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Last update: November 12, 2013.
1

Multiple-Choice Exams: An Obstacle for Higher-Level Thinking in Introductory Science Classes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Learning science requires higher-level (critical) thinking skills that need to be practiced in science classes. This study tested the effect of exam format on critical-thinking skills. Multiple-choice (MC) testing is common in introductory science courses, and students in these classes tend to associate memorization with MC questions and may not…

Stanger-Hall, Kathrin F.

2012-01-01

2

Using a Classroom Response System to Improve Multiple-Choice Performance in AP® Physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Participation in rigorous high school courses such as Advanced Placement (AP®) Physics increases the likelihood of college success, especially for students who are traditionally underserved.1 Tackling difficult multiple-choice exams should be part of any AP program because well-constructed multiple-choice questions, such as those on AP exams and on the Force Concept Inventory,2 are particularly good at rooting out common and persisting student misconceptions. Additionally, there are barriers to multiple-choice performance that have little to do with content mastery. For example, a student might fail to read the question thoroughly, forget to apply a reasonableness test to the answer, or simply work too slowly.

Bertrand, Peggy

2009-04-01

3

A Case Study on Multiple-Choice Testing in Anatomical Sciences  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article describes a study investigating whether the distribution of different versions of an examination affects student performance in a lower division anatomical science course. In particular this study focuses on objective testing techniques (multiple choice test). Methods and outcomes are discussed.

Stephanie Golda (University of Missouri Anthropology, Pathology and Anatomy)

2011-01-02

4

Visual Attention for Solving Multiple-Choice Science Problem: An Eye-Tracking Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study employed an eye-tracking technique to examine students' visual attention when solving a multiple-choice science problem. Six university students participated in a problem-solving task to predict occurrences of landslide hazards from four images representing four combinations of four factors. Participants' responses and visual attention…

Tsai, Meng-Jung; Hou, Huei-Tse; Lai, Meng-Lung; Liu, Wan-Yi; Yang, Fang-Ying

2012-01-01

5

A validity study of the multiple-choice component of the Advanced Placement Physics C examination  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In 1974-1975, the multiple-choice sections of both parts of an Advanced Placement (AP) Physics C Examination were given as parts of final examinations to college students completing the appropriate semester of an introductory calculus-based physics course. Almost 3800 candidates were tested in 15 highly selective colleges. The college students scored on the average about the same as or slightly lower than the AP candidates who also took the same exams and the scores of the college students correlated quite well both with end-of-course grades and with rankings of the students' physics achievement made independently by their instructors. The equivalencies between AP and college grades were estimated, both for mechanics and for electricity and magnetism. An AP grade of 4 or 5 was roughly equivalent to a college A, an AP 3 to a college B, and an AP 2 to a college C.

Pfeiffenberger, G. W.; Modu, Christopher

2005-10-26

6

The Development and Validation of a Two-Tiered Multiple-Choice Instrument to Identify Alternative Conceptions in Earth Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study was to determine reliability and validity for a two-tiered, multiple- choice instrument designed to identify alternative conceptions in earth science. Additionally, this study sought to identify alternative conceptions in earth science held by preservice teachers, to investigate relationships between self-reported confidence scores and…

Mangione, Katherine Anna

2010-01-01

7

Potential Values of Incorporating a Multiple-Choice Question Construction in Physics Experimentation Instruction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The potential value of a multiple-choice question-construction instructional strategy for the support of students’ learning of physics experiments was examined in the study. Forty-two university freshmen participated in the study for a whole semester. A constant comparison method adopted to categorize students’ qualitative data indicated that the influences of multiple-choice question construction were evident in several significant ways (promoting constructive and productive studying habits; reflecting and previewing course-related materials; increasing in-group communication and interaction; breaking passive learning style and habits, etc.), which, worked together, not only enhanced students’ comprehension and retention of the obtained knowledge, but also helped distil a sense of empowerment and learning community within the participants. Analysis with one-group t-tests, using 3 as the expected mean, on quantitative data further found that students’ satisfaction toward past learning experience, and perceptions toward this strategy’s potentials for promoting learning were statistically significant at the 0.0005 level, while learning anxiety was not statistically significant. Suggestions for incorporating question-generation activities within classroom and topics for future studies were rendered.

Yu, Fu-Yun; Liu, Yu-Hsin

2005-09-01

8

Multiple-Choice Exams: An Obstacle for Higher-Level Thinking in Introductory Science Classes  

PubMed Central

Learning science requires higher-level (critical) thinking skills that need to be practiced in science classes. This study tested the effect of exam format on critical-thinking skills. Multiple-choice (MC) testing is common in introductory science courses, and students in these classes tend to associate memorization with MC questions and may not see the need to modify their study strategies for critical thinking, because the MC exam format has not changed. To test the effect of exam format, I used two sections of an introductory biology class. One section was assessed with exams in the traditional MC format, the other section was assessed with both MC and constructed-response (CR) questions. The mixed exam format was correlated with significantly more cognitively active study behaviors and a significantly better performance on the cumulative final exam (after accounting for grade point average and gender). There was also less gender-bias in the CR answers. This suggests that the MC-only exam format indeed hinders critical thinking in introductory science classes. Introducing CR questions encouraged students to learn more and to be better critical thinkers and reduced gender bias. However, student resistance increased as students adjusted their perceptions of their own critical-thinking abilities.

Stanger-Hall, Kathrin F.

2012-01-01

9

Multiple-choice exams: an obstacle for higher-level thinking in introductory science classes.  

PubMed

Learning science requires higher-level (critical) thinking skills that need to be practiced in science classes. This study tested the effect of exam format on critical-thinking skills. Multiple-choice (MC) testing is common in introductory science courses, and students in these classes tend to associate memorization with MC questions and may not see the need to modify their study strategies for critical thinking, because the MC exam format has not changed. To test the effect of exam format, I used two sections of an introductory biology class. One section was assessed with exams in the traditional MC format, the other section was assessed with both MC and constructed-response (CR) questions. The mixed exam format was correlated with significantly more cognitively active study behaviors and a significantly better performance on the cumulative final exam (after accounting for grade point average and gender). There was also less gender-bias in the CR answers. This suggests that the MC-only exam format indeed hinders critical thinking in introductory science classes. Introducing CR questions encouraged students to learn more and to be better critical thinkers and reduced gender bias. However, student resistance increased as students adjusted their perceptions of their own critical-thinking abilities. PMID:22949426

Stanger-Hall, Kathrin F

2012-01-01

10

The development and validation of a two-tiered multiple-choice instrument to identify alternative conceptions in earth science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study was to determine reliability and validity for a two-tiered, multiple- choice instrument designed to identify alternative conceptions in earth science. Additionally, this study sought to identify alternative conceptions in earth science held by preservice teachers, to investigate relationships between self-reported confidence scores and understanding of earth science concepts, and to describe relationships between content knowledge and alternative conceptions and planning instruction in the science classroom. Eighty-seven preservice teachers enrolled in the MAT program participated in this study. Sixty-eight participants were female, twelve were male, and seven chose not to answer. Forty-seven participants were in the elementary certification program, five were in the middle school certification program, and twenty-nine were pursuing secondary certification. Results indicate that the two-tiered, multiple-choice format can be a reliable and valid method for identifying alternative conceptions. Preservice teachers in all certification areas who participated in this study may possess common alternative conceptions previously identified in the literature. Alternative conceptions included: all rivers flow north to south, the shadow of the Earth covers the Moon causing lunar phases, the Sun is always directly overhead at noon, weather can be predicted by animal coverings, and seasons are caused by the Earth's proximity to the Sun. Statistical analyses indicated differences, however not all of them significant, among all subgroups according to gender and certification area. Generally males outperformed females and preservice teachers pursuing middle school certification had higher scores on the questionnaire followed by those obtaining secondary certification. Elementary preservice teachers scored the lowest. Additionally, self-reported scores of confidence in one's answers and understanding of the earth science concept in question were analyzed. There was a slight positive correlation between overall score and both confidence and understanding. Responses on the questionnaire were investigated with respect to pedagogical choices. Evidence suggests that content knowledge and having alternative conceptions or science fragments may impact a teacher's pedagogical choices. Through careful development of instruments like ACES-Q II-R and other two- tiered, multiple-choice instruments, educators and researchers car not only identify possible alternative conceptions, they can raise an awareness of alternative conceptions held by children and adults.

Mangione, Katherine Anna

11

Preferences of Science Teachers for Multiple-Choice Achievement Test Items at Different Levels in Bloom'S Taxonomy in Relation to their Cognitive Learning Styles  

Microsoft Academic Search

For a sample of 22 biology teachers and one of 22 physics teachers in private sectarian high schools, data were obtained concerning (a) their preferences for multiple-choice achievement test items classified as belonging to one of six hierarchical levels of cognitive objectives within Bloom's taxonomy and (b) the cognitive learning style with which they were identified most closely from scores

James E. Teague; William B. Michael

1994-01-01

12

Physical Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Physical science is the science of matter and energy and their interactions and examines the physical world around us. Using the methods of the physical sciences, students learn about the composition, structure, properties, and reactions of matter and the relationships between matter and energy. Students are best able to build understanding of the physical sciences through hands-on exploration of the physical world.

K-12 Outreach,

13

Multiple Choice Test  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site presents a guide to developing and deploying effective multiple choice tests. The site also discusses the costs and benefits of this method, as well as the philosophy of this commonly used assessment method. Links to more detailed information are included as well.

Parkes, Jay; Guide, Field-Tested L.

14

Exploring problem solving strategies on multiple-choice science items: Comparing native Spanish-speaking English Language Learners and mainstream monolinguals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to compare how English language learners (ELLs) and monolingual English speakers solved multiple-choice items administered with and without a new form of testing accommodation---vignette illustration (VI). By incorporating theories from second language acquisition, bilingualism, and sociolinguistics, this study was able to gain more accurate and comprehensive input into the ways students interacted with items. This mixed methods study used verbal protocols to elicit the thinking processes of thirty-six native Spanish-speaking English language learners (ELLs), and 36 native-English speaking non-ELLs when solving multiple-choice science items. Results from both qualitative and quantitative analyses show that ELLs used a wider variety of actions oriented to making sense of the items than non-ELLs. In contrast, non-ELLs used more problem solving strategies than ELLs. There were no statistically significant differences in student performance based on the interaction of presence of illustration and linguistic status or the main effect of presence of illustration. However, there were significant differences based on the main effect of linguistic status. An interaction between the characteristics of the students, the items, and the illustrations indicates considerable heterogeneity in the ways in which students from both linguistic groups think about and respond to science test items. The results of this study speak to the need for more research involving ELLs in the process of test development to create test items that do not require ELLs to carry out significantly more actions to make sense of the item than monolingual students.

Kachchaf, Rachel Rae

15

The Importance of Multiple Choice.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A level of organization of inferences in which competing plausible alternatives can be compared, and all but one actively rejected, is a very important aspect of any comprehension model. Multiple choice inference structures help the model stay tuned to th...

C. Rieger

1978-01-01

16

Can multiple-choice questions simulate free-response questions?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We discuss a study to evaluate the extent to which free-response questions could be approximated by multiple-choice equivalents. Two carefully designed research-based multiple-choice questions were transformed into a free-response format and administered on the final exam in a calculus-based introductory physics course. The original multiple-choice questions were administered in another similar introductory physics course on final exam. Findings suggest that carefully designed multiple-choice questions can reflect the relative performance of the free-response questions while maintaining the benefits of ease of grading and quantitative analysis, especially if the different choices in the multiple-choice questions are weighted to reflect the different levels of understanding that students display.

Lin, Shih-Yin; Singh, Chandralekha

2012-04-24

17

Classroom Assessment Techniques: Multiple Choice Test  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page describes how to use a multiple choice test to assess student understanding. The assessment tool is one of a series of Classroom Assessment Techniques (CATs) provided by the Field-tested Learning Assessment Guide (FLAG) website. The CATs of FLAG were constructed as a resource for science, technology, engineering and mathematics instructors to emphasize deeper levels of learning and to give instructors valuable feedback during a course. The multiple-choice test is a flexible assessment format that can be used to measure knowledge, skills, abilities, values and thinking skills. This site provides an overview of this assessment technique, including information about how, when and why to use it. The site is also linked to a set of discipline-specific "tools" that can be downloaded for immediate use, as well as supplementary links and sources to further explore this assessment tool.

Parkes, Jay; The National Institute for Science Education; College Level One Team

18

Multiple Choice Questions for Groundwater  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online quiz was written by Dr. John C. Butler at the University of Houston for 100-level geology students. There are 44 multiple choice questions and 8 fill in the blank questions, Topics include groundwater resources, the water cycle, karst features, the water table and parts of an aquifer. Answers are linked directly from the quiz page.

Butler, John C.; Houston, University O.

19

Middle School Students' Conceptual Learning from the Implementation of a New NSF Supported Curriculum: Interactions in Physical Science[TM  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A new National Science Foundation supported curriculum, Interactions in Physical Science[TM], was evaluated on students' conceptual change in the twelve concept areas of the national physical science content standard (B) for grades 5-8. Eighth grade students (N = 66) were evaluated pre and post on a 31-item multiple-choice test of conceptual…

Eick, Charles J.; Dias, Michael; Smith, Nancy R. Cook

2009-01-01

20

Middle School Students' Conceptual Learning from the Implementation of a New NSF Supported Curriculum: Interactions in Physical Science[TM  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A new National Science Foundation supported curriculum, Interactions in Physical Science[TM], was evaluated on students' conceptual change in the twelve concept areas of the national physical science content standard (B) for grades 5-8. Eighth grade students (N = 66) were evaluated pre and post on a 31-item multiple-choice test of conceptual…

Eick, Charles J.; Dias, Michael; Smith, Nancy R. Cook

2009-01-01

21

Multiple-choice test of energy and momentum concepts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We investigate student understanding of energy and momentum concepts at the level of introductory physics by designing and administering a 25-item multiple choice test and conducting individual interviews. We find that most students have difficulty in qualitatively interpreting basic principles related to energy and momentum and in applying them in physical situations.

Singh, Chandralekha; Rosengrant, David

2012-04-27

22

Multiple-Choice Test of Energy and Momentum Concepts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Investigates student understanding of energy and momentum concepts in introductory physics by designing and administering a 25-item, multiple-choice test and conducting individual interviews. Indicates that most students have difficulty in qualitatively interpreting basic principles related to energy and momentum and in applying them in physical

Singh, Chandralekha; Rosengrant, David

2003-01-01

23

Multiple Choice Systems for Decision Support  

Microsoft Academic Search

A human formulates a problem and starts one or several computer programs on it. The programs perform more or less complex computations and then present a clear handful of candidate solutions. From this candidate set the human makes the final choice. I call such a system Decision Support System with Multiple Choice Structure or shortly Multiple Choice System. In the

Ingo Althöfer

24

Constructive Multiple-Choice Testing System  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The newly developed computerized Constructive Multiple-choice Testing system is introduced. The system combines short answer (SA) and multiple-choice (MC) formats by asking examinees to respond to the same question twice, first in the SA format, and then in the MC format. This manipulation was employed to collect information about the two…

Park, Jooyong

2010-01-01

25

Approaches to Data Analysis of Multiple-Choice Questions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper introduces five commonly used approaches to analyzing multiple-choice test data. They are classical test theory, factor analysis, cluster analysis, item response theory, and model analysis. Brief descriptions of the goals and algorithms of these approaches are provided, together with examples illustrating their applications in physics

Ding, Lin; Beichner, Robert

2009-01-01

26

Performance on multiple-choice diagnostics and complementary exam problems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This paper compares the responses of university physics students on the Force Concept Inventory (FCI) and on open-ended examination questions. The Mechanics Baseline Test (MBT) is another multiple choice test. It contains a greater range of topics than the FCI and is intended for use after instruction.

Steinberg, Richard N.; Sabella, Mel

2005-10-17

27

Approaches to data analysis of multiple-choice questions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This paper introduces five commonly used approaches to analyzing multiple-choice test data. They are classical test theory, factor analysis, cluster analysis, item response theory, and model analysis. Brief descriptions of the goals and algorithms of these approaches are provided, together with examples illustrating their applications in physics education research. We minimize mathematics, instead placing emphasis on data interpretation using these approaches.

Ding, Lin; Beichner, Robert J.

2010-06-29

28

Annual Reviews: Physical Sciences  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

_Annual Reviews_has placed the full text of all titles in the Physical and Social Sciences suites on line. Online titles include the Physical Sciences review volumes: Astronomy and Astrophysics, Biophysics and Biomolecular Structure, Earth and Planetary Sciences, Energy and the Environment, Fluid Mechanics, Materials Science, Nuclear and Particle Science, and Physical Chemistry. Online full-text content for the Physical Sciences suite begins with 1997 issues; online abstracts begin in 1992. All journals mentioned are produced in conjunction with Stanford University's HighWire Press.

29

The Prepared Practitioner: Multiple-Choice Season  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Spring is almost here. Soon buds will appear on trees, and bubbled-in answers will appear on test response sheets all across America. Spring brings a spate of multiple-choice tests for many students--from SATs to AP exams to final exams to state and district testing. So this month seems an appropriate time to take a look at multiple-choice questioning.

Colburn, Alan

2009-03-01

30

Science Library of Test Items. Volume Twenty. A Collection of Multiple Choice Test Items Relating Mainly to Physics, 1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As one in a series of test item collections developed by the Assessment and Evaluation Unit of the Directorate of Studies, items are made available to teachers for the construction of unit tests or term examinations or as a basis for class discussion. Each collection was reviewed for content validity and reliability. The test items meet syllabus…

New South Wales Dept. of Education, Sydney (Australia).

31

Demand Characteristics of Multiple-Choice Items.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Thirteen graduate students were asked to indicate for each of 24 multiple-choice items whether the item tested "recall of specific information," a "higher order skill," or "don't know." The students were also asked to state their general basis for judging the items. The 24 items had been previously classified according to Bloom's cognitive-skills…

Diamond, James J.; Williams, David V.

32

Quality Assurance of Multiple-Choice Tests  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To provide educationalists with an understanding of the key quality issues relating to multiple-choice tests, and a set of guidelines for the quality assurance of such tests. Design/methodology/approach: The discussion of quality issues is structured to reflect the order in which those issues naturally arise. It covers the design of…

Bush, Martin E.

2006-01-01

33

Learning Physical Science (LEPS)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learning Physical Science is a one-semester physical science course focusing on fundamental content themes of physical science (conservation of energy, Newton's laws and the small particle theory) in an integrated way. The course was adapted from the small enrollment guided-inquiry course Physical Science and Everyday Thinking (PSET). During LEPS "lectures" students observe demonstrations of phenomena (either performed by the instructor or shown with movies), make sense of the phenomena through guided questions, and make extensive use of personal response systems (aka clickers). Web based homework assignments focus on extending the ideas learned during class. To promote a focus on the nature of science and the nature of learning students view videos of both college students and elementary school students discussing science and participate in online discussions. There is also an optional laboratory component consisting of guided inquiries of interesting phenomena. During this workshop we will discuss the structure of the course, observe and discuss video from the first pilot implementation (during Fall 2008), and compare LEPS with PSET (large vs small enrollment versions of a similar course).

Goldberg, Fred

2009-03-20

34

The Impact of Student Ability and Method for Varying the Position of Correct Answers in Classroom Multiple-Choice Tests  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Multiple-choice item-writing guideline research is in its infancy. Haladyna (2004) calls for a science of item-writing guideline research. The purpose of this study is to respond to such a call. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of student ability and method for varying the location of correct answers in classroom multiple-choice

Joseph, Dane Christian

2010-01-01

35

Semantic physical science  

PubMed Central

The articles in this special issue arise from a workshop and symposium held in January 2012 (Semantic Physical Science’). We invited people who shared our vision for the potential of the web to support chemical and related subjects. Other than the initial invitations, we have not exercised any control over the content of the contributed articles.

2012-01-01

36

In Defense of the Multiple-Choice Question.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues that multiple-choice tests, if correctly constructed, are still effective assessment tools. Focuses on constructing multiple-choice questions that address course content objectives but also require higher order thinking. Lists and defines concepts and curriculum objectives. Includes standard and database multiple-choice questions that offer…

Killoran, James

1992-01-01

37

Vector Bin Packing with Multiple-Choice  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider a variant of bin packing called multiple-choice vector bin packing. In this problem we are given a set of n items, where each item can be selected in one of several D-dimensional incarnations. We are also given T bin types, each with its own cost and D-dimensional size. Our goal is to pack the items in a set of bins of minimum overall cost. The problem is motivated by scheduling in networks with guaranteed quality of service (QoS), but due to its general formulation it has many other applications as well. We present an approximation algorithm that is guaranteed to produce a solution whose cost is about ln D times the optimum. For the running time to be polynomial we require D = O(1) and T = O(logn). This extends previous results for vector bin packing, in which each item has a single incarnation and there is only one bin type. To obtain our result we also present a PTAS for the multiple-choice version of multidimensional knapsack, where we are given only one bin and the goal is to pack a maximum weight set of (incarnations of) items in that bin.

Patt-Shamir, Boaz; Rawitz, Dror

38

Physical Sciences 2007 Science & Technology Highlights  

SciTech Connect

The Physical Sciences Directorate applies frontier physics and technology to grand challenges in national security. Our highly integrated and multidisciplinary research program involves collaborations throughout Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, the National Nuclear Security Administration, the Department of Energy, and with academic and industrial partners. The Directorate has a budget of approximately $150 million, and a staff of approximately 350 employees. Our scientists provide expertise in condensed matter and high-pressure physics, plasma physics, high-energy-density science, fusion energy science and technology, nuclear and particle physics, accelerator physics, radiation detection, optical science, biotechnology, and astrophysics. This document highlights the outstanding research and development activities in the Physical Sciences Directorate that made news in 2007. It also summarizes the awards and recognition received by members of the Directorate in 2007.

Hazi, A U

2008-04-07

39

Genetic Algorithms for Multiple-Choice Problems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis investigates the use of problem-specific knowledge to enhance a genetic algorithm approach to multiple-choice optimisation problems.It shows that such information can significantly enhance performance, but that the choice of information and the way it is included are important factors for success.Two multiple-choice problems are considered.The first is constructing a feasible nurse roster that considers as many requests as possible.In the second problem, shops are allocated to locations in a mall subject to constraints and maximising the overall income.Genetic algorithms are chosen for their well-known robustness and ability to solve large and complex discrete optimisation problems.However, a survey of the literature reveals room for further research into generic ways to include constraints into a genetic algorithm framework.Hence, the main theme of this work is to balance feasibility and cost of solutions.In particular, co-operative co-evolution with hierarchical sub-populations, problem structure exploiting repair schemes and indirect genetic algorithms with self-adjusting decoder functions are identified as promising approaches.The research starts by applying standard genetic algorithms to the problems and explaining the failure of such approaches due to epistasis.To overcome this, problem-specific information is added in a variety of ways, some of which are designed to increase the number of feasible solutions found whilst others are intended to improve the quality of such solutions.As well as a theoretical discussion as to the underlying reasons for using each operator,extensive computational experiments are carried out on a variety of data.These show that the indirect approach relies less on problem structure and hence is easier to implement and superior in solution quality.

Aickelin, Uwe

2010-04-01

40

Fast Mesh Decimation by Multiple-Choice Techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a new mesh decimation framework which is based on the probabilistic optimization technique of Multiple-Choice algorithms. While producing the same expected quality of the out- put meshes, the Multiple-Choice approach leads to a significant speed-up compared to the well- established standard framework for mesh decima- tion as a greedy optimization scheme. More- over, Multiple-Choice decimation does not require

Jianhua Wu; Leif Kobbelt

2002-01-01

41

Science and the Physically Handicapped.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The integration of physically (sensory and orthopedic) handicapped students into science classes creates a complex problem for science educators. Suggestions are offered for teacher preparation and for the development of specialized materials and modifications for instructional strategies. (JMF)|

Ricker, Kenneth S.

1979-01-01

42

Registered nurses' ideas of physical science concepts relevant to their clinical practice  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experience in teaching science to nurses has raised the question of whether nurses' expressions of their understanding of concepts in physical science are adequate for professional practice. Nurses' descriptions of physical science concepts relevant to their practice must be explicated before educators can develop strategies to enhance nurses' learning of science. A cross-sectional study was undertaken to establish registered nurses' conceptions of physical science in their clinical practice. Data were collected using a multiple choice question survey, field work and focused interviews. Six categories of conceptions emerged from data analysis. Of the three which related to complexity of understanding “association” and “definition” were predominant and related in the main, to two of the three contextual categories “instrumentation/equipment” and “procedure.” There were few examples of the other two categories of “elaboration” and “body processes.” We argue that the conceptions held by the nurses were not adequate to allow them to fulfil their roles as professional practitioners in health care.

Wilkes, Lesley M.; Batts, Judith E.

1996-09-01

43

Nested Logit Models for Multiple-Choice Item Response Data  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Nested logit item response models for multiple-choice data are presented. Relative to previous models, the new models are suggested to provide a better approximation to multiple-choice items where the application of a solution strategy precedes consideration of response options. In practice, the models also accommodate collapsibility across all…

Suh, Youngsuk; Bolt, Daniel M.

2010-01-01

44

The memorial consequences of multiple-choice testing.  

PubMed

The present article addresses whether multiple-choice tests may change knowledge even as they attempt to measure it. Overall, taking a multiple-choice test boosts performance on later tests, as compared with non-tested control conditions. This benefit is not limited to simple definitional questions, but holds true for SAT II questions and for items designed to tap concepts at a higher level in Bloom's (1956) taxonomy of educational objectives. Students, however, can also learn false facts from multiple-choice tests; testing leads to persistence of some multiple-choice lures on later general knowledge tests. Such persistence appears due to faulty reasoning rather than to an increase in the familiarity of lures. Even though students may learn false facts from multiple-choice tests, the positive effects of testing outweigh this cost. PMID:17694900

Marsh, Elizabeth J; Roediger, Henry L; Bjork, Robert A; Bjork, Elizabeth L

2007-04-01

45

Physics for Life Sciences Wiki  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This wiki (a wiki is a website designed to let many people collaborate by adding and editing content) is a growing collection of information and resources for teaching physics for life sciences at the college and university level.The wiki includes sample courses and curricula, laboratories, assessments, and other teaching and learning resources with life science applications in physics.

Robert Fairman (Haverford College;); Catherine Crouch (Swarthmore College;); Mark Reeves (George Washington University;); Suzanne Amador Kane (Harverford College;); Robert Hilborn (University of Texas, Dallas;); Timothy McKay (University of Michigan;)

2010-05-28

46

Concepts in Physical Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Contained in this experimental test are instructional materials for a one-semester course designed to give liberal arts students an appreciation of (1) the nature of science, (2) the development of science, (3) the contributions of scientists, (4) the impact of scientific discoveries on mankind, and (5) the possible future effects of science. The…

Puri, O. P.

47

Essential Science for Teachers: Physical Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website contains eight one-hour videos designed to help Kâ6 teachers gain an understanding of some of the basic physical science concepts they need to teach todayâs standards-based curricula. Programs include real-world applications, labs, and animations. Written teacher materials and professional development credits are available for purchase.

Finkelstein, Noah D.

2005-08-01

48

Approach to Physical Sciences, 1974.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Methods of teaching physics and chemistry, which revolve around the inclusion of high school courses within the overall science curriculum and whose emphasis is on the latest developments in scientific research and technology, were the subject of the thirteenth annual Summer School for Senior Science Teachers. Paper themes are concerned with…

Schwartz, A., Ed.

49

Physical Science, Environmental Education Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This physical science guide, for use at the secondary level, is one of a series of guides, K-12, that were developed by teachers to help introduce environmental education into the total curriculum. The guides are supplementary in design, containing a series of episodes (minilessons) that emphasize a student-centered, scientific approach to gain…

Project I-C-E, Green Bay, WI.

50

Appropriateness of Advice: DCT and Multiple Choice Data.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigates what can be learned about second language (L2) speech acts using English language multiple choice (MC) instruments and discourse completion tests (DCTs). The study focuses on the primary language (L1) responses of native speakers and the L2 responses given by speakers of Chinese to MC questionnaires and DCTs dealing with the…

Hinkel, Eli

1997-01-01

51

Using multiple choice questions effectively in Information Technology education  

Microsoft Academic Search

As academics are confronted with problems such as larger classes and the introduction of a trimester year of study, it has become increasingly necessary to search for alternative forms of assessment. This is certainly the case in Information Technology (IT), where more lecturers are using multiple choice questions as a matter of expediency and in some instances, the quality of

Karyn Woodford; Peter Bancroft

52

Further Support for Changing Multiple-Choice Answers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The effect on test scores of changing answers to multiple-choice questions was studied and compared to earlier research. The current setting was a nationally administered, in-training, specialty examination for medical residents in obstetrics and gynecology. Both low and high scorers improved their scores when they changed answers. (SW)

Fabrey, Lawrence J.; Case, Susan M.

1985-01-01

53

Multiple-Choice versus Free-Response: A Simulation Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Responses to a sample test were simulated for examinees under free-response and multiple-choice formats. Test score sets were correlated with randomly generated sets of unit-normal measures. The extent of superiority of free response tests was sufficiently small so that other considerations might justifiably dictate format choice. (Author/DWH)|

Frary, Robert B.

1985-01-01

54

The Writing of Multiple-Choice Mathematics Test Items.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper is designed to assist mathematics teachers in writing multiple-choice test items. The steps in constructing test items are considered and suggestions for revising poorly constructed items are given. Poor items as well as good are considered and in some cases the changes needed to overcome weaknesses in an item are indicated. The revised…

Horn, Dorothy M.

55

Optimizing Multiple-Choice Tests as Learning Events  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although generally used for assessment, tests can also serve as tools for learning--but different test formats may not be equally beneficial. Specifically, research has shown multiple-choice tests to be less effective than cued-recall tests in improving the later retention of the tested information (e.g., see meta-analysis by Hamaker, 1986),…

Little, Jeri Lynn

2011-01-01

56

Response Biases in Multiple-Choice Test Item Files.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Evidence of biases in the correct answers in multiple-choice test item files were found to include "all of the above" bias in which that answer was correct more than 25 percent of the time, and a bias that the longest answer was correct too frequently. Seven bias types were studied. (Author/CM)|

Mentzer, Thomas L.

1982-01-01

57

Using the Multiple Choice Procedure to Measure College Student Gambling  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Research suggests that gambling is similar to addictive behaviors such as substance use. In the current study, gambling was investigated from a behavioral economics perspective. The Multiple Choice Procedure (MCP) with gambling as the target behavior was used to assess for relative reinforcing value, the effect of alternative reinforcers, and…

Butler, Leon Harvey

2010-01-01

58

Assessing students' abilities to construct and interpret line graphs: Disparities between multiple-choice and free-response instruments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The author is concerned about the methodology and instrumentation used to assess both graphing abilities and the impact of microcomputer-based laboratories (MBL) on students' graphing abilities for four reasons: (1) the ability to construct and interpret graphs is critical for developing key ideas in science; (2) science educators need to have valid information for making teaching decisions; (3) educators and researchers are heralding the arrival of MBL as a tool for developing graphing abilities; and (4) some of the research which supports using MBL appears to have significant validity problems. In this article, the author will describe the research which challenges the validity of using multiple-choice instruments to assess graphing abilities. The evidence from this research will identify numerous disparities between the results of multiple-choice and free-response instruments. In the first study, 72 subjects in the seventh, ninth, and eleventh grades were administered individual clinical interviews to assess their ability to construct and interpret graphs. A wide variety of graphs and situations were assessed. In three instances during the interview, students drew a graph that would best represent a situation and then explained their drawings. The results of these clinical graphing interviews were very different from similar questions assessed through multiple-choice formats in other research studies. In addition, insights into students' thinking about graphing reveal that some multiple-choice graphing questions from prior research studies and standardized tests do not discriminate between right answers/right reasons, right answers/wrong reasons, and answers scored wrong but correct for valid reasons. These results indicate that in some instances multiple-choice questions are not a valid measure of graphing abilities. In a second study, the researcher continued to pursue the questions raised about the validity of multiple-choice tests to assess graphing, researching the following questions: What can be learned about subjects' graphing abilities when students draw their own graphs compared to assessing by means of a multiple-choice instrument? Does the methodology used to assess graphing abilities: (1) affect the percentage of subjects who answer correctly; (2) alter the percentage of subjects affected by the picture of the event phenomenon? Instruments were constructed consisting of three graphing questions that asked students: (a) multiple-choice-choose a graph that best represents the situation; (b) free-response-draw a graph that best represents the situation. The sample of 1416 subjects from an urbadsuburban area in cluded 50% boys/50% girls from grades 8 through 12; subjects from high, medium, and low ability groups; and subjects from both public and private schools. The subjects completed either the multiple-choice or the free draw instrument. The free draw instrument was scored by comparing the subject's response to categories of possible answers that had been identified from the first study. The results show as much as 19% difference in correct responses, three times as many picture of the events from multiple-choice instruments, and significant differences in how multiple-choice and free-response affect various ability levels and grade levels. As such, some of the research studies that used multiple-choice instruments to examine giaphing and the impact of MBL on student's graphing abilities may be invalid.

Berg, Craig A.; Smith, Philip

59

Guidelines for the construction of multiple choice questions tests.  

PubMed

Multiple Choice Questions (MCQs) are generally recognized as the most widely applicable and useful type of objective test items. They could be used to measure the most important educational outcomes - knowledge, understanding, judgment and problem solving. The objective of this paper is to give guidelines for the construction of MCQs tests. This includes the construction of both "single best option" type, and "extended matching item" type. Some templates for use in the "single best option" type of questions are recommended. PMID:23012132

Al-Rukban, Mohammed O

2006-09-01

60

GUIDELINES FOR THE CONSTRUCTION OF MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS TESTS  

PubMed Central

Multiple Choice Questions (MCQs) are generally recognized as the most widely applicable and useful type of objective test items. They could be used to measure the most important educational outcomes - knowledge, understanding, judgment and problem solving. The objective of this paper is to give guidelines for the construction of MCQs tests. This includes the construction of both “single best option” type, and “extended matching item” type. Some templates for use in the “single best option” type of questions are recommended.

Al-Rukban, Mohammed O.

2006-01-01

61

Delay-retention effect with multiple-choice tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 194 high school juniors and seniors completed a multiple-choice test on topics in introductory psychology under various conditions of immediate and delayed feedback. On the same test 1 wk. later, delayed-feedback groups performed significantly better than immediate-feedback groups. Performance was best for groups that studied the feedback booklet prior to the initial test. Analyses were performed on

Raymond W. Kulhavy; Richard C. Anderson

1972-01-01

62

Measuring Strategy Use in Context with Multiple-Choice Items  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A number of authors have presented data that challenge the validity of self-report of strategy use or choice of strategy. We created a multiple-choice measure of students' strategy use based on the work of Kozminsky, E., and Kozminsky, L. (2001), and tested it with three samples as part of a series of studies testing the fit of the DIME model of…

Cromley, Jennifer; Azevedo, Roger

2011-01-01

63

Improving Learning during Pediatric Lectures with Multiple Choice Questions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  To evaluate the role of multiple choice questions (MCQs) administered at the conclusion of the lecture in improving medical\\u000a student learning.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  This prospective interventional study was conducted in a Medical College. In ten randomly chosen pediatric lectures delivered\\u000a to prefinal year medical students, MCQs were administered at the conclusion of the lecture and the answers were discussed\\u000a with the students.

Tiroumourougane V. Serane; Thirunavukkarasu Arun Babu; Roshni Menon; Vijaya Devagaran; Bhuvaneswari Kothendaraman

64

Preparing K-12 teachers to teach physics and physical science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The task of preparing K-12 teachers to teach science is an important (though often unacknowledged) responsibility of science faculty. In recent years, a steadily increasing number of physics departments have begun to recognize the need to take a more active role in the professional development of K-12 teachers of physics and physical science. The task of preparing K-12 teachers to teach science is an important (though often unacknowledged) responsibility of science faculty. In recent years, a steadily increasing number of physics departments have begun to recognize the need to take a more active role in the professional development of K-12 teachers of physics and physical science.The task of preparing K-12 teachers to teach science is an important (though often unacknowledged) responsibility of science faculty. In recent years, a steadily increasing number of physics departments have begun to recognize the need to take a more active role in the professional development of K-12 teachers of physics and physical science.However, if these developments are to lead to a long-lasting positive impact, it is necessary to recognize the inadequacy of the preparation usually offered in physics departments and to reflect on the characteristics of instruction that has been shown to be more effective.

Mcdermott, Lillian C.; Heron, Paula R.; Shaffer, Peter S.

2007-11-02

65

BOOK REVIEW: Key Science Physics: New Edition and Key Science Physics for International Schools: Extension File  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When handling , I recalled how one set of sixth-form students that I taught affectionately referred to Jim Breithaupt's large format book Understanding Physics for Advanced Level as `Big Jim'. This package, for GCSE students and teachers, is its younger brother. Key Science Physics was reviewed in this journal over four years ago. Now it is in a new edition with an expanded ring file of teacher resources (a Teacher's Guide and Extension File). It has been expanded for a wider range of students to meet the requirements of all GCSE syllabuses with additional topics for IGCSE and IB. The international bit seems to be among materials in the file of resources and does not appear in the title of the students' textbook. This is not one of those purchases that will only get occasional use and be left in a department library but it is one that contains sufficient excellent material to become central to any GCSE Physics course. For the students there is a single-volume 396-page textbook in full colour (not a heavyweight book). Marginal comments point out places where an Activity or Assignment from the Extension File fits in. All the materials in the teacher's Extension File are cross referenced to the numbering of this textbook, i.e. its Themes, Topics, Checkpoints, Tests etc, not to page numbers. The margin is used in other attractive ways to highlight a summary, propose a first thought or provide a topic summary. The text is fruitful mix of pure physics, applications and personalities. To support the students' practical work the Extension File contains photocopiable sheets. For the activities and assignments a few contain a harder version to give access to the higher levels of attainment. Four alternatives to practical questions are given; there are also exam questions and multiple choice questions for each topic. These all have helpful mark schemes on the teacher's answers pages. What else do you get? A Glossary collection of sheets to photocopy with space to enter a definition in a second language. Versions of many key diagrams in the student book are enlarged and reworked in clear black and white to make OHP transparencies. There is a mention of these also being in colour on a CD-ROM. The organization of the Extension File is as clear as is reasonably possible. As a user, I would add coloured page dividers to mark the sections within it. The Teacher's Guide is admirable in its restraint - just 26 sides of topic notes - which includes the answers to the non-numerical checkpoint questions missing in the student book. It is not wordy or full of educational theory but succinct and relevant to the day-to-day business of learning with these materials. Reading it, I was aware of the snags that a novice teacher might be glad to know but were missing. As always, materials like these should come with a health warning - try out all homework sheets, instructions for activities and assignments before your students!

Maybank, Maureen

1999-09-01

66

Clifford algebras and physical and engineering sciences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Clifford algebra in physical and engineering science are studied. Roles of triality symmetry of Cartan's spinor in axial anomaly of particle physics and quaternion and octonion in the memristic circuits are discussed.

Furui, Sadataka

2013-10-01

67

Narrative and the Physical Sciences  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fable is presented that depicts a view of the situation of science in a postmodern world. This is followed by a brief account of how a foundationalist interpretation of scientific epistemology emerged. The attack on foundationalist views of science by the history of science, philosophy of science and sociology of scientific knowledge leading to Rorty's return to narrative is

J. Linn Mackey

1993-01-01

68

Physical Science Laboratory Manual, Experimental Version.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provided are physical science laboratory experiments which have been developed and used as a part of an experimental one year undergraduate course in general science for non-science majors. The experiments cover a limited number of topics representative of the scientific enterprise. Some of the topics are pressure and buoyancy, heat, motion,…

Cooperative General Science Project, Atlanta, GA.

69

Physical Science Experiments for Scientific Glassblowing Technicians.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The twenty experiments in this text have been designed to give the scientific glassblowing technician the opportunity to use scientific glass apparatus in the study of physical science. Primary emphasis of these experiments is on the practical application of the physical science program as a working tool for the scientific glassblowing…

Tillis, Samuel E.; Donaghay, Herbert C.

70

Physical Science in Constructivist Early Childhood Classrooms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Teachers at the Freeburg Early Childhood Program know that experimentation with physical science is of great interest to young children, and can begin as early as the age of 3. The constructivist teachers at this experimental school at the University of Northern Iowa worked for six years to develop a center-based approach to physical science with…

Kato, Tsuguhiko; Van Meeteren, Beth Dykstra

2008-01-01

71

Physics. Teacher's Guide. Investigations in Natural Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigations in Natural Science is a program in secondary school biology, chemistry, and physics based upon the description of science as a quest for knowledge, not the knowledge itself. This teaching guide is designed for use with the 36 physics investigations found in the student manual. These investigations focus on concepts related to:…

Renner, John W.; And Others

72

Research frontiers in the physical sciences  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a prestigious generalist journal with a high scholarly reputation and a long influential history, the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society (Series A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences), is an ideal vehicle for charting research frontiers across the physical sciences. It is the world's longest running scientific journal, and all issues since its foundation in 1665 are archived electronically

J. M. T. Thompson

2002-01-01

73

Physical Science Rocks! Outreach for Elementary Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students at Copiah-Lincoln Community College (Co-Lin) have been hesitant to take courses in the physical sciences, mostly because of a lack of exposure to them in K-12 or a bad experience in this area. The college is addressing this need by exposing students to the physical sciences early on in their education. The science division at Co-Lin has…

McKone, Kevin

2010-01-01

74

Science off the Sphere: Thin Film Physics  

NASA Video Gallery

International Space Station Expedition 30 astronaut Don Pettit demonstrates physics in space for 'Science off the Sphere.' Through a partnership between NASA and the American Physical Society you can participate in Pettit's physics challenge and view future experiments here: http://www.physicscentral.com/sots

Gerald T Wright

2012-03-08

75

Project Earth Science: Physical Oceanography  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Immerse your students in Earth's most abundant resource--water. Embark on a voyage of discovery as you steer your students through activities designed to teach them about currents, waves, and tides. From an understanding of the properties that make water unique, your students will get a global view of the marine environment, including the impact of human activities on the oceans. This book is one of four in NSTA's popular Project Earth Science series. The other books are Project Earth Science:Geology, Project Earth Science:Astronomy, and Project Earth Science:Meteorology .

Ford, Brent A.; Smith, P. S.

2000-01-01

76

Physical and Life Sciences 2008 Science & Technology Highlights  

SciTech Connect

This document highlights the outstanding research and development activities in the Physical and Life Sciences Directorate that made news in 2008. It also summarizes the awards and recognition received by members of the Directorate in 2008.

Correll, D L; Hazi, A U

2009-05-06

77

Feedback enhances the positive effects and reduces the negative effects of multiple-choice testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiple-choice tests are used frequently in higher education without much consideration of the impact this form of assessment\\u000a has on learning. Multiple-choice testing enhances retention of the material tested (the testing effect); however, unlike other\\u000a tests, multiple-choice can also be detrimental because it exposes students to misinformation in the form of lures. The selection\\u000a of lures can lead students to

Andrew C. Butler; Henry L. Roediger

2008-01-01

78

Physics for Physical Sciences: Graphing Motion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This introductory tutorial provides examples and visualizations for beginners in the fundamentals of graphing Velocity vs. Time and Position vs. Time. Physical quantities are related to graphical features, such as the relationship between slope and velocity. Images and Flash animations are used to present the material, along with examples that demonstrate problem-solving using formulas relating to displacement and constant velocity.

Dicker, Jason; Love, Ed

79

A Multiple-Choice Task with Changes of Mind  

PubMed Central

The role of changes of mind and multiple choices has recently received increased attention in the study of perceptual decision-making. Previously, these extensions to standard two-alternative tasks have been studied separately. Here we explored how changes of mind depend on the number of choice-alternatives. To this end, we tested 14 human subjects on a 2- and 4-alternative direction-discrimination task. Changes of mind in the participants' movement trajectories could be observed for two and for four choice alternatives. With fewer alternatives, participants responded faster and more accurately. The frequency of changes of mind, however, did not significantly differ for the different numbers of choice alternatives. Nevertheless, mind-changing improved the participants' final performance, particularly for intermediate difficulty levels, in both experimental conditions. Moreover, the mean reaction times of individual participants were negatively correlated with their overall tendency to make changes of mind. We further reproduced these findings with a multi-alternative attractor model for decision-making, while a simple race model could not account for the experimental data. Our experiment, combined with the theoretical models allowed us to shed light on: (1) the differences in choice behavior between two and four alternatives, (2) the differences between the data of our human subjects and previous monkey data, (3) individual differences between participants, and (4) the inhibitory interaction between neural representations of choice alternatives.

Albantakis, Larissa; Branzi, Francesca M.; Costa, Albert; Deco, Gustavo

2012-01-01

80

Grid Computing in Physics and Life Sciences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Certain sciences such as physics, chemistry or biology, have a strong computational aspect and use computing infrastructures to advance their scientific goals. Often, high performance and\\/or high throughput computing infrastructures such as clusters and computa- tional Grids are applied to satisfy computational needs. In addition, these sciences are sometimes characterised by scientific collabora- tions requiring resource sharing which is typically

Heinz Stockinger

81

Approach to Physical Sciences, 1973.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The summer session course in science is presented. The themes were chemistry of the living environment, and biophysics. Topics discussed include: desalinization by dead and living matter, importance of tetrapyrrolic pigments in biolological systems, photo...

G. E. Chapman

1973-01-01

82

A comparative study of students' performance in preclinical physiology assessed by multiple choice and short essay questions.  

PubMed

This study was designed to compare the performance of medical students in physiology when assessed by multiple choice questions (MCQs) and short essay questions (SEQs). The study also examined the influence of factors such as age, sex, O/level grades and JAMB scores on performance in the MCQs and SEQs. A structured questionnaire was administered to 264 medical students' four months before the Part I MBBS examination. Apart from personal data of each student, the questionnaire sought information on the JAMB scores and GCE O' Level grades of each student in English Language, Biology, Chemistry, Physics and Mathematics. The physiology syllabus was divided into five parts and the students were administered separate examinations (tests) on each part. Each test consisted of MCQs and SEQs. The performance in MCQs and SEQs were compared. Also, the effects of JAMB scores and GCE O/level grades on the performance in both the MCQs and SEQs were assessed. The results showed that the students performed better in all MCQ tests than in the SEQs. JAMB scores and O' level English Language grade had no significant effect on students' performance in MCQs and SEQs. However O' level grades in Biology, Chemistry, Physics and Mathematics had significant effects on performance in MCQs and SEQs. Inadequate knowledge of physiology and inability to present information in a logical sequence are believed to be major factors contributing to the poorer performance in the SEQs compared with MCQs. In view of the finding of significant association between performance in MCQs and SEQs and GCE O/level grades in science subjects and mathematics, it was recommended that both JAMB results and the GCE results in the four O/level subjects above may be considered when selecting candidates for admission into the medical schools. PMID:11713989

Oyebola, D D; Adewoye, O E; Iyaniwura, J O; Alada, A R; Fasanmade, A A; Raji, Y

83

Science Class: Free Chemistry and Physics Lessons  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This free website will help you to enrich your learning in science. It provides free science online ressources for kids, students, beginners, parents looking for homeworks help and everyone curious about physics and chemistry. It can be useful for self studying, to review lessons, to prepare for science exams, for learning scientific basis and even for school projects. All learners can access without restriction to science lessons in various fields such as chemistry, electricity, optics or mechanics written with scientific rigor. Most of these lessons, written with simple words, include basics notions making them understandable by everyone.

2012-01-01

84

Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) funds research and training in the UK in engineering and the physical sciences. Viewing public engagement as important for stimulating interest in research, inspiring future generations of researchers and, "helping the research base evolve in tune with the changing needs of a more informed society," the EPSRC also promotes public awareness of science and engineering, providing a good deal of resources and links online. Research reports and briefs from some of the collaborating institutions' work on a wide range of research projects in engineering, the physical sciences and mathematics are all available in the Publications section. Other sections describe activities for young people and teachers, and research opportunities for graduate students.

85

Web-Delivered Conceptual Physical Science Course  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the results of our efforts to incorporate the latest developments in Web technology and pedagogical techniques into an introductory conceptual physical science course. The course is a freshman general education course which teaches principles of physics, chemistry, and geology. The work combines the efforts from faculty in each of these departments. Web presentation of the material uses email,

R. Steven Turley; Dorian Hatch; Juliana Boerio-Goates; Dana Griffen; Grant Mason; Suzanne Hendrix

1999-01-01

86

The Effect of Type and Timing of Feedback on Learning from Multiple-Choice Tests  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two experiments investigated how the type and timing of feedback influence learning from a multiple-choice test. First, participants read 12 prose passages, which covered various general knowledge topics (e.g., The Sun) and ranged between 280 and 300 words in length. Next, they took an initial six-alternative, multiple-choice test on information…

Butler, Andrew C.; Karpicke, Jeffrey D.; Roediger, Henry L., III

2007-01-01

87

Multiple Choice Examination System 1. Database Design and Implementation for General Chemistry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents the main aspects and implementation of the classification system, database design and software, implementation of a multiple choice examination system for general chemistry in order to generate tests for student evaluation. The testing system was used to generate items for multiple choice examinations for first year undergraduate students in Material Engineering and Environmental Engineering from Technical University

Horea Iustin; Lorentz JÄNTSCHI

2004-01-01

88

Sample Selection Effect on AP Multiple-Choice Score to Composite Score Scaling.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Scores on the multiple-choice sections of alternate forms are equated through anchor-test equating for the Advanced Placement Program (AP) examinations. There is no linkage of free-response sections since different free-response items are given yearly. However, the free-response and multiple-choice sections are combined to produce a composite.…

Yang, Wen-Ling; Dorans, Neil J.; Tateneni, Krishna

89

Multiple Choice Testing and the Retrieval Hypothesis of the Testing Effect  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Taking a test often leads to enhanced later memory for the tested information, a phenomenon known as the "testing effect". This memory advantage has been reliably demonstrated with recall tests but not multiple choice tests. One potential explanation for this finding is that multiple choice tests do not rely on retrieval processes to the same…

Sensenig, Amanda E.

2010-01-01

90

A Diagnostic Study of Pre-Service Teachers' Competency in Multiple-Choice Item Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Large class size is an issue in testing at all levels of Education. As a panacea to this, multiple choice test formats has become very popular. This case study was designed to diagnose pre-service teachers' competency in constructing questions (IQT); direct questions (DQT); and best answer (BAT) varieties of multiple choice items. Subjects were…

Asim, Alice E.; Ekuri, Emmanuel E.; Eni, Eni I.

2013-01-01

91

A Diagnostic Study of Pre-Service Teachers' Competency in Multiple-Choice Item Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Large class size is an issue in testing at all levels of Education. As a panacea to this, multiple choice test formats has become very popular. This case study was designed to diagnose pre-service teachers' competency in constructing questions (IQT); direct questions (DQT); and best answer (BAT) varieties of multiple choice items. Subjects were 88…

Asim, Alice E.; Ekuri, Emmanuel E.; Eni, Eni I.

2013-01-01

92

Multiple Choice Testing and the Retrieval Hypothesis of the Testing Effect  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Taking a test often leads to enhanced later memory for the tested information, a phenomenon known as the "testing effect". This memory advantage has been reliably demonstrated with recall tests but not multiple choice tests. One potential explanation for this finding is that multiple choice tests do not rely on retrieval processes to the same…

Sensenig, Amanda E.

2010-01-01

93

InterActions in Physical Science: A new curriculum for middle school physical science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This presentation from the 2006 PTEC conference describes the InterActions in Physical Science curriculum. This curriculum meets the need for a standards-based middles school physical science curriculum. This talk outlines the goals, structures, and activities of the project.

Goldberg, Fred

2006-09-30

94

The impact of problem-based learning on engineering students’ beliefs about physics and conceptual understanding of energy and momentum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of problem-based learning (PBL) on freshmen engineering students’ beliefs about physics and physics learning (referred to as epistemological beliefs) and conceptual understanding of physics. The multiple-choice test of energy and momentum concepts and the Colorado learning attitudes about science survey were used to collect the data. The sample consisted of

Mehmet Sahin

2010-01-01

95

Accelerator science in medical physics  

PubMed Central

The use of cyclotrons and synchrotrons to accelerate charged particles in hospital settings for the purpose of cancer therapy is increasing. Consequently, there is a growing demand from medical physicists, radiographers, physicians and oncologists for articles that explain the basic physical concepts of these technologies. There are unique advantages and disadvantages to all methods of acceleration. Several promising alternative methods of accelerating particles also have to be considered since they will become increasingly available with time; however, there are still many technical problems with these that require solving. This article serves as an introduction to this complex area of physics, and will be of benefit to those engaged in cancer therapy, or who intend to acquire such technologies in the future.

Peach, K; Wilson, P; Jones, B

2011-01-01

96

Individualized Instruction in Science, Introductory Physical Science, Learning Activity Packages.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Learning Activity Packages (LAP) mostly relating to the Introductory Physical Science Text are presented in this manual for use in sampling a new type of instruction. The total of 14 topics are incorporated into five units: (1) introduction to individualized learning; (2) observation versus interpretation; (3) quantity of matter; (4) introduction…

Kuczma, R. M.

97

The Physical Sciences. Report of the National Science Board Submitted to the Congress.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Recent advances in the physical sciences, including astronomy, chemical synthesis, chemical dynamics, solid-state sciences, atomic and nuclear science, and elementary particles and high-energy physics are summarized in this report to Congress. The nature of physical science, including its increasing unity, the relationship between science and…

Handler, Philip

98

Earth Science Contexts for Teaching Physics. Part 1: Why Teach Physics in an Earth Science Context?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Explains how physics teaching can be more relevant to elementary and secondary students by integrating physics and earth science content that students can relate to and understand. Identifies and explains Earth contexts that can be appropriately implemented into the physics curriculum. (Author/YDS)|

King, Chris; Kennett, Peter

2002-01-01

99

Time in Physics and Life Science  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some mathematical aspects of the concept of time in physics and life science are discussed. A theoretical model of time machine is a spacetime region with closed timelike curves. Possible production of mini time machines at CERN's Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is considered. It is argued that if the scale of quantum gravity is of the order of few TeVs,

Igor. V. Volovich

2009-01-01

100

Ideas and Activities for Physical Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This manual is designed to supplement an existing physical science curriculum and to assist in providing the learning experiences required to implement an effective course. The first chapter outlines the purposes of this manual and provides a set of teaching tips. Topics such as electricity, wave motion, light, sound, periodic table and nuclear…

Chiappetta, Eugene L., Ed.

101

DISCUS Eighth Grade, Physical Sciences, Part 2.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Included are instructional materials designed for use with disadvantaged students who have a limited reading ability and poor command of English. The guide is the second volume of a two volume, one year program in physical science, and contains these four units and activities: Buoyancy, nine activities; Solubility, six activities; Crystals and…

Duval County School Board, Jacksonville, FL. Project DISCUS.

102

Theme: Teaching Physical Science Applications in Agriculture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Includes "Preparing Teachers to Teach Agriscience" (Osborne); "Physical Sciences and Agriculture" (Buriak); "Using Experiments to Teach Agriculture" (Miller); "Oooh-Ahhh: So That's How It Works!" (Loschen); "Keeping Agriculture in Agriscience" (Moss); "Sharpening Twist Drills" (McHargue, Hood); and "Safety in the Agriscience Laboratory"…

Osborne, Edward W.; And Others

1996-01-01

103

Quality Multiple-Choice Test Questions: Item-Writing Guidelines and an Analysis of Auditing Testbanks.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analysis of test item banks in 10 auditing textbooks found that 75% of questions violated one or more guidelines for multiple-choice items. In comparison, 70% of a certified public accounting exam bank had no violations. (SK)

Hansen, James D.; Dexter, Lee

1997-01-01

104

Are faculty predictions or item taxonomies useful for estimating the outcome of multiple-choice examinations?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article describes a study evaluating whether multiple-choice item difficulty could be predicted either by a subjective judgment by the question author or by applying a learning taxonomy to the items.

Jonathan D. Kibble (University of Central Florida College of Medicine); Teresa Johnson (University of Central Florida)

2011-12-01

105

Teacher's Toolkit: Strategies for the meaningful evaluation of multiple-choice assessments  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Too many multiple-choice tests are administered without an evaluative component. Teachers often return student assessments or Scantron cards--computerized bubble forms--without review, assuming that the printing of the correct answer will suffice. However,

Chesbro, Robert

2010-10-01

106

Physical Sciences Research Priorities and Plans in OBPR  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents viewgraphs of physical sciences research priorities and plans at the Office of Biological and Physical Sciences Research (OBPR). The topics include: 1) Sixth Microgravity Fluid Physics and Transport Phenomena Conference; 2) Beneficial Characteristics of the Space Environment; 3) Windows of Opportunity for Research Derived from Microgravity; 4) Physical Sciences Research Program; 5) Fundamental Research: Space-based Results and

Eugene Trinh

2002-01-01

107

A participatory learning approach to biochemistry using student authored and evaluated multiple-choice questions.  

PubMed

A participatory learning approach, combined with both a traditional and a competitive assessment, was used to motivate students and promote a deep approach to learning biochemistry. Students were challenged to research, author, and explain their own multiple-choice questions (MCQs). They were also required to answer, evaluate, and discuss MCQs written by their peers. The technology used to support this activity was PeerWise--a freely available, innovative web-based system that supports students in the creation of an annotated question repository. In this case study, we describe students' contributions to, and perceptions of, the PeerWise system for a cohort of 107 second-year biomedical science students from three degree streams studying a core biochemistry subject. Our study suggests that the students are eager participants and produce a large repository of relevant, good quality MCQs. In addition, they rate the PeerWise system highly and use higher order thinking skills while taking an active role in their learning. We also discuss potential issues and future work using PeerWise for biomedical students. PMID:21948507

Bottomley, Steven; Denny, Paul

108

The Effect of Type and Timing of Feedback on Learning From Multiple-Choice Tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two experiments investigated how the type and timing of feedback influence learning from a multiple-choice test. First, participants read 12 prose passages, which covered various general knowledge topics (e.g., The Sun) and ranged between 280 and 300 words in length. Next, they took an initial six-alternative, multiple-choice test on information contained in the passages. Feedback was given immediately for some

Andrew C. Butler; Jeffrey D. Karpicke; Henry L. Roediger

2007-01-01

109

Improved Multi-unit Auction Clearing Algorithms with Interval (Multiple-Choice) Knapsack Problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the interval knapsack problem (I-KP), and the in- terval multiple-choice knapsack problem (I-MCKP), as generalizations of the classic 0\\/1 knapsack problem (KP) and the multiple-choice knapsack problem (MCKP), respectively. Compared to singleton items in KP and MCKP, each item i in I-KP and I-MCKP is represented by a ((ai, bi), pi) pair, where integer interval (ai, bi) specifies

Yunhong Zhou

2006-01-01

110

Enhancing Interdisciplinary, Mathematics, and Physical Science in an Undergraduate Life Science Program through Physical Chemistry  

PubMed Central

BIO2010 advocates enhancing the interdisciplinary, mathematics, and physical science components of the undergraduate biology curriculum. The Department of Chemistry and Life Science at West Point responded by developing a required physical chemistry course tailored to the interests of life science majors. To overcome student resistance to physical chemistry, students were enabled as long-term stakeholders who would shape the syllabus by selecting life science topics of interest to them. The initial 2 yr of assessment indicates that students have a positive view of the course, feel they have succeeded in achieving course outcome goals, and that the course is relevant to their professional future. Instructor assessment of student outcome goal achievement via performance on exams and labs is comparable to that of students in traditional physical chemistry courses. Perhaps more noteworthy, both student and instructor assessment indicate positive trends from year 1 to year 2, presumably due to the student stakeholder effect.

2009-01-01

111

Linking physics, humanities, and social sciences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Southern Illinois University Edwardsville won funding from the federal interagency competition, Leadership Opportunity in Science and Humanities Education, which supported interdisciplinary courses combining the natural sciences and the humanities. The author analyzes her experiences developing a very successful and popular interdisciplinary course, entitled ``The Atomic Era,'' which features a unique combination of physics, sociology and German studies taught jointly by a physicist, a sociologist, and a Germanist. The objectives of the course, the laboratories and demonstrations, instructional goals, !!assignments, organization, testing, student and faculty assessment, expenses, and the special challenges of coordinating three faculty members and a wide variety of topics and perspectives are addressed and analyzed.

Carstens-Wickham, Belinda

2001-02-01

112

Research frontiers in the physical sciences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As a prestigious generalist journal with a high scholarly reputation and a long influential history, the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society (Series A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences), is an ideal vehicle for charting research frontiers across the physical sciences. It is the world's longest running scientific journal, and all issues since its foundation in 1665 are archived electronically by JSTOR in the USA (see http://www.jstor.org/) and are accessible through most university libraries. This archive gives facsimile access, and search facilities, to the works of many famous scientists. In this brief editorial I give first an introduction to the special Christmas issues by young scientists, followed by an overview of the fields covered.

Thompson, J. M. T.

2002-12-01

113

Force Concept Inventory-based multiple-choice test for investigating students' representational consistency  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This study investigates studentsâ ability to interpret multiple representations consistently (i.e., representational consistency) in the context of the force concept. For this purpose we developed the Representational Variant of the Force Concept Inventory (R-FCI), which makes use of nine items from the 1995 version of the Force Concept Inventory (FCI). These original FCI items were redesigned using various representations (such as motion map, vectorial and graphical), yielding 27 multiple-choice items concerning four central concepts underpinning the force concept: Newtonâs first, second, and third laws, and gravitation. We provide some evidence for the validity and reliability of the R-FCI; this analysis is limited to the student population of one Finnish high school. The students took the R-FCI at the beginning and at the end of their first high school physics course. We found that studentsâ (n=168) representational consistency (whether scientifically correct or not) varied considerably depending on the concept. On average, representational consistency and scientifically correct understanding increased during the instruction, although in the post-test only a few students performed consistently both in terms of representations and scientifically correct understanding. We also compared studentsâ (n=87) results of the R-FCI and the FCI, and found that they correlated quite well. Please note the published erratum when examining this article.

Nieminen, Pasi; Savinainen, Antti; Viiri, Jouni

2012-01-20

114

Key Science Physics: New Edition and Key Science Physics for International Schools: Extension File  

Microsoft Academic Search

When handling , I recalled how one set of sixth-form students that I taught affectionately referred to Jim Breithaupt's large format book Understanding Physics for Advanced Level as `Big Jim'. This package, for GCSE students and teachers, is its younger brother.Key Science Physics was reviewed in this journal over four years ago. Now it is in a new edition with

Maureen Maybank

1999-01-01

115

BOOK REVIEW: Key Science Physics: New Edition and Key Science Physics for International Schools: Extension File  

Microsoft Academic Search

When handling , I recalled how one set of sixth-form students that I taught affectionately referred to Jim Breithaupt's large format book Understanding Physics for Advanced Level as `Big Jim'. This package, for GCSE students and teachers, is its younger brother. Key Science Physics was reviewed in this journal over four years ago. Now it is in a new edition

Jim Breithaupt

1999-01-01

116

Review of Middle School Physical Science Texts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This report provides a review and critique of physical science textbooks in middle school with regard to scientific accuracy, an accurate portrayal of the scientific approach, and the appropriateness and pedagogic effectiveness of the material presented for the particular grade level. Also noted are such things as readability, attractiveness, quality of illustrations, and appropriateness of laboratory activities, home activities, exercises to test understanding, and other resources.

Hubisz, John

2004-03-30

117

Using Environmental Science as a Motivational Tool to Teach Physics to Non-Science Majors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A traditional physical science course was transformed into an environmental physical science course to teach physics to non-science majors. The objective of the new course was to improve the learning of basic physics principles by applying them to current issues of interest. A new curriculum was developed with new labs, homework assignments,…

Busch, Hauke C.

2010-01-01

118

High time for a change: psychometric analysis of multiple-choice questions in nursing.  

PubMed

Nurse educators teach students to develop an informed nursing practice but can educators claim the same grounding in the available evidence when formulating multiple-choice assessment tools to evaluate student learning? Multiple-choice questions are a popular assessment format within nursing education. While widely accepted as a credible format to assess student knowledge across disciplines, debate exists among educators regarding the number of options necessary to adequately test cognitive reasoning and optimal discrimination between student abilities. The purpose of this quasi-experimental between groups study was to examine the psychometric properties of three option multiple-choice questions when compared to the more traditional four option questions. Data analysis revealed that there were no statistically significant differences in the item discrimination, difficulty or the mean examination scores when multiple-choice test questions were administered with three versus four option answer choices. This study provides additional guidance for nurse educators to assist in improving multiple-choice question writing and test design. PMID:23192053

Redmond, Sandra P; Hartigan-Rogers, Jackie A; Cobbett, Shelley

2012-11-26

119

Effect of tuned parameters on an LSA multiple choice questions answering model.  

PubMed

This article presents the current state of a work in progress, whose objective is to better understand the effects of factors that significantly influence the performance of latent semantic analysis (LSA). A difficult task, which consisted of answering (French) biology multiple choice questions, was used to test the semantic properties of the truncated singular space and to study the relative influence of the main parameters. A dedicated software was designed to fine-tune the LSA semantic space for the multiple choice questions task. With optimal parameters, the performances of our simple model were quite surprisingly equal or superior to those of seventh- and eighth-grade students. This indicates that semantic spaces were quite good despite their low dimensions and the small sizes of the training data sets. In addition, we present an original entropy global weighting of the answers' terms for each of the multiple choice questions, which was necessary to achieve the model's success. PMID:19897829

Lifchitz, Alain; Jhean-Larose, Sandra; Denhière, Guy

2009-11-01

120

JSTOR: Proceedings: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In 2000 back issues of this scholarly journal were made available to researchers through JSTOR (Journal Storage). JSTOR offers online access to numerous scholarly journals on a "moving wall" basis -- in which users may download the full text and figures of each article that is at least three-years-old. Currently, JSTOR coverage includes Proceedings: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, Vol. 452-453, 1996-1997. Newer articles are continually added on a moving wall basis. Access is limited to participating institutions.

121

Development and Use of a Conceptual Survey in Introductory Quantum Physics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conceptual surveys have become increasingly popular at many levels to probe various aspects of science education research such as measuring student understanding of basic concepts and assessing the effectiveness of pedagogical material. The aim of this study was to construct a valid and reliable multiple?choice conceptual survey to investigate students’ understanding of introductory quantum physics concepts. We examined course syllabi

Sura Wuttiprom; Manjula Devi Sharma; Ian D. Johnston; Ratchapak Chitaree; Chernchok Soankwan

2009-01-01

122

Can Gender Ideologies Influence the Practice of the Physical Sciences?  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a response to the critics of feminist science studies I argue that it is possible to formulate empirical hypotheses about gender ideology in the practice of the physical sciences without (1) reinforcing stereotypes about women and mathematical sciences or (2) assuming at the outset that the area of physics under investigation is methodologically suspect. I will then critically evaluate

Kristina Rolin

1999-01-01

123

The Idaho Plan for Education in Physical Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes a statewide co-operative College-School Science Program (NSF supported) using Introductory Physical Science as a means to improve physical science teaching in grades 8 and 9. Teachers received summer and inservice training regarding I.P.S. inquiry methods, and behavioral objectives. (LS)|

Browne, Michael E.

1971-01-01

124

The study of student misunderstandings in the physical sciences  

Microsoft Academic Search

The, apparently widespread, reduction in the popularity of physical science courses, at both secondary and tertiary levels, has had a number of effects. Attempts by schools to provide a broadly attractive programme in the sciences seem to have reduced the amount of time spent on the physical sciences. Moreover, the introduction of applied and technological aspects, however desirable, within a

J. K. Gilbert

1977-01-01

125

International Solar-Terrestrial Physics Science Initiative  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the European Space Agency (ESA), and the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS) of Japan have collaborated to make available the International Solar-Terrestrial Physics (ISTP) Science Initiative. The ISTP Science initiative has five primary objectives. For example, the initiative seeks to "determine structure and dynamics in the solar interior and their role in driving solar activity." Sections included at the Website are What is the Sun-Earth Connection, Mission Connection, and What's New. Furthermore, the What is the Sun-Earth Connection section is subdivided into sections such as What is Geospace (the space in between the Earth and the Sun), Studying the Invisible Realm, and Hot Pics and Cool Movies. Spectacular colorful images of Northern and Southern Lights from Earth and Space, Sun Spotting, Images of Earth from Space, Space Weather, and movies showing comets flying into the sun, solar eclipses, and solar tornadoes are presented in the Hot Pics and Cool Movies section.

1969-12-31

126

Physics in Films: A New Approach to Teaching Science  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past year and a half we have developed an innovative approach to the teaching of `Physical Science', a general education course typically found in the curricula of nearly every college and university. The new approach uses popular movies to illustrate the principles of physical science, analyzing individual scenes against the background of the fundamental physical laws. The impact

Costas J. Efthimiou; Ralph Llewellyn

2004-01-01

127

Bachelor of Science in Medical Physics Program at Ryerson University  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new Bachelor of Science in Medical Physics program at Ryerson University, Toronto, Ontario was launched in Fall 2006. The program builds on Ryerson's strong existing capabilities in biomedical physics research. The program's point of entry is the common first year during which all students in Biology, Chemistry, Contemporary Science and Medical Physics programs complete the foundation courses that include

Tetyana Antimirova

2006-01-01

128

Complex network problems in physics, computer science and biology  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a close relation between physics and mathematics and the exchange of ideas between these two sciences are well established. However until few years ago there was no such a close relation between physics and computer science. Even more, only recently biologists started to use methods and tools from statistical physics in order to study the behavior of complex

Radu Ionut Cojocaru

2006-01-01

129

Application of a Multidimensional Nested Logit Model to Multiple-Choice Test Items  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nested logit models have been presented as an alternative to multinomial logistic models for multiple-choice test items (Suh and Bolt in "Psychometrika" 75:454-473, 2010) and possess a mathematical structure that naturally lends itself to evaluating the incremental information provided by attending to distractor selection in scoring. One potential…

Bolt, Daniel M.; Wollack, James A.; Suh, Youngsuk

2012-01-01

130

Use of a Multiple-Choice Procedure With College Student Drinkers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Multiple-Choice Procedure (MCP) was developed to investigate the relationship between drug preferences and alternative reinforcers. The current studies were designed to validate survey and laboratory versions of the MCP with college student drinkers. In Study 1, 320 undergraduates with a recent history of alcohol consumption used a survey version of the MCP to make 120 discrete hypothetical choices between

Christopher J. Correia; Carrie Little

2006-01-01

131

Pick-N Multiple Choice-Exams: A Comparison of Scoring Algorithms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|To compare different scoring algorithms for Pick-N multiple correct answer multiple-choice (MC) exams regarding test reliability, student performance, total item discrimination and item difficulty. Data from six 3rd year medical students' end of term exams in internal medicine from 2005 to 2008 at Munich University were analysed (1,255 students,…

Bauer, Daniel; Holzer, Matthias; Kopp, Veronika; Fischer, Martin R.

2011-01-01

132

A FORTRAN IV Program for Multiple-choice Tests with Predetermined Minimal Acceptable Performance Levels  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A Fortran IV multiple choice test scoring program for an IBM 370 computer is described that computes minimally acceptable performance levels and compares student scores to these levels. The program accomodates up to 500 items with no more than nine alternatives from a group of examinees numbering less than 10,000. (Author)

Noe, Michael J.

1976-01-01

133

A Practical Methodology for the Systematic Development of Multiple Choice Tests.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Using Guttman's facet design analysis, four parallel forms of a multiple-choice test were developed. A mapping sentence, logically representing the universe of content of a basic cardiology course, specified the facets of the course and the semantic structural units linking them. The facets were: cognitive processes, disease priority, specific…

Blumberg, Phyllis; Felner, Joel

134

"I Don't Know" and Multiple Choice Analysis of Pre- and Post-Tests  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evaluation is an essential component of any Extension education program. One tool, the pre- and post-test, provides measurable evaluation data. Yet often the answer "I don't know" or all possible answers to a multiple choice question are not included in the repeated measure analysis. Because more than two answers are offered, the test of marginal…

Spears, Karen; Wilson, Mary

2010-01-01

135

Automated Multiple-Choice Testing for Summative Assessment: What Do Students Think?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper reports undergraduate student feedback contrasting conventional "Long-answer" examinations with automated multiple-choice question (MCQ) assessment. Feedback was gathered after students had undertaken formative MCQ assessments as a revision aid. Feedback was generally supportive of MCQ summative tests, with 74% expressing a preference…

Bridge, Pete; Appleyard, Rob; Wilson, Rob

2007-01-01

136

Multiple-Choice Question Tests: A Convenient, Flexible and Effective Learning Tool? A Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The research presented in this paper is part of a project investigating assessment practices, funded by the Scottish Funding Council. Using established principles of good assessment and feedback, the use of online formative and summative multiple choice tests (MCT's) was piloted to support independent and self-directed learning and improve…

Douglas, Mercedes; Wilson, Juliette; Ennis, Sean

2012-01-01

137

Comparing Assessments of Students' Knowledge by Computerized Open-Ended and Multiple-Choice Tests.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Interactive computerized tests accepting unrestricted natural-language input were used to assess knowledge of clinical biophysics at the State University of New York at Buffalo. Comparison of responses to open-ended sequential questions and multiple-choice questions on the same material found the two formats test different aspects of competence.…

Anbar, Michael

1991-01-01

138

Analysis of Student Performance on Multiple-Choice Questions in General Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The percentage of students choosing the correct answer (PSCA) on 17 multiple-choice algorithmic questions taken from general chemistry exams is analyzed. PSCAs for these questions varied from 47 to 93%, and a decrease of 4.5% in PSCA was observed with each additional step in the algorithm required for solving the problem (R[superscript 2] =…

Hartman, JudithAnn R.; Lin, Shirley

2011-01-01

139

A comparison of a classical calculus test with a similar multiple choice test  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of departments of mathematics at Dutch universities experimented on a small scale with multiple choice tests, mostly for calculus courses for freshmen. Although the results were not bad (with a few exceptions) none of these departments saw convincing reasons to continue with the method. In 1969, a period when Dutch students tended to protest against practically everything, there

H. J. L. Kamps; J. H. Van Lint

1975-01-01

140

A Modified Beta Binomial Model with Applications to Multiple Choice and Taste Tests.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A modified beta binomial model is presented for use in analyzing random guessing multiple choice tests and taste tests. Detection probabilities for each item are distributed beta across the population subjects. Properties for the observable distribution of correct responses are derived. Two concepts of true score estimates are presented.…

Morrison, Donald G.; Brockway, George

1979-01-01

141

Some Issues Related to the Use of Justifications to Multiple Choice Answers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An investigation of biology matriculation tests in Israel was undertaken to assess the use of justifications with multiple-choice items and to compare the effect of three item formats on students' performance. More specifically, the study was designed to determine the: (1) extent to which justifications will differ if the correct answer is made…

Tamir, Pinchas

142

Convergence Principles: Information in the Answer Sets of Some Multiple-Choice Intelligence Tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is hypothesized that some common multiple- choice intelligence tests exhibit the property that the correct answer and the distractors together form a set of elements that, considered apart from the question, contain information as to which mem ber of the set is the correct answer. Three formalized principles (couched in terms of set theory) are suggested, which enable the

A. P. White; J. E. Zammarelli

1981-01-01

143

Are Faculty Predictions or Item Taxonomies Useful for Estimating the Outcome of Multiple-Choice Examinations?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether multiple-choice item difficulty could be predicted either by a subjective judgment by the question author or by applying a learning taxonomy to the items. Eight physiology faculty members teaching an upper-level undergraduate human physiology course consented to participate in the study. The…

Kibble, Jonathan D.; Johnson, Teresa

2011-01-01

144

Finding Relationships between Multiple-Choice Math Tests and Their Stem-Equivalent Constructed Responses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study takes a close look at relationships between scores on a Mathematics standardized test in two different testing formats--Multiple-Choice (MC) and Constructed Response (CR). Many studies have been dedicated to finding correlations between item format characteristics with regards to race and gender. Few studies, however, have attempted to…

Chaoui, Nayla Aad

2011-01-01

145

An Empirical Investigation of the Validity of McCarthy's Multiple-Choice Question Classification Matrix  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiple-choice question examinations and their incorporation of questions accompanying introductory marketing texts are common. Within the framework of a standard hierarchy of learning taxonomy, this study investigates the validity of the typology classifying the questions accompanying one of the most widely adopted texts.

John R. Dickinson; A. J. Faria; T. Richard Whiteley

1991-01-01

146

Are Faculty Predictions or Item Taxonomies Useful for Estimating the Outcome of Multiple-Choice Examinations?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether multiple-choice item difficulty could be predicted either by a subjective judgment by the question author or by applying a learning taxonomy to the items. Eight physiology faculty members teaching an upper-level undergraduate human physiology course consented to participate in the study. The…

Kibble, Jonathan D.; Johnson, Teresa

2011-01-01

147

Not Read, but Nevertheless Solved? Three Experiments on PIRLS Multiple Choice Reading Comprehension Test Items  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Multiple-choice (MC) reading comprehension test items comprise three components: text passage, questions about the text, and MC answers. The construct validity of this format has been repeatedly criticized. In three between-subjects experiments, fourth graders (N[subscript 1] = 230, N[subscript 2] = 340, N[subscript 3] = 194) worked on three…

Sparfeldt, Jorn R.; Kimmel, Rumena; Lowenkamp, Lena; Steingraber, Antje; Rost, Detlef H.

2012-01-01

148

Does Correction for Guessing Reduce Students' Performance on Multiple-Choice Examinations? Yes? No? Sometimes?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Multiple-choice (MC) examinations are becoming increasingly popular in higher education because they can be used effectively to assess breadth of knowledge in large cohorts of students. This present research investigated psychology students' performance on, and experiences of, MC examinations with and without correction for guessing. In Study 1,…

Betts, Lucy R.; Elder, Tracey J.; Hartley, James; Trueman, Mark

2009-01-01

149

A Cognitive Diagnosis Model for Cognitively Based Multiple-Choice Options  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Cognitive or skills diagnosis models are discrete latent variable models developed specifically for the purpose of identifying the presence or absence of multiple fine-grained skills. However, applications of these models typically involve dichotomous or dichotomized data, including data from multiple-choice (MC) assessments that are scored as…

de la Torre, Jimmy

2009-01-01

150

A FORTRAN IV Program for Multiple-choice Tests with Predetermined Minimal Acceptable Performance Levels  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A Fortran IV multiple choice test scoring program for an IBM 370 computer is described that computes minimally acceptable performance levels and compares student scores to these levels. The program accomodates up to 500 items with no more than nine alternatives from a group of examinees numbering less than 10,000. (Author)|

Noe, Michael J.

1976-01-01

151

Application of a Multidimensional Nested Logit Model to Multiple-Choice Test Items  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Nested logit models have been presented as an alternative to multinomial logistic models for multiple-choice test items (Suh and Bolt in "Psychometrika" 75:454-473, 2010) and possess a mathematical structure that naturally lends itself to evaluating the incremental information provided by attending to distractor selection in scoring. One…

Bolt, Daniel M.; Wollack, James A.; Suh, Youngsuk

2012-01-01

152

A Modified Beta Binomial Model with Applications to Multiple Choice and Taste Tests.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A modified beta binomial model is presented for use in analyzing random guessing multiple choice tests and taste tests. Detection probabilities for each item are distributed beta across the population subjects. Properties for the observable distribution of correct responses are derived. Two concepts of true score estimates are presented.…

Morrison, Donald G.; Brockway, George

1979-01-01

153

A modified beta binomial model with applications to multiple choice and taste tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

A modified beta binomial model is presented for use in analyzing ramdom guessing multiple choice tests and certain forms of taste tests. Detection probabilities for each item are distributed beta across the population subjects. Properties for the observable distribution of correct responses are derived. Two concepts of true score estimates are presented. One, analogous to Duncan's empirical Bayes posterior mean

Donald G. Morrison; George Brockway

1979-01-01

154

Using the Distractor Categories of Multiple-Choice Items to Improve IRT Linking  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Simulation and real data studies are used to investigate the value of modeling multiple-choice distractors on item response theory linking. Using the characteristic curve linking procedure for Bock's (1972) nominal response model presented by Kim and Hanson (2002), all-category linking (i.e., a linking based on all category characteristic curves…

Kim, Jee-Seon

2006-01-01

155

Design and analysis of multiple-choice feeding-preference experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

A serious omission in ecological methodology is the absence of a rigorous statistical procedure to analyse multiple-choice feeding-preference experiments. A sample of 21 studies in the littoral marine context shows that results from such experiments are used to study a variety of conceptual issues, ranging from nutritional biology to ecosystem dynamics. A majority of such studies have been incorrectly analysed.

Rubén Roa

1992-01-01

156

A Participatory Learning Approach to Biochemistry Using Student Authored and Evaluated Multiple-Choice Questions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A participatory learning approach, combined with both a traditional and a competitive assessment, was used to motivate students and promote a deep approach to learning biochemistry. Students were challenged to research, author, and explain their own multiple-choice questions (MCQs). They were also required to answer, evaluate, and discuss MCQs…

Bottomley, Steven; Denny, Paul

2011-01-01

157

Does Correction for Guessing Reduce Students' Performance on Multiple-Choice Examinations? Yes? No? Sometimes?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Multiple-choice (MC) examinations are becoming increasingly popular in higher education because they can be used effectively to assess breadth of knowledge in large cohorts of students. This present research investigated psychology students' performance on, and experiences of, MC examinations with and without correction for guessing. In Study 1,…

Betts, Lucy R.; Elder, Tracey J.; Hartley, James; Trueman, Mark

2009-01-01

158

A Latent-Change Scaling Model for Longitudinal Multiple Choice Data  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A latent-change scaling model for the analysis of repeated-measures multiple-choice data is presented. The model extends previous work by combining latent class analysis and low dimensional scaling techniques in a longitudinal framework where subjects may change their preferences for the response categories over time. The latent structural…

Kim, Jee-Seon

2005-01-01

159

Gender and physics: feminist philosophy and science education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Physics education reform movements should pay attention to feminist analyses of gender in the culture of physics for two reasons. One reason is that feminist analyses contribute to an understanding of a ‘chilly climate’ women encounter in many physics university departments. Another reason is that feminist analyses reveal that certain styles of doing science are predominant in the culture of physics. I introduce recent philosophical work in social epistemology to argue that the predominance of certain styles of doing science is not good for science. Scientific communities would benefit from greater diversity in styles of doing science.

Rolin, Kristina

2008-11-01

160

The Effects of Clinically Relevant Multiple-Choice Items on the Statistical Discrimination of Physician Clinical Competence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To test the effect of clinically relevant multiple-choice item content on the validity of statistical discriminations of physicians' clinical competence, data were collected from a field test of the Emergency Medicine Examination, test items for the certification of specialists in emergency medicine. Two 91-item multiple-choice subscales were…

Downing, Steven M.; Maatsch, Jack L.

161

A Comparison of Information Functions of Multiple-Choice and Free-Response Vocabulary Items. Research Report 77-2.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Twenty multiple-choice vocabulary items and 20 free-response vocabulary items were administered to 660 college students. The free-response items consisted of the stem words of the multiple-choice items. Testees were asked to respond to the free-response items with synonyms. A computer algorithm was developed to transform the numerous…

Vale, C. David; Weiss, David J.

162

Beliefs and attitudes of urban primary teachers toward physical science and teaching physical science  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eighteen primary teachers (K-3) from five urban schools in the southeastern part of the United States participated in this\\u000a study. The purposes of this study were to provide insight into options for inservice education programs dealing with urban\\u000a teachers and their unique needs and to determine some of the attitudes and beliefs of urban primary school teachers toward\\u000a physical science

Mary M. Atwater; Catherine Gardner; Carol R. Kight

1991-01-01

163

Science on the Table: Motivating Non-Science Majors to Learn Physical Science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most undergraduates in non-scientific fields view personal science knowledge as both irrelevant and unnecessary for their future well-being. Attempts by universities to address the problem of an increasingly scientifically illiterate citizenry through the incorporation of science requirements in the general education curriculum are viewed by students as one more obstacle in their quest for an undergraduate degree, not as an opportunity to develop the skills needed for personal and civic decision making related to scientific and technologic issues. We have modified the laboratory portion of our existing Physical Science course (previously a catch-all course intended to cover concepts in physics, chemistry, earth science, and astronomy in one semester) to incorporate activities that draw attention to the impact of science on society and individuals. These activities include classroom debates on current issues with scientific content as well as experiments that draw attention to the science of everyday materials and phenomena. We will discuss these activities and the skills students are expected to develop from them.

Weller, Martha; Iriarte-Gross, Judith

2006-03-01

164

``Broader Curricular Issues'' in Physics: Technology, History, Science, Society  

Microsoft Academic Search

A dilemma now faces many physics teachers: how to meet the demand, made both on humanistic and practical grounds, for courses which extend the physics curriculum beyond physics by relating it to human affairs. Can physics teachers qualify to teach such courses? What should they teach? This article describes the dilemma and presents one such experimental course, ``Science and Technology

Lillian Hartmann-Hoddeson

1973-01-01

165

Nuclear Physics Science Network Requirements Workshop, May 2008 - Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) is the primary provider of network connectivity for the US Department of Energy Office of Science, the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States of America. In support of t...

A. Kowalski B. L. E. Tierney C. Vale C. Watson W. Johnston

2008-01-01

166

Scientific session of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences (25 April 2007)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A scientific session of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS) was held on April 25, 2007 in the Conference Hall of the P N Lebedev Physical Institute, RAS. The following reports were presented at the session.(1) Novikov I D, Kardashev N S, Shatskii A A (Astro-Cosmic Center, P N Lebedev Physical Institute, RAS, Moscow) \\

Igor D Novikov; Nikolai S Kardashev; Aleksandr A Shatskii; Vladimir N Lukash; E V Mikheeva

2007-01-01

167

Research Misconduct and the Physical Sciences  

SciTech Connect

Research misconduct includes the fabrication, falsification, and plagiarism (FFP) of concepts or ideas; some institutions have expanded this concept to include ''other serious deviations (OSD) from accepted research practice.'' An action can be evaluated as research misconduct if it involves activities unique to the practice of science and could negatively affect the scientific record. Although the number of cases of research misconduct is uncertain (formal records are kept only by the NIH and the NSF), the costs are high in integrity of the scientific record, diversions from research to investigate allegations, ruined careers of those eventually exonerated, and erosion of public confidence in science. Currently, research misconduct policies vary from institution to institution and from government agency to government agency; some have highly developed guidelines that include OSD, others have no guidelines at ail. One result has been that the federal False Claims Act has been used to pursue allegations of research misconduct and have them adjudicated in the federal court, rather than being judged by scientific peers. The federal government will soon establish a first-ever research misconduct policy that would apply to all research funded by the federal government regardless of what agency funded the research or whether the research was carried out in a government, industrial or university laboratory. Physical scientists, who up to now have only infrequently been the subject or research misconduct allegations, must none-the-less become active in the debate over research misconduct policies and how they are implemented since they will now be explicitly covered by this new federal wide policy.

HM Kerch; JJ Dooley

1999-10-11

168

Dictionary of the Physical Sciences - Terms, Formulas, Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This comprehensive dictionary provides clear, concise definitions of terms from chemistry, physics, the geological sciences, and astronomy. The breadth of coverage and the accuracy of the entries are unsurpassed. Symbols and abbreviations are spelled out, and any unfamiliar terms used in making the definitions are themselves defined in the dictionary. The author has included quantitative information wherever pertinent, and has added a number of tables in the appendix to provide additional data. The most comprehensive dictionary available in the physical sciences, this readable, convenient reference will be essential for students and researchers in earth sciences, physics, chemistry and astronomy, as well as for educated lay readers with an interest in science.

Emiliani, Cesare

1987-08-01

169

Physics, Math, and Making Sense: Understanding how brains learn science  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent developments in neuroscience, cognitive science, and behavioral science are helping physics education researchers develop a theoretical understanding of physics teaching and learning. This understanding helps in two ways. 1). We can make sense of the way students respond (often inappropriately) to our instruction. 2). We can learn to appreciate the difficulties we have as instructors in unpacking and identifying

Edward Redish

2007-01-01

170

Medieval Science, the Copernican Revolution, and Physics Teaching  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Points out the need for a greater awareness, among physicists, of medieval physical science. Reviews briefly and gives examples of notable achievements of the era and argues that the view of science of fourteenth-century nominalism has greater affinity to today's theoretical physics than that of the Scientific Revolution. (Author/GS)

Uritam, R. A.

1974-01-01

171

Science Fiction Stories with Good Astronomy & Physics: A Topical Index  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a selective list of some short stories and novels that use more or less accurate science. They can be used for teaching or reinforcing astronomy or physics concepts. Both traditional "science-fiction" and (occasionally) more serious fiction that derives meaning or plot from astronomy or physics ideas are included. Almost 200 stories in 40 subject categories are listed.

Fraknoi, Andrew

2004-07-16

172

Physics. Student Investigations and Readings. Investigations in Natural Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigations in Natural Science is a program in secondary school biology, chemistry, and physics based upon the description of science as a quest for knowledge, not the knowledge itself. This student manual contains the 36 physics investigations which focus on concepts related to: movement; vectors; falling objects; force and acceleration; a…

Renner, John W.; And Others

173

The physical science behind climate change  

SciTech Connect

For a scientist studying climate change, 'eureka' moments are unusually rare. Instead progress is generally made by a painstaking piecing together of evidence from every new temperature measurement, satellite sounding or climate-model experiment. Data get checked and rechecked, ideas tested over and over again. Do the observations fit the predicted changes? Could there be some alternative explanation? Good climate scientists, like all good scientists, want to ensure that the highest standards of proof apply to everything they discover. And the evidence of change has mounted as climate records have grown longer, as our understanding of the climate system has improved and as climate models have become ever more reliable. Over the past 20 years, evidence that humans are affecting the climate has accumulated inexorably, and with it has come ever greater certainty across the scientific community in the reality of recent climate change and the potential for much greater change in the future. This increased certainty is starkly reflected in the latest report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), the fourth in a series of assessments of the state of knowledge on the topic, written and reviewed by hundreds of scientists worldwide. The panel released a condensed version of the first part of the report, on the physical science basis of climate change, in February. Called the 'Summary for Policymakers,' it delivered to policymakers and ordinary people alike an unambiguous message: scientists are more confident than ever that humans have interfered with the climate and that further human-induced climate change is on the way. Although the report finds that some of these further changes are now inevitable, its analysis also confirms that the future, particularly in the longer term, remains largely in our hands--the magnitude of expected change depends on what humans choose to do about greenhouse gas emissions. The physical science assessment focuses on four topics: drivers of climate change, changes observed in the climate system, understanding cause-and-effect relationships, and projection of future changes. Important advances in research into all these areas have occurred since the IPCC assessment in 2001. In the pages that follow, we lay out the key findings that document the extent of change and that point to the unavoidable conclusion that human activity is driving it.

Collins, William; Collins, William; Colman, Robert; Haywood, James; Manning, Martin R.; Mote, Philip

2007-07-01

174

A practical discussion to avoid common pitfalls when constructing multiple choice questions items  

PubMed Central

This paper is an attempt to produce a guide for improving the quality of Multiple Choice Questions (MCQs) used in undergraduate and postgraduate assessment. Multiple Choice Questions type is the most frequently used type of assessment worldwide. Well constructed, context rich MCQs have a high reliability per hour of testing. Avoidance of technical items flaws is essential to improve the validity evidence of MCQs. Technical item flaws are essentially of two types (i) related to testwiseness, (ii) related to irrelevant difficulty. A list of such flaws is presented together with discussion of each flaw and examples to facilitate learning of this paper and to make it learner friendly. This paper was designed to be interactive with self-assessment exercises followed by the key answer with explanations.

Al-Faris, Eiad A.; Alorainy, Ibrahim A.; Abdel-Hameed, Ahmad A.; Al-Rukban, Mohammed O.

2010-01-01

175

An ant colony optimization approach to the multiple-choice multidimensional knapsack problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present an ant colony optimization (ACO) approach to solve the multiple-choice multidimensional knapsack problem (MMKP). This problem concerns many real life problems, and is hard to solve due to its strong constraints and NP-hard property. The ACO approach given in this paper follows the algorithmic scheme of max-min ant system, but has some new features with

Zhigang Ren; Zuren Feng

2010-01-01

176

Benefiting from Multiple?Choice Exams: The positive impact of answer switching  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extent and benefit of answer switching when completing multiple?choice exams was investigated in an undergraduate course (n = 1,152) and a postgraduate course (n = 1,624). Answer switching was identified in 1.7% and 2.4% of cases, respectively. In both samples, more than half the participants changed at least one answer and, of these, approximately 50% increased their test score

Lee Di Milia

2007-01-01

177

Efficient Validation of Teaching and Learning Using Multiple-Choice Exams  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

One purpose of this study was to quantify, by means of single-format, multiple-choice questions at the beginning and end of the course, the extent to which first-year medical students learn neuroscience material from an introductory course in their curriculum. A second goal was to evaluate a two-dimensional, computer-generated matrix as a way to assess test question validity and value.

PhD Mark DeSantis (University of Idaho Department of Biological Sciences/WWAMI Medical Education Program); PhD Thomas A. McKean (University of Idaho Department of Biological Sciences)

2003-03-01

178

Institute in Physical Science. A Category 1 Spring and Summer Inservice Program for Elementary and Secondary Teachers of Physical Science in the Austin Metropolitan Community. Austin, Texas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Institute in Physical Science was developed to address the need for updated information and training in physics, chemistry, and technology among teachers of physical science. Five major objectives addressed were to: (1) improve physical science teachers' understanding of fundamental concepts in physics and chemistry; (2) provide physical

Crawley, Frank E.

179

Using Environmental Science as a Motivational Tool to Teach Physics to Non-science Majors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A traditional physical science course was transformed into an environmental physical science course to teach physics to non-science majors. The objective of the new course was to improve the learning of basic physics principles by applying them to current issues of interest. A new curriculum was developed with new labs, homework assignments, worksheets, and interactive classroom learning techniques such as Peer Instruction (PI)1 and SCALE-UP.2 It was found that the new course showed an increase in students' class participation, attendance, and overall interest, with most rating their science experience as very positive.

Busch, Hauke C.

2010-12-01

180

Physical properties of graphene (Scientific session of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 28 March 2012)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A scientific session of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS) devoted to the "Physical properties of graphene" was held on 28 March 2012 in the conference hall of the Lebedev Physical Institute. The agenda of the session announced on the RAS Physical Sciences Division website http://www.gpad.ac.ru included the following reports: (1) Falkovsky L A (Landau Institute of Theoretical Physics, RAS, Moscow; Vereshchagin Institute of High-Pressure Physics, RAS, Moscow) "Magnetooptics of graphene"; (2) Varlamov A A (The University of Rome Tor Vergata, Italy) "Thermoelectric properties of graphene." The papers written on the basis of these reports are given below. • Magnetooptics of graphene layers, L A Falkovsky Physics-Uspekhi, 2012, Volume 55, Number 11, Pages 1140-1145 • Anomalous thermoelectric and thermomagnetic properties of graphene, A A Varlamov, A V Kavokin, I A Luk'yanchuk, S G Sharapov Physics-Uspekhi, 2012, Volume 55, Number 11, Pages 1146-1151

2012-11-01

181

Physics First in Science Education Reform: Impacts on Pedagogy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the results of a study focused on physics and chemistry teachers at independent schools in the United States which employ a "Physics First" approach to high school science course sequencing. Data was collected via interviews, during which information was gathered regarding pedagogical practices and teachers' transitions to Physics First. Findings suggest that the implementation of inquiry-oriented pedagogy is influenced by teacher and department philosophy, but not necessarily by the Physics First approach. Further, teachers recognize the affordances of Physics First, but largely do not leverage these to create more coherent and connected science programs.

Purnell, Mechum Douglas

182

Physics and Physical Science Units for Tech Prep.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Promoting ACademic Excellence in Mathematics and Science for Workers of the 21st Century (PACE) was a consortium project made up of Indiana University Northwest, the Gary Community Schools, and the Merrillville Community Schools. The focus of this project was to prepare teachers and curricula for Tech Prep mathematics and science courses for the…

Bielefeld, Marilyn; Daniels, Sadie; Hall, Yolanda; McClendon, Cecil; Schlinger, Gary

183

Towards the development of behavioural measures of impulsivity: Influencing subjects' response style in a multiple-choice visual discrimination task  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an attempt to reduce guessing during multiple-choice testing, the effects of different payoff ma- trices were observed in this research. It was hypothesized that a penalty for incorrect answers and the existence of the alternative \\

MICHAELA M. WAGNER-MENGHIN; NICOLE K. DIETRICH

2007-01-01

184

Portraying Physicists and Physics in Hard Science Fiction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

"Hard" science fiction is that sub-genre of SF in which a serious attempt is made to portray science and scientists as accurately as possible, often by using scientists and engineers as principal characters and by using scientific problem solving as a major plot element. The speaker, a Professor of Physics, writes a regular bimonthly science column (see http://www.npl.washington.edu/av) and has also written two hard SF novels, Twistor, which is about ``small" science in a university physics research laboratory, and Einstein's Bridge, which portrays ``big" science and in particular the 1993 cancellation of the Superconducting Super Collider Project, as played out against a fictional background of breakthrough discoveries, alien contact, wormholes, and time travel. The speaker will discuss his experiences in planning, writing, and publishing hard SF, and will consider how these activities address the general problem of public appreciation, perception, and mis-perception of science.

Cramer, John G.

2001-03-01

185

Models in Physics: Perceptions Held by Prospective Physical Science Teachers Studying at South African Universities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A study was conducted to determine how 200 pre-service physical science teachers in South Africa and Namibia interpreted the word "model" in a physics context. Many interpreted the term as a physical construct rather than as an abstract idea. This confusion exacerbated difficulties with the interpretation of physical models for light.

Smit, J. J.; Finegold, Menahem

2006-12-07

186

Physical Characteristics of Principal Radioisotopes Used in Biological Sciences.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A table, with physical characteristics of radioisotopes used in biological sciences is presented. It includes data of half-life, decay, electron capture, isomeric transitron, etc. (Atomindex citation 09:414050)

V. F. Nascimento Filho

1977-01-01

187

Physics, Math, and Making Sense: Understanding how brains learn science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent developments in neuroscience, cognitive science, and behavioral science are helping physics education researchers develop a theoretical understanding of physics teaching and learning. This understanding helps in two ways. 1). We can make sense of the way students respond (often inappropriately) to our instruction. 2). We can learn to appreciate the difficulties we have as instructors in unpacking and identifying critical components of our own knowledge. Building on observations of student learning in introductory and advanced physics, I identify critical components for teaching physics with math that are often overlooked in traditional instruction.

Redish, Edward

2007-03-01

188

Teaching the Teachers: Physical Science for the Non-Scientific  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Catholic University of America, in collaboration with the Solar Physics Branch of the Naval Research Laboratory and the Goddard Space Flight Center, has begun development of an experimental, inquiry-driven and standards-referenced physical science course for undergraduate, pre-service K-8 teachers. The course is team-taught by faculty from the University's Departments of Education and Physics and NRL solar physics research personnel.

D. J. Michels; S. M. Pickert; C. J. Montrose; J. L. Thompson

2004-01-01

189

Gender Ideology in the Physical Sciences: Philosophical Arguments  

Microsoft Academic Search

This presentation is part of the Feminist Perspectives in the Sciences: Physics, Chemistry and Climate Science track.\\u000aFeminist science criticism has overwhelmingly concerned itself with biological theories on sex and gender difference. Feminist critics (Bleier, Hubbard, Fausto-Sterling, Haraway) have discredited these theories by arguing that gender bias resulted in cognitive distortions and misrepresentation of the subject of inquiry. Feminist philosophers

A?gnes Kova?cs; La?szlo? Ropolyi

2010-01-01

190

The relationship of deep and surface study approaches on factual and applied test?bank multiple?choice question performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the advent of online test banks and large introductory classes, instructors have often turned to textbook publisher?generated multiple?choice question (MCQ) exams in their courses. Multiple?choice questions are often divided into categories of factual or applied, thereby implicating levels of cognitive processing. This investigation examined the influence student study approaches have on performance of shallow compared to deep, cognitive process

Julie E. Yonker

2011-01-01

191

A Study of Common Beliefs and Misconceptions in Physical Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Science Belief Test is an online instrument comprised of 47 statements that require true or false responses and request written explanations to accompany these responses. It targets topics in chemistry, physics, biology, earth science, and astronomy and was initially designed to assess preservice elementary teachers' beliefs about general…

Stein, Mary; Larrabee, Timothy G.; Barman, Charles R.

2008-01-01

192

Teaching Particle Physics in the Open University's Science Foundation Course.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses four topics presented in the science foundation course of the Open University that exemplify current developments in particle physics, in particular, and that describe important issues about the nature of science, in general. Topics include the omega minus particle, the diversity of quarks, the heavy lepton, and the discovery of the W…

Farmelo, Graham

1992-01-01

193

Physics at the International Science and Engineering Fair.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A judge for the physics projects for the 1979 International Science and Engineering Fair describes many of the more popular science projects. Projects described include the following: carbon dioxide and helium-neon lasers, reverse flame investigations, holography, construction of a magnetic bottle to confine plasma, and aerodynamic drag. (BT)|

Walker, Jearl

1979-01-01

194

Does physics teaching affect gender-based science anxiety?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We present the results of a study designed to measure the level of science anxiety in students enrolled in physics courses at Loyola University Chicago. We undertook this study with two objectives: (1) to determine the factors contributing to science anxiety; in particular, to ascertain whether the leading factors identified in an earlier study have remained constant over time, and (2) to investigate whether science anxiety was affected by a semester of introductory physics. This is the first study of its kind, analyzing science anxiety in pre- and posttests of a cohort composed entirely of students taking physics courses. We find that the leading factors contributing to science anxiety are nonscience anxiety, gender, and to a much lesser degree, course of study (major), in agreement with earlier results. In general, males start and end the course with somewhat less science anxiety (and nonscience anxiety) than females. Post-course responses indicated some improvement in nonscience anxiety and in science anxiety for both genders. Acute levels of science anxiety were somewhat decreased by exposure to a physics course. Different pedagogies and gender role models may correlate with anxiety reduction.

Udo, M. K.; Ramsey, G. P.; Mallow, Jeffry V.; Reynolds-Alpert, S.

2005-11-28

195

University of Virginia: 8th Grade Physical Science SOL Activities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a collection of 100+ hands-on activities in physical science, all developed by teacher fellows in the University of Virginia physics education department. Each activity provides lesson objectives, procedures for set-up, background information, and assessment. Many also contain photos and illustrations, plus modifications for students with disabilities. Topics include the nature of science, properties of matter, atomic structure and the Periodic Table, conservation of matter and energy, electricity, heat and temperature, sound, light, motion, and forces.

2011-11-21

196

Bayesian Inference for the Physical Sciences  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an online index for information on Bayesian statistical inference as it applies to science. References include general texts, preprints and reprints, Bayesian software, and other Bayesian resources.

2005-04-05

197

Research briefs of the Physical and Chemical Sciences Center  

SciTech Connect

As Sandia National Laboratories and the Physical and Chemical Sciences Center develop an increasingly diverse set of customers, research partners, and Cooperative Research and Development Agreements (CRADA`s) with industry, there is a need for providing more concise information describing their technical achievements and capabilities. This publication, Research Briefs, is designed to inform the present and potential partners in research and technology advancement. Their research emphasizes semiconductor physics, electronic materials, surface physics and chemistry, plasma and chemical processing sciences, lasers and optics, vision science, ion-solid interactions and defect physics, and advanced materials physics. The specific programs they pursue are driven by the research goals which are greatly influenced by interactions with the government and industrial customers.

Vook, F.L.; Smith, W.L. [eds.

1993-12-31

198

Views About Science and physics achievement: The VASS story  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Views About Sciences Survey (VASS) is a paper-and-pencil instrument to characterize student views about knowing and learning science and assess the relation of these views to achievement in science courses. VASS shows that: (a) high school and college students have views about physics that often diverge from physicists' views, (b) student views can be grouped into four distinct profiles: expert, high transitional, low transitional, and folk, (c) profile distributions are similar in college and high school, and (d) student profiles correlate significantly with physics achievement.

Halloun, Ibrahim

1997-03-01

199

Targeting Students' Physical Science Misconceptions Using the Conceptual Change Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This handbook is dedicated to giving teachers clear information on how to correct physical science misconceptions in the classroom. It aims to help teachers help students develop appropriate understanding based on hands-on, inquiry-based experiences that challenge preconceptions. The book is organized into units ranging from matter to heat and waves. Each unit includes a list of common misconceptions and activities that help students develop an accurate understanding of each concept. Background information and lessons are provided. The National Science Education Standards for content and instructional strategies in the physical sciences are also addressed.

Stepans, Joseph

2007-11-01

200

Physical sciences program area 1990 contract status report  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 1990 status of research contracts funded and managed by GRI's (Gas Research Institute) Physical Science Department is summarized. Eleven research areas are grouped according to the elements of GRI's mission: gas supply options (geosciences, advanced gas separation science and technology); end use (combustion, heat and mass transfer science, energy conversion fundamentals, high-temperature materials, and methane reaction science); gas operations (piping materials research, gas flow research); and crosscutting research (properties research, exploratory concepts). The description of each contract includes the reasons for funding the research, its objectives, and a statement of accomplishments.

Dolenc, D. A.

1990-07-01

201

Courses in Modern Physics for Non-science Majors, Future Science Teachers, and Biology Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the past 15 years Kansas State University has offered a course in modern physics for students who are not majoring in physics. This course carries a prerequisite of one physics course so that the students have a basic introduction in classical topics. The majors of students range from liberal arts to engineering. Future secondary science teachers whose first area

Dean Zollman

2001-01-01

202

Physical Science, Units 5 and 6, Field Test Copy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This student workbook contains units five and six of a six-unit physical science course. The program is intended for high school students who have not had a chemistry or physics course, and is designed to be self instructional. Unit five involves experiments and problems in these subject areas: temperature versus heat; units of heat; specific…

Washington State Univ., Pullman.

203

Chem Tech & Physics Tech: The Integration of Science and Technology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes two high school courses, "Chemistry of Technology (Chem Tech)" and "Physics of Technology (Physics Tech)," that emphasize multidisciplinary learning through applicative, hands-on activities. Provides course descriptions, lists the advantages of using a unified science-technology model, and discusses limitations of using this model. (PR)|

Gauger, Robert

1992-01-01

204

Ready Reference Web Sites in Earth and Physical Sciences  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents a selection of web-based reference resources in the earth and physical sciences, focusing in particular on geology, chemistry, physics, astronomy, and weather. Such a compilation is designed to be of use in meeting a wide range of informational needs in these areas. Sites chosen by the authors are those likely to be of broad interest. In addition,

Edward Lener; Flora G. Sbrode

1997-01-01

205

University of Virginia Physical Science SOL Activities: Static Electricity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson plan for secondary physical science demonstrates induction and conduction through a "dancing" Cheerio and a charged plastic ruler. The lesson includes a printable student review sheet and background information on electrostatics. This resource is part of a larger collection generated by the University of Virginia Department of Physics outreach program. See Related Materials for a link to the full collection.

2006-11-13

206

Semiconductor Science Activities for High School Physics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The student activities in this packet are designed to be incorporated into a standard high school physics curriculum. The intent is to provide the student with an introduction to study of the electronic facets of physics as they apply to semiconductor technology.

Grady, Kim

2009-07-29

207

Physical Science Connected Classrooms: Case Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Case-study descriptions of secondary and middle school classrooms in diverse contexts provide examples of how teachers implement connected classroom technology to facilitate formative assessment in science instruction. Connected classroom technology refers to a networked system of handheld devices designed for classroom use. Teachers were surprised at the knowledge they gathered about student learning in connected classrooms. They recognized that their

Karen E. Irving; Vehbi A. Sanalan; Melissa L. Shirley

2009-01-01

208

Software for Middle School Physical Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This final report in the MicroSIFT series reviews 10 software packages that deal mainly with the areas of electricity, magnetism, and heat energy. Software titles appearing in this report were selected because they were judged to be exemplary according to various criteria in the MicroSIFT Evaluator's Guide, with some additions to address science

Podany, Zita

209

Science Activities for the Physically Impaired.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes the nine modules of the SAVI/SELPH program, a hands-on, multisensory science program developed for grade 4-7 visually impaired, orthopedically disabled, learning disabled, deaf, and multihandicapped students. Modules consist of measurement, structures of life, scientific reasoning, communication, magnetism and electricity, mixtures and…

James, Melodee L.

1987-01-01

210

The Question Complexity Rubric: Development and Application for a National Archive of Astro 101 Multiple-Choice Questions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the last two years we have been developing an online national archive of multiple-choice questions for use in the Astro 101 classroom. These questions are intended to either supplement an instructor's implementation of Think-Pair-Share or be used for assessment purposes (i.e. exams and homework). In this talk we will describe the development, testing and implementation of the Question Complexity Rubric (QCR), which is designed to guide the ranking of questions in this archive based on their conceptual complexity. Using the QCR, a score is assigned to differentiate each question based on the cognitive steps necessary to comprehensively explain the reasoning pathway to the correct answer. The lowest QCR score is given to questions with a reasoning pathway requiring only declarative knowledge whereas the highest QCR score is given to questions that require multiple pathways of multi-step reasoning. When completed, the online question archive will provide users with the utility to 1) search for and download questions based on subject and average QCR score, 2) use the QCR to score questions, and 3) add their own questions to the archive. We will also discuss other potential applications of the QCR, such as how it informs our work in developing and testing of survey instruments by allowing us to calibrate the range of question complexity. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. 0715517, a CCLI Phase III Grant for the Collaboration of Astronomy Teaching Scholars (CATS). Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation.

Cormier, Sebastien; Prather, E. E.; Brissenden, G.; Collaboration of Astronomy Teaching Scholars CATS

2011-01-01

211

University of Virginia Physical Science SOL Activities: Balloon Electroscope  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This item is a lesson plan for the teacher of beginning high school physics and/or physical science. It provides directions for designing a simple electroscope demonstration and updates the classic "kissing balloon" activity with creative additions. Included are printable student data sheets and comprehensive background information on static electricity. This lesson is part of a larger collection generated by the University of Virginia Department of Physics outreach program. See Related Materials for a link to the full collection.

2006-11-09

212

Use of physical sciences in support of environmental management.  

PubMed

Offshore drilling for oil and gas has been conducted since the early 1900s. Oil and gas under the seabed continue to be an important part of the energy resources of the United States. The need to balance the value of these resources against the potential for environmental damage is an important concern. This article explains why and how the Minerals Management Service (MMS) of the US Department of the Interior uses research in physical sciences to help fulfill its environmental goals, and it provides background information on the role of physical sciences in decision-making for Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) oil, gas, and other minerals development. Established in the 1970s, the MMS' Environmental Studies Program is a highly focused marine research program designed to provide the environmental information necessary for OCS energy and nonenergy minerals planning and development activities. The physical sciences research supported by MMS includes physical oceanography, oil-spill risk analyses, atmospheric sciences, and sand and gravel studies. Instead of giving a comprehensive review on physical sciences research in MMS, this article presents sample MMS studies and illustrates how these studies are utilized to support decision-making in environmental management. PMID:15559941

Ji, Zhen-Gang

2004-08-01

213

Similarity Effect and Optimal Control of Multiple-Choice Decision Making  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Decision making with several choice options is central to cognition. To elucidate the neural mechanisms of such decisions, we investigated a recurrent cortical circuit model in which fluctuating spiking neural dynamics underlie trial-by-trial stochastic decisions. The model encodes a continuous analog stimulus feature and is thus applicable to multiple choice decisions. Importantly, the continuous network captures similarity between alternatives and possible overlaps in their neural representation. Model simulations accounted for behavioral as well as single-unit neurophysiological data from a recent monkey experiment, and revealed testable predictions about the patterns of error rate as a function of the similarity between the correct and actual choices. We also found that the similarity and number of options affect speed and accuracy of responses. A mechanism is proposed for flexible control of speed-accuracy tradeoff, based on a simple top-down signal to the decision circuit that may vary non-monotonically with the number of choice alternatives.

Furman, Moran; Wang, Xiao-Jing

2008-01-01

214

The Thinking Machine: A Physical Science Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Science projects can be a wonderful opportunity for learning and creativity, or a gigantic headache for teachers. After several years of implementation, experience, and revision, the author has put together a fun and engaging project centered on machines that is appropriate for middle school students. This project came to be known simply as "The Thinking Machine Project," which draws its origin from the national Rube Goldberg Machine competition held each year at Purdue University. Here is one way to bring technology, writing, drawing, creativity, and hands-on ingenuity together in a single fun and successful project.

Jarrard, Amber

2008-11-01

215

A Team-taught Physical Science Course  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the summer of 2012 the authors co-taught a course designed to acquaint current and future teachers to various aspects of Physics and Chemistry. The course was woven around the basic concept of energy and emphasized laboratory work in groups.

Sullivan, James; Pleiman, Amber

2012-10-01

216

Assessment of medical knowledge: the pros and cons of using true/false multiple choice questions.  

PubMed

True/false multiple choice items, commonly referred to as true/ false multiple choice questions (MCQs), were previously a widely used selected response examination format. They can be written relatively easily and cover a wide range of content. Educational researchers have however highlighted several adverse features of this format that make it inappropriate for many assessment settings. These include: (i) there is a high chance of guessing the correct answer; (ii) some marks are not awarded for knowing the correct answer, but for knowing that an answer is incorrect; (iii) they are weak in discriminating between high and low performers; (iv) identifying items which are absolutely true or false may lead to assessment of trivial knowledge; (v) there are difficulties with constructing flawless items; (vi) they may not encourage learning around the items; and (vii) they may not assess what they purport to assess. Many assessment agencies abandoned the use of this format decades ago due to these shortcomings. The use of single best answer (SBA) and extended matching item (EMI) formats helps overcome or minimize the above weaknesses. Assessors who plan to change to SBA or EMI formats from true/false MCQs may, however, need to increase the number of questions to include a representative sample of the curriculum (lengthening the question paper). However, they may not need to increase the examination time, as in general students can answer more SBAs or EMIs than true/false MCQs per unit time. It is time that we reflect upon the disadvantages of true/false MCQs and review their place in our assessment toolkit, as their use in summative examinations may not be fair to students, especially 'good' students. PMID:22208143

Chandratilake, Madawa; Davis, Margery; Ponnamperuma, Gominda

217

S.E.A. Lab. Science Experiments and Activities. Marine Science for High School Students in Chemistry, Biology and Physics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A series of science experiments and activities designed for secondary school students taking biology, chemistry, physics, physical science or marine science courses are outlined. Each of the three major sections--chemistry, biology, and physics--addresses concepts that are generally covered in those courses but incorporates aspects of marine…

Hart, Kathy, Ed.

218

S.E.A. Lab. Science Experiments and Activities. Marine Science for High School Students in Chemistry, Biology and Physics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A series of science experiments and activities designed for secondary school students taking biology, chemistry, physics, physical science or marine science courses are outlined. Each of the three major sections--chemistry, biology, and physics--addresses concepts that are generally covered in those courses but incorporates aspects of marine…

Hart, Kathy, Ed.

219

Introduction to physics teaching for science and engineering undergraduates  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Recruiting and retaining highly qualified physics and physical science teachers is critical for maintaining America's global competitiveness. Unfortunately, many high school and middle school teachers are asked to teach science subjects they do not feel comfortable teaching and are not provided adequate guidance and support. Moreover, teachers often lack adequate pedagogical content knowledge to teach science effectively. Here, we discuss the development, implementation, and assessment of a course for science and engineering undergraduates designed to increase awareness and help them develop an interest and a deeper appreciation of the intellectual demands of physics teaching. The course focused on increasing student enthusiasm and confidence in teaching by providing well supported teaching opportunities and exposure to physics education research. The course assessment methods include 1) pre-test and post-test measures of attitude and expectations about science teaching, 2) self and peer evaluation of student teaching, 3) content-based pre-tests and post-tests given to students who received instruction from the student teachers, and 4) audio-taped focus group discussions in the absence of the instructor and TA to evaluate student perspectives on different aspects of the course and its impact.

Singh, Chandralekha; Moin, Laura J.; Schunn, Christian D.

2012-06-12

220

Reflections on physical chemistry: Science and scientists.  

PubMed

This is the story of a young person who grew up in Tel-Aviv during the period of the establishment of the State of Israel and was inspired to become a physical chemist by the cultural environment, by the excellent high-school education, and by having been trained by some outstanding scientists at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem and, subsequently, by the intellectual environment and high-quality scientific endeavor at the University of Chicago. Since serving as the first chairman of the Chemistry Department of the newly formed Tel-Aviv University he has been immersed in research, in the training of young scientists, and in intensive and extensive international scientific collaboration. Together with the members of his "scientific family" he has explored the phenomena of energy acquisition, storage and disposal and structure-dynamics-function relations in large molecules, condensed phase, clusters and biomolecules, and is looking forward to many future adventures in physical chemistry. PMID:16599803

Jortner, Joshua

2006-01-01

221

Misconceptions in Physical Science at the Middle School Grades  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The presentation will focus on the physical science content and pedagogy workshops addressing student's misconceptions at the middle school level. These workshops were conducted at Springfield College during summer 2010 for in-service teachers from Springfield MA Public Schools. A partnership among Springfield MA Public Schools, Springfield College, and the City of Springfield Science Museum was developed to implement an innovative program to prepare highly-qualified educators. Concepts of force, motion, energy, and energy transformation were explored in a physics laboratory setting and student's misconceptions were addressed.

Lojewska, Zenobia; Barkman, Robert; Polito, Peter; Smist, Julianne; Konicek-Moran, Richard

2011-11-01

222

Inquiry based Physics Activities Developed for Science Method Courses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A set of inquiry based physics activities and lessons were developed for the PHYS-101 science methods course offered at Ohio Northern University. The PHYS-101 course, which is only open to students in the teacher education program, covers the same phsyics topics as the more general introductory physics course offered to all students. The PHYS 101- course has been enhanced by including the inquiry based activities and by covering science teaching methods. Students are then encouraged to use these activities and methods in their own classes when they graduate and become licensed as teachers. This project was funded by the Ohio Board of Regents' Title II Teacher Quality Enhancement Grant Program.

Theisen, William; Griggs, Irma; Hoff, Scott; Raeburn, Beth

2003-10-01

223

An assessment of functioning and non-functioning distractors in multiple-choice questions: a descriptive analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Four- or five-option multiple choice questions (MCQs) are the standard in health-science disciplines, both on certification-level examinations and on in-house developed tests. Previous research has shown, however, that few MCQs have three or four functioning distractors. The purpose of this study was to investigate non-functioning distractors in teacher-developed tests in one nursing program in an English-language university in Hong Kong. Methods Using item-analysis data, we assessed the proportion of non-functioning distractors on a sample of seven test papers administered to undergraduate nursing students. A total of 514 items were reviewed, including 2056 options (1542 distractors and 514 correct responses). Non-functioning options were defined as ones that were chosen by fewer than 5% of examinees and those with a positive option discrimination statistic. Results The proportion of items containing 0, 1, 2, and 3 functioning distractors was 12.3%, 34.8%, 39.1%, and 13.8% respectively. Overall, items contained an average of 1.54 (SD = 0.88) functioning distractors. Only 52.2% (n = 805) of all distractors were functioning effectively and 10.2% (n = 158) had a choice frequency of 0. Items with more functioning distractors were more difficult and more discriminating. Conclusion The low frequency of items with three functioning distractors in the four-option items in this study suggests that teachers have difficulty developing plausible distractors for most MCQs. Test items should consist of as many options as is feasible given the item content and the number of plausible distractors; in most cases this would be three. Item analysis results can be used to identify and remove non-functioning distractors from MCQs that have been used in previous tests.

Tarrant, Marie; Ware, James; Mohammed, Ahmed M

2009-01-01

224

The effect of immigration status on physics identity and physical science career intentions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using data collected from a nationally-representative sample of first-year college students, we examine how students' identity development as physics persons and their likelihood to pursue a career in physical science is predicted by differing immigrant experiences. We consider broad factors having a social, economic, or cultural nature as covariates in a propensity score model that assesses differences due to immigrant generation. Our results show that, when controlling for such factors as race/ethnicity, socio-economic status, and gender, students' physics identities and the likelihood of choosing a career in physical science are significantly higher amongst first generation students than second generation (or later) students. We conclude that physical science as a career option can be influenced by the experiences of being an immigrant and through the relationship between origin and host culture.

Lung, Florin; Potvin, Geoff; Sonnert, Gerhard; Sadler, Philip M.

2012-02-01

225

The effect of immigration status on physics identity and physical science career intentions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Using data collected from a nationally-representative sample of first-year college students, we examine how students' identity development as physics persons and their likelihood to pursue a career in physical science is predicted by differing immigrant experiences. We consider broad factors having a social, economic, or cultural nature as covariates in a propensity score model that assesses differences due to immigrant generation. Our results show that, when controlling for such factors as race/ethnicity, socio-economic status, and gender, students' physics identities and the likelihood of choosing a career in physical science are significantly higher amongst first generation students than second generation (or later) students. We conclude that physical science as a career option can be influenced by the experiences of being an immigrant and through the relationship between origin and host culture.

Lung, Florin; Potvin, Geoff; Sonnert, Gerhard; Sadler, Philip M.

2012-05-15

226

Modern problems in the physical sciences (Scientific session of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 16 November 2011)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On 16 November 2011, the scientific session of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS) was held at the conference hall at the Lebedev Physical Institute, RAS.The agenda of the session announced on the RAS Physical Sciences Division website www.gpad.ac.ru included the following reports: (1) Schelev M Ya (Prokhorov General Physics Institute, RAS, Moscow) "Pico-femto-attosecond photoelectronics"; (2) Dal'karov O D (Lebedev Physical Institute, RAS, Moscow) "The physics of low-energy antiprotons and antimatter"; (3) Polukhina N G (Lebedev Physical Institute, RAS, Moscow) "Nuclear track detection: advances and potential in astrophysics, particle physics, and applied research"; (4) Vedeneev S I (Lebedev Physical Institute, RAS, Moscow) "High-temperature superconductors in high and ultrahigh magnetic fields".Papers written on the base of reports 1, 3, and 4 are presented below. • Pico-femto-attosecond photoelectronics: looking through the lens of half a century, M Ya Shchelev Physics-Uspekhi, 2012, Volume 55, Number 6, Pages 607-614 • Nuclear track detection: advances and potential in astrophysics, particle physics, and applied research, N G Polukhina Physics-Uspekhi, 2012, Volume 55, Number 6, Pages 614-625 • High-temperature superconductors in high and ultrahigh magnetic fields, S I Vedeneev Physics-Uspekhi, 2012, Volume 55, Number 6, Pages 625-632

2012-06-01

227

REFLECTIONS ON PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY: Science and Scientists  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This is the story of a young person who grew up in Tel-Aviv during the period of the establishment of the State of Israel and was inspired to become a physical chemist by the cultural environment, by the excellent high-school education, and by having been trained by some outstanding scientists at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem and, subsequently, by the intellectual environment and high-quality scientific endeavor at the University of Chicago. Since serving as the first chairman of the Chemistry Department of the newly formed Tel-Aviv University he has been immersed in research, in the training of young scientists, and in intensive and extensive international scientific collaboration. Together with the members of his "scientific family" he has explored the phenomena of energy acquisition, storage and disposal and structure-dynamics-function relations in large molecules, condensed phase, clusters and biomolecules, and is looking forward to many future adventures in physical chemistry. "What to leave out and what to put in? That's the problem." Hugh Lofting, Doctor Dolittle's Zoo, 1925

Jortner, Joshua

2006-05-01

228

Fulbright Opportunities in the Physical Sciences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Fulbright Scholar Program is sponsored by the United States Department of State and is principally funded by taxpayer contributions. Bi-national in nature, it includes academic year opportunities for both American and foreign scholars. More than 800 grants in 125 countries are available each year. The Program supports research, teaching and lecturing opportunities in all academic disciplines, numerous professional fields and the arts. American academics and administrators have multiple opportunities to internationalize their campuses and their discipline points of view. Further, Fulbright not only sends American scholars abroad but also brings scholars to the United States and should be considered a strategic internationalization opportunity both for individuals and for campuses. During the 2013-14 competition cycle there were 33 awards available in physics and astronomy and 175 all discipline awards. The presentation will guide attendees in identifying appropriate opportunities through the Fulbright Scholar Program and will make suggestions as to how to be successful in a proposal. Special attention will be given to opportunities available for specialists in physics. The workshop will also cover non-Core Fulbright Scholar opportunities for physicists and university administrators, including a number of short-term, innovative programs that send an additional 400 scholars from the United States to universities and research institutes abroad to offer expertise on issues of global interest from cutting-edge research to policy, to technical expertise in curriculum development, institutional planning, program assessment, and institutional capacity building.

Dewindt, Katrin

2013-03-01

229

Fighting for physics and Earth science in Florida's high schools  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During its Spring 2009 session, the Florida Legislature considered a bill that would have suspended its comprehensive standardized test in high school science and substituted an end-of-course test in biology to satisfy the requirements of the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act. By doing so, the bill would have further deemphasized high school physics and Earth science in a state where physics courses are sometimes not available in high schools (even in International Baccalaureate programs) and where the state's own statistics say that only 16% of high school graduates have taken a physics course. A group of about one hundred science faculty from thirteen colleges and universities in Florida responded with a letter to Governor Crist and visits to legislators asking that the biology-only provisions be defeated (and they were). The group has now produced a white paper on high school science requirements that has been distributed to government and business leaders and been publicized via op-ed pieces and news items in several media outlets statewide. This poster will describe the situation in Florida and the faculty group's efforts. It will also compare Florida's high school requirements in science with those in the other SESAPS states.

Cottle, Paul

2009-11-01

230

The Physics Teacher Education Coalition: Preparing K-12 Science Teachers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The American Physical Society (APS), in partnership with the American Association of Physics Teachers (AAPT) and the American Institute of Physics (AIP), has received partial funding to dramatically improve the science preparation of physics, physical science, and elementary teachers, nation-wide. This project will increase the role of physics departments, in collaboration with education departments, to create more and better-prepared future teachers. Over the next five years, the Physics Teacher Education Coalition (PhysTEC) will be established with an initial membership of more than twenty-five universities and colleges that share an increasing interest in revising their program in teacher preparation. The APS/AAPT/AIP will provide leadership to the Coalition and will promote access to and dissemination of information and results of the Coalition's activities through national and regional meetings, conferences, workshops, and publications (including electronic sites). With the support of a one-year development grant from the NSF, the PhysTEC Leadership Team made three-day site visits to nine universities each seeking to become Primary Program Institutions (PPIs) and closed the planning grant activities with a conference held at the American Center for Physics in November, 2000. Following the November Conference, the PhysTEC leadership selected six PPIs who will receive support through the grant beginning in Year One. Two additional institutions will be added beginning in Year Three. We will present an update on PhysTEC plus reports from the perspective of the PPI sites.

Stein, Fredrick

2001-03-01

231

The Physics Teacher Education Coalition: Preparing K-12 Science Teachers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The American Physical Society (APS), in partnership with the American Association of Physics Teachers (AAPT) and the American Institute of Physics (AIP), has received partial funding to dramatically improve the science preparation of physics, physical science, and elementary teachers, nation-wide. This project will increase the role of physics departments, in collaboration with education departments, to create more and better-prepared future teachers. Over the next five years, the Physics Teacher Education Coalition (PhysTEC) will be established with an initial membership of more than twenty-five universities and colleges that share an increasing interest in revising their program in teacher preparation. The APS/AAPT/AIP will provide leadership to the Coalition and will promote access to and dissemination of information and results of the Coalition's activities through national and regional meetings, conferences, workshops, and publications (including electronic sites). With the support of a one-year development grant from the NSF, the PhysTEC Leadership Team made three-day site visits to nine universities each seeking to become Primary Program Institutions (PPIs) and closed the planning grant activities with a conference held at the American Center for Physics in November, 2000. Following the November Conference, the PhysTEC leadership selected six PPIs who will receive support through the grant beginning in Year One. Two additional institutions will be added beginning in Year Three. We will present an update on PhysTEC plus reports from the perspective of the PPI sites.

Stein, Fredrick

2001-04-01

232

The influence of physics teacher gender on college students' pursuit of careers in the physical sciences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In science disciplines, students develop career goals based in part on their high school experiences. Science teachers and their personal characteristics are a part of this experience. In the case of physics, teacher gender is believed to modulate the interplay between student's own gender and their gender-related perceptions of physics. Using national data from college students (PRiSE Project, N=7505), we analyze the physics teacher gender effects on the choice of a career in the physical sciences by both male and female students. We examine three sub-samples of the data: students who have not taken any high school physics courses (about 60 percent of the total), those who have taken one physics course (teacher female or male), and those who have taken two physics courses (two female, two male, or one female and one male teacher). A correspondence analysis reveals an exploratory picture of the association between primary and confounding factors. Subsequently, a linear regression on students' physical science career choices is used as a confirmatory analysis of this picture.

Lung, Florin; Potvin, Geoff; Sadler, Philip M.; Sonnert, Gerhard

2012-03-01

233

Joint Scientific Session of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences and the Joint Physical Society of the Russian Federation 'Backward waves' (25 January 2006)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences and the Joint Physical Society of the Russian Federation held a joint session on backward waves in the conference room of the Lebedev Physics Institute, RAS, on 25 January 2006. The following reports were presented at the session:1. Veselago V G (Moscow Institute for Physics and Technology, Prokhorov Institute of

Victor G Veselago; Anatolii V Vashkovsky; Robert A Silin

2006-01-01

234

Physics education research: Resources for middle school science teachers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This resource letter intends to provide middle school science teachers with a\\u000acollection of resources to aid them in planning and implementing a physical\\u000ascience curriculum. The resources are in the form of books, websites, journals,\\u000aand organizations.

Zosia A. C. Krusberg; Johann Wolfgang von Goethe; W. B. Yeats

2009-01-01

235

Physics and social science - The approach of synergetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Universally applicable methods originating in statistical physics and synergetics are combined with concepts from social science in order to set up and to apply a model construction concept for the quantitative description of a broad class of collective dynamical phenomena within society. Starting from the decisions of individuals and introducing the concept of dynamical utilities, probabilistic transition rates between attitudes

Wolfgang Weidlich

1991-01-01

236

Enhancing Student Performance through Cooperative Learning in Physical Sciences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Students in a physical sciences course were introduced to cooperative learning at the University of Queensland, Gatton Campus. Groups of four to five students worked together in tutorial and practical sessions. Mid-term and practical examinations were abolished and 40% of total marks were allocated to the cooperative learning activities. A peer-…

Gupta, Madan L.

2004-01-01

237

Prospective physical sciences teachers' willingness to engage in learning communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Teachers' professional development is a lifelong learning process that should start with teaching practice, is best developed from experience and can be promoted by socio?professional interactions. Thus, a learning community of teachers might be a valuable environment for continuing professional development. This paper reports research carried out with 46 prospective physical sciences teachers about to graduate from a Portuguese university.

Laurinda Leite

2006-01-01

238

Dictionary of the Physical Sciences - Terms, Formulas, Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

This comprehensive dictionary provides clear, concise definitions of terms from chemistry, physics, the geological sciences, and astronomy. The breadth of coverage and the accuracy of the entries are unsurpassed. Symbols and abbreviations are spelled out, and any unfamiliar terms used in making the definitions are themselves defined in the dictionary. The author has included quantitative information wherever pertinent, and has

Cesare Emiliani

1987-01-01

239

Army Science and Technology Fellowship: Physics of Materials.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is an Army Science and Technology Fellowship on the physics of materials. A computer controlled plasma assisted CVD chamber was designed and built. This system was then used to fabricate thin film coatings on different glasses, including ZBL glass (w...

W. A. Lanford

1990-01-01

240

Using Soda Cans to Teach Physical Science Students about Density  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this experiment, physical science students measured the mass of several soda cans, measured the mass and volume of water displaced when these cans were placed in water, and determined whether these cans sank or floated in water. Then, the students plotted graphs of the mass of displaced water versus the volume of displaced water, the mass of…

Sanger, Michael J.; Humphreys, Teari C.; LaPorte, Mark M.

2009-01-01

241

Reflections on Teaching Physics to Science and Engineering Foundation Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Science and Engineering Foundation Programme at Loughborough University has been running since October 1991. It has a heterogeneous intake of approximately 100 students. The author is responsible for the physics input to the Programme. This provides 25% of the Programme for almost all the students. The varied educational profile of students entering this course necessitated a radical rethink of

Mary Stewart

1996-01-01

242

Conceptual Integration of Chemical Equilibrium by Prospective Physical Sciences Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article describes an empirical study concerning the mastering of the chemical equilibrium concept by prospective physical sciences teachers. The main objective was to check whether the concept of chemical equilibrium had become an integrating and unifying concept for them, that is to say an operational and functional knowledge to explain and…

Ganaras, Kostas; Dumon, Alain; Larcher, Claudine

2008-01-01

243

Dr Skateboard's Action Science: Teaching Physics in Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In order to create student interest and promote new connections to the understanding of fundamental physics concepts, there is a need for new approaches and methods that are both contemporary and relevant. Dr Skateboard's Action Science, a curriculum supplement comprising video instruction and classroom activities, is an example that focuses on…

Robertson, William H.

2009-01-01

244

Learning Science-Based Fitness Knowledge in Constructivist Physical Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Teaching fitness-related knowledge has become critical in developing children's healthful living behavior. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a science-based, constructivist physical education curriculum on learning fitness knowledge critical to healthful living in elementary school students. The schools (N = 30) were…

Sun, Haichun; Chen, Ang; Zhu, Xihe; Ennis, Catherine D.

2012-01-01

245

Impacting university physics students through participation in informal science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Informal education programs organized by university physics departments are a popular means of reaching out to communities and satisfying grant requirements. The outcomes of these programs are often described in terms of broader impacts on the community. Comparatively little attention, however, has been paid to the influence of such programs on those students facilitating the informal science programs. Through Partnerships for Informal Science Education in the Community (PISEC) at the University of Colorado Boulder, undergraduate and graduate physics students coach elementary and middle school children during an inquiry-based science afterschool program. As part of their participation in PISEC, university students complete preparation in pedagogy, communication and diversity, engage with children on a weekly basis and provide regular feedback about the program. We present findings that indicate these experiences improve the ability of university students to communicate in everyday language and positively influence their perspectives on teaching and learning.

Hinko, Kathleen; Finkelstein, Noah D.

2013-01-01

246

Impacting university physics students through participation in informal science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Informal education programs organized by university physics departments are a popular means of reaching out to communities and satisfying grant requirements. The outcomes of these programs are often described in terms of broader impacts on the community. Comparatively little attention, however, has been paid to the influence of such programs on those students facilitating the informal science programs. Through Partnerships for Informal Science Education in the Community (PISEC) at the University of Colorado Boulder, undergraduate and graduate physics students coach elementary and middle school children during an inquiry-based science after school program. As part of their participation in PISEC, university students complete preparation in pedagogy, communication and diversity, engage with children on a weekly basis and provide regular feedback about the program. We present findings that indicate these experiences improve the ability of university students to communicate in everyday language and positively influence their perspectives on teaching and learning.

Hinko, Kathleen; Finkelstein, Noah D.

2013-08-31

247

Science Fiction Stories with Good Astronomy and Physics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a selective list of some short stories and novels that use more or less accurate science and can be used for teaching or reinforcing astronomy or physics concepts. I include both traditional "science-fiction" and (occasionally) more serious fiction that derives meaning or plot from astronomy or physics ideas. The titles of short stories are given in quotation marks; only short stories that have been published in book form are included. While one book source is given for each short story, note that some of the stories can be found in other collections as well. The author welcomes suggestions for additions to or subtractions from this list, especially if your favorite story with good science is left out.

Fraknoi, Andrew

2009-03-30

248

Research Trend of Physical Skill Science --Towards Elucidation of Physical Skill--  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Physical skills and language skills are both fundamental intelligent abilities of human being. In this paper, we focus our attention to such sophisticated physical skills as playing sports and playing instruments and introduce research activities aiming at elucidating and verbalizing them. This research area has been launched recently. We introduce approaches from physical modeling, measurements and data analysis, cognitive science and human interface. We also discuss such issues as skill acquisition and its support systems. Furthermore, we consider a fundamental issue of individual differences occurring in every application of skill elucidation. Finally we introduce several attempts of skill elucidation in the fields of dancing, manufacturing, playing string instruments, sports science and medical care.

Furukawa, Koichi; Ueno, Ken; Ozaki, Tomonobu; Kamisato, Shihoko; Kawamoto, Ryuji; Shibuya, Koji; Shiratori, Naruhiko; Suwa, Masaki; Soga, Masato; Taki, Hirokazu; Fujinami, Tsutomu; Hori, Satoshi; Motomura, Yoichi; Morita, Souhei

249

Complex network problems in physics, computer science and biology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is a close relation between physics and mathematics and the exchange of ideas between these two sciences are well established. However until few years ago there was no such a close relation between physics and computer science. Even more, only recently biologists started to use methods and tools from statistical physics in order to study the behavior of complex system. In this thesis we concentrate on applying and analyzing several methods borrowed from computer science to biology and also we use methods from statistical physics in solving hard problems from computer science. In recent years physicists have been interested in studying the behavior of complex networks. Physics is an experimental science in which theoretical predictions are compared to experiments. In this definition, the term prediction plays a very important role: although the system is complex, it is still possible to get predictions for its behavior, but these predictions are of a probabilistic nature. Spin glasses, lattice gases or the Potts model are a few examples of complex systems in physics. Spin glasses and many frustrated antiferromagnets map exactly to computer science problems in the NP-hard class defined in Chapter 1. In Chapter 1 we discuss a common result from artificial intelligence (AI) which shows that there are some problems which are NP-complete, with the implication that these problems are difficult to solve. We introduce a few well known hard problems from computer science (Satisfiability, Coloring, Vertex Cover together with Maximum Independent Set and Number Partitioning) and then discuss their mapping to problems from physics. In Chapter 2 we provide a short review of combinatorial optimization algorithms and their applications to ground state problems in disordered systems. We discuss the cavity method initially developed for studying the Sherrington-Kirkpatrick model of spin glasses. We extend this model to the study of a specific case of spin glass on the Bethe lattice at zero temperature and then we apply this formalism to the K-SAT problem defined in Chapter 1. The phase transition which physicists study often corresponds to a change in the computational complexity of the corresponding computer science problem. Chapter 3 presents phase transitions which are specific to the problems discussed in Chapter 1 and also known results for the K-SAT problem. We discuss the replica method and experimental evidences of replica symmetry breaking. The physics approach to hard problems is based on replica methods which are difficult to understand. In Chapter 4 we develop novel methods for studying hard problems using methods similar to the message passing techniques that were discussed in Chapter 2. Although we concentrated on the symmetric case, cavity methods show promise for generalizing our methods to the un-symmetric case. As has been highlighted by John Hopfield, several key features of biological systems are not shared by physical systems. Although living entities follow the laws of physics and chemistry, the fact that organisms adapt and reproduce introduces an essential ingredient that is missing in the physical sciences. In order to extract information from networks many algorithm have been developed. In Chapter 5 we apply polynomial algorithms like minimum spanning tree in order to study and construct gene regulatory networks from experimental data. As future work we propose the use of algorithms like min-cut/max-flow and Dijkstra for understanding key properties of these networks.

Cojocaru, Radu Ionut

250

Bachelor of Science in Medical Physics Program at Ryerson University  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new Bachelor of Science in Medical Physics program at Ryerson University, Toronto, Ontario was launched in Fall 2006. The program builds on Ryerson’s strong existing capabilities in biomedical physics research. The program’s point of entry is the common first year during which all students in Biology, Chemistry, Contemporary Science and Medical Physics programs complete the foundation courses that include physics, calculus, biology, chemistry, and introduction to computing. In addition to the foundation courses, the first-year studies include an orientation course that supports the students in making a successful transition to university studies. The courses beyond the first year include such topics as radiation therapy, image analysis, medical diagnostics and computer modeling techniques. In the final year the students will undertake an independent, faculty-supervised thesis project in an area of personal research interest. Co-op and industrial internship options are available. Our program promotes natural interaction between physics, life sciences, mathematics and computing. The flexibility built into our curriculum will open a variety of career options for our graduates.

Antimirova, Tetyana

2006-12-01

251

Modern problems in the physical sciences (Scientific session of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 23 November 2011)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On 23 November 2011, the scientific session of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS) was held at the conference hall of the Lebedev Physical Institute, RAS.The following reports were put on the session agenda posted on the website www.gpad.ac.ru of the RAS Physical Sciences Division: (1) Ionin A A (Lebedev Physical Institute, RAS, Moscow) "High-power infrared and ultraviolet lasers and their applications"; (2) Romanovskii M Yu (Prokhorov General Physics Institute, RAS, Moscow) "Laser-induced acceleration of the forbidden captures of orbital electrons by nuclei"; (3) Petrukovich A A (Space Research Institute, RAS, Moscow) "Earth's magnetosphere as a plasma laboratory"; (4) Shchur L N (Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics, RAS, Chernogolovka, Moscow region) "Computational physics and the verification of theoretical predictions". Articles written on the base of oral reports 1, 2, and 4 are published below. • High-power IR- and UV-laser systems and their applications, A A Ionin Physics-Uspekhi, 2012, Volume 55, Number 7, Pages 721-728 • Laser radiation enhancement of forbidden orbital electron captures and of neutrinoless double electron captures by nuclei, M Yu Romanovskii Physics-Uspekhi, 2012, Volume 55, Number 7, Pages 728-733 • Computational physics and testing theoretical predictions, L N Shchur Physics-Uspekhi, 2012, Volume 55, Number 7, Pages 733-738

2012-07-01

252

Review of physical sciences research, 1979 - 1990 (Gas Research Institute)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To meet the expectations and needs of the gas industry and its customers, basic research management techniques were developed that are appropriate for GRI's unique mission oriented research program. These techniques differ from those used in private industry and government. These techniques are described focussing on how GRI selects appropriate research topics, builds consensus for the Physical Sciences research program, and maintains an emphasis on providing useful results. Each of GRI's 37 active research topics are reviewed, describing their goals, results, and future plans. The reviews are presented in three groups: Physics, Chemistry, and Combustion, and each group begins with a summary of recent important results. Useful results of Physical Sciences Research are described throughout, but a comprehensive record of results is not presented.

1991-07-01

253

Diagnosing Secondary Students' Misconceptions of Photosynthesis and Respiration in Plants Using a Two-Tier Multiple Choice Instrument.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes a multiple-choice instrument that reliably and validly diagnoses secondary students' understanding of photosynthesis and respiration in plants. Highlights the consistency of students' misconceptions across secondary levels and indicates a high percentage of students have misconceptions regarding plant physiology. (CW)|

Haslam, Filocha; Treagust, David F.

1987-01-01

254

Second Language Reading Topic Familiarity and Test Score: Test-Taking Strategies for Multiple-Choice Comprehension Questions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The main purpose of this study was to compare the strategies used by Chinese-speaking students when confronted with familiar versus unfamiliar topics in a multiple-choice format reading comprehension test. The focus was on describing what students do when they are taking reading comprehension tests by asking students to verbalize their thoughts.…

Lee, Jia-Ying

2011-01-01

255

Assessment of Multiple-Choice Questions in Selected Test Banks Accompanying Text Books Used in Nursing Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A sample of 2,913 questions from 17 nursing test banks was evaluated for adherence to multiple-choice guidelines, cognitive level in Bloom's Taxonomy, and distribution of correct answers. Analysis revealed 2,233 guideline violations; 47.3% of items were written at the knowledge level, 6.5% at the analysis level; and correct answers were evenly…

Masters, Joan C.; Hulsmeyer, Barbara S.; Pike, Mary E.; Leichty, Kathy; Miller, Margaret T.; Verst, Amy L.

2001-01-01

256

A comparative study analysing the two methods of assessing cardiopulmonary resuscitation - multiple choices versus free response question test formats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Background and objective. The purpose of the study was to compare two different methods of assessing the knowledge of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), multiple choices versus free response question test formats and to evaluate, which was better. Methods. The research was undertaken in 2004 and 2005 on a representative group of 150 fourth year medical students and 150 doctors one

Thomas J. Maliakal

257

Estimating the Effect on Grades of Using Multiple-Choice versus Constructive-Response Questions: Data from the Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study investigates the degree to which grades based solely on constructed-response (CR) questions differ from grades based solely on multiple-choice (MC) questions. If CR questions are to justify their higher costs, they should produce different grade outcomes than MC questions. We use a data set composed of thousands of observations on…

Hickson, Stephen; Reed, W. Robert; Sander, Nicholas

2012-01-01

258

Personality, expectations, and response strategies in multiple-choice question examinations in university students: a test of Gray's hypotheses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relation between personality and type of error made in multiple-choice examinations when correction for guessing is applied was investigated across two studies. Our general hypothesis was that disinhibited subjects (those scoring high on the Sensitivity to Reward (SR) scale and\\/or low on the Sensitivity to Punishment (SP) scale) would make more incorrect responses and fewer omission errors (blanks) than

César Ávila; Rafael Torrubia

2004-01-01

259

So Many Choices, So Little Time: Strategies for Understanding and Taking Multiple-Choice Exams in History  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Learning as much as possible about what to expect and how best to select among response choices enables students to improve their scores so as to reflect more fully their knowledge and abilities, whether taking the SAT, ACT, AP history exams, multiple-choice exams in college courses, the GRE, or any other standardized examinations that include…

Blackey, Robert

2009-01-01

260

The use of the Harrower-Erickson Multiple Choice Rorschach Test with a selected group of women in military service  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since there was no correspondence between the scores made on the Multiple Choice Rorschach (MCR) and the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI), nor' any observed behavior which warranted a diagnosis of maladjustment such as the extreme scores made on the test would indicate, it must be concluded that the MCR differentiates something other than it purports to do and that

M. C. Winfield

1946-01-01

261

Set of Criteria for Efficiency of the Process Forming the Answers to Multiple-Choice Test Items  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Is offered the set of criteria for assessing efficiency of the process forming the answers to multiple-choice test items. To increase accuracy of computer-assisted testing results, it is suggested to assess dynamics of the process of forming the final answer using the following factors: loss of time factor and correct choice factor. The model…

Rybanov, Alexander Aleksandrovich

2013-01-01

262

Modern problems in physical sciences (Scientific session of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 26 October 2011)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A scientific session of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS) was held in the conference hall of the P N Lebedev Physical Institute, RAS on 26 October 2011. The following reports were put on the session's agenda posted on the website www.gpad.ac.ru of the RAS Physical Sciences Division: (1) Morozov S V (Institute of Microelectronics Technology and High Purity Materials, RAS, Chernogolovka, Moscow region) "New effects in graphene with high carrier mobility"; (2) Volostnikov V G (Samara Branch of the P N Lebedev Physical Institute, RAS, Samara) "Modern optics of Gaussian beams"; (3) Mushnikov N V (Institute of Metal Physics, Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Ekaterinburg) "Intermetallide-based magnetic materials". The papers written on the base of these reports are published below. • New effects in graphene with high carrier mobility, S V Morozov Physics-Uspekhi, 2012, Volume 55, Number 4, Pages 408-412 • Modern optics of Gaussian beams, V G Volostnikov Physics-Uspekhi, 2012, Volume 55, Number 4, Pages 412-420 • Intermetallide-based magnetic materials, N V Mushnikov Physics-Uspekhi, 2012, Volume 55, Number 4, Pages 421-425

2012-04-01

263

Comparison of Collegial Individual and Group Reviews of General Practice Multiple Choice Questions  

PubMed Central

Aims: In most German medical faculties, credits in general practice can be earned via exams using multiple-choice questions (MCQ). Measures such as peer-reviews may help assure the quality of these exams. In order to use time and personnel intensive peer reviews effectively and efficiently, the procedures used are key. Therefore, we wanted to find out whether there are differences between group and individual reviews regarding defined parameters. Methods: We conducted a controlled cross-over study with three GP reviewers from four different German universities. Each reviewed 80 MCQs, 40 individually and 40 within a group, including external assessments by a panel of experts. Furthermore all reviewers were asked to evaluate the review process and the time spent carrying out these reviews. Outcomes: We found no significant differences between the reliability and the validity of individual reviews versus group reviews. On average slightly more time was spent on group reviews compared with the individual reviews. The subjective assessments of the study participants regarding their satisfaction with the process and the efficiency and effectiveness of the reviews suggest a preference for group reviews. Conclusions: Based on this study, there are no definite recommendations for or against either approach. When choosing between the two, the specific work structures and organisation at the local faculty should be taken into account.

Bohme, Klaus; Schelling, Jorg; Streitlein-Bohme, Irmgard; Glassen, Katharina; Schubel, Jeannine; Junger, Jana

2012-01-01

264

Teaching the Teachers: Physical Science for the Non-Scientific  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Catholic University of America, in collaboration with the Solar Physics Branch of the Naval Research Laboratory and the Goddard Space Flight Center, has begun development of an experimental, inquiry-driven and standards-referenced physical science course for undergraduate, pre-service K-8 teachers. The course is team-taught by faculty from the University's Departments of Education and Physics and NRL solar physics research personnel. Basic physical science concepts are taught in the context of the Sun and Sun-Earth Connections, through direct observation, web-based solar data, and images and movies from ongoing space missions. The Sun can illuminate, in ways that cannot be duplicated with comparable clarity in the laboratory, the basics of magnetic and gravitational force fields, Newton's Laws, and light and optics. The immediacy of the connection to ongoing space research and live mission data serves as well to inspire student interest and curiosity. Teaching objectives include pedagogical methods, especially hands-on and observational experiences appropriate to the physics content and the K-8 classroom. The CUA Program, called TOPS! (Top Teachers of Physical Science!) has completed its first year of classroom experience; the first few batches of Program graduates should be in K-8 classrooms in time to capitalize on the motivational opportunities offered by the 2007-2008 IHY and IPY. We present data on the attitudinal and scientific progress of fifteen pre-service Early Childhood and Elementary Education majors as they experienced, many for the first time, the marvels of attractive and repulsive forces, live observations of solar system dynamics, access to real-time satellite data and NASA educational resources.

Michels, D. J.; Pickert, S. M.; Montrose, C. J.; Thompson, J. L.

2004-12-01

265

Modern problems in the physical sciences (Scientific session of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 30 November 2011)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On 30 November 2011, a scientific session of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS) was held in the conference hall of the Lebedev Physical Institute, RAS.The agenda of the session announced on the RAS Physical Sciences Division website www.gpad.ac.ru included the following reports: (1) Ivchenko E L (Ioffe Physical Technical Institute, RAS, St. Petersburg) "Spin physics in semiconductor nanosystems"; (2) Golub L E (A F Ioffe Physical Technical Institute, RAS, St. Petersburg) "Spin transport in heterostructures"; (3) Levchenko A A (Institute of Solid State Physics, RAS, Chernogolovka, Moscow region) "Capillary turbulence on the surface of quantum liquids"; (4) Babin S A (Institute of Automation and Electrometry, Siberian Branch of the RAS) "New generation modes in fiber lasers"; (5) Kurt V G (Astro-Space Center of the Lebedev Physical Institute, RAS, Moscow) "Motion of the Sun through the interstellar medium"; (6) Lukash V N (Astro-Space Center of the Lebedev Physical Institute, RAS, Moscow) "Cosmological flow generation in general relativity".Papers written on the basis of oral reports 1-3, 5, and 6 are presented below. • Spin physics in semiconductor nanosystems, E L Ivchenko Physics-Uspekhi, 2012, Volume 55, Number 8, Pages 808-814 • Spin transport in heterostructures, L E Golub Physics-Uspekhi, 2012, Volume 55, Number 8, Pages 814-818 • Kinetic and discrete turbulence on the surface of quantum liquids, L V Abdurakhimov, M Yu Brazhnikov, A A Levchenko, I A Remizov, S V Filatov Physics-Uspekhi, 2012, Volume 55, Number 8, Pages 818-825 • Motion of the Sun through the interstellar medium, V G Kurt, E N Mironova Physics-Uspekhi, 2012, Volume 55, Number 8, Pages 825-831 • Generation of cosmological flows in general relativity, V N Lukash, E V Mikheeva, V N Strokov Physics-Uspekhi, 2012, Volume 55, Number 8, Pages 831-837

2012-08-01

266

Prospective physical sciences teachers' use of laboratory activities: an analysis of its evolution due to a science teaching methods course  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prospective teachers entering science teaching methods courses already bring ideas about how to teach physical sciences as well as how to use several teaching resources, namely the teaching laboratory. Research has shown that prospective teachers consider the teaching laboratory of great importance for science teaching and learning but they would be unable to use it properly. The science teaching methods

Laurinda Leite; Ana Sofia Afonso

2002-01-01

267

Microgravity Combustion Science and Fluid Physics Experiments and Facilities for the ISS.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

At the NASA Glenn Research Center, the Microgravity Science Program supports both ground-based and flight experiment research in the disciplines of Combustion Science and Fluid Physics. Combustion Science research includes the areas of gas jet diffusion f...

R. W. Lauver F. J. Kohl K. J. Weiland R. L. Zurawski M. E. Hill R. R. Corban

2001-01-01

268

Developing the learning physical science curriculum: Adapting a small enrollment, laboratory and discussion based physical science course for large enrollments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on the adaptation of the small enrollment, lab and discussion based physical science course, Physical Science and Everyday Thinking (PSET), for a large-enrollment, lecture-style setting. Like PSET, the new Learning Physical Science (LEPS) curriculum was designed around specific principles based on research on learning to meet the needs of nonscience students, especially prospective and practicing elementary and middle school teachers. We describe the structure of the two curricula and the adaptation process, including a detailed comparison of similar activities from the two curricula and a case study of a LEPS classroom implementation. In LEPS, short instructor-guided lessons replace lengthier small group activities, and movies, rather than hands-on investigations, provide the evidence used to support and test ideas. LEPS promotes student peer interaction as an important part of sense making via “clicker” questions, rather than small group and whole class discussions typical of PSET. Examples of student dialog indicate that this format is capable of generating substantive student discussion and successfully enacting the design principles. Field-test data show similar student content learning gains with the two curricula. Nevertheless, because of classroom constraints, some important practices of science that were an integral part of PSET were not included in LEPS.

Goldberg, Fred; Price, Edward; Robinson, Stephen; Boyd-Harlow, Danielle; McKean, Michael

2012-06-01

269

NC Science Teachers Association 2011 PhysicsQuest Workshop  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Abstract: A NC Science Teachers Association workshop featuring resources for middle and high school physics that help teachers prepare interactive lessons without sacrificing family time. PhysicsQuest kits capture student interest. Tracker analyzes student-made videos of experiments. ComPADRE has ready-to-use digital resources. All resources are free and some kits available for take home. Teachers learn how the PhysicsQuest kit can be used with students to solve the mystery explained in the accompanying comic book and how to use the Tracker video modeling tool and the ComPADRE digital library as inquiry-based learning tools to further enhance understanding of physics. All resources are free!

Christian, Barbara; Christian, Wolfgang

2011-11-16

270

Experimental Physical Sciences Vistas: MaRIE (draft)  

Microsoft Academic Search

To achieve breakthrough scientific discoveries in the 21st century, a convergence and integration of world-leading experimental facilities and capabilities with theory, modeling, and simulation is necessary. In this issue of Experimental Physical Sciences Vistas, I am excited to present our plans for Los Alamos National Laboratory's future flagship experimental facility, MaRIE (Matter-Radiation Interactions in Extremes). MaRIE is a facility that

Shlachter; Jack

2010-01-01

271

Cognitive Science: Problem Solving And Learning For Physics Education  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Cognitive Science has focused on general principles of problem solving and learning that might be relevant for physics education research. This paper examines three selected issues that have relevance for the difficulty of transfer in problem solving domains: specialized systems of memory and reasoning, the importance of content in thinking, and a characterization of memory retrieval in problem solving. In addition, references to these issues are provided to allow the interested researcher entries to the literatures.

Ross, Brian H.

2009-07-13

272

Nuclear Physics Science Network Requirements Workshop, May 2008 - Final Report  

SciTech Connect

The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) is the primary provider of network connectivity for the US Department of Energy Office of Science, the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States of America. In support of the Office of Science programs, ESnet regularly updates and refreshes its understanding of the networking requirements of the instruments, facilities, scientists, and science programs that it serves. This focus has helped ESnet to be a highly successful enabler of scientific discovery for over 20 years. In May 2008, ESnet and the Nuclear Physics (NP) Program Office of the DOE Office of Science organized a workshop to characterize the networking requirements of the science programs funded by the NP Program Office. Most of the key DOE sites for NP related work will require significant increases in network bandwidth in the 5 year time frame. This includes roughly 40 Gbps for BNL, and 20 Gbps for NERSC. Total transatlantic requirements are on the order of 40 Gbps, and transpacific requirements are on the order of 30 Gbps. Other key sites are Vanderbilt University and MIT, which will need on the order of 20 Gbps bandwidth to support data transfers for the CMS Heavy Ion program. In addition to bandwidth requirements, the workshop emphasized several points in regard to science process and collaboration. One key point is the heavy reliance on Grid tools and infrastructure (both PKI and tools such as GridFTP) by the NP community. The reliance on Grid software is expected to increase in the future. Therefore, continued development and support of Grid software is very important to the NP science community. Another key finding is that scientific productivity is greatly enhanced by easy researcher-local access to instrument data. This is driving the creation of distributed repositories for instrument data at collaborating institutions, along with a corresponding increase in demand for network-based data transfers and the tools to manage those transfers effectively. Network reliability is also becoming more important as there is often a narrow window between data collection and data archiving when transfer and analysis can be done. The instruments do not stop producing data, so extended network outages can result in data loss due to analysis pipeline stalls. Finally, as the scope of collaboration continues to increase, collaboration tools such as audio and video conferencing are becoming ever more critical to the productivity of scientific collaborations.

Tierney, Ed., Brian L; Dart, Ed., Eli; Carlson, Rich; Dattoria, Vince; Ernest, Michael; Hitchcock, Daniel; Johnston, William; Kowalski, Andy; Lauret, Jerome; Maguire, Charles; Olson, Douglas; Purschke, Martin; Rai, Gulshan; Watson, Chip; Vale, Carla

2008-11-10

273

Investigative Science Learning Environment - A Science Process Approach to Learning Physics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Piscataway, NJ, 08854 Abstract: In this chapter we describe an interactive method of teaching, Investigative Science Learning Environment (ISLE), that helps students learn physics by engaging in proc- esses that mirror the activities of physicists when they construct and apply knowl- edge. These processes involve observing, finding patterns, building and testing ex- planations of the patterns, and using multiple representations

E. Etkina; A Van Heuvelen

274

Scientific Research in British Universities and Colleges 1969-70, Volume I, Physical Sciences.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This annual publication (1969-1970) contains brief statements about current research in the physical sciences being conducted at British universities and colleges. Areas included are chemistry, physics, engineering, biochemistry, biometry, biophysics, physical geography, mathematics, computing science, and history and philosophy of science. (CP)|

Department of Education and Science, London (England).

275

Physics Lectures and Laboratories. A Model To Improve Preservice Elementary Science Teacher Development. Volume II.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A group of scientists and science educators has developed and pilot tested an integrated physical science program designed for preservice elementary school teachers. This document includes the syllabus and class materials for the Physics block of the physical science courses developed by the group. Included are diagrams, lecture notes, homework…

Dresser, Miles

276

Physical Sciences and Processes of Inquiry: A Critique of CHEM, CBA and PSSC  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The author sees the physical sciences as processes of inquiry and proceeds to analyze and criticize CHEM Study, CBA, and PSSC physics in terms of their views of inquiry and of the sciences. A discussion of some desirable features for a high school program in physical science is included. Bibliography. (LC)|

Diederich, Mary E.

1969-01-01

277

Attitudes about Science and Conceptual Physics Learning in University Introductory Physics Courses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper examines the results of the repeated administration of the Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey (CLASS) in a large introductory physics course at a midsize, metropolitan Canadian university. We compare the results to those obtained previously in comparable courses at the University of British Columbia (Canada) and the…

Milner-Bolotin, Marina; Antimirova, Tetyana; Noack, Andrea; Petrov, Anna

2011-01-01

278

Attitudes about science and conceptual physics learning in university introductory physics courses  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the results of the repeated administration of the Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey (CLASS) in a large introductory physics course at a midsize, metropolitan Canadian university. We compare the results to those obtained previously in comparable courses at the University of British Columbia (Canada) and the University of Colorado (U.S.). Atypically, students in this study exhibited

Marina Milner-Bolotin; Tetyana Antimirova; Andrea Noack; Anna Petrov

2011-01-01

279

Attitudes about Science and Conceptual Physics Learning in University Introductory Physics Courses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the results of the repeated administration of the Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey (CLASS) in a large introductory physics course at a midsize, metropolitan Canadian university. We compare the results to those obtained previously in comparable courses at the University of British Columbia (Canada) and the…

Milner-Bolotin, Marina; Antimirova, Tetyana; Noack, Andrea; Petrov, Anna

2011-01-01

280

Are Grades 10-12 Physical Sciences Teachers Equipped to Teach Physics?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|South African schools have been confronted with educational reform since the mid-nineties and the process is still continuing. The concomitant changes put a very high demand on physical sciences teachers and also have an impact on teacher behaviour. The purpose of this study was to probe whether teachers could be considered equipped to teach the…

Basson, Ilsa; Kriek, Jeanne

2012-01-01

281

Open-Ended Versus Multiple-Choice Response Formats—It Does Make a Difference for Diagnostic Purposes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of response format—open-ended (OE) versus multiple-choice (Me)—on the diagnosis of examinee misconceptions in a procedural task. A test in fraction addition arithmetic was administered to 285 eighth- grade students, 148 of whom responded to the OE ver sion of the test and 137 to the MC version. The two

Menucha Birenbaum; Kikumi K. Tatsuoka

1987-01-01

282

The impact of two multiple-choice question formats on the problem-solving strategies used by novices and experts  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Pencil-and-paper examination formats, and specifically the standard, five-option multiple-choice question, have often been questioned as a means for assessing higher-order clinical reasoning or problem solving. This study firstly investigated whether two paper formats with differing number of alternatives (standard five-option and extended-matching questions) can test problem-solving abilities. Secondly, the impact of the alternatives number on psychometrics and problem-solving strategies

Sylvain P Coderre; Peter Harasym; Henry Mandin; Gordon Fick

2004-01-01

283

A comparative analysis of multiple-choice and student performance-task assessment in the high school biology classroom  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study compared the performance of high school students on laboratory assessments. Thirty-four high school students who were enrolled in the second semester of a regular biology class or had completed the biology course the previous semester participated in this study. They were randomly assigned to examinations of two formats, performance-task and traditional multiple-choice, from two content areas, using a

Patrick Ryan Cushing

2002-01-01

284

The Science on Saturday Program at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Science on Saturday Program at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory consists of a series of Saturday morning lectures on various topics in science by scientists, engineers, educators, and others with an interesting story. This program has been in existence for over twelve years and has been advertised to and primarily aimed at the high school level. Topics ranging from superconductivity to computer animation and gorilla conservation to pharmaceutical design have been covered. Lecturers from the staff of Princeton, Rutgers, AT and T, Bristol Meyers Squibb, and many others have participated. Speakers have ranged from Nobel prize winners, astronauts, industrialists, educators, engineers, and science writers. Typically, there are eight to ten lectures starting in January. A mailing list has been compiled for schools, science teachers, libraries, and museums in the Princeton area. For the past two years AT and T has sponsored buses for Trenton area students to come to these lectures and an effort has been made to publicize the program to these students. The series has been very popular, frequently overfilling the 300 seat PPPL auditorium. As a result, the lectures are videotaped and broadcast to a large screen TV for remote viewing. Lecturers are encouraged to interact with the audience and ample time is provided for questions.

Bretz, N.; Lamarche, P.; Lagin, L.; Ritter, C.; Carroll, D. L.

1996-11-01

285

ASP2012: Fundamental Physics and Accelerator Sciences in Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Much remains to be done to improve education and scientific research in Africa. Supported by the international scientific community, our initiative has been to contribute to fostering science in sub-Saharan Africa by establishing a biennial school on fundamental subatomic physics and its applications. The school is based on a close interplay between theoretical, experimental, and applied physics. The lectures are addressed to students or young researchers with at least a background of 4 years of university formation. The aim of the school is to develop capacity, interpret, and capitalize on the results of current and future physics experiments with particle accelerators; thereby spreading education for innovation in related applications and technologies, such as medicine and information science. Following the worldwide success of the first school edition, which gathered 65 students for 3-week in Stellenbosch (South Africa) in August 2010, the second edition will be hosted in Ghana from July 15 to August 4, 2012. The school is a non-profit organization, which provides partial or full financial support to 50 of the selected students, with priority to Sub-Saharan African students.

Darve, Christine

2012-02-01

286

Invisible World and Modern Physics: Modern Science and Theology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A characteristic of the Western thought is the effort to counter Christian theology through arguments based on scientific discoveries (antirrhetic theology). Two objections can be raised against this trait: a) Modern science considers as a fact the future expansions, corrections, even total abolishment of scientific knowledge in the face of new discoveries. Therefore, dogmatic positions must not be based on temporary scientific views. b) Antirrhetic theology is mostly based on out-of-date scientific views of the period 1650-1900, which are not valid any more. The example of modern physics and cosmology is prime among them; in these sciences, the prevailing theories are based on the existence of an imperceptible reality, or on apparently “illogical” (in the sense of classical logic) fundamental properties of matter and its particles in quantum mechanics.

Theodossiou, E.; Manimanis, V. N.; Danezis, E.

2010-07-01

287

A content analysis of physical science textbooks with regard to the nature of science and ethnic diversity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The goal of science education is the preparation of scientifically literate students (Abd-El-Khalick & Lederman, 2000, & American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), 1990). In order to instruct students in the nature of science with its history, development, methods and applications, science teachers use textbooks as the primary organizer for the curriculum (Chippetta, Ganesh, Lee, & Phillips, 2006). Science textbooks are the dominant instructional tool that exerts great influence on instructional content and its delivery (Wang, 1998). Science and science literacy requires acquiring knowledge about the natural world and understanding its application in society, or, in other words, the nature of science. An understanding of the nature of science is an important part of science literacy (Abd-El-Khalik & Lederman, 2000, & AAAS, 1990). The nature of science has four basic themes or dimensions: science as a body of knowledge, science as a way of thinking, science as a way of investigating, and science with its interaction with technology and society (Chippetta & Koballa, 2006). Textbooks must relay and incorporate these themes to promote science literacy. The results from this content analysis provide further insights into science textbooks and their content with regard to the inclusion of the nature of science and ethnic diversity. Science textbooks usually downplay human influences (Clough & Olson, 2004) whether as part of the nature of science with its historical development or its interaction with societies of diverse cultures. Minority students are underperforming in science and science is divided on ethnic, linguistic, and gender identity (Brown, 2005). Greater representations of diversity in curriculum materials enable minority students to identify with science (Nines, 2000). Textbooks, with their influence on curriculum and presentation, must include links for science and students of diverse cultures. What is the balance of the four aspects of the nature of science and what is the balance of ethnic diversity in the participants in science (students and scientists) in physical science textbooks? To establish an answer to these questions, this investigation used content analysis. For the balance of the four aspects of the nature of science, the analysis was conducted on random page samples of five physical science textbooks. A random sampling of the pages within the physical science textbooks should be sufficient to represent the content of the textbooks (Garcia, 1985). For the balance of ethnic diversity of the participants in science, the analysis was conducted on all pictures or drawings of students and scientists within the content of the five textbooks. One of these IPC books is under current use in a large, local school district and the other four were published during the same, or similar, year. Coding procedures for the sample used two sets of coders. One set of coders have previously analyzed for the nature of science in a study on middle school science textbooks (Phillips, 2006) and the coders for ethnic diversity are public school teachers who have worked with ethnically diverse students for over ten years. Both sets of coders were trained and the reliability of their coding checked before coding the five textbooks. To check for inter-coder reliability, percent agreement, Cohen's kappa and Krippendorff's alpha were calculated. The results from this study indicate that science as a body of knowledge and science as a way of investigating are the prevalent themes of the nature of science in the five physical science textbooks. This investigation also found that there is an imbalance in the ethnic diversity of students and scientists portrayed within the chapters of the physical science textbooks studied. This imbalance reflects ratios that are neither equally balanced nor in align with the U.S. Census. Given that textbooks are the main sources of information in most classrooms, the imbalance of the nature of science could provide the students, and the teachers, with an

Brooks, Kristine M.

288

Science and Art: physics as a symbolic formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reflection on the preconditions and evolution of science has played a decisive role in the development of Ernst Cassirer’s\\u000a philosophy, contributing to its functional and thus inherently pluralistic and holistic view of knowledge. To present Cassirer’s\\u000a conception of physics as an open symbolic formation enables us to reveal and study the radical features of his epistemological\\u000a model: \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a (1) \\u000a \\u000a the

Christiane Schmitz-Rigal

2011-01-01

289

Bringing the physical sciences into your cell biology research.  

PubMed

Historically, much of biology was studied by physicists and mathematicians. With the advent of modern molecular biology, a wave of researchers became trained in a new scientific discipline filled with the language of genes, mutants, and the central dogma. These new molecular approaches have provided volumes of information on biomolecules and molecular pathways from the cellular to the organismal level. The challenge now is to determine how this seemingly endless list of components works together to promote the healthy function of complex living systems. This effort requires an interdisciplinary approach by investigators from both the biological and the physical sciences. PMID:23112230

Robinson, Douglas N; Iglesias, Pablo A

2012-11-01

290

Numerical Data Advisory Board assembly of mathematial and physical sciences  

SciTech Connect

The Numerical Data Advisory Board (NDAB) is an advisory body that provides expert overview, on a broad basis, of data needs and data programs as required for the advancement of science and technology. Board members, representing various disciplines, concern themselves with the quality, reliability, availability, accessibility, and dissemination of numerical data in physical, chemical, engineering, and interdisciplinary subjects as well as numeric and non-numeric data that arise in biology and geology. Topics of concern are addressed by the NDAB membership, or by specific, carefully chosen committees and panels established by NDAB in order to include experts appropriate to the subject at hand.

Not Available

1980-07-30

291

JSTOR: Philosophical Transactions: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In 2000 back issues of this scholarly journal were made available to researchers through JSTOR (Journal Storage). JSTOR offers online access to numerous scholarly journals on a "moving wall" basis -- in which users may download the full text and figures of each article that is at least three-years-old. Currently, JSTOR coverage includes Philosophical Transactions: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, Vol. 354-355, 1996-1997. Newer articles are continually added on a moving wall basis. Access is limited to participating institutions, a list of which is provided at the JSTOR site.

292

Experimental Physical Sciences Vistas: MaRIE (draft)  

SciTech Connect

To achieve breakthrough scientific discoveries in the 21st century, a convergence and integration of world-leading experimental facilities and capabilities with theory, modeling, and simulation is necessary. In this issue of Experimental Physical Sciences Vistas, I am excited to present our plans for Los Alamos National Laboratory's future flagship experimental facility, MaRIE (Matter-Radiation Interactions in Extremes). MaRIE is a facility that will provide transformational understanding of matter in extreme conditions required to reduce or resolve key weapons performance uncertainties, develop the materials needed for advanced energy systems, and transform our ability to create materials by design. Our unique role in materials science starting with the Manhattan Project has positioned us well to develop a contemporary materials strategy pushing the frontiers of controlled functionality - the design and tailoring of a material for the unique demands of a specific application. Controlled functionality requires improvement in understanding of the structure and properties of materials in order to synthesize and process materials with unique characteristics. In the nuclear weapons program today, improving data and models to increase confidence in the stockpile can take years from concept to new knowledge. Our goal with MaRIE is to accelerate this process by enhancing predictive capability - the ability to compute a priori the observables of an experiment or test and pertinent confidence intervals using verified and validated simulation tools. It is a science-based approach that includes the use of advanced experimental tools, theoretical models, and multi-physics codes, simultaneously dealing with multiple aspects of physical operation of a system that are needed to develop an increasingly mature predictive capability. This same approach is needed to accelerate improvements to other systems such as nuclear reactors. MaRIE will be valuable to many national security science challenges. Our first issue of Vistas focused on our current national user facilities (the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center [LANSCE], the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory-Pulsed Field Facility, and the Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies) and the vitality they bring to our Laboratory. These facilities are a magnet for students, postdoctoral researchers, and staff members from all over the world. This, in turn, allows us to continue to develop and maintain our strong staff across the relevant disciplines and conduct world-class discovery science. The second issue of Vistas was devoted entirely to the Laboratory's materials strategy - one of the three strategic science thrusts for the Laboratory. This strategy has helped focus our thinking for MaRIE. We believe there is a bright future in cutting-edge experimental materials research, and that a 21st-century facility with unique capability is necessary to fulfill this goal. The Laboratory has spent the last several years defining MaRIE, and this issue of Vistas presents our current vision of that facility. MaRIE will leverage LANSCE and our other user facilities, as well as our internal and external materials community for decades to come, giving Los Alamos a unique competitive advantage, advancing materials science for the Laboratory's missions and attracting and recruiting scientists of international stature. MaRIE will give the international materials research community a suite of tools capable of meeting a broad range of outstanding grand challenges.

Shlachter, Jack [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-09-08

293

Investigative Science Learning Environment: Using the processes of science and cognitive strategies to learn physics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This paper, presented at the 2001 Physics Education Research Conference, asks if reading fifteen textbook chapters, listening to one lecturer, doing prescribed labs, answering someone else's questions, and solving well-defined problems resemble in any way a five-month schedule of activities for a person in a science related field in the 21st century workplace? Several recent studies concerning the knowledge and skills needed in the workplace indicate that there is a serious mismatch between traditional physics instruction and the needs of the workplace. Therefore, in this study, the authors describe briefly an Investigative Science Learning Environment (ISLE) introductory physics learning system that attempts to replicate more closely the processes used in the real world of science and engineering. The authors hope that ISLE students' learning better meets the needs of the workplace. The paper describes the method, including goals of the instruction, techniques used to assess the achievement of these goals and preliminary results of this assessment from courses taught by different instructors.

Etkina, Eugenia; Van Heuvelen, Alan

2006-12-06

294

My views on physics and atomic physics, on science and human life  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The modern physics research was started in the 16th century. From that time any knowledge on the natural processes is based on careful, systematic observation, experiment and measurement. The scope of atomic physics is very broad energetically from nano eV to GeV. From these experiments fundamental information can be obtained and the collision mechanism as well as details of atomic and ionic structure can be clarified. Science is a really special field of the human activity and culture. It is developing mainly with the help of the critique of its own results. Science produced in fact miraculous results but even then it is only one of the approaches to Reality in a broad meaning.

Berényi, Dénes

1999-06-01

295

Physics and social science - The approach of synergetics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Universally applicable methods originating in statistical physics and synergetics are combined with concepts from social science in order to set up and to apply a model construction concept for the quantitative description of a broad class of collective dynamical phenomena within society. Starting from the decisions of individuals and introducing the concept of dynamical utilities, probabilistic transition rates between attitudes and actions can be constructed. The latter enter the central equation of motion, i.e. the master equation, for the probability distribution over the possible macroconfigurations of society. From the master equation the equations of motion for the expectation values of the macrovariables of society can be derived. These equations are in general nonlinear. Their solutions may include stationary solutions, limit cycles and strange attractors, and with varying trend parameters also phase transitions between different modes of social behaviour can be described. The general model construction approach is subsequently applied to characteristic examples from different social sciences, such as sociology, demography, regional science and economics. These examples refer to collective political opinion formation, to interregional migration of interactive populations, to settlement formation on the micro-, meso- and macroscale, and to nonlinear nonequilibrium economics, including market instabilities.

Weidlich, Wolfgang

1991-05-01

296

The Persistent Dearth of Women in the Physical Sciences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For twenty years, scientists and society alike have averred that discrimination against women is a thing of the past, which may be largely true for the most overt kind of discrimination. Yet judging from the scarcity of women in the physical sciences in the U.S. today, it is clear that these professions efficiently filter out women (and probably other minorities). Not only are women present in much smaller numbers than men at all levels, their presence decreases with increasing rank in the academic hierarchy, and women advance more slowly and with greater attrition than men. Notably, the pre-college pipeline is no longer the critical issue, since women are present in large numbers in introductory science and math classes at top undergraduate institutions. However, there is little agreement on what the critical problem might be, much less its solution. Furthermore, most physical scientists in academia, which is to say male full professors, have paid relatively little attention to this problem and are not well informed about the current status of women in their fields or the extensive research on gender bias. I review the relevant statistics and some of this research. I conclude that progress is possible if people in positions of power adopt the inclusion of women as a priority. This will enhance excellence in our profession, both because it taps a wider pool of talent and because it corrects the bias that has (under the assumption of equal distribution of talent among men and women) excluded some of our best scientists.

Urry, C. Megan

2002-04-01

297

Following Student Gaze Patterns in Physical Science Lectures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This study investigates the gaze patterns of undergraduate college students attending a lecture-based physical science class to better understand the relationships between gaze and focus patterns and student attention during class. The investigators used a new eye-tracking product; Tobii Glasses. The glasses eliminate the need for subjects to focus on a computer screen or carry around a backpack-sized recording device, thus giving an investigator the ability to study a broader range of research questions. This investigation includes what students focus on in the classroom (i.e. demonstrations, instructor, notes, board work, and presentations) during a normal lecture, what diverts attention away from being on task as well as what keeps a subject on task. We report on the findings from 8 subjects during physical science lectures designed for future elementary school teachers. We found that students tended not to focus on the instructor for most parts of the lecture but rather the information, particularly new information presented on PowerPoint slides. Finally, we found that location in the classroom also impacted students' attention spans due to more distractors.

Rosengrant, David; Hearrington, Doug; Alvarado, Kerriann; Keeble, Danielle

2012-05-15

298

The Science Shop for Physics: an interface between practical problems in society and physical knowledge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since some 20 years most Dutch universities have one or more science shops. Central shops handle research questions for all disciplines. Specialized shops are part of a department of chemistry or medicine, history, social science, etc. The shops have evolved rather differently, but their main mission still is to help social groups that lack money and have no easy access to scientific knowledge, e.g. neighbourhood, environmental, third world or patient groups. Most also help non-commercial organizations such as schools, trade unions or local authorities. Low-cost help can be provided because students do the work as part of their training, mainly in student projects (literature search, practical work, graduation, etc.). A total staff of 80, helped by 600 students, 250 voluntary and 50 paid researchers, handle 1500 questions resulting in 300 reports (estimated figures 1995). Science shops for physics (`Physics Shop', PS) have to deal with practical problems, generally involving classical physics. Major topics are noise, vibration, radiation, indoor climate and energy: most of the work lies in estimating/measuring relevant parameters, assessing impact, seeking solutions. The 3 Dutch PS's have developed in different directions. One is run entirely by students and deals with small, concrete problems. The second PS is managed by a co-ordinator who mediates between client groups and physics staff members who assist students in small and larger projects. The third has a lot of in-house expertise, and the shop staff is in direct contact with client groups as well as students who work in the PS itself. In questions submitted to the PS it is not always immediately clear what to do or how to do it because of the non-scientific phrasing of the problems and problems include non-physical (e.g. technical, health or legal) aspects. Also, difficulties in solving the problems are typically not in the underlying physics, but in the lack of accurate data and of control of the complex environment. However, these very aspects are important from an educational point of view. Through these problems students (and physicists) may gain more insight into how lay people percieve and make use of science, and into the position of science in relation to other ways in which people try to understand their world.

van den Berg, G. P.

1998-03-01

299

Spintronics and nanomagnetism (Scientific session of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 25 April 2012)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A scientific session of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS), entitled "Spintronics and nanomagnetism", was held on 25 April 2012 at the conference hall of the Lebedev Physical Institute, RAS.The agenda of the session announced on the RAS Physical Sciences Division website www.gpad.ac.ru included the following reports: (1) Zvezdin A K, Zvezdin K A (Prokhorov General Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow), Popkov A F (National Research University 'Moscow State Institute of Electronic Technology', Moscow) "Spin moment transfer effects and their applications in spintronics"; (2) Fraerman A A (Institute for Physics of Microstructures, Russian Academy of Sciences, Nizhny Novgorod) "Magnetic states and transport properties of ferromagnetic nanostructures"; (3) Panin V E, Egorushkin V E, Panin A V (Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Tomsk) "Nonlinear wave processes in a deformable solid as in a multiscale hierarchically organized system".Papers based on oral reports 2 and 3 are presented below. • Magnetic states and transport properties of ferromagnetic nanostructures, A A Fraerman Physics-Uspekhi, 2012, Volume 55, Number 12, Pages 1255-1260 • Nonlinear wave processes in a deformable solid as in a multiscale hierarchically organized system, V E Panin, V E Egorushkin, A V Panin Physics-Uspekhi, 2012, Volume 55, Number 12, Pages 1260-1267

2012-12-01

300

The "Earth Physics" Workshops Offered by the Earth Science Education Unit  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Earth science has a part to play in broadening students' learning experience in physics. The Earth Science Education Unit presents a range of (free) workshops to teachers and trainee teachers, suggesting how Earth-based science activities, which show how we understand and use the planet we live on, can easily be slotted into normal science

Davies, Stephen

2012-01-01

301

Teachers' Willingness to Adopt Nature of Science Activities Following a Physical Science Professional Development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The major science education reform documents emphasize the need for K-12 students to have a robust understanding of nature of science (NOS), and inservice teachers consequently need to develop their NOS teaching repertoires. This study investigated the extent to which science teachers were willing to adopt new strategies and activities for teaching NOS in their classrooms. The participants were 36 elementary, middle, and high school teachers who were completing a year-long physical science professional development (PD) that included NOS instruction. Data sources consisted of surveys (teachers' NOS views, teaching practices), collected work, and responses to post-PD follow-up questions. The professional development course was successful in that teachers incorporated many of these strategies and activities into their own practice. This study also endeavored to identify factors that facilitated the adoption of these new approaches to teaching NOS. While personal characteristics such as pre- or post-PD NOS understandings, NOS gains, and grade level taught were not related to the number of NOS activities incorporated, teachers from suburban and rural schools were significantly more likely to implement NOS activities.

Donnelly, Lisa A.; Argyle, Sean

2011-10-01

302

Astrophysics and astronomy (Scientific session of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 26 January 2011)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An Astrophysics and Astronomy scientific session of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS) was held in the Conference Hall of the P N Lebedev Physical Institute, RAS, on 26 January 2011. The following reports were put on the session's agenda posted on the web site www.gpad.ac.ru of the Physical Sciences Division, RAS: (1) Cherepashchuk A M (Sternberg Astronomical Institute, Moscow State University, Moscow) "Investigation of X-ray sources"; (2) Shustov B M (Institute of Astronomy, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow) "Asteroid and comet hazards: physical and other aspects"; (3) Sazhin M V (Sternberg Astronomical Institute, Moscow State University, Moscow) "Search for cosmic strings"; (4) Zakharov A F (Russian Federation State Scientific Center 'A I Alikhanov Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics', Moscow) "Exoplanet search using gravitational microlensing". Papers written on the basis of the reports are published below. • Optical investigations of X-ray binary systems, A M Cherepashchuk Physics-Uspekhi, 2011, Volume 54, Number 10, Pages 1061-1067 • Asteroid and comet hazards: the role of physical sciences in solving the problem, B M Shustov Physics-Uspekhi, 2011, Volume 54, Number 10, Pages 1068-1071 • Search for cosmic strings using optical and radio astronomy methods, O S Sazhina, M V Sazhin, M Capaccioli, G Longo Physics-Uspekhi, 2011, Volume 54, Number 10, Pages 1072-1077 • Search for exoplanets using gravitational microlensing, A F Zakharov Physics-Uspekhi, 2011, Volume 54, Number 10, Pages 1077-1084

2011-10-01

303

The Effect of Question Order on Responses to Multiple-choice Questions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This paper, presented at the 2002 Physics Education Research Conference, investigates how the order of two related FCI questions (#13 and 14) affects students' responses. This study also investigates the effect an unrelated FCI question (#23) has on answers to the above problems. Four versions of a survey were administered before and after instruction to 243 students taking an algebra-based physics class. Versions 1 and 2 of the survey included the related physics questions in opposite order. Versions 3 and 4 included the unrelated physics question and one of the above questions. Student responses for the four versions were compared for both the pre- and post-instruction surveys.

Rebello, Sanjay; Zollman, Dean; Gray, Kara

2010-12-02

304

The Effect of Question Order on Responses to Multiple-choice Questions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This paper, presented at the 2002 Physics Education Research Conference, investigates how the order of two related FCI questions (#13 and 14) affects students' responses. This study also investigates the effect an unrelated FCI question (#23) has on answers to the above problems. Four versions of a survey were administered before and after instruction to 243 students taking an algebra-based physics class. Versions 1 and 2 of the survey included the related physics questions in opposite order. Versions 3 and 4 included the unrelated physics question and one of the above questions. Student responses for the four versions were compared for both the pre- and post-instruction surveys.

Gray, Kara E.; Rebello, N. S.; Zollman, Dean A.

2006-12-06

305

How cognitive science can promote conceptual understanding in physics classrooms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cognitive science research focuses on how the mind works, including topics such as thinking, problem solving, learning and transfer. Much of this research remains unknown in science education circles, yet is relevant for the design of instructional strategies in the sciences. We outline some difficulties in learning science, along with a discussion of some relevant cognitive science research. We then

JOSE P. MESTRE; BRIAN H. ROSS; DAVID T. BROOKES; ADAM D. SMITH; TIMOTHY J. NOKES

2009-01-01

306

Modification of Multiple-Choice Assessment Items Based on Student Feedback  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Project 2061 is creating assessment items targeting the learning goals recommended by AAAS?s Benchmarks for Science Literacy (1993) and the NRC?s National Science Education Standards (1996).). One of our topics is force and motion at the middle grades level. Our item development process includes pilot testing and student interviews. We will describe how this feedback is used to modify the items. Examples will include modifications to vocabulary, context, and distractors. In addition we will describe the use of this feedback to modify item design tools.

Regan, Thomas J.

2006-12-01

307

Using spatial principles to optimize distributed computing for enabling the physical science discoveries.  

PubMed

Contemporary physical science studies rely on the effective analyses of geographically dispersed spatial data and simulations of physical phenomena. Single computers and generic high-end computing are not sufficient to process the data for complex physical science analysis and simulations, which can be successfully supported only through distributed computing, best optimized through the application of spatial principles. Spatial computing, the computing aspect of a spatial cyberinfrastructure, refers to a computing paradigm that utilizes spatial principles to optimize distributed computers to catalyze advancements in the physical sciences. Spatial principles govern the interactions between scientific parameters across space and time by providing the spatial connections and constraints to drive the progression of the phenomena. Therefore, spatial computing studies could better position us to leverage spatial principles in simulating physical phenomena and, by extension, advance the physical sciences. Using geospatial science as an example, this paper illustrates through three research examples how spatial computing could (i) enable data intensive science with efficient data/services search, access, and utilization, (ii) facilitate physical science studies with enabling high-performance computing capabilities, and (iii) empower scientists with multidimensional visualization tools to understand observations and simulations. The research examples demonstrate that spatial computing is of critical importance to design computing methods to catalyze physical science studies with better data access, phenomena simulation, and analytical visualization. We envision that spatial computing will become a core technology that drives fundamental physical science advancements in the 21st century. PMID:21444779

Yang, Chaowei; Wu, Huayi; Huang, Qunying; Li, Zhenlong; Li, Jing

2011-03-28

308

X-ray microscopy for the life and physical sciences  

SciTech Connect

In this brief report we describe two recent x-ray microscopy experiments which demonstrate achievements of significant milestones in the development of high spatial resolution x-ray microscopy for the life and physical sciences. In one series of experiments it was clearly demonstrated that x-ray optical systems are capable of forming images of nanostructure patterns associated with future microelectronic devices, to a spatial resolution better than 0.1 microns. In the second set of experiments, unaltered biological material was imaged in its natural state without recourse to sectioning, staining, fixing or drying, at a spatial resolution well beyond that of the optical microscope, and with a delivered energy dose well below that of an electron microscope. 11 refs., 3 figs.

Attwood, D.; Vladimirsky, Y.; Kern, D.; Meyer-Ilse, W.; Kirz, J.; Rothman, S.; Rarback, H.; Iskander, N.; McQuaid, K.; Ade, H.

1988-06-01

309

Challenges in astrophysics (Scientific session of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 25 January 2012)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On 25 January 2012, the scientific session of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS), entitled as "Challenges in astrophysics", was held at the conference hall of the Lebedev Physical Institute, RAS.The following reports were put on the session agenda posted on the website www.gpad.ac.ru of the RAS Physical Sciences Division: (1) Stepanov A V (Central (Pulkovo) Astronomical Observatory, RAS, St. Petersburg) "Coronal seismology";2) Yakovlev D G (Ioffe Physical Technical Institute, St. Petersburg St. Petersburg State Polytechnical University, St. Petersburg) "Superfluid neutron stars".The papers written on the base of the oral reports are published below. • Coronal seismology, A V Stepanov, V V Zaitsev, V M Nakariakov Physics-Uspekhi, 2012, Volume 55, Number 9, Pages 929-935 • Superfluid neutron stars, P S Shternin, D G Yakovlev Physics-Uspekhi, 2012, Volume 55, Number 9, Pages 935-941

2012-09-01

310

Physical and Chemical Sciences Center - research briefs. Volume 1-96  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report provides brief summaries of research performed in chemical and physical sciences at Sandia National Laboratories. Programs are described in the areas of advanced materials and technology, applied physics and chemistry, lasers, optics, and vision, and resources and capabilities.

Mattern

1994-01-01

311

Physical and Chemical Sciences Center - research briefs. Volume 1-96  

SciTech Connect

This report provides brief summaries of research performed in chemical and physical sciences at Sandia National Laboratories. Programs are described in the areas of advanced materials and technology, applied physics and chemistry, lasers, optics, and vision, and resources and capabilities.

Mattern, P.L.

1994-12-31

312

The social construction of science: a theoretical and empirical investigation of aspects of the institutionalisation of the physical sciences  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis concerns the institutionalisation of the physical sciences. The thesis breaks with the established traditions in the history, philosophy and sociology of sciences by attempting to capture both the cognitive and social dimensions of institutionalisation in one unified analysis. This unification has been achieved through a treatment of research as goal directed social action. This theme has been developed

Tom Jagtenberg

1980-01-01

313

When physics is not "just physics": complexity science invites new measurement frames for exploring the physics of cognitive and biological development.  

PubMed

The neurobiological sciences have struggled to resolve the physical foundations for biological and cognitive phenomena with a suspicion that biological and cognitive systems, capable of exhibiting and contributing to structure within themselves and through their contexts, are fundamentally distinct or autonomous from purely physical systems. Complexity science offers new physics-based approaches to explaining biological and cognitive phenomena. In response to controversy over whether complexity science might seek to "explain away" biology and cognition as "just physics," we propose that complexity science serves as an application of recent advances in physics to phenomena in biology and cognition without reducing or undermining the integrity of the phenomena to be explained. We highlight that physics is, like the neurobiological sciences, an evolving field and that the threat of reduction is overstated. We propose that distinctions between biological and cognitive systems from physical systems are pretheoretical and thus optional. We review our own work applying insights from post-classical physics regarding turbulence and fractal fluctuations to the problems of developing cognitive structure. Far from hoping to reduce biology and cognition to "nothing but" physics, we present our view that complexity science offers new explanatory frameworks for considering physical foundations of biological and cognitive phenomena. PMID:23356692

Kelty-Stephen, Damian; Dixon, James A

2012-01-01

314

The Nobel Prize in the Physics Class: Science, History, and Glamour  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper introduces a novel strategy for teaching physics: using the Nobel Physics Prize as an organizational theme for high school or even first year university physics, bringing together history, social contexts of science, and central themes in modern physics. The idea underlying the strategy is that the glamour and glitter of the Nobel…

Eshach, Haim

2009-01-01

315

Preparing future science teachers: the physics component of a new programme  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A programme that prepares school science and mathematics teachers has been created through the efforts of the science and education faculty of Kansas State University. The programme includes close connections between the students' science courses, their experiences in the schools and learning how to teach. This article describes the physics component.

Zollman, Dean A.

2007-03-08

316

Annual Report of the Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Resources.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report highlights and presents examples of the Commission on Physical Science, Mathematics, and Resources' (CPSMR) recent activities and future plans. Selected programs and activities from the 224 boards and committees that operate within CPSMR are reviewed. These range from studies of basic science to examinations of applied science and…

National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Resources.

317

Exploring Magnetism: from Standards-based physical science concepts to cutting edge NASA research  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increasing focus on educational standards in the K-12 classroom can appear to push out extra topics, like cutting-edge NASA science. But that need not be the case. All NASA science is rooted in basic physical science and mathematics concepts. Relating modern investigations to their basic principles is an effective way to not only insert these topics into classroom curricula,

B. J. Mendez; L. M. Peticolas

2008-01-01

318

Exploring Science Curriculum Emphases in Relation to the Alberta Physics Program-of-Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Using Roberts' (1982, 1988, 1995, 1998, 2003) seven science curriculum emphases as its framework, this investigation into Alberta's physics program-of-study found that pre-service and novice teachers reported focusing on four of the emphases--"Structure of Science"; "Scientific Skill Development"; "Science, Technology, and Decisions"; and…

Chu, Man-Wai

2012-01-01

319

Annual Report of the Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Resources.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This report highlights and presents examples of the Commission on Physical Science, Mathematics, and Resources' (CPSMR) recent activities and future plans. Selected programs and activities from the 224 boards and committees that operate within CPSMR are reviewed. These range from studies of basic science to examinations of applied science and…

National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Resources.

320

PR^2EPS: Preparation, Recruitment, Retention and Excellence in the Physical Sciences  

Microsoft Academic Search

The PR^2EPS program is a multidisciplinary effort to increase the number of majors attending (and graduating) from SUNY Oneonta with degrees in chemistry, physics, biochemistry, astronomy, secondary chemistry or physics education and related areas. Components of the program include a walk-in tutoring center, a free, weeklong summer science camp, scholarship opportunities and an equipment loan program for regional secondary science

Sunil Labroo; John Schaumloffel; Hugh Gallagher; Paul Bischoff; Nancy Bachman

2007-01-01

321

A study of preservice elementary teachers enrolled in a discrepant-event-based physical science class  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research evaluated the POWERFUL IDEAS IN PHYSICAL SCIENCE (PIiPS) curriculum model used to develop a physical science course taken by preservice elementary teachers. The focus was on the evaluation of discrepant events used to induce conceptual change in relation to students' ideas concerning heat, temperature, and specific heat. Both quantitative and qualitative methodologies were used for the analysis. Data

James Edward Lilly

1999-01-01

322

Los Alamos National Laboratory Associate Directorate for Physics and Life Sciences Quality Program  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses the following on Los Alamos National Laboratory: laboratory mission with physics and life sciences goals; physics and life sciences quality requirements and guidance documents basis; process flow-down of documentation; line-organization internal and external assessments; laboratory management issues under development; and the quality assurance management plan.

Mignardot, H.

1993-03-01

323

Los Alamos National Laboratory Associate Directorate for Physics and Life Sciences Quality Program  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses the following on Los Alamos National Laboratory: laboratory mission with physics and life sciences goals; physics and life sciences quality requirements and guidance documents basis; process flow-down of documentation; line-organization internal and external assessments; laboratory management issues under development; and the quality assurance management plan.

Mignardot, H.

1993-01-01

324

Science Fiction Stories with Good Astronomy and Physics: A Topical Index  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is a selective list of some short stories and novels that use more or less accurate science and can be used for teaching or reinforcing astronomy or physics concepts. I include both traditional science-fiction and (occasionally) more serious fiction that derives meaning or plot from astronomy or physics ideas. The titles of short stories are given in quotation marks;

A. Fraknoi

2010-01-01

325

Measurement in Physical Education and Exercise Science (MPEES): Accomplishments and Challenges  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This year marks the 10th year of publication for "Measurement in Physical Education and Exercise Science" (MPEES). As we are forging into future, it would be very helpful to evaluate the role MPEES has played in the evolution of the research in physical education and exercise science. In this issue, the authors address the challenges that MPEES…

Liu, Yuanlong

2007-01-01

326

Science Library of Test Items. Volume Eighteen. A Collection of Multiple Choice Test Items Relating Mainly to Chemistry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As one in a series of test item collections developed by the Assessment and Evaluation Unit of the Directorate of Studies, items are made available to teachers for the construction of unit tests or term examinations or as a basis for class discussion. Each collection was reviewed for content validity and reliability. The test items meet syllabus…

New South Wales Dept. of Education, Sydney (Australia).

327

Jorge Luis Borges and the New Physics: the Literature of Modern Science and the Science of Modern Literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

By examining the works of the Argentine writer, Jorge Luis Borges, and the parallels it has with modern physics, literature and science converge in their quest for truth regarding the structure and meaning of the universe. The classical perception of physics as a \\

Mark Robert Mosher

1992-01-01

328

Using working memory theory to investigate the construct validity of multiple-choice reading comprehension tests such as the SAT.  

PubMed

When taking multiple-choice tests of reading comprehension such as the Scholastic Assessment Test (SAT), test takers use a range of strategies that vary in the extent to which they emphasize reading the questions versus reading the passages. Researchers have challenged the construct validity of these tests because test takers can achieve better-than-chance performance even if they do not read the passages at all. By using an individual-differences approach that compares the relative power of working memory span to predict SAT performance for different test-taking strategies, the authors show that the SAT appears to be tapping reading comprehension processes as long as test takers engage in at least some reading of the passages themselves. PMID:11409100

Daneman, M; Hannon, B

2001-06-01

329

Exploring what contributes to the knowledge development of secondary physics and physical science teachers in a continuous professional development context  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation used qualitative methodologies, specifically phenomenological research, to investigate what contributes to the development of pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) of physics and physical science teachers who participate in a content-specific continuous professional development program. There were five participants in this study. The researcher conducted participant observations and interviews, rated participants degree of reformed teaching practices using the Reformed Teaching Observation Protocol, surveyed participants' self-efficacy beliefs using the Science Teacher Efficacy Belief Instrument "A," and rated participants'' level of PCK using the PCK Rubrics.. All data were analyzed, and a composite description of what contributes to physics and physical science teachers' PCK development through a continuous professional development program emerged. A theory also emerged from the participants' experiences pertaining to how teachers' assimilate new conditions into their existing teaching schema, how conditions change teachers' perceptions of their practice, and outcomes of teachers' new ideas towards their practice. This study contributed to the literature by suggesting emergent themes and a theory on the development of physics and physical science teachers' PCK. PCK development is theorized to be a spiral process incorporating new conditions into the spiral as teachers employ new science content knowledge and pedagogical practices in their individual classroom contexts.

Nelms, April Wagnon

330

Development and evaluation of large-enrollment, active-learning physical science curriculum  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We report on the initial field tests of Learning Physical Science (LEPS), a new curriculum adapted from Physical Science and Everyday Thinking (PSET). PSET is an inquiry-based, hands-on, physical science curriculum that includes an explicit focus on nature of science and nature of learning. PSET was developed for small enrollment discussion/lab settings. The Learning Physical Science (LEPS) curriculum maintains the same research-based learning principles as PSET but is suitable for classes taught in lecture format. LEPS has been field tested by eight instructors at different universities. In this paper, we describe the adaptation process, the resulting LEPS curriculum, and present student learning outcomes for LEPS and PSET.

Goldberg, Fred; Price, Edward; Harlow, Danielle; Robinson, Stephen J.; Kruse, Rebecca; Mckean, Michael

2011-01-01

331

The Nobel Prize in the Physics Class: Science, History, and Glamour  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper introduces a novel strategy for teaching physics: using the Nobel Physics Prize as an organizational theme for high school or even first year university physics, bringing together history, social contexts of science, and central themes in modern physics. The idea underlying the strategy is that the glamour and glitter of the Nobel Prize story may attract and motivate high school students to open-up to scientific topics and thus be spurred to pursue science. The two major arguments for the method are that if presented in story form Nobel Prizes naturally incorporate the philosophical and historical aspects of science and therefore enable teaching about science as well as teaching science itself; and that such instruction implements case-based teaching principles, which is how humans naturally think, learn, and remember. Finally, the paper presents the storycase of the Nobel Prize Einstein received for his discovery of the law of the photoelectric effect as a concrete illustration of classroom implementation.

Eshach, Haim

2009-10-01

332

Development and evaluation of large-enrollment, active-learning physical science curriculum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on the initial field tests of Learning Physical Science (LEPS), a new curriculum adapted from Physical Science and Everyday Thinking (PSET). PSET is an inquiry-based, hands-on, physical science curriculum that includes an explicit focus on nature of science and nature of learning. PSET was developed for small enrollment discussion/lab settings. The Learning Physical Science (LEPS) curriculum maintains the same research-based learning principles as PSET but is suitable for classes taught in lecture format. LEPS has been field tested by eight instructors at different universities. In this paper, we describe the adaptation process, the resulting LEPS curriculum, and present student learning outcomes for LEPS and PSET.

Goldberg, Fred; Price, Edward; Harlow, Danielle; Robinson, Steve; Kruse, Rebecca; McKean, Michael

2010-10-01

333

The USAF Academy Basic Physics Exam File.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes the purpose, construction, use, maintenance, and improvement of a basic physics examination file by the U.S. Air Force Academy. Includes nine sample objectives, two multiple-choice items, and an example of computer item analysis. (SK)|

Enger, Rolf C.

1981-01-01

334

American Institute of Physics (AIP): Select Articles in the Chemical Sciences  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The American Institute of Physics (AIP) Chemical Sciences Website maintains this series of select, online articles in the Chemical Sciences. Featured articles represent current cutting-edge research in physical, analytical, biophysical, materials, and surface chemistry. At present, 21 articles are available, covering "Pulse-stacked cavity ring-down spectroscopy" and "Improved energy transfer in electrophosphorescent devices," among other topics. Online articles are selected from five peer-reviewed journals: The Journal of Chemical Physics, Journal of Applied Physics, Applied Physics Letters, Review of Scientific Instruments, and Chaos. All articles are available in .pdf format only and may be downloaded for browsing or printing.

335

P N Lebedev Physical Institute RAS — 75 years(Joint session of the P N Lebedev Physical Institute Research Council and the Scientific session of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences and the United Physical Society of the Russian Federation, 6 April 2009)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Joint session of the P N Lebedev Physical Institute Research Council of the Academy of Sciences and the Scientific session of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences and the United Physical Society of the Russian Federation was convened on 6 April 2009 to mark the 75th anniversary of the P N Lebedev Physical Institute of

Gennadii A Mesyats; Boris M Bolotovskii; Yurii V Kopaev; Nikolai S Kardashev; Georgii T Zatsepin; Tat'yana M Roganova; Anatolii V Masalov; Mikhail A Gubin; Vladimir L Velichansky; Rustam D Dagkesamanskii

2009-01-01

336

CONFERENCES AND SYMPOSIA: P N Lebedev Physical Institute RAS --- 75 years(Joint session of the P N Lebedev Physical Institute Research Council and the Scientific session of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences and the United Physical Society of the Russian Federation, 6 April 2009)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Joint session of the P N Lebedev Physical Institute Research Council of the Academy of Sciences and the Scientific session of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences and the United Physical Society of the Russian Federation was convened on 6 April 2009 to mark the 75th anniversary of the P N Lebedev Physical Institute of

Gennadii A. Mesyats; Boris M. Bolotovskii; Yurii V. Kopaev; Nikolai S. Kardashev; Georgii T. Zatsepin; Tat'yana M. Roganova; Anatolii V. Masalov; Mikhail A. Gubin; Vladimir L. Velichansky; Rustam D. Dagkesamanskii

2009-01-01

337

A comparison of cognitive skills utilized in high school physical education, English, mathematics, and science programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was two-fold. The first purpose was to identify cognitive skills and cognitive concepts perceived to be common among the high school physical education environment, and the science, math, and English classrooms. The second purpose was to identify various attitudes regarding physical education that influence the integration of the physical education curriculum with other academic subject

Claudia Janette Schleyer

1998-01-01

338

What Goes Well with Physics? Measuring and Altering the Image of Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Background: In view of the shortage of students majoring in science, we examined the image of physics in terms of students' implicit, automatic associations with physics. Aims: To describe the specific image of physics that might alienate students ("difficulty," "masculinity," "heteronomy") and test an intervention for altering the image.…

Kessels, Ursula; Rau, Melanie; Hannover, Bettina

2006-01-01

339

Activities in Planetary Geology for the Physical and Earth Sciences.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The activities in this guide deal with concepts in planetary geology, but they can be generalized to illustrate broad problems in the earth sciences. They are designed to supplement or introduce topics usually encountered in earth science courses. The exercises, organized into independent units which can be presented in any order, are appropriate…

D'Alli, Richard, Ed.; Greely, Ronald, Ed.

340

Space physics activities in a high school science classroom  

Microsoft Academic Search

Space science is only rivaled by dinosaurs in popularity. We wish to use the natural interest in space science to motivate high school students to learn skills and concepts required by the TEKS, the Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills. While the context of this set of connected activities is space weather, the actual skills being addressed include motion of objects

Robert Bruntz; Ramon Lopez

2000-01-01

341

Factors that encourage females to pursue physical science careers: Testing five common hypotheses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are many hypotheses regarding factors that may encourage female students to pursue careers in the physical sciences. Using Propensity Score Matching (PSM) on national data (n=7505) drawn from the Persistence Research in Science and Engineering (PRiSE) project, we test five commonly held beliefs including having a single-sex physics class, having a female physics teacher, having female scientist guest speakers in physics class, discussing the work of women scientists in physics class, and discussing the under-representation of women in physics class. The effect of these experiences is compared for female students who are matched on several factors, including parental education, prior science/math interests, and academic background, thereby controlling for the effect of many confounding variables.

Hazari, Zahra; Potvin, Geoff; Lock, Robynne M.; Lung, Florin; Sadler, Philip M.; Sonnert, Gerhard

2012-03-01

342

From the history of physics (Scientific session of the General Meeting of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 17 December 2012)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A scientific session of the General Meeting of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS) was held in the conference hall of the Lebedev Physical Institute, RAS on 17 December 2012.The following reports were put on the session's agenda posted on the website http://www.gpad.ac.ru of the RAS Physical Sciences Division: (1) Dianov E M (Fiber Optics Research Center, RAS, Moscow) "On the threshold of a peta era"; (2) Zabrodskii A G (Ioffe Physical Technical Institute, RAS, St. Petersburg) "Scientists' contribution to the great victory in WWII using the example of the Leningrad (now A F Ioffe) Physical Technical Institute"; (3) Ilkaev R I (Russian Federal Nuclear Center --- All-Russian Research Institute of Experimental Physics, Sarov) "Major stages of the Soviet Atomic Project"; (4) Cherepashchuk A M (Sternberg State Astronomical Institute of Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow) "History of the Astronomy history ". Papers written on the basis of the reports are published below. • On the Threshold of Peta-era, E M Dianov Physics-Uspekhi, 2013, Volume 56, Number 5, Pages 486–492 • Scientists' contribution to the Great Victory in WWII on the example of the Leningrad (now A F Ioffe) Physical Technical Institute, A G Zabrodskii Physics-Uspekhi, 2013, Volume 56, Number 5, Pages 493–502 • Major stages of the Atomic Project, R I Ilkaev Physics-Uspekhi, 2013, Volume 56, Number 5, Pages 502–509 • History of the Universe History, A M Cherepashchuk Physics-Uspekhi, 2013, Volume 56, Number 5, Pages 509–530

2013-05-01

343

The assessment of critical thinking skills in anatomy and physiology students who practice writing higher order multiple choice questions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Critical thinking is a complex abstraction that defies homogeneous interpretation. This means that no operational definition is universal and no critical thinking measurement tool is all encompassing. Instructors will likely find evidence based strategies to facilitate thinking skills only as numerous research efforts from multiple disciplines accumulate. This study focuses on a question writing exercise designed to help anatomy and physiology students. Students were asked to design multiple choice questions that combined course concepts in new and novel ways. Instructions and examples were provided on how to construct these questions and student attempts were sorted into levels one through three of Bloom's Cognitive Taxonomy (Bloom et al. 1956). Students submitted their question designs weekly and received individual feedback as to how they might improve. Eight course examinations were created to contain questions that modeled the Bloom's Cognitive Taxonomy levels that students were attempting. Students were assessed on their course examination performance as well as performance on a discipline independent critical thinking test called the California Critical Thinking Skills Test (CCTST). The performance of students in this study was compared to students from two previous years that took the same course but did not have the question writing activity. Results suggest that students do not improve their ability to answer critical thinking multiple choices questions when they practice the task of creating such problems. The effect of class level on critical thinking is examined and it appears that the longer a student has attended college the better the performance on both discipline specific and discipline independent critical thinking questions. The data were also used to analyze students who improved their course examination grades in the second semester of this course. There is a pattern to suggest that students who improve their performance on course examinations did so largely in non-critical thinking problems. Although, when this subset of students is analyzed by class level it appears that sophomores reverse the pattern and improve much more in critical thinking type questions than their upper classmen. The implications of this are discussed.

Shaw, Jason

344

Tribute to Emil Wolf: Science and Engineering Legacy of Physical Optics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An icon in the world of optics, Emil Wolf laid the foundations of contemporary physical optics by documenting the concept of spatial coherence before lasers were introduced. This powerful concept has influenced many areas of optical science and engineerin...

T. P. Jannson

2004-01-01

345

Physics, Computer Science and Mathematics Division. Annual report, 1 January-31 December 1979  

SciTech Connect

This annual report describes the research work carried out by the Physics, Computer Science and Mathematics Division during 1979. The major research effort of the Division remained High Energy Particle Physics with emphasis on preparing for experiments to be carried out at PEP. The largest effort in this field was for development and construction of the Time Projection Chamber, a powerful new particle detector. This work took a large fraction of the effort of the physics staff of the Division together with the equivalent of more than a hundred staff members in the Engineering Departments and shops. Research in the Computer Science and Mathematics Department of the Division (CSAM) has been rapidly expanding during the last few years. Cross fertilization of ideas and talents resulting from the diversity of effort in the Physics, Computer Science and Mathematics Division contributed to the software design for the Time Projection Chamber, made by the Computer Science and Applied Mathematics Department.

Lepore, J.V. (ed.)

1980-09-01

346

Space physics activities in a high school science classroom  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Space science is only rivaled by dinosaurs in popularity. We wish to use the natural interest in space science to motivate high school students to learn skills and concepts required by the TEKS, the Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills. While the context of this set of connected activities is space weather, the actual skills being addressed include motion of objects and the nature of magnetism. We also are investigating the impact on student attitudes of using space science in the classroom. This talk will report the current status and future plans concerning this trial.

Bruntz, Robert; Lopez, Ramon

2000-10-01

347

The Nobel Prize in the Physics Class: Science, History, and Glamour  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces a novel strategy for teaching physics: using the Nobel Physics Prize as an organizational theme for\\u000a high school or even first year university physics, bringing together history, social contexts of science, and central themes\\u000a in modern physics. The idea underlying the strategy is that the glamour and glitter of the Nobel Prize story may attract and\\u000a motivate

Haim Eshach

2009-01-01

348

Teachers' Willingness to Adopt Nature of Science Activities Following a Physical Science Professional Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The major science education reform documents emphasize the need for K-12 students to have a robust understanding of nature of science (NOS), and inservice teachers consequently need to develop their NOS teaching repertoires. This study investigated the extent to which science teachers were willing to adopt new strategies and activities for teaching NOS in their classrooms. The participants were 36

Lisa A. Donnelly; Sean Argyle

2011-01-01

349

Gender and Physics: Feminist Philosophy and Science Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Physics education reform movements should pay attention to feminist analyses of gender in the culture of physics for two reasons. One reason is that feminist analyses contribute to an understanding of a "chilly climate" women encounter in many physics university departments. Another reason is that feminist analyses reveal that certain styles of…

Rolin, Kristina

2008-01-01

350

The 1994-95 North Carolina State Testing Results. Multiple-Choice End-of-Grade and End-of-Course Tests Including English II Essay.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document provides information on average student performance at the state level on end-of-grade (grades 3 through 8 in reading and mathematics and grades 4 through 8 in social studies) multiple-choice tests and all end-of-course (high school courses) tests administered in 1994-95 as part of the North Carolina Testing Program. State-level…

North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Div. of Accountability.

351

A Stratified Study of Students' Understanding of Basic Optics Concepts in Different Contexts Using Two-Tier Multiple-Choice Items  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A large scale study involving 1786 year 7-10 Korean students from three school districts in Seoul was undertaken to evaluate their understanding of basic optics concepts using a two-tier multiple-choice diagnostic instrument consisting of four pairs of items, each of which evaluated the same concept in two different contexts. The instrument,…

Chu, Hye-Eun; Treagust, David F.; Chandrasegaran, A. L.

2009-01-01

352

Measuring the Consistency in Change in Hepatitis B Knowledge among Three Different Types of Tests: True/False, Multiple Choice, and Fill in the Blanks Tests.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The recall of information about Hepatitis B demonstrated by 180 seventh graders was tested with three test types: (1) short-answer; (2) true/false; and (3) multiple-choice. Short answer testing was the most reliable. Suggestions are made for the use of short-answer tests in evaluating student knowledge. (SLD)|

Sahai, Vic; Demeyere, Petra; Poirier, Sheila; Piro, Felice

1998-01-01

353

Using Distractor-Driven Standards-Based Multiple-Choice Assessments and Rasch Modeling to Investigate Hierarchies of Chemistry Misconceptions and Detect Structural Problems with Individual Items  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Distractor-driven multiple-choice assessment items and Rasch modeling were used as diagnostic tools to investigate students' understanding of middle school chemistry ideas. Ninety-one items were developed according to a procedure that ensured content alignment to the targeted standards and construct validity. The items were administered to 13360…

Herrmann-Abell, Cari F.; DeBoer, George E.

2011-01-01

354

Symptom Distress Check Lists as a Component of Quality of Life Measurement: Comparing Symptom Reports with Responses to Multiple Choice Questionnaires  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to capture both positive and negative aspects of the quality of life (QOL), clinicians and researchers commonly look to symptom inventories to supplement psychometric measures combining multiple-choice questionnaire items. While these two modalities clearly approach the broad concept of QOL from distinct directions, one wonders how much unique information —and, on the other hand, how much redundancy—each contributes

Richard B. Anderson; Johanna F. Nackley; Marcia A. Testa

1995-01-01

355

Sex-Related Performance Differences on Constructed-Response and Multiple-Choice Sections of Advanced Placement Examinations. College Board Report No. 92-7.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This report describes three exploratory studies of the performance of males and females on the multiple-choice and constructed-response sections of four Advanced Placement Examinations: United States History, Biology, Chemistry, and English Language and Composition. Analyses were carried out for each racial or ethnic group with a sample size of…

Mazzeo, John; And Others

356

Development and Application of a Two-Tier Multiple Choice Diagnostic Instrument To Assess High School Students' Understanding of Inorganic Chemistry Qualitative Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes the development and application of a two-tier multiple choice diagnostic instrument to assess high school students' understanding of inorganic chemistry qualitative analysis. Shows that the Grade 10 students had difficulty understanding the reactions involved in the identification of cations and anions, for example, double decomposition…

Tan, Kim Chwee Daniel; Goh, Ngoh Khang; Chia, Lian Sai; Treagust, David F.

2002-01-01

357

A Comparison of the Performance on Three Multiple Choice Question Papers in Obstetrics and Gynecology Over a Period of Three Years Administered at Five London Medical Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Five of the medical schools in the University of London collaborated in administering one multiple choice question paper in obstetrics and gynecology, and results showed differences in performance between the five schools on questions and alternatives within questions. The rank order of the schools may result from differences in teaching methods.…

Stevens, J. M.; And Others

1977-01-01

358

Measuring the Consistency in Change in Hepatitis B Knowledge among Three Different Types of Tests: True/False, Multiple Choice, and Fill in the Blanks Tests.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The recall of information about Hepatitis B demonstrated by 180 seventh graders was tested with three test types: (1) short-answer; (2) true/false; and (3) multiple-choice. Short answer testing was the most reliable. Suggestions are made for the use of short-answer tests in evaluating student knowledge. (SLD)

Sahai, Vic; Demeyere, Petra; Poirier, Sheila; Piro, Felice

1998-01-01

359

Examining Two Strategies to Link Mixed-Format Tests Using Multiple-Choice Anchors. Research Report. ETS RR-10-18  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examined the use of an all multiple-choice (MC) anchor for linking mixed format tests containing both MC and constructed-response (CR) items, in a nonequivalent groups design. An MC-only anchor could effectively link two such test forms if either (a) the MC and CR portions of the test measured the same construct, so that the MC anchor…

Walker, Michael E.; Kim, Sooyeon

2010-01-01

360

How Are the Form and Magnitude of DIF Effects in Multiple-Choice Items Determined by Distractor-Level Invariance Effects?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article explores how the magnitude and form of differential item functioning (DIF) effects in multiple-choice items are determined by the underlying differential distractor functioning (DDF) effects, as modeled under the nominal response model. The results of a numerical investigation indicated that (a) the presence of one or more nonzero…

Penfield, Randall D.

2011-01-01

361

Teaching Physical Science through Children's Literature. 20 Complete Lessons for Elementary Grades.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This guide focuses on teaching hands-on, discovery-oriented physical science in the elementary classroom using children's literature. Each lesson is an integrated learning episode with a clearly defined science content objective which is supported and enriched through literature, writing, and mathematics. The three sections are: (1) "Properties…

Gertz, Susan E.; Portman, Dwight J.; Sarquis, Mickey

362

Re-Examining the Similarities between Teacher and Student Conceptions about Physical Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|There is a large body of research that has explored students' misconceptions about science phenomena. Less research, however, has been devoted to identifying teachers' misconceptions, but the results of the few existing studies demonstrate that teachers and students possess similar misconceptions. This study explored the physical science

Burgoon, Jacob N.; Heddle, Mandy L.; Duran, Emilio

2010-01-01

363

Introductory Physical Science (I.P.S.) A Useful Background for Chem. Study Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The study investigates the usefulness of teaching science courses that have a commonality of subject matter and a sequential patterning of operations. Introductory Physical Science (IPS) and CHEM Study courses were compared. The results indicated IPS is a useful background for CHEM Study. (BR)|

D'Amboise, Angela; Searles, William E.

1974-01-01

364

Guided learning chemistry activities in the physical science (PSCI 1030) lab at Middle Tennessee State University  

Microsoft Academic Search

Guided learning labs as alternatives to traditional style chemistry-related labs were tested in the course, Topics in Physical Science. Guided learning labs emphasized students' conceptual understanding of the science content and actively involved the instructor during the lab. The control group performed traditional lab exorcise while students who carried out the guided learning activities formed the treatment group. Both groups

Barry Farris

2005-01-01

365

A N Frumkin Institute of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This issue is composed of review articles prepared by staff members of the A N Frumkin Institute of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry, a top chemical institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences. The institute staff comprises more than 800 persons, including 9 Academicians, 10 Corresponding Members of the RAS, about 100 Doctors of Science and 260 PhD.

Tsivadze, Aslan Yu

2012-10-01

366

Teaching Physical Science through Children's Literature. 20 Complete Lessons for Elementary Grades.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide focuses on teaching hands-on, discovery-oriented physical science in the elementary classroom using children's literature. Each lesson is an integrated learning episode with a clearly defined science content objective which is supported and enriched through literature, writing, and mathematics. The three sections are: (1) "Properties of…

Gertz, Susan E.; Portman, Dwight J.; Sarquis, Mickey

367

Physical and Information Sciences and Engineering: Report of the Project 2061 Phase I Physical and Information Sciences and Engineering Panel.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This is one of five panel reports that have been prepared as part of the first phase of Project 2061, a long-term, multipurpose undertaking of the American Association for the Advancement of Science designed to help reform science, mathematics, and technology education in the United States. Major sections included are: (1) "Introduction"…

Bugliarello, George

368

Plasmonics (Scientific session of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 21 February 2012)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A scientific session of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS), entitled 'Plasmonics', was held in the Conference Hall of the Lebedev Physical Institute, RAS on 21 February 2012. The following reports were put on the session agenda posted on the website www.gpad.ac.ru of the RAS Physical Sciences Division: (1) Kukushkin I V, Murav'ev V M (Institute of Solid State Physics, RAS, Chernogolovka, Moscow region) "Terahertz plasmonics"; (2) Lozovik Yu E (Institute of Spectroscopy, RAS, Troitsk, Moscow region) "Plasmonics and magnetoplasmonics based on graphene and a topological insulator"; (3) Protsenko I E (P N Lebedev Physical Institute, RAS, Moscow) "Dipole nanolaser"; (4) Vinogradov A P, Andrianov E S, Pukhov A A, Dorofeenko A V (Institute for Theoretical and Applied Electrodynamics, RAS, Moscow), Lisyansky A A (Queens College of the City University of New York, USA) "Quantum plasmonics of metamaterials: loss compensation using spasers"; (5) Klimov V V (Lebedev Physical Institute, RAS, Moscow) "Quantum theory of radiation of optically active molecules in the vicinity of chiral nano-meta-particles". The papers written on the basis of oral reports 2-5 are published below. • Plasmonics and magnetoplasmonics based on graphene and a topological insulator, Yu E Lozovik Physics-Uspekhi, 2012, Volume 55, Number 10, Pages 1035-1039 • Theory of the dipole nanolaser, I E Protsenko Physics-Uspekhi, 2012, Volume 55, Number 10, Pages 1040-1046 • Quantum plasmonics of metamaterials: loss compensation using spasers, A P Vinogradov, E S Andrianov, A A Pukhov, A V Dorofeenko, A A Lisyansky Physics-Uspekhi, 2012, Volume 55, Number 10, Pages 1046-1053 • Using chiral nano-meta-particles to control chiral molecule radiation, V V Klimov, D V Guzatov Physics-Uspekhi, 2012, Volume 55, Number 10, Pages 1054-1058

2012-10-01

369

Science-technology dimensions in physics education: prospects and impact  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multidimensional method for emphasizing Science versus Technology is proposed. The purpose is to optimize learning and enhance pupils' ability to apply knowledge and thinking skills in solving new problems.

S. Waks

1994-01-01

370

Physics at the proposed National Underground Science Facility  

SciTech Connect

The scientific, technical, and financial reasons for building a National Underground Science Facility are discussed. After reviewing examples of other underground facilities, we focus on the Los Alamos proposal and the national for its choice of site.

Nieto, M.M.

1983-01-01

371

A comparative analysis of multiple-choice and student performance-task assessment in the high school biology classroom  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study compared the performance of high school students on laboratory assessments. Thirty-four high school students who were enrolled in the second semester of a regular biology class or had completed the biology course the previous semester participated in this study. They were randomly assigned to examinations of two formats, performance-task and traditional multiple-choice, from two content areas, using a compound light microscope and diffusion. Students were directed to think-aloud as they performed the assessments. Additional verbal data were obtained during interviews following the assessment. The tape-recorded narrative data were analyzed for type and diversity of knowledge and skill categories, and percentage of in-depth processing demonstrated. While overall mean scores on the assessments were low, elicited statements provided additional insight into student cognition. Results indicated that a greater diversity of knowledge and skill categories was elicited by the two microscope assessments and by the two performance-task assessments. In addition, statements demonstrating in-depth processing were coded most frequently in narratives elicited during clinical interviews following the diffusion performance-task assessment. This study calls for individual teachers to design authentic assessment practices and apply them to daily classroom routines. Authentic assessment should be an integral part of the learning process and not merely an end result. In addition, teachers are encouraged to explicitly identify and model, through think-aloud methods, desired cognitive behaviors in the classroom.

Cushing, Patrick Ryan

372

An Online National Archive of Multiple-Choice Questions for Astro 101 and the Development of the Question Complexity Rubric  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are developing a national archive of multiple-choice questions for use in the Astronomy 101 classroom. These questions are intended to supplement an instructor's implementation of Think-Pair-Share or for their assessment purposes (i.e., exams and homework). We are also developing the Question Complexity Rubric (QCR) to guide members of the Astro 101 teaching and learning community in assisting us with hierarchically ranking questions in this archive based on their conceptual complexity. Using the QCR, a score is assigned to differentiate each question based on the cognitive steps necessary to comprehensively explain the reasoning pathway to the correct answer. The lowest QCR score is given to questions with a reasoning pathway requiring only declarative knowledge. The highest QCR score is given to questions with a reasoning pathway that requires multiple connected cognitive steps. When completed, the online question archive will provide users with the utility to 1) use the QCR to score questions 2) search for and download questions based on topic and/or QCR score, and 3) add their own questions to the archive. Stop by our poster to test your skills at determining question complexity by trying out the QCR with our sample questions.

Cormier, S.; Prather, E.; Brissenden, G.

2011-09-01

373

An Evaluation of the Particle Physics Masterclass as a Context for Student Learning about the Nature of Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This dissertation addresses the research question: To what extent do secondary school science students attending the U.S. Particle Physics Masterclass change their view of the nature of science (NOS)? The U.S. Particle Physics Masterclass is a physics outreach program run by QuarkNet, a national organization of secondary school physics teachers…

Wadness, Michael J.

2010-01-01

374

Physics 300 Provincial Examination.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document consists of the physics 300 provincial examination (English version), a separate "provincial summary report" on the results of giving the test, and a separate French language version of the examination. This physics examination contains a 53-item multiple choice section and an 12 item free response section. Subsections of the test…

Manitoba Dept. of Education and Training, Winnipeg.

375

Increased Learning of Physical Science Concepts via Multimedia Exhibit Compared to Hands-On Exhibit in a Science Museum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to determine whether the use of an interactive multimedia exhibit is more effective than a traditional hands-on exhibit in teaching physical science in a museum setting. The Simple Machine exhibit, a permanent display at the East Tennessee Discovery Center, was used as a comparison with an interactive computer…

Ayres, Roberta; Melear, Claudia T.

376

Towards a Science of Cyber-Physical Systems Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cyber-physical systems (CPS) represent the information technology quest of the 21-st century for a better, cleaner, safer life which integrates computation, communication, and control with physical processes. Physical processes are predominantly non-stationary and require time- dependent models for modeling and understanding their behavior. In contrast, in most current computing platforms, their workloads and design methodologies lack proper models for the

Paul Bogdan; Radu Marculescu

2011-01-01

377

Science and scientific literacy vs science and scientific awareness through basic physics lectures: A study of wish and reality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scientific literacy was already discussed in the 1950s, as a prerequisite for the general citizen in a world increasingly served and infused by science and technology: the so-called knowledge or learning society. This kind of literacy has been described in detail by Victor Showalter in 1975, expanded by others, and later defined succinctly by the OECD in 2003. As a complement, science literacy is described also by the National Science Digital Library (NSDL) as a content knowledge needed in setting up practical models for handling daily matters with science and engineering. These important and worthy aims were studied, and compared with reality and existing conditions. One hypothesis put forward and argued for is, that it is more realistic, considering existing trends, to aim for scientific and science awareness for the general student, while scientific and science literacy remain important and worthy aims for the common good of the global community, and important to be strived for by teachers, lecturers and intellectuals. The Basic Physics lectures can also lend themselves usefully for the more realistic aim, due to the science-based nature of the present knowledge society.

Rusli, Aloysius

2012-06-01

378

PR^2EPS: Preparation, recruitment, retention and excellence in the physical sciences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The PR^2EPS program is a multidisciplinary effort to increase the number of majors attending (and graduating) from SUNY Oneonta with degrees in physics, chemistry, secondary physics or chemistry education and related areas. Components of the program include a walk-in tutoring center, a free, weeklong summer science camp, scholarship opportunities, professional conference experiences, and an equipment loan program for regional secondary science teachers. 2006 was the third year of this NSF-DUE funded program. Evaluation of our progress to date shows that the program is effective at steering students (or at least reinforcing their desire) to studying the sciences in college and retaining them in their science programs. A summary of our goals, challenges and accomplishments, including tutoring center operation and efficacy, activities and operational details for the summer camp, and the overall impact on science programs at a medium sized college will be presented.

Gallagher, Hugh; Labroo, Sunil; Schaumloffel, John; Bischoff, Paul; Bachman, Nancy

2007-04-01

379

Learning Activity Package, Physical Science. LAP Numbers 5, 6, and 7.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|These three units of the Learning Activity Packages (LAPs) for individualized instruction in physical science cover the physical and chemical properties of water, dehydration of crystals, solutions, acidity, strong and weak bases, neutral properties of salts, amorphous forms of carbon, hydrocarbons, and petroleum products. Each unit contains a…

Williams, G. J.

380

Calculating and Understanding: Formal Models and Causal Explanations in Science, Common Reasoning and Physics Teaching  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper presents an analysis of the different types of reasoning and physical explanation used in science, common thought, and physics teaching. It then reflects on the learning difficulties connected with these various approaches, and suggests some possible didactic strategies. Although causal reasoning occurs very frequently in common…

Besson, Ugo

2010-01-01

381

PR^2EPS: Preparation, recruitment, retention and excellence in the physical sciences  

Microsoft Academic Search

The PR^2EPS program is a multidisciplinary effort to increase the number of majors attending (and graduating) from SUNY Oneonta with degrees in physics, chemistry, secondary physics or chemistry education and related areas. Components of the program include a walk-in tutoring center, a free, weeklong summer science camp, scholarship opportunities, professional conference experiences, and an equipment loan program for regional secondary

Hugh Gallagher; Sunil Labroo; John Schaumloffel; Paul Bischoff; Nancy Bachman

2007-01-01

382

Is Physicality an Important Aspect of Learning through Science Experimentation among Kindergarten Students?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this study was to investigate whether physicality (actual and active touch of concrete material), as such, is a necessity for science experimentation learning at the kindergarten level. We compared the effects of student experimentation with Physical Manipulatives (PM) and Virtual Manipulatives (VM) on kindergarten students'…

Zacharia, Zacharias C.; Loizou, Eleni; Papaevripidou, Marios

2012-01-01

383

Physical Chemistry for the Chemical and Biological Sciences (by Raymond Chang)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book does offer an alternative approach to physical chemistry that is particularly well suited for those who want to pursue a course of study more focused on the biological sciences. It could also be an excellent choice for schools that mainly serve preprofessional programs or for schools that have split physical chemistry tracks to independently serve the B.S. and

Andrew Pounds

2001-01-01

384

Developing a Framework for Critical Science Agency through Case Study in a Conceptual Physics Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this manuscript we examine how two students develop and express agency in and through high school physics. We tell the stories of two youth from a low-income, urban community to elucidate the important components of critical science agency in a physics context, and to situate a set of claims about how youth develop and express this concept.…

Basu, Sreyashi Jhumki; Barton, Angela Calabrese; Clairmont, Neil; Locke, Donya

2009-01-01

385

Develoing a framework for critical science agency through case study in a conceptual physics context  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this manuscript we examine how two students develop and express agency in and through high school physics. We tell the stories of two youth from a low-income, urban community to elucidate the important components of critical science agency in a physics context, and to situate a set of claims about how youth develop and express this concept. This research

Sreyashi Jhumki Basu; Angela Calabrese Barton; Neil Clairmont; Donya Locke

2008-01-01

386

Learning Activity Package, Physical Science. LAP Numbers 1, 2, 3, and 4.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|These four units of the Learning Activity Packages (LAPs) for individualized instruction in physical science cover measuring techniques, operations of instruments, metric system heat, matter, energy, elements, atomic numbers, isotopes, molecules, mixtures, compounds, physical and chemical properties, liquids, solids, and gases. Each unit contains…

Williams, G. J.

387

The Effectiveness of Orienting Students To the Physical Features of a Science Museum Prior To Visitation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Year Eight students that underwent novelty-reducing pre-orientation to the physical environment of an interactive science museum and had prior experience visiting the museum learned more than their counterparts. Those exhibits most frequently recalled shared a combination of characteristics such as large physical size, prominence in the exhibit…

Anderson, David; Lucas, Keith B.

1997-01-01

388

Developing a Framework for Critical Science Agency through Case Study in a Conceptual Physics Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this manuscript we examine how two students develop and express agency in and through high school physics. We tell the stories of two youth from a low-income, urban community to elucidate the important components of critical science agency in a physics context, and to situate a set of claims about how youth develop and express this concept.…

Basu, Sreyashi Jhumki; Barton, Angela Calabrese; Clairmont, Neil; Locke, Donya

2009-01-01

389

Virginia physical science teachers' content knowledge assessment and professional development preferences  

Microsoft Academic Search

The course content for middle school physical science in Virginia is defined by the Standards of Learning. These eleven categories include topics in scientific experimentation, the nature of matter, chemistry and physics. Content knowledge is essential if teachers are to provide effective teaching, which includes analogies, illustrations, examples, and most importantly, hands-on experimentation. One means of assessing teacher content knowledge

M. Georgeann Hendrick

2003-01-01

390

Integrating physics and the philosophy of science through guided design  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Describes a "guided design" instructional method utilized to introduce introductory physics students to decision-making processes and the role such processes play in physics. Guided design involves students in making decisions one step at a time in the solution of an open-ended problem, and is applicable to other disciplines.

Goldberg, Fred

2005-10-06

391

The Science House-Physics Curriculum Resource Guide  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This collection contains links to web sites, lesson plans, simulations, and other resources for high school physics teachers. Resources are grouped according to topic and tied to national standards for physics education. Study goals include scientific inquiry, linear motion, two dimensional motion, forces & Newton's laws of motion, impulse and momentum, energy, wave motion and wave nature of light and static electricity and circuits.

2010-08-23

392

The cultural production of "science" and "scientist" in high school physics: Girls' access, participation, and resistance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For over three decades, the gender gap in science and science education has received attention from teachers, policy makers, and scholars of various disciplines. During this time, feminist scholars have posited many reasons why the gender gap in science and science education exists. Early feminist discourse focused on girls' "deficits," while more recent work has begun to consider the problems with science and school science in the quest for a more gender inclusive science. Specifically, feminist scholars advocate a transformation of both how students learn science and the science curriculum that students are expected to learn. This study was designed to examine more deeply this call for a changed science curriculum and its implications for girls' participation, interest, and scientist identities. If we reinvisioned ways to "do" science, "learn" science, and "be a scientist" in school science, would girls come to see science as something interesting and worth pursuing further? This question framed my ethnographic investigation. I examined the culturally produced meanings of "science" and "scientist" in two high school physics classrooms (one traditional and one non-traditional class framed around real-world themes), how these meanings reproduced and contested larger sociohistorical (and prototypical) meanings of science and scientist, and how girls participated within and against these meanings. The results complicate the assumption that a classroom that enacts a non-traditional curriculum is "better" for girls. This study explained how each classroom challenged sociohistorical legacies of school science in various "spaces of possibility" and how prototypical meanings pushed the potential of these spaces to the margins. Girls in the traditional physics class generally embraced prototypical meanings because they could easily access "good student" identities. Girls in the non-traditional class, though attracted to alternative practices, struggled with the conflicting promoted student identities that did not allow them easy access to "good student" identities. In neither class were girls' perceptions of what it meant to do science and be a scientist challenged. And, in neither class did girls connect to a legitimate scientist identity. These findings leave unanswered the question of whether changes in pedagogy and curriculum alone will produce more gender fair school science.

Carlone, Heidi Berenson

2000-10-01

393

Physics, Computer Science and Mathematics Division annual report, 1 January-31 December 1983  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the research performed in the Physics, Computer Science and Mathematics Division of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory during calendar year 1983. The major activity of the Division is research in high-energy physics, both experimental and theoretical, and research and development in associated technologies. A smaller, but still significant, program is in computer science and applied mathematics. During 1983 there were approximately 160 people in the Division active in or supporting high-energy physics research, including about 40 graduate students. In computer science and mathematics, the total staff, including students and faculty, was roughly 50. Because of the creation in late 1983 of a Computing Division at LBL and the transfer of the Computer Science activities to the new Division, this annual report is the last from the Physics, Computer Science and Mathematics Division. In December 1983 the Division reverted to its historic name, the Physics Division. Its future annual reports will document high energy physics activities and also those of its Mathematics Department.

Jackson, J.D.

1984-08-01

394

Developing a Repertoire of Activities for Teaching Physical Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This activity manual is divided into 15 units which focus on: the nature of science; metric measurements; properties of matter; energy; atomic structure; chemical reactions; acids, bases, and salts; temperature and heat; readioactivity; mechanics; wave motion, sound, and light; static charges and current electricity magnetism and electromagnetism;…

Cain, Peggy W.

395

Hands On Physical Science Activities for Middle Schools. First Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book was written on the premise that learning science should be fun and rewarding. The teacher may use it as the foundation for an extended middle school curriculum spanning more than one year or to supplement an existing curriculum with individual sections or exercises from the book. The activities have been organized and designed in a…

Levy, Salvator S.

396

Microgravity: Teacher's Guide with Activities for Physical Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This teacher's guide to microgravity contains 16 student science activities with full background information to facilitate an understanding of the concepts of microgravity for teachers and students. Topics covered in the background sections include the definitions of gravity and microgravity, creating microgravity, the fluid state, combustion…

Vogt, Gregory L.; Wargo, Michael J.

397

Microgravity: Teacher's Guide with Activities for Physical Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This teacher's guide to microgravity contains 16 student science activities with full background information to facilitate an understanding of the concepts of microgravity for teachers and students. Topics covered in the background sections include the definitions of gravity and microgravity, creating microgravity, the fluid state, combustion…

Vogt, Gregory L.; Wargo, Michael J.

398

Hands On Physical Science Activities for Middle Schools. First Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This book was written on the premise that learning science should be fun and rewarding. The teacher may use it as the foundation for an extended middle school curriculum spanning more than one year or to supplement an existing curriculum with individual sections or exercises from the book. The activities have been organized and designed in a…

Levy, Salvator S.

399

Heliophysics Science and the Moon: Potential Solar and Space Physics Science for Lunar Exploration.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report addresses both these features new science enabled by NASAs exploration initiative and enabling science that is critical to ensuring a safe return to the Moon and onward to Mars. The areas of interest are structured into four main themes: Theme...

2007-01-01

400

Exploring Sun-Earth Connections: A Physical Science Program for (K-8)Teachers  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental, inquiry-based physical science curriculum for undergraduate, pre-service K-8 teachers is under development at the Catholic University of America in collaboration with the Solar Physics Branch of the Naval Research Laboratory and NASA's Sun-Earth Connection missions. This is a progress report. The current, stunningly successful exploratory phase in Sun-Earth Connection (SEC) physics, sparked by SOHO, Yohkoh, TRACE, and other

D. J. Michels; S. M. Pickert; J. L. Thompson; C. J. Montrose

2003-01-01

401

PRISSTâPhysics Resources & Instruction for Secondary Science Teachers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Panelists will describe and discuss characteristics of various programs leading to the physics certification of in-service (working) teachers. Among the topics discussed will be the type of students enrolled in these programs, and lessons learned.

Chancey, Cliff

2009-03-20

402

An Integrated Earth Science, Astronomy, and Physics Course for Elementary Education Majors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Physical World is a one-semester course designed for elementary education majors, that integrates earth science, astronomy, and physics. The course is part of a four-course set that explores science concepts, processes, and skills, along with the nature of scientific practice, that are included in state and national standards for elementary school science. Geo-science concepts, such as water and seismic waves, are used to illustrate general principles of physics, such as wave transmission, refraction, reflection, and interference. Laboratories are drawn from both introductory physics and earth science courses and have been redesigned to have a strong inquiry component. Pre-assessments were used to evaluate students' prior knowledge of key ideas. The use of pyramid tests measurably enhanced student performance. A major theme of the course is how science is represented (and misrepresented) in the media. Pedagogical challenges encountered in the course are due to various factors, two main ones being lack of previous experience with the natural world among a largely urban student body and the diversity of material that the course covers.

Plotnick, Roy E.; Varelas, Maria; Fan, Qian

2009-03-01

403

100th anniversary of the discovery of cosmic rays (Scientific session of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 24 October 2012)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A scientific session of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS), entitled "100th anniversary of the discovery of cosmic rays," was held on 24 October 2012 in the conference hall of the Lebedev Physical Institute, RAS.The agenda of the session announced on the RAS Physical Sciences Division website www.gpad.ac.ru included the following reports: (1) Panasyuk M I (Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics of the Lomonosov State University, Moscow) "The contribution of Russian scientists to the centennial history of the development of the physics of cosmic rays"; (2) Ryazhskaya O G (Institute for Nuclear Research, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow) "On experiments in underground physics"; (3) Krymskii G F, Berezhko E G (Shafer Institute of Cosmophysical Research and Aeronomy, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Yakutsk) "The origin of cosmic rays"; (4) Stozhkov Yu I (Lebedev Physical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow) "Cosmic rays in the heliosphere"; (5) Troitsky S V (Institute for Nuclear Research, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow) "Cosmic particles of energies >1019 eV: a short review of results."Papers based on reports 2 and 5 are presented below. • On experiments in Underground Physics, O G Ryazhskaya Physics-Uspekhi, 2013, Volume 56, Number 3, Pages 296-304 • Cosmic particles with energies above 1019 eV: a brief summary of results, S V Troitsky Physics-Uspekhi, 2013, Volume 56, Number 3, Pages 304-310

2013-03-01

404

Science Education in the 21st Century: Using the tools of physics to teach physics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Guided by experimental tests of theory and practice, science has advanced rapidly in the past 500 years. Guided primarily by tradition and dogma, science education meanwhile has remained largely medieval. Research on how people learn is now revealing how many teachers badly misinterpret what students are thinking and learning from traditional science classes and exams. However, research is also providing insights on how to do much better. The combination of this research with modern information technology is setting the stage for a new approach that can provide the relevant and effective science education for all students that is needed for the 21st century. This presentation shows the failures of traditional educational practices, even as used by "very good" teachers, and the successes of some new practices and technology that characterize this more effective approach, and how these results are highly consistent with findings from cognitive science.

Wieman, Carl E.

2007-03-24

405

JPRS report: Science and technology. Central Eurasia: Physics and mathematics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Translations are presented of articles from Russian publications. The areas of study are: Crystals, laser glasses, semiconductors; Fluid dynamics; Lasers; Nuclear physics; Optics, spectroscopy; Plasma physics; Superconductivity; and Theoretical physics. Some representative titles are as follows: High conducting state in thin polymer films; On solitons with small number of time or space periods; Stimulated emission dynamics analysis of Ti doped Sapphire laser under double mode locking and limited ultrashort pump pulse train; Emission of charged particles during slow negative pion capture by uranium nuclei; Coherent spectroscopy of Raman and hyper-Raman light scattering of excited and autoionized atomic states in gaseous discharge plasma of copper and copper bromide vapor lasers' active media; On possibility of determining spatial plasma oscillation spectrum by enhanced microwave scattering method; and Magnetic ordering and phase separation in high temperature superconductors.

1992-11-01

406

An analysis of science content and representations in introductory college physics textbooks and multimodal learning resources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study features a comparative descriptive analysis of the physics content and representations surrounding the first law of thermodynamics as presented in four widely used introductory college physics textbooks representing each of four physics textbook categories (calculus-based, algebra/trigonometry-based, conceptual, and technical/applied). Introducing and employing a newly developed theoretical framework, multimodal generative learning theory (MGLT), an analysis of the multimodal characteristics of textbook and multimedia representations of physics principles was conducted. The modal affordances of textbook representations were identified, characterized, and compared across the four physics textbook categories in the context of their support of problem-solving. Keywords: college science, science textbooks, multimodal learning theory, thermodynamics, representations

Donnelly, Suzanne M.

407

Equilibrium and highly nonequilibrium states of condensed matter (Scientific session of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 21 April 2008)  

Microsoft Academic Search

On 21 April 2008, a scientific session of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences was held at the conference room of the Lebedev Physical Institute, RAS. The following talks were presented: (1) Ovchinnikov V V (Institute of Electrophysics, RAS (UB), Ekaterinburg) \\

V V Ovchinnikov; A K Murtazaev; E A Khazanov; A M Sergeev

2008-01-01

408

Integrating writing into an introductory environmental science curriculum: Perspectives from biology and physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the University of Washington, Tacoma's Environmental Science program, we are implementing a curriculum-wide, scaffolded strategy to teach scientific writing. Writing in an introductory science course is a powerful means to make students feel part of the scientific community, an important goal in our environmental science curriculum. Writing is already an important component of the UW Tacoma environmental science program at the upper levels: our approach is designed to prepare students for the writing-intensive junior- and senior-level seminars. The approach is currently being tested in introductory biology and physics before it is incorporated in the rest of the introductory environmental science curriculum. The centerpiece of our approach is a set of research and writing assignments woven throughout the biology and physics course sequences. The assignments progress in their degree of complexity and freedom through the sequence of introductory science courses. Each assignment is supported by a number of worksheets and short written exercises designed to teach writing and critical thought skills. The worksheets are focused on skills identified both by research in science writing and the instructors' experience with student writing. Students see the assignments as a way to personalize their understanding of basic science concepts, and to think critically about ideas that interest them. We find that these assignments provide a good way to assess student comprehension of some of the more difficult ideas in the basic sciences, as well as a means to engage students with the challenging concepts of introductory science courses. Our experience designing these courses can inform efforts to integrate writing throughout a geoscience or environmental science curriculum, as opposed to on a course-by-course basis.

Selkin, P. A.; Cline, E. T.; Beaufort, A.

2008-12-01

409

A comparison of cognitive skills utilized in high school physical education, English, mathematics, and science programs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was two-fold. The first purpose was to identify cognitive skills and cognitive concepts perceived to be common among the high school physical education environment, and the science, math, and English classrooms. The second purpose was to identify various attitudes regarding physical education that influence the integration of the physical education curriculum with other academic subject areas, specifically, math, English, and science. Data for the study were accumulated over a six-month period using a survey instrument. Respondents included sixty-three teachers from fourteen different schools. The following findings were drawn from the analysis of data: (1) There is a significant difference (p $.05) among disciplines when teachers rank their attitudes regarding the value of physical education in the school; (4) there is no significant difference (p >.05) among disciplines when teachers rank their attitudes regarding the role of cognitive learning in physical education programs; and (5) there is no significant difference (p >$.05) among disciplines when teachers rank their attitudes regarding the integration of other academic disciplines in the school within the physical education curriculum. The following conclusions were made from the research findings: (1) English, math, and science share common cognitive skills; (2) physical education shares common cognitive concepts with math and science which provides a basis for linking these subjects together in the curriculum; (3) teachers in each of the four disciplines have a positive attitude toward the value of physical education; (4) teachers in each discipline possess a positive attitude toward the role of cognitive learning in physical education; and (5) teachers in each discipline have a positive attitude toward integration and a willingness to integrate physical education with the other subject areas.

Schleyer, Claudia Janette

410

Physical Science Experiments in K-12 Schools Related to Space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this talk I shall show movies on the demonstration of surface science experiments at various education levels ranging from middle schools to the university. These experiments demonstrate the concepts of surface tension, surface flows, surface reactions and even miscible interfaces. Experiments that demonstrate capillary effects, pressure variations on account of diameter changes, emulsions and foams will be discussed. Applications involving household agents such as space processing, food and detergents will also be given. All of these experiments are part of a kit that we have assembled for free distribution to area schools.

Narayanan, Ranga

411

Science Sampler: Enhancing Student Understanding of Physical and Chemical Changes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Students within the Findlay, Ohio, City School District, as well as students across the country, struggle with understanding physical and chemical changes. Therefore, in this article, the authors suggest some standards-based activities to clarify misconceptions and provide formative assessments to measure your students' progress as they determine…

McIntosh, Julie; White, Sandra; Suter, Robert

2009-01-01

412

Toward a Science of Cyber–Physical System Integration  

Microsoft Academic Search

System integration is the elephant in the china store of large-scale cyber–physical system (CPS) design. It would be hard to find any other technology that is more undervalued scientifically and at the same time has bigger impact on the presence and future of engineered systems. The unique challenges in CPS integration emerge from the heterogeneity of components and interactions. This

Janos Sztipanovits; Xenofon Koutsoukos; Gabor Karsai; Nicholas Kottenstette; Panos Antsaklis; Vijay Gupta; Bill Goodwine; John Baras; Shige Wang

2012-01-01

413

Physical Geography: Science and Systems of the Human Environment; Animations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website contains Flash animations and real footage movies (QuickTime format) from a physical geography textbook. Animations show phenomena associated with the atmosphere, biosphere, lithosphere, and hydrosphere/cryosphere. Animations are slow to download and cannot be rewound to stress important points. Users may also follow links to PowerPoint slides, interactive activities, an image library and an instructor's manual.

Strahler, Alan H.; University, Boston; Education, Wiley H.

414

Skylab Experiments, Volume I, Physical Science, Solar Astronomy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Up-to-date knowledge about Skylab experiments is presented for the purpose of informing high school teachers about scientific research performed in orbit and enabling them to broaden their scope of material selection. The first volume is concerned with the solar astronomy program. The related fields are physics, electronics, biology, chemistry,…

National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

415

Skylab Experiments, Volume I, Physical Science, Solar Astronomy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Up-to-date knowledge about Skylab experiments is presented for the purpose of informing high school teachers about scientific research performed in orbit and enabling them to broaden their scope of material selection. The first volume is concerned with the solar astronomy program. The related fields are physics, electronics, biology, chemistry,…

National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

416

The Art and Science of Experimentation in Quantum Physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Taking its historical point of departure in Heisenberg's work, this article offers a view of quantum mechanics as, arguably, the first truly experimental and truly mathematical physical theory, that is, a theory concerned with experimenting with nature and mathematics alike. It is truly experimental because it is not, as in classical physics, merely the independent behavior of the system considered, in other words, what happens in any event, that we track, but what kind of experiments we perform that defines what happens. By the same token, the theory is also truly mathematical because, at least in the interpretation adopted here, its mathematical formalism does not stand in the service of a mathematical description of (quantum) physical processes in space and time in the way the formalism of classical physics does, but is only used to predict the outcomes of relevant experiments. It also follows that quantum theories experiment more freely with mathematics itself, since we invent predictive mathematical schemes, rather than proceed by refining mathematically our phenomenal representations of nature, which process constrains us in classical mechanics.

Plotnitsky, Arkady

2010-05-01

417

Jorge Luis Borges and the New Physics: the Literature of Modern Science and the Science of Modern Literature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By examining the works of the Argentine writer, Jorge Luis Borges, and the parallels it has with modern physics, literature and science converge in their quest for truth regarding the structure and meaning of the universe. The classical perception of physics as a "hard" science--that of quantitative, rational thought which was established during the Newtonian era--has been replaced by the "new physics," which integrates the so-called "soft" elements into its paradigm. It presents us with a universe based not exclusively on a series of particle-like interactions, or a "billiard-ball" hypothesis where discrete objects have a measurable position and velocity in absolute space and time, but rather on a combination of these mechanistic properties and those that make up the non-physical side of nature such as intuition, consciousness, and emotion. According to physicists like James Jeans science has been "humanized" to the extent that the universe as a "great machine" has been converted into a "great thought.". In nearly all his collections of essays and short stories, Borges complements the new physics by producing a literature that can be described as "scientized." The abstract, metaphysical implications and concerns of the new world-view, such as space, time, language, consciousness, free will, determinism, etc., appear repeatedly throughout Borges' texts, and are treated in terms that are remarkably similar to those expressed in the scientific texts whose authors include Albert Einstein, Niels Bohr, Werner Heisenberg, and Erwin Schrodinger. As a final comparison, Borges and post-modern physicists address the question of the individual's ability to ever comprehend the universe. They share an attitude of incredulity toward all models and theories of reality simply because they are based on partial information, and therefore seen only as conjectures.

Mosher, Mark Robert

1992-01-01

418

Space Physics & Aeronomy: Space Science Decadal Surveys Available  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The final, edited texts of two recent advisory committee reports are now available upon request from the National Research Council's Space Studies Board. The reports, New Frontiers in the Solar System: An Integrated Exploration Strategy, the report of the Solar System Exploration Survey (Michael J. S. Belton, Belton Space Exploration Initiatives, chair) and The Sun to the Earth-and Beyond: A Decadal Research Strategy in Solar and Space Physics, the report of the Solar and Space Physics Survey (Louis J. Lanzerotti, Lucent Technologies, chair) are available in a variety of media as follows: New Frontiers in the Solar System: Currently available as a book, a CD-ROM, or online at http://books.nap.edu/html/newfrontiers/0309084954.pdf. We are also taking advanced orders for copies of New Frontiers in Solar System Exploration, a 32-page, full-color booklet describing for a popular audience the principal mission recommendations of the Solar System Exploration Survey.

Smith, David

419

Research in the physical sciences with application to the free electron laser  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The goals of this research are to perform research in the physical sciences (chemistry, electrical engineering, materials science, physics) with direct application to Free Electron Laser technology. Recent progress includes: (1) infrared modulation spectroscopy of III-V quantum wells and superlattices; (2) subpicosecond spectroscopy of conducting polymers, metals and amorphous multilayers; (3) new tunable infrared lasers based on defects in alkali halides; (4) laser induced photolysis of small hydrocarbons, organometallics nitrosyls and formaldehyde; (5) modeling of eigenstates in semiconductor quantum wells; and (6) theory of disordered solids.

Taylor, P. C.; Stringfellow, G. B.; Cohen, R. M.; Wright, C. A.; Gellerman, W.

1991-07-01

420

Influence of experience on intake and feeding behavior of dairy sheep when offered forages from woody plants in a multiple-choice situation.  

PubMed

A satisfactory intake of novel low-quality forages by ruminants may require previous experience with this feed. Therefore, this study tested in sheep whether experience with forages from woody plants had an influence on feed intake, feeding behavior, and nutrient supply when offered in a multiple-choice arrangement. Two sheep experiments were conducted, 1 in Syria (Mediterranean region; Exp. 1) and the other in Switzerland (Central Europe; Exp. 2), that investigated 5 and 6 woody test plants, respectively. In Exp. 1, the test plants were Artemisia herba-alba, Atriplex leucoclada, Haloxylon articulatum, Noaea mucronata, and Salsola vermiculata. In Exp. 2, Betula pendula, Castanea sativa, and Juglans regia were used in addition to A. leucoclada, H. articulatum, and S. vermiculata (the plants most consumed in Exp. 1). In each experiment, 12 lactating sheep (Awassi sheep in Exp. 1 and East Friesian Milk sheep in Exp. 2) were allocated to 2 groups ("experienced" and "naïve"). Experienced sheep subsequently were familiarized with each test plant during a learning period of binary choices (1 test plant vs. barley straw) for 4 h in the morning for 7 d each. The naïve group received only straw. During the rest of the day, a basal diet composed of barley straw (ad libitum) and concentrate was offered to both groups. For the 2 wk following the learning period, the sheep were subjected to feeding of the basal diet to avoid carryover effects of the last offered test plant. In the following multiple-choice period, both groups were allowed to select from all test plants during 4 h in the morning for 14 d. Forage intake after 4 and 24 h and feeding behavior during the first 30 min of the test feeding were assessed. Milk yield and composition were measured at the end of the multiple-choice period. Nutrient intake was calculated using feed intake measurements and compositional analyses. Only in Exp. 2, group differences (P < 0.05) were found on d 1 of the multiple-choice period. The experienced sheep consumed more total forage, straw, OM, NDF, ADF, and ADL (nutrients without concentrate). However, across the entire multiple-choice period, there were no differences (P ? 0.05) in forage and nutrient intake, feeding behavior, and milk yield and composition between the groups in both experiments. This suggests that sheep can quickly adapt to previously unknown woody feeds of varying origin and quality offered as dried supplements. PMID:23989878

Meier, J S; Liesegang, A; Rischkowsky, B; Louhaichi, M; Zaklouta, M; Kreuzer, M; Marquardt, S

2013-08-29

421

Advances in astronomy (Scientific session of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 27 February 2013)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A scientific session of the Division of Physical Sciences of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS), entitled "Advances in Astronomy" was held on 27 February 2013 at the conference hall of the Lebedev Physical Institute, RAS. The following reports were put on the session agenda posted on the website http://www.gpad.ac.ru of the RAS Physical Sciences Division: (1) Chernin A D (Sternberg Astronomical Institute, Moscow State University, Moscow) "Dark energy in the local Universe: HST data, nonlinear theory, and computer simulations"; (2) Gnedin Yu N (Main (Pulkovo) Astronomical Observatory, RAS, St. Petersburg) "A new method of supermassive black hole studies based on polarimetric observations of active galactic nuclei"; (3) Efremov Yu N (Sternberg Astronomical Institute, Moscow State University, Moscow) "Our Galaxy: grand design and moderately active nucleus"; (4) Gilfanov M R (Space Research Institute, RAS, Moscow) "X-ray binaries, star formation, and type-Ia supernova progenitors"; (5) Balega Yu Yu (Special Astrophysical Observatory, RAS, Nizhnii Arkhyz, Karachaevo-Cherkessia Republic) "The nearest 'star factory' in the Orion Nebula"; (6) Bisikalo D V (Institute of Astronomy, RAS, Moscow) "Atmospheres of giant exoplanets"; (7) Korablev O I (Space Research Institute, RAS, Moscow) "Spectroscopy of the atmospheres of Venus and Mars: new methods and new results"; (8) Ipatov A V (Institute of Applied Astronomy, RAS, St. Petersburg) "A new-generation radio interferometer for fundamental and applied research". Summaries of the papers based on reports 1, 2, 4, 7, 8 are given below. • Dark energy in the nearby Universe: HST data, nonlinear theory, and computer simulations, A D Chernin Physics-Uspekhi, 2013, Volume 56, Number 7, Pages 704–709 • Investigating supermassive black holes: a new method based on the polarimetric observations of active galactic nuclei, Yu N Gnedin Physics-Uspekhi, 2013, Volume 56, Number 7, Pages 709–714 • X-ray binaries and star formation, M R Gil'fanov Physics-Uspekhi, 2013, Volume 56, Number 7, Pages 714–722 • Space-based spectroscopy of Mars: new methods and new results, O I Korablev Physics-Uspekhi, 2013, Volume 56, Number 7, Pages 722–729 • A new-generation interferometer for fundamental and applied research, A V Ipatov Physics-Uspekhi, 2013, Volume 56, Number 7, Pages 729–737

2013-07-01

422

Pacific Northwest Laboratory Annual Report for 1979 to the DOE Assistant Secretary for Environment Part 4 Physical Sciences  

SciTech Connect

This volume contains 63 articles on physical science activities in diverse areas, including coal, fission, radiation physics, geothermal resource development, oil shale and tar sand research, and multitechnology development.

Nielsen, J. M.

1980-02-01

423

Physical Oceanography: Project Earth Science. Material for Middle School Teachers in Earth Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This book is one in a series of Earth science books and contains a collection of 18 hands-on activities/demonstrations developed for the middle/junior high school level. The activities are organized around three key concepts. First, students investigate the unique properties of water and how these properties shape the ocean and the global…

Ford, Brent A.; Smith, P. Sean

424

Developing a framework for critical science agency through case study in a conceptual physics context  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this manuscript we examine how two students develop and express agency in and through high school physics. We tell the\\u000a stories of two youth from a low-income, urban community to elucidate the important components of critical science agency in\\u000a a physics context, and to situate a set of claims about how youth develop and express this concept. This research

Sreyashi Jhumki Basu; Angela Calabrese Barton; Neil Clairmont; Donya Locke

2009-01-01

425

Application of statistical physics methods and conceptsto the study of science & technology systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

We apply methods and concepts of statistical physics to the study of science & technology(S&T) systems. Specifically, our research is motivated by two concepts of fundamentalimportance in modern statistical physics: scaling and universality. We try to identify robust,universal, characteristics of the evolution of S&T systems that can provide guidance to forecastingthe impact of changes in funding. We quantify the production

Luis A. N. Amaral; P. Gopikrishnan; Kaushik Matia; Vasiliki Plerou; H. E. Stanley

2001-01-01

426

University of Virginia Physical Science SOL Activities: Energy of a Bouncing Ball  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson plan for secondary physical science, students investigate energy transfer by placing a ping-pong ball on top of a racquetball and dropping them together. Upon impact, some of the energy of the racquetball is transferred to the smaller ball. Background information, printable data sheets, and assessments are also available. T This lesson is part of a larger collection generated by the University of Virginia Department of Physics outreach program. See Related Materials for a link to the full collection.

2007-10-25

427

Applications of statistical physics to the social and economic sciences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis applies statistical physics concepts and methods to quantitatively analyze socioeconomic systems. For each system we combine theoretical models and empirical data analysis in order to better understand the real-world system in relation to the complex interactions between the underlying human agents. This thesis is separated into three parts: (i) response dynamics in financial markets, (ii) dynamics of career trajectories, and (iii) a stochastic opinion model with quenched disorder. In Part I we quantify the response of U.S. markets to financial shocks, which perturb markets and trigger "herding behavior" among traders. We use concepts from earthquake physics to quantify the decay of volatility shocks after the "main shock." We also find, surprisingly, that we can make quantitative statements even before the main shock. In order to analyze market behavior before as well as after "anticipated news" we use Federal Reserve interest-rate announcements, which are regular events that are also scheduled in advance. In Part II we analyze the statistical physics of career longevity. We construct a stochastic model for career progress which has two main ingredients: (a) random forward progress in the career and (b) random termination of the career. We incorporate the rich-get-richer (Matthew) effect into ingredient (a), meaning that it is easier to move forward in the career the farther along one is in the career. We verify the model predictions analyzing data on 400,000 scientific careers and 20,000 professional sports careers. Our model highlights the importance of early career development, showing that many careers are stunted by the relative disadvantage associated with inexperience. In Part III we analyze a stochastic two-state spin model which represents a system of voters embedded on a network. We investigate the role in consensus formation of "zealots", which are agents with time-independent opinion. Our main result is the unexpected finding that it is the number and not the density of zealots which deter- mines the steady-state opinion polarization. We compare our findings with results for United States Presidential elections.

Petersen, Alexander M.

428

The Role of Mathematics in Physical Sciences and Dirac's Methodological Revolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In our paper, avoiding any strong metaphysical commitment on the world, we face the topic of the interplay between mathematics and physics by starting from a semiotic approach. It will be shown that it allows us to insert in a unitary and coherent framework answers to questions such as: Why mathematics is physics? What is the role of mathematics in physics? Why is mathematics effective in physical sciences? In the second part of the paper, and by utilizing what discussed in the first one, we analyse what we call Dirac's methodological revolution, according to which to do good and new physics we must first work on good and promising mathematics. Finally, we exemplify Dirac's methodological revolution by recalling the role of the mathematical theory of simple spinors in constructing new perspectives for theoretical physics.

Boniolo, Giovanni; Budinich, Paolo

429

Organic photonics and organic optoelectronics (Scientific session of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 30 January 2013)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A scientific session of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS), "Organic photonics and organic optoelectronics," was held in the conference hall of the Lebedev Physical Institute, RAS, on 30 January 2013.The following reports were put on the session agenda as posted on the website http://www.gpad.ac.ru of the RAS Physical Sciences Division:1) Vitukhnovsky A G (Lebedev Physical Institute, RAS, Moscow) "Organic photonics: achievements and setbacks"; (2) Aleshin A N (Ioffe Physical Technical Institute, RAS, St. Petersburg) "Organic optoelectronics based on polymer-inorganic nanoparticle composite materials." Papers written on the basis of the reports are published below. • Organic photonics: achievements and setbacks, A G Vitukhnovsky Physics-Uspekhi, 2013, Volume 56, Number 6, Pages 623-627 • Organic optoelectronics based on polymer - inorganic nanoparticle composite materials, A N Aleshin Physics-Uspekhi, 2013, Volume 56, Number 6, Pages 627-632

2013-06-01

430

Promoting Success in the Physical Sciences: The University of Wisconsin's Physics Learning Program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Physics Learning Program at the University of Wisconsin-Madison provides small group, academic and mentoring support for students enrolled in algebra-based introductory physics courses. Those students accepted into our program are potentially at-risk academically in their physics course or for feeling isolated at the University. They include, among others, students who have not taken high school physics, returning adults, minority students, students with disabilities, and students with English as a second language. A core component of the program is the peer-lead teaching and mentoring groups that match upper level undergraduate physics majors with students potentially at-risk in introductory physics. The tutors receive ongoing training and supervision throughout the year. The program has expanded over the years to include staff tutors, the majority of whom are scientists who seek additional teaching experience. The Physics Peer Mentor Tutor Program is run in collaboration with a similar chemistry program at the University of Wisconsin's Chemistry Learning Center. We will describe our Physics Learning Programs and discuss some of the challenges, successes, and strategies used to work with our tutors and students.

Nossal, S. M.; Jacob, A. T.

2002-05-01

431

Methods of Mathematical and Computational Physics for Industry, Science, and Technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many industrial problems provide scientists with important and challenging problems that need to be solved today rather than tomorrow. The key role of mathematical physics, modelling, and computational methodologies in addressing such problems continues to increase. Science has never been exogenous to applied research. Gigantic ships and steam engines, repeating catapult of Dionysius and the Antikythera `computer' invented around 80BC

Roderick V N Melnik; Frands Voss

2006-01-01

432

Learning Activity Package, Physical Science. LAP Numbers 8, 9, 10, and 11.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|These four units of the Learning Activity Packages (LAPs) for individualized instruction in physical science cover nuclear reactions, alpha and beta particles, atomic radiation, medical use of nuclear energy, fission, fusion, simple machines, Newton's laws of motion, electricity, currents, electromagnetism, Oersted's experiment, sound, light,…

Williams, G. J.

433

Profiles of freshman physics students' views on the nature of science  

Microsoft Academic Search

The views on various aspects of the nature of science (NOS) of 179 novice undergraduate physics students were investigated using six open-ended, written probes. These views were consolidated within compact NOS ''profiles,'' which were designed based on the students' responses to the probes. These profiles may be understood as sets of key descriptors, which represented the variation in the views

Bashirah Ibrahim; Andy Buffler; Fred Lubben

2009-01-01

434

Integration of Science on Biological and Physical Processes to Understand Ecological Diversity of Stream Fishes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The integration of biological and physical sciences has been important in efforts to understand and conserve aquatic species such as the stream fishes found in the Pacific Northwest. Traditionally that integration has focused at relatively fine scales and on what were perceived as more or less static conditions of stream habitats to explain the abundance and distribution of select species.

B. Rieman; J. Dunham

2002-01-01

435

Application of ISOL-Type radioactive nuclear beams in the physical, biomedical and environmental sciences  

Microsoft Academic Search

ISOL-type radioactive nuclear beam facilities can provide a wide spectrum of low energy isotopic beams at the isotope\\/mass separator stage. These beams have the potential to promote significant expansion for applications of radioactivity in diverse areas of basic or applied research. Examples in the physical, biomedical and environmental sciences are presented.

Peter E. Haustein

1997-01-01

436

PROBABILITY ESTIMATES OF THE CAPACITIES OF INTERMEDIATE PUPILS TO UNDERSTAND SELECTED PHYSICAL SCIENCE GENERALIZATIONS. FINAL REPORT.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THE CAPACITY OF INTERMEDIATE PUPILS TO UNDERSTAND AND RETAIN GENERALIZATIONS RELATED TO SIMPLE MACHINES, ELECTRICAL ENERGY, AND HEAT ENERGY WAS INVESTIGATED. A STRATIFIED RANDOM SAMPLE OF APPROXIMATELY 1,200 FOURTH, FIFTH, AND SIXTH GRADE PUPILS WAS SELECTED FROM THE METROPOLITAN DETROIT AREA. GENERALIZATIONS FOR THE THREE PHYSICAL SCIENCE AREAS…

SMITH, GARY R.

437

Wind, Water, Fire, and Earth. Energy Lessons for the Physical Sciences.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The current energy situation in the United States is a web of complicated and related elements. This document attempts to address some of these variables in presenting interdisciplinary energy lessons taken from instructional packets previously developed by the Project for an Energy-Enriched Curriculum (PEEC). The 19 physical science lessons…

Watt, Shirley L., Ed.; And Others

438

The Assessment of Project Work in Nuffield Advanced Biology and Nuffield Advanced Physical Science  

Microsoft Academic Search

The range of assessments made by teachers of the performance of their students in the Nuffield Advanced Biology project and the Nuffield Advanced Physical Science project was subjected to a factor analysis. The analyses reveal only one major factor for each project. An analysis of pooled assessments confirmed the existence of these factors and revealed that they are different for

R. W. Fairbrother; J. R. L. Swain

1977-01-01

439

Research for a Future in Space: The Role of Life and Physical Sciences.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This booklet is based on the Space Studies Board (SSB) report Recapturing a Future for Space Exploration: Life and Physical Sciences Research for a New Era, available for free online at www.nap.edu. Details about obtaining copies of the full report, as we...

2012-01-01

440

Recruitment, Advancement and Retention of Women in the Physical Sciences at U.C. Irvine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Strategies for the recruitment, retention and advancement of women in the physical sciences at U.C. Irvine are presented. The NSF-funded ADVANCE Program has implemented several new initiatives. Among these are new requirements for recruitment committees, participation by school equity advisors, personalized mentoring programs and establishment of senior chairs. Progress towards our goals are reviewed and evaluated. Issues such as dual

E. R. Druffel; T. Smecker-Hane; P. Kehoe; S. V. Bryant

2004-01-01

441

College Students' Opinions of Engaging Approaches in a Physical Science Course  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Physical science courses have historically been taught from a variety of perspectives or emphases. In many cases, the instructor decides on the perspective and textbook for nonscience majors, so students rarely have a voice in the decision. This top-down approach and a potential gap between what instructors and students expect from a general…

Gonzalez-Espada, Wilson

2009-01-01

442

Scaling physics and material science applications on a massively parallel Blue Gene\\/L system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blue Gene\\/L represents a new way to build supercomputers, using a large number of low power processors, together with multiple integrated interconnection networks. Whether real applications can scale to tens of thousands of processors (on a machine like Blue Gene\\/L) has been an open question. In this paper, we describe early experience with several physics and material science applications on

George Almasi; Gyan Bhanot; Alan Gara; Manish Gupta; James C. Sexton; Bob Walkup; Vasily V. Bulatov; Andrew W. Cook; Bronis R. de Supinski; James N. Glosli; Jeffrey A. Greenough; Francois Gygi; Alison Kubota; Steve Louis; Thomas E. Spelce; Frederick H. Streitz; Peter L. Williams; Robert K. Yates; Charles Archer; José E. Moreira; Charles A. Rendleman

2005-01-01

443

W.E. Henry Symposium compendium: The importance of magnetism in physics and material science.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This compendium contains papers presented at the W. E. Henry Symposium, The Importance of Magnetism in Physics and Material Science. The one-day symposium was conducted to recognize the achievements of Dr. Warren Elliot Henry as educator, scientist, and i...

H. Carwell

1997-01-01

444

Japanese Government Policies in Education, Science, Sports and Culture, 1998. Mental and Physical Health and Sports.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This annual publication introduces Japan's educational policies in education, science, sports, and culture. Part 1, "Trends in Education Reform," discusses fundamental concepts in educational reform. Part 2, "Mental and Physical Health and Sports," includes two chapters. Chapter 1, "Health and Sports into the Future," examines 5 concepts:…

Ministry of Education, Science, and Culture, Tokyo (Japan).

445

Improving high school physical science students' understanding of the electromagnetic spectrum: A modified diagram approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The focus of this study was to identify major conceptual difficulties that selected public high school physical science students encounter in understanding a standard electromagnetic spectrum diagram. A research-driven, modified version of that standard diagram was used in this study to determine the value added to student understanding of electromagnetic waves. A content analysis was performed on electromagnetic spectrum diagrams

James Edward Quebedeaux

2007-01-01

446

Physical Features of Soil: Advanced Crop and Soil Science. A Course of Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The course of study represents the second of six modules in advanced crop and soil science and introduces the agriculture student to the subject of physical features of the soil. Upon completing the two day lesson, the student will be able to determine the texture and structural types of soil, list the structural classes of the soil and where they…

Miller, Larry E.

447

Crossing borders between social and physical sciences in post-event investigations  

Microsoft Academic Search

In natural hazard research social and physical scientists tend to approach post-event investigations within their narrow disciplinary lenses. Efforts that are called trans-disciplinary often add social science but do not integrate it effectively. For example, an economist might be brought in to address a question of \\

I. Ruin; E. Gruntfest; C. Lutoff; S. Anquetin; A. Scolobig; J.-D. Creutin; M. Borga

2009-01-01

448

Physical Features of Soil: Advanced Crop and Soil Science. A Course of Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The course of study represents the second of six modules in advanced crop and soil science and introduces the agriculture student to the subject of physical features of the soil. Upon completing the two day lesson, the student will be able to determine the texture and structural types of soil, list the structural classes of the soil and where…

Miller, Larry E.

449

Programed Laboratory Instruction for Non-Science Curricula Students in College Physics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evaluated was the effectiveness of programed materials developed to present elementary college physics experiments in mechanics to non-science college majors. The group working with the materials were compared with a group receiving instruction in a conventional lecture-demonstration situation. No significant differences were detected between the…

McLendon, Alvin Lee

450

Earth and Physical Science. Nevada Competency-Based Adult High School Diploma Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document is one of ten curriculum guides developed by the Nevada Competency-Based Adult High School Diploma (CBAHSD) Project. This curriculum guide on earth and physical science is divided into twelve topics. The topics included are Geology, Meteorology, Astronomy, Natural Disasters, Chemical Reaction, Laboratory, States of Matter, Force and…

Nevada Univ., Las Vegas. Coll. of Education.

451

Physical enhancement of human performance: Is law keeping pace with science?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the area of genometry—the nascent field of science and technology that proposes to apply enhanced understanding of the human genetic code to reshaping our individual and collective destinies—no topic has generated more interest among the general public, as well as in the athletic community, than the potential for physical enhancement of the human body and its performance. Genometric experiments

Louis M. Solomon; David S. Mordkoff; Rebekka C. Noll

2009-01-01

452

The Representation of Science-Technology Relationships in Canadian Physics Textbooks.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Identifies four views of the nature of the science/technology relationship: Idealist, Demarcationist, Materialist, and Interactionist. Analyzes high school physics textbooks in light of these relationship types and finds that the texts are dominated by an idealist storyline that presents a limited view of the history and philosophy of…

Gardner, Paul L.

1999-01-01

453

Conceptual Integration of Hybridization by Algerian Students Intending to Teach Physical Sciences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This work aims to assess the difficulties encountered by students of the Ecole Normale Superieure of Kouba (Algeria) intending to teach physical science in the integration of the hybridization of atomic orbitals. It is a concept that they should use in describing the formation of molecular orbitals ([sigma] and [pi]) in organic chemistry and gaps…

Salah, Hazzi; Dumon, Alain

2011-01-01

454

The History and Philosophy of Science in Physics Teaching: A Research Synthesis of Didactic Interventions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This work is a systematic review of studies that investigate teaching experiences applying History and Philosophy of Science (HPS) in physics classrooms, with the aim of obtaining critical and reliable information on this subject. After a careful process of selection and exclusion of studies compiled from a variety of databases, an in-depth review…

Teixeira, Elder Sales; Greca, Ileana Maria; Freire, Olival, Jr.

2012-01-01

455

W.E. Henry Symposium compendium: The importance of magnetism in physics and material science  

Microsoft Academic Search

This compendium contains papers presented at the W. E. Henry Symposium, The Importance of Magnetism in Physics and Material Science. The one-day symposium was conducted to recognize the achievements of Dr. Warren Elliot Henry as educator, scientist, and inventor in a career spanning almost 70 years. Dr. Henry, who is 88 years old, attended the symposium. Nobel Laureate, Dr. Glenn

Carwell

1997-01-01

456

Semiconductor Research Needs in the Nanoscale Physical Sciences: A Semiconductor Research Corporation Working Paper  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to identify areas in the basic physical sciences where additional research is needed to sustain the extraordinary progress in electronics that has now extended for several decades. Also, it is argued that basic research will provide the foundation for the discovery of new generations of nanoelectronic devices that will continue the experimental rate of

Ralph K. Cavin III; Daniel J. C. Herr; Victor V. Zhirnov

2000-01-01

457

Astronomical Activities for students-Motivating students interest in Physical Science through Astronomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Astronomical Activities for students Motivating students interest in Physical Science through Astronomy Alexis Matthaiou Philekpaideftiki Etaireia, Arsakeio Lyceum Patron, Patras, Greece,(alexiosmat@yahoo.gr) School education aims not only to providing the necessary knowledge to the students but also to inspire and motivate them to realize their special abilities and inclinations and use their potential for making a joyful future for their lives.

Alexis Matthaiou

2010-01-01

458

An Assessment of Research-Doctorate Programs in the United States: Mathematical & Physical Sciences.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The quality of doctoral-level chemistry (N=145), computer science (N=58), geoscience (N=91), mathematics (N=115), physics (N=123), and statistics/biostatistics (N=64) programs at United States universities was assessed, using 16 measures. These measures focused on variables related to: program size; characteristics of graduates; reputational…

Jones, Lyle V., Ed.; And Others

459

Teaching the Nature of Science in Physics Courses: The Contribution of Classroom Historical Inquiries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Physics and chemistry programs at the secondary school level in France recommend introducing components of the history of science (HS). Emphasis is placed on a "cultural" dimension, which is poorly defined but essentially refers to elements of epistemological nature. Moreover, the few examples of activities based on HS suggested by the programs…

Maurines, Laurence; Beaufils, Daniel

2013-01-01

460

Profiles of Freshman Physics Students' Views on the Nature of Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The views on various aspects of the nature of science (NOS) of 179 novice undergraduate physics students were investigated using six open-ended, written probes. These views were consolidated within compact NOS "profiles", which were designed based on the students' responses to the probes. These profiles may be understood as sets of key…

Ibrahim, Bashirah; Buffler, Andy; Lubben, Fred

2009-01-01

461

Nuclear science and engineering and health physics fellowships: 1984 description. Research areas for the practicum  

SciTech Connect

This booklet describes available research areas at participating centers where a practicum may be held under the Nuclear Science and Engineering and Health Physics Fellowship program. After a year of graduate study each fellow is expected to arrange for a practicum period at one of the participating centers.

Not Available

1984-01-01

462

Competency-based reforms of the undergraduate biology curriculum: integrating the physical and biological sciences.  

PubMed

The National Experiment in Undergraduate Science Education project funded by the Howard Hughes Medical Institute is a direct response to the Scientific Foundations for Future Physicians report, which urged a shift in premedical student preparation from a narrow list of specific course work to a more flexible curriculum that helps students develop broad scientific competencies. A consortium of four universities is working to create, pilot, and assess modular, competency-based curricular units that require students to use higher-order cognitive skills and reason across traditional disciplinary boundaries. Purdue University; the University of Maryland, Baltimore County; and the University of Miami are each developing modules and case studies that integrate the biological, chemical, physical, and mathematical sciences. The University of Maryland, College Park, is leading the effort to create an introductory physics for life sciences course that is reformed in both content and pedagogy. This course has prerequisites of biology, chemistry, and calculus, allowing students to apply strategies from the physical sciences to solving authentic biological problems. A comprehensive assessment plan is examining students' conceptual knowledge of physics, their attitudes toward interdisciplinary approaches, and the development of specific scientific competencies. Teaching modules developed during this initial phase will be tested on multiple partner campuses in preparation for eventual broad dissemination. PMID:23737624

Thompson, Katerina V; Chmielewski, Jean; Gaines, Michael S; Hrycyna, Christine A; LaCourse, William R

2013-01-01

463

Radius of curvature of the cornea-an experiment for the life-science physics lab  

Microsoft Academic Search

A quantitative experiment in geometrical optics for the life-science physics laboratory is presented. It involves the student in the measurement of the radius of curvature of the cornea and is based on an old method devised by Kolrausch in 1839.

C. S. Maclatchy

1978-01-01

464

Modified Delphi Investigation of Exercise Science in Physical Education Teacher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this study was to determine the critical exercise science competencies and associated instructional methods recommended for inclusion in the physical education teacher education curriculum. The two-round modified Delphi procedure involved the repeated circulation of a questionnaire to a small panel of content experts. The Delphi…

Bulger, Sean M.; Housner, Lynn D.

2007-01-01

465

PR^2EPS: Preparation, Recruitment, Retention and Excellence in the Physical Sciences.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The PR^2EPS program is a multidisciplinary effort to increase the number of majors attending (and graduating) from SUNY Oneonta with degrees in chemistry, physics, biochemistry, astronomy, secondary chemistry or physics education and related areas. Components of the program include a walk-in tutoring center, a free, weeklong summer science camp, scholarship opportunities and an equipment loan program for regional secondary science teachers. 2006 was the third year of this NSF-DUE funded program. Evaluation of our progress to date shows that the program is effective at steering students (or at least reinforcing their desire) to studying the sciences in college. A summary of our goals, challenges and accomplishments, including tutoring center operation and efficacy, activities and operational details for the summer camp and other facets of the program will be presented.

Labroo, Sunil; Schaumloffel, John; Gallagher, Hugh; Bischoff, Paul; Bachman, Nancy

2007-03-01

466

Basic teaching methods in physics and social science classroom: Reality and upper secondary school students' expectations in Norway and Finland  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the 1990s, there was a worldwide discussion about the decreasing interest in science and technology studies on all levels. Much research has been organised to clarify what might affect student motivation to study science and, in particular, physics. The answers to what might motivate students are typically sought by investigating their interests or attitudes to (i) science (or domains

Jari Lavonen; Carl Angell; Reijo Byman; Ellen Henriksen; Ismo Koponen

467

Exploring Sun-Earth Connections: A Physical Science Program for (K-8)Teachers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An experimental, inquiry-based physical science curriculum for undergraduate, pre-service K-8 teachers is under development at the Catholic University of America in collaboration with the Solar Physics Branch of the Naval Research Laboratory and NASA's Sun-Earth Connection missions. This is a progress report. The current, stunningly successful exploratory phase in Sun-Earth Connection (SEC) physics, sparked by SOHO, Yohkoh, TRACE, and other International Solar Terrestrial Physics (ISTP) and Living With a Star (LWS) programs, has provided dynamic, visually intuitive data that can be used for teaching basic physical concepts such as the properties of gravitational and electromagnetic fields which are manifest in beautiful imagery of the astrophysical plasmas of the solar atmosphere and Earth's auroras. Through a team approach capitalizing on the combined expertise of the Catholic University's departments of Education and Physics and of NRL solar researchers deeply involved in SEC missions we have laid out a program that will teach non-science-major undergraduates a very limited number of physical science concepts but in such a way as to develop for each one both a formal understanding and an intuitive grasp that will instill confidence, spark interest and scientific curiosity and, ideally, inspire a habit of lifetime inquiry and professional growth. A three-semester sequence is planned. The first semester will be required of incoming Education freshmen. The second and third semesters will be of such a level as to satisfy the one-year science requirement for non-science majors in the College of Arts and Sciences. The approach as adopted will integrate physics content and educational methods, with each concept introduced through inquiry-based, hands-on investigation using methods and materials directly applicable to K-8 teaching situations (Exploration Phase). The topic is further developed through discussion, demonstration and lecture, introducing such mathematical formulations as are necessary to express the concept clearly (Invention Phase). To further clarify the concept, exercises will be carried out using Web-accessible SEC mission data to develop facility in use of the mathematical formulations, stimulate a sense of participation in ongoing research, and expand on ways to introduce future pupils to the excitement of real-world exploration (Expansion Phase).

Michels, D. J.; Pickert, S. M.; Thompson, J. L.; Montrose, C. J.

2003-12-01

468

Integration of physical activity and technology motion devices within a combined 5th and 6th grade science curriculum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Background: National recommendations to increase school-based physical activity and promote academic success advise incorporating movement into traditional classroom lessons. Classroom-based physical activities have favorable associations with indicators of cognitive functioning, academic behaviors, and academic achievement. Purpose: This study analyzed the Active Science framework, which incorporated school-based physical activity within interactive science classroom lessons. Specifically, the study measured the effects of the Active Science framework on student physical activity levels in the classroom, student learning of science inquiry skills and content knowledge, and student perceptions of physical activity and science. A secondary purpose was to evaluate the teachers' perceptions on the implementation of the framework. Subjects: Participants were 37 Hispanic girls (age=11.1 +/-0.8 yr) in mixed 5th/6th grade science classes in a private, urban middle school. Methods: Physical activity levels of the students during the Active Science framework were measured using pedometers and heart rate monitors. Pre- and post-tests were used to assess the levels of learning achieved by the students in science inquiry skills and content during the Active Science framework. Student perceptions and attitudes toward science and physical activity were measured during student focus groups and pre-post perception surveys. Lesson plan evaluations completed by the teachers and structured interviews provided data on implementation of the framework. Results: Physical activity results showed heart rate (146 +/-9 bpm); maximal heart rate (196 +/-10.6 bpm); time (35 +/-2.5 mins); steps (3050 +/-402.7); calories (99 +/-8.4 kcal); and distance (1.1 +/-0.2 miles) while performing the activity portion of the science lessons were consistent with national recommendations for accumulating school-based physical activity. Significant increases in science content and skills test scores with a 22.4% increase (43.9% to 66.3%; p<0.05) from pre to post (p<0.05). Students enjoyed the integration of physical activity into science lessons and the teachers described the positive effect of the framework on student interest/engagement. Conclusions: The findings from this study suggest that the Active Science framework helped to promote physical activity, facilitate student learning of science inquiry skills and content knowledge and excite students about integrating physical activity into science lessons.

Finn, Kevin Eugene

469

Mars Exploration: Is There Water on Mars? An Educator's Guide with Activities for Physical and Earth and Space Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This educator's guide discusses whether there is water on the planet Mars. The activities, written for grades 9-12, concern physical, earth, and space sciences. By experimenting with water as it changes state and investigating some effects of air pressure, students not only learn core ideas in physical science but can also deduce the water…

TERC, Cambridge, MA.

470

Mars Exploration: Is There Water on Mars? An Educator's Guide with Activities for Physical and Earth and Space Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This educator's guide discusses whether there is water on the planet Mars. The activities, written for grades 9-12, concern physical, earth, and space sciences. By experimenting with water as it changes state and investigating some effects of air pressure, students not only learn core ideas in physical science but can also deduce the water…

TERC, Cambridge, MA.

471

Informal science participation positively affects the communication and pedagogical skills of university physics students  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many undergraduate and graduate physics students choose to participate in an informal science program at the University of Colorado Boulder (Partnerships for Informal Science Education in the Community (PISEC)). They coach elementary and middle school students in inquiry-based physics activities during weekly, afterschool sessions. Observations from the afterschool sessions, field notes from the students, and pre/post surveys are collected. University students are also pre/post- videotaped explaining a textbook passage on a physics concept to an imagined audience for the Communications in Everyday Language assessment (CELA). We present findings from these data that indicate informal experiences improve the communication and pedagogical skills of the university student as well as positively influence their self-efficacy as scientific communicators and teachers.

Hinko, Kathleen; Finkelstein, Noah

2013-04-01

472

The Impact of Internet Virtual Physics Laboratory Instruction on the Achievement in Physics, Science Process Skills and Computer Attitudes of 10th-Grade Students  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to investigate and compare the impact of Internet Virtual Physics Laboratory (IVPL) instruction with traditional laboratory instruction in physics academic achievement, performance of science process skills, and computer attitudes of tenth grade students. One-hundred and fifty students from four classes at one private senior high school in Taoyuan Country, Taiwan, R.O.C. were sampled. All four classes contained 75 students who were equally divided into an experimental group and a control group. The pre-test results indicated that the students' entry-level physics academic achievement, science process skills, and computer attitudes were equal for both groups. On the post-test, the experimental group achieved significantly higher mean scores in physics academic achievement and science process skills. There was no significant difference in computer attitudes between the groups. We concluded that the IVPL had potential to help tenth graders improve their physics academic achievement and science process skills.

Yang, Kun-Yuan; Heh, Jia-Sheng

2007-10-01

473

PR2EPS: Preparation, Recruitment, Retention and Excellence in the Physical Sciences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

PR2EPS is a multifaceted NSF-DUE sponsored program at SUNY Oneonta that strives to enhance the number of students pursuing degrees in the physical sciences and increase the retention rate of students pursuing STEM degrees. A key focus of the project, which is beginning its third year, is drawing students from the five rural counties surrounding Oneonta, NY. Team members visit 15 to 20 local high schools each year leading discussions on academic and career opportunities in STEM disciplines and inviting students to participate in a one week summer science camp. A variety of hands-on science and engineering activities are designed to engage students and demonstrate to them that they possess the requisite skills and potential to succeed in these technically demanding disciplines. Campers who decide to study physical science at SUNY Oneonta are supported with a modest financial inducement and an evening tutoring center. As these students progress, they gain exposure to research and professional activities designed to show them opportunities and developments in their field and integrate them into the broader community of learners. A description of the program, which is a collaboration of faculty from the Departments of Physics & Astronomy, Chemistry & Biochemistry and Education, as well as an evaluation of the effectiveness of the overall program and its components will be provided.

Gallagher, H. A.; Schaumloffel, J. C.; Bischoff, P.; Labroo, S.; Bachman, N.

2006-05-01

474

The Atomic Era: A new interdisciplinary course combining physics, the humanities and the social sciences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Southern Illinois University Edwardsville won funding from the federal interagency competition, Leadership Opportunity in Science and Humanities Education, which supported interdisciplinary courses combining the natural sciences and the humanities. The author analyses her experiences developing a very successful and popular interdisciplinary course, entitled The Atomic Era, which features a unique combination of physics, sociology and German studies taught jointly by a Physicist, a Sociologist and a Germanist. The objectives of the course, the laboratories and demonstrations, instructional goals, assignments, organization, testing, student and faculty assessment, expenses and the special challenges of coordinating three faculty members and a wide variety of topics and perspectives are addressed and analysed.

Carstens-Wickham, Belinda

2001-05-01

475

Teaching physics to life science students - Examining the role of biological context  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe a research agenda to inform renovating the introductory physics course commonly taught to life science majors. The theoretical framework of the renovation is the cognitive apprenticeship model, in which learning occurs most effectively in an environment of expert practices so that students can articulate why their learning matters. This model is supported by studies of transfer that suggest for students to successfully apply physics to another field, they need practice making such applications. Guided by this theoretical framework, we have begun to restructure our introductory physics courses for these students around biologically rich contexts - examples in which fundamental physics plays a significant role in understanding a biological system - to make explicit the value of physics to the life sciences. This requires restructuring the course content to reflect the topics most relevant to biology. In this paper we describe our approach to this course, identify research directions addressing (1) the role of biological context in learning for these students and (2) issues in implementing such a course for physics faculty, and summarize preliminary results.

Crouch, Catherine H.; Heller, Kenneth

2012-02-01

476

Science With an Impact: U.S.-Ukrainian Cooperation in Physical and Life Sciences"  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mission of the U.S. Civilian R&D Foundation (CRDF) is to conduct innovative activities of mutual benefit that help sustain the civilian scientific and technical capability of the countries of the former Soviet Union. To this end, the CRDF funds cooperative research projects between U.S. and Ukrainian scientists in all areas of civilian science and engineering, with special interest in projects that promote economic development, build partnerships for long-term sustainability, and help redirect scientists formerly engaged in research on weapons of mass destruction to full-time civilian research. The active participation of researchers from both Ukraine and the United States in these projects is a key element of their capacity for long-term impact. The results of two specific CRDF-funded projects will be presented to illustrate the benefits of such cooperation: "Application of Geographic Information Systems to Environmental Health Problems in Ukraine," and "Liquid Nitrogen Refrigeration Systems for Transportation Applications."

Sher, Gerson

2001-03-01

477

The climate of the Earth (Scientific session of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 12 April 2011)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A scientific session of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS) on the climate of the Earth was held in the conference hall of the Lebedev Physical Institute, RAS, on 12 April 2011. The following reports were put on the session agenda posted on the web site www.gpad.ac.ru of the Physical Sciences Division, RAS: (1) Nigmatulin R I (Shirshov Institute of Oceanology, RAS, Moscow) "Ocean and climate"; (2) Byalko A V (Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics, RAS, Chernogolovka, Moscow region; journal Priroda of the Presidium of RAS) "Relaxation theory of climate." A paper written based on report 2 is published below. • Relaxation theory of climate, A V Byalko Physics-Uspekhi, 2012, Volume 55, Number 1, Pages 103-108

2012-01-01

478

Gender Differences on High School Science Achievement Tests: Do Format and Content Matter?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gender differences on the NELS:88 multiple-choice and constructed-response science tests were explored through a combination of statistical analyses and interviews. Performance gaps between males and females varied across formats (multiple-choice versus constructed-response) and across items within a format. Differences were largest for items that involved visual content and called on application of knowledge commonly acquired through extracurricular activities. Large-scale surveys

Laura S. Hamilton

1998-01-01

479

New instrument for measuring student beliefs about physics and learning physics: The Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey (CLASS) is a new instrument designed to measure student beliefs about physics and about learning physics. This instrument extends previous work by probing additional aspects of student beliefs and by using wording suitable for students in a wide variety of physics courses. The CLASS has been validated using interviews, reliability studies, and extensive statistical analyses of responses from over 5000 students. In addition, a new methodology for determining useful and statistically robust categories of student beliefs has been developed. This paper serves as the foundation for an extensive study of how student beliefs impact and are impacted by their educational experiences. For example, this survey measures the following: that most teaching practices cause substantial drops in student scores; that a student's likelihood of becoming a physics major correlates with their Personal Interest score; and that, for a majority of student populations, women's scores in some categories, including Personal Interest and Real World Connections, are significantly different from men's scores.

Adams, Wendy; Perkins, Kathy

480

Social Attribution Test - Multiple Choice (SAT-MC) in Schizophrenia: Comparison with Community Sample and Relationship to Neurocognitive, Social Cognitive and Symptom Measures  

PubMed Central

This is the first report on the use of the Social Attribution Task – Multiple Choice (SAT-MC) to assess social cognitive impairments in schizophrenia. The SAT-MC was originally developed for autism research, and consists of a 64-second animation showing geometric figures enacting a social drama, with 19 multiple choice questions about the interactions. Responses from 85 community-dwelling participants and 66 participants with SCID confirmed schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorders (Scz) revealed highly significant group differences. When the two samples were combined, SAT-MC scores were significantly correlated with other social cognitive measures, including measures of affect recognition, theory of mind, self-report of egocentricity and the Social Cognition Index from the MATRICS battery. Using a cut-off score, 53% of Scz were significantly impaired on SAT-MC compared with 9% of the community sample. Most Scz participants with impairment on SAT-MC also had impairment on affect recognition. Significant correlations were also found with neurocognitive measures but with less dependence on verbal processes than other social cognitive measures. Logistic regression using SAT-MC scores correctly classified 75% of both samples. Results suggest that this measure may have promise, but alternative versions will be needed before it can be used in pre-post or longitudinal designs.

Bell, Morris D.; Fiszdon, Joanna M.; Greig, Tamasine C.; Wexler, Bruce E.

2010-01-01

481

A physical sciences network characterization of non-tumorigenic and metastatic cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To investigate the transition from non-cancerous to metastatic from a physical sciences perspective, the Physical Sciences-Oncology Centers (PS-OC) Network performed molecular and biophysical comparative studies of the non-tumorigenic MCF-10A and metastatic MDA-MB-231 breast epithelial cell lines, commonly used as models of cancer metastasis. Experiments were performed in 20 laboratories from 12 PS-OCs. Each laboratory was supplied with identical aliquots and common reagents and culture protocols. Analyses of these measurements revealed dramatic differences in their mechanics, migration, adhesion, oxygen response, and proteomic profiles. Model-based multi-omics approaches identified key differences between these cells' regulatory networks involved in morphology and survival. These results provide a multifaceted description of cellular parameters of two widely used cell lines and demonstrate the value of the PS-OC Network approach for integration of diverse experimental observations to elucidate the phenotypes associated with cancer metastasis.

Physical Sciences-Oncology Centers Network; Agus, David B.; Alexander, Jenolyn F.; Arap, Wadih; Ashili, Shashanka; Aslan, Joseph E.; Austin, Robert H.; Backman, Vadim; Bethel, Kelly J.; Bonneau, Richard; Chen, Wei-Chiang; Chen-Tanyolac, Chira; Choi, Nathan C.; Curley, Steven A.; Dallas, Matthew; Damania, Dhwanil; Davies, Paul C. W.; Decuzzi, Paolo; Dickinson, Laura; Estevez-Salmeron, Luis; Estrella, Veronica