to More Accurately Assess Deeper Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Domyancich, John M.

    2014-01-01

    Multiple-choice questions are an important part of large-scale summative assessments, such as the advanced placement (AP) chemistry exam. However, past AP chemistry exam items often lacked the ability to test conceptual understanding and higher-order cognitive skills. The redesigned AP chemistry exam shows a distinctive shift in item types toward…

  20. On the Relative Value of Multiple-Choice, Constructed Response, and Examinee-Selected Items on Two Achievement Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lukhele, Robert; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Fitting item response models to data from 2 Advanced Placement exams (18,462 and 82,842 students) demonstrates that constructed response items add little to information provided by multiple choice and that scoring on the basis of student item selection gives almost as much information as scoring on the basis of answers. (SLD)

  1. Assessment of Multiple-Choice Questions in Selected Test Banks Accompanying Text Books Used in Nursing Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masters, Joan C.; Hulsmeyer, Barbara S.; Pike, Mary E.; Leichty, Kathy; Miller, Margaret T.; Verst, Amy L.

    2001-01-01

    A sample of 2,913 questions from 17 nursing test banks was evaluated for adherence to multiple-choice guidelines, cognitive level in Bloom's Taxonomy, and distribution of correct answers. Analysis revealed 2,233 guideline violations; 47.3% of items were written at the knowledge level, 6.5% at the analysis level; and correct answers were evenly…

  2. Developing an Array Binary Code Assessment Rubric for Multiple- Choice Questions Using Item Arrays and Binary-Coded Responses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haro, Elizabeth K.; Haro, Luis S.

    2014-01-01

    The multiple-choice question (MCQ) is the foundation of knowledge assessment in K-12, higher education, and standardized entrance exams (including the GRE, MCAT, and DAT). However, standard MCQ exams are limited with respect to the types of questions that can be asked when there are only five choices. MCQs offering additional choices more…

  3. A Systematic Assessment of "None of the Above" on Multiple Choice Tests in a First Year Psychology Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pachai, Matthew V.; DiBattista, David; Kim, Joseph A.

    2015-01-01

    Multiple choice writing guidelines are decidedly split on the use of "none of the above" (NOTA), with some authors discouraging and others advocating its use. Moreover, empirical studies of NOTA have produced mixed results. Generally, these studies have utilized NOTA as either the correct response or a distractor and assessed its effect…

  4. An Empirical Comparison of DDF Detection Methods for Understanding the Causes of DIF in Multiple-Choice Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suh, Youngsuk; Talley, Anna E.

    2015-01-01

    This study compared and illustrated four differential distractor functioning (DDF) detection methods for analyzing multiple-choice items. The log-linear approach, two item response theory-model-based approaches with likelihood ratio tests, and the odds ratio approach were compared to examine the congruence among the four DDF detection methods.…

  5. Estimating the Effect on Grades of Using Multiple-Choice versus Constructive-Response Questions: Data from the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hickson, Stephen; Reed, W. Robert; Sander, Nicholas

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the degree to which grades based solely on constructed-response (CR) questions differ from grades based solely on multiple-choice (MC) questions. If CR questions are to justify their higher costs, they should produce different grade outcomes than MC questions. We use a data set composed of thousands of observations on…

  6. Beyond the Bubble: How to Use Multiple-Choice Tests to Improve Math Instruction, Grades 4-5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wickett, Maryann; Hendrix-Martin, Eunice

    2011-01-01

    Multiple-choice testing is an educational reality. Rather than complain about the negative impact these tests may have on teaching and learning, why not use them to better understand your students' true mathematical knowledge and comprehension? Maryann Wickett and Eunice Hendrix-Martin show teachers how to move beyond the student's answer--right…

  7. Effectiveness of Guided Multiple Choice Objective Questions Test on Students' Academic Achievement in Senior School Mathematics by School Location

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Igbojinwaekwu, Patrick Chukwuemeka

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated, using pretest-posttest quasi-experimental research design, the effectiveness of guided multiple choice objective questions test on students' academic achievement in Senior School Mathematics, by school location, in Delta State Capital Territory, Nigeria. The sample comprised 640 Students from four coeducation secondary…

  8. Dana-Farber Cancer Institute | Physical Sciences in Oncology

    Cancer.gov

    Dana-Farber Cancer Institute Physical Sciences-Oncology Center (DFCI PS-OC) will intertwine the physical sciences with cancer biology and oncology by engaging evolutionary theory to address several critical issues concerning modern cancer research. Moreover, this center aspires to institute evolutionary modeling of cancer as a new field of study. To accomplish these goals, the center has brought together an acclaimed group of scientists from the fields of theoretical biology, cancer biology, oncology, physics and engineering.

  9. Physics and Physical Science Units for Tech Prep.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bielefeld, Marilyn; Daniels, Sadie; Hall, Yolanda; McClendon, Cecil; Schlinger, Gary

    Promoting ACademic Excellence in Mathematics and Science for Workers of the 21st Century (PACE) was a consortium project made up of Indiana University Northwest, the Gary Community Schools, and the Merrillville Community Schools. The focus of this project was to prepare teachers and curricula for Tech Prep mathematics and science courses for the…

  10. Physical properties of graphene (Scientific session of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 28 March 2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2012-11-01

    A scientific session of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS) devoted to the "Physical properties of graphene" was held on 28 March 2012 in the conference hall of the Lebedev Physical Institute. The agenda of the session announced on the RAS Physical Sciences Division website http://www.gpad.ac.ru included the following reports: (1) Falkovsky L A (Landau Institute of Theoretical Physics, RAS, Moscow; Vereshchagin Institute of High-Pressure Physics, RAS, Moscow) "Magnetooptics of graphene"; (2) Varlamov A A (The University of Rome Tor Vergata, Italy) "Thermoelectric properties of graphene." The papers written on the basis of these reports are given below. • Magnetooptics of graphene layers, L A Falkovsky Physics-Uspekhi, 2012, Volume 55, Number 11, Pages 1140-1145 • Anomalous thermoelectric and thermomagnetic properties of graphene, A A Varlamov, A V Kavokin, I A Luk'yanchuk, S G Sharapov Physics-Uspekhi, 2012, Volume 55, Number 11, Pages 1146-1151

  11. Physics First in Science Education Reform: Impacts on Pedagogy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purnell, Mechum Douglas

    This paper presents the results of a study focused on physics and chemistry teachers at independent schools in the United States which employ a "Physics First" approach to high school science course sequencing. Data was collected via interviews, during which information was gathered regarding pedagogical practices and teachers' transitions to Physics First. Findings suggest that the implementation of inquiry-oriented pedagogy is influenced by teacher and department philosophy, but not necessarily by the Physics First approach. Further, teachers recognize the affordances of Physics First, but largely do not leverage these to create more coherent and connected science programs.

  12. Analogue Experiences in Physical Science. Teaching Forum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guthrie, Vallie; Colquitt, Leroy, Jr.

    For some time there has been a concern in the scientific and academic communities to make science more meaningful to the growing ranks of apparently disenchanted students. This concern is reflected in the development of programs to reassess science curricula on all educational levels. The Thirteen-College Curriculum Program (TCCP) approach to…

  13. History of Physics in Science Teacher Training in Oldenburg.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riess, Falk

    2000-01-01

    Describes the courses in a study program called History of Physics for physics student teachers at Oldenburg University in Germany, some of which are modified from the ordinary physics curriculum with an emphasis on history and philosophy of science. Presents some examples of student achievements and points out the educational relevance. (ASK)

  14. A One-Day Dental Faculty Workshop in Writing Multiple-Choice Questions: An Impact Evaluation.

    PubMed

    AlFaris, Eiad; Naeem, Naghma; Irfan, Farhana; Qureshi, Riaz; Saad, Hussain; Al Sadhan, Ra'ed; Abdulghani, Hamza Mohammad; Van der Vleuten, Cees

    2015-11-01

    Long training workshops on the writing of exam questions have been shown to be effective; however, the effectiveness of short workshops needs to be demonstrated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of a one-day, seven-hour faculty development workshop at the College of Dentistry, King Saud University, Saudi Arabia, on the quality of multiple-choice questions (MCQs). Kirkpatrick's four-level evaluation model was used. Participants' satisfaction (Kirkpatrick's Level 1) was evaluated with a post-workshop questionnaire. A quasi-experimental, randomized separate sample, pretest-posttest design was used to assess the learning effect (Kirkpatrick's Level 2). To evaluate transfer of learning to practice (Kirkpatrick's Level 3), MCQs created by ten faculty members as a result of the training were assessed. To assess Kirkpatrick's Level 4 regarding institutional change, interviews with three key leaders of the school were conducted, coded, and analyzed. A total of 72 course directors were invited to and attended some part of the workshop; all 52 who attended the entire workshop completed the satisfaction form; and 22 of the 36 participants in the experimental group completed the posttest. The results showed that all 52 participants were highly satisfied with the workshop, and significant positive changes were found in the faculty members' knowledge and the quality of their MCQs with effect sizes of 0.7 and 0.28, respectively. At the institutional level, the interviews demonstrated positive structural changes in the school's assessment system. Overall, this one-day item-writing faculty workshop resulted in positive changes at all four of Kirkpatrick's levels; these effects suggest that even a short training session can improve a dental school's assessment of its students. PMID:26522635

  15. The Effect of Physical Activity on Science Competence and Attitude towards Science Content

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klinkenborg, Ann Maria

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the effect of physical activity on science instruction. To combat the implications of physical inactivity, schools need to be willing to consider all possible opportunities for students to engage in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Integrating physical activity with traditional classroom content is one…

  16. The Effect of Physical Activity on Science Competence and Attitude towards Science Content

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klinkenborg, Ann Maria

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the effect of physical activity on science instruction. To combat the implications of physical inactivity, schools need to be willing to consider all possible opportunities for students to engage in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Integrating physical activity with traditional classroom content is one…

  17. Science and Cooking: Motivating the Study of Freshman Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weitz, David

    2011-03-01

    This talk will describe a course offered to Harvard undergraduates as a general education science course, meant to intrduce freshman-level science for non-science majors. The course was a collaboration between world-class chefs and science professors. The chefs introduced concepts of cooking and the professors used these to motivate scientific concepts. The lectures were designed to provide a coherent introduction to freshman physics, primarily through soft matter science. The lectures were supplemented by a lab experiments, designed by a team of very talented graduate students and post docs, that supplemented the science taught in lecture. The course was very successful in motivating non-science students to learn, and even enjoy, basic science concepts. This course depended on contributions from Michael Brenner, Otger Campas, Amy Rowat and a team of talented graduate student teaching fellows.

  18. The Impact of Escape Alternative Position Change in Multiple-Choice Test on the Psychometric Properties of a Test and Its Items Parameters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamadneh, Iyad Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating the impact changing of escape alternative position in multiple-choice test on the psychometric properties of a test and it's items parameters (difficulty, discrimination & guessing), and estimation of examinee ability. To achieve the study objectives, a 4-alternative multiple choice type achievement test…

  19. Multiple-Choice Exams and Guessing: Results from a One-Year Study of General Chemistry Tests Designed to Discourage Guessing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Mark L.

    2015-01-01

    Multiple-choice exams, while widely used, are necessarily imprecise due to the contribution of the final student score due to guessing. This past year at the United States Naval Academy the construction and grading scheme for the department-wide general chemistry multiple-choice exams were revised with the goal of decreasing the contribution of…

  20. Physics, Math, and Making Sense: Understanding how brains learn science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redish, Edward

    2007-03-01

    Recent developments in neuroscience, cognitive science, and behavioral science are helping physics education researchers develop a theoretical understanding of physics teaching and learning. This understanding helps in two ways. 1). We can make sense of the way students respond (often inappropriately) to our instruction. 2). We can learn to appreciate the difficulties we have as instructors in unpacking and identifying critical components of our own knowledge. Building on observations of student learning in introductory and advanced physics, I identify critical components for teaching physics with math that are often overlooked in traditional instruction.

  1. H.S.C. Physical Science in Victoria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, George

    1976-01-01

    Described is an integrated physical science course being developed for Australian high schools. Included are the course structure, explanation of three major units of the course, and the basic concerns prompting the development of the new course. (SL)

  2. 77 FR 16076 - Advisory Committee for Mathematical and Physical Sciences; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-19

    .... Aizenman, Senior Science Associate, Directorate for Mathematical and Physical Sciences, Room 1005, National... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office National Science Foundation Advisory Committee for Mathematical and Physical Sciences; Notice of Meeting In accordance with...

  3. 75 FR 62891 - Advisory Committee for Mathematical and Physical Sciences; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-13

    ...: Dr. Morris L. Aizenman, Senior Science Associate, Directorate for Mathematical and Physical Sciences... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Advisory Committee for Mathematical and Physical Sciences; Notice of Meeting In accordance with...

  4. Portraying Physicists and Physics in Hard Science Fiction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cramer, John G.

    2001-03-01

    "Hard" science fiction is that sub-genre of SF in which a serious attempt is made to portray science and scientists as accurately as possible, often by using scientists and engineers as principal characters and by using scientific problem solving as a major plot element. The speaker, a Professor of Physics, writes a regular bimonthly science column (see http://www.npl.washington.edu/av) and has also written two hard SF novels, Twistor, which is about ``small" science in a university physics research laboratory, and Einstein's Bridge, which portrays ``big" science and in particular the 1993 cancellation of the Superconducting Super Collider Project, as played out against a fictional background of breakthrough discoveries, alien contact, wormholes, and time travel. The speaker will discuss his experiences in planning, writing, and publishing hard SF, and will consider how these activities address the general problem of public appreciation, perception, and mis-perception of science.

  5. Nastaran Zahir Kuhn, Ph.D. | Physical Sciences in Oncology

    Cancer.gov

    Dr. Nastaran Zahir Kuhn joined the Division of Cancer Biology at the National Cancer Institute (NCI) in 2013 where her primary role as Program Director is to coordinate transdisciplinary efforts in bringing physical sciences perspectives to cancer research. She assists in the oversight and management of scientific projects for the Physical Sciences in Oncology Initiative by fostering transdisciplinary research collaborations and promoting resources for data and biospecimen standards.

  6. Physics at the International Science and Engineering Fair.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Jearl

    1979-01-01

    A judge for the physics projects for the 1979 International Science and Engineering Fair describes many of the more popular science projects. Projects described include the following: carbon dioxide and helium-neon lasers, reverse flame investigations, holography, construction of a magnetic bottle to confine plasma, and aerodynamic drag. (BT)

  7. Teaching Particle Physics in the Open University's Science Foundation Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmelo, Graham

    1992-01-01

    Discusses four topics presented in the science foundation course of the Open University that exemplify current developments in particle physics, in particular, and that describe important issues about the nature of science, in general. Topics include the omega minus particle, the diversity of quarks, the heavy lepton, and the discovery of the W…

  8. A Study of Common Beliefs and Misconceptions in Physical Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, Mary; Larrabee, Timothy G.; Barman, Charles R.

    2008-01-01

    The Science Belief Test is an online instrument comprised of 47 statements that require true or false responses and request written explanations to accompany these responses. It targets topics in chemistry, physics, biology, earth science, and astronomy and was initially designed to assess preservice elementary teachers' beliefs about general…

  9. Parental Occupation Inspiring Science Interest: Perspectives From Physical Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chakraverty, Devasmita; Tai, Robert H.

    2013-01-01

    Children's early science interest begins well before middle school, and parents can be important in generating and sustaining such interest. This qualitative study addresses how parental occupations shape physical scientists' early science interest. Our framework uses Social Cognitive Career Theory, and our research question is,…

  10. Parental Occupation Inspiring Science Interest: Perspectives From Physical Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chakraverty, Devasmita; Tai, Robert H.

    2013-01-01

    Children's early science interest begins well before middle school, and parents can be important in generating and sustaining such interest. This qualitative study addresses how parental occupations shape physical scientists' early science interest. Our framework uses Social Cognitive Career Theory, and our research question is,…

  11. Selected Characteristics of Persons in Physical Science: 1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palumbo, Thomas J.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Statistical information, based on the 1978 survey in a series of biennial surveys known as the National Sample of Scientists and Engineers, sponsored by the National Science Foundation and conducted by the Bureau of the Census is presented. Individuals in the field of physical sciences are profiled, including chemists, physicists and astronomers,…

  12. Teaching Particle Physics in the Open University's Science Foundation Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmelo, Graham

    1992-01-01

    Discusses four topics presented in the science foundation course of the Open University that exemplify current developments in particle physics, in particular, and that describe important issues about the nature of science, in general. Topics include the omega minus particle, the diversity of quarks, the heavy lepton, and the discovery of the W…

  13. Mathematics and the Physical Sciences in America, 1880-1930.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Servos, John W.

    1986-01-01

    Documents the contributions made by Americans to the fields of physical science and mathematics during the period from 1880-1930. Discusses the effects of secondary school and college curriculum on progress of science and mathematics during that time and compares those with European educational institutions. (TW)

  14. The Effect of Physical Activity on Science Competence and Attitude towards Science Content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klinkenborg, Ann Maria

    This study examines the effect of physical activity on science instruction. To combat the implications of physical inactivity, schools need to be willing to consider all possible opportunities for students to engage in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Integrating physical activity with traditional classroom content is one instructional method to consider. Researchers have typically focused on integration with English/language arts (ELA) and mathematics. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of physical activity on science competence and attitude towards science. Fifty-three third grade children participated in this investigation; one group received science instruction with a physical activity intervention while the other group received traditional science instruction. Participants in both groups completed a modified version of What I Really Think of Science attitude scale (Pell & Jarvis, 2001) and a physical science test of competence prior to and following the intervention. Children were videotaped during science instruction and their movement coded to measure the proportion of time spent in MVPA. Results revealed that children in the intervention group demonstrated greater MVPA during the instructional period. A moderate to large effect size (partial eta squared = .091) was seen in the intervention group science competence post-test indicating greater understanding of force, motion, work, and simple machines concepts than that of the control group who were less physically active. There was no statistically significant attitude difference between the intervention and control groups post-test, (F(1,51) = .375, p = .543). These results provide evidence that integration can effectively present physical science content and have a positive impact on the number of minutes of health-enhancing physical activity in a school day.

  15. Research briefs of the Physical and Chemical Sciences Center

    SciTech Connect

    Vook, F.L.; Smith, W.L.

    1993-12-31

    As Sandia National Laboratories and the Physical and Chemical Sciences Center develop an increasingly diverse set of customers, research partners, and Cooperative Research and Development Agreements (CRADA`s) with industry, there is a need for providing more concise information describing their technical achievements and capabilities. This publication, Research Briefs, is designed to inform the present and potential partners in research and technology advancement. Their research emphasizes semiconductor physics, electronic materials, surface physics and chemistry, plasma and chemical processing sciences, lasers and optics, vision science, ion-solid interactions and defect physics, and advanced materials physics. The specific programs they pursue are driven by the research goals which are greatly influenced by interactions with the government and industrial customers.

  16. Women in science: physics and optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yzuel, M. J.; Peinado, A.

    2014-07-01

    The number of women is less than the number of men in degrees like physics and engineering. In this paper we present the percentages of female students at the Spanish Universities. The percentage of women decreases for faculty members. We also give some figures for female students in physics degree. The value of mentoring programs is analyzed. The learning societies in physics and in optics have established committees and programs for helping the women in their scientific career. We describe them in general and we focus on the SPIE Women in Optics program.

  17. Physical Science Connected Classrooms: Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irving, Karen; Sanalan, Vehbi; Shirley, Melissa

    2009-01-01

    Case-study descriptions of secondary and middle school classrooms in diverse contexts provide examples of how teachers implement connected classroom technology to facilitate formative assessment in science instruction. Connected classroom technology refers to a networked system of handheld devices designed for classroom use. Teachers were…

  18. Course on the Nature of Physical Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derr, Patrick G.; Andersen, Roy S.

    1981-01-01

    Describes a course which provides nonscience students with an understanding of methods and nature of natural science. The course is a seminar organized around a detailed examination of the Copernican revolution, in part through Copernicus's original writings, and in part through contemporary historical and philosophical analysis. (Author/SK)

  19. PEOPLE IN PHYSICS: Women in nuclear science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stuart, B. H.

    1996-03-01

    The field of nuclear science has seen an unusually large number of discoveries by women this century. This article focuses on the acclaimed work of Marie Curie, her daughter Irène Joliot-Curie, Lise Meitner and Maria Goeppert-Mayer.

  20. Physically Handicapped in Science: Final Project Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Maureen B.; And Others

    A two-year project was conducted by St. Mary's Junior College to improve the science literacy of visually-impaired students (VIS) through the adaptation of instructional methods and materials. A four-step process was used: (1) learning materials were reviewed to identify problem areas; (2) preliminary adaptations were made based on the review; (3)…

  1. Examining the Relationship between Physical Models and Students' Science Practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Alison Riley

    Scientists engage with practices like model development and use, data analysis and interpretation, explanation construction, and argumentation in order to expand the frontiers of science, so it can be inferred that students' engagement with science practices may help them deepen their own science understanding. As one of three dimensions on which the Next Generation Science Standards is built, science practices are recognized as an important component of science instruction. However, the contexts in which these practices happen are under-researched. Furthermore, research on science practices among students tends to focus on one or two practices in isolation when, in reality, students and scientists tend to engage with multiple overlapping practices. This study focused on identifying and characterizing multiple science practices as eighth and ninth-grade Earth Science students participated in a small group collaborative problem solving activity both with and without the use of a physical model. This study found a range of sophistication in the observed science practices as well as a relationship between the frequency of those practices and the accuracy of the groups' outcomes. Based on this relationship, groups were assigned to one of three categories. Further analysis revealed that model use varied among the three categories of groups. Comparisons across these three group categories suggest that there may be a bootstrapping relationship between students' engagement with science practices and the development of their content understanding. This metaphor of bootstrapping is used to represent how students may develop deeper science content understanding through engagement with science practices and concurrently develop greater facility with science practices as they learn science content. Implications are presented for curriculum designers, teachers and teacher educators. These include recommendations for curriculum design that encourage structured opportunities for small group engagement with science practices as well as recommendations for assessment of students' reasoning while they engage with science practices within small group collaborative contexts.

  2. Rob Phillips | Physical Sciences in Oncology

    Cancer.gov

    Rob Phillips is a Professor at Caltech in Pasadena working at the intersection of physics and biology. Over the past12 years he has evolved from being a condensed matter physicist to now concentrating on biophysics.

  3. Emerging Physics for Novel Field Propulsion Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauser, Jochem; Dröscher, Walter

    2010-01-01

    All space vehicles in use today need some kind of fuel for operation. The basic physics underlying this propulsion principle severely limits the specific impulse and/or available thrust. Launch capabilities from the surface of the Earth require huge amounts of fuel. Hence, space flight, as envisaged by von Braun in the early 50s of the last century, will not be possible using this concept. Only if novel physical principles are found can these limits be overcome. Gravitational field propulsion is based on the generation of gravitational (gravity-like) fields by manmade devices. In other words, gravity-like fields should be experimentally controllable. Present physics believes that there are four fundamental interactions: strong (nuclei), weak (radioactive decay), electromagnetism and Newtonian gravitation. As experience has shown for the last six decades, none of these physical interactions is suitable as a basis for novel space propulsion. None of the advanced physical theories like string theory or quantum gravity, go beyond these four known interactions. On the contrary, recent results from causal dynamical triangulation simulations indicate that wormholes in spacetime do not seem to exist, and thus even this type of exotic space travel may well be impossible. Recently, novel physical concepts were published that might lead to advanced space propulsion technology, represented by two additional long range gravitational-like force fields that would be both attractive and repulsive, resulting from interaction of gravity with electromagnetism. A propulsion technology, based on these novel long range fields, would be working without propellant.

  4. An Instructional System in Physical Science, Teacher's Guide and Keys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Univ., Pullman.

    This manual is a teacher's guide to a self-instructional program in basic physical science, designed for high school students who have not had a course in chemistry or physics. There are six units in the manual relating to these areas: problem solving and experimental procedures; universal standards, metric system and conversion; mechanics; the…

  5. Physical Science, Units 5 and 6, Field Test Copy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Univ., Pullman.

    This student workbook contains units five and six of a six-unit physical science course. The program is intended for high school students who have not had a chemistry or physics course, and is designed to be self instructional. Unit five involves experiments and problems in these subject areas: temperature versus heat; units of heat; specific…

  6. Pima College Students' Knowledge of Selected Basic Physical Science Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iadevaia, David G.

    In 1989 a study was conducted at Pima Community College (PCC) to assess students' knowledge of basic physical science concepts. A three-part survey instrument was administered to students in a second semester sociology class, a first semester astronomy class, a second semester Spanish class, and a first semester physics class. The survey…

  7. The impetus theory: Between history of physics and science education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giannetto, Enrico

    1993-09-01

    Through a physical, historical and epistemological analysis it is shown how much is wrong with the idea that relates impetus theory to a “non-grown-up” physical and epistemological conception. Indeed, it yields that impetus theory of Buridan and Oresme can be formalised and can furnish us a “natural”, “non-violent” interpretation of (classical) mechanics as well as a more general, physical hermeneutics of the world. Then, the possible relevance of impetus theory for science education is strongly pointed out.

  8. Final report on the Assessment of Physical Sciences and Engineering Advances in Life Sciences and Oncology (APHELION) Europe study | Physical Sciences in Oncology

    Cancer.gov

    The NCI and NSF commissioned the international Assessment of Physical sciences and Engineering advances in Life sciences and Oncology (APHELION) in order to determine the status and trends of applying physical sciences and engineering principles to oncology research and development in leading laboratories and organizations in Europe via an on-site peer review process. The panel members made visits to laboratories in France, Italy, Israel, Germany, the Netherlands, Spain, Sweden, and Switzerland, typically meeting with representatives of multiple institutions at each stop.

  9. Use of physical sciences in support of environmental management.

    PubMed

    Ji, Zhen-Gang

    2004-08-01

    Offshore drilling for oil and gas has been conducted since the early 1900s. Oil and gas under the seabed continue to be an important part of the energy resources of the United States. The need to balance the value of these resources against the potential for environmental damage is an important concern. This article explains why and how the Minerals Management Service (MMS) of the US Department of the Interior uses research in physical sciences to help fulfill its environmental goals, and it provides background information on the role of physical sciences in decision-making for Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) oil, gas, and other minerals development. Established in the 1970s, the MMS' Environmental Studies Program is a highly focused marine research program designed to provide the environmental information necessary for OCS energy and nonenergy minerals planning and development activities. The physical sciences research supported by MMS includes physical oceanography, oil-spill risk analyses, atmospheric sciences, and sand and gravel studies. Instead of giving a comprehensive review on physical sciences research in MMS, this article presents sample MMS studies and illustrates how these studies are utilized to support decision-making in environmental management. PMID:15559941

  10. REFLECTIONS ON PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY: Science and Scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jortner, Joshua

    2006-05-01

    This is the story of a young person who grew up in Tel-Aviv during the period of the establishment of the State of Israel and was inspired to become a physical chemist by the cultural environment, by the excellent high-school education, and by having been trained by some outstanding scientists at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem and, subsequently, by the intellectual environment and high-quality scientific endeavor at the University of Chicago. Since serving as the first chairman of the Chemistry Department of the newly formed Tel-Aviv University he has been immersed in research, in the training of young scientists, and in intensive and extensive international scientific collaboration. Together with the members of his "scientific family" he has explored the phenomena of energy acquisition, storage and disposal and structure-dynamics-function relations in large molecules, condensed phase, clusters and biomolecules, and is looking forward to many future adventures in physical chemistry. "What to leave out and what to put in? That's the problem." Hugh Lofting, Doctor Dolittle's Zoo, 1925

  11. Science Light and Foamy: Presenting Physics in the Popular Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perkowitz, Sidney

    2001-03-01

    Non-scientists find physical science a difficult subject, yet are intensely interested in what it says about the universe, from quanta to galaxies. It is possible to mix science with other areas, and to combine serious and light approaches, to present these ideas in popular and compelling ways. Illustrated with examples from my books [1,2], lectures, and TV appearances. 1. Empire of Light (National Academy Press, Washington, DC, 1998). 2. Universal Foam (Walker & Co., New York, 2000).

  12. Nanofluidics Sorts DNA For Cancer Research | Physical Sciences in Oncology

    Cancer.gov

    Nanotechnology researchers at Cornell University's Physical Sciences-Oncology Center have devised a new tool to study epigenetic changes in DNA that can cause cancer and other diseases. The tool is a nanoscale fluidic device that sorts and collects DNA one molecule at a time. The new device, developed in the lab of Harold Craighead, is described in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

  13. Spacelab 1 - Scientific objectives, life sciences, space plasma physics, astronomy and solar physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chappell, C. R.

    1985-01-01

    A general overview of the accomplishments of the Spacelab 1 complement to the Shuttle mission of Nov. 28, 1983, is presented. Consideration is given to scientific results in the fields of life sciences, materials sciences, atmospheric physics, and earth observations. A table is given which lists the scientific objectives and the percentage of objectives accomplished in each field.

  14. TEACHING PHYSICS: PPARC support for promotion of science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, M. G.

    2000-07-01

    During the last decade the public under- standing of science has become an issue for scientists and politicians, and most bodies supporting science now devote some of their resources to this area. There are normally few restrictions on who can apply for funds and many teachers have obtained support to promote their subject. This article describes some examples from the fields of astrophysics and particle physics in which teachers have played a principal role using funds gained from PPARC, the Particle Physics and Astronomy Research Council.

  15. Introductory physics in biological context: An approach to improve introductory physics for life science students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crouch, Catherine H.; Heller, Kenneth

    2014-05-01

    We describe restructuring the introductory physics for life science students (IPLS) course to better support these students in using physics to understand their chosen fields. Our courses teach physics using biologically rich contexts. Specifically, we use examples in which fundamental physics contributes significantly to understanding a biological system to make explicit the value of physics to the life sciences. This requires selecting the course content to reflect the topics most relevant to biology while maintaining the fundamental disciplinary structure of physics. In addition to stressing the importance of the fundamental principles of physics, an important goal is developing students' quantitative and problem solving skills. Our guiding pedagogical framework is the cognitive apprenticeship model, in which learning occurs most effectively when students can articulate why what they are learning matters to them. In this article, we describe our courses, summarize initial assessment data, and identify needs for future research.

  16. The effect of immigration status on physics identity and physical science career intentions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lung, Florin; Potvin, Geoff; Sonnert, Gerhard; Sadler, Philip M.

    2012-02-01

    Using data collected from a nationally-representative sample of first-year college students, we examine how students' identity development as physics persons and their likelihood to pursue a career in physical science is predicted by differing immigrant experiences. We consider broad factors having a social, economic, or cultural nature as covariates in a propensity score model that assesses differences due to immigrant generation. Our results show that, when controlling for such factors as race/ethnicity, socio-economic status, and gender, students' physics identities and the likelihood of choosing a career in physical science are significantly higher amongst first generation students than second generation (or later) students. We conclude that physical science as a career option can be influenced by the experiences of being an immigrant and through the relationship between origin and host culture.

  17. "Active Science": Integrating Physical Activity and Science Learning into the Afterschool Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finn, Kevin E.; Yan, Zi; McInnis, Kyle J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Afterschool programs offer significant opportunities to increase physical activity levels and improve academic performance of children. Purpose: This study assessed an innovative approach to embed physical activity into science lessons in an afterschool community setting. Methods: Participants were 47 boys and girls (age = 10.8 ± 0.7…

  18. "Active Science": Integrating Physical Activity and Science Learning into the Afterschool Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finn, Kevin E.; Yan, Zi; McInnis, Kyle J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Afterschool programs offer significant opportunities to increase physical activity levels and improve academic performance of children. Purpose: This study assessed an innovative approach to embed physical activity into science lessons in an afterschool community setting. Methods: Participants were 47 boys and girls (age = 10.8 ± 0.7…

  19. Modern problems in the physical sciences (Scientific session of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 16 November 2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2012-06-01

    On 16 November 2011, the scientific session of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS) was held at the conference hall at the Lebedev Physical Institute, RAS.The agenda of the session announced on the RAS Physical Sciences Division website www.gpad.ac.ru included the following reports: (1) Schelev M Ya (Prokhorov General Physics Institute, RAS, Moscow) "Pico-femto-attosecond photoelectronics"; (2) Dal'karov O D (Lebedev Physical Institute, RAS, Moscow) "The physics of low-energy antiprotons and antimatter"; (3) Polukhina N G (Lebedev Physical Institute, RAS, Moscow) "Nuclear track detection: advances and potential in astrophysics, particle physics, and applied research"; (4) Vedeneev S I (Lebedev Physical Institute, RAS, Moscow) "High-temperature superconductors in high and ultrahigh magnetic fields".Papers written on the base of reports 1, 3, and 4 are presented below. • Pico-femto-attosecond photoelectronics: looking through the lens of half a century, M Ya Shchelev Physics-Uspekhi, 2012, Volume 55, Number 6, Pages 607-614 • Nuclear track detection: advances and potential in astrophysics, particle physics, and applied research, N G Polukhina Physics-Uspekhi, 2012, Volume 55, Number 6, Pages 614-625 • High-temperature superconductors in high and ultrahigh magnetic fields, S I Vedeneev Physics-Uspekhi, 2012, Volume 55, Number 6, Pages 625-632

  20. S.E.A. Lab. Science Experiments and Activities. Marine Science for High School Students in Chemistry, Biology and Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Kathy, Ed.

    A series of science experiments and activities designed for secondary school students taking biology, chemistry, physics, physical science or marine science courses are outlined. Each of the three major sections--chemistry, biology, and physics--addresses concepts that are generally covered in those courses but incorporates aspects of marine…

  1. Use of Computers by Physics and Physical Science Teachers in Iowa. Technical Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andre, Thomas; Veldhuis, G. Henry

    With the advent of inexpensive microcomputers, the availability of microcomputers in the schools has mushroomed. Teacher training in the use of microcomputers has not kept pace with the increased availability of computers. There is little current information about how physics and physical science teachers actually use microcomputers in their…

  2. Activities in planetary geology for the physical and earth sciences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dalli, R.; Greeley, R.

    1982-01-01

    A users guide for teaching activities in planetary geology, and for physical and earth sciences is presented. The following topics are discussed: cratering; aeolian processes; planetary atmospheres, in particular the Coriolis Effect and storm systems; photogeologic mapping of other planets, Moon provinces and stratigraphy, planets in stereo, land form mapping of Moon, Mercury and Mars, and geologic features of Mars.

  3. Dr Skateboard's Action Science: Teaching Physics in Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, William H.

    2009-01-01

    In order to create student interest and promote new connections to the understanding of fundamental physics concepts, there is a need for new approaches and methods that are both contemporary and relevant. Dr Skateboard's Action Science, a curriculum supplement comprising video instruction and classroom activities, is an example that focuses on…

  4. Relating Aerospace to Physical Science Grades 7-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Mary H.; Rademacher, Jean

    This guide is intended to provide the teacher of secondary school physical science classes with a source of information about recent applications, discoveries, and innovations in aerospace. Each section of the guide is subdivided into parts in which objectives are listed, background information for the use of the teacher and/or the student is…

  5. Kinetic exchange models: From molecular physics to social science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patriarca, Marco; Chakraborti, Anirban

    2013-08-01

    We discuss several multi-agent models that have their origin in the kinetic exchange theory of statistical mechanics and have been recently applied to a variety of problems in the social sciences. This class of models can be easily adapted for simulations in areas other than physics, such as the modeling of income and wealth distributions in economics and opinion dynamics in sociology.

  6. Conceptual Integration of Chemical Equilibrium by Prospective Physical Sciences Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ganaras, Kostas; Dumon, Alain; Larcher, Claudine

    2008-01-01

    This article describes an empirical study concerning the mastering of the chemical equilibrium concept by prospective physical sciences teachers. The main objective was to check whether the concept of chemical equilibrium had become an integrating and unifying concept for them, that is to say an operational and functional knowledge to explain and…

  7. Linking of Errata: Current Practices in Online Physical Sciences Journals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poworoznek, Emily L.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses errata, or corrections, in scientific and biomedical journals and compares errata in online versions of high-impact physical sciences journals across titles and publishers. Results show variability in presentation, linking, and availability of online errata and recommends the development of standards for the linking of original articles…

  8. Using Soda Cans to Teach Physical Science Students about Density

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanger, Michael J.; Humphreys, Teari C.; LaPorte, Mark M.

    2009-01-01

    In this experiment, physical science students measured the mass of several soda cans, measured the mass and volume of water displaced when these cans were placed in water, and determined whether these cans sank or floated in water. Then, the students plotted graphs of the mass of displaced water versus the volume of displaced water, the mass of…

  9. Learning Activity Package, Physical Science 92, LAPs 1-9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, G. J.

    This set of nine teacher-prepared Learning Activity Packages (LAPs) for individualized instruction in physical science covers the topics of scientific equipment and procedures; measure of time, length, area, and volume; water; oxygen and oxidation; atmospheric pressure; motion; machines; carbon; and light and sound. Each unit contains a rationale…

  10. Using Soda Cans to Teach Physical Science Students about Density

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanger, Michael J.; Humphreys, Teari C.; LaPorte, Mark M.

    2009-01-01

    In this experiment, physical science students measured the mass of several soda cans, measured the mass and volume of water displaced when these cans were placed in water, and determined whether these cans sank or floated in water. Then, the students plotted graphs of the mass of displaced water versus the volume of displaced water, the mass of…

  11. The Scripps Research Institute | Physical Sciences in Oncology

    Cancer.gov

    The Scripps Research Institute Physical Sciences-Oncology Center (TSRI PS-OC) incorporates a trans-disciplinary effort from celebrated physicists and oncologists to pursue the mechanisms that regulate the survival of circulating tumor cells. These investigators will probe the biophysical factors implicated in the endurance of individual circulating tumor cells while in the blood stream and in their progression to metastatic disease.

  12. Learning Science-Based Fitness Knowledge in Constructivist Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Haichun; Chen, Ang; Zhu, Xihe; Ennis, Catherine D.

    2012-01-01

    Teaching fitness-related knowledge has become critical in developing children's healthful living behavior. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a science-based, constructivist physical education curriculum on learning fitness knowledge critical to healthful living in elementary school students. The schools (N = 30) were randomly…

  13. Conceptual Integration of Chemical Equilibrium by Prospective Physical Sciences Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ganaras, Kostas; Dumon, Alain; Larcher, Claudine

    2008-01-01

    This article describes an empirical study concerning the mastering of the chemical equilibrium concept by prospective physical sciences teachers. The main objective was to check whether the concept of chemical equilibrium had become an integrating and unifying concept for them, that is to say an operational and functional knowledge to explain and…

  14. Dr Skateboard's Action Science: Teaching Physics in Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, William H.

    2009-01-01

    In order to create student interest and promote new connections to the understanding of fundamental physics concepts, there is a need for new approaches and methods that are both contemporary and relevant. Dr Skateboard's Action Science, a curriculum supplement comprising video instruction and classroom activities, is an example that focuses on…

  15. Research Trend of Physical Skill Science --Towards Elucidation of Physical Skill--

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furukawa, Koichi; Ueno, Ken; Ozaki, Tomonobu; Kamisato, Shihoko; Kawamoto, Ryuji; Shibuya, Koji; Shiratori, Naruhiko; Suwa, Masaki; Soga, Masato; Taki, Hirokazu; Fujinami, Tsutomu; Hori, Satoshi; Motomura, Yoichi; Morita, Souhei

    Physical skills and language skills are both fundamental intelligent abilities of human being. In this paper, we focus our attention to such sophisticated physical skills as playing sports and playing instruments and introduce research activities aiming at elucidating and verbalizing them. This research area has been launched recently. We introduce approaches from physical modeling, measurements and data analysis, cognitive science and human interface. We also discuss such issues as skill acquisition and its support systems. Furthermore, we consider a fundamental issue of individual differences occurring in every application of skill elucidation. Finally we introduce several attempts of skill elucidation in the fields of dancing, manufacturing, playing string instruments, sports science and medical care.

  16. Instructor Perspectives of Multiple-Choice Questions in Summative Assessment for Novice Programmers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shuhidan, Shuhaida; Hamilton, Margaret; D'Souza, Daryl

    2010-01-01

    Learning to program is known to be difficult for novices. High attrition and high failure rates in foundation-level programming courses undertaken at tertiary level in Computer Science programs, are commonly reported. A common approach to evaluating novice programming ability is through a combination of formative and summative assessments, with…

  17. Impacting university physics students through participation in informal science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinko, Kathleen; Finkelstein, Noah D.

    2013-01-01

    Informal education programs organized by university physics departments are a popular means of reaching out to communities and satisfying grant requirements. The outcomes of these programs are often described in terms of broader impacts on the community. Comparatively little attention, however, has been paid to the influence of such programs on those students facilitating the informal science programs. Through Partnerships for Informal Science Education in the Community (PISEC) at the University of Colorado Boulder, undergraduate and graduate physics students coach elementary and middle school children during an inquiry-based science afterschool program. As part of their participation in PISEC, university students complete preparation in pedagogy, communication and diversity, engage with children on a weekly basis and provide regular feedback about the program. We present findings that indicate these experiences improve the ability of university students to communicate in everyday language and positively influence their perspectives on teaching and learning.

  18. Integrating the Physical Sciences Perspective to Open a New Frontier in Oncology meeting report | Physical Sciences in Oncology

    Cancer.gov

    In February 2008, the National Cancer Institute (NCI) held the first of a series of three Think Tanks designed to explore how the fields of physics, mathematics, chemistry, and engineering could advance cancer research and clinical oncology by bringing fresh insights and new tools to some of the most challenging problems in cancer.Those workshops led to the creation of the Physical Sciences-Oncology Centers (PS-OC) program and the funding of 12 transdisciplinary Centers in September 2009.

  19. Linking neuroscientific research on decision making to the educational context of novice students assigned to a multiple-choice scientific task involving common misconceptions about electrical circuits

    PubMed Central

    Potvin, Patrice; Turmel, Élaine; Masson, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to identify the brain-based mechanisms of uncertainty and certainty associated with answers to multiple-choice questions involving common misconceptions about electric circuits. Twenty-two scientifically novice participants (humanities and arts college students) were asked, in an fMRI study, whether or not they thought the light bulbs in images presenting electric circuits were lighted up correctly, and if they were certain or uncertain of their answers. When participants reported that they were unsure of their responses, analyses revealed significant activations in brain areas typically involved in uncertainty (anterior cingulate cortex, anterior insula cortex, and superior/dorsomedial frontal cortex) and in the left middle/superior temporal lobe. Certainty was associated with large bilateral activations in the occipital and parietal regions usually involved in visuospatial processing. Correct-and-certain answers were associated with activations that suggest a stronger mobilization of visual attention resources when compared to incorrect-and-certain answers. These findings provide insights into brain-based mechanisms of uncertainty that are activated when common misconceptions, identified as such by science education research literature, interfere in decision making in a school-like task. We also discuss the implications of these results from an educational perspective. PMID:24478680

  20. Complex network problems in physics, computer science and biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cojocaru, Radu Ionut

    There is a close relation between physics and mathematics and the exchange of ideas between these two sciences are well established. However until few years ago there was no such a close relation between physics and computer science. Even more, only recently biologists started to use methods and tools from statistical physics in order to study the behavior of complex system. In this thesis we concentrate on applying and analyzing several methods borrowed from computer science to biology and also we use methods from statistical physics in solving hard problems from computer science. In recent years physicists have been interested in studying the behavior of complex networks. Physics is an experimental science in which theoretical predictions are compared to experiments. In this definition, the term prediction plays a very important role: although the system is complex, it is still possible to get predictions for its behavior, but these predictions are of a probabilistic nature. Spin glasses, lattice gases or the Potts model are a few examples of complex systems in physics. Spin glasses and many frustrated antiferromagnets map exactly to computer science problems in the NP-hard class defined in Chapter 1. In Chapter 1 we discuss a common result from artificial intelligence (AI) which shows that there are some problems which are NP-complete, with the implication that these problems are difficult to solve. We introduce a few well known hard problems from computer science (Satisfiability, Coloring, Vertex Cover together with Maximum Independent Set and Number Partitioning) and then discuss their mapping to problems from physics. In Chapter 2 we provide a short review of combinatorial optimization algorithms and their applications to ground state problems in disordered systems. We discuss the cavity method initially developed for studying the Sherrington-Kirkpatrick model of spin glasses. We extend this model to the study of a specific case of spin glass on the Bethe lattice at zero temperature and then we apply this formalism to the K-SAT problem defined in Chapter 1. The phase transition which physicists study often corresponds to a change in the computational complexity of the corresponding computer science problem. Chapter 3 presents phase transitions which are specific to the problems discussed in Chapter 1 and also known results for the K-SAT problem. We discuss the replica method and experimental evidences of replica symmetry breaking. The physics approach to hard problems is based on replica methods which are difficult to understand. In Chapter 4 we develop novel methods for studying hard problems using methods similar to the message passing techniques that were discussed in Chapter 2. Although we concentrated on the symmetric case, cavity methods show promise for generalizing our methods to the un-symmetric case. As has been highlighted by John Hopfield, several key features of biological systems are not shared by physical systems. Although living entities follow the laws of physics and chemistry, the fact that organisms adapt and reproduce introduces an essential ingredient that is missing in the physical sciences. In order to extract information from networks many algorithm have been developed. In Chapter 5 we apply polynomial algorithms like minimum spanning tree in order to study and construct gene regulatory networks from experimental data. As future work we propose the use of algorithms like min-cut/max-flow and Dijkstra for understanding key properties of these networks.

  1. Bachelor of Science in Medical Physics Program at Ryerson University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antimirova, Tetyana

    2006-12-01

    A new Bachelor of Science in Medical Physics program at Ryerson University, Toronto, Ontario was launched in Fall 2006. The program builds on Ryerson’s strong existing capabilities in biomedical physics research. The program’s point of entry is the common first year during which all students in Biology, Chemistry, Contemporary Science and Medical Physics programs complete the foundation courses that include physics, calculus, biology, chemistry, and introduction to computing. In addition to the foundation courses, the first-year studies include an orientation course that supports the students in making a successful transition to university studies. The courses beyond the first year include such topics as radiation therapy, image analysis, medical diagnostics and computer modeling techniques. In the final year the students will undertake an independent, faculty-supervised thesis project in an area of personal research interest. Co-op and industrial internship options are available. Our program promotes natural interaction between physics, life sciences, mathematics and computing. The flexibility built into our curriculum will open a variety of career options for our graduates.

  2. Biological and Physical Space Research Laboratory 2002 Science Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curreri, P. A. (Editor); Robinson, M. B. (Editor); Murphy, K. L. (Editor)

    2003-01-01

    With the International Space Station Program approaching core complete, our NASA Headquarters sponsor, the new Code U Enterprise, Biological and Physical Research, is shifting its research emphasis from purely fundamental microgravity and biological sciences to strategic research aimed at enabling human missions beyond Earth orbit. Although we anticipate supporting microgravity research on the ISS for some time to come, our laboratory has been vigorously engaged in developing these new strategic research areas.This Technical Memorandum documents the internal science research at our laboratory as presented in a review to Dr. Ann Whitaker, MSFC Science Director, in July 2002. These presentations have been revised and updated as appropriate for this report. It provides a snapshot of the internal science capability of our laboratory as an aid to other NASA organizations and the external scientific community.

  3. Popular Science: Introductory Physics Textbooks for Home Economics Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behrman, Joanna

    2014-03-01

    For many decades now there has been an ongoing debate about the way and extent to which physics ought to be popularized by appealing to a student's every day experience. Part of this debate has focused on how textbooks, a major factor shaping students' education, ought to be written and presented. I examine the background, passages, and problems of two examples drawn from the special genre of ``Household Physics'' textbooks which were published largely between 1910 and 1940. The pedagogy of applying or relating physics to the everyday experience engenders values defining how and by whom science is to be applied. These books are particularly evocative, as well, of the extent to which gender can be tied to differing everyday experiences and the consequences therefore of using experiential examples. Using popular science textbooks can alienate students by drawing an implicit division between the reader and the practicing scientist.

  4. Review of physical sciences research, 1979 - 1990 (Gas Research Institute)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1991-07-01

    To meet the expectations and needs of the gas industry and its customers, basic research management techniques were developed that are appropriate for GRI's unique mission oriented research program. These techniques differ from those used in private industry and government. These techniques are described focussing on how GRI selects appropriate research topics, builds consensus for the Physical Sciences research program, and maintains an emphasis on providing useful results. Each of GRI's 37 active research topics are reviewed, describing their goals, results, and future plans. The reviews are presented in three groups: Physics, Chemistry, and Combustion, and each group begins with a summary of recent important results. Useful results of Physical Sciences Research are described throughout, but a comprehensive record of results is not presented.

  5. Stealth Physics: Sneaking in Science Where People Least Expect It

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leslie-Pelecky, Diandra

    2014-03-01

    The majority of science outreach focuses on a small group of well-educated older people (still majority male) with an already existing interest in science. The dominant paradigm of ``you-come-to-us'' leaves out many more people than it brings in. Most people only become interested in science when it affects something they care about, whether that be their personal or economic health, or their recreational passions. My experiences writing and promoting The Physics of NASCAR forced me to change my approach to science outreach in terms not only of how to do outreach, but also what impact I hope to have. There are 75 million NASCAR fans. Every fan wants to know one thing: Why isn't my driver winning? I'll share my experiences using television, radio and blogging to reach an oft-neglected group that is characterized by a certainty that they - even if they wanted to - are not capable of understanding science. This lack of self-efficacy is likely the biggest barrier scientists have to reaching the general public. My central thesis is that ``Science for All'' doesn't necessarily mean that scientists need to convince the public that what the scientists are doing is interesting. It means that scientists doing outreach need to learn how to engage the public with science that affects things the public already cares about.

  6. Nuclear Science Outreach in the World Year of Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMahan, Margaret

    2006-04-01

    The ability of scientists to articulate the importance and value of their research has become increasingly important in the present climate of declining budgets, and this is most critical in the field of nuclear science ,where researchers must fight an uphill battle against negative public perception. Yet nuclear science encompasses important technical and societal issues that should be of primary interest to informed citizens, and the need for scientists trained in nuclear techniques are important for many applications in nuclear medicine, national security and future energy sources. The NSAC Education Subcommittee Report [1] identified the need for a nationally coordinated effort in nuclear science outreach, naming as its first recommendation that `the highest priority for new investment in education be the creation by the DOE and NSF of a Center for Nuclear Science Outreach'. This talk will review the present status of public outreach in nuclear science and highlight some specific efforts that have taken place during the World Year of Physics. [1] Education in Nuclear Science: A Status Report and Recommendations for the Beginning of the 21^st Century, A Report of the DOE/NSF Nuclear Science Advisory Committee Subcommittee on Education, November 2004, http://www.sc.doe.gov/henp/np/nsac/docs/NSACCReducationreportfinal.pdf.

  7. Modern problems in the physical sciences (Scientific session of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 23 November 2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2012-07-01

    On 23 November 2011, the scientific session of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS) was held at the conference hall of the Lebedev Physical Institute, RAS.The following reports were put on the session agenda posted on the website www.gpad.ac.ru of the RAS Physical Sciences Division: (1) Ionin A A (Lebedev Physical Institute, RAS, Moscow) "High-power infrared and ultraviolet lasers and their applications"; (2) Romanovskii M Yu (Prokhorov General Physics Institute, RAS, Moscow) "Laser-induced acceleration of the forbidden captures of orbital electrons by nuclei"; (3) Petrukovich A A (Space Research Institute, RAS, Moscow) "Earth's magnetosphere as a plasma laboratory"; (4) Shchur L N (Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics, RAS, Chernogolovka, Moscow region) "Computational physics and the verification of theoretical predictions". Articles written on the base of oral reports 1, 2, and 4 are published below. • High-power IR- and UV-laser systems and their applications, A A Ionin Physics-Uspekhi, 2012, Volume 55, Number 7, Pages 721-728 • Laser radiation enhancement of forbidden orbital electron captures and of neutrinoless double electron captures by nuclei, M Yu Romanovskii Physics-Uspekhi, 2012, Volume 55, Number 7, Pages 728-733 • Computational physics and testing theoretical predictions, L N Shchur Physics-Uspekhi, 2012, Volume 55, Number 7, Pages 733-738

  8. The History of the Physical Sciences in the Two-Year College Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Walter E.

    1980-01-01

    Describes how history of science is taught in these physical science courses: introductory astronomy for nonmajors; physical science for liberal arts and early childhood education majors; an algebra-based physics course for biology and premedical students; history of science emphasizing technology for liberal arts and business majors. (CS)

  9. Reforming the professional preparation of teachers of physics and physical science at Seattle Pacific University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewater, Lezlie

    2010-03-01

    Increasing the number and improving the in-depth preparation of precollege teachers to teach physics and physical science as a process of inquiry are major goals of the Physics Department at Seattle Pacific University. In close collaboration with the School of Education and partner school districts, we have embarked on a multi-pronged effort to recruit undergraduates into teaching through the SPU Learning Assistant program, to provide coherent and extensive professional development for teachers who teach physics out-of-field, to deepen the preparation in physical science of prospective and practicing elementary teachers, and to reform our content and methods courses for prospective teachers. Alignment of the program with regional and national projects has been extremely beneficial to our efforts. In this talk, the salient programmatic reforms will be outlined and results will be discussed.

  10. Test of Understanding of Vectors: A Reliable Multiple-Choice Vector Concept Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barniol, Pablo; Zavala, Genaro

    2014-01-01

    In this article we discuss the findings of our research on students' understanding of vector concepts in problems without physical context. First, we develop a complete taxonomy of the most frequent errors made by university students when learning vector concepts. This study is based on the results of several test administrations of…

  11. Teaching the Teachers: Physical Science for the Non-Scientific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michels, D. J.; Pickert, S. M.; Montrose, C. J.; Thompson, J. L.

    2004-12-01

    The Catholic University of America, in collaboration with the Solar Physics Branch of the Naval Research Laboratory and the Goddard Space Flight Center, has begun development of an experimental, inquiry-driven and standards-referenced physical science course for undergraduate, pre-service K-8 teachers. The course is team-taught by faculty from the University's Departments of Education and Physics and NRL solar physics research personnel. Basic physical science concepts are taught in the context of the Sun and Sun-Earth Connections, through direct observation, web-based solar data, and images and movies from ongoing space missions. The Sun can illuminate, in ways that cannot be duplicated with comparable clarity in the laboratory, the basics of magnetic and gravitational force fields, Newton's Laws, and light and optics. The immediacy of the connection to ongoing space research and live mission data serves as well to inspire student interest and curiosity. Teaching objectives include pedagogical methods, especially hands-on and observational experiences appropriate to the physics content and the K-8 classroom. The CUA Program, called TOPS! (Top Teachers of Physical Science!) has completed its first year of classroom experience; the first few batches of Program graduates should be in K-8 classrooms in time to capitalize on the motivational opportunities offered by the 2007-2008 IHY and IPY. We present data on the attitudinal and scientific progress of fifteen pre-service Early Childhood and Elementary Education majors as they experienced, many for the first time, the marvels of attractive and repulsive forces, live observations of solar system dynamics, access to real-time satellite data and NASA educational resources.

  12. Physical Science Informatics: Providing Open Science Access to Microheater Array Boiling Experiment Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McQuillen, John; Green, Robert D.; Henrie, Ben; Miller, Teresa; Chiaramonte, Fran

    2014-01-01

    The Physical Science Informatics (PSI) system is the next step in this an effort to make NASA sponsored flight data available to the scientific and engineering community, along with the general public. The experimental data, from six overall disciplines, Combustion Science, Fluid Physics, Complex Fluids, Fundamental Physics, and Materials Science, will present some unique challenges. Besides data in textual or numerical format, large portions of both the raw and analyzed data for many of these experiments are digital images and video, requiring large data storage requirements. In addition, the accessible data will include experiment design and engineering data (including applicable drawings), any analytical or numerical models, publications, reports, and patents, and any commercial products developed as a result of the research. This objective of paper includes the following: Present the preliminary layout (Figure 2) of MABE data within the PSI database. Obtain feedback on the layout. Present the procedure to obtain access to this database.

  13. Single Cell Measuring Device Identifies Key Physical Parameters of Metastatic Cancer | Physical Sciences in Oncology

    Cancer.gov

    Scott Manalis, principal investigator of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Physical Sciences-Oncology Center (MIT PS-OC), led this research team, which published its findings in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Other senior members of the team included Tyler Jacks, senior scientific investigator of the MIT PS-OC, and Parag Mallick, of Stanford University and a project leader at the University of Southern California PS-OC.

  14. Developing the learning physical science curriculum: Adapting a small enrollment, laboratory and discussion based physical science course for large enrollments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldberg, Fred; Price, Edward; Robinson, Stephen; Boyd-Harlow, Danielle; McKean, Michael

    2012-06-01

    We report on the adaptation of the small enrollment, lab and discussion based physical science course, Physical Science and Everyday Thinking (PSET), for a large-enrollment, lecture-style setting. Like PSET, the new Learning Physical Science (LEPS) curriculum was designed around specific principles based on research on learning to meet the needs of nonscience students, especially prospective and practicing elementary and middle school teachers. We describe the structure of the two curricula and the adaptation process, including a detailed comparison of similar activities from the two curricula and a case study of a LEPS classroom implementation. In LEPS, short instructor-guided lessons replace lengthier small group activities, and movies, rather than hands-on investigations, provide the evidence used to support and test ideas. LEPS promotes student peer interaction as an important part of sense making via “clicker” questions, rather than small group and whole class discussions typical of PSET. Examples of student dialog indicate that this format is capable of generating substantive student discussion and successfully enacting the design principles. Field-test data show similar student content learning gains with the two curricula. Nevertheless, because of classroom constraints, some important practices of science that were an integral part of PSET were not included in LEPS.

  15. Physical Sciences Research Plans for the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trinh, E.

    2002-01-01

    The restructuring of the research capabilities of the International Space Station has forced a reassessment of the Physical Sciences research plans and a re-targeting of the major scientific thrusts. The combination of already selected peer-reviewed flight investigations with the initiation of new research and technology programs will allow the maximization of the ISS scientific and technological potential. Fundamental and applied research will use a combination of ISS-based facilities, ground-based activities, and other experimental platforms to address issues impacting fundamental knowledge, industrial and medical applications on Earth, and the technology required for human space exploration. The current flight investigation research plan shows over 150 principal investigators selected to use the remaining planned research facilities. A description of all the physical sciences research facilities will be provided together with a discussion of a sample of the planned investigations.

  16. Some Malignant Cells Are Born Leaders | Physical Sciences in Oncology

    Cancer.gov

    Thanks to some clever tissue engineering to create a three-dimensional model of a breast tumor, researchers at the Cornell University Physical Sciences-Oncology Center (Cornell PS-OC) have shown that metastatic tumor cells are able to recruit non-metastatic cells to collectively invade the extracellular matrix that surrounds a tumor. These results suggest that different cell types in a tumor may cooperate to invade surrounding tissues and lead to the development of metastatic disease.

  17. The Methodist Hospital Research Institute | Physical Sciences in Oncology

    Cancer.gov

    The Methodist Hospital Research Institute Physical Sciences-Oncology Center evaluates the process of mass transport in cancer to generate novel methods to improve diagnosis and treatment of cancer. This center focuses on hepatic, breast, colorectal, and pancreatic primary cancers as well on liver metastasis of the last three conditions. The investigators show that transport differentials are very important in the ability to efficiently treat malignancies.

  18. Physical Sciences Facility Air Emission Control Equivalency Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, David M.; Belew, Shan T.

    2008-10-17

    This document presents the adequacy evaluation for the application of technology standards during design, fabrication, installation and testing of radioactive air exhaust systems at the Physical Sciences Facility (PSF), located on the Horn Rapids Triangle north of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) complex. The analysis specifically covers the exhaust portion of the heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems associated with emission units EP-3410-01-S, EP-3420-01-S and EP 3430-01-S.

  19. Physics teacher use of the history of science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winrich, Charles

    The School of Education and the Department of Physics at Boston University offer a sequence of 10 two-credit professional development courses through the Improving the Teaching of Physics (ITOP) project. The ITOP courses combine physics content, readings from the physics education research (PER) literature, and the conceptual history of physics (CHOP). ITOP participants self-report changes to their teaching practices as a result of their participation in ITOP. The purpose of this study was to verify and characterize those changes in the specific area of the participants' use of history after their study of CHOP. Ten recent ITOP participants were observed, interviewed, and asked to provide lesson plans and samples of student work from their classes. Case studies of each participant's teaching were constructed from the data. The individual cases were synthesized to characterize the impact of CHOP on the ITOP participants. The results show that the participants integrate CHOP into their pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) to inform their understanding of: (1) the relationship between physics and other disciplines, (2) the relationship between specific physics concepts, (3) student understanding of physics concepts, (4) student difficulties in learning physics concepts, and (5) methods for teaching physics concepts. The participants use history to teach a variety of topics, although the most common were mechanics and electromagnetism. All of the participants used history to teach aspects of the nature of science (NOS) and to increase student interest in physics, while eight participants taught physics concepts through history. The predominant mode of incorporating history was through adding anecdotes about the scientists who worked on the concepts, but seven participants had their students study the historical development of physical concepts. All the participants discussed a lack of time as a factor that inhibits a greater use of history in their courses. Eight participants discussed a lack of appropriate resources for using history in high school physics classes. Two participants said they did not feel that explicit study of the history of physics would benefit their students until they had better mastery of physics concepts.

  20. Science Library of Test Items. Volume Nineteen. A Collection of Multiple Choice Test Items Relating Mainly to Geology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New South Wales Dept. of Education, Sydney (Australia).

    As one in a series of test item collections developed by the Assessment and Evaluation Unit of the Directorate of Studies, items are made available to teachers for the construction of unit tests or term examinations or as a basis for class discussion. Each collection was reviewed for content validity and reliability. The test items meet syllabus…

  1. Science Library of Test Items. Volume Eighteen. A Collection of Multiple Choice Test Items Relating Mainly to Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New South Wales Dept. of Education, Sydney (Australia).

    As one in a series of test item collections developed by the Assessment and Evaluation Unit of the Directorate of Studies, items are made available to teachers for the construction of unit tests or term examinations or as a basis for class discussion. Each collection was reviewed for content validity and reliability. The test items meet syllabus…

  2. Science Library of Test Items. Volume Eighteen. A Collection of Multiple Choice Test Items Relating Mainly to Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New South Wales Dept. of Education, Sydney (Australia).

    As one in a series of test item collections developed by the Assessment and Evaluation Unit of the Directorate of Studies, items are made available to teachers for the construction of unit tests or term examinations or as a basis for class discussion. Each collection was reviewed for content validity and reliability. The test items meet syllabus…

  3. Science Library of Test Items. Volume Nineteen. A Collection of Multiple Choice Test Items Relating Mainly to Geology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New South Wales Dept. of Education, Sydney (Australia).

    As one in a series of test item collections developed by the Assessment and Evaluation Unit of the Directorate of Studies, items are made available to teachers for the construction of unit tests or term examinations or as a basis for class discussion. Each collection was reviewed for content validity and reliability. The test items meet syllabus…

  4. Nuclear Physics Science Network Requirements Workshop, May 2008 - Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Tierney, Ed., Brian L; Dart, Ed., Eli; Carlson, Rich; Dattoria, Vince; Ernest, Michael; Hitchcock, Daniel; Johnston, William; Kowalski, Andy; Lauret, Jerome; Maguire, Charles; Olson, Douglas; Purschke, Martin; Rai, Gulshan; Watson, Chip; Vale, Carla

    2008-11-10

    The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) is the primary provider of network connectivity for the US Department of Energy Office of Science, the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States of America. In support of the Office of Science programs, ESnet regularly updates and refreshes its understanding of the networking requirements of the instruments, facilities, scientists, and science programs that it serves. This focus has helped ESnet to be a highly successful enabler of scientific discovery for over 20 years. In May 2008, ESnet and the Nuclear Physics (NP) Program Office of the DOE Office of Science organized a workshop to characterize the networking requirements of the science programs funded by the NP Program Office. Most of the key DOE sites for NP related work will require significant increases in network bandwidth in the 5 year time frame. This includes roughly 40 Gbps for BNL, and 20 Gbps for NERSC. Total transatlantic requirements are on the order of 40 Gbps, and transpacific requirements are on the order of 30 Gbps. Other key sites are Vanderbilt University and MIT, which will need on the order of 20 Gbps bandwidth to support data transfers for the CMS Heavy Ion program. In addition to bandwidth requirements, the workshop emphasized several points in regard to science process and collaboration. One key point is the heavy reliance on Grid tools and infrastructure (both PKI and tools such as GridFTP) by the NP community. The reliance on Grid software is expected to increase in the future. Therefore, continued development and support of Grid software is very important to the NP science community. Another key finding is that scientific productivity is greatly enhanced by easy researcher-local access to instrument data. This is driving the creation of distributed repositories for instrument data at collaborating institutions, along with a corresponding increase in demand for network-based data transfers and the tools to manage those transfers effectively. Network reliability is also becoming more important as there is often a narrow window between data collection and data archiving when transfer and analysis can be done. The instruments do not stop producing data, so extended network outages can result in data loss due to analysis pipeline stalls. Finally, as the scope of collaboration continues to increase, collaboration tools such as audio and video conferencing are becoming ever more critical to the productivity of scientific collaborations.

  5. The science house: The learning outreach project of the college of physical and mathematical sciences of North Carolina State University

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, M.C.; Haase, D.G.

    1994-12-31

    Teaching science is about ideas and doing things. The purpose of the Science House is to increase student enthusiasm for the sciences and to help teachers present challenging and stimulating science and mathematics classes. The Science House emphasizes hands-on laboratory experiences and the partnership of school teachers and university faculty to develop classes and materials for K-12 students. A major goal of the Science House is to provide a model for the interaction between the research university and public schools in providing quality science education for our children. Teacher workshops of the Science House include Countertop Chemistry, Physics From the Junk Drawer, Digging Into Earth Science, Hands-On Mathematics, The Science of Astronomy, Integrating Math and Science, and Using Computers in the Lab. Other activities of the Science House include Physics on the Road - a traveling physics demonstration program visiting schools around North Carolina, the Imhotep Academy - a Saturday learning experience for students in grades 6-10 with the goal of increasing the pool of African-American students pursuing careers in science and mathematics, the Howard Hughes Pre-College Science Program - a program whose purpose is to assist a group of biology, chemistry, and physics teachers in learning new teaching technologies and to develop interdisciplinary teaching modules, and Team Science - a program whose purpose is to provide physics and chemistry students in rural schools the same learning opportunities available to their peers in the metropolitan schools of North Carolina.

  6. Solar and Space Physics: A Science for a Technological Society

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2013-01-01

    From the interior of the Sun, to the upper atmosphere and near-space environment of Earth, and outward to a region far beyond Pluto where the Sun's influence wanes, advances during the past decade in space physics and solar physics the disciplines NASA refers to as heliophysics have yielded spectacular insights into the phenomena that affect our home in space. This report, from the National Research Council's (NRC's) Committee for a Decadal Strategy in Solar and Space Physics, is the second NRC decadal survey in heliophysics. Building on the research accomplishments realized over the past decade, the report presents a program of basic and applied research for the period 2013-2022 that will improve scientific understanding of the mechanisms that drive the Sun's activity and the fundamental physical processes underlying near-Earth plasma dynamics, determine the physical interactions of Earth's atmospheric layers in the context of the connected Sun-Earth system, and enhance greatly the capability to provide realistic and specific forecasts of Earth's space environment that will better serve the needs of society. Although the recommended program is directed primarily to NASA (Science Mission Directorate -- Heliophysics Division) and the National Science Foundation (NSF) (Directorate for Geosciences -- Atmospheric and Geospace Sciences) for action, the report also recommends actions by other federal agencies, especially the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) those parts of NOAA charged with the day-to-day (operational) forecast of space weather. In addition to the recommendations included in this summary, related recommendations are presented in the main text of the report.

  7. A DIRECTORY OF INFORMATION RESOURCES IN THE UNITED STATES. PHYSICAL SCIENCES, BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES, ENGINEERING.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Library of Congress, Washington, DC.

    SOURCES OF INFORMATION FOR BIOLOGICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING ARE LISTED. THEY INCLUDE--(1) LIBRARIES, (2) CENTRALIZED INFORMATION CENTERS, (3) PROFESSIONAL SOCIETIES AND OTHER SPECIALIZING ORGANIZATIONS, (4) INDUSTRIAL FIRMS, (5) GOVERNMENTAL AGENCIES OR OFFICES, AND (6) OTHER INFORMATION SOURCES WHICH MAKE SCIENTIFIC AND…

  8. Fantastic Physics: Developing an Early Interest in Science. A Preschool Science Curriculum.(4 Year Old Curriculum).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Summer, Gail L.; Giovannini, Kathleen

    Using hands-on activities and the "Plan, Do, Review" approach, this physics curriculum for 4-year-olds is designed to develop an early interest in and enthusiasm for science and to excite children about learning in general. The curriculum is designed to be implemented biweekly in preschool or child care programs but may also be presented at a…

  9. Optimizing Introductory Physics for the Life Sciences: Placing Physics in Biological Context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crouch, Catherine

    2014-03-01

    Physics is a critical foundation for today's life sciences and medicine. However, the physics content and ways of thinking identified by life scientists as most important for their fields are often not taught, or underemphasized, in traditional introductory physics courses. Furthermore, such courses rarely give students practice using physics to understand living systems in a substantial way. Consequently, students are unlikely to recognize the value of physics to their chosen fields, or to develop facility in applying physics to biological systems. At Swarthmore, as at several other institutions engaged in reforming this course, we have reorganized the introductory course for life science students around touchstone biological examples, in which fundamental physics contributes significantly to understanding biological phenomena or research techniques, in order to make explicit the value of physics to the life sciences. We have also focused on the physics topics and approaches most relevant to biology while seeking to develop rigorous qualitative reasoning and quantitative problem solving skills, using established pedagogical best practices. Each unit is motivated by and culminates with students analyzing one or more touchstone examples. For example, in the second semester we emphasize electric potential and potential difference more than electric field, and start from students' typically superficial understanding of the cell membrane potential and of electrical interactions in biochemistry to help them develop a more sophisticated understanding of electric forces, field, and potential, including in the salt water environment of life. Other second semester touchstones include optics of vision and microscopes, circuit models for neural signaling, and magnetotactic bacteria. When possible, we have adapted existing research-based curricular materials to support these examples. This talk will describe the design and development process for this course, give examples of materials, and present initial assessment data evaluating both content learning and student attitudes.

  10. Physical Computing and Its Scope--Towards a Constructionist Computer Science Curriculum with Physical Computing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Przybylla, Mareen; Romeike, Ralf

    2014-01-01

    Physical computing covers the design and realization of interactive objects and installations and allows students to develop concrete, tangible products of the real world, which arise from the learners' imagination. This can be used in computer science education to provide students with interesting and motivating access to the different topic…

  11. Attitudes about Science and Conceptual Physics Learning in University Introductory Physics Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milner-Bolotin, Marina; Antimirova, Tetyana; Noack, Andrea; Petrov, Anna

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the results of the repeated administration of the Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey (CLASS) in a large introductory physics course at a midsize, metropolitan Canadian university. We compare the results to those obtained previously in comparable courses at the University of British Columbia (Canada) and the…

  12. Are Grades 10-12 Physical Sciences Teachers Equipped to Teach Physics?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basson, Ilsa; Kriek, Jeanne

    2012-01-01

    South African schools have been confronted with educational reform since the mid-nineties and the process is still continuing. The concomitant changes put a very high demand on physical sciences teachers and also have an impact on teacher behaviour. The purpose of this study was to probe whether teachers could be considered equipped to teach the…

  13. 78 FR 42111 - Advisory Committee for Mathematical and Physical Sciences #66; Notice of Meeting; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-15

    ..._ kcook@nsf.gov or Caleb Autrey, Science Assistant, Directorate for Mathematical and Physical Sciences... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Advisory Committee for Mathematical and Physical Sciences 66; Notice of Meeting; Correction SUMMARY:...

  14. Physics Lectures and Laboratories. A Model To Improve Preservice Elementary Science Teacher Development. Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dresser, Miles

    A group of scientists and science educators has developed and pilot tested an integrated physical science program designed for preservice elementary school teachers. This document includes the syllabus and class materials for the Physics block of the physical science courses developed by the group. Included are diagrams, lecture notes, homework…

  15. Scientific Research in British Universities and Colleges 1969-70, Volume I, Physical Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Education and Science, London (England).

    This annual publication (1969-1970) contains brief statements about current research in the physical sciences being conducted at British universities and colleges. Areas included are chemistry, physics, engineering, biochemistry, biometry, biophysics, physical geography, mathematics, computing science, and history and philosophy of science. (CP)

  16. Students, language, and physics: Discourse in the science classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowalski, Susan Marie

    Women and minorities do not enter science professions at rates consistent with their populations (Rosser, 2000). A variety of theoretical frameworks and associated interventions have been cited in the literature; yet, the gender and racial gaps remain. Theoretical frameworks and the associated interventions to promote the success of women and minorities in the sciences have primarily been one dimensional: they address issues of Self (associated with experiential and psychoanalytical framings) or Language (categorical and deconstructive framings) (Grumet & Stone, 2000). Furthermore, research in science education with few exceptions (Hanson, 2004), has failed to address race and gender through an intersectional analysis. This study investigates the inclusion and exclusion of girls and minorities in the sciences by examining the connections between Self and Language in physics group work conversations. Critical Discourse Analysis was used to explore the connections between Self and Language. Eight students in two groups were the focus of the study. Transcription of conversations and coding of transcripts with students' subject positions, genres, and registers provided evidence of the reflexivity of Self and Language. Furthermore, the study demonstrated how group discourse and power imbalances within groups serve to simultaneously facilitate and constrain learning opportunities and learning itself.

  17. The Science on Saturday Program at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bretz, N.; Lamarche, P.; Lagin, L.; Ritter, C.; Carroll, D. L.

    1996-11-01

    The Science on Saturday Program at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory consists of a series of Saturday morning lectures on various topics in science by scientists, engineers, educators, and others with an interesting story. This program has been in existence for over twelve years and has been advertised to and primarily aimed at the high school level. Topics ranging from superconductivity to computer animation and gorilla conservation to pharmaceutical design have been covered. Lecturers from the staff of Princeton, Rutgers, AT and T, Bristol Meyers Squibb, and many others have participated. Speakers have ranged from Nobel prize winners, astronauts, industrialists, educators, engineers, and science writers. Typically, there are eight to ten lectures starting in January. A mailing list has been compiled for schools, science teachers, libraries, and museums in the Princeton area. For the past two years AT and T has sponsored buses for Trenton area students to come to these lectures and an effort has been made to publicize the program to these students. The series has been very popular, frequently overfilling the 300 seat PPPL auditorium. As a result, the lectures are videotaped and broadcast to a large screen TV for remote viewing. Lecturers are encouraged to interact with the audience and ample time is provided for questions.

  18. Development of a Physical Science Course for Elementary Education Majors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baski, A. A.; Hunnicutt, S.

    2007-03-01

    We have developed a physical science content course for elementary education majors that is aligned with state standards. The course incorporates several hands-on activities related to the Virginia Standards of Learning that have already been implemented as one-hour lessons in elementary classrooms. Topics include measurement, properties of matter, motion & energy, electricity & magnetism, sound & light, chemical & physical processes, weather, and the solar system. In addition to the hands-on activities, course content is discussed in a small lecture format with questions posed throughout the material. The students discuss these questions in assigned groups and then answer them using remote answer devices (see www.einstruction.com). Lastly, conceptual ideas in class are reinforced using online LON-CAPA homework questions that are individually randomized for each student and provide immediate feedback (see loncapa.org). Those questions which indicate a high degree-of-difficulty are reassigned during following weeks to provide multiple opportunities for practice. All of these active learning approaches reinforce basic concepts necessary to teach physical science at the elementary level.

  19. ASP2012: Fundamental Physics and Accelerator Sciences in Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darve, Christine

    2012-02-01

    Much remains to be done to improve education and scientific research in Africa. Supported by the international scientific community, our initiative has been to contribute to fostering science in sub-Saharan Africa by establishing a biennial school on fundamental subatomic physics and its applications. The school is based on a close interplay between theoretical, experimental, and applied physics. The lectures are addressed to students or young researchers with at least a background of 4 years of university formation. The aim of the school is to develop capacity, interpret, and capitalize on the results of current and future physics experiments with particle accelerators; thereby spreading education for innovation in related applications and technologies, such as medicine and information science. Following the worldwide success of the first school edition, which gathered 65 students for 3-week in Stellenbosch (South Africa) in August 2010, the second edition will be hosted in Ghana from July 15 to August 4, 2012. The school is a non-profit organization, which provides partial or full financial support to 50 of the selected students, with priority to Sub-Saharan African students.

  20. Science, technology, society, and environment (STSE) and pre-service physics teacher education: Lessons for physics and education faculty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacLeod, Katarin

    2015-12-01

    The science, technology, society, and environment (STSE) framework is well documented in educational research, policy, and science curricula development; fewer strides have been made in connecting this conceptual frame-work of science teaching into undergraduate physics courses via physics education research. Further, science teacher training programs must ensure pre-service teachers understand STSE so that they can teach in accordance with provincially mandated curriculums. This research points to possible ways that education and physics departments can work together to bridge student learning as well as explore ways that STSE can enrich the various physics courses we teach at the secondary and post-secondary levels.

  1. Laboratory for Nuclear Science. High Energy Physics Program

    SciTech Connect

    Milner, Richard

    2014-07-30

    High energy and nuclear physics research at MIT is conducted within the Laboratory for Nuclear Science (LNS). Almost half of the faculty in the MIT Physics Department carry out research in LNS at the theoretical and experimental frontiers of subatomic physics. Since 2004, the U.S. Department of Energy has funded the high energy physics research program through grant DE-FG02-05ER41360 (other grants and cooperative agreements provided decades of support prior to 2004). The Director of LNS serves as PI. The grant supports the research of four groups within LNS as “tasks” within the umbrella grant. Brief descriptions of each group are given here. A more detailed report from each task follows in later sections. Although grant DE-FG02-05ER41360 has ended, DOE continues to fund LNS high energy physics research through five separate grants (a research grant for each of the four groups, as well as a grant for AMS Operations). We are pleased to continue this longstanding partnership.

  2. Physical sciences research plans for the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trinh, E. H.

    2003-01-01

    The restructuring of the research capabilities of the International Space Station has forced a reassessment of the Physical Sciences research plans and a re-targeting of the major scientific thrusts. The combination of already selected peer-reviewed flight investigations with the initiation of new research and technology programs will allow the maximization of the ISS scientific and technological potential. Fundamental and applied research will use a combination of ISS-based facilities, ground-based activities, and other experimental platforms to address issues impacting fundamental knowledge, industrial and medical applications on Earth, and the technology required for human space exploration. The current flight investigation research plan shows a large number of principal investigators selected to use the remaining planned research facilities. c2003 American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Invisible World and Modern Physics: Modern Science and Theology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theodossiou, E.; Manimanis, V. N.; Danezis, E.

    2010-07-01

    A characteristic of the Western thought is the effort to counter Christian theology through arguments based on scientific discoveries (antirrhetic theology). Two objections can be raised against this trait: a) Modern science considers as a fact the future expansions, corrections, even total abolishment of scientific knowledge in the face of new discoveries. Therefore, dogmatic positions must not be based on temporary scientific views. b) Antirrhetic theology is mostly based on out-of-date scientific views of the period 1650-1900, which are not valid any more. The example of modern physics and cosmology is prime among them; in these sciences, the prevailing theories are based on the existence of an imperceptible reality, or on apparently “illogical” (in the sense of classical logic) fundamental properties of matter and its particles in quantum mechanics.

  4. The Science Information Infrastructure: An Integrated Network for Finding and Using Information about Our Physical World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warnick, Walter

    2001-01-01

    Several federal science agencies have formed an alliance to work together and to make an interagency science portal, science.gov http://www.science.gov, a reality that will serve the needs of the research community and provide universal access to physical science information for citizens. While much progress has been made, challenges of resources…

  5. The Science Information Infrastructure: An Integrated Network for Finding and Using Information about Our Physical World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warnick, Walter

    2001-01-01

    Several federal science agencies have formed an alliance to work together and to make an interagency science portal, science.gov http://www.science.gov, a reality that will serve the needs of the research community and provide universal access to physical science information for citizens. While much progress has been made, challenges of resources…

  6. The assessment of critical thinking skills in anatomy and physiology students who practice writing higher order multiple choice questions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, Jason

    Critical thinking is a complex abstraction that defies homogeneous interpretation. This means that no operational definition is universal and no critical thinking measurement tool is all encompassing. Instructors will likely find evidence based strategies to facilitate thinking skills only as numerous research efforts from multiple disciplines accumulate. This study focuses on a question writing exercise designed to help anatomy and physiology students. Students were asked to design multiple choice questions that combined course concepts in new and novel ways. Instructions and examples were provided on how to construct these questions and student attempts were sorted into levels one through three of Bloom's Cognitive Taxonomy (Bloom et al. 1956). Students submitted their question designs weekly and received individual feedback as to how they might improve. Eight course examinations were created to contain questions that modeled the Bloom's Cognitive Taxonomy levels that students were attempting. Students were assessed on their course examination performance as well as performance on a discipline independent critical thinking test called the California Critical Thinking Skills Test (CCTST). The performance of students in this study was compared to students from two previous years that took the same course but did not have the question writing activity. Results suggest that students do not improve their ability to answer critical thinking multiple choices questions when they practice the task of creating such problems. The effect of class level on critical thinking is examined and it appears that the longer a student has attended college the better the performance on both discipline specific and discipline independent critical thinking questions. The data were also used to analyze students who improved their course examination grades in the second semester of this course. There is a pattern to suggest that students who improve their performance on course examinations did so largely in non-critical thinking problems. Although, when this subset of students is analyzed by class level it appears that sophomores reverse the pattern and improve much more in critical thinking type questions than their upper classmen. The implications of this are discussed.

  7. Bringing the physical sciences into your cell biology research

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Douglas N.; Iglesias, Pablo A.

    2012-01-01

    Historically, much of biology was studied by physicists and mathematicians. With the advent of modern molecular biology, a wave of researchers became trained in a new scientific discipline filled with the language of genes, mutants, and the central dogma. These new molecular approaches have provided volumes of information on biomolecules and molecular pathways from the cellular to the organismal level. The challenge now is to determine how this seemingly endless list of components works together to promote the healthy function of complex living systems. This effort requires an interdisciplinary approach by investigators from both the biological and the physical sciences. PMID:23112230

  8. Numerical Data Advisory Board assembly of mathematial and physical sciences

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-07-30

    The Numerical Data Advisory Board (NDAB) is an advisory body that provides expert overview, on a broad basis, of data needs and data programs as required for the advancement of science and technology. Board members, representing various disciplines, concern themselves with the quality, reliability, availability, accessibility, and dissemination of numerical data in physical, chemical, engineering, and interdisciplinary subjects as well as numeric and non-numeric data that arise in biology and geology. Topics of concern are addressed by the NDAB membership, or by specific, carefully chosen committees and panels established by NDAB in order to include experts appropriate to the subject at hand.

  9. Deriving Accessible Science Books for the Blind Students of Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kouroupetroglou, Georgios; Kacorri, Hernisa

    2010-01-01

    We present a novel integrated methodology for the development and production of accessible physics and science books from the elementary up to tertiary educational levels. This language independent approach adopts the Design-for-All principles, the available international standards for alternative formats and the Universal Design for Learning (UDL) Guidelines. Moreover it supports both static (embossed and refreshable tactile) and dynamic (based on synthetic speech and other sounds) accessibility. It can produce Tactile Books (Embossed Braille and Tactile Graphics), Digital Talking Books (or Digital Audio Books), Large Print Books as well as Acoustic-Tactile Books for the blind and visually impaired students as well as but for the print-disabled. This methodology has been successfully applied in the case of blind students of the Physics, Mathematics and Informatics Departments in the University of Athens.

  10. Experimental Physical Sciences Vistas: MaRIE (draft)

    SciTech Connect

    Shlachter, Jack

    2010-09-08

    To achieve breakthrough scientific discoveries in the 21st century, a convergence and integration of world-leading experimental facilities and capabilities with theory, modeling, and simulation is necessary. In this issue of Experimental Physical Sciences Vistas, I am excited to present our plans for Los Alamos National Laboratory's future flagship experimental facility, MaRIE (Matter-Radiation Interactions in Extremes). MaRIE is a facility that will provide transformational understanding of matter in extreme conditions required to reduce or resolve key weapons performance uncertainties, develop the materials needed for advanced energy systems, and transform our ability to create materials by design. Our unique role in materials science starting with the Manhattan Project has positioned us well to develop a contemporary materials strategy pushing the frontiers of controlled functionality - the design and tailoring of a material for the unique demands of a specific application. Controlled functionality requires improvement in understanding of the structure and properties of materials in order to synthesize and process materials with unique characteristics. In the nuclear weapons program today, improving data and models to increase confidence in the stockpile can take years from concept to new knowledge. Our goal with MaRIE is to accelerate this process by enhancing predictive capability - the ability to compute a priori the observables of an experiment or test and pertinent confidence intervals using verified and validated simulation tools. It is a science-based approach that includes the use of advanced experimental tools, theoretical models, and multi-physics codes, simultaneously dealing with multiple aspects of physical operation of a system that are needed to develop an increasingly mature predictive capability. This same approach is needed to accelerate improvements to other systems such as nuclear reactors. MaRIE will be valuable to many national security science challenges. Our first issue of Vistas focused on our current national user facilities (the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center [LANSCE], the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory-Pulsed Field Facility, and the Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies) and the vitality they bring to our Laboratory. These facilities are a magnet for students, postdoctoral researchers, and staff members from all over the world. This, in turn, allows us to continue to develop and maintain our strong staff across the relevant disciplines and conduct world-class discovery science. The second issue of Vistas was devoted entirely to the Laboratory's materials strategy - one of the three strategic science thrusts for the Laboratory. This strategy has helped focus our thinking for MaRIE. We believe there is a bright future in cutting-edge experimental materials research, and that a 21st-century facility with unique capability is necessary to fulfill this goal. The Laboratory has spent the last several years defining MaRIE, and this issue of Vistas presents our current vision of that facility. MaRIE will leverage LANSCE and our other user facilities, as well as our internal and external materials community for decades to come, giving Los Alamos a unique competitive advantage, advancing materials science for the Laboratory's missions and attracting and recruiting scientists of international stature. MaRIE will give the international materials research community a suite of tools capable of meeting a broad range of outstanding grand challenges.

  11. Biographical Sources in the Sciences--Life, Earth and Physical Sciences (1989-2006). LC Science Tracer Bullet. TB 06-4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freitag, Ruth, Comp.; Bradley, Michelle Cadoree, Comp.

    2006-01-01

    This guide offers a systematic approach to the wide variety of published biographical information on men and women of science in the life, earth and physical sciences, primarily from 1989 to 2006, and complements Library of Congress Science Tracer Bullet "TB88-3" ("Biographical Sources in the Sciences," compiled 1988 [ED306074]) and "TB06-7"…

  12. Seizure metaphors in children with epilepsy: A study based on a multiple-choice self-report questionnaire.

    PubMed

    D'Angelosante, Valentina; Tommasi, Marco; Casadio, Claudia; Verrotti, Alberto

    2015-05-01

    The advantages of metaphorical representation are pointed out in many fields of clinical research (e.g. cancer, HIV, psychogenic nonepileptic seizures). This study aimed at offering a novel contribution showing how children with epilepsy describe the symptomatology of their seizure experiences by means of particular kinds of cognitive metaphors. Twenty-three children with idiopathic generalized epilepsy and thirty-one healthy children were recruited for this study and interviewed with a multiple-choice questionnaire asking them to describe their epileptic seizures by means of suitable metaphors. A psychologist blinded to medical diagnosis assessed and categorized all metaphors. By considering the 89 metaphors produced by the children with epilepsy and the 147 ones by the healthy controls, Agent/Force was the primary metaphor assessed by children with epilepsy, followed by Event/Situation as the second preference. Moreover, comparing the results of the control group with those of the subjects with epilepsy, it was found that controls were oriented towards selecting exogenous forces, while subjects with epilepsy tended to select endogenous forces. In particular, children with epilepsy showed a peculiar preference for an endogenous force resembling the waggle metaphor, which is similar to the effect of a quake's shaking (earthquake or seaquake). The metaphors identified by this research are a useful resource to better understand the seizure experiences of patients with epilepsy, helping to improve clinical treatment. PMID:25934584

  13. Forming Modern Citizens in the 1960s: Comparative Analysis of Teaching in Natural Sciences, Physical Sciences and Physical Education throughout France

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Attali, Michael; Guedj-Chauchard, Muriel; Saint-Martin, Jean; Savaton, Pierre

    2011-01-01

    Reforms made to France's education system structures during the 1960s resulted in a repositioning of academic subjects within study plans. This article looks at three relatively similar subjects (physical sciences, natural sciences and physical education) and throws light on the arguments put forward to defend the purpose of each of them in the…

  14. Forming Modern Citizens in the 1960s: Comparative Analysis of Teaching in Natural Sciences, Physical Sciences and Physical Education throughout France

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Attali, Michael; Guedj-Chauchard, Muriel; Saint-Martin, Jean; Savaton, Pierre

    2011-01-01

    Reforms made to France's education system structures during the 1960s resulted in a repositioning of academic subjects within study plans. This article looks at three relatively similar subjects (physical sciences, natural sciences and physical education) and throws light on the arguments put forward to defend the purpose of each of them in the…

  15. The Science Shop for Physics: an interface between practical problems in society and physical knowledge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van den Berg, G. P.

    1998-03-01

    Since some 20 years most Dutch universities have one or more science shops. Central shops handle research questions for all disciplines. Specialized shops are part of a department of chemistry or medicine, history, social science, etc. The shops have evolved rather differently, but their main mission still is to help social groups that lack money and have no easy access to scientific knowledge, e.g. neighbourhood, environmental, third world or patient groups. Most also help non-commercial organizations such as schools, trade unions or local authorities. Low-cost help can be provided because students do the work as part of their training, mainly in student projects (literature search, practical work, graduation, etc.). A total staff of 80, helped by 600 students, 250 voluntary and 50 paid researchers, handle 1500 questions resulting in 300 reports (estimated figures 1995). Science shops for physics (`Physics Shop', PS) have to deal with practical problems, generally involving classical physics. Major topics are noise, vibration, radiation, indoor climate and energy: most of the work lies in estimating/measuring relevant parameters, assessing impact, seeking solutions. The 3 Dutch PS's have developed in different directions. One is run entirely by students and deals with small, concrete problems. The second PS is managed by a co-ordinator who mediates between client groups and physics staff members who assist students in small and larger projects. The third has a lot of in-house expertise, and the shop staff is in direct contact with client groups as well as students who work in the PS itself. In questions submitted to the PS it is not always immediately clear what to do or how to do it because of the non-scientific phrasing of the problems and problems include non-physical (e.g. technical, health or legal) aspects. Also, difficulties in solving the problems are typically not in the underlying physics, but in the lack of accurate data and of control of the complex environment. However, these very aspects are important from an educational point of view. Through these problems students (and physicists) may gain more insight into how lay people percieve and make use of science, and into the position of science in relation to other ways in which people try to understand their world.

  16. The Persistent Dearth of Women in the Physical Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urry, C. Megan

    2002-04-01

    For twenty years, scientists and society alike have averred that discrimination against women is a thing of the past, which may be largely true for the most overt kind of discrimination. Yet judging from the scarcity of women in the physical sciences in the U.S. today, it is clear that these professions efficiently filter out women (and probably other minorities). Not only are women present in much smaller numbers than men at all levels, their presence decreases with increasing rank in the academic hierarchy, and women advance more slowly and with greater attrition than men. Notably, the pre-college pipeline is no longer the critical issue, since women are present in large numbers in introductory science and math classes at top undergraduate institutions. However, there is little agreement on what the critical problem might be, much less its solution. Furthermore, most physical scientists in academia, which is to say male full professors, have paid relatively little attention to this problem and are not well informed about the current status of women in their fields or the extensive research on gender bias. I review the relevant statistics and some of this research. I conclude that progress is possible if people in positions of power adopt the inclusion of women as a priority. This will enhance excellence in our profession, both because it taps a wider pool of talent and because it corrects the bias that has (under the assumption of equal distribution of talent among men and women) excluded some of our best scientists.

  17. Physics and social science — The approach of synergetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weidlich, Wolfgang

    1991-05-01

    Universally applicable methods originating in statistical physics and synergetics are combined with concepts from social science in order to set up and to apply a model construction concept for the quantitative description of a broad class of collective dynamical phenomena within society. Starting from the decisions of individuals and introducing the concept of dynamical utilities, probabilistic transition rates between attitudes and actions can be constructed. The latter enter the central equation of motion, i.e. the master equation, for the probability distribution over the possible macroconfigurations of society. From the master equation the equations of motion for the expectation values of the macrovariables of society can be derived. These equations are in general nonlinear. Their solutions may include stationary solutions, limit cycles and strange attractors, and with varying trend parameters also phase transitions between different modes of social behaviour can be described. The general model construction approach is subsequently applied to characteristic examples from different social sciences, such as sociology, demography, regional science and economics. These examples refer to collective political opinion formation, to interregional migration of interactive populations, to settlement formation on the micro-, meso- and macroscale, and to nonlinear nonequilibrium economics, including market instabilities.

  18. Sensitivity of Linkings between AP Multiple-Choice Scores and Composite Scores to Geographical Region: An Illustration of Checking for Population Invariance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Wen-Ling

    2004-01-01

    This application study investigates whether the multiple-choice to composite linking functions that determine Advanced Placement Program exam grades remain invariant over subgroups defined by region. Three years of test data from an AP exam are used to study invariance across regions. The study focuses on two questions: (a) How invariant are grade…

  19. How Are the Form and Magnitude of DIF Effects in Multiple-Choice Items Determined by Distractor-Level Invariance Effects?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penfield, Randall D.

    2011-01-01

    This article explores how the magnitude and form of differential item functioning (DIF) effects in multiple-choice items are determined by the underlying differential distractor functioning (DDF) effects, as modeled under the nominal response model. The results of a numerical investigation indicated that (a) the presence of one or more nonzero DDF…

  20. Measuring the Consistency in Change in Hepatitis B Knowledge among Three Different Types of Tests: True/False, Multiple Choice, and Fill in the Blanks Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahai, Vic; Demeyere, Petra; Poirier, Sheila; Piro, Felice

    1998-01-01

    The recall of information about Hepatitis B demonstrated by 180 seventh graders was tested with three test types: (1) short-answer; (2) true/false; and (3) multiple-choice. Short answer testing was the most reliable. Suggestions are made for the use of short-answer tests in evaluating student knowledge. (SLD)

  1. The Fill-In Test: Combining Multiple-Choice and Modified Cloze Techniques to Test English as a Foreign Language Reading Comprehension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bensoussan, Marsha; Ramraz, Rachel

    The fill-in-test, a modified version of the cloze procedure, is relatively easy to construct, is easier to score than the cloze procedure, and yields a greater number of questions per line of text than the conventional multiple choice comprehension test. The fill-in-test is constructed by inserting blank spaces into a text and providing a number…

  2. Development and Application of a Two-Tier Multiple Choice Diagnostic Instrument To Assess High School Students' Understanding of Inorganic Chemistry Qualitative Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Kim Chwee Daniel; Goh, Ngoh Khang; Chia, Lian Sai; Treagust, David F.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the development and application of a two-tier multiple choice diagnostic instrument to assess high school students' understanding of inorganic chemistry qualitative analysis. Shows that the Grade 10 students had difficulty understanding the reactions involved in the identification of cations and anions, for example, double decomposition…

  3. Sensitivity of Linkings between AP Multiple-Choice Scores and Composite Scores to Geographical Region: An Illustration of Checking for Population Invariance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Wen-Ling

    2004-01-01

    This application study investigates whether the multiple-choice to composite linking functions that determine Advanced Placement Program exam grades remain invariant over subgroups defined by region. Three years of test data from an AP exam are used to study invariance across regions. The study focuses on two questions: (a) How invariant are grade…

  4. Does Linking Mixed-Format Tests Using a Multiple-Choice Anchor Produce Comparable Results for Male and Female Subgroups? Research Report. ETS RR-11-44

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Sooyeon; Walker, Michael E.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the use of subpopulation invariance indices to evaluate the appropriateness of using a multiple-choice (MC) item anchor in mixed-format tests, which include both MC and constructed-response (CR) items. Linking functions were derived in the nonequivalent groups with anchor test (NEAT) design using an MC-only anchor set for 4…

  5. A Stratified Study of Students' Understanding of Basic Optics Concepts in Different Contexts Using Two-Tier Multiple-Choice Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chu, Hye-Eun; Treagust, David F.; Chandrasegaran, A. L.

    2009-01-01

    A large scale study involving 1786 year 7-10 Korean students from three school districts in Seoul was undertaken to evaluate their understanding of basic optics concepts using a two-tier multiple-choice diagnostic instrument consisting of four pairs of items, each of which evaluated the same concept in two different contexts. The instrument, which…

  6. The Impact of Item Position in Multiple-Choice Test on Student Performance at the Basic Education Certificate Examination (BECE) Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ollennu, Sam Nii Nmai; Etsey, Y. K. A.

    2015-01-01

    The study investigated the impact of item position in multiple-choice test on student performance at the Basic Education Certificate Examination (BECE) level in Ghana. The sample consisted of 810 Junior Secondary School (JSS) Form 3 students selected from 12 different schools. A quasi-experimental design was used. The instrument for the project…

  7. The Empirical Power and Type I Error Rates of the GBT and [omega] Indices in Detecting Answer Copying on Multiple-Choice Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zopluoglu, Cengiz; Davenport, Ernest C., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    The generalized binomial test (GBT) and [omega] indices are the most recent methods suggested in the literature to detect answer copying behavior on multiple-choice tests. The [omega] index is one of the most studied indices, but there has not yet been a systematic simulation study for the GBT index. In addition, the effect of the ability levels…

  8. A Stratified Study of Students' Understanding of Basic Optics Concepts in Different Contexts Using Two-Tier Multiple-Choice Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chu, Hye-Eun; Treagust, David F.; Chandrasegaran, A. L.

    2009-01-01

    A large scale study involving 1786 year 7-10 Korean students from three school districts in Seoul was undertaken to evaluate their understanding of basic optics concepts using a two-tier multiple-choice diagnostic instrument consisting of four pairs of items, each of which evaluated the same concept in two different contexts. The instrument, which…

  9. Incorporating Multiple-Choice Questions into an AACSB Assurance of Learning Process: A Course-Embedded Assessment Application to an Introductory Finance Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santos, Michael R.; Hu, Aidong; Jordan, Douglas

    2014-01-01

    The authors offer a classification technique to make a quantitative skills rubric more operational, with the groupings of multiple-choice questions to match the student learning levels in knowledge, calculation, quantitative reasoning, and analysis. The authors applied this classification technique to the mid-term exams of an introductory finance…

  10. What Do Tests of Listening Comprehension Test?--A Retrospection Study of EFL Test-Takers Performing a Multiple-Choice Task.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yi'an, Wu

    1998-01-01

    Investigated the test-taking processes of English-as-a-Foreign-Language (EFL) testees taking a multiple choice listening-comprehension test, evaluating the effectiveness of immediate retrospection for accessing such processes. Linguistic and non-linguistic knowledge was activated in a parallel manner for all subjects with input of various…

  11. Incorporating Multiple-Choice Questions into an AACSB Assurance of Learning Process: A Course-Embedded Assessment Application to an Introductory Finance Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santos, Michael R.; Hu, Aidong; Jordan, Douglas

    2014-01-01

    The authors offer a classification technique to make a quantitative skills rubric more operational, with the groupings of multiple-choice questions to match the student learning levels in knowledge, calculation, quantitative reasoning, and analysis. The authors applied this classification technique to the mid-term exams of an introductory finance…

  12. Development and Application of a Two-Tier Multiple Choice Diagnostic Instrument To Assess High School Students' Understanding of Inorganic Chemistry Qualitative Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Kim Chwee Daniel; Goh, Ngoh Khang; Chia, Lian Sai; Treagust, David F.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the development and application of a two-tier multiple choice diagnostic instrument to assess high school students' understanding of inorganic chemistry qualitative analysis. Shows that the Grade 10 students had difficulty understanding the reactions involved in the identification of cations and anions, for example, double decomposition…

  13. On the Relative Value of Multiple-Choice, Constructed Response, and Examinee-Selected Items on Two Achievement Tests. Program Statistics Research Technical Report No. 93-28.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lukhele, Robert; And Others

    Analyses based on fitting item response models to data from the College Board's Advanced Placement exams in Chemistry and United States History indicated that the constructed-response portion of the tests yielded little information over and above that provided by the multiple-choice sections. These tests also allow examinees to select subsets of…

  14. Using IRT To Combine Multiple-Choice and Free-Response Sections of a Test onto a Common Scale Using A Priori Weights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lukhele, Robert; Sireci, Stephen G.

    Free-response (FR) item formats, such as essay questions, are popular in educational assessment. The criticisms against FR items are that they are more expensive to score, take up more testing time, provide less content coverage, and are less reliable than multiple-choice (MC) items. For these reasons, FR items are often combined with MC items.…

  15. The Single Group with Nearly Equivalent Tests (SiGNET) Design for Equating Very Small Volume Multiple-Choice Tests. Research Report. ETS RR-11-31

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Mary C.

    2011-01-01

    The "single group with nearly equivalent tests" (SiGNET) design proposed here was developed to address the problem of equating scores on multiple-choice test forms with very small single-administration samples. In this design, the majority of items in each new test form consist of items from the previous form, and the new items that were…

  16. A Clarification of the Effects of Rapid Guessing on Coefficient [Alpha]: A Note on Attali's "Reliability of Speeded Number-Right Multiple-Choice Tests"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wise, Steven L.; DeMars, Christine E.

    2009-01-01

    Attali (2005) recently demonstrated that Cronbach's coefficient [alpha] estimate of reliability for number-right multiple-choice tests will tend to be deflated by speededness, rather than inflated as is commonly believed and taught. Although the methods, findings, and conclusions of Attali (2005) are correct, his article may inadvertently invite a…

  17. A Comparison of the Performance on Three Multiple Choice Question Papers in Obstetrics and Gynecology Over a Period of Three Years Administered at Five London Medical Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, J. M.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Five of the medical schools in the University of London collaborated in administering one multiple choice question paper in obstetrics and gynecology, and results showed differences in performance between the five schools on questions and alternatives within questions. The rank order of the schools may result from differences in teaching methods.…

  18. Examining Two Strategies to Link Mixed-Format Tests Using Multiple-Choice Anchors. Research Report. ETS RR-10-18

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Michael E.; Kim, Sooyeon

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the use of an all multiple-choice (MC) anchor for linking mixed format tests containing both MC and constructed-response (CR) items, in a nonequivalent groups design. An MC-only anchor could effectively link two such test forms if either (a) the MC and CR portions of the test measured the same construct, so that the MC anchor…

  19. Beyond the Bubble, Grades 2-3: How to Use Multiple-Choice Tests to Improve Math Instruction, Grades 2-3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wickett, Maryann; Hendrix-Martin, Eunice

    2011-01-01

    Multiple-choice testing is an educational reality. Rather than complain about the negative impact these tests may have on teaching and learning, why not use them to better understand your students' true mathematical knowledge and comprehension? Maryann Wickett and Eunice Hendrix-Martin show teachers how to move beyond the student's answer--right…

  20. A Study of Achievement, Understanding of Science, and Teacher Role Perception in Various Groups of the Nebraska Physical Science Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Douglas J.

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of various teaching practices and classroom organizational patterns upon achievement and understanding of science of students studying materials of the Nebraska Physical Science Project (NPSP), an integrated chemistry-physics course, and to investigate these practices and patterns and the role…

  1. The history of science as employed by physics teachers in Suffolk County high schools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zito, Frederick A.

    2002-01-01

    This dissertation examined the extent of teaching the history of science in high school physics courses in Suffolk County, New York, and whether or not teaching the history of science was mandated by the State Education Department of the University of the State of New York. A literature review of the empirical educational practice suggests that educators considered including the history of science in science courses to be beneficial, and positive results are reported. A survey questionnaire was mailed to all 112 high school physics teachers in Suffolk County to determine their teaching practice for including the history of science. Documents and material examined for history of science content included N.Y. State syllabus, learning standards, and curriculum mandating publications, the physics textbooks used in Suffolk County, and the 1995--2001 Regents Physics Examinations. Conclusions reached are that the N.Y. State syllabus, learning standards and curriculum guidelines for teaching the history of science are inadequate and deficient. The physics text books used do not include the history of science in an integrated and meaningful manner with technical content, and the physics regents examinations do not test the history of science. In spite of the above, forty-six percent of the teachers report they often or always teach the history of science. A major recommendation is that the N.Y. State Education Department emphasize the history of science in controlling documents, in the regents physics examinations, in the physics textbooks, and in providing for teacher training in the history of science.

  2. Physics Myth Busting: A Lab-Centered Course for Non-Science Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madsen, Martin John

    2011-01-01

    There is ongoing interest in how and what we teach in physics courses for non-science students, so-called "physics for poets" courses. Art Hobson has effectively argued that teaching science literacy should be a key ingredient in these courses. Hobson uses Jon Millers definition of science literacy, which has two components: first, "a basic…

  3. The Material Co-Construction of Hard Science Fiction and Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hasse, Cathrine

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the relationship between hard science fiction and physics and a gendered culture of science. Empirical studies indicate that science fiction references might spur some students' interest in physics and help develop this interest throughout school, into a university education and even further later inspire the practice of…

  4. The Material Co-Construction of Hard Science Fiction and Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hasse, Cathrine

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the relationship between hard science fiction and physics and a gendered culture of science. Empirical studies indicate that science fiction references might spur some students' interest in physics and help develop this interest throughout school, into a university education and even further later inspire the practice of…

  5. (Re)Producing Good Science Students: Girls' Participation in High School Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlone, Heidi B.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the meaning of science and science students in a high school physics classroom and the ways in which girls participated. Highlights girls' embrace of prototypical school science. Suggests that students' agency in resisting or accepting the practice, identities, and knowledge of school science is worth understanding for the improvement of…

  6. The "Earth Physics" Workshops Offered by the Earth Science Education Unit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Earth science has a part to play in broadening students' learning experience in physics. The Earth Science Education Unit presents a range of (free) workshops to teachers and trainee teachers, suggesting how Earth-based science activities, which show how we understand and use the planet we live on, can easily be slotted into normal science

  7. First Flight!: An Event-Based Science Module Teacher's Guide. Physics Module.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Russell G.

    This book is designed for middle school life science or physical science teachers to help their students learn scientific literacy through event-based science. Unlike traditional curricula, the event- based earth science module is a student-centered, interdisciplinary, inquiry-oriented program that emphasizes cooperative learning, teamwork,…

  8. Bifurcation of a Common Path: Gender Splitting on the Road to Engineering and Physical Science Careers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lips, Hilary M.

    1992-01-01

    Findings from 55 female and 42 male college students revealed that inclination toward mathematics/science was significantly, positively, and similarly related to likely careers in mathematical sciences. For physical and engineering science careers, however, there was little or no relationship between self-described interest in science and…

  9. Rasch scaling procedures for informing development of a valid Fetal Surveillance Education Program multiple-choice assessment

    PubMed Central

    Zoanetti, Nathan; Griffin, Patrick; Beaves, Mark; Wallace, Euan M

    2009-01-01

    Background It is widely recognised that deficiencies in fetal surveillance practice continue to contribute significantly to the burden of adverse outcomes. This has prompted the development of evidence-based clinical practice guidelines by the Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists and an associated Fetal Surveillance Education Program to deliver the associated learning. This article describes initial steps in the validation of a corresponding multiple-choice assessment of the relevant educational outcomes through a combination of item response modelling and expert judgement. Methods The Rasch item response model was employed for item and test analysis and to empirically derive the substantive interpretation of the assessment variable. This interpretation was then compared to the hierarchy of competencies specified a priori by a team of eight subject-matter experts. Classical Test Theory analyses were also conducted. Results A high level of agreement between the hypothesised and derived variable provided evidence of construct validity. Item and test indices from Rasch analysis and Classical Test Theory analysis suggested that the current test form was of moderate quality. However, the analyses made clear the required steps for establishing a valid assessment of sufficient psychometric quality. These steps included: increasing the number of items from 40 to 50 in the first instance, reviewing ineffective items, targeting new items to specific content and difficulty gaps, and formalising the assessment blueprint in light of empirical information relating item structure to item difficulty. Conclusion The application of the Rasch model for criterion-referenced assessment validation with an expert stakeholder group is herein described. Recommendations for subsequent item and test construction are also outlined in this article. PMID:19402898

  10. Science self-efficacy of African Americans enrolled in freshman level physical science courses in two historically black institutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prihoda, Belinda Ann

    2011-12-01

    Science education must be a priority for citizens to function and be productive in a global, technological society. African Americans receive fewer science degrees in proportion to the Caucasian population. The primary purposes of this study were to determine the difference between the pretest and posttest science self-efficacy scores of African-American nonscience majors, the difference between the pretest and posttest science self-efficacy scores of African-American science majors, the relationship between science self-efficacy and course grade, the relationship between gender and science self-efficacy score, and the relationship between science self-efficacy score and course withdrawal. This study utilized a Likert survey instrument. All participants were enrolled in freshman level courses in the physical sciences at a historically black institution: a college or university. Participants completed the pretest survey within two weeks after the 12th class day of the semester. Initially, 458 participants completed the pretest survey. The posttest was administered within two weeks before the final exam. Only 245 participants completed the posttest survey. Results indicate that there is a difference in science self-efficacy of science majors and nonscience majors. There was no significant difference between the pretest and posttest science self-efficacy scores of African-American science majors and nonscience majors. There was no significant relationship between science self-efficacy and course grade, gender and science self-efficacy score, and course withdrawal and science self-efficacy score.

  11. Physical sciences research plans for the international space station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trinh, E. H.

    2003-08-01

    The restructuring of the research capabilities of the International Space Station has forced a reassessment of the Physical Sciences research plans and a re-targeting of the major scientific thrusts. The combination of already selected peer-reviewed flight investigations with the initiation of new research and technology programs will allow the maximization of the ISS scientific and technological potential. Fundamental and applied research will use a combination of ISS-based facilities, ground-based activities, and other experimental platforms to address issues impacting fundamental knowledge, industrial and medical applications on Earth, and the technology required for human space exploration. The current flight investigation research plan shows a large number of principal investigators selected to use the remaining planned research facilities.

  12. Physical sciences research plans for the International Space Station.

    PubMed

    Trinh, E H

    2003-01-01

    The restructuring of the research capabilities of the International Space Station has forced a reassessment of the Physical Sciences research plans and a re-targeting of the major scientific thrusts. The combination of already selected peer-reviewed flight investigations with the initiation of new research and technology programs will allow the maximization of the ISS scientific and technological potential. Fundamental and applied research will use a combination of ISS-based facilities, ground-based activities, and other experimental platforms to address issues impacting fundamental knowledge, industrial and medical applications on Earth, and the technology required for human space exploration. The current flight investigation research plan shows a large number of principal investigators selected to use the remaining planned research facilities. PMID:14649258

  13. Final report on the Assessment of Physical Sciences and Engineering Advances in Life Sciences and Oncology (APHELION) in Europe and Asia | Physical Sciences in Oncology

    Cancer.gov

    The second phase of APHELION was initiated in June 2013 with visits to laboratories in Asia working at the interface of physics and biomedical sciences. These visits involved sites in Singapore, China, Taiwan, Hong Kong, and Japan. A third phase of the project included visits from a subset of the committee to laboratories in England and Scotland in October 2013. Reports on the activities at sites visited in Asia and the United Kingdom are in Appendices C and D, respectively.

  14. Recent Science Education Initiatives at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zwicker, Andrew; Dominguez, Arturo; Gershman, Sophia; Guilbert, Nick; Merali, Aliya; Ortiz, Deedee

    2013-10-01

    An integrated approach to program development and implementation has significantly enhanced a variety of Science Education initiatives for students and teachers. This approach involves combining the efforts of PPPL scientists, educators, research and education fellows, and collaborating non-profit organizations to provide meaningful educational experiences for students and teachers. Our undergraduate internship program continues to have outstanding success, with 72% of our participants going to graduate school and 45% concentrating in plasma physics. New partnerships have allowed us to increase the number of underrepresented students participating in mentored research opportunities. The number of participants in our Young Women's Conference increases significantly each year. Our Plasma Camp workshop, now in its 15th year, recruits outstanding teachers from around the country to create new plasma-centered curricula. Student research in the Science Education Laboratory concentrates on the development of a high-fidelity plasma speaker, a particle dropper for a dusty plasma experiment, microplasmas along liquid surfaces for a variety of applications, an Internet-controlled DC glow discharge source for students, and a Planeterrella for demonstrating the aurora and other space weather phenomenon for the general public.

  15. Astrophysics and astronomy (Scientific session of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 26 January 2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-10-01

    An Astrophysics and Astronomy scientific session of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS) was held in the Conference Hall of the P N Lebedev Physical Institute, RAS, on 26 January 2011. The following reports were put on the session's agenda posted on the web site www.gpad.ac.ru of the Physical Sciences Division, RAS: (1) Cherepashchuk A M (Sternberg Astronomical Institute, Moscow State University, Moscow) "Investigation of X-ray sources"; (2) Shustov B M (Institute of Astronomy, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow) "Asteroid and comet hazards: physical and other aspects"; (3) Sazhin M V (Sternberg Astronomical Institute, Moscow State University, Moscow) "Search for cosmic strings"; (4) Zakharov A F (Russian Federation State Scientific Center 'A I Alikhanov Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics', Moscow) "Exoplanet search using gravitational microlensing". Papers written on the basis of the reports are published below. • Optical investigations of X-ray binary systems, A M Cherepashchuk Physics-Uspekhi, 2011, Volume 54, Number 10, Pages 1061-1067 • Asteroid and comet hazards: the role of physical sciences in solving the problem, B M Shustov Physics-Uspekhi, 2011, Volume 54, Number 10, Pages 1068-1071 • Search for cosmic strings using optical and radio astronomy methods, O S Sazhina, M V Sazhin, M Capaccioli, G Longo Physics-Uspekhi, 2011, Volume 54, Number 10, Pages 1072-1077 • Search for exoplanets using gravitational microlensing, A F Zakharov Physics-Uspekhi, 2011, Volume 54, Number 10, Pages 1077-1084

  16. A Science Summer Camp as an Effective Way to Recruit High School Students to Major in the Physical Sciences and Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bischoff, Paul J.; Castendyk, Devin; Gallagher, Hugh; Schaumloffel, John; Labroo, Sunil

    2008-01-01

    Now in its fifth year, PR[superscript 2]EPS is a National Science Foundation funded initiative designed to recruit high school students to attend college majoring in the physical sciences, including engineering and secondary science education, and to help ensure their retention within these programs until graduation. A central feature of the…

  17. Using spatial principles to optimize distributed computing for enabling the physical science discoveries

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chaowei; Wu, Huayi; Huang, Qunying; Li, Zhenlong; Li, Jing

    2011-01-01

    Contemporary physical science studies rely on the effective analyses of geographically dispersed spatial data and simulations of physical phenomena. Single computers and generic high-end computing are not sufficient to process the data for complex physical science analysis and simulations, which can be successfully supported only through distributed computing, best optimized through the application of spatial principles. Spatial computing, the computing aspect of a spatial cyberinfrastructure, refers to a computing paradigm that utilizes spatial principles to optimize distributed computers to catalyze advancements in the physical sciences. Spatial principles govern the interactions between scientific parameters across space and time by providing the spatial connections and constraints to drive the progression of the phenomena. Therefore, spatial computing studies could better position us to leverage spatial principles in simulating physical phenomena and, by extension, advance the physical sciences. Using geospatial science as an example, this paper illustrates through three research examples how spatial computing could (i) enable data intensive science with efficient data/services search, access, and utilization, (ii) facilitate physical science studies with enabling high-performance computing capabilities, and (iii) empower scientists with multidimensional visualization tools to understand observations and simulations. The research examples demonstrate that spatial computing is of critical importance to design computing methods to catalyze physical science studies with better data access, phenomena simulation, and analytical visualization. We envision that spatial computing will become a core technology that drives fundamental physical science advancements in the 21st century. PMID:21444779

  18. Using spatial principles to optimize distributed computing for enabling the physical science discoveries.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chaowei; Wu, Huayi; Huang, Qunying; Li, Zhenlong; Li, Jing

    2011-04-01

    Contemporary physical science studies rely on the effective analyses of geographically dispersed spatial data and simulations of physical phenomena. Single computers and generic high-end computing are not sufficient to process the data for complex physical science analysis and simulations, which can be successfully supported only through distributed computing, best optimized through the application of spatial principles. Spatial computing, the computing aspect of a spatial cyberinfrastructure, refers to a computing paradigm that utilizes spatial principles to optimize distributed computers to catalyze advancements in the physical sciences. Spatial principles govern the interactions between scientific parameters across space and time by providing the spatial connections and constraints to drive the progression of the phenomena. Therefore, spatial computing studies could better position us to leverage spatial principles in simulating physical phenomena and, by extension, advance the physical sciences. Using geospatial science as an example, this paper illustrates through three research examples how spatial computing could (i) enable data intensive science with efficient data/services search, access, and utilization, (ii) facilitate physical science studies with enabling high-performance computing capabilities, and (iii) empower scientists with multidimensional visualization tools to understand observations and simulations. The research examples demonstrate that spatial computing is of critical importance to design computing methods to catalyze physical science studies with better data access, phenomena simulation, and analytical visualization. We envision that spatial computing will become a core technology that drives fundamental physical science advancements in the 21st century. PMID:21444779

  19. The Physics Component of Out-of-School Science Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wattier, Francis L.

    This report discusses out-of-school science activities and programs conducted throughout the world. The discussion is organized according to type of activity and includes science camps, training periods during school breaks, scientific and technical clubs, science congresses and meetings, science fairs, and mass media instruction. (MLH)

  20. A content analysis of physical science textbooks with regard to the nature of science and ethnic diversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, Kristine M.

    The goal of science education is the preparation of scientifically literate students (Abd-El-Khalick & Lederman, 2000, & American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), 1990). In order to instruct students in the nature of science with its history, development, methods and applications, science teachers use textbooks as the primary organizer for the curriculum (Chippetta, Ganesh, Lee, & Phillips, 2006). Science textbooks are the dominant instructional tool that exerts great influence on instructional content and its delivery (Wang, 1998). Science and science literacy requires acquiring knowledge about the natural world and understanding its application in society, or, in other words, the nature of science. An understanding of the nature of science is an important part of science literacy (Abd-El-Khalik & Lederman, 2000, & AAAS, 1990). The nature of science has four basic themes or dimensions: science as a body of knowledge, science as a way of thinking, science as a way of investigating, and science with its interaction with technology and society (Chippetta & Koballa, 2006). Textbooks must relay and incorporate these themes to promote science literacy. The results from this content analysis provide further insights into science textbooks and their content with regard to the inclusion of the nature of science and ethnic diversity. Science textbooks usually downplay human influences (Clough & Olson, 2004) whether as part of the nature of science with its historical development or its interaction with societies of diverse cultures. Minority students are underperforming in science and science is divided on ethnic, linguistic, and gender identity (Brown, 2005). Greater representations of diversity in curriculum materials enable minority students to identify with science (Nines, 2000). Textbooks, with their influence on curriculum and presentation, must include links for science and students of diverse cultures. What is the balance of the four aspects of the nature of science and what is the balance of ethnic diversity in the participants in science (students and scientists) in physical science textbooks? To establish an answer to these questions, this investigation used content analysis. For the balance of the four aspects of the nature of science, the analysis was conducted on random page samples of five physical science textbooks. A random sampling of the pages within the physical science textbooks should be sufficient to represent the content of the textbooks (Garcia, 1985). For the balance of ethnic diversity of the participants in science, the analysis was conducted on all pictures or drawings of students and scientists within the content of the five textbooks. One of these IPC books is under current use in a large, local school district and the other four were published during the same, or similar, year. Coding procedures for the sample used two sets of coders. One set of coders have previously analyzed for the nature of science in a study on middle school science textbooks (Phillips, 2006) and the coders for ethnic diversity are public school teachers who have worked with ethnically diverse students for over ten years. Both sets of coders were trained and the reliability of their coding checked before coding the five textbooks. To check for inter-coder reliability, percent agreement, Cohen's kappa and Krippendorff's alpha were calculated. The results from this study indicate that science as a body of knowledge and science as a way of investigating are the prevalent themes of the nature of science in the five physical science textbooks. This investigation also found that there is an imbalance in the ethnic diversity of students and scientists portrayed within the chapters of the physical science textbooks studied. This imbalance reflects ratios that are neither equally balanced nor in align with the U.S. Census. Given that textbooks are the main sources of information in most classrooms, the imbalance of the nature of science could provide the students, and the teachers, with an incomplete perception and understanding of the nature of science. This imbalance could also provide the students with inadequate skills to develop and process science information and apply it to their world. The ethnic diversity portrayed in the physical science textbooks provides an inadequate link between the students' ethnic backgrounds and the ethnic diversity of the participants of science. Educators and publishers should provide science textbooks that incorporate all four aspects of the nature of science to a degree that science is perceived as more than just facts and information. Science must be recognized as a way of investigating, a way of thinking, and a way of applying knowledge to society. Further, in order to recognize all people who take part in science, students and scientists from a variety of ethnic groups should be portrayed in the physical science textbooks.

  1. Physical and Chemical Sciences Center - research briefs. Volume 1-96

    SciTech Connect

    Mattern, P.L.

    1994-12-31

    This report provides brief summaries of research performed in chemical and physical sciences at Sandia National Laboratories. Programs are described in the areas of advanced materials and technology, applied physics and chemistry, lasers, optics, and vision, and resources and capabilities.

  2. Science off the Sphere: Thin Film Physics - Duration: 5 minutes, 13 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    International Space Station Expedition 30 astronaut Don Pettit demonstrates physics in space for 'Science off the Sphere.' Through a partnership between NASA and the American Physical Society you c...

  3. Another kind of 'BOLD Response': answering multiple-choice questions via online decoded single-trial brain signals.

    PubMed

    Sorger, Bettina; Dahmen, Brigitte; Reithler, Joel; Gosseries, Olivia; Maudoux, Audrey; Laureys, Steven; Goebel, Rainer

    2009-01-01

    The term 'locked-in'syndrome (LIS) describes a medical condition in which persons concerned are severely paralyzed and at the same time fully conscious and awake. The resulting anarthria makes it impossible for these patients to naturally communicate, which results in diagnostic as well as serious practical and ethical problems. Therefore, developing alternative, muscle-independent communication means is of prime importance. Such communication means can be realized via brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) circumventing the muscular system by using brain signals associated with preserved cognitive, sensory, and emotional brain functions. Primarily, BCIs based on electrophysiological measures have been developed and applied with remarkable success. Recently, also blood flow-based neuroimaging methods, such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), have been explored in this context. After reviewing recent literature on the development of especially hemodynamically based BCIs, we introduce a highly reliable and easy-to-apply communication procedure that enables untrained participants to motor-independently and relatively effortlessly answer multiple-choice questions based on intentionally generated single-trial fMRI signals that can be decoded online. Our technique takes advantage of the participants' capability to voluntarily influence certain spatio-temporal aspects of the blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal: source location (by using different mental tasks), signal onset and offset. We show that healthy participants are capable of hemodynamically encoding at least four distinct information units on a single-trial level without extensive pretraining and with little effort. Moreover, real-time data analysis based on simple multi-filter correlations allows for automated answer decoding with a high accuracy (94.9%) demonstrating the robustness of the presented method. Following our 'proof of concept', the next step will involve clinical trials with LIS patients, undertaken in close collaboration with their relatives and caretakers in order to elaborate individually tailored communication protocols. As our procedure can be easily transferred to MRI-equipped clinical sites, it may constitute a simple and effective possibility for online detection of residual consciousness and for LIS patients to communicate basic thoughts and needs in case no other alternative communication means are available (yet)--especially in the acute phase of the LIS. Future research may focus on further increasing the efficiency and accuracy of fMRI-based BCIs by implementing sophisticated data analysis methods (e.g., multivariate and independent component analysis) and neurofeedback training techniques. Finally, the presented BCI approach could be transferred to portable fNIRS systems as only this would enable hemodynamically based communication in daily life situations. PMID:19818908

  4. Effect of differing PowerPoint slide design on multiple-choice test scores for assessment of knowledge and retention in a theriogenology course.

    PubMed

    Root Kustritz, Margaret V

    2014-01-01

    Third-year veterinary students in a required theriogenology diagnostics course were allowed to self-select attendance at a lecture in either the evening or the next morning. One group was presented with PowerPoint slides in a traditional format (T group), and the other group was presented with PowerPoint slides in the assertion-evidence format (A-E group), which uses a single sentence and a highly relevant graphic on each slide to ensure attention is drawn to the most important points in the presentation. Students took a multiple-choice pre-test, attended lecture, and then completed a take-home assignment. All students then completed an online multiple-choice post-test and, one month later, a different online multiple-choice test to evaluate retention. Groups did not differ on pre-test, assignment, or post-test scores, and both groups showed significant gains from pre-test to post-test and from pre-test to retention test. However, the T group showed significant decline from post-test to retention test, while the A-E group did not. Short-term differences between slide designs were most likely unaffected due to required coursework immediately after lecture, but retention of material was superior with the assertion-evidence slide design. PMID:25000882

  5. PREFACE: International Symposium on Physical Sciences in Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Andreas; Egry, Ivan

    2011-12-01

    ISPS is the major international scientific forum for researchers in physics utilizing the space environment, in particular microgravity. It is intended to inspire and encourage cross-cutting discussions between different scientific communities working in the same environment. Contributions discussing results of experiments carried out on drop towers, parabolic aircraft flights, sounding rockets, unmanned recoverable capsules and, last but not least, the International Space Station ISS, are the backbone of this conference series, complemented by preparatory ground-based work, both experimentally and theoretically. The first International Symposium on Physical Sciences in Space (ISPS) sponsored by the International Microgravity Strategic Planning Group (IMSPG) took place in 2000 in Sorrento, Italy. IMSPG seeks to coordinate the planning of space for research in physical sciences by space agencies worldwide. AEB (Brazil), ASI (Italy), CNES (France), CSA (Canada), DLR (Germany), ESA (Europe), JAXA (Japan), NASA (USA), NSAU (Ukraine) and RSA (Russia) are members, and CNSA (China) and ISRO (India) are also invited to join IMSPG meetings. ISPS-4 was the fourth symposium in that series, following ISPS-2 organized by CSA in 2004 in Toronto, Canada, and ISPS-3 organized in 2007 by JAXA in Nara, Japan. ISPS-4 was jointly organized by ESA and DLR on behalf of the IMSPG and was held in Bonn from 11-15 July 2011. 230 participants from 17 different countries attended ISPS-4. Recent microgravity experiments were presented, analysed, and set in context to results from Earth bound experiments in 16 plenary and 68 topical talks. Lively discussions continued during two dedicated poster sessions and at the exhibition booths of space industry and research centers with new flight hardware on display. The oral presentations at ISPS4 were selected exclusively on the basis of scientific merit, as evidenced through the submitted abstracts. The selection was performed by the International Scientific Program Committee. It is our pleasure to thank the members of this committee for their excellent support in setting up a high-quality, well-balanced program. We also thank our sponsors, the German Aerospace Center and the European Space Agency, the Bundesministerium für Wirtschaft und Technologie (German Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology), the ZARM Center of Applied Space Technology and Microgravity as well as our industrial sponsors EADS-Astrium and Kayser-Threde, for their generous contributions. Our special thanks go to the authors and reviewers of the papers in these proceedings. Together we were able to realize up-to-date, peer reviewed conference proceedings, containing new and original data. Thanks to their efforts and that of the IOP Publishing staff, we succeeded in publishing the proceedings within six months of the conference. We are confident that this collection of papers will provide a useful reference for all workers in the field. Andreas Meyer and Ivan Egry Chairmen ISPS-4 Institute of Materials Physics in Space German Aerospace Center, Cologne Conference photograph Opening ceremony Professor Dr Andreas Meyer, Chairman ISPS 4, Professor Dr Johann-Dietrich Wörner, CEO DLR, and Dr Martin Zell, Head of ESA ISS Utilisation (left to right), at the opening ceremony of ISPS-4.

  6. The Nobel Prize in the Physics Class: Science, History, and Glamour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eshach, Haim

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces a novel strategy for teaching physics: using the Nobel Physics Prize as an organizational theme for high school or even first year university physics, bringing together history, social contexts of science, and central themes in modern physics. The idea underlying the strategy is that the glamour and glitter of the Nobel Prize…

  7. The Nobel Prize in the Physics Class: Science, History, and Glamour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eshach, Haim

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces a novel strategy for teaching physics: using the Nobel Physics Prize as an organizational theme for high school or even first year university physics, bringing together history, social contexts of science, and central themes in modern physics. The idea underlying the strategy is that the glamour and glitter of the Nobel Prize…

  8. Physical methods in nanoscale science with the atomic force microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaffer, Tilman Erich

    1998-12-01

    The atomic force microscope (AFM) has opened up a wide gate to the nanoscopic world. Since its invention twelve years ago, it has allowed researchers to advance to new science. The extent of this advancement is strongly coupled to the sophistication of AFM instrumentation and to the methods with which AFMs are used. New AFMs and methods are needed to push the limits. Chapter 1 and 2 introduce such new AFMs with low-noise and high-speed characteristics. The AFM presented in Chapter 2 has a focused spot size of 1.6 m m in diameter and is capable of using cantilevers much smaller than previously possible. Chapter 3 discusses the physics of the detection system and gives methods for improving the detection sensitivity. Thermal motion of the cantilever, usually contributing to the noise in a measurement, is a method for probing the oscillatory hydration potential at a calcite-water interface in Chapter 4. Chapter 5 establishes a method of measuring the three-dimensional electromagnetic field over a surface and comparing the data to micro-magnetic models. Biomineralization of marine abalone nacre is the subject of interdisciplinary Chapter 6, where a variety of microscopic and statistical methods distinguish between two competing models of nacre growth.

  9. The material co-construction of hard science fiction and physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasse, Cathrine

    2014-02-01

    This article explores the relationship between hard science fiction and physics and a gendered culture of science. Empirical studies indicate that science fiction references might spur some students' interest in physics and help develop this interest throughout school, into a university education and even further later inspire the practice of doing science. There are many kinds of fiction within the science fiction genre. In the presented empirical exploration physics students seem particularly fond of what is called `hard science fiction': a particular type of science fiction dealing with technological developments (Hartwell and Cramer in The hard SF renaissance, Orb/TOR, New York, 2002). Especially hard science fiction as a motivating fantasy may, however, also come with a gender bias. The locally materialized techno-fantasies spurring dreams of the terraforming of planets like Mars and travels in time and space may not be shared by all physics students. Especially female students express a need for other concerns in science. The entanglement of physics with hard science fiction may thus help develop some students' interest in learning school physics and help create an interest for studying physics at university level. But research indicates that especially female students are not captured by the hard techno-fantasies to the same extent as some of their male colleagues. Other visions (e.g. inspired by soft science fiction) are not materialized as a resource in the local educational culture. It calls for an argument of how teaching science is also teaching cultural values, ethics and concerns, which may be gendered. Teaching materials, like the use of hard science fiction in education, may not just be (yet another) gender bias in science education but also carrier of particular visions for scientific endeavours.

  10. The material co-construction of hard science fiction and physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasse, Cathrine

    2015-12-01

    This article explores the relationship between hard science fiction and physics and a gendered culture of science. Empirical studies indicate that science fiction references might spur some students' interest in physics and help develop this interest throughout school, into a university education and even further later inspire the practice of doing science. There are many kinds of fiction within the science fiction genre. In the presented empirical exploration physics students seem particularly fond of what is called `hard science fiction': a particular type of science fiction dealing with technological developments (Hartwell and Cramer in The hard SF renaissance, Orb/TOR, New York, 2002). Especially hard science fiction as a motivating fantasy may, however, also come with a gender bias. The locally materialized techno-fantasies spurring dreams of the terraforming of planets like Mars and travels in time and space may not be shared by all physics students. Especially female students express a need for other concerns in science. The entanglement of physics with hard science fiction may thus help develop some students' interest in learning school physics and help create an interest for studying physics at university level. But research indicates that especially female students are not captured by the hard techno-fantasies to the same extent as some of their male colleagues. Other visions (e.g. inspired by soft science fiction) are not materialized as a resource in the local educational culture. It calls for an argument of how teaching science is also teaching cultural values, ethics and concerns, which may be gendered. Teaching materials, like the use of hard science fiction in education, may not just be (yet another) gender bias in science education but also carrier of particular visions for scientific endeavours.

  11. Creation Science: A Challenge in the Physics Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kessler, Gary

    1993-01-01

    Discusses incidents of brush-ins with student proponents of the theory of creation science. Provides and answers eight questions typical of both the misinformation spread in creation science literature and the lack of research done by students. (MVL)

  12. Physics Teacher Use of the History of Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winrich, Charles

    2013-01-01

    The School of Education and the Department of Physics at Boston University offer a sequence of 10 two-credit professional development courses through the Improving the Teaching of Physics (ITOP) project. The ITOP courses combine physics content, readings from the physics education research (PER) literature, and the conceptual history of physics

  13. Influence of experience on intake and feeding behavior of dairy sheep when offered forages from woody plants in a multiple-choice situation.

    PubMed

    Meier, J S; Liesegang, A; Rischkowsky, B; Louhaichi, M; Zaklouta, M; Kreuzer, M; Marquardt, S

    2013-10-01

    A satisfactory intake of novel low-quality forages by ruminants may require previous experience with this feed. Therefore, this study tested in sheep whether experience with forages from woody plants had an influence on feed intake, feeding behavior, and nutrient supply when offered in a multiple-choice arrangement. Two sheep experiments were conducted, 1 in Syria (Mediterranean region; Exp. 1) and the other in Switzerland (Central Europe; Exp. 2), that investigated 5 and 6 woody test plants, respectively. In Exp. 1, the test plants were Artemisia herba-alba, Atriplex leucoclada, Haloxylon articulatum, Noaea mucronata, and Salsola vermiculata. In Exp. 2, Betula pendula, Castanea sativa, and Juglans regia were used in addition to A. leucoclada, H. articulatum, and S. vermiculata (the plants most consumed in Exp. 1). In each experiment, 12 lactating sheep (Awassi sheep in Exp. 1 and East Friesian Milk sheep in Exp. 2) were allocated to 2 groups ("experienced" and "naďve"). Experienced sheep subsequently were familiarized with each test plant during a learning period of binary choices (1 test plant vs. barley straw) for 4 h in the morning for 7 d each. The naďve group received only straw. During the rest of the day, a basal diet composed of barley straw (ad libitum) and concentrate was offered to both groups. For the 2 wk following the learning period, the sheep were subjected to feeding of the basal diet to avoid carryover effects of the last offered test plant. In the following multiple-choice period, both groups were allowed to select from all test plants during 4 h in the morning for 14 d. Forage intake after 4 and 24 h and feeding behavior during the first 30 min of the test feeding were assessed. Milk yield and composition were measured at the end of the multiple-choice period. Nutrient intake was calculated using feed intake measurements and compositional analyses. Only in Exp. 2, group differences (P < 0.05) were found on d 1 of the multiple-choice period. The experienced sheep consumed more total forage, straw, OM, NDF, ADF, and ADL (nutrients without concentrate). However, across the entire multiple-choice period, there were no differences (P ? 0.05) in forage and nutrient intake, feeding behavior, and milk yield and composition between the groups in both experiments. This suggests that sheep can quickly adapt to previously unknown woody feeds of varying origin and quality offered as dried supplements. PMID:23989878

  14. The Effect of Collaborative Concept Mapping on Elementary Preservice Teachers' Anxiety, Efficacy, and Achievement in Physical Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Czerniak, Charlene M.; Haney, Jodi J.

    1998-01-01

    Examines the effects of using concept-mapping activities in a physical science class for elementary science teachers on physical science achievement, self-efficacy, and anxiety toward learning and teaching physical science. Discusses implications for teacher education. Contains 54 references. (WRM)

  15. Students' Motivation toward Learning Physical Science--A Case from Four Classes of Taiwanese Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuan, Hsiao-Lin; Chin, Chi-Chin

    The purpose of this study was to explore four classes of junior high school students' learning motivation toward a physical science course in central Taiwan. Both qualitative and quantitative methods were applied in the study. Students' physical science learning motivation questionnaire (SPSLMQ), modified from multiple dimensions of a motivation…

  16. Measurement in Physical Education and Exercise Science (MPEES): Accomplishments and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Yuanlong

    2007-01-01

    This year marks the 10th year of publication for "Measurement in Physical Education and Exercise Science" (MPEES). As we are forging into future, it would be very helpful to evaluate the role MPEES has played in the evolution of the research in physical education and exercise science. In this issue, the authors address the challenges that MPEES…

  17. Science Simulations: Do They Make a Difference in Student Achievement and Attitude in the Physics Laboratory?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Janet; Bradley, Curtis; Gratch, Jonathan

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare and contrast laboratory simulations with traditional (equipment) explorations in physics to determine differences, if any, in student achievement and changes in attitude toward science. Based upon the investigations conducted in undergraduate physics classes with 96 students who were non-science majors, it…

  18. What Attracts High-Achieving Socioeconomically Disadvantaged Students to the Physical Sciences and Engineering?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conrad, Sarah; Canetto, Silvia Sara; MacPhee, David; Farro, Samantha

    2009-01-01

    Socioeconomically disadvantaged (SED) students are less likely to major in physical sciences or engineering. To guide recruitment and retention of a diversity of talent, this study examined what attracts high-achieving SED students to these fields. Participants were 50 undergraduates majoring in physical sciences or engineering enrolled in the…

  19. Pre-Service Science Teachers' Pedagogical Content Knowledge in the Physics, Chemistry, and Biology Topics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bektas, Oktay

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated pre-service science teachers' pedagogical content knowledge in the physics, chemistry, and biology topics. These topics were the light and sound, the physical and chemical changes, and reproduction, growth, and evolution. Qualitative research design was utilized. Data were collected from 33 pre-service science teachers…

  20. CVT/GPL phase 2 integrated testing. [in earth observations, space physics, and material sciences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shurney, R. E.; Maybee, G.; Schmitt, S.

    1974-01-01

    Experiments representing earth observations, space physics, and material sciences disciplines were installed in the General Purpose Laboratory (GPL). The experiments and the GPL are described. The experiments interfaces the GPL and GPL support systems are assessed. The experiments were cloud physics, ionospheric disturbances, material sciences, high energy astronomy, and superfluid helium.