Note: This page contains sample records for the topic physical science multiple-choice from Science.gov.
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Last update: August 15, 2014.
1

Evaluating Multiple-Choice Exams in Large Introductory Physics Courses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The reliability and validity of professionally written multiple-choice exams have been extensively studied for exams such as the SAT, graduate record examination, and the force concept inventory. Much of the success of these multiple-choice exams is attributed to the careful construction of each question, as well as each response. In this study,…

Scott, Michael; Stelzer, Tim; Gladding, Gary

2006-01-01

2

Using a Classroom Response System to Improve Multiple-Choice Performance in AP[R] Physics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Participation in rigorous high school courses such as Advanced Placement (AP[R]) Physics increases the likelihood of college success, especially for students who are traditionally underserved. Tackling difficult multiple-choice exams should be part of any AP program because well-constructed multiple-choice questions, such as those on AP exams and…

Bertrand, Peggy

2009-01-01

3

A Case Study on Multiple-Choice Testing in Anatomical Sciences  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article describes a study investigating whether the distribution of different versions of an examination affects student performance in a lower division anatomical science course. In particular this study focuses on objective testing techniques (multiple choice test). Methods and outcomes are discussed.

Stephanie Golda (University of Missouri Anthropology, Pathology and Anatomy)

2011-01-02

4

An Investigation of Explanation Multiple-Choice Items in Science Assessment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Both multiple-choice and constructed-response items have known advantages and disadvantages in measuring scientific inquiry. In this article we explore the function of explanation multiple-choice (EMC) items and examine how EMC items differ from traditional multiple-choice and constructed-response items in measuring scientific reasoning. A group…

Liu, Ou Lydia; Lee, Hee-Sun; Linn, Marcia C.

2011-01-01

5

Evaluation of Multiple Choice and Short Essay Question items in Basic Medical Sciences  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To evaluate Multiple Choice and Short Essay Question items in Basic Medical Sciences by determining item writing flaws (IWFs) of MCQs along with cognitive level of each item in both methods. Methods: This analytical study evaluated the quality of the assessment tools used for the first batch in a newly established medical college in Karachi, Pakistan. First and sixth module assessment tools in Biochemistry during 2009-2010 were analyzed. Cognitive level of MCQs and SEQs, were noted and MCQ item writing flaws were also evaluated. Results: A total of 36 SEQs and 150 MCQs of four items were analyzed. The cognitive level of 83.33% of SEQs was at recall level while remaining 16.67% were assessing interpretation of data. Seventy six percent of the MCQs were at recall level while remaining 24% were at the interpretation. Regarding IWFs, 69 IWFs were found in 150 MCQs. The commonest among them were implausible distracters (30.43%), unfocused stem (27.54%) and unnecessary information in the stem (24.64%). Conclusion: There is a need to review the quality including the content of assessment tools. A structured faculty development program is recommended for developing improved assessment tools that align with learning outcomes and measure competency of medical students.

Baig, Mukhtiar; Ali, Syeda Kauser; Ali, Sobia; Huda, Nighat

2014-01-01

6

Identifying student mental models from their response pattern to a physics multiple-choice test  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previous work has shown that students present different misconceptions across different but similar physical situations, but the cause of these differences is still not clear. In this study, a novel analysis method was introduced to help to gain a better understanding of how different physical situations affect students' responses and learning. This novel analysis groups students into mental model groups (MMG) by similarities in their responses to multiple-choice test items, under the assumption that they have similar mental models. The Mass and Energy Conservation test was developed to probe the common misconception that objects with greater mass fall faster than objects with lesser mass across four physical situations and four knowledge sub-domains: information, dynamics, work, and energy. The test was applied before and after energy instruction to 144 college students in a large Midwestern university attending a calculus-based introductory physics course. Test time along with instruction and physical situation were the two factors. It was found that physical situation did not have a significant effect on mental models: The number of MMGs identified and the fraction of students belonging to the same MMG were not significantly different (p > .05) across physical situations. However, there was a significant effect of test time on mental models (p < .05): the fraction of students belonging to the same MMG changed from the pretest to the posttest, in that the MMG representing higher performance became predominant than the MMG with lower performance for the posttest results. A MANOVA for the average scores for each sub-domain and physical situation combination was applied to validate the previous results. It was found that a significant effect (p < .01) by physical situation resulted due to a lower average dynamics sub-domain score for the friction physical-situation attribute when compared to the no-friction physical-situation attribute. A significant effect (p < .01) was found for test time. This was due to an increase of the average energy sub-domain score from the pretest to the posttest. No significant interaction effect ( p > .05) was found. The MANOVA results obtained can be explained through the change in proportion of the MMGs present in the sample.

Montenegro Maggio, Maximiliano Jose

7

Sustainable Assessment for Large Science Classes: Non-Multiple Choice, Randomised Assignments through a Learning Management System  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports on the development of a tool that generates randomised, non-multiple choice assessment within the BlackBoard Learning Management System interface. An accepted weakness of multiple-choice assessment is that it cannot elicit learning outcomes from upper levels of Biggs' SOLO taxonomy. However, written assessment items require…

Schultz, Madeleine

2011-01-01

8

Constructing a Multiple-choice Assessment for Upper-division Quantum Physics from an Open-ended Tool  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As part of an ongoing investigation of studentsâ learning in upper-division quantum mechanics, we needed a high-quality conceptual assessment instrument for comparing outcomes of different curricular approaches. The 14 item open-ended Quantum Mechanics Assessment Tool (QMAT) was previously developed for this purpose. However, open-ended tests require complex scoring rubrics, are difficult to score consistently, and demand substantial investment of faculty time to grade. Here, we present the process of converting open-ended questions to multiple-choice (MC) format. We highlight the construction of effective distractors and the use of student interviews to revise and validate questions and distractors. We examine other elements of the process, including results of a preliminary implementation of the MC assessment given at Cal Poly Pomona and CU Boulder. This test will likely go through more iterations and further statistical analyses of reliability and validity are pending upon collection of additional.

Sadaghiani, Homeyra R.; Miller, John; Pollock, Steven J.; Rehn, Daniel

2014-02-01

9

Exploring problem solving strategies on multiple-choice science items: Comparing native Spanish-speaking English Language Learners and mainstream monolinguals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to compare how English language learners (ELLs) and monolingual English speakers solved multiple-choice items administered with and without a new form of testing accommodation---vignette illustration (VI). By incorporating theories from second language acquisition, bilingualism, and sociolinguistics, this study was able to gain more accurate and comprehensive input into the ways students interacted with items. This mixed methods study used verbal protocols to elicit the thinking processes of thirty-six native Spanish-speaking English language learners (ELLs), and 36 native-English speaking non-ELLs when solving multiple-choice science items. Results from both qualitative and quantitative analyses show that ELLs used a wider variety of actions oriented to making sense of the items than non-ELLs. In contrast, non-ELLs used more problem solving strategies than ELLs. There were no statistically significant differences in student performance based on the interaction of presence of illustration and linguistic status or the main effect of presence of illustration. However, there were significant differences based on the main effect of linguistic status. An interaction between the characteristics of the students, the items, and the illustrations indicates considerable heterogeneity in the ways in which students from both linguistic groups think about and respond to science test items. The results of this study speak to the need for more research involving ELLs in the process of test development to create test items that do not require ELLs to carry out significantly more actions to make sense of the item than monolingual students.

Kachchaf, Rachel Rae

10

An Analysis of Complex Multiple-Choice Science-Technology-Society Items: Methodological Development and Preliminary Results  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The scarce attention to the assessment and evaluation in science education research has been especially harmful for teaching science-technology-society (STS) issues, due to the dialectical, tentative, value-laden, and polemic nature of most STS topics. This paper tackles the methodological difficulties of the instruments that monitor views related…

Vazquez-Alonso, Angel; Manassero-Mas, Maria-Antonia; Acevedo-Diaz, Jose-Antonio

2006-01-01

11

The Importance of Multiple Choice.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A level of organization of inferences in which competing plausible alternatives can be compared, and all but one actively rejected, is a very important aspect of any comprehension model. Multiple choice inference structures help the model stay tuned to th...

C. Rieger

1978-01-01

12

Can multiple-choice questions simulate free-response questions?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We discuss a study to evaluate the extent to which free-response questions could be approximated by multiple-choice equivalents. Two carefully designed research-based multiple-choice questions were transformed into a free-response format and administered on the final exam in a calculus-based introductory physics course. The original multiple-choice questions were administered in another similar introductory physics course on final exam. Findings suggest that carefully designed multiple-choice questions can reflect the relative performance of the free-response questions while maintaining the benefits of ease of grading and quantitative analysis, especially if the different choices in the multiple-choice questions are weighted to reflect the different levels of understanding that students display.

Lin, Shih-Yin; Singh, Chandralekha

2012-04-24

13

Classroom Assessment Techniques: Multiple Choice Test  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page describes how to use a multiple choice test to assess student understanding. The assessment tool is one of a series of Classroom Assessment Techniques (CATs) provided by the Field-tested Learning Assessment Guide (FLAG) website. The CATs of FLAG were constructed as a resource for science, technology, engineering and mathematics instructors to emphasize deeper levels of learning and to give instructors valuable feedback during a course. The multiple-choice test is a flexible assessment format that can be used to measure knowledge, skills, abilities, values and thinking skills. This site provides an overview of this assessment technique, including information about how, when and why to use it. The site is also linked to a set of discipline-specific "tools" that can be downloaded for immediate use, as well as supplementary links and sources to further explore this assessment tool.

Parkes, Jay; The National Institute for Science Education; College Level One Team

14

Improving Multiple-Choice Questions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A MC (multiple-choice) question can be defined as a question in which students are asked to select one alternative from a given set of alternatives in response to a question stem. The objective of this paper is to analyse if MC questions may be considered as an interesting alternative for assessing knowledge, particularly in the mathematics area,…

Torres, Cristina; Lopes, Ana Paula; Babo, Lurdes; Azevedo, Jose

2011-01-01

15

Physics for Physical Sciences  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by Jason Dicker at Launceston College in Tasmania, these materials present information and examples of the physics concepts of radioactivity, motion, and current electricity. The Radioactivity portion contains sections on natural types of radioactivity, radioactive decay, and problems for students such as designing "a series of experiments to show that 'radioactivity' has nothing to do with sunlight" without using a Geiger counter. The Motion portion contains pages about vectors, projectile motion, momentum, and force. The final section, Current Electricity, has links to pages about charge and current, voltage, resistance, and some problems about electricity for students to solve. This is an excellent resource for physics educators in higher education to use to explain physics principles in the physical sciences.

Dicker, Jason

2008-01-30

16

Multiple-choice test of energy and momentum concepts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate student understanding of energy and momentum concepts at the level of introductory physics by designing and administering a 25-item multiple choice test and conducting individual interviews. We find that most students have difficulty in qualitatively interpreting basic principles related to energy and momentum and in applying them in physical situations.

Singh, Chandralekha; Rosengrant, David

2003-06-01

17

Multiple-choice test of energy and momentum concepts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We investigate student understanding of energy and momentum concepts at the level of introductory physics by designing and administering a 25-item multiple choice test and conducting individual interviews. We find that most students have difficulty in qualitatively interpreting basic principles related to energy and momentum and in applying them in physical situations.

Singh, Chandralekha; Rosengrant, David

2012-04-27

18

Middle School Students' Conceptual Learning from the Implementation of a New NSF Supported Curriculum: Interactions in Physical Science[TM  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A new National Science Foundation supported curriculum, Interactions in Physical Science[TM], was evaluated on students' conceptual change in the twelve concept areas of the national physical science content standard (B) for grades 5-8. Eighth grade students (N = 66) were evaluated pre and post on a 31-item multiple-choice test of conceptual…

Eick, Charles J.; Dias, Michael; Smith, Nancy R. Cook

2009-01-01

19

The Linear Multiple Choice Knapsack Problem.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We discuss a fast algorithm for the linear programming relaxation of the Multiple Choice Knapsack Problem. Let N be the total number of variables in this problem and let J and J sub max denote the total number of multiple choice variables and the cardinal...

E. Zemel

1979-01-01

20

Statistical Analysis of Multiple Choice Testing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The multiple-choice question exam is a very popular method of evaluation used by educators everywhere, The Air Command and Staff College Distance Learning Department uses multiple-choice exams for testing non- residence students, ACSC currently uses the T...

M. A. Colbert

2001-01-01

21

Constructive Multiple-Choice Testing System  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The newly developed computerized Constructive Multiple-choice Testing system is introduced. The system combines short answer (SA) and multiple-choice (MC) formats by asking examinees to respond to the same question twice, first in the SA format, and then in the MC format. This manipulation was employed to collect information about the two…

Park, Jooyong

2010-01-01

22

Approaches to data analysis of multiple-choice questions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This paper introduces five commonly used approaches to analyzing multiple-choice test data. They are classical test theory, factor analysis, cluster analysis, item response theory, and model analysis. Brief descriptions of the goals and algorithms of these approaches are provided, together with examples illustrating their applications in physics education research. We minimize mathematics, instead placing emphasis on data interpretation using these approaches.

Ding, Lin; Beichner, Robert J.

2010-06-29

23

Performance on multiple-choice diagnostics and complementary exam problems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This paper compares the responses of university physics students on the Force Concept Inventory (FCI) and on open-ended examination questions. The Mechanics Baseline Test (MBT) is another multiple choice test. It contains a greater range of topics than the FCI and is intended for use after instruction.

Steinberg, Richard N.; Sabella, Mel

2005-10-17

24

The Prepared Practitioner: Multiple-Choice Season  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Spring is almost here. Soon buds will appear on trees, and bubbled-in answers will appear on test response sheets all across America. Spring brings a spate of multiple-choice tests for many students--from SATs to AP exams to final exams to state and district testing. So this month seems an appropriate time to take a look at multiple-choice questioning.

Colburn, Alan

2009-03-01

25

Idea Bank: More than Multiple-Choice  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Multiple-choice questions typically dominate tests in high school chemistry classes. The modification described in this article requires students to explain their reasoning behind each multiple-choice answer. This testing format demands more grading time, but awards students partial credit and provides greater feedback to the teacher concerning how well concepts have been learned. Details of the implementation and benefits are provided here.

Ennever, Fanny

2006-10-01

26

Can free-response questions be approximated by multiple-choice equivalents?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We discuss a study to evaluate the extent to which free-response questions can be approximated by multiple-choice equivalents. Two carefully designed research-based multiple-choice questions were transformed into a free-response format and administered on the final exam in a calculus-based introductory physics course. The original multiple-choice questions were administered in another, similar introductory physics course on the final exam. Our findings suggest that carefully designed multiple-choice questions can reflect the relative performance on the free-response questions while maintaining the benefits of ease of grading and quantitative analysis, especially if the different choices in the multiple-choice questions are weighted to reflect the different levels of understanding that students display.

Lin, Shih-Yin; Singh, Chandralekha

2013-08-01

27

Annual Reviews: Physical Sciences  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

_Annual Reviews_has placed the full text of all titles in the Physical and Social Sciences suites on line. Online titles include the Physical Sciences review volumes: Astronomy and Astrophysics, Biophysics and Biomolecular Structure, Earth and Planetary Sciences, Energy and the Environment, Fluid Mechanics, Materials Science, Nuclear and Particle Science, and Physical Chemistry. Online full-text content for the Physical Sciences suite begins with 1997 issues; online abstracts begin in 1992. All journals mentioned are produced in conjunction with Stanford University's HighWire Press.

28

Formatting Issues in Multiple Choice Tests.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purposes of the present study were to ascertain whether or not two particular formatting characteristics influenced seventh grade student performance on math tests. One research question focused on the effects of decimal positioning in multiple choice options for computational items. In a second question, labeling format was compared with…

Siskind, Theresa G.; And Others

29

Demand Characteristics of Multiple-Choice Items.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Thirteen graduate students were asked to indicate for each of 24 multiple-choice items whether the item tested "recall of specific information," a "higher order skill," or "don't know." The students were also asked to state their general basis for judging the items. The 24 items had been previously classified according to Bloom's cognitive-skills…

Diamond, James J.; Williams, David V.

30

Sore Fingers in Multiple-Choice Tests.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the "sore-finger" form of multiple choice test items. "Sore finger" items employ authentic texts making use of the rules of text grammar, achieve high discrimination levels, and show a high validity for several subtests, especially style tests. The use of sore finger items in German nationwide English and German tests is related. (JL)

Bauer, Hannspeter

1991-01-01

31

Physics 594: Computational Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"A Course in Computational Science for the Physical and Life Sciences" based on the CSEP e-book, complete with Course Description, Course Syllabus, Lecture Schedules, Lectures and Exercises available on-line.

32

Multiple Choice: From Sample to Product  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This archived version of the exhibit: "Multiple Choice: From Sample to Product" provides a PDF of a press release along with information about the content and context of the exhibit.The exhibition traced the process that takes samples to final products in a variety of contexts, ranging from home furnishings to architectural ornament to textile design. Highlights of the exhibition included an earthenware sample plate with transfer-printed decorations, made in England in 1899, associated with a finished plate made using the same technique.

33

Genetic Algorithms for Multiple-Choice Problems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis investigates the use of problem-specific knowledge to enhance a genetic algorithm approach to multiple-choice optimisation problems.It shows that such information can significantly enhance performance, but that the choice of information and the way it is included are important factors for success.Two multiple-choice problems are considered.The first is constructing a feasible nurse roster that considers as many requests as possible.In the second problem, shops are allocated to locations in a mall subject to constraints and maximising the overall income.Genetic algorithms are chosen for their well-known robustness and ability to solve large and complex discrete optimisation problems.However, a survey of the literature reveals room for further research into generic ways to include constraints into a genetic algorithm framework.Hence, the main theme of this work is to balance feasibility and cost of solutions.In particular, co-operative co-evolution with hierarchical sub-populations, problem structure exploiting repair schemes and indirect genetic algorithms with self-adjusting decoder functions are identified as promising approaches.The research starts by applying standard genetic algorithms to the problems and explaining the failure of such approaches due to epistasis.To overcome this, problem-specific information is added in a variety of ways, some of which are designed to increase the number of feasible solutions found whilst others are intended to improve the quality of such solutions.As well as a theoretical discussion as to the underlying reasons for using each operator,extensive computational experiments are carried out on a variety of data.These show that the indirect approach relies less on problem structure and hence is easier to implement and superior in solution quality.

Aickelin, Uwe

2010-04-01

34

Learning Physical Science (LEPS)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learning Physical Science is a one-semester physical science course focusing on fundamental content themes of physical science (conservation of energy, Newton's laws and the small particle theory) in an integrated way. The course was adapted from the small enrollment guided-inquiry course Physical Science and Everyday Thinking (PSET). During LEPS "lectures" students observe demonstrations of phenomena (either performed by the instructor or shown with movies), make sense of the phenomena through guided questions, and make extensive use of personal response systems (aka clickers). Web based homework assignments focus on extending the ideas learned during class. To promote a focus on the nature of science and the nature of learning students view videos of both college students and elementary school students discussing science and participate in online discussions. There is also an optional laboratory component consisting of guided inquiries of interesting phenomena. During this workshop we will discuss the structure of the course, observe and discuss video from the first pilot implementation (during Fall 2008), and compare LEPS with PSET (large vs small enrollment versions of a similar course).

Goldberg, Fred

2009-03-20

35

Science Fair Projects: Physics  

Microsoft Academic Search

I have often thought that the notion of a Science Fair is intrinsically a good one but have never set one up. With this book such an undertaking is possible, with 47 projects from which you can choose.Each project has a clearly stated purpose with an overview that contains the physics you need to get started. A hypothesis, or sometimes

Helen Reynolds

2000-01-01

36

Free-Response and Multiple-Choice Items: Measures of the Same Ability?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the relationship of multiple-choice and free-response items contained on the College Board's Advanced Placement Computer Science (APCS) examination. Subjects were two samples of 1,000 randomly drawn from the population of 7,372 high school students taking the 1988 examination of the APCS "AB" form. Most were high school…

Bennett, Randy Elliot; And Others

37

Multiple Choice Examination System 2. Online Quizzes for General Chemistry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents the main aspects and implementation of an online multiple choice examination system with general chemistry issues for student evaluation. The testing system was used to generate items for a multiple- choice examination for first year undergraduate students in Material Engineering and Environmental Engineering from Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, Romania, which all attend the same General Chemistry course.

Horea Iustin; Lorentz JÄNTSCHI

2004-01-01

38

Strategies for the Meaningful Evaluation of Multiple-Choice Assessments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Too many multiple-choice tests are administered without an evaluative component. Teachers often return student assessments or Scantron cards--computerized bubble forms--without review, assuming that the printing of the correct answer will suffice. However, a more constructivist approach to follow up multiple-choice tests can make for more…

Chesbro, Robert

2010-01-01

39

Physical Sciences 2007 Science & Technology Highlights  

SciTech Connect

The Physical Sciences Directorate applies frontier physics and technology to grand challenges in national security. Our highly integrated and multidisciplinary research program involves collaborations throughout Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, the National Nuclear Security Administration, the Department of Energy, and with academic and industrial partners. The Directorate has a budget of approximately $150 million, and a staff of approximately 350 employees. Our scientists provide expertise in condensed matter and high-pressure physics, plasma physics, high-energy-density science, fusion energy science and technology, nuclear and particle physics, accelerator physics, radiation detection, optical science, biotechnology, and astrophysics. This document highlights the outstanding research and development activities in the Physical Sciences Directorate that made news in 2007. It also summarizes the awards and recognition received by members of the Directorate in 2007.

Hazi, A U

2008-04-07

40

Physical Science Curriculum Support Document  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document was developed in response to the expressed need of physical science teachers for materials designed to facilitate and enhance the teaching of the 1999 North Carolina Standard Course of Study for Physical Science. The materials provide a guide to translating the goals and objectives of the Physical Science curriculum into good…

Elliott, Carolyn C.; Brown, Tim; Harris, Jeff; Lovin, Pamela

2004-01-01

41

Physical and Life Sciences 2008 Science & Technology Highlights.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This collage encapsulates the breadth of science disciplines in Physical and Life Sciences (PLS)--physics, chemistry, materials sciences, earth sciences, and life sciences. This broad range of science enables PLS to achieve its mission of creating and app...

A. U. Hazi D. L. Correll

2009-01-01

42

Physical Science Activity Manual  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web page provides a collection of high school physical science lesson plans designed using the Learning Cycle pedagogical model. In this model, students first engage in hands-on activities before being introduced to new terms or textbook materials. The cycle culminates in the application of new knowledge to a unique situation (usually a lab activity). Most of the experiments use very simple equipment. Each activity includes a series of questions with information and tips for the instructor. Topics range from mass and density through Newton's laws and electricity, to heat and light.

Hartshorn, Robert

2007-02-07

43

General Physics, Physics 12 [Science Curriculum Materials].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Physics 12 curriculum guide represents one in a series of science guides especially designed to provide for the pupil whose primary interests are in non-science fields. The program provides study in physics in which fundamental concepts and understandings are developed, mathematical concepts are limited, and students are encouraged to relate…

Rochester City School District, NY.

44

An Additive Algorithm for the Multiple Choice Integer Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The problem dealt with in this report is the Multiple Choice Integer Program (MCIP), a special case of the integer linear programming problem with binary variables. In this problem the variables are partitioned (using the classical definition of 'partitio...

J. C. Bean

1980-01-01

45

Test Equating under the Multiple-Choice Model.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a characteristic curve procedure for comparing transformations of the item response theory ability scale assuming the multiple-choice model. Illustrates the use of the method with an example equating American College Testing mathematics tests. (SLD)

Kim, Jee-Seon; Hanson, Bradley A.

2002-01-01

46

UFOs and Physical Sciences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The psycho-sociological reasons why the academic science is not willing to face operatively and officially a hard problem such as the 'UFO phenomenon', are introduced in the ambit of an episthemological discussion. It is shown how such a phenomenon, due to his peculiar nature, might impose a drastic revision of the laws of physics which are commonly accepted. It is demonstrated how a strict application of the measurement methods which are normally adopted by physics can permit to obtain relevant quantitative results, whatever they are. As an example of such a procedure, the anomalous light phenomenology which reoccurs in the Hessdalen valley in Norway is presented, by showing that it represents so far the ideal worldly physical laboratory for the study of luminous phenomena in the low atmosphere. After describing the multiform morphologic and dynamic characteristics of the luminous component of the phenomenon as they are deduced from visual and photographic reports, the results coming out from the magnetometric, radiometric and radar monitoring operations which were carried out by Project Hessdalen in 1984, are presented in detail. Subsequently, the postumous analysis carried out by the author is shown, by pointing out the clear cohexistence of the magnetic and the optical phenomenology and the apparent correlation of the magnetic component of the phenomenon with maxima of solar activity. In a subsequent phase, the most credited physical theories, which have been proposed so far in order to interpret the phenomenon, are described and discussed, together with 'non-canonical hypotheses'. Finally, it is pointed out how the physical parameters which are expected to be measured with the proper instrumented equipment and aimed tactics and strategies, resemble strictly the methodology which is normally used during astrophysical observations.

Teodorani, M.

1999-03-01

47

Teaching Science through Physical Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Physical education can serve as a vehicle for teaching science and make student understanding of certain personal health-related science concepts meaningful. Describes activities involving the musculoskeletal system, the nervous system, and the cardiovascular system. (DKM)

Kumar, David; Whitehurst, Michael

1997-01-01

48

Physical Science in Barcelona  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We provide a tour of Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain, following four routes through the city and one elsewhere in the city and beyond, focusing on sites of importance in physics. Route 1 covers the Old Town, its Gothic Quarter, Plaça del Rei, Plaça de Sant Jaume, and Jewish Quarter. Route 2 identifies sites on and close to La Rambla, the main promenade in the city. Route 3 goes from the medieval shipyards to the Board of Commerce to Citadel Park. Route 4 concentrates on the Extension ( Eixample) and covers the restored University, the Industrial University, and the new campus of the University of Barcelona. Elsewhere in the city and beyond are the Fabra Observatory; the Plaça de les Glňries with its large steel sculpture depicting the meridian arc from Dunkirk to Barcelona; Montjuďc, the site of the National Art Museum of Catalonia; and the National Museum of Science and Technology in Terrassa.

Roca-Rosell, Antoni; Roqué, Xavier

2013-12-01

49

Physical Sciences 2007 Science & Technology Highlights  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Physical Sciences Directorate applies frontier physics and technology to grand challenges in national security. Our highly integrated and multidisciplinary research program involves collaborations throughout Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, the National Nuclear Security Administration, the Department of Energy, and with academic and industrial partners. The Directorate has a budget of approximately $150 million, and a staff of approximately 350 employees.

Hazi

2008-01-01

50

Concepts in Physical Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Contained in this experimental test are instructional materials for a one-semester course designed to give liberal arts students an appreciation of (1) the nature of science, (2) the development of science, (3) the contributions of scientists, (4) the impact of scientific discoveries on mankind, and (5) the possible future effects of science. The…

Puri, O. P.

51

Training College Physics and Physical Science Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Summarizes survey data about the need and appropriate character of graduate degree programs designed to prepare two-year and four-year college physics and physical science teachers. Indicates that future employment favors two-year college teachers with a master's degree in the region west of the Mississippi River. (CC)

Henderson, R. B.; And Others

1974-01-01

52

Science Daily: Physics of Sailing  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video podcast from Science Daily magazine explores the physics principles that enable modern sailboats to move faster than the wind. Physicist Bryon Anderson, Kent State University, explains the secret that many novice sailors do not know: a sailboat goes fastest when the wind blows from the side, not from directly behind the craft. Dr. Anderson discusses the physics involved, while the video provides illustrations of the interacting forces. Science Daily is a web-based magazine that delivers timely news about discoveries in science and technology, appropriate for all audiences. The web site archives contain more than 40,000 resources that cover all strands of the sciences.

2011-10-01

53

Graded Multiple Choice Questions: Rewarding Understanding and Preventing Plagiarism.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an easily implemented method that allows the generation and analysis of graded multiple-choice examinations. The technique, which uses standard functions in user-end software (Microsoft Excel 5+), can also produce several different versions of an examination that can be employed to prevent plagiarism. (MM)

Denyer, Gareth; Hancock, Dale

2002-01-01

54

Guessing, Partial Knowledge, and Misconceptions in Multiple-Choice Tests  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The number right (NR) method, in which students pick one option as the answer, is the conventional method for scoring multiple-choice tests that is heavily criticized for encouraging students to guess and failing to credit partial knowledge. In addition, computer technology is increasingly used in classroom assessment. This paper investigates the…

Lau, Paul Ngee Kiong; Lau, Sie Hoe; Hong, Kian Sam; Usop, Hasbee

2011-01-01

55

DIATEST, A System for Programme Control of Multiple Choice Tests.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The DIATEST responder system is a control system for fully programed running of diagnostic tests of multiple-choice type. The system makes use of the control unit earlier developed at the Institute of Technology for programed four-screen slide projection and the electronic response analyser (ESAU). Presentation of a question is done audiovisually,…

Eriksson, Christer

56

Analyzing Student Confidence in Classroom Voting with Multiple Choice Questions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this paper is to present results of a recent study in which students voted on multiple choice questions in mathematics courses of varying levels. Students used clickers to select the best answer among the choices given; in addition, they were also asked whether they were confident in their answer. In this paper we analyze data…

Stewart, Ann; Storm, Christopher; VonEpps, Lahna

2013-01-01

57

Evaluation of Negation in Stems of Multiple-Choice Items.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Findings from a study with approximately 200 first-year University of Calgary (Canada) nursing students provide evidence that the use of negation (e.g., not, except) should be limited in stems of multiple-choice test items and that a single-response negatively worded item should be converted to a multiple-response positively worded item. (SLD)

Harasym, P. H.; And Others

1992-01-01

58

Multiple-Choice Test Items of Foreign Language Vocabulary  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the various multiple-choice formats used in testing foreign language vocabulary with special reference to the underlying constructs of vocabulary competence. While all formats are argued to categorically measure recognition of second language word meaning, they are claimed to differ with respect to whether they measure receptive recognition or productive recognition, following a distinction drawn by Nation (2001).

Meral Öztürk

2007-01-01

59

Using the Multiple Choice Procedure to Measure College Student Gambling  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research suggests that gambling is similar to addictive behaviors such as substance use. In the current study, gambling was investigated from a behavioral economics perspective. The Multiple Choice Procedure (MCP) with gambling as the target behavior was used to assess for relative reinforcing value, the effect of alternative reinforcers, and…

Butler, Leon Harvey

2010-01-01

60

Further Support for Changing Multiple-Choice Answers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The effect on test scores of changing answers to multiple-choice questions was studied and compared to earlier research. The current setting was a nationally administered, in-training, specialty examination for medical residents in obstetrics and gynecology. Both low and high scorers improved their scores when they changed answers. (SW)

Fabrey, Lawrence J.; Case, Susan M.

1985-01-01

61

Positive and Negative Multiple Choice Items: How Different Are They?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The performance of 254 Israeli twelfth graders on multiple-choice tests with positive or negative item stems was studied. For items requiring low cognitive reasoning, performance does not differ, but, for items requiring high cognitive reasoning, the negative mode is more difficult. Implications for test construction are discussed. (SLD)

Tamir, Pinchas

1993-01-01

62

Physics in advanced GNVQ Science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

GNVQ Science is a vocational qualification for students in England, with a demand equivalent to traditional GCE A-levels. This article looks at the approach adopted by GNVQ to physics, and discusses the way in which appropriate teaching resources have been developed by the Nuffield Science in Practice project.

Sang, D.

1995-07-01

63

Physical Sciences in Lisbon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We provide a two-day tour of Lisbon, Portugal, focusing on sites of scientific and technological importance, setting them within their historical contexts. On the first day we visit the Academy of Sciences of Lisbon, the building that successively housed the College of Nobles, the Polytechnic School, and the University of Lisbon Faculty of Sciences, and then go on to the Arpad Szenes-Vieira da Silva Museum and the Astronomical Observatory of Lisbon. On the second day we visit the Industrial Institute and Museum, the Geographical Society of Lisbon, the Jesuit College of Santo Antăo, and the Technical Institute.

Simőes, Ana; Diogo, Maria Paula; Carneiro, Ana

2012-09-01

64

Inference for the physical sciences.  

PubMed

There is a disconnect between developments in modern data analysis and some parts of the physical sciences in which they could find ready use. This introduction, and this issue, provides resources to help experimental researchers access modern data analysis tools and exposure for analysts to extant challenges in physical science. We include a table of resources connecting statistical and physical disciplines and point to appropriate books, journals, videos and articles. We conclude by highlighting the relevance of each of the articles in the associated issue. PMID:23277613

Jones, Nick S; Maccarone, Thomas J

2013-02-13

65

Physical Science in Oslo  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I provide a tour of Oslo, Norway, concentrating on the city center and the suburbs of Blindern and Třyen. I focus on the buildings used by the University of Oslo from its foundation in 1811 and on the physical scientists who worked in them. I also point out the cemeteries where some of them are buried.

Pedersen, Bjřrn

2011-06-01

66

GUIDELINES FOR THE CONSTRUCTION OF MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS TESTS  

PubMed Central

Multiple Choice Questions (MCQs) are generally recognized as the most widely applicable and useful type of objective test items. They could be used to measure the most important educational outcomes - knowledge, understanding, judgment and problem solving. The objective of this paper is to give guidelines for the construction of MCQs tests. This includes the construction of both “single best option” type, and “extended matching item” type. Some templates for use in the “single best option” type of questions are recommended.

Al-Rukban, Mohammed O.

2006-01-01

67

Physical science: A dynamic approach  

SciTech Connect

A partial table of contents is: Early concepts of nature. The rebirth of science. Energy, work, and power. Relativity. The atom. The periodic nature of elements. Chemical energy. The dynamic Earth. The solar system. Stars and nebulae. Extraterrestrial life. The author presents an introduction to physical science and the spirit of scientific inquiry through a historical survey of scientific thought. Specific forces, processes, energies and phenomena are outlined. Various tables, illustrations and questions accompany the text.

Dixon, R.T.

1986-01-01

68

Introductory Physical Science; Physical Science II: A Progress Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report contains articles on the preparation of Introductory Physical Science (IPS) for commercial publication, objectives and content of the course, and the IPS leadership training program. Two articles discuss testing as a means of student evaluation, and statistics are presented to indicate student performance on IPS by grade level and…

Haber-Schaim, Uri

69

A Comparison of a Multiple Choice and an Essay Test of Writing Skills.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The test scores of college freshmen given both a multiple choice test and an essay test of writing skills were compared to assess the validity of a multiple choice test compared with an essay test. (HOD)

Culpepper, Marilyn Mayer; Ramsdell, Rae

1982-01-01

70

Simulation of psychosis on a multiple-choice projective test.  

PubMed

The ability of a new multiple-choice group Rorschach instrument to differentiate 62 undergraduate students asked to simulate psychosis from 75 students and 55 schizophrenics given standard instructions was investigated. For each of 50 responses to miniature inkblots, normals and psychotics chose one of four alternative answers as most descriptive of what the stimulus looked like. Simulators responded as they thought a psychotic or insane person would. As hypothesized, simulators chose significantly more "good form but bizarre wording" responses than normals or psychotics, suggesting that the test is promising as a practical clinical indicator of attempts to simulate psychosis. PMID:6634328

Pettigrew, C G; Tuma, J M; Pickering, J W; Whelton, J

1983-10-01

71

An Analysis of Test Bank Multiple-Choice Items Using Item Response Theory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An item analysis study was conducted for two multiple-choice tests of introductory psychology created from a publisher's test bank. A 47-item multiple-choice test was administered to 247 students, and 433 students took a different 42-item multiple-choice test. Participants were from a large northeastern suburban community college. The difficulty…

Richichi, Rudolph V.

72

Both multiple-choice and short-answer quizzes enhance later exam performance in middle and high school classes.  

PubMed

Practicing retrieval of recently studied information enhances the likelihood of the learner retrieving that information in the future. We examined whether short-answer and multiple-choice classroom quizzing could enhance retention of information on classroom exams taken for a grade. In seventh-grade science and high school history classes, students took intermittent quizzes (short-answer or multiple-choice, both with correct-answer feedback) on some information, whereas other information was not initially quizzed but received equivalent coverage in all other classroom activities. On the unit exams and on an end-of-semester exam, students performed better for information that had been quizzed than that not quizzed. An unanticipated and key finding is that the format of the quiz (multiple-choice or short-answer) did not need to match the format of the criterial test (e.g., unit exam) for this benefit to emerge. Further, intermittent quizzing cannot be attributed to intermittent reexposure to the target facts: A restudy condition produced less enhancement of later test performance than did quizzing with feedback. Frequent classroom quizzing with feedback improves student learning and retention, and multiple-choice quizzing is as effective as short-answer quizzing for this purpose. PMID:24274234

McDermott, Kathleen B; Agarwal, Pooja K; D'Antonio, Laura; Roediger, Henry L; McDaniel, Mark A

2014-03-01

73

An assessment of functioning and non-functioning distractors in multiple-choice questions: a descriptive analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Four- or five-option multiple choice questions (MCQs) are the standard in health-science disciplines, both on certification-level examinations and on in-house developed tests. Previous research has shown, however, that few MCQs have three or four functioning distractors. The purpose of this study was to investigate non-functioning distractors in teacher-developed tests in one nursing program in an English-language university in Hong

Marie Tarrant; James Ware; Ahmed M Mohammed

2009-01-01

74

Qualitative and quantitative differences in learning associated with multiple-choice testing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study assesses some effects of the Computer-Assisted Self-Evaluation (CASE) system of frequent multiple-choice testing with immediate computer feedback; it is part of a larger project aiming to combine the principal strengths of individualized instruction with lecture teaching (Fisher, 1979). Learning and retention are examined in two equivalent groups of undergraduates enrolled in an upper division science course. One group (N =34) received 24 CASE quizzes with immediate feedback and the other (N=30) received two CASE-generated midterms with delayed feedback. Quiz students significantly outperformed Midterm students on the posttest; the Quiz section scored nine percentage points higher on rote items and fourteen points higher on meaningful items. Quiz students also had more positive attitudes toward and were more involved in the course. On a retention test given two years later, the Quiz Group scored eight percentage points higher than the Midterm Group on meaningful items. This study suggests that, contrary to popular opinion, multiple-choice questions promote meaningful learning at least as well as, and possibly better than, rote learning. The CASE system appears to be about as effective as other forms of frequent testing and immediate feedback in enhancing learning, and it provides a simple, cost-effective means of individualized testing in large lecture classes.

Fisher, K.; Williams, S.; Roth, J.

75

Preparing teachers to teach physics and physical science by inquiry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In physics, neither courses for majors nor for non-majors provide the kind of preparation required for teaching physics or physical science by inquiry. Indicates that science methods courses cannot help teachers develop the depth of understanding needed for this type of teaching. Offers a practical alternative for special physics courses for teachers.

Mcdermott, Lillian C.; Shaffer, Peter S.; Constantinou, C. P.

2005-11-22

76

The Next Generation Science Standards: A Focus on Physical Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes ways to adapt U.S. science curriculum to the U.S. National Research Council (NRC) "Framework for K-12 Science Education" and "Next Generation of Science Standards" (NGSS), noting their focus on teaching the physical sciences. The overall goal of the Framework and NGSS is to help all learners develop the…

Krajcik, Joe

2013-01-01

77

Fitting Polytomous Item Response Theory Models to Multiple-Choice Tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined how well current software implementations of four polytomous item response theory models fit several multiple-choice tests. The models were Bock's (1972) nominal model, Samejima's (1979) multiple-choice Model C, Thissen & Steinberg's (1984) multiple-choice model, and Levine's (1993) maximum-likelihood formula scoring model. The parameters of the first three of these models were estimated with Thissen's (1986) MULTILOG computer

Fritz Drasgow; Michael V Levine; Sherman Tsien; Bruce Williams; Alan D. Mead

1995-01-01

78

BOOK REVIEW: Key Science Physics: New Edition and Key Science Physics for International Schools: Extension File  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When handling , I recalled how one set of sixth-form students that I taught affectionately referred to Jim Breithaupt's large format book Understanding Physics for Advanced Level as `Big Jim'. This package, for GCSE students and teachers, is its younger brother. Key Science Physics was reviewed in this journal over four years ago. Now it is in a new edition with an expanded ring file of teacher resources (a Teacher's Guide and Extension File). It has been expanded for a wider range of students to meet the requirements of all GCSE syllabuses with additional topics for IGCSE and IB. The international bit seems to be among materials in the file of resources and does not appear in the title of the students' textbook. This is not one of those purchases that will only get occasional use and be left in a department library but it is one that contains sufficient excellent material to become central to any GCSE Physics course. For the students there is a single-volume 396-page textbook in full colour (not a heavyweight book). Marginal comments point out places where an Activity or Assignment from the Extension File fits in. All the materials in the teacher's Extension File are cross referenced to the numbering of this textbook, i.e. its Themes, Topics, Checkpoints, Tests etc, not to page numbers. The margin is used in other attractive ways to highlight a summary, propose a first thought or provide a topic summary. The text is fruitful mix of pure physics, applications and personalities. To support the students' practical work the Extension File contains photocopiable sheets. For the activities and assignments a few contain a harder version to give access to the higher levels of attainment. Four alternatives to practical questions are given; there are also exam questions and multiple choice questions for each topic. These all have helpful mark schemes on the teacher's answers pages. What else do you get? A Glossary collection of sheets to photocopy with space to enter a definition in a second language. Versions of many key diagrams in the student book are enlarged and reworked in clear black and white to make OHP transparencies. There is a mention of these also being in colour on a CD-ROM. The organization of the Extension File is as clear as is reasonably possible. As a user, I would add coloured page dividers to mark the sections within it. The Teacher's Guide is admirable in its restraint - just 26 sides of topic notes - which includes the answers to the non-numerical checkpoint questions missing in the student book. It is not wordy or full of educational theory but succinct and relevant to the day-to-day business of learning with these materials. Reading it, I was aware of the snags that a novice teacher might be glad to know but were missing. As always, materials like these should come with a health warning - try out all homework sheets, instructions for activities and assignments before your students!

Maybank, Maureen

1999-09-01

79

Preparing K-12 teachers to teach physics and physical science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The task of preparing K-12 teachers to teach science is an important (though often unacknowledged) responsibility of science faculty. In recent years, a steadily increasing number of physics departments have begun to recognize the need to take a more active role in the professional development of K-12 teachers of physics and physical science. The task of preparing K-12 teachers to teach science is an important (though often unacknowledged) responsibility of science faculty. In recent years, a steadily increasing number of physics departments have begun to recognize the need to take a more active role in the professional development of K-12 teachers of physics and physical science.The task of preparing K-12 teachers to teach science is an important (though often unacknowledged) responsibility of science faculty. In recent years, a steadily increasing number of physics departments have begun to recognize the need to take a more active role in the professional development of K-12 teachers of physics and physical science.However, if these developments are to lead to a long-lasting positive impact, it is necessary to recognize the inadequacy of the preparation usually offered in physics departments and to reflect on the characteristics of instruction that has been shown to be more effective.

Mcdermott, Lillian C.; Heron, Paula R.; Shaffer, Peter S.

2007-11-02

80

Multiple Choice Knapsack Problem: example of planning choice in transportation.  

PubMed

Transportation programming, a process of selecting projects for funding given budget and other constraints, is becoming more complex as a result of new federal laws, local planning regulations, and increased public involvement. This article describes the use of an integer programming tool, Multiple Choice Knapsack Problem (MCKP), to provide optimal solutions to transportation programming problems in cases where alternative versions of projects are under consideration. In this paper, optimization methods for use in the transportation programming process are compared and then the process of building and solving the optimization problems is discussed. The concepts about the use of MCKP are presented and a real-world transportation programming example at various budget levels is provided. This article illustrates how the use of MCKP addresses the modern complexities and provides timely solutions in transportation programming practice. While the article uses transportation programming as a case study, MCKP can be useful in other fields where a similar decision among a subset of the alternatives is required. PMID:19596437

Zhong, Tao; Young, Rhonda

2010-05-01

81

A Multiple-Choice Task with Changes of Mind  

PubMed Central

The role of changes of mind and multiple choices has recently received increased attention in the study of perceptual decision-making. Previously, these extensions to standard two-alternative tasks have been studied separately. Here we explored how changes of mind depend on the number of choice-alternatives. To this end, we tested 14 human subjects on a 2- and 4-alternative direction-discrimination task. Changes of mind in the participants' movement trajectories could be observed for two and for four choice alternatives. With fewer alternatives, participants responded faster and more accurately. The frequency of changes of mind, however, did not significantly differ for the different numbers of choice alternatives. Nevertheless, mind-changing improved the participants' final performance, particularly for intermediate difficulty levels, in both experimental conditions. Moreover, the mean reaction times of individual participants were negatively correlated with their overall tendency to make changes of mind. We further reproduced these findings with a multi-alternative attractor model for decision-making, while a simple race model could not account for the experimental data. Our experiment, combined with the theoretical models allowed us to shed light on: (1) the differences in choice behavior between two and four alternatives, (2) the differences between the data of our human subjects and previous monkey data, (3) individual differences between participants, and (4) the inhibitory interaction between neural representations of choice alternatives.

Albantakis, Larissa; Branzi, Francesca M.; Costa, Albert; Deco, Gustavo

2012-01-01

82

The Relationship of Expert-System Scored Constrained Free-Response Items to Multiple-Choice and Open-Ended Items.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The relationship of an expert-system-scored constrained free-response item type to multiple-choice and free-response items was studied using data for 614 students on the College Board's Advanced Placement Computer Science (APCS) Examination. Implications for testing and the APCS test are discussed. (SLD)

Bennett, Randy Elliot; And Others

1990-01-01

83

"Physics and Life" for Europe's Science Teachers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The EIROforum Contribution to the European Science and Technology Week 2003 [Physics on Stage 3 Logo] What do you know about modern science? Was your school science teacher inspiring and enthusiastic? Or was physics class a good time to take a nap? Unfortunately, many young Europeans don't have the fondest memories of science in school, and the result is a widespread disinterest and lack of understanding of science among adults. This has become a real problem - especially at a time when science is having a growing impact on our daily lives, and when society needs more scientists than ever! What can be done? Some of Europe's leading research organisations, scientists and teachers have put their heads together and come up with a unique approach called "Physics on Stage" . This will be the third year that these institutes, with substantial support from the European Commission, are running this project - attacking the problem at its roots. EIROforum and "Physics on Stage 3" [EIROforum Logo] "Physics On Stage 3" is based on the very successful "Physics On Stage" concept that was introduced in 2000. It is directed towards science teachers and students in Europe's secondary schools. It is a part of the year-long build-up to the European Science and Technology Week 2003 (3-9 November), an initiative by the European Commission, and is run by seven of Europe's leading Intergovernmental Research Organizations (the EIROforum) [1]. The project addresses the content and format of science teaching in European schools , seeking to improve the quality of teaching and to find new ways to stimulate pupils to take an interest in science. Innovative and inspirational science teaching is seen as a key component to attract young people to deal with scientific issues, whether or not they finally choose a career in science. Hence, "Physics On Stage 3" aims to stimulate the interest of young people through the school teachers, who can play a key role in reversing the trend of falling interest in science and current scientific research. The goals of "Physics On Stage 3" [EWST Logo] "Physics on Stage 3" also aims to facilitate the exchange of good practice and innovative ideas among Europe's science teachers and to provide a forum for a broad debate among educators, administrators and policy-makers about the key problems in science education today. Moreover, it will make available the considerable, combined expertise of the EIROforum organisations to the European scientific teaching community, in order to promote the introduction of "fresh" science into the curricula and thus to convey a more realistic image of modern science to the pupils. "Physics on Stage 3" is concerned with basic science and also with the cross-over between different science disciplines - a trend becoming more and more important in today's science, which is not normally reflected in school curricula. A key element of the programme is to give teachers an up-to-date "insiders'" view of what is happening in science and to tell them about new, highly-diverse and interesting career opportunities for their pupils. Theme of the activities The theme of "Physics on Stage" this year is "Physics and Life" , reflecting the decision to broaden the Physics on Stage activities to encompass all the natural sciences. Including other sciences will augment the already successful concept, introducing a mixture of cross-over projects that highlight the multidisciplinary aspects of modern science. Among the many subjects to be presented are radiation, physics and the environment, astrobiology (the search for life beyond earth), complex systems, self-organising systems, sports science, the medical applications of physics, mathematics and epidemiology, etc. The main elements National activities "Physics on Stage 3" has already started and National Steering Committees in 22 countries, composed of eminent science teachers, scientists, administrators and others involved in se

2003-04-01

84

A comparative study of students' performance in preclinical physiology assessed by multiple choice and short essay questions.  

PubMed

This study was designed to compare the performance of medical students in physiology when assessed by multiple choice questions (MCQs) and short essay questions (SEQs). The study also examined the influence of factors such as age, sex, O/level grades and JAMB scores on performance in the MCQs and SEQs. A structured questionnaire was administered to 264 medical students' four months before the Part I MBBS examination. Apart from personal data of each student, the questionnaire sought information on the JAMB scores and GCE O' Level grades of each student in English Language, Biology, Chemistry, Physics and Mathematics. The physiology syllabus was divided into five parts and the students were administered separate examinations (tests) on each part. Each test consisted of MCQs and SEQs. The performance in MCQs and SEQs were compared. Also, the effects of JAMB scores and GCE O/level grades on the performance in both the MCQs and SEQs were assessed. The results showed that the students performed better in all MCQ tests than in the SEQs. JAMB scores and O' level English Language grade had no significant effect on students' performance in MCQs and SEQs. However O' level grades in Biology, Chemistry, Physics and Mathematics had significant effects on performance in MCQs and SEQs. Inadequate knowledge of physiology and inability to present information in a logical sequence are believed to be major factors contributing to the poorer performance in the SEQs compared with MCQs. In view of the finding of significant association between performance in MCQs and SEQs and GCE O/level grades in science subjects and mathematics, it was recommended that both JAMB results and the GCE results in the four O/level subjects above may be considered when selecting candidates for admission into the medical schools. PMID:11713989

Oyebola, D D; Adewoye, O E; Iyaniwura, J O; Alada, A R; Fasanmade, A A; Raji, Y

2000-01-01

85

When additional multiple-choice lures aid versus hinder later memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Three experiments were conducted to investigate whether increasing the number of lures on a multiple-choice test helps, hinders or has no effect on later memory. All three patterns have been reported in the literature. In Experiment 1, the stimuli were unrelated word lists, and increasing the number of lures on an initial multiple-choice test led to better performance on

Andrew C. Butler; Elizabeth J. Marsh; Michael K. Goode; Henry L. Roediger

2006-01-01

86

Are Multiple Choice Tests Fair to Medical Students with Specific Learning Disabilities?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of multiple choice tests of medical knowledge is to estimate as accurately as possible a candidate's level of knowledge. However, concern is sometimes expressed that multiple choice tests may also discriminate in undesirable and irrelevant ways, such as between minority ethnic groups or by sex of candidates. There is little literature…

Ricketts, Chris; Brice, Julie; Coombes, Lee

2010-01-01

87

Sample Selection Effect on AP Multiple-Choice Score to Composite Score Scaling.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Scores on the multiple-choice sections of alternate forms are equated through anchor-test equating for the Advanced Placement Program (AP) examinations. There is no linkage of free-response sections since different free-response items are given yearly. However, the free-response and multiple-choice sections are combined to produce a composite.…

Yang, Wen-Ling; Dorans, Neil J.; Tateneni, Krishna

88

Using Assessment to Support Higher Level Learning: The Multiple Choice Item Development Assignment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes the multiple choice item development assignment (MCIDA) that was developed to support both content and higher level learning. The MCIDA involves students in higher level learning by requiring them to develop multiple choice items, write justifications for both correct and incorrect answer options and determine the highest…

Fellenz, Martin R.

2004-01-01

89

Multiple-Choice and Short-Answer Exam Performance in a College Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors experimentally investigated the effects of multiple-choice and short-answer format exam items on exam performance in a college classroom. They randomly assigned 50 students to take a 10-item short-answer pretest or posttest on two 50-item multiple-choice exams in an introduction to personality course. Students performed significantly…

Funk, Steven C.; Dickson, K. Laurie

2011-01-01

90

Engaging Students in Nuclear Physics Science Camp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Getting students interested in the sciences is a difficult task that all teachers face. Hope College Summer Science Camps aim to do just this by providing interesting topics to engage students of all ages with the hope that they become excited about science and school in general. In order to enthuse high school students about Physics as a possible career

Sarah Prill

2012-01-01

91

Physical Science Rocks! Outreach for Elementary Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students at Copiah-Lincoln Community College (Co-Lin) have been hesitant to take courses in the physical sciences, mostly because of a lack of exposure to them in K-12 or a bad experience in this area. The college is addressing this need by exposing students to the physical sciences early on in their education. The science division at Co-Lin has…

McKone, Kevin

2010-01-01

92

Astronomical Approach to Physical Science Curriculum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Astronomical Approach to Physical Science Curriculum (AAPS Curriculum) is an innovative curriculum that incorporates an astronomy theme into an inquiry-based physical science curriculum for pre-service, elementary school teachers. Many physical science courses are a non-cohesive collection of topics required for the state teaching license. Through the use of astronomy and space science examples, the AAPS Curriculum will have a coherent theme that ties the wide variety of physical science topics together and provides many real world applications for the topics covered in the course. This new curriculum will incorporate the applications of knowledge to complete the learning cycle-exploration, concept introduction, application. Astronomy and space science applications will be emphasized throughout the curriculum. The theme of astronomy was chosen to prepare elementary school teachers for teaching astronomy and space science in their classroom, as this is a topic in which many school children are consistently interested. Since astronomy is a topic that can be used as a springboard to teach many other areas of study, we want teachers who are knowledgeable in topics of astronomy so they are capable of preparing creative lessons throughout their entire curriculum that are exciting to their students. The AAPS Curriculum will train college students to become teachers who are comfortable with physical science and astronomy topics and who are excited to teach these topics in their classroom. Funding for this work is provided by the IDEAS grant program of the Space Telescope Science Institute.

Manning, H. L. K.; Churukian, A. D.

2004-11-01

93

Project Earth Science: Physical Oceanography  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Immerse your students in Earth's most abundant resource--water. Embark on a voyage of discovery as you steer your students through activities designed to teach them about currents, waves, and tides. From an understanding of the properties that make water unique, your students will get a global view of the marine environment, including the impact of human activities on the oceans. This book is one of four in NSTA's popular Project Earth Science series. The other books are Project Earth Science:Geology, Project Earth Science:Astronomy, and Project Earth Science:Meteorology .

Ford, Brent A.; Smith, P. S.

2000-01-01

94

Physics for Physical Sciences: Graphing Motion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This introductory tutorial provides examples and visualizations for beginners in the fundamentals of graphing Velocity vs. Time and Position vs. Time. Physical quantities are related to graphical features, such as the relationship between slope and velocity. Images and Flash animations are used to present the material, along with examples that demonstrate problem-solving using formulas relating to displacement and constant velocity.

Dicker, Jason; Love, Ed

95

Prior Preparation in Math and Science and its Effect on Student Performance in an Introductory Physics Course  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I developed a test, hereafter the Baseline Test, to measure the extent to which students meet the expectations of a college level, algebra-based, introductory physics course with regard to prior preparation in math and science. The average Baseline Test score for a sample of N=182 undergraduate students is 0.55 ± 0.18, consistent with past efforts to make similar measurements. Positive correlation is found between Baseline Test scores and average exam scores (r=0.57, p < 0.0001, N=144). Positive correlation is also found between Baseline Test scores and Force Concept Inventory gains (r=0.45, p < 0.0001, N=141). An analysis of the complete record of student responses to each of the Baseline Test questions and the multiple choice questions on exams reveals no apparent, causal relationship between prior preparation in math and science and student performance on exams. The data suggest the presence of a hidden variable.

Sudol, Jeffrey J.

2011-01-01

96

The "Next Generation Science Standards": A Focus on Physical Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

What should all students know about the physical sciences? Why should all students have a basic understanding of these ideas? An amazing number of new scientific breakthroughs have occurred in the last 20 years that impact daily lives. This article focuses on the "Next Generation Science Standards" (NGSS) disciplinary core ideas in…

Krajcik, Joe

2013-01-01

97

Writing/Using Multiple-Choice Questions to Assess Higher-Order Thinking  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Most graduate entrance exams (including the GRE, MCAT, and DAT) are based on multiple-choice questions. Many later exams, such as the medical board exams, are also multiple choice. Therefore, it is important to make sure that students are prepared for higher-order multiple choice exams and the reasoning that is required to answer the questions in a proficient manner. This free selection includes the Table of Contents, Preface, and Index. As a special bonus, Chapter 24, entitled Eleven Assessment Lessons Learned at the Gate is also included.

Kerry L. Cheesman, Capital University, Columbus, Ohio

2009-02-01

98

Measuring University students' understanding of the greenhouse effect - a comparison of multiple-choice, short answer and concept sketch assessment tools with respect to students' mental models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The greenhouse effect comes up in most discussions about climate and is a key concept related to climate change. Existing studies have shown that students and adults alike lack a detailed understanding of this important concept or might hold misconceptions. We studied the effectiveness of different interventions on University-level students' understanding of the greenhouse effect. Introductory level science students were tested for their pre-knowledge of the greenhouse effect using validated multiple-choice questions, short answers and concept sketches. All students participated in a common lesson about the greenhouse effect and were then randomly assigned to one of two lab groups. One group explored an existing simulation about the greenhouse effect (PhET-lesson) and the other group worked with absorption spectra of different greenhouse gases (Data-lesson) to deepen the understanding of the greenhouse effect. All students completed the same assessment including multiple choice, short answers and concept sketches after participation in their lab lesson. 164 students completed all the assessments, 76 completed the PhET lesson and 77 completed the data lesson. 11 students missed the contrasting lesson. In this presentation we show the comparison between the multiple-choice questions, short answer questions and the concept sketches of students. We explore how well each of these assessment types represents student's knowledge. We also identify items that are indicators of the level of understanding of the greenhouse effect as measured in correspondence of student answers to an expert mental model and expert responses. Preliminary data analysis shows that student who produce concept sketch drawings that come close to expert drawings also choose correct multiple-choice answers. However, correct multiple-choice answers are not necessarily an indicator that a student produces an expert-like correlating concept sketch items. Multiple-choice questions that require detailed knowledge of the greenhouse effect (e.g. direction of re-emission of infrared energy from greenhouse gas) are significantly more likely to be answered correctly by students who also produce expert-like concept sketch items than by students who don't include this aspect in their sketch and don't answer the multiple choice questions correctly. This difference is not as apparent for less technical multiple-choice questions (e.g. type of radiation emitted by Sun). Our findings explore the formation of student's mental models throughout different interventions and how well the different assessment techniques used in this study represent the student understanding of the overall concept.

Gold, A. U.; Harris, S. E.

2013-12-01

99

Physical Science for Today's World Syllabus  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This pdf contains a syllabus for a course on physical science as part of the Aerospace Technology Program. Topics include motion, energy, heat, waves motions, electricity, light, atoms, chemical reactions, the universe, the solar system and nuclear reactions.

2011-08-03

100

Middle School Physical Science Resource Center: Reviews  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a collection of reviews of resources for middle school physical science classes. Materials reviewed include textbooks, videos, and web-based materials. The reviewers point out both scientific inaccuracies and sections that might be confusing for students.

Hubisz, John

2004-03-30

101

Quality Multiple-Choice Test Questions: Item-Writing Guidelines and an Analysis of Auditing Testbanks.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analysis of test item banks in 10 auditing textbooks found that 75% of questions violated one or more guidelines for multiple-choice items. In comparison, 70% of a certified public accounting exam bank had no violations. (SK)

Hansen, James D.; Dexter, Lee

1997-01-01

102

Teacher's Toolkit: Strategies for the meaningful evaluation of multiple-choice assessments  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Too many multiple-choice tests are administered without an evaluative component. Teachers often return student assessments or Scantron cards--computerized bubble forms--without review, assuming that the printing of the correct answer will suffice. However,

Chesbro, Robert

2010-10-01

103

Piecewise Method of Reciprocal Averages for Dual Scaling of Multiple-Choice Data.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A modification of the method of reciprocal averages for scaling multiple choice data is proposed. The proposed method handles the data in a piecewise fashion and allows for faster convergence to a solution. (Author/JKS)

Nishisato, Shizuhiko; Sheu, Wen-Jenn

1980-01-01

104

A Subset Selection Technique for Scoring Items on a Multiple Choice Test.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

On a multiple-choice test in which each item has k alternative responses, the test taker is permitted to choose any subset which he believes contains the one correct answer. A scoring system is devised. (Author/CTM)

Gibbons, Jean D.; And Others

1979-01-01

105

Test of understanding of vectors: A reliable multiple-choice vector concept test  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this article we discuss the findings of our research on students' understanding of vector concepts in problems without physical context. First, we develop a complete taxonomy of the most frequent errors made by university students when learning vector concepts. This study is based on the results of several test administrations of open-ended problems in which a total of 2067 students participated. Using this taxonomy, we then designed a 20-item multiple-choice test [Test of understanding of vectors (TUV)] and administered it in English to 423 students who were completing the required sequence of introductory physics courses at a large private Mexican university. We evaluated the test's content validity, reliability, and discriminatory power. The results indicate that the TUV is a reliable assessment tool. We also conducted a detailed analysis of the students' understanding of the vector concepts evaluated in the test. The TUV is included in the Supplemental Material as a resource for other researchers studying vector learning, as well as instructors teaching the material.

Barniol, Pablo; Zavala, Genaro

2014-06-01

106

A Program for Excellence in Physics and Physical Science Teaching.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a two-year program developed at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University to address the need for improvement in physics and physical science teaching in Virginia, West Virginia, and Tennessee. Discusses participant selection procedures, program evaluation, program impact, and participant developed teaching materials and…

Long, Dale D.; And Others

1992-01-01

107

Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) funds research and training in the UK in engineering and the physical sciences. Viewing public engagement as important for stimulating interest in research, inspiring future generations of researchers and, "helping the research base evolve in tune with the changing needs of a more informed society," the EPSRC also promotes public awareness of science and engineering, providing a good deal of resources and links online. Research reports and briefs from some of the collaborating institutions' work on a wide range of research projects in engineering, the physical sciences and mathematics are all available in the Publications section. Other sections describe activities for young people and teachers, and research opportunities for graduate students.

108

Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) funds research and training in the UK in engineering and the physical sciences. Viewing public engagement as important for stimulating interest in research, inspiring future generations of researchers and, "helping the research base evolve in tune with the changing needs of a more informed society," the EPSRC also promotes public awareness of science and engineering, providing a good deal of resources and links online. Research reports and briefs from some of the collaborating institutions' work on a wide range of research projects in engineering, the physical sciences and mathematics are all available in the Publications section. Other sections describe activities for young people and teachers, and research opportunities for graduate students.

2007-07-15

109

COMPUTER TECHNIQUES FOR WEEKLY MULTIPLE-CHOICE TESTING.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

TO ENCOURAGE POLITICAL SCIENCE STUDENTS TO READ PROPERLY AND CONTINUOUSLY, THE AUTHOR GIVES FREQUENT SHORT QUIZZES BASED ON THE ASSIGNED READINGS. FOR EASE IN ADMINISTRATION AND SCORING, HE USES MARK-SENSE CARDS, ON WHICH THE STUDENT MARKS DESIGNATED AREAS TO INDICATE HIS NUMBER AND HIS CHOICE OF ANSWERS. TO EMPHASIZE THE VALUE OF CONTINUED HIGH…

BROYLES, DAVID

110

The Development and Analysis of a Grade Eight Physical Science Test.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This 46-question multiple choice test deals with the physical and chemical properties of matter, wave motion and types of energy, simple machines, equipment safety and measurement. The test is meant for administration to grade 8 students before and after instruction. Item analysis of the pre- post data are included, as are reliability estimates…

Singh, Balwant; And Others

111

78 FR 17234 - Advisory Committee for Mathematical Sciences and Physical Sciences #66; Notice of Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...for Mathematical and Physical Sciences, National...recommendations concerning research in mathematics and physical sciences. Agenda...for Mathematical and Physical Sciences Report...for Environmental Research and Education,...

2013-03-20

112

Force Concept Inventory-based multiple-choice test for investigating students' representational consistency  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigates students’ ability to interpret multiple representations consistently (i.e., representational consistency) in the context of the force concept. For this purpose we developed the Representational Variant of the Force Concept Inventory (R-FCI), which makes use of nine items from the 1995 version of the Force Concept Inventory (FCI). These original FCI items were redesigned using various representations (such as motion map, vectorial and graphical), yielding 27 multiple-choice items concerning four central concepts underpinning the force concept: Newton’s first, second, and third laws, and gravitation. We provide some evidence for the validity and reliability of the R-FCI; this analysis is limited to the student population of one Finnish high school. The students took the R-FCI at the beginning and at the end of their first high school physics course. We found that students’ (n=168) representational consistency (whether scientifically correct or not) varied considerably depending on the concept. On average, representational consistency and scientifically correct understanding increased during the instruction, although in the post-test only a few students performed consistently both in terms of representations and scientifically correct understanding. We also compared students’ (n=87) results of the R-FCI and the FCI, and found that they correlated quite well.

Nieminen, Pasi; Savinainen, Antti; Viiri, Jouni

2010-07-01

113

Force Concept Inventory-based multiple-choice test for investigating students' representational consistency  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This study investigates studentsâ ability to interpret multiple representations consistently (i.e., representational consistency) in the context of the force concept. For this purpose we developed the Representational Variant of the Force Concept Inventory (R-FCI), which makes use of nine items from the 1995 version of the Force Concept Inventory (FCI). These original FCI items were redesigned using various representations (such as motion map, vectorial and graphical), yielding 27 multiple-choice items concerning four central concepts underpinning the force concept: Newtonâs first, second, and third laws, and gravitation. We provide some evidence for the validity and reliability of the R-FCI; this analysis is limited to the student population of one Finnish high school. The students took the R-FCI at the beginning and at the end of their first high school physics course. We found that studentsâ (n=168) representational consistency (whether scientifically correct or not) varied considerably depending on the concept. On average, representational consistency and scientifically correct understanding increased during the instruction, although in the post-test only a few students performed consistently both in terms of representations and scientifically correct understanding. We also compared studentsâ (n=87) results of the R-FCI and the FCI, and found that they correlated quite well. Please note the published erratum when examining this article.

Nieminen, Pasi; Savinainen, Antti; Viiri, Jouni

2012-01-20

114

Teaching Triple Science: GCSE Physics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication provides an introduction to teaching and learning approaches for the extension topics within GCSE Physics. It highlights some specific ideas that teachers can adopt and where to find further information. It also outlines issues for managing the change. This guide contains sevens sections: Section 1 presents the policy context;…

Learning and Skills Network (NJ3), 2007

2007-01-01

115

Individualized Instruction in Science, Introductory Physical Science, Learning Activity Packages.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Learning Activity Packages (LAP) mostly relating to the Introductory Physical Science Text are presented in this manual for use in sampling a new type of instruction. The total of 14 topics are incorporated into five units: (1) introduction to individualized learning; (2) observation versus interpretation; (3) quantity of matter; (4) introduction…

Kuczma, R. M.

116

Earth Science Contexts for Teaching Physics. Part 1: Why Teach Physics in an Earth Science Context?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains how physics teaching can be more relevant to elementary and secondary students by integrating physics and earth science content that students can relate to and understand. Identifies and explains Earth contexts that can be appropriately implemented into the physics curriculum. (Author/YDS)

King, Chris; Kennett, Peter

2002-01-01

117

BOOK REVIEW: Science Fair Projects: Physics  

Microsoft Academic Search

I have often thought that the notion of a Science Fair is intrinsically a good one but have never set one up. With this book such an undertaking is possible, with 47 projects from which you can choose. Each project has a clearly stated purpose with an overview that contains the physics you need to get started. A hypothesis, or

Bob Bonnet; Dan Keen

2000-01-01

118

A Stellar Syllabus for Physical Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides a brief outline of the topics covered in an astronomy syllabus including some broad goals. Discusses the design and implementation of this course in a ninth grade physical science program. Describes major problems that were encountered as well as the benefits that have been realized from the use of this approach. (CW)

McPherson, Carolyn M.; West, Daniel C.

1988-01-01

119

Ohio Physical Science Education Standards- 2011  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This document from the Great Lakes Fuel Cell Education Partnership contains a brief outline of the state of Ohio's physical science education standards for 2011. The document includes information about specific subjects and how they may be taught in conjunction with units on renewable energies such as solar energy, wind energy, fuel cells and biofuels. This document may be downloaded in PDF file format.

2011-12-23

120

Rockets: Physical science teacher's guide with activities  

Microsoft Academic Search

This guide begins with background information sections on the history of rocketry, scientific principles, and practical rocketry. The sections on scientific principles and practical rocketry are based on Isaac Newton's three laws of motion. These laws explain why rockets work and how to make them more efficient. The background sections are followed with a series of physical science activities that

Gregory L. Vogt; Carla R. Rosenberg

1993-01-01

121

Summer Institute for Physical Science Teachers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A summer institute for physical science teachers was conducted at Winthrop University, June 19-29, 2006. Ninth grade physical science teachers at schools within a 50-mile radius from Winthrop were targeted. We developed a graduate level physics professional development course covering selected topics from both the physics and chemistry content areas of the South Carolina Science Standards. Delivery of the material included traditional lectures and the following new approaches in science teaching: hands-on experiments, group activities, computer based data collection, computer modeling, with group discussions & presentations. Two experienced master teachers assisted us during the delivery of the course. The institute was funded by the South Carolina Department of Education. The requested funds were used for the following: faculty salaries, the University contract course fee, some of the participants' room and board, startup equipment for each teacher, and indirect costs to Winthrop University. Startup equipment included a Pasco stand-alone, portable Xplorer GLX interface with sensors (temperature, voltage, pH, pressure, motion, and sound), and modeling software (Wavefunction's Spartan Student and Odyssey). What we learned and ideas for future K-12 teacher preparation initiatives will be presented.

Maheswaranathan, Ponn; Calloway, Cliff

2007-04-01

122

Ideas and Activities for Physical Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual is designed to supplement an existing physical science curriculum and to assist in providing the learning experiences required to implement an effective course. The first chapter outlines the purposes of this manual and provides a set of teaching tips. Topics such as electricity, wave motion, light, sound, periodic table and nuclear…

Chiappetta, Eugene L., Ed.

123

Plasma Physics, Fusion Science, and California High School Science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to further engage California HIgh School science teachers in plasma physics and fusion science, a collaboration was formed between LLNL's Fusion Energy Program and the University of California's Edward Teller Education Center (etec.ucdavis.edu). California's Science Content Standards for high school physics (www.cde.ca.gov/be/st/ss/scphysics.asp) were used to create a public lecture (education.llnl.gov/sos/) that covered "students are expected to achieve" physics topics relevant to astrophysical and fusion plasma research. In addition to the lecture, a two day workshop for the Edward Teller Education Symposium, September 24 - 25, 2004 (education.llnl.gov/symposium2004) was designed around plasma spectroscopy (education.llnl.gov/symposium2004/agenda_astro.html). Plasma spectroscopy was chosen as the "anchor" to the workshop given the breadth and depth of the field to both astrophysical and fusion plasma research. Workshop participation includes lectures, tours, spectroscopic measurements, and building a 'spectroscope' for use in the teachers' respective high school classrooms. Accomplishments will be reported and future plans will be presented that include development of a one to two week expanded workshop that includes plasma research methods and advanced science skills essential to guiding students to conduct research projects.

Correll, Donald

2004-11-01

124

Preparing Teachers to Teach Physics and Physical Science by Inquiry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Physics Education Group at the University of Washington is deeply involved in preparing KâÂÂ12 teachers to teach physics and physical science by inquiry. During the academic year, the Department offers special courses for preservice (prospective) teachers. During the summer, the group conducts a six week, intensive NSF Summer Institute for Inservice Teachers. The group also designs and helps conduct local short-term workshops for teachers. This paper is a distillation of more than 25 years of experience in working with KâÂÂ12 teachers. Teacher preparation has been an integral part of our groupâÂÂs comprehensive program in research, curriculum development, and instruction. Research by our group focuses on investigations of student understanding in physics. The results are used to guide the design of instructional materials for various student populations at the introductory level and beyond. We have drawn on our research findings and teaching experience in developing Physics by Inquiry. This self-contained, laboratory-based curriculum is designed for use in university courses to prepare KâÂÂ12 teachers to teach physics and physical science effectively. Ongoing assessment of the instructional materials takes place both at our university and at pilot sites.

Mcdermott, Lillian C.; Shaffer, Peter

2009-12-23

125

A Science Strategy for Space Physics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report by the Committee on Solar and Space Physics and the Committee on Solar-Terrestrial Research recommends the major directions for scientific research in space physics for the coming decade. As a field of science, space physics has passed through the stage of simply looking to see what is out beyond Earth's atmosphere. It has become a 'hard' science, focusing on understanding the fundamental interactions between charged particles, electromagnetic fields, and gases in the natural laboratory consisting of the galaxy, the Sun, the heliosphere, and planetary magnetospheres, ionospheres, and upper atmospheres. The motivation for space physics research goes far beyond basic physics and intellectual curiosity, however, because long-term variations in the brightness of the Sun virtually affect the habitability of the Earth, while sudden rearrangements of magnetic fields above the solar surface can have profound effects on the delicate balance of the forces that shape our environment in space and on the human technology that is sensitive to that balance. The several subfields of space physics share the following objectives: to understand the fundamental laws or processes of nature as they apply to space plasmas and rarefied gases both on the microscale and in the larger complex systems that constitute the domain of space physics; to understand the links between changes in the Sun and the resulting effects at the Earth, with the eventual goal of predicting the significant effects on the terrestrial environment; and to continue the exploration and description of the plasmas and rarefied gases in the solar system.

1995-01-01

126

ORIGIN OF THE PHYSICAL SCIENCE SECTIONS OF THE OHIO ACADEMY OF SCIENCE 1' 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

The physical sciences in the program of the Ohio Academy of Science were represented only sporadically from the time of founding in 1891 until 1912. Concern for physical sci- ence was largely represented by the study of physical phenomena observed by field nat- uralists. A Section of Physics was organized in 1912, renamed Section of Physical Science in 1924, and

RALPH W. DEXTER

127

Analysis of Student Performance on Multiple-Choice Questions in General Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The percentage of students choosing the correct answer (PSCA) on 17 multiple-choice algorithmic questions taken from general chemistry exams is analyzed. PSCAs for these questions varied from 47 to 93%, and a decrease of 4.5% in PSCA was observed with each additional step in the algorithm required for solving the problem (R[superscript 2] = 0.80).…

Hartman, JudithAnn R.; Lin, Shirley

2011-01-01

128

A Participatory Learning Approach to Biochemistry Using Student Authored and Evaluated Multiple-Choice Questions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A participatory learning approach, combined with both a traditional and a competitive assessment, was used to motivate students and promote a deep approach to learning biochemistry. Students were challenged to research, author, and explain their own multiple-choice questions (MCQs). They were also required to answer, evaluate, and discuss MCQs…

Bottomley, Steven; Denny, Paul

2011-01-01

129

Testing Historical Knowledge: Standards, Multiple-Choice Questions and Student Reasoning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores the reasoning employed by high school students to answer a set of multiple-choice history questions. The questions come from New York State's Global History and Geography Regents exam. The Regents exams, together with a particularly well-regarded and ambitious set of content standards, are the cornerstone of the state's…

Reich, Gabriel A.

2009-01-01

130

Automated Multiple-Choice Testing for Summative Assessment: What Do Students Think?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports undergraduate student feedback contrasting conventional "Long-answer" examinations with automated multiple-choice question (MCQ) assessment. Feedback was gathered after students had undertaken formative MCQ assessments as a revision aid. Feedback was generally supportive of MCQ summative tests, with 74% expressing a preference…

Bridge, Pete; Appleyard, Rob; Wilson, Rob

2007-01-01

131

Improving Educational Assessment: A Computer-Adaptive Multiple Choice Assessment Using NRET as the Scoring Method  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Assessment is central to any educational process. Number Right (NR) scoring method is a conventional scoring method for multiple choice items, where students need to pick one option as the correct answer. One point is awarded for the correct response and zero for any other responses. However, it has been heavily criticized for guessing and failure…

Sie Hoe, Lau; Ngee Kiong, Lau; Kian Sam, Hong; Bin Usop, Hasbee

2009-01-01

132

Gender Differences in Mathematics Self-Efficacy and Back Substitution in Multiple-Choice Assessment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A quantitative observational study exploring the relationship of gender to mathematics self-efficacy and the frequency of back substitution in multiple-choice assessment sampled undergraduates at a western United States parochial university. Research questions addressed: to what extent are there gender differences in mathematics self-efficacy, as…

Goodwin, K. Shane; Ostrom, Lee; Scott, Karen Wilson

2009-01-01

133

Cheating on Multiple-Choice Exams: Monitoring, Assessment, and an Optional Assignment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Academic dishonesty is unethical. Exam cheating is viewed as more serious than most other forms (Pincus and Schmelkin 2003). The authors review the general cheating problem, introduce a program to conservatively identify likely cheaters on multiple-choice exams, and offer a procedure for handling likely cheaters. Feedback from students who confess…

Nath, Leda; Lovaglia, Michael

2009-01-01

134

Multiple-Choice Exam Question Order Influences on Student Performance, Completion Time, and Perceptions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We conducted 2 studies to investigate undergraduate performance, perceptions, and time required in completing sequentially ordered, randomly ordered, or reverse ordered exams in introductory psychology classes. Study 1 compared the outcomes and perceptions of students (N = 66) on 3 non-comprehensive multiple-choice exams which were sequentially,…

Pettijohn, Terry F., II; Sacco, Matthew F.

2007-01-01

135

A Latent-Change Scaling Model for Longitudinal Multiple Choice Data  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A latent-change scaling model for the analysis of repeated-measures multiple-choice data is presented. The model extends previous work by combining latent class analysis and low dimensional scaling techniques in a longitudinal framework where subjects may change their preferences for the response categories over time. The latent structural…

Kim, Jee-Seon

2005-01-01

136

A Response Model for Multiple Choice Items. Psychometric Technical Report No. 1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An extension of the Bock-Samejima model for multiple choice items is introduced. The model provides for varying probabilities of the response alternative when the examinee guesses. A marginal maximum likelihood method is devised for estimating the item parameters, and likelihood ratio tests for comparing more and less constrained forms of the…

Thissen, David; Steinberg, Lynne

137

Investigating the Reliability and Validity of the Fixed Ratio Multiple-Choice Cloze Test  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study is two fold: to investigate the reliability and validity of the fixed ratio multiple-choice (M-C) cloze test in authentic EFL classroom settings, and also to investigate the possibility of using it as the sole testing technique in assessing EFL students' achievement. 348 subjects, learning EFL at the English i Language Center of the Institute of

Ibrahim S. M. Al-Fallay

138

Illusion of Linearity in Geometry: Effect in Multiple-Choice Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study was to examine if there is a difference in the performance on non-linear problems regarding age, gender, and solving situation, and whether the multiple-choice answer format influences students' thinking. A total of 112 students, aged 15-16 and 18-19, were asked to solve problems for which solutions based on proportionality…

Vlahovic-Stetic, Vesna; Pavlin-Bernardic, Nina; Rajter, Miroslav

2010-01-01

139

A FORTRAN IV Program for Multiple-choice Tests with Predetermined Minimal Acceptable Performance Levels  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A Fortran IV multiple choice test scoring program for an IBM 370 computer is described that computes minimally acceptable performance levels and compares student scores to these levels. The program accomodates up to 500 items with no more than nine alternatives from a group of examinees numbering less than 10,000. (Author)

Noe, Michael J.

1976-01-01

140

Pick-N Multiple Choice-Exams: A Comparison of Scoring Algorithms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To compare different scoring algorithms for Pick-N multiple correct answer multiple-choice (MC) exams regarding test reliability, student performance, total item discrimination and item difficulty. Data from six 3rd year medical students' end of term exams in internal medicine from 2005 to 2008 at Munich University were analysed (1,255 students,…

Bauer, Daniel; Holzer, Matthias; Kopp, Veronika; Fischer, Martin R.

2011-01-01

141

Retrieval practice with short-answer, multiple-choice, and hybrid tests.  

PubMed

Retrieval practice improves meaningful learning, and the most frequent way of implementing retrieval practice in classrooms is to have students answer questions. In four experiments (N=372) we investigated the effects of different question formats on learning. Students read educational texts and practised retrieval by answering short-answer, multiple-choice, or hybrid questions. In hybrid conditions students first attempted to recall answers in short-answer format, then identified answers in multiple-choice format. We measured learning 1 week later using a final assessment with two types of questions: those that could be answered by recalling information verbatim from the texts and those that required inferences. Practising retrieval in all format conditions enhanced retention, relative to a study-only control condition, on both verbatim and inference questions. However, there were little or no advantages of answering short-answer or hybrid format questions over multiple-choice questions in three experiments. In Experiment 4, when retrieval success was improved under initial short-answer conditions, there was an advantage of answering short-answer or hybrid questions over multiple-choice questions. The results challenge the simple conclusion that short-answer questions always produce the best learning, due to increased retrieval effort or difficulty, and demonstrate the importance of retrieval success for retrieval-based learning activities. PMID:24059563

Smith, Megan A; Karpicke, Jeffrey D

2014-10-01

142

Multiple-Choice versus Constructed-Response Tests in the Assessment of Mathematics Computation Skills.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The equivalence of multiple-choice (MC) and constructed response (discrete) (CR-D) response formats as applied to mathematics computation at grade levels two to six was tested. The difference between total scores from the two response formats was tested for statistical significance, and the factor structure of items in both response formats was…

Gadalla, Tahany M.

143

A Method for Imputing Response Options for Missing Data on Multiple-Choice Assessments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When missing values are present in item response data, there are a number of ways one might impute a correct or incorrect response to a multiple-choice item. There are significantly fewer methods for imputing the actual response option an examinee may have provided if he or she had not omitted the item either purposely or accidentally. This…

Wolkowitz, Amanda A.; Skorupski, William P.

2013-01-01

144

Research on the Multiple-Choice Test Item in Japan: Toward the Validation of Mathematical Models.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research related to the multiple choice test item is reported, as it is conducted by educational technologists in Japan. Sato's number of hypothetical equivalent alternatives is introduced. The based idea behind this index is that the expected uncertainty of the m events, or alternatives, be large and the number of hypothetical, equivalent…

Samejima, Fumiko

145

Further Issues in Effect Size Estimation for One-Sample Multiple-Choice-Type Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article discusses models underlying the use of 1-sample effect size indicators that permit the comparison of effect sizes obtained from different multiple-choice studies by indexing all studies to the results that would have been obtained if there had been only 2 choices. The effect size indicator, the proportion index, (II), is based on a model implying that the probability

Robert Rosenthal; Donald B. Rubin

1991-01-01

146

Differences between multiple choice items and constructed response items in the IEA timss surveys  

Microsoft Academic Search

In international large-scale surveys, constructed response (CR) items are increasingly being used and multiple-choice (MC) items are being used less frequently. In this article the two item types will be compared in terms of any differences they have on national mean scores. TIMSS 1995 and TIMSS 1999 data have been used. Are there different effects of the question types for

Dirk Hastedt; Heiko Sibberns

2005-01-01

147

A Practical Methodology for the Systematic Development of Multiple Choice Tests.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using Guttman's facet design analysis, four parallel forms of a multiple-choice test were developed. A mapping sentence, logically representing the universe of content of a basic cardiology course, specified the facets of the course and the semantic structural units linking them. The facets were: cognitive processes, disease priority, specific…

Blumberg, Phyllis; Felner, Joel

148

WWC Quick Review of the Report "Multiple Choice: Charter School Performance in 16 States"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study, "Multiple Choice: Charter School Performance in 16 States" examined the effect of charter school attendance on annual student achievement growth in math and reading. The study analyzed data on a large sample of students in grades 1 through 12 who were attending charter schools and traditional public schools in 16 states. The study…

What Works Clearinghouse, 2010

2010-01-01

149

An evaluation of multiple?choice test images for comprehension assessment in aphasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Using images in multiple?choice formats for comprehension testing in aphasia is common. It is generally assumed that persons being assessed perceive the content of the images represented in such tasks. However, specific visual characteristics of individual images may influence visual attention, which may influence accuracy in the selection of a correct target image corresponding to a verbal stimulus. The

Sabine Heuer; Brooke Hallowell

2007-01-01

150

The Subset Selection Technique for Multiple-Choice Tests: An Empirical Inquiry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The impact of the Subset Selection Technique (SST) for multiple-choice items on certain properties of a test was compared with that of two other methods, the Number Right and the Correction for Guessing Formula. Results indicated that SST outperformed the other two, producing higher reliability and validity without favoring high risk takers.…

Jaradat, Derar; Sawaged, Sari

1986-01-01

151

Not Read, but Nevertheless Solved? Three Experiments on PIRLS Multiple Choice Reading Comprehension Test Items  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Multiple-choice (MC) reading comprehension test items comprise three components: text passage, questions about the text, and MC answers. The construct validity of this format has been repeatedly criticized. In three between-subjects experiments, fourth graders (N[subscript 1] = 230, N[subscript 2] = 340, N[subscript 3] = 194) worked on three…

Sparfeldt, Jorn R.; Kimmel, Rumena; Lowenkamp, Lena; Steingraber, Antje; Rost, Detlef H.

2012-01-01

152

The Use of Management and Marketing Textbook Multiple-Choice Questions: A Case Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Management and marketing professors classified multiple-choice questions in four widely adopted introductory textbooks in their respective disciplines according to the two basic cognitive levels of Bloom's taxonomy of educational objectives: knowledge and intellectual ability and skill. Eighty-seven percent of management and 65% of marketing questions measure the lower level, knowledge. Textbook test files classify the cognitive level of their questions,

David R. Hampton; Kathleen A. Krentler; Aleza B. Martin

1993-01-01

153

Research frontiers in the physical sciences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As a prestigious generalist journal with a high scholarly reputation and a long influential history, the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society (Series A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences), is an ideal vehicle for charting research frontiers across the physical sciences. It is the world's longest running scientific journal, and all issues since its foundation in 1665 are archived electronically by JSTOR in the USA (see http://www.jstor.org/) and are accessible through most university libraries. This archive gives facsimile access, and search facilities, to the works of many famous scientists. In this brief editorial I give first an introduction to the special Christmas issues by young scientists, followed by an overview of the fields covered.

Thompson, J. M. T.

2002-12-01

154

Dear Colleague Letter - Biology, Math and Physical Sciences  

NSF Publications Database

... Interdisciplinary CAREER proposals in the molecular biosciences and the physical and mathematical ... in the areas where the molecular biosciences and the molecular physical sciences overlap, the ...

155

Expanding the basic science debate: the role of physics knowledge in interpreting clinical findings.  

PubMed

Current research suggests a role for biomedical knowledge in learning and retaining concepts related to medical diagnosis. However, learning may be influenced by other, non-biomedical knowledge. We explored this idea using an experimental design and examined the effects of causal knowledge on the learning, retention, and interpretation of medical information. Participants studied a handout about several respiratory disorders and how to interpret respiratory exam findings. The control group received the information in standard "textbook" format and the experimental group was presented with the same information as well as a causal explanation about how sound travels through lungs in both the normal and disease states. Comprehension and memory of the information was evaluated with a multiple-choice exam. Several questions that were not related to the causal knowledge served as control items. Questions related to the interpretation of physical exam findings served as the critical test items. The experimental group outperformed the control group on the critical test items, and our study shows that a causal explanation can improve a student's memory for interpreting clinical details. We suggest an expansion of which basic sciences are considered fundamental to medical education. PMID:22002858

Goldszmidt, Mark; Minda, John Paul; Devantier, Sarah L; Skye, Aimee L; Woods, Nicole N

2012-10-01

156

Using Environmental Science as a Motivational Tool to Teach Physics to Non-Science Majors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A traditional physical science course was transformed into an environmental physical science course to teach physics to non-science majors. The objective of the new course was to improve the learning of basic physics principles by applying them to current issues of interest. A new curriculum was developed with new labs, homework assignments,…

Busch, Hauke C.

2010-01-01

157

Meta-Evaluation in Clinical Anatomy: A Practical Application of Item Response Theory in Multiple Choice Examinations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The nature of anatomy education has changed substantially in recent decades, though the traditional multiple-choice written examination remains the cornerstone of assessing students' knowledge. This study sought to measure the quality of a clinical anatomy multiple-choice final examination using item response theory (IRT) models. One hundred…

Severo, Milton; Tavares, Maria A. Ferreira

2010-01-01

158

Meta-Evaluation in Clinical Anatomy: A Practical Application of Item Response Theory in Multiple Choice Examinations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article describes a study measuring the quality of a clinical anatomy multiple-choice final examination using item response theory (IRT) models. The purpose for this study was to evaluate how well a traditional multiple choice exam from an older curriculum discriminated undergraduate medical students taking an updated clinical based anatomy course. Outcomes are discussed.

Milton Severo (University of Porto Medical Education); Maria Ferreira Tavares (University of Porto Anatomy)

2009-11-18

159

USING IRT PSYCHOMETRIC ANALYSIS IN EXAMINING THE QUALITY OF JUNIOR CERTIFICATE MATHEMATICS MULTIPLE CHOICE EXAMINATION TEST ITEMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aims at providing the psychometric analysis of 2010 Botswana mathematics JC paper 1 in determining the quality of the junior certificate mathematics multiple choice examination test items. The mathematics paper 1 consisted of forty (40) multiple choice test items which was constructed using the three year JC mathematics curriculum. The population for the study was all the 36,940

O. O Adedoyin; T Mokobi

2013-01-01

160

The Relationship of Deep and Surface Study Approaches on Factual and Applied Test-Bank Multiple-Choice Question Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With the advent of online test banks and large introductory classes, instructors have often turned to textbook publisher-generated multiple-choice question (MCQ) exams in their courses. Multiple-choice questions are often divided into categories of factual or applied, thereby implicating levels of cognitive processing. This investigation examined…

Yonker, Julie E.

2011-01-01

161

Convergence: Faciitating Transdisciplinary Integration of Life Sciences, Physical Sciences, Engineering and Beyond - Team Science Toolkit  

Cancer.gov

The National Research Council of the National Academies convened an expert panel that developed this consensus report on TD integration of the physical, chemical, mathematical, computational, engineering, and social sciences.

162

A practical discussion to avoid common pitfalls when constructing multiple choice questions items  

PubMed Central

This paper is an attempt to produce a guide for improving the quality of Multiple Choice Questions (MCQs) used in undergraduate and postgraduate assessment. Multiple Choice Questions type is the most frequently used type of assessment worldwide. Well constructed, context rich MCQs have a high reliability per hour of testing. Avoidance of technical items flaws is essential to improve the validity evidence of MCQs. Technical item flaws are essentially of two types (i) related to testwiseness, (ii) related to irrelevant difficulty. A list of such flaws is presented together with discussion of each flaw and examples to facilitate learning of this paper and to make it learner friendly. This paper was designed to be interactive with self-assessment exercises followed by the key answer with explanations.

Al-Faris, Eiad A.; Alorainy, Ibrahim A.; Abdel-Hameed, Ahmad A.; Al-Rukban, Mohammed O.

2010-01-01

163

JSTOR: Proceedings: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In 2000 back issues of this scholarly journal were made available to researchers through JSTOR (Journal Storage). JSTOR offers online access to numerous scholarly journals on a "moving wall" basis -- in which users may download the full text and figures of each article that is at least three-years-old. Currently, JSTOR coverage includes Proceedings: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, Vol. 452-453, 1996-1997. Newer articles are continually added on a moving wall basis. Access is limited to participating institutions.

164

Assessment of item-writing flaws in multiple-choice questions.  

PubMed

This study evaluated the quality of multiple-choice questions used in a hospital's e-learning system. Constructing well-written questions is fraught with difficulty, and item-writing flaws are common. Study results revealed that most items contained flaws and were written at the knowledge/comprehension level. Few items had linked objectives, and no association was found between the presence of objectives and flaws. Recommendations include education for writing test questions. PMID:23657034

Nedeau-Cayo, Rosemarie; Laughlin, Deborah; Rus, Linda; Hall, John

2013-01-01

165

Multiple-choice Assessment for Upper-division Electricity and Magnetism  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Colorado Upper-division Electrostatics (CUE) diagnostic was designed as an open-ended assessment in order to capture elements of student reasoning in upper-division electrostatics. The diagnostic has been given for many semesters at several universities resulting in an extensive database of CUE responses. To increase the utility and scalability of the assessment, we used this database along with research on studentsâ difficulties to create a multiple-choice version. The new version explores the viability of a novel test format where students select multiple responses and can receive partial credit based on the accuracy and consistency of their selections. This format was selected with the goal of preserving insights afforded by the open-ended format while exploiting the logistical advantages of a multiple-choice assessment. Here, we present examples of the questions and scoring of the multiple-choice CUE as well as initial analysis of the testâs validity, item difficulty, discrimination, and overall consistency with the open-ended version.

Wilcox, Bethany R.; Pollock, Steven J.

2014-01-31

166

Physical Sciences Research Priorities and Plans in OBPR  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents viewgraphs of physical sciences research priorities and plans at the Office of Biological and Physical Sciences Research (OBPR). The topics include: 1) Sixth Microgravity Fluid Physics and Transport Phenomena Conference; 2) Beneficial Characteristics of the Space Environment; 3) Windows of Opportunity for Research Derived from Microgravity; 4) Physical Sciences Research Program; 5) Fundamental Research: Space-based Results and Ground-based Applications; 6) Nonlinear Oscillations; and 7) Fundamental Research: Applications to Mission-Oriented Research.

Trinh, Eugene

2002-01-01

167

Mathematical Sciences: Innovations at the Interface with the Physical and Computer Sciences and Engineering  

NSF Publications Database

In FY 2006, the Division of Mathematical Sciences (DMS) of the Directorate for Mathematical and Physical Sciences and the Division of Computing and Communication Foundations (CCF) of the Directorate for Computer and Information Science and Engineering of the National Science Foundation (NSF) plan to support projects of mutual interest in specific areas. As part of the NSF-wide Mathematical Sciences Priority Area, the Directorate for Mathematical and Physical Sciences anticipates funding ...

168

The Relationship between Students' Views of the Nature of Science and Their Views of the Nature of Scientific Measurement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study explores the relationship between students' views of the nature of science (NOS) and their views of the nature of scientific measurement. A questionnaire with two-tier diagnostic multiple-choice items on both the NOS and measurement was administered to 179 first-year physics students with diverse school experiences. Students'…

Buffler, Andy; Lubben, Fred; Ibrahim, Bashirah

2009-01-01

169

Impact of inquiry based distance learning and availability of classroom materials on physical science content knowledge of teachers and students in central Appalachia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Physical science is important for developing scientific literacy yet a majority of teachers responsible for physical science courses do not have an academic degree in physical science. Programs aimed at increasing teacher content knowledge can be time consuming. This dissertation examines the impact of an inquiry based, professional development program offered via distance learning on teacher content knowledge and the role of teacher content knowledge on student understanding and attitudes toward science. Seventy-three teachers participated in the study, including Group I teachers (n = 39) who completed a distance learning course, a control group (Group II) with no intervention (n = 17), and Group III teachers (n = 17) who received classroom materials and no course intervention. A multiple-choice assessment was administered to teachers at the beginning and end of the summer. A similar multiple-choice assessment was administered during the school year to students (n=3,790) of those teachers. A teacher survey assessing the frequency of activity use and teachers' perceptions of the kit was administered to teachers at the end of the school year. A student survey assessing frequency of activities in the classroom, opinions of how to learn science, and attitudes toward science was administered to students during the school year. While Group II (50.6%) and Group III (52.2%) teacher scores were both lower than Group I teacher scores (67.4%), students in Group III (42.9%) outperformed students in Group II (39.4%) following instruction, at a level equal to Group I students (43.6%). Thus, providing materials/activities was as effective at increasing student understanding as providing materials/activities and increasing teacher understanding. However, while teachers in Group I and III report similar use of and satisfaction with the materials/activities, the percentage of Group I students reporting frequent use of inquiry based activities in the classroom, strong belief that inquiry based activities help them learn science, and positive attitudes toward science increased, while the percentages of students in Groups II and III decreased. These results suggest that in order to maximize students' understanding of and attitudes toward science, professional development programs should not only include inquiry pedagogy and laboratory materials but also emphasize teacher understanding. KEYWORDS: Professional development, distance learning, classroom materials, student content knowledge, teacher content knowledge

Bradshaw, Timothy John

170

Physics in Films: A New Approach to Teaching Science  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past year and a half we have developed an innovative approach to the teaching of `Physical Science', a general education course typically found in the curricula of nearly every college and university. The new approach uses popular movies to illustrate the principles of physical science, analyzing individual scenes against the background of the fundamental physical laws. The impact

Costas J. Efthimiou; Ralph Llewellyn

2004-01-01

171

Gender and physics: feminist philosophy and science education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Physics education reform movements should pay attention to feminist analyses of gender in the culture of physics for two reasons. One reason is that feminist analyses contribute to an understanding of a ‘chilly climate’ women encounter in many physics university departments. Another reason is that feminist analyses reveal that certain styles of doing science are predominant in the culture of physics. I introduce recent philosophical work in social epistemology to argue that the predominance of certain styles of doing science is not good for science. Scientific communities would benefit from greater diversity in styles of doing science.

Rolin, Kristina

2008-11-01

172

Alternative Response and Scoring Methods for Multiple Choice Items: An Empirical Study of Probabilistic and Ordinal Response Modes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Binary, probability, and ordinal scoring procedures for multiple-choice items were examined. In two situations, it was found that both the probability and ordinal scoring systems were more reliable than the binary scoring method. (Author/CTM)

Poizner, Sharon B.; And Others

1978-01-01

173

Research Misconduct and the Physical Sciences  

SciTech Connect

Research misconduct includes the fabrication, falsification, and plagiarism (FFP) of concepts or ideas; some institutions have expanded this concept to include ''other serious deviations (OSD) from accepted research practice.'' An action can be evaluated as research misconduct if it involves activities unique to the practice of science and could negatively affect the scientific record. Although the number of cases of research misconduct is uncertain (formal records are kept only by the NIH and the NSF), the costs are high in integrity of the scientific record, diversions from research to investigate allegations, ruined careers of those eventually exonerated, and erosion of public confidence in science. Currently, research misconduct policies vary from institution to institution and from government agency to government agency; some have highly developed guidelines that include OSD, others have no guidelines at ail. One result has been that the federal False Claims Act has been used to pursue allegations of research misconduct and have them adjudicated in the federal court, rather than being judged by scientific peers. The federal government will soon establish a first-ever research misconduct policy that would apply to all research funded by the federal government regardless of what agency funded the research or whether the research was carried out in a government, industrial or university laboratory. Physical scientists, who up to now have only infrequently been the subject or research misconduct allegations, must none-the-less become active in the debate over research misconduct policies and how they are implemented since they will now be explicitly covered by this new federal wide policy.

HM Kerch; JJ Dooley

1999-10-11

174

Modeling Confidence Judgments, Response Times, and Multiple Choices in Decision Making: Recognition Memory and Motion Discrimination  

PubMed Central

Confidence in judgments is a fundamental aspect of decision making, and tasks that collect confidence judgments are an instantiation of multiple-choice decision making. We present a model for confidence judgments in recognition memory tasks that uses a multiple-choice diffusion decision process with separate accumulators of evidence for the different confidence choices. The accumulator that first reaches its decision boundary determines which choice is made. Five algorithms for accumulating evidence were compared, and one of them produced proportions of responses for each of the choices and full response time distributions for each choice that closely matched empirical data. With this algorithm, an increase in the evidence in one accumulator is accompanied by a decrease in the others so that the total amount of evidence in the system is constant. Application of the model to the data from an earlier experiment (Ratcliff, McKoon, & Tindall, 1994) uncovered a relationship between the shapes of z-transformed receiver operating characteristics and the behavior of response time distributions. Both are explained in the model by the behavior of the decision boundaries. For generality, we also applied the decision model to a 3-choice motion discrimination task and found it accounted for data better than a competing class of models. The confidence model presents a coherent account of confidence judgments and response time that cannot be explained with currently popular signal detection theory analyses or dual-process models of recognition.

Ratcliff, Roger; Starns, Jeffrey J.

2014-01-01

175

Incorporation of Bloom's Taxonomy into Multiple-Choice Examination Questions for a Pharmacotherapeutics Course  

PubMed Central

Objective. To incorporate Bloom’s taxonomy into multiple-choice examination questions in a pharmacotherapeutics course and assess its effectiveness in detecting areas of improvement in learning. Design. Bloom’s taxonomy was incorporated into examination questions through a multi-step process: Sample questions representing each learning domain within Bloom’s taxonomy (knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis, and evaluation) were introduced to students during lecture presentations and discussions. Quiz and examination containing questions categorized according to Bloom’s taxonomy were administered to students. During review sessions following each quiz or examination, the categorization of each question was provided to students and feedback from students was gathered. Assessment. The effect of the 5 types of test questions on the correct response fraction and discrimination index was determined after combining synthesis and evaluation. Correct response fractions for knowledge, comprehension, and application questions were significantly higher than those for analysis and synthesis/evaluation questions (p<0.05). However, discrimination index for application and synthesis/evaluation questions were significantly higher than those for knowledge and comprehension questions (p<0.05). In interviews with students who had requested learning assistance, the majority realized the importance of critical-thinking skills in the learning process. Conclusion. Well-designed multiple-choice questions incorporating different learning domains of Bloom’s taxonomy may be a potential method of assessing critical-thinking skills in large classes of students.

Patel, Rajul A.; Uchizono, James A.; Beck, Lynn

2012-01-01

176

The physical science behind climate change  

SciTech Connect

For a scientist studying climate change, 'eureka' moments are unusually rare. Instead progress is generally made by a painstaking piecing together of evidence from every new temperature measurement, satellite sounding or climate-model experiment. Data get checked and rechecked, ideas tested over and over again. Do the observations fit the predicted changes? Could there be some alternative explanation? Good climate scientists, like all good scientists, want to ensure that the highest standards of proof apply to everything they discover. And the evidence of change has mounted as climate records have grown longer, as our understanding of the climate system has improved and as climate models have become ever more reliable. Over the past 20 years, evidence that humans are affecting the climate has accumulated inexorably, and with it has come ever greater certainty across the scientific community in the reality of recent climate change and the potential for much greater change in the future. This increased certainty is starkly reflected in the latest report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), the fourth in a series of assessments of the state of knowledge on the topic, written and reviewed by hundreds of scientists worldwide. The panel released a condensed version of the first part of the report, on the physical science basis of climate change, in February. Called the 'Summary for Policymakers,' it delivered to policymakers and ordinary people alike an unambiguous message: scientists are more confident than ever that humans have interfered with the climate and that further human-induced climate change is on the way. Although the report finds that some of these further changes are now inevitable, its analysis also confirms that the future, particularly in the longer term, remains largely in our hands--the magnitude of expected change depends on what humans choose to do about greenhouse gas emissions. The physical science assessment focuses on four topics: drivers of climate change, changes observed in the climate system, understanding cause-and-effect relationships, and projection of future changes. Important advances in research into all these areas have occurred since the IPCC assessment in 2001. In the pages that follow, we lay out the key findings that document the extent of change and that point to the unavoidable conclusion that human activity is driving it.

Collins, William; Collins, William; Colman, Robert; Haywood, James; Manning, Martin R.; Mote, Philip

2007-07-01

177

Pre-Service Physics Teachers' Conceptions of Nature of Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Understanding of NOS (nature of science) appears as a prerequisite of a scientifically literate person. Promoting adequate understanding of NOS in pre-service physics teachers is, therefore, an important task of science educators. Before doing that, science educators must have information concerning their pre-service teachers' conceptions of NOS.…

Buaraphan, Khajornsak

2011-01-01

178

Nuclear Physics Science Network Requirements Workshop, May 2008 - Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) is the primary provider of network connectivity for the US Department of Energy Office of Science, the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States of America. In support of t...

A. Kowalski B. L. E. Tierney C. Vale C. Watson W. Johnston

2008-01-01

179

Physical Science. A Handbook for Vietnamese Speaking Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The physical sciences are the subject of this bilingual glossary, one in a series developed to help Vietnamese-American high school students who are literate in their native language, but not in English, to meet graduation requirements. Major physical science concepts and definitions of important and commonly used terms are given in both…

Lindauer, Lawrence; And Others

180

Physical Science. A Handbook for Laotian Speaking Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Physical science is the subject of this bilingual glossary, one of a series developed to help high school students who are literate in their native Lao, but limited-English-proficient, to meet their graduation requirements. Major physical science concepts and definitions of important and commonly used terms appear in Lao and in English. (CMG)

Lindauer, Lawrence; And Others

181

Women in Physics and Other Natural Sciences in Uzbekistan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Uzbekistan has about 30 scientific and higher education institutes in which research in physics and other natural sciences is carried out. Women make up about 30% of science researchers and are represented less in natural sciences and more in the humanities. In some institutes the share is less than 5-10%. Lack of financing caused the migration of many physicists into other fields and other countries. Uzbekistan has a deficiency of young scientists. To keep the accumulated scientific potential, to attract both women and men into physics and other natural sciences, it is necessary to improve the economic and technical conditions in science and to increase international collaboration.

Gafurov, Ulmas; Umarova, Feruza

2009-04-01

182

The Influence of Accelerator Science on Physics Research  

SciTech Connect

We evaluate accelerator science in the context of its contributions to the physics community. We address the problem of quantifying these contributions and present a scheme for a numerical evaluation of them. We show by using a statistical sample of important developments in modern physics that accelerator science has influenced 28% of post-1938 physicists and also 28% of post-1938 physics research. We also examine how the influence of accelerator science has evolved over time, and show that on average it has contributed to a physics Nobel Prize-winning research every 2.9 years.

Haussecker, Enzo F.; /SLAC /UC, San Diego; Chao, Alexander W.; /SLAC

2012-05-08

183

The Question Complexity Rubric: Development and Application for a National Archive of Astro 101 Multiple-Choice Questions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the last two years we have been developing an online national archive of multiple-choice questions for use in the Astro 101 classroom. These questions are intended to either supplement an instructor's implementation of Think-Pair-Share or be used for assessment purposes (i.e. exams and homework). In this talk we will describe the development, testing and implementation of the Question Complexity Rubric (QCR), which is designed to guide the ranking of questions in this archive based on their conceptual complexity. Using the QCR, a score is assigned to differentiate each question based on the cognitive steps necessary to comprehensively explain the reasoning pathway to the correct answer. The lowest QCR score is given to questions with a reasoning pathway requiring only declarative knowledge whereas the highest QCR score is given to questions that require multiple pathways of multi-step reasoning. When completed, the online question archive will provide users with the utility to 1) search for and download questions based on subject and average QCR score, 2) use the QCR to score questions, and 3) add their own questions to the archive. We will also discuss other potential applications of the QCR, such as how it informs our work in developing and testing of survey instruments by allowing us to calibrate the range of question complexity. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. 0715517, a CCLI Phase III Grant for the Collaboration of Astronomy Teaching Scholars (CATS). Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation.

Cormier, Sebastien; Prather, E. E.; Brissenden, G.; Collaboration of Astronomy Teaching Scholars CATS

2011-01-01

184

BOOK REVIEW: Science Fair Projects: Physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I have often thought that the notion of a Science Fair is intrinsically a good one but have never set one up. With this book such an undertaking is possible, with 47 projects from which you can choose. Each project has a clearly stated purpose with an overview that contains the physics you need to get started. A hypothesis, or sometimes two, and a procedure detailing what the student should do follow this. The materials to be used are those you should be able to find at home, and safety guidelines as well as places the student needs adult help are clearly marked. Every project asks the student to write down the results of their experiment and decide whether or not their hypothesis was correct. There are also suggestions for taking each project further. Some of these projects are standard experiments that you may already do with students in class, for example, making plasticine boats, string telephones and levers. Most are interesting twists on standard experiments such as using a wedge as a simple machine, home-made spinning toys and the experiments with light bulbs. The latter are the only real cause for concern if students were to do these things at home as adult supervision would be essential. This is obviously an American book, though. Teachers in British classrooms would need to work out how to deal with the references to temperature in Fahrenheit and mass in ounces. Length is usually given in centimetres as well as inches. Translations of soda bottles and bobby pins would also be needed. This book is designed to be full of ideas and to give structure to projects students can do at home, not to provide ideas that you can transport into the classroom. It does this very well and I would recommend it to anyone thinking of starting up a Science Fair. Alternatively, this is an excellent resource for more interesting homework assignments that would put more responsibility on the student and give them something fun to do.

Reynolds, Helen

2000-11-01

185

Physics First in Science Education Reform: Impacts on Pedagogy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the results of a study focused on physics and chemistry teachers at independent schools in the United States which employ a "Physics First" approach to high school science course sequencing. Data was collected via interviews, during which information was gathered regarding pedagogical practices and teachers' transitions to Physics First. Findings suggest that the implementation of inquiry-oriented pedagogy is influenced by teacher and department philosophy, but not necessarily by the Physics First approach. Further, teachers recognize the affordances of Physics First, but largely do not leverage these to create more coherent and connected science programs.

Purnell, Mechum Douglas

186

Entropy state of a multiple choice examination and the evaluation of understanding  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Considering a student's examination as one state of a system which consists of the set of all possible examinations, a new method for evaluating multiple choice examinations is developed by measuring the entropy state of a student's exam above the "thermal background level" (the most probable state). The entropy grade is shown to contain standard scoring as a special case when both the number of questions given and the number of possible selections become large. The entropy grade is also shown to be related to the information it takes a student to go from one state of understanding to another state of understanding. The student's state of understanding is characterized either by his personal probability that his selections will be correct or by experimentally measured probability that the students's selections were correct.

Vawter, Richard

2005-10-17

187

Physics and Physical Science Units for Tech Prep.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Promoting ACademic Excellence in Mathematics and Science for Workers of the 21st Century (PACE) was a consortium project made up of Indiana University Northwest, the Gary Community Schools, and the Merrillville Community Schools. The focus of this project was to prepare teachers and curricula for Tech Prep mathematics and science courses for the…

Bielefeld, Marilyn; Daniels, Sadie; Hall, Yolanda; McClendon, Cecil; Schlinger, Gary

188

Peer Instruction in a Conceptual-based Physical Science Course  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently Eric Mazur's peer instruction approach to teaching general physics has attracted much attention. This is a report of the use of some limited comparable techniques in a conceptual-based physical science course. These attempts will be compared to similar attempts in a calculus-based general physics course. Measurements of conceptual understanding will be reported. Student reaction will be discussed.

Miner, George K.

1999-10-01

189

Against a Negative Image of Science: History of Science and the Teaching of Physics and Chemistry  

Microsoft Academic Search

After a first approach to analyze which is today's status of the history ofscience in high school Physics and Chemistry classes, we attempt to demonstrate that an appropriateintroduction of several aspects of History and Sociology of Science in our classes can operate asignificant improvement in pupils' image and attitudes in science and science teaching. We will show thatseveral groups of

J. Solbes; M. Traver

2003-01-01

190

Models in Physics: Perceptions Held by Prospective Physical Science Teachers Studying at South African Universities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A study was conducted to determine how 200 pre-service physical science teachers in South Africa and Namibia interpreted the word "model" in a physics context. Many interpreted the term as a physical construct rather than as an abstract idea. This confusion exacerbated difficulties with the interpretation of physical models for light.

Smit, J. J.; Finegold, Menahem

2006-12-07

191

Teaching the Teachers: Physical Science for the Non-Scientific  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Catholic University of America, in collaboration with the Solar Physics Branch of the Naval Research Laboratory and the Goddard Space Flight Center, has begun development of an experimental, inquiry-driven and standards-referenced physical science course for undergraduate, pre-service K-8 teachers. The course is team-taught by faculty from the University's Departments of Education and Physics and NRL solar physics research personnel.

D. J. Michels; S. M. Pickert; C. J. Montrose; J. L. Thompson

2004-01-01

192

SNOW SCIENCE IN A SECONDARY SCHOOL PHYSICS CURRICULUM  

Microsoft Academic Search

As high school physics teachers, we want students to experience a strong applied curriculum, and snow science\\/avalanche education provides a unique opportunity to meet that goal. We included snow science as a unit in 12th-grade Physics at Nathan Hale High School in Seattle, Washington, combining classroom preparation with expert lectures on snowpack mechanics and snowpack analysis. Students assembled field kits

Matthew J. Hinckley; Karl J. Englert

193

Fighting for physics and Earth science in Florida's high schools  

Microsoft Academic Search

During its Spring 2009 session, the Florida Legislature considered a bill that would have suspended its comprehensive standardized test in high school science and substituted an end-of-course test in biology to satisfy the requirements of the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act. By doing so, the bill would have further deemphasized high school physics and Earth science in a state

Paul Cottle

2009-01-01

194

Parental Occupation Inspiring Science Interest: Perspectives From Physical Scientists  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children's early science interest begins well before middle school, and parents can be important in generating and sustaining such interest. This qualitative study addresses how parental occupations shape physical scientists' early science interest. Our framework uses Social Cognitive Career Theory, and our research question is,…

Chakraverty, Devasmita; Tai, Robert H.

2013-01-01

195

Physics at the International Science and Engineering Fair.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A judge for the physics projects for the 1979 International Science and Engineering Fair describes many of the more popular science projects. Projects described include the following: carbon dioxide and helium-neon lasers, reverse flame investigations, holography, construction of a magnetic bottle to confine plasma, and aerodynamic drag. (BT)

Walker, Jearl

1979-01-01

196

Teaching Particle Physics in the Open University's Science Foundation Course.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses four topics presented in the science foundation course of the Open University that exemplify current developments in particle physics, in particular, and that describe important issues about the nature of science, in general. Topics include the omega minus particle, the diversity of quarks, the heavy lepton, and the discovery of the W…

Farmelo, Graham

1992-01-01

197

Research briefs of the Physical and Chemical Sciences Center  

SciTech Connect

As Sandia National Laboratories and the Physical and Chemical Sciences Center develop an increasingly diverse set of customers, research partners, and Cooperative Research and Development Agreements (CRADA`s) with industry, there is a need for providing more concise information describing their technical achievements and capabilities. This publication, Research Briefs, is designed to inform the present and potential partners in research and technology advancement. Their research emphasizes semiconductor physics, electronic materials, surface physics and chemistry, plasma and chemical processing sciences, lasers and optics, vision science, ion-solid interactions and defect physics, and advanced materials physics. The specific programs they pursue are driven by the research goals which are greatly influenced by interactions with the government and industrial customers.

Vook, F.L.; Smith, W.L. [eds.

1993-12-31

198

Modern Physics, Science (Experimental): 5318.07.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This unit of instruction is a survey course exploring the areas of nuclear physics, physics of modern discoveries, and their effects on the world of today. No requisites for prior course work, experience, or courses to be taken concurrently are required for enrollment. The booklet lists the relevant state-adopted texts and states the performance…

Ries, Wesley G.

199

Semiconductor Science Activities for High School Physics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The student activities in this packet are designed to be incorporated into a standard high school physics curriculum. The intent is to provide the student with an introduction to study of the electronic facets of physics as they apply to semiconductor technology.

Grady, Kim

2009-07-29

200

Physics for the Medical Science Major.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes how one professor makes his physics course relevant to pharmacy majors. The course emphasizes the relation of basic physics concepts (like forces and thermodynamics) to the human body and uses problems drawn from the medical profession. Student course evaluations show a favorable view of content learned and its relevance. (DB)

McCall, Richard P.

2000-01-01

201

Physical Setting/Earth Science Core Curriculum  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This guide is intended to assist high-school teachers and supervisors as they prepare curriculum, instruction, and assessment for the Earth Science content and process skills of the New York State Learning Standards for Mathematics, Science, and Technology. It describes selected process skills and their alignments with standards, key ideas, and performance indicators. Teachers should recognize that is found in this document is the minimum of the content to be taught. There is also an appendix that displays diagrammatically how the material in the curriculum may be organized for curricular and instructional purposes.

202

Views About Science and physics achievement: The VASS story  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Views About Sciences Survey (VASS) is a paper-and-pencil instrument to characterize student views about knowing and learning science and assess the relation of these views to achievement in science courses. VASS shows that: (a) high school and college students have views about physics that often diverge from physicists' views, (b) student views can be grouped into four distinct profiles: expert, high transitional, low transitional, and folk, (c) profile distributions are similar in college and high school, and (d) student profiles correlate significantly with physics achievement.

Halloun, Ibrahim

1997-03-01

203

Software for Middle School Physical Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This final report in the MicroSIFT series reviews 10 software packages that deal mainly with the areas of electricity, magnetism, and heat energy. Software titles appearing in this report were selected because they were judged to be exemplary according to various criteria in the MicroSIFT Evaluator's Guide, with some additions to address science

Podany, Zita

204

Physically Handicapped in Science: Final Project Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A two-year project was conducted by St. Mary's Junior College to improve the science literacy of visually-impaired students (VIS) through the adaptation of instructional methods and materials. A four-step process was used: (1) learning materials were reviewed to identify problem areas; (2) preliminary adaptations were made based on the review; (3)…

O'Brien, Maureen B.; And Others

205

University of Virginia Physical Science SOL Activities: Static Electricity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson plan for secondary physical science demonstrates induction and conduction through a "dancing" Cheerio and a charged plastic ruler. The lesson includes a printable student review sheet and background information on electrostatics. This resource is part of a larger collection generated by the University of Virginia Department of Physics outreach program. See Related Materials for a link to the full collection.

2006-11-13

206

Physical Science, Units 5 and 6, Field Test Copy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This student workbook contains units five and six of a six-unit physical science course. The program is intended for high school students who have not had a chemistry or physics course, and is designed to be self instructional. Unit five involves experiments and problems in these subject areas: temperature versus heat; units of heat; specific…

Washington State Univ., Pullman.

207

An Instructional System in Physical Science, Teacher's Guide and Keys.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual is a teacher's guide to a self-instructional program in basic physical science, designed for high school students who have not had a course in chemistry or physics. There are six units in the manual relating to these areas: problem solving and experimental procedures; universal standards, metric system and conversion; mechanics; the…

Washington State Univ., Pullman.

208

Comparison of Examination Methods Based on Multiple-Choice Questions and Constructed-Response Questions Using Personal Computers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of the present research was to compare the use of multiple-choice questions (MCQs) as an examination method, to the examination based on constructed-response questions (CRQs). Despite that MCQs have an advantage concerning objectivity in the grading process and speed in production of results, they also introduce an error in the final…

Ventouras, Errikos; Triantis, Dimos; Tsiakas, Panagiotis; Stergiopoulos, Charalampos

2010-01-01

209

Beyond the Bubble: How to Use Multiple-Choice Tests to Improve Math Instruction, Grades 4-5  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Multiple-choice testing is an educational reality. Rather than complain about the negative impact these tests may have on teaching and learning, why not use them to better understand your students' true mathematical knowledge and comprehension? Maryann Wickett and Eunice Hendrix-Martin show teachers how to move beyond the student's answer--right…

Wickett, Maryann; Hendrix-Martin, Eunice

2011-01-01

210

The Subskills of Reading: Rule-Space Analysis of a Multiple-Choice Test of Second Language Reading Comprehension.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Used the rule-space methodology to analyze performance on a multiple-choice reading comprehension test by students of English as a Second Language in Japan in an international business setting. Findings indicate that the rule-space methodology can explain performance on complex verbal tasks, such as reading tests, and provide diagnostic scores to…

Buck, Gary; Tatsuoka, Kumi; Kostin, Irene

1997-01-01

211

The Multiple-Choice Model: Some Solutions for Estimation of Parameters in the Presence of Omitted Responses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article deals with some of the problems that have hindered the application of Samejima's and Thissen and Steinberg's multiple-choice models: (a) parameter estimation difficulties owing to the large number of parameters involved, (b) parameter identifiability problems in the Thissen and Steinberg model, and (c) their treatment of omitted…

Abad, Francisco J.; Olea, Julio; Ponsoda, Vicente

2009-01-01

212

Searching for Better Scoring of Multiple-Choice Tests: Proper Treatment of Misinformation, Guessing and Partial Knowledge.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Brief explanations are presented of some of the different methods used to score multiple-choice tests; and some studies of partial information, guessing strategies, and test-taking behaviors are reviewed. Studies are grouped in three categories of effort to improve scoring: (1) those that require extra effort from the examinee to answer…

Zin, Than Than; Williams, John

213

Set of Criteria for Efficiency of the Process Forming the Answers to Multiple-Choice Test Items  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Is offered the set of criteria for assessing efficiency of the process forming the answers to multiple-choice test items. To increase accuracy of computer-assisted testing results, it is suggested to assess dynamics of the process of forming the final answer using the following factors: loss of time factor and correct choice factor. The model…

Rybanov, Alexander Aleksandrovich

2013-01-01

214

Polytomous versus Dichotomous Scoring on Multiple-Choice Examinations: Development of a Rubric for Rating Partial Credit  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The concept of assigning partial credit on multiple-choice test items is considered for items from ACS Exams. Because the items on these exams, particularly the quantitative items, use common student errors to define incorrect answers, it is possible to assign partial credits to some of these incorrect responses. To do so, however, it becomes…

Grunert, Megan L.; Raker, Jeffrey R.; Murphy, Kristen L.; Holme, Thomas A.

2013-01-01

215

So Many Choices, So Little Time: Strategies for Understanding and Taking Multiple-Choice Exams in History  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Learning as much as possible about what to expect and how best to select among response choices enables students to improve their scores so as to reflect more fully their knowledge and abilities, whether taking the SAT, ACT, AP history exams, multiple-choice exams in college courses, the GRE, or any other standardized examinations that include…

Blackey, Robert

2009-01-01

216

Understanding Rasch Measurement: Distractors with Information in Multiple Choice Items: A Rationale Based on the Rasch Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is a substantial literature on attempts to obtain information on the proficiency of respondents from distractors in multiple choice items. Information in a distractor implies that a person who chooses that distractor has greater proficiency than if the person chose another distractor with no information. A further implication is that the…

Andrich, David; Styles, Irene

2011-01-01

217

Second Language Reading Topic Familiarity and Test Score: Test-Taking Strategies for Multiple-Choice Comprehension Questions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The main purpose of this study was to compare the strategies used by Chinese-speaking students when confronted with familiar versus unfamiliar topics in a multiple-choice format reading comprehension test. The focus was on describing what students do when they are taking reading comprehension tests by asking students to verbalize their thoughts.…

Lee, Jia-Ying

2011-01-01

218

Textbook Test File Multiple-Choice Questions can Measure (A) Knowledge, (B) Intellectual Ability, (C) Neither, (D) Both  

Microsoft Academic Search

Textbook test file multiple-choice questions have come to play a substantial role in management education, particularly in the large undergraduate introductory course. Most of the questions test the recall of knowledge rather than the exercise of intellectual skills and abilities; many are not accurately classified as to \\

David R. Hampton

1993-01-01

219

Peer generation of multiple-choice questions: student engagement and experiences.  

PubMed

A free online system for generation of multiple-choice questions (PeerWise) was implemented in three courses (course A, B, and C) in two different years (second and third year) of a veterinary degree program. Students were asked to author questions, and answer and rate each other's questions. Student experiences of the system were explored using an online survey. The majority of students in both years either agreed or strongly agreed that both authoring and answering questions was helpful for their studies and wanted to use the system again in future courses. Thematic analysis highlighted students' views that engaging with the resource increased breadth and depth of knowledge and understanding and was very useful for revision purposes. There was a statistically significant difference between students in second and third year regarding whether students felt it was necessary for academic staff to be involved in the review process. Thematic analysis of this aspect identified issues relating to confidence in the ability of the peer group and the need for reassurance in the second-year group. Student engagement with the system was correlated with examination performance. In courses A and B there was a positive correlation between number of questions answered and examination performance, in course C there was no correlation. This study highlights the benefits of peer activity around question generation and proposes that such activities are an efficient and effective means to support student learning. PMID:23187030

Rhind, Susan M; Pettigrew, Graham W

2012-01-01

220

Revitalizing Support for the Physical Sciences: The American Competitiveness Initiative  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In January 2006, during his State of the Union Address, President Bush announced a renewed commitment on the part of his Administration to funding math and science education, and science and engineering research. Two weeks later, in February 2006, the President submitted his budget request to Congress, including The American Competitiveness Initiative (ACI), a budget initiative that proposes to double federal investments in fundamental research in the physical sciences at three civilian science agencies---the Office of Science in the Department of Energy, the National Science Foundation (NSF), and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)---over ten years. To date, ACI has fared well in Congress. The House of Representatives has already approved the increases for the Office of Science (up 14 percent), NSF (up 8 percent), and NIST (core laboratory research and infrastructure up 24 percent). Key Senate Subcommittees have approved similar increases. Of equal significance to the budget proposal, the President's pronouncements represent an effort to change the public perception of the value of science. This is the capstone of a fifteen-year effort on the part of the scientific community, including the American Physical Society, to develop a new rationale for funding physical science research in the post-Cold War era. 30 years of economic research suggests there is a strong correlation between the government investments in education and research, particularly physical science and engineering research, and future economic performance. The President made this connection explicit for the public in his State of the Union Address and in subsequent speeches and town hall meetings. The author will discuss these trends and the outlook for ACI going forward.

Rooney, Peter

2006-11-01

221

University of Virginia Physical Science SOL Activities: Balloon Electroscope  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This item is a lesson plan for the teacher of beginning high school physics and/or physical science. It provides directions for designing a simple electroscope demonstration and updates the classic "kissing balloon" activity with creative additions. Included are printable student data sheets and comprehensive background information on static electricity. This lesson is part of a larger collection generated by the University of Virginia Department of Physics outreach program. See Related Materials for a link to the full collection.

2006-11-09

222

Use of physical sciences in support of environmental management.  

PubMed

Offshore drilling for oil and gas has been conducted since the early 1900s. Oil and gas under the seabed continue to be an important part of the energy resources of the United States. The need to balance the value of these resources against the potential for environmental damage is an important concern. This article explains why and how the Minerals Management Service (MMS) of the US Department of the Interior uses research in physical sciences to help fulfill its environmental goals, and it provides background information on the role of physical sciences in decision-making for Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) oil, gas, and other minerals development. Established in the 1970s, the MMS' Environmental Studies Program is a highly focused marine research program designed to provide the environmental information necessary for OCS energy and nonenergy minerals planning and development activities. The physical sciences research supported by MMS includes physical oceanography, oil-spill risk analyses, atmospheric sciences, and sand and gravel studies. Instead of giving a comprehensive review on physical sciences research in MMS, this article presents sample MMS studies and illustrates how these studies are utilized to support decision-making in environmental management. PMID:15559941

Ji, Zhen-Gang

2004-08-01

223

The Relation of Physics to Other Sciences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Through the courtesy of the Addison-Wesley Publishing Company of Reading, Massachusetts we are able to publish one of the opening chapters of the Feynman Lectures in Physics. This is a new book based on the lectures given by Dr. Feynman in the introductory course at the California Institute of Technology. A second chapter of this refreshingly different but delightfully rigorous

Richard P. Feynman

1964-01-01

224

International Symposium on Physical Sciences in Space  

Microsoft Academic Search

ISPS is the major international scientific forum for researchers in physics utilizing the space environment, in particular microgravity. It is intended to inspire and encourage cross-cutting discussions between different scientific communities working in the same environment. Contributions discussing results of experiments carried out on drop towers, parabolic aircraft flights, sounding rockets, unmanned recoverable capsules and, last but not least, the

Andreas Meyer; Ivan Egry

2011-01-01

225

The Thinking Machine: A Physical Science Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Science projects can be a wonderful opportunity for learning and creativity, or a gigantic headache for teachers. After several years of implementation, experience, and revision, the author has put together a fun and engaging project centered on machines that is appropriate for middle school students. This project came to be known simply as "The Thinking Machine Project," which draws its origin from the national Rube Goldberg Machine competition held each year at Purdue University. Here is one way to bring technology, writing, drawing, creativity, and hands-on ingenuity together in a single fun and successful project.

Jarrard, Amber

2008-11-01

226

News Competition: School team launches a rocket Conference: Norway focuses on physics teaching Science on Stage: Canadian science acts take to the stage Particle Physics: Teachers get a surprise at CERN Teaching: Exploring how students learn physics University: Oxford opens doors to science teachers Lasers: Lasers shine light on meeting Science Fair: Malawi promotes science education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Competition: School team launches a rocket Conference: Norway focuses on physics teaching Science on Stage: Canadian science acts take to the stage Particle Physics: Teachers get a surprise at CERN Teaching: Exploring how students learn physics University: Oxford opens doors to science teachers Lasers: Lasers shine light on meeting Science Fair: Malawi promotes science education

2010-11-01

227

Semaphorin-6A controls guidance of corticospinal tract axons at multiple choice points  

PubMed Central

Background The trajectory of corticospinal tract (CST) axons from cortex to spinal cord involves a succession of choice points, each of which is controlled by multiple guidance molecules. To assess the involvement of transmembrane semaphorins and their plexin receptors in the guidance of CST axons, we have examined this tract in mutants of Semaphorin-6A (Sema6A), Plexin-A2 (PlxnA2) and Plexin-A4 (PlxnA4). Results We describe defects in CST guidance in Sema6A mutants at choice points at the mid-hindbrain boundary (MHB) and in navigation through the pons that dramatically affect how many axons arrive to the hindbrain and spinal cord and result in hypoplasia of the CST. We also observe defects in guidance within the hindbrain where a proportion of axons aberrantly adopt a ventrolateral position and fail to decussate. This function in the hindbrain seems to be mediated by the known Sema6A receptor PlxnA4, which is expressed by CST axons. Guidance at the MHB, however, appears independent of this and of the other known receptor, PlxnA2, and may depend instead on Sema6A expression on CST axons themselves at embryonic stages. Conclusion These data identify Sema6A as a major contributor to the guidance of CST axons at multiple choice points. They highlight the active control of guidance at the MHB and also implicate the inferior olive as an important structure in the guidance of CST axons within the hindbrain. They also suggest that Sema6A, which is strongly expressed by oligodendrocytes, may affect CST regeneration in adults.

Runker, Annette E; Little, Graham E; Suto, Fumikazu; Fujisawa, Hajime; Mitchell, Kevin J

2008-01-01

228

Connections Between LSST Science and Particle Physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are in the midst of a revolution in physics. Observing the cosmos has provided compelling evidence for physics beyond the Standard Model of particle physics: non-zero neutrino masses, non-baryonic dark matter, dark energy and primordial inflation. Together with ordinary matter these constituents determine the structure of the Universe. The necessary, but puzzling, connection between the inner space of quantum reality and outer space of cosmic reality will enable the discovery of new particle physics through astrophysical observations and may reconcile quantum mechanics and general relativity in a new synthesis: a Standard Model of the Universe. LSST will significantly contribute to answering the following questions: What is dark energy? What is dark matter? What are the neutrino masses? Was primordial inflation responsible for the origin of large-scale structure (LSS)? Did it leave observable imprints that can shed light on the unification of the fundamental forces? Can gravity be described in a unified quantum framework with the other forces? Precision cosmological observations will enable falsification of models covering the inflationary epoch, through the “dark ages”, to the first generation of stars and galaxies, and the current cosmic acceleration. LSST will study the impact of dark energy on both the history of cosmic expansion and growth of LSS using diverse techniques based on: weak-lensing, baryon acoustic oscillations, supernovae, galaxy cluster counts and strong lensing of quasars. Inconsistencies in the results may signal deficiencies in General Relativity and the need for a new theory of gravity. Properties of dark matter will be gleaned by studying the evolution of structure and by strong-lensing of galaxies, quasars and supernovae. Precision measurements of the matter power spectra vs cosmic time will constrain the sum of neutrino masses. LSST will probe inflation using cosmic shear and the spatial power spectrum of galaxies.

Tyson, J. A.; Burchat, P.; Dubois-Felsmann, G. P.; Kahn, S. M.; Shipsey, I.; Thaler, J.

2013-01-01

229

Spacelab 1 - Scientific objectives, life sciences, space plasma physics, astronomy and solar physics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A general overview of the accomplishments of the Spacelab 1 complement to the Shuttle mission of Nov. 28, 1983, is presented. Consideration is given to scientific results in the fields of life sciences, materials sciences, atmospheric physics, and earth observations. A table is given which lists the scientific objectives and the percentage of objectives accomplished in each field.

Chappell, C. R.

1985-01-01

230

Introduction to physics teaching for science and engineering undergraduates  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Recruiting and retaining highly qualified physics and physical science teachers is critical for maintaining America's global competitiveness. Unfortunately, many high school and middle school teachers are asked to teach science subjects they do not feel comfortable teaching and are not provided adequate guidance and support. Moreover, teachers often lack adequate pedagogical content knowledge to teach science effectively. Here, we discuss the development, implementation, and assessment of a course for science and engineering undergraduates designed to increase awareness and help them develop an interest and a deeper appreciation of the intellectual demands of physics teaching. The course focused on increasing student enthusiasm and confidence in teaching by providing well supported teaching opportunities and exposure to physics education research. The course assessment methods include 1) pre-test and post-test measures of attitude and expectations about science teaching, 2) self and peer evaluation of student teaching, 3) content-based pre-tests and post-tests given to students who received instruction from the student teachers, and 4) audio-taped focus group discussions in the absence of the instructor and TA to evaluate student perspectives on different aspects of the course and its impact.

Singh, Chandralekha; Moin, Laura J.; Schunn, Christian D.

2012-06-12

231

76 FR 64123 - Advisory Committee for Mathematical and Physical Sciences; Notice of Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Sciences, Room 1005, National Science Foundation, 4201 Wilson Boulevard...recommendations concerning NSF science and education activities within the Directorate for Mathematical and Physical Sciences. Agenda: Briefing to new...

2011-10-17

232

75 FR 62891 - Advisory Committee for Mathematical and Physical Sciences; Notice of Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Sciences, Room 1005, National Science Foundation, 4201 Wilson Boulevard...recommendations concerning NSF science and education activities within the Directorate for Mathematical and Physical Sciences. Agenda: Briefing to new...

2010-10-13

233

UK Particle Physics, Astronomy, and Space Science (PPARC): Frontiers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Frontiers publication offers the latest news and activities of the Research Council's funded projects and the UK Particle Physics, Astronomy, and Space Science's (PPARC) funded scientists. Produced three times a year, each issue is easy to navigate with quick links to the space science and particle physics articles on the Contents page as well as a keyword search. The website offers archives of the publication since 1997. Each issue contains five sections: the Contents, Editorial, Update, Features, and News. While the other sections contain brief synopses, the Features section offers comprehensive descriptions of stimulating endeavors.

234

Misconception in Physical Science at the Middle School Grades  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The presentation will focus on the physical science content and pedagogy workshops addressing student's misconceptions at the middle school level. These workshops were conducted at Springfield College during summer 2010 for in- service teachers from Springfield MA Public Schools. A partnership among Springfield MA Public Schools, Springfield College, and the City of Springfield Science Museum was developed to implement an innovative program to prepare highly- qualified educators. Concepts of force, motion, energy, and energy transformation were explored in a physics laboratory setting and student's misconceptions were addressed.

Lojewska, Zenobia; Barkman, Robert; Polito, Peter; Smist, Julianne; Konicek-Moran, Richard

2011-04-01

235

Misconceptions in Physical Science at the Middle School Grades  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The presentation will focus on the physical science content and pedagogy workshops addressing student's misconceptions at the middle school level. These workshops were conducted at Springfield College during summer 2010 for in-service teachers from Springfield MA Public Schools. A partnership among Springfield MA Public Schools, Springfield College, and the City of Springfield Science Museum was developed to implement an innovative program to prepare highly-qualified educators. Concepts of force, motion, energy, and energy transformation were explored in a physics laboratory setting and student's misconceptions were addressed.

Lojewska, Zenobia; Barkman, Robert; Polito, Peter; Smist, Julianne; Konicek-Moran, Richard

2011-11-01

236

REFLECTIONS ON PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY: Science and Scientists  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This is the story of a young person who grew up in Tel-Aviv during the period of the establishment of the State of Israel and was inspired to become a physical chemist by the cultural environment, by the excellent high-school education, and by having been trained by some outstanding scientists at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem and, subsequently, by the intellectual environment and high-quality scientific endeavor at the University of Chicago. Since serving as the first chairman of the Chemistry Department of the newly formed Tel-Aviv University he has been immersed in research, in the training of young scientists, and in intensive and extensive international scientific collaboration. Together with the members of his "scientific family" he has explored the phenomena of energy acquisition, storage and disposal and structure-dynamics-function relations in large molecules, condensed phase, clusters and biomolecules, and is looking forward to many future adventures in physical chemistry. "What to leave out and what to put in? That's the problem." Hugh Lofting, Doctor Dolittle's Zoo, 1925

Jortner, Joshua

2006-05-01

237

The effect of immigration status on physics identity and physical science career intentions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using data collected from a nationally-representative sample of first-year college students, we examine how students' identity development as physics persons and their likelihood to pursue a career in physical science is predicted by differing immigrant experiences. We consider broad factors having a social, economic, or cultural nature as covariates in a propensity score model that assesses differences due to immigrant generation. Our results show that, when controlling for such factors as race/ethnicity, socio-economic status, and gender, students' physics identities and the likelihood of choosing a career in physical science are significantly higher amongst first generation students than second generation (or later) students. We conclude that physical science as a career option can be influenced by the experiences of being an immigrant and through the relationship between origin and host culture.

Lung, Florin; Potvin, Geoff; Sonnert, Gerhard; Sadler, Philip M.

2012-02-01

238

Introductory physics in biological context: An approach to improve introductory physics for life science students  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe restructuring the introductory physics for life science students (IPLS) course to better support these students in using physics to understand their chosen fields. Our courses teach physics using biologically rich contexts. Specifically, we use examples in which fundamental physics contributes significantly to understanding a biological system to make explicit the value of physics to the life sciences. This requires selecting the course content to reflect the topics most relevant to biology while maintaining the fundamental disciplinary structure of physics. In addition to stressing the importance of the fundamental principles of physics, an important goal is developing students' quantitative and problem solving skills. Our guiding pedagogical framework is the cognitive apprenticeship model, in which learning occurs most effectively when students can articulate why what they are learning matters to them. In this article, we describe our courses, summarize initial assessment data, and identify needs for future research.

Crouch, Catherine H.; Heller, Kenneth

2014-05-01

239

An Online National Archive of Multiple-Choice Questions for Astro 101 and the Development of the Question Complexity Rubric  

Microsoft Academic Search

We are developing a national archive of multiple-choice questions for use in the Astronomy 101 classroom. These questions are intended to supplement an instructor's implementation of Think-Pair-Share or for their assessment purposes (i.e., exams and homework). We are also developing the Question Complexity Rubric (QCR) to guide members of the Astro 101 teaching and learning community in assisting us with

S. Cormier; E. Prather; G. Brissenden

2011-01-01

240

Re-engineering of multiple-choice exam-form production tools: Cost-effective and quality-assurance approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims: This study aims at designing and implementing an exam-form generation software tool (named ExPro) for multiple-choice-based (MCB) exams. The study is motivated by the fact that student number in Jordanian universities is continuously growing at high rate. This growth is not accompanied by an equivalent growth of educational resources (instructors, labs, ...etc). A result of this situation is having

Sulieman Bani-Ahmad; Ahmad Audeh

2010-01-01

241

Spatial multiple-choice matching in a harbour seal ( Phoca vitulina ): differential encoding of landscape versus local feature information?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nature of spatial information used for memorizing and recalling places is largely unclear. Earlier studies tested integration\\u000a of geometric and feature information mostly during reorientation in artificial environments without including time as a memory-critical\\u000a component. Here, we tested a harbour seal in a delayed matching-to-sample task (DMTS) in a familiar environment under two\\u000a spatial multiple-choice conditions. The feature condition

Björn Mauck; Guido Dehnhardt

2007-01-01

242

The influence of physics teacher gender on college students' pursuit of careers in the physical sciences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In science disciplines, students develop career goals based in part on their high school experiences. Science teachers and their personal characteristics are a part of this experience. In the case of physics, teacher gender is believed to modulate the interplay between student's own gender and their gender-related perceptions of physics. Using national data from college students (PRiSE Project, N=7505), we analyze the physics teacher gender effects on the choice of a career in the physical sciences by both male and female students. We examine three sub-samples of the data: students who have not taken any high school physics courses (about 60 percent of the total), those who have taken one physics course (teacher female or male), and those who have taken two physics courses (two female, two male, or one female and one male teacher). A correspondence analysis reveals an exploratory picture of the association between primary and confounding factors. Subsequently, a linear regression on students' physical science career choices is used as a confirmatory analysis of this picture.

Lung, Florin; Potvin, Geoff; Sadler, Philip M.; Sonnert, Gerhard

2012-03-01

243

Putting the “Spark” into Physical Science and Algebra  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The presenters will describe a number of laboratory activities developed in collaboration with the Department of Electrical Engineering at the University of Delaware as part of their outreach program to help make math and science more authentic on the pre-college level. Lessons relating to electrical topics are often abstract and appropriate only for advanced students in math and science. We have devised lessons that rely on simple equipment. They promote skills that are included in National and State Standards. They emphasize the connections between math and science; they are appropriate for an algebra course, a physical science course, a PhysicsFirst course or a traditional physics course. Students benefit from seeing that what they learn in math and science courses can lead to cutting-edge work in areas such as passive wave imaging, photonics, wireless communication and high performance computing. The collaboration has been meaningful because it has motivated us to tailor our lessons to reflect what is happening in the research lab of our local university. Written materials for use in teacher training workshops will also be available. Funded by NSF Research Experience for Teachers(RET #0322633) program under the direction of Dr. Dennis Prather, University of Delaware Electrical Engineering

Dagenais, Andre; Pill, B.

2006-12-01

244

Cosmic ray physics, high energy physics and space sciences, an Indian story with international flavour.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Centenary of discovery of cosmic rays by Viktor Hess a century back provides a unique opportunity to look back and examine the role of this important area of research that led to some of the most fundamental discoveries in science besides giving birth to high energy physics and space sciences. Scientists trained in cosmic rays with their broad and deep understanding of different facets of science, technology and management have played a critical role in the development of science in the post independent India. International collaboration during the past seven decades was an important catalyst in this process. Here we will discuss these issues from a historical perspective.

Menon, Mgk

2012-07-01

245

Improving multiple-choice questions to better assess dental student knowledge: distractor utilization in oral and maxillofacial pathology course examinations.  

PubMed

How many incorrect response options (known as distractors) to use in multiple-choice questions has been the source of considerable debate in the assessment literature, especially relative to influence on the likelihood of students' guessing the correct answer. This study compared distractor use by second-year dental students in three successive oral and maxillofacial pathology classes that had three different examination question formats and scoring resulting in different levels of academic performance. One class was given all multiple-choice questions; the two other were given half multiple-choice questions, with and without formula scoring, and half un-cued short-answer questions. Use by at least 1 percent of the students was found to better identify functioning distractors than higher cutoffs. The average number of functioning distractors differed among the three classes and did not always correspond to differences in class scores. Increased numbers of functioning distractors were associated with higher question discrimination and greater question difficulty. Fewer functioning distractors fostered more effective student guessing and overestimation of academic achievement. Appropriate identification of functioning distractors is essential for improving examination quality and better estimating actual student knowledge through retrospective use of formula scoring, where the amount subtracted for incorrect answers is based on the harmonic mean number of functioning distractors. PMID:24319131

McMahan, C Alex; Pinckard, R Neal; Prihoda, Thomas J; Hendricson, William D; Jones, Anne Cale

2013-12-01

246

Delay and probability discounting of multiple commodities in smokers and never-smokers using multiple-choice tasks.  

PubMed

The purpose of the present study was to investigate temporal and probabilistic discounting in smokers and never-smokers, across a number of commodities, using a multiple-choice method. One hundred and eighty-two undergraduate university students, of whom 90 had never smoked, 73 were self-reported light smokers (<10 cigarettes/day), and 17 were heavy smokers (10+cigarettes/day), completed computerized batteries of delay and probability discounting questions pertaining to a total of eight commodities and administered in a multiple-choice format. In addition to cigarettes, monetary rewards, and health outcomes, the tasks included novel commodities such as ideal dating partner and retirement income. The results showed that heavy smokers probability discounted commodities at a significantly shallower rate than never-smokers, suggesting greater risk-taking. No effect of smoking status was observed for delay discounting questions. The only commodity that was probability discounted significantly less than others was 'finding an ideal dating partner'. The results suggest that probability discounting tasks using the multiple-choice format can discriminate between non-abstaining smokers and never-smokers and could be further explored in the context of behavioral and drug addictions. PMID:24196025

Poltavski, Dmitri V; Weatherly, Jeffrey N

2013-12-01

247

Army Science and Technology Fellowship: Physics of Materials.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is an Army Science and Technology Fellowship on the physics of materials. A computer controlled plasma assisted CVD chamber was designed and built. This system was then used to fabricate thin film coatings on different glasses, including ZBL glass (w...

W. A. Lanford

1990-01-01

248

Linking of Errata: Current Practices in Online Physical Sciences Journals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses errata, or corrections, in scientific and biomedical journals and compares errata in online versions of high-impact physical sciences journals across titles and publishers. Results show variability in presentation, linking, and availability of online errata and recommends the development of standards for the linking of original articles…

Poworoznek, Emily L.

2003-01-01

249

Learning Science-Based Fitness Knowledge in Constructivist Physical Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teaching fitness-related knowledge has become critical in developing children's healthful living behavior. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a science-based, constructivist physical education curriculum on learning fitness knowledge critical to healthful living in elementary school students. The schools (N = 30) were randomly…

Sun, Haichun; Chen, Ang; Zhu, Xihe; Ennis, Catherine D.

2012-01-01

250

Using Soda Cans to Teach Physical Science Students about Density  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this experiment, physical science students measured the mass of several soda cans, measured the mass and volume of water displaced when these cans were placed in water, and determined whether these cans sank or floated in water. Then, the students plotted graphs of the mass of displaced water versus the volume of displaced water, the mass of…

Sanger, Michael J.; Humphreys, Teari C.; LaPorte, Mark M.

2009-01-01

251

Kinetic exchange models: From molecular physics to social science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We discuss several multi-agent models that have their origin in the kinetic exchange theory of statistical mechanics and have been recently applied to a variety of problems in the social sciences. This class of models can be easily adapted for simulations in areas other than physics, such as the modeling of income and wealth distributions in economics and opinion dynamics in sociology.

Patriarca, Marco; Chakraborti, Anirban

2013-08-01

252

Relating Aerospace to Physical Science Grades 7-12.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide is intended to provide the teacher of secondary school physical science classes with a source of information about recent applications, discoveries, and innovations in aerospace. Each section of the guide is subdivided into parts in which objectives are listed, background information for the use of the teacher and/or the student is…

Williams, Mary H.; Rademacher, Jean

253

Physics education research: Resources for middle school science teachers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This resource letter intends to provide middle school science teachers with a\\u000acollection of resources to aid them in planning and implementing a physical\\u000ascience curriculum. The resources are in the form of books, websites, journals,\\u000aand organizations.

Zosia A. C. Krusberg; Johann Wolfgang von Goethe; W. B. Yeats

2009-01-01

254

Life Science-Related Physics Laboratory on Geometrical Optics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a laboratory experiment on geometrical optics designed for life science majors in a noncalculus introductory physics course. The thin lens equation is used by the students to calculate the focal length of the lens necessary to correct a myopic condition in an optical bench simulation of a human eye. (Author/MLH)

Edwards, T. H.; And Others

1975-01-01

255

Physical sciences research plans for the international space station  

Microsoft Academic Search

The restructuring of the research capabilities of the International Space Station has forced a reassessment of the Physical Sciences research plans and a re-targeting of the major scientific thrusts. The combination of already selected peer-reviewed flight investigations with the initiation of new research and technology programs will allow the maximization of the ISS scientific and technological potential. Fundamental and applied

E. H. Trinh

2003-01-01

256

Physical Sciences Research Plans for the International Space Station  

Microsoft Academic Search

The restructuring of the research capabilities of the International Space Station has forced a reassessment of the Physical Sciences research plans and a re-targeting of the major scientific thrusts. The combination of already selected peer-reviewed flight investigations with the initiation of new research and technology programs will allow the maximization of the ISS scientific and technological potential. Fundamental and applied

E. Trinh

2002-01-01

257

Cape Wind: A Public Policy Debate for the Physical Sciences  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Since the industrial revolution, technological innovation and the application of basic scientific research have transformed society. Increasingly, critical conversations and legislation regarding national and international public policy have sophisticated scientific underpinnings. It is crucial that we prepare scientists and engineers with an informed scientific worldview and technical expertise to be advisors and participants in these important conversations. This paper describes the use of a debate about a proposed wind farm off the coast of Cape Cod as a platform to explore public-policy issues in a physical- science course. The subject of wind power fits naturally into curriculum related to energy, and is therefore applicable to a broad range of courses found in the disciplines of physics, chemistry, environmental science, and engineering, including general-science courses for nonscience majors.

Mayer, Shannon

2007-07-01

258

Impacting university physics students through participation in informal science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Informal education programs organized by university physics departments are a popular means of reaching out to communities and satisfying grant requirements. The outcomes of these programs are often described in terms of broader impacts on the community. Comparatively little attention, however, has been paid to the influence of such programs on those students facilitating the informal science programs. Through Partnerships for Informal Science Education in the Community (PISEC) at the University of Colorado Boulder, undergraduate and graduate physics students coach elementary and middle school children during an inquiry-based science afterschool program. As part of their participation in PISEC, university students complete preparation in pedagogy, communication and diversity, engage with children on a weekly basis and provide regular feedback about the program. We present findings that indicate these experiences improve the ability of university students to communicate in everyday language and positively influence their perspectives on teaching and learning.

Hinko, Kathleen; Finkelstein, Noah D.

2013-01-01

259

What's New in Science Teaching.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents some minicourses and equipment which college professors consider new in science teaching, such as: (1) the environmental educational minicourse of Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University; and (2) multiple-choice testing without retyping. (HM)

Estee, Charles R., Ed.

1977-01-01

260

Biological and Physical Space Research Laboratory 2002 Science Review  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

With the International Space Station Program approaching core complete, our NASA Headquarters sponsor, the new Code U Enterprise, Biological and Physical Research, is shifting its research emphasis from purely fundamental microgravity and biological sciences to strategic research aimed at enabling human missions beyond Earth orbit. Although we anticipate supporting microgravity research on the ISS for some time to come, our laboratory has been vigorously engaged in developing these new strategic research areas.This Technical Memorandum documents the internal science research at our laboratory as presented in a review to Dr. Ann Whitaker, MSFC Science Director, in July 2002. These presentations have been revised and updated as appropriate for this report. It provides a snapshot of the internal science capability of our laboratory as an aid to other NASA organizations and the external scientific community.

Curreri, P. A. (Editor); Robinson, M. B. (Editor); Murphy, K. L. (Editor)

2003-01-01

261

Complex network problems in physics, computer science and biology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is a close relation between physics and mathematics and the exchange of ideas between these two sciences are well established. However until few years ago there was no such a close relation between physics and computer science. Even more, only recently biologists started to use methods and tools from statistical physics in order to study the behavior of complex system. In this thesis we concentrate on applying and analyzing several methods borrowed from computer science to biology and also we use methods from statistical physics in solving hard problems from computer science. In recent years physicists have been interested in studying the behavior of complex networks. Physics is an experimental science in which theoretical predictions are compared to experiments. In this definition, the term prediction plays a very important role: although the system is complex, it is still possible to get predictions for its behavior, but these predictions are of a probabilistic nature. Spin glasses, lattice gases or the Potts model are a few examples of complex systems in physics. Spin glasses and many frustrated antiferromagnets map exactly to computer science problems in the NP-hard class defined in Chapter 1. In Chapter 1 we discuss a common result from artificial intelligence (AI) which shows that there are some problems which are NP-complete, with the implication that these problems are difficult to solve. We introduce a few well known hard problems from computer science (Satisfiability, Coloring, Vertex Cover together with Maximum Independent Set and Number Partitioning) and then discuss their mapping to problems from physics. In Chapter 2 we provide a short review of combinatorial optimization algorithms and their applications to ground state problems in disordered systems. We discuss the cavity method initially developed for studying the Sherrington-Kirkpatrick model of spin glasses. We extend this model to the study of a specific case of spin glass on the Bethe lattice at zero temperature and then we apply this formalism to the K-SAT problem defined in Chapter 1. The phase transition which physicists study often corresponds to a change in the computational complexity of the corresponding computer science problem. Chapter 3 presents phase transitions which are specific to the problems discussed in Chapter 1 and also known results for the K-SAT problem. We discuss the replica method and experimental evidences of replica symmetry breaking. The physics approach to hard problems is based on replica methods which are difficult to understand. In Chapter 4 we develop novel methods for studying hard problems using methods similar to the message passing techniques that were discussed in Chapter 2. Although we concentrated on the symmetric case, cavity methods show promise for generalizing our methods to the un-symmetric case. As has been highlighted by John Hopfield, several key features of biological systems are not shared by physical systems. Although living entities follow the laws of physics and chemistry, the fact that organisms adapt and reproduce introduces an essential ingredient that is missing in the physical sciences. In order to extract information from networks many algorithm have been developed. In Chapter 5 we apply polynomial algorithms like minimum spanning tree in order to study and construct gene regulatory networks from experimental data. As future work we propose the use of algorithms like min-cut/max-flow and Dijkstra for understanding key properties of these networks.

Cojocaru, Radu Ionut

262

Nuclear Science Outreach in the World Year of Physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ability of scientists to articulate the importance and value of their research has become increasingly important in the present climate of declining budgets, and this is most critical in the field of nuclear science ,where researchers must fight an uphill battle against negative public perception. Yet nuclear science encompasses important technical and societal issues that should be of primary interest to informed citizens, and the need for scientists trained in nuclear techniques are important for many applications in nuclear medicine, national security and future energy sources. The NSAC Education Subcommittee Report [1] identified the need for a nationally coordinated effort in nuclear science outreach, naming as its first recommendation that `the highest priority for new investment in education be the creation by the DOE and NSF of a Center for Nuclear Science Outreach'. This talk will review the present status of public outreach in nuclear science and highlight some specific efforts that have taken place during the World Year of Physics. [1] Education in Nuclear Science: A Status Report and Recommendations for the Beginning of the 21^st Century, A Report of the DOE/NSF Nuclear Science Advisory Committee Subcommittee on Education, November 2004, http://www.sc.doe.gov/henp/np/nsac/docs/NSACCReducationreportfinal.pdf.

McMahan, Margaret

2006-04-01

263

The Relationship between Students' Views of the Nature of Science and their Views of the Nature of Scientific Measurement  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study explores the relationship between students’ views of the nature of science (NOS) and their views of the nature of scientific measurement. A questionnaire with two?tier diagnostic multiple?choice items on both the NOS and measurement was administered to 179 first?year physics students with diverse school experiences. Students’ views on the NOS were classified into four NOS ‘profiles’, and

Andy Buffler; Fred Lubben; Bashirah Ibrahim

2009-01-01

264

Sparking Women's Interest in Physics through Science Education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As of 2010, less than 10% of the members of the APS division of plasma physics are female. Data from a 2005 AIP publication indicate that a lack of female presence in physics exists as early as high school and is perpetuated throughout the educational careers of women. Of the undergraduate programs run by PPPL, 16% of participants are female, and only 11% of participants that continue on to graduate school are female. In an effort to increase the exposure of young women to physics, we have expanded existing programs and initiated new programs such as a mentorship program and an energy focused essay contest. The goal of these programs is to bridge the gap between young and established women in science in order to increase young women's interest in the field of physics and thus increase the likelihood that they will continue on to study higher-level physics. Using data collected from participant surveys we have assessed the short-term effectiveness of PPPL programs in influencing young women to pursue careers in science and plasma physics. Ivie and Ray. AIP Publication Number R-430.02 (February 2005)

Merali, Aliya; Wissel, S. A.; Ortiz, M.; Morgan, J. T.; Zwicker, A.

2011-11-01

265

Attitudes about science and conceptual physics learning in university introductory physics courses  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This paper examines the results of the repeated administration of the Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey (CLASS) in a large introductory physics course at a midsize, metropolitan Canadian university. We compare the results to those obtained previously in comparable courses at the University of British Columbia (Canada) and the University of Colorado (U.S.). Atypically, students in this study exhibited a positive shift in their attitudes about science over the semester. The change in studentsâ attitudes across the term appears to be moderated by their educational backgroundâspecifically, whether they had taken grade 12 physics or not. The correlation between studentsâ attitudes and their conceptual knowledge also appears to be influenced by studentsâ educational background. The results have pedagogical implications for instructors of introductory college and university physics and potentially for other science courses.

Milner-Bolotin, Marina; Antimirova, Tetyana; Noack, Andrea; Petrov, Anna

2012-05-25

266

Developing the learning physical science curriculum: Adapting a small enrollment, laboratory and discussion based physical science course for large enrollments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on the adaptation of the small enrollment, lab and discussion based physical science course, Physical Science and Everyday Thinking (PSET), for a large-enrollment, lecture-style setting. Like PSET, the new Learning Physical Science (LEPS) curriculum was designed around specific principles based on research on learning to meet the needs of nonscience students, especially prospective and practicing elementary and middle school teachers. We describe the structure of the two curricula and the adaptation process, including a detailed comparison of similar activities from the two curricula and a case study of a LEPS classroom implementation. In LEPS, short instructor-guided lessons replace lengthier small group activities, and movies, rather than hands-on investigations, provide the evidence used to support and test ideas. LEPS promotes student peer interaction as an important part of sense making via “clicker” questions, rather than small group and whole class discussions typical of PSET. Examples of student dialog indicate that this format is capable of generating substantive student discussion and successfully enacting the design principles. Field-test data show similar student content learning gains with the two curricula. Nevertheless, because of classroom constraints, some important practices of science that were an integral part of PSET were not included in LEPS.

Goldberg, Fred; Price, Edward; Robinson, Stephen; Boyd-Harlow, Danielle; McKean, Michael

2012-06-01

267

Developing the learning physical science curriculum: Adapting a small enrollment, laboratory and discussion based physical science course for large enrollments  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We report on the adaptation of the small enrollment, lab and discussion based physical science course, Physical Science and Everyday Thinking (PSET), for a large-enrollment, lecture-style setting. Like PSET, the new Learning Physical Science (LEPS) curriculum was designed around specific principles based on research on learning to meet the needs of nonscience students, especially prospective and practicing elementary and middle school teachers. We describe the structure of the two curricula and the adaptation process, including a detailed comparison of similar activities from the two curricula and a case study of a LEPS classroom implementation. In LEPS, short instructor-guided lessons replace lengthier small group activities, and movies, rather than hands-on investigations, provide the evidence used to support and test ideas. LEPS promotes student peer interaction as an important part of sense making via âclickerâ questions, rather than small group and whole class discussions typical of PSET. Examples of student dialog indicate that this format is capable of generating substantive student discussion and successfully enacting the design principles. Field-test data show similar student content learning gains with the two curricula. Nevertheless, because of classroom constraints, some important practices of science that were an integral part of PSET were not included in LEPS.

Goldberg, Fred; Price, Edward; Robinson, Stephen J.; Boyd-Harlow, Danielle; Mckean, Michael

2012-05-21

268

Physical Sciences Facility Air Emission Control Equivalency Evaluation  

SciTech Connect

This document presents the adequacy evaluation for the application of technology standards during design, fabrication, installation and testing of radioactive air exhaust systems at the Physical Sciences Facility (PSF), located on the Horn Rapids Triangle north of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) complex. The analysis specifically covers the exhaust portion of the heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems associated with emission units EP-3410-01-S, EP-3420-01-S and EP 3430-01-S.

Brown, David M.; Belew, Shan T.

2008-10-17

269

Physics, Computer Science and Mathematics Division. Annual Report, January 1-December 31, 1980.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Research in the physics, computer science, and mathematics division is described for the year 1980. While the division's major effort remains in high energy particle physics, there is a continually growing program in computer science and applied mathemati...

R. W. Birge

1981-01-01

270

Investigative Science Learning Environment - A Science Process Approach to Learning Physics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Piscataway, NJ, 08854 Abstract: In this chapter we describe an interactive method of teaching, Investigative Science Learning Environment (ISLE), that helps students learn physics by engaging in proc- esses that mirror the activities of physicists when they construct and apply knowl- edge. These processes involve observing, finding patterns, building and testing ex- planations of the patterns, and using multiple representations

E. Etkina; A Van Heuvelen

271

Physics teacher use of the history of science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The School of Education and the Department of Physics at Boston University offer a sequence of 10 two-credit professional development courses through the Improving the Teaching of Physics (ITOP) project. The ITOP courses combine physics content, readings from the physics education research (PER) literature, and the conceptual history of physics (CHOP). ITOP participants self-report changes to their teaching practices as a result of their participation in ITOP. The purpose of this study was to verify and characterize those changes in the specific area of the participants' use of history after their study of CHOP. Ten recent ITOP participants were observed, interviewed, and asked to provide lesson plans and samples of student work from their classes. Case studies of each participant's teaching were constructed from the data. The individual cases were synthesized to characterize the impact of CHOP on the ITOP participants. The results show that the participants integrate CHOP into their pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) to inform their understanding of: (1) the relationship between physics and other disciplines, (2) the relationship between specific physics concepts, (3) student understanding of physics concepts, (4) student difficulties in learning physics concepts, and (5) methods for teaching physics concepts. The participants use history to teach a variety of topics, although the most common were mechanics and electromagnetism. All of the participants used history to teach aspects of the nature of science (NOS) and to increase student interest in physics, while eight participants taught physics concepts through history. The predominant mode of incorporating history was through adding anecdotes about the scientists who worked on the concepts, but seven participants had their students study the historical development of physical concepts. All the participants discussed a lack of time as a factor that inhibits a greater use of history in their courses. Eight participants discussed a lack of appropriate resources for using history in high school physics classes. Two participants said they did not feel that explicit study of the history of physics would benefit their students until they had better mastery of physics concepts.

Winrich, Charles

272

The Effect of Question Order on Responses to Multiple-choice Questions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This paper, presented at the 2002 Physics Education Research Conference, investigates how the order of two related FCI questions (#13 and 14) affects students' responses. This study also investigates the effect an unrelated FCI question (#23) has on answers to the above problems. Four versions of a survey were administered before and after instruction to 243 students taking an algebra-based physics class. Versions 1 and 2 of the survey included the related physics questions in opposite order. Versions 3 and 4 included the unrelated physics question and one of the above questions. Student responses for the four versions were compared for both the pre- and post-instruction surveys.

Gray, Kara; Rebello, Sanjay; Zollman, Dean

2010-12-02

273

The Effect of Question Order on Responses to Multiple-choice Questions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This paper, presented at the 2002 Physics Education Research Conference, investigates how the order of two related FCI questions (#13 and 14) affects students' responses. This study also investigates the effect an unrelated FCI question (#23) has on answers to the above problems. Four versions of a survey were administered before and after instruction to 243 students taking an algebra-based physics class. Versions 1 and 2 of the survey included the related physics questions in opposite order. Versions 3 and 4 included the unrelated physics question and one of the above questions. Student responses for the four versions were compared for both the pre- and post-instruction surveys.

Gray, Kara E.; Rebello, N. S.; Zollman, Dean A.

2006-12-06

274

Solar and Space Physics: A Science for a Technological Society  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

From the interior of the Sun, to the upper atmosphere and near-space environment of Earth, and outward to a region far beyond Pluto where the Sun's influence wanes, advances during the past decade in space physics and solar physics the disciplines NASA refers to as heliophysics have yielded spectacular insights into the phenomena that affect our home in space. This report, from the National Research Council's (NRC's) Committee for a Decadal Strategy in Solar and Space Physics, is the second NRC decadal survey in heliophysics. Building on the research accomplishments realized over the past decade, the report presents a program of basic and applied research for the period 2013-2022 that will improve scientific understanding of the mechanisms that drive the Sun's activity and the fundamental physical processes underlying near-Earth plasma dynamics, determine the physical interactions of Earth's atmospheric layers in the context of the connected Sun-Earth system, and enhance greatly the capability to provide realistic and specific forecasts of Earth's space environment that will better serve the needs of society. Although the recommended program is directed primarily to NASA (Science Mission Directorate -- Heliophysics Division) and the National Science Foundation (NSF) (Directorate for Geosciences -- Atmospheric and Geospace Sciences) for action, the report also recommends actions by other federal agencies, especially the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) those parts of NOAA charged with the day-to-day (operational) forecast of space weather. In addition to the recommendations included in this summary, related recommendations are presented in the main text of the report.

2013-01-01

275

Physics Lectures and Laboratories. A Model To Improve Preservice Elementary Science Teacher Development. Volume II.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A group of scientists and science educators has developed and pilot tested an integrated physical science program designed for preservice elementary school teachers. This document includes the syllabus and class materials for the Physics block of the physical science courses developed by the group. Included are diagrams, lecture notes, homework…

Dresser, Miles

276

Linking neuroscientific research on decision making to the educational context of novice students assigned to a multiple-choice scientific task involving common misconceptions about electrical circuits.  

PubMed

Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to identify the brain-based mechanisms of uncertainty and certainty associated with answers to multiple-choice questions involving common misconceptions about electric circuits. Twenty-two scientifically novice participants (humanities and arts college students) were asked, in an fMRI study, whether or not they thought the light bulbs in images presenting electric circuits were lighted up correctly, and if they were certain or uncertain of their answers. When participants reported that they were unsure of their responses, analyses revealed significant activations in brain areas typically involved in uncertainty (anterior cingulate cortex, anterior insula cortex, and superior/dorsomedial frontal cortex) and in the left middle/superior temporal lobe. Certainty was associated with large bilateral activations in the occipital and parietal regions usually involved in visuospatial processing. Correct-and-certain answers were associated with activations that suggest a stronger mobilization of visual attention resources when compared to incorrect-and-certain answers. These findings provide insights into brain-based mechanisms of uncertainty that are activated when common misconceptions, identified as such by science education research literature, interfere in decision making in a school-like task. We also discuss the implications of these results from an educational perspective. PMID:24478680

Potvin, Patrice; Turmel, Elaine; Masson, Steve

2014-01-01

277

Instructor perspectives of multiple-choice questions in summative assessment for novice programmers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Learning to program is known to be difficult for novices. High attrition and high failure rates in foundation-level programming courses undertaken at tertiary level in Computer Science programs, are commonly reported. A common approach to evaluating novice programming ability is through a combination of formative and summative assessments, with the latter typically represented by a final examination. Preparation of such

Shuhaida Shuhidan; Margaret Hamilton; Daryl D'Souza

2010-01-01

278

The Science Information Infrastructure: An Integrated Network for Finding and Using Information about Our Physical World.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Several federal science agencies have formed an alliance to work together and to make an interagency science portal, science.gov http://www.science.gov, a reality that will serve the needs of the research community and provide universal access to physical science information for citizens. While much progress has been made, challenges of resources…

Warnick, Walter

2001-01-01

279

The impact of two multiple-choice question formats on the problem-solving strategies used by novices and experts  

PubMed Central

Background Pencil-and-paper examination formats, and specifically the standard, five-option multiple-choice question, have often been questioned as a means for assessing higher-order clinical reasoning or problem solving. This study firstly investigated whether two paper formats with differing number of alternatives (standard five-option and extended-matching questions) can test problem-solving abilities. Secondly, the impact of the alternatives number on psychometrics and problem-solving strategies was examined. Methods Think-aloud protocols were collected to determine the problem-solving strategy used by experts and non-experts in answering Gastroenterology questions, across the two pencil-and-paper formats. Results The two formats demonstrated equal ability in testing problem-solving abilities, while the number of alternatives did not significantly impact psychometrics or problem-solving strategies utilized. Conclusions These results support the notion that well-constructed multiple-choice questions can in fact test higher order clinical reasoning. Furthermore, it can be concluded that in testing clinical reasoning, the question stem, or content, remains more important than the number of alternatives.

Coderre, Sylvain P; Harasym, Peter; Mandin, Henry; Fick, Gordon

2004-01-01

280

Gains in Content Knowledge, Confidence and Comfort Levels from a Physical Science Course  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Physical Science for Everyday Thinking (PSET) is a guided inquiry approach to teaching physical science. Pre and post survey data were collected during four years of using PSET. The course was taught in an intensive format at a small, private liberal arts college; at least half the students were education majors. The surveys assessed content knowledge and confidence in the answers, attitudes toward science and understanding of the process of learning science. Analysis indicated significant increases in content knowledge, confidence in content knowledge and comfort levels with physical science; also significant changes in identification as a science person, what is a fact, objectivity of scientists and science as a solitary pursuit.

van Wormer, Laura; Sorrick, Roxanne

2009-10-01

281

The Science on Saturday Program at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Science on Saturday Program at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory consists of a series of Saturday morning lectures on various topics in science by scientists, engineers, educators, and others with an interesting story. This program has been in existence for over twelve years and has been advertised to and primarily aimed at the high school level. Topics ranging from superconductivity to computer animation and gorilla conservation to pharmaceutical design have been covered. Lecturers from the staff of Princeton, Rutgers, AT and T, Bristol Meyers Squibb, and many others have participated. Speakers have ranged from Nobel prize winners, astronauts, industrialists, educators, engineers, and science writers. Typically, there are eight to ten lectures starting in January. A mailing list has been compiled for schools, science teachers, libraries, and museums in the Princeton area. For the past two years AT and T has sponsored buses for Trenton area students to come to these lectures and an effort has been made to publicize the program to these students. The series has been very popular, frequently overfilling the 300 seat PPPL auditorium. As a result, the lectures are videotaped and broadcast to a large screen TV for remote viewing. Lecturers are encouraged to interact with the audience and ample time is provided for questions.

Bretz, N.; Lamarche, P.; Lagin, L.; Ritter, C.; Carroll, D. L.

1996-11-01

282

Biographical Sources in the Sciences--Life, Earth and Physical Sciences (1989-2006). LC Science Tracer Bullet. TB 06-4  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide offers a systematic approach to the wide variety of published biographical information on men and women of science in the life, earth and physical sciences, primarily from 1989 to 2006, and complements Library of Congress Science Tracer Bullet "TB88-3" ("Biographical Sources in the Sciences," compiled 1988 [ED306074]) and "TB06-7"…

Freitag, Ruth, Comp.; Bradley, Michelle Cadoree, Comp.

2006-01-01

283

Development of a Physical Science Course for Elementary Education Majors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed a physical science content course for elementary education majors that is aligned with state standards. The course incorporates several hands-on activities related to the Virginia Standards of Learning that have already been implemented as one-hour lessons in elementary classrooms. Topics include measurement, properties of matter, motion & energy, electricity & magnetism, sound & light, chemical & physical processes, weather, and the solar system. In addition to the hands-on activities, course content is discussed in a small lecture format with questions posed throughout the material. The students discuss these questions in assigned groups and then answer them using remote answer devices (see www.einstruction.com). Lastly, conceptual ideas in class are reinforced using online LON-CAPA homework questions that are individually randomized for each student and provide immediate feedback (see loncapa.org). Those questions which indicate a high degree-of-difficulty are reassigned during following weeks to provide multiple opportunities for practice. All of these active learning approaches reinforce basic concepts necessary to teach physical science at the elementary level.

Baski, A. A.; Hunnicutt, S.

2007-03-01

284

Physical sciences research plans for the International Space Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The restructuring of the research capabilities of the International Space Station has forced a reassessment of the Physical Sciences research plans and a re-targeting of the major scientific thrusts. The combination of already selected peer-reviewed flight investigations with the initiation of new research and technology programs will allow the maximization of the ISS scientific and technological potential. Fundamental and applied research will use a combination of ISS-based facilities, ground-based activities, and other experimental platforms to address issues impacting fundamental knowledge, industrial and medical applications on Earth, and the technology required for human space exploration. The current flight investigation research plan shows a large number of principal investigators selected to use the remaining planned research facilities. c2003 American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

Trinh, E. H.

2003-01-01

285

For the Love of Science: Learning Orientation and Physical Science Success  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An individual's motivational orientation serves as a drive to action and can influence their productivity. This study examines how the goal orientation of students towards the pursuit of their graduate degree in physics and chemistry influences their future success outcomes as practicing scientists. Two main orientations are focused on: performance (or ego/ability) orientation and learning (or task/mastery) orientation. The data was obtained as part of Project Crossover, which applied a mixed methodological approach to studying the transition from graduate student to scientist in the physical sciences. Using regression analysis on survey data from 2353 PhD holders in physics and chemistry, we found that individuals exhibiting a learning orientation were more productive than those exhibiting a performance orientation in terms of first-author publications and grant funding. Furthermore, given equal salary, learning-oriented physical scientists produced more first-author publications than average. )

Hazari, Zahra; Potvin, Geoff; Tai, Robert; Almarode, John

2010-02-01

286

Bringing the physical sciences into your cell biology research.  

PubMed

Historically, much of biology was studied by physicists and mathematicians. With the advent of modern molecular biology, a wave of researchers became trained in a new scientific discipline filled with the language of genes, mutants, and the central dogma. These new molecular approaches have provided volumes of information on biomolecules and molecular pathways from the cellular to the organismal level. The challenge now is to determine how this seemingly endless list of components works together to promote the healthy function of complex living systems. This effort requires an interdisciplinary approach by investigators from both the biological and the physical sciences. PMID:23112230

Robinson, Douglas N; Iglesias, Pablo A

2012-11-01

287

Numerical Data Advisory Board assembly of mathematial and physical sciences  

SciTech Connect

The Numerical Data Advisory Board (NDAB) is an advisory body that provides expert overview, on a broad basis, of data needs and data programs as required for the advancement of science and technology. Board members, representing various disciplines, concern themselves with the quality, reliability, availability, accessibility, and dissemination of numerical data in physical, chemical, engineering, and interdisciplinary subjects as well as numeric and non-numeric data that arise in biology and geology. Topics of concern are addressed by the NDAB membership, or by specific, carefully chosen committees and panels established by NDAB in order to include experts appropriate to the subject at hand.

Not Available

1980-07-30

288

Bringing the physical sciences into your cell biology research  

PubMed Central

Historically, much of biology was studied by physicists and mathematicians. With the advent of modern molecular biology, a wave of researchers became trained in a new scientific discipline filled with the language of genes, mutants, and the central dogma. These new molecular approaches have provided volumes of information on biomolecules and molecular pathways from the cellular to the organismal level. The challenge now is to determine how this seemingly endless list of components works together to promote the healthy function of complex living systems. This effort requires an interdisciplinary approach by investigators from both the biological and the physical sciences.

Robinson, Douglas N.; Iglesias, Pablo A.

2012-01-01

289

Experimental Physical Sciences Vistas: MaRIE (draft)  

SciTech Connect

To achieve breakthrough scientific discoveries in the 21st century, a convergence and integration of world-leading experimental facilities and capabilities with theory, modeling, and simulation is necessary. In this issue of Experimental Physical Sciences Vistas, I am excited to present our plans for Los Alamos National Laboratory's future flagship experimental facility, MaRIE (Matter-Radiation Interactions in Extremes). MaRIE is a facility that will provide transformational understanding of matter in extreme conditions required to reduce or resolve key weapons performance uncertainties, develop the materials needed for advanced energy systems, and transform our ability to create materials by design. Our unique role in materials science starting with the Manhattan Project has positioned us well to develop a contemporary materials strategy pushing the frontiers of controlled functionality - the design and tailoring of a material for the unique demands of a specific application. Controlled functionality requires improvement in understanding of the structure and properties of materials in order to synthesize and process materials with unique characteristics. In the nuclear weapons program today, improving data and models to increase confidence in the stockpile can take years from concept to new knowledge. Our goal with MaRIE is to accelerate this process by enhancing predictive capability - the ability to compute a priori the observables of an experiment or test and pertinent confidence intervals using verified and validated simulation tools. It is a science-based approach that includes the use of advanced experimental tools, theoretical models, and multi-physics codes, simultaneously dealing with multiple aspects of physical operation of a system that are needed to develop an increasingly mature predictive capability. This same approach is needed to accelerate improvements to other systems such as nuclear reactors. MaRIE will be valuable to many national security science challenges. Our first issue of Vistas focused on our current national user facilities (the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center [LANSCE], the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory-Pulsed Field Facility, and the Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies) and the vitality they bring to our Laboratory. These facilities are a magnet for students, postdoctoral researchers, and staff members from all over the world. This, in turn, allows us to continue to develop and maintain our strong staff across the relevant disciplines and conduct world-class discovery science. The second issue of Vistas was devoted entirely to the Laboratory's materials strategy - one of the three strategic science thrusts for the Laboratory. This strategy has helped focus our thinking for MaRIE. We believe there is a bright future in cutting-edge experimental materials research, and that a 21st-century facility with unique capability is necessary to fulfill this goal. The Laboratory has spent the last several years defining MaRIE, and this issue of Vistas presents our current vision of that facility. MaRIE will leverage LANSCE and our other user facilities, as well as our internal and external materials community for decades to come, giving Los Alamos a unique competitive advantage, advancing materials science for the Laboratory's missions and attracting and recruiting scientists of international stature. MaRIE will give the international materials research community a suite of tools capable of meeting a broad range of outstanding grand challenges.

Shlachter, Jack [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-09-08

290

Deriving Accessible Science Books for the Blind Students of Physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a novel integrated methodology for the development and production of accessible physics and science books from the elementary up to tertiary educational levels. This language independent approach adopts the Design-for-All principles, the available international standards for alternative formats and the Universal Design for Learning (UDL) Guidelines. Moreover it supports both static (embossed and refreshable tactile) and dynamic (based on synthetic speech and other sounds) accessibility. It can produce Tactile Books (Embossed Braille and Tactile Graphics), Digital Talking Books (or Digital Audio Books), Large Print Books as well as Acoustic-Tactile Books for the blind and visually impaired students as well as but for the print-disabled. This methodology has been successfully applied in the case of blind students of the Physics, Mathematics and Informatics Departments in the University of Athens.

Kouroupetroglou, Georgios; Kacorri, Hernisa

2010-01-01

291

Ohio Teacher Professional Development in the Physical Sciences  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

An in-service teacher program held during the summers of 2004 and 2005 is described. This program, sponsored with state funds, drew a varied group of participants to learn Modeling Instruction in physics. The workshop leaders used the state science proficiency standards and physics education research (PER) results to guide many of the workshop's activities. In 2004, the participants experienced the Modeling mechanics curriculum while pretending to be students; in 2005, the teachers worked in small teams to develop Modeling-consistent units in other areas, often utilizing PER-based materials. Indications are that the experience was valuable to the teachers and that the workshop series should be offered for a new cohort.

Cervenec, Jason; Harper, Kathleen A.

2009-07-13

292

Forming Modern Citizens in the 1960s: Comparative Analysis of Teaching in Natural Sciences, Physical Sciences and Physical Education throughout France  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reforms made to France's education system structures during the 1960s resulted in a repositioning of academic subjects within study plans. This article looks at three relatively similar subjects (physical sciences, natural sciences and physical education) and throws light on the arguments put forward to defend the purpose of each of them in the…

Attali, Michael; Guedj-Chauchard, Muriel; Saint-Martin, Jean; Savaton, Pierre

2011-01-01

293

Investigative Science Learning Environment: Using the processes of science and cognitive strategies to learn physics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This paper, presented at the 2001 Physics Education Research Conference, asks if reading fifteen textbook chapters, listening to one lecturer, doing prescribed labs, answering someone else's questions, and solving well-defined problems resemble in any way a five-month schedule of activities for a person in a science related field in the 21st century workplace. Several recent studies concerning the knowledge and skills needed in the workplace indicate that there is a serious mismatch between traditional physics instruction and the needs of the workplace. In this study, the authors describe briefly an Investigative Science Learning Environment (ISLE) introductory physics learning system that attempts to replicate more closely the processes used in the real world of science and engineering. The authors hope that ISLE students' learning better meets the needs of the workplace. The paper describes the method, including goals of the instruction, techniques used to assess the achievement of these goals and preliminary results of this assessment from courses taught by different instructors.

Etkina, Eugenia; Van Heuvelen, Alan

2010-09-20

294

Physics and social science — The approach of synergetics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Universally applicable methods originating in statistical physics and synergetics are combined with concepts from social science in order to set up and to apply a model construction concept for the quantitative description of a broad class of collective dynamical phenomena within society. Starting from the decisions of individuals and introducing the concept of dynamical utilities, probabilistic transition rates between attitudes and actions can be constructed. The latter enter the central equation of motion, i.e. the master equation, for the probability distribution over the possible macroconfigurations of society. From the master equation the equations of motion for the expectation values of the macrovariables of society can be derived. These equations are in general nonlinear. Their solutions may include stationary solutions, limit cycles and strange attractors, and with varying trend parameters also phase transitions between different modes of social behaviour can be described. The general model construction approach is subsequently applied to characteristic examples from different social sciences, such as sociology, demography, regional science and economics. These examples refer to collective political opinion formation, to interregional migration of interactive populations, to settlement formation on the micro-, meso- and macroscale, and to nonlinear nonequilibrium economics, including market instabilities.

Weidlich, Wolfgang

1991-05-01

295

Following student gaze patterns in physical science lectures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigates the gaze patterns of undergraduate college students attending a lecture-based physical science class to better understand the relationships between gaze and focus patterns and student attention during class. The investigators used a new eye-tracking product; Tobii Glasses. The glasses eliminate the need for subjects to focus on a computer screen or carry around a backpack-sized recording device, thus giving an investigator the ability to study a broader range of research questions. This investigation includes what students focus on in the classroom (i.e. demonstrations, instructor, notes, board work, and presentations) during a normal lecture, what diverts attention away from being on task as well as what keeps a subject on task. We report on the findings from 8 subjects during physical science lectures designed for future elementary school teachers. We found that students tended not to focus on the instructor for most parts of the lecture but rather the information, particularly new information presented on PowerPoint slides. Finally, we found that location in the classroom also impacted students' attention spans due to more distractors.

Rosengrant, David; Hearrington, Doug; Alvarado, Kerriann; Keeble, Danielle

2012-02-01

296

Following Student Gaze Patterns in Physical Science Lectures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This study investigates the gaze patterns of undergraduate college students attending a lecture-based physical science class to better understand the relationships between gaze and focus patterns and student attention during class. The investigators used a new eye-tracking product; Tobii Glasses. The glasses eliminate the need for subjects to focus on a computer screen or carry around a backpack-sized recording device, thus giving an investigator the ability to study a broader range of research questions. This investigation includes what students focus on in the classroom (i.e. demonstrations, instructor, notes, board work, and presentations) during a normal lecture, what diverts attention away from being on task as well as what keeps a subject on task. We report on the findings from 8 subjects during physical science lectures designed for future elementary school teachers. We found that students tended not to focus on the instructor for most parts of the lecture but rather the information, particularly new information presented on PowerPoint slides. Finally, we found that location in the classroom also impacted students' attention spans due to more distractors.

Rosengrant, David; Hearrington, Doug; Alvarado, Kerriann; Keeble, Danielle

2012-05-15

297

Physics by Inquiry: Preparing K-12 teachers to teach physics and physical science documents  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This presentation from the 2006 PTEC Conference outlines the active engagement approach of the Physics by Inquiry curriculum. The foundations of this approach, its goals and methods, and examples are presented. Particular emphasis is placed on the use of Physics by Inquiry in preparing future K-12 teachers.

Heron, Paula

2010-07-02

298

Physics Myth Busting: A Lab-Centered Course for Non-Science Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is ongoing interest in how and what we teach in physics courses for non-science students, so-called "physics for poets" courses. Art Hobson has effectively argued that teaching science literacy should be a key ingredient in these courses. Hobson uses Jon Millers definition of science literacy, which has two components: first, "a basic…

Madsen, Martin John

2011-01-01

299

Discovering the Potential of Gifted Girls: The Biological and Physical Science Interests of Gifted Kindergarten Girls.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Observes and describes the biological and physical science interests of gifted kindergarten girls (n=14) who were videotaped taking part in five science sessions. The students exhibited equal interest in biological- and physical-science activities. Contains 33 references. (Author/ASK)

Johnson, Sandra L.

1999-01-01

300

Assessment of higher order cognitive skills in undergraduate education: modified essay or multiple choice questions? Research paper  

PubMed Central

Background Reliable and valid written tests of higher cognitive function are difficult to produce, particularly for the assessment of clinical problem solving. Modified Essay Questions (MEQs) are often used to assess these higher order abilities in preference to other forms of assessment, including multiple-choice questions (MCQs). MEQs often form a vital component of end-of-course assessments in higher education. It is not clear how effectively these questions assess higher order cognitive skills. This study was designed to assess the effectiveness of the MEQ to measure higher-order cognitive skills in an undergraduate institution. Methods An analysis of multiple-choice questions and modified essay questions (MEQs) used for summative assessment in a clinical undergraduate curriculum was undertaken. A total of 50 MCQs and 139 stages of MEQs were examined, which came from three exams run over two years. The effectiveness of the questions was determined by two assessors and was defined by the questions ability to measure higher cognitive skills, as determined by a modification of Bloom's taxonomy, and its quality as determined by the presence of item writing flaws. Results Over 50% of all of the MEQs tested factual recall. This was similar to the percentage of MCQs testing factual recall. The modified essay question failed in its role of consistently assessing higher cognitive skills whereas the MCQ frequently tested more than mere recall of knowledge. Conclusion Construction of MEQs, which will assess higher order cognitive skills cannot be assumed to be a simple task. Well-constructed MCQs should be considered a satisfactory replacement for MEQs if the MEQs cannot be designed to adequately test higher order skills. Such MCQs are capable of withstanding the intellectual and statistical scrutiny imposed by a high stakes exit examination.

Palmer, Edward J; Devitt, Peter G

2007-01-01

301

Spintronics and nanomagnetism (Scientific session of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 25 April 2012)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A scientific session of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS), entitled "Spintronics and nanomagnetism", was held on 25 April 2012 at the conference hall of the Lebedev Physical Institute, RAS.The agenda of the session announced on the RAS Physical Sciences Division website www.gpad.ac.ru included the following reports: (1) Zvezdin A K, Zvezdin K A (Prokhorov General Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow), Popkov A F (National Research University 'Moscow State Institute of Electronic Technology', Moscow) "Spin moment transfer effects and their applications in spintronics"; (2) Fraerman A A (Institute for Physics of Microstructures, Russian Academy of Sciences, Nizhny Novgorod) "Magnetic states and transport properties of ferromagnetic nanostructures"; (3) Panin V E, Egorushkin V E, Panin A V (Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Tomsk) "Nonlinear wave processes in a deformable solid as in a multiscale hierarchically organized system".Papers based on oral reports 2 and 3 are presented below. • Magnetic states and transport properties of ferromagnetic nanostructures, A A Fraerman Physics-Uspekhi, 2012, Volume 55, Number 12, Pages 1255-1260 • Nonlinear wave processes in a deformable solid as in a multiscale hierarchically organized system, V E Panin, V E Egorushkin, A V Panin Physics-Uspekhi, 2012, Volume 55, Number 12, Pages 1260-1267

2012-12-01

302

Physics by Inquiry: A research-based approach to preparing K-12 teachers of physics and physical science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Physics Education Group at the University of Washington (UW) has been conducting special courses for K-12 teachers for more than 30 years. They have developed a sequence of academic-year courses for prospective elementary and middle school teachers and another sequence for prospective high school teachers. They also conduct an intensive NSF-funded six-week Summer Institute for Inservice Teachers that has similar goals. The materials used in both the preservice and inservice courses are drawn from Physics by Inquiry, a self-contained, laboratory-based curriculum that has been developed for use in university courses to prepare K-12 teachers to teach physics and physical science. The emphasis in this paper is on elementary and middle school. However, most of the discussion is applicable to the preparation of high school teachers.

Mcdermott, Lillian C.; Heron, Paula R.; Shaffer, Peter S.

2007-11-02

303

The "Earth Physics" Workshops Offered by the Earth Science Education Unit  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Earth science has a part to play in broadening students' learning experience in physics. The Earth Science Education Unit presents a range of (free) workshops to teachers and trainee teachers, suggesting how Earth-based science activities, which show how we understand and use the planet we live on, can easily be slotted into normal science

Davies, Stephen

2012-01-01

304

An Innovative College Curriculum Model for Teaching Physical Science to Pre-Service Elementary Teachers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduces a curriculum model for teaching physical science to the pre-service elementary school teacher entitled "Powerful Ideas in Physical Science (PIPS)". This model was developed by members of the American Association of Physics Teachers (AAPT) and is inquiry-based, hands-on, and discrepant-event based. (Author/MM)

Lilly, James Edward; Sirochman, Rudy F.

2000-01-01

305

Secondary-Level Physical Science Teachers and Teaching in Kansas: Survey Results from the Early 1990s.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey of all Kansas physical sciences (chemistry, general science, physical science, and physics) teachers (36 percent return rate) in the Spring of 1991 provided elements of a profile of physical sciences teachers and teaching. Findings are presented concerning teaching assignments, course enrollments, school demographics, teacher background…

Backhus, DeWayne

306

Physical sciences research plans for the International Space Station.  

PubMed

The restructuring of the research capabilities of the International Space Station has forced a reassessment of the Physical Sciences research plans and a re-targeting of the major scientific thrusts. The combination of already selected peer-reviewed flight investigations with the initiation of new research and technology programs will allow the maximization of the ISS scientific and technological potential. Fundamental and applied research will use a combination of ISS-based facilities, ground-based activities, and other experimental platforms to address issues impacting fundamental knowledge, industrial and medical applications on Earth, and the technology required for human space exploration. The current flight investigation research plan shows a large number of principal investigators selected to use the remaining planned research facilities. PMID:14649258

Trinh, E H

2003-01-01

307

New Capability for Nuclear Physics and HED Sciences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NIF is within a year from completion and conducting experiments in inertial confinement fusion (ICF), stockpile stewardship, high energy density (HED) science and nuclear physics. NIF's 192 beams will produce 1.8 MJ at 351 nm, 60 times more than the largest previous lasers. NIF will attempt to demonstrate ICF, by which more fusion energy is released from its ^2H-^3H target than the NIF laser uses to compress and heat it. NIF's three missions will study matter at extreme conditions: temperatures up to 10^8K, densities to 1000 g cm-3, and pressures to 10^16 Pascals. In fusion events, NIF will produce a neutron density up to 10^21 cm-3. These conditions occur only in the interiors of stars, in thermonuclear burn, and in supernovae that signal the end of massive stars' lives. NIF's experiments will study the parameter space of ICF as well as experiments in several HED science subfields. NIF facility time and resources will be allocated via a peer review process to be overseen by the NIF user office. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

Goldstein, William H.

2008-10-01

308

Neo-piagetian predictors of achievement in physical science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article examines the predictive value of the cognitive variables of developmental level, mental capacity, cognitive style, short-term storage space, and numerical inductive reasoning for student achievement in college science. Achievement was analyzed for each of the categories of pure recall, computational, complex items, and total score of a midterm exam as well as for the composite score on a final exam. The sample for this study consisted of a class of 32 nonscience majors enrolled in Physical Science I at the University of Southern Mississippi. The results showed that developmental level was the single best predictor of achievement. Short-term storage space and mental capacity were significant predictors of achievement for computational and complex items, but, as expected from theoretical considerations, not for pure recall items. The degree of field dependence did not well predict performance on pure recall or computational items. The results also indicate that mental capacity and field dependence do not contribute significantly to the variance if developmental level is held constant. The pattern of the predictive power of numerical inductive reasoning parallels, in magnitude, that of mental capacity. The results of this study and its implications indicate that the construct of short-term storage space has great potential to guide classroom practice and the development of instructional materials. A strategy is outlined that would guide curriculum planners and classroom teachers in the development of materials which would allow students to develop complex problem-solving behaviors.

Roth, Wolff-Michael

309

Seeing the Science in Children's Thinking: Case Studies of Student Inquiry and Physical Science.  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Observing and listening to children while they inquire into the physical sciences is difficult. Thereâs lots to see and hear, but unless you know what to look and listen for, you might only see a noisy blur of activity. Seeing the Science in Childrenâs Thinking is a field guide to the science classroom with authentic examples presented in written and video form. Itâs a great way for staff developers to train teachersâ eyes and ears to pick up the analysis and ideas of students as they occur in the wild of classroom conversations. David Hammer and Emily Van Zee explain the scientific process, describe how research suggests students conceptualize inquiry, and offer ways to encourage scientific investigation in the elementary and middle grades. Then they offer six in-depth case studies of class discussion from grades 1 through 8, each keyed to clips of minimally edited in-the-classroom footage on the companion DVD-ROM. The case studies include not only a thorough description by each teacher, but also detailed facilitatorâs notes for running effective staff-development workshops using the footage. The clips present up to thirty minutes of authentic, uninterrupted class discussions with optional subtitles. Additionally, full transcripts of the video clips are available as printable files on the DVD-ROM. Evidence of childrenâs scientific thinking is all around the classroom, but it takes a skilled teacher to locate it. With Seeing the Science in Childrenâs Thinking your teachers can sharpen their senses, discover a wealth of information about how their students approach science, and create instruction thatâs individualized and responsive.

Hammer, David; Van Zee, Emily H.

2012-07-29

310

Using spatial principles to optimize distributed computing for enabling the physical science discoveries  

PubMed Central

Contemporary physical science studies rely on the effective analyses of geographically dispersed spatial data and simulations of physical phenomena. Single computers and generic high-end computing are not sufficient to process the data for complex physical science analysis and simulations, which can be successfully supported only through distributed computing, best optimized through the application of spatial principles. Spatial computing, the computing aspect of a spatial cyberinfrastructure, refers to a computing paradigm that utilizes spatial principles to optimize distributed computers to catalyze advancements in the physical sciences. Spatial principles govern the interactions between scientific parameters across space and time by providing the spatial connections and constraints to drive the progression of the phenomena. Therefore, spatial computing studies could better position us to leverage spatial principles in simulating physical phenomena and, by extension, advance the physical sciences. Using geospatial science as an example, this paper illustrates through three research examples how spatial computing could (i) enable data intensive science with efficient data/services search, access, and utilization, (ii) facilitate physical science studies with enabling high-performance computing capabilities, and (iii) empower scientists with multidimensional visualization tools to understand observations and simulations. The research examples demonstrate that spatial computing is of critical importance to design computing methods to catalyze physical science studies with better data access, phenomena simulation, and analytical visualization. We envision that spatial computing will become a core technology that drives fundamental physical science advancements in the 21st century.

Yang, Chaowei; Wu, Huayi; Huang, Qunying; Li, Zhenlong; Li, Jing

2011-01-01

311

Challenges in astrophysics (Scientific session of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 25 January 2012)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On 25 January 2012, the scientific session of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS), entitled as "Challenges in astrophysics", was held at the conference hall of the Lebedev Physical Institute, RAS.The following reports were put on the session agenda posted on the website www.gpad.ac.ru of the RAS Physical Sciences Division: (1) Stepanov A V (Central (Pulkovo) Astronomical Observatory, RAS, St. Petersburg) "Coronal seismology";2) Yakovlev D G (Ioffe Physical Technical Institute, St. Petersburg St. Petersburg State Polytechnical University, St. Petersburg) "Superfluid neutron stars".The papers written on the base of the oral reports are published below. • Coronal seismology, A V Stepanov, V V Zaitsev, V M Nakariakov Physics-Uspekhi, 2012, Volume 55, Number 9, Pages 929-935 • Superfluid neutron stars, P S Shternin, D G Yakovlev Physics-Uspekhi, 2012, Volume 55, Number 9, Pages 935-941

2012-09-01

312

The assessment of critical thinking skills in anatomy and physiology students who practice writing higher order multiple choice questions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Critical thinking is a complex abstraction that defies homogeneous interpretation. This means that no operational definition is universal and no critical thinking measurement tool is all encompassing. Instructors will likely find evidence based strategies to facilitate thinking skills only as numerous research efforts from multiple disciplines accumulate. This study focuses on a question writing exercise designed to help anatomy and physiology students. Students were asked to design multiple choice questions that combined course concepts in new and novel ways. Instructions and examples were provided on how to construct these questions and student attempts were sorted into levels one through three of Bloom's Cognitive Taxonomy (Bloom et al. 1956). Students submitted their question designs weekly and received individual feedback as to how they might improve. Eight course examinations were created to contain questions that modeled the Bloom's Cognitive Taxonomy levels that students were attempting. Students were assessed on their course examination performance as well as performance on a discipline independent critical thinking test called the California Critical Thinking Skills Test (CCTST). The performance of students in this study was compared to students from two previous years that took the same course but did not have the question writing activity. Results suggest that students do not improve their ability to answer critical thinking multiple choices questions when they practice the task of creating such problems. The effect of class level on critical thinking is examined and it appears that the longer a student has attended college the better the performance on both discipline specific and discipline independent critical thinking questions. The data were also used to analyze students who improved their course examination grades in the second semester of this course. There is a pattern to suggest that students who improve their performance on course examinations did so largely in non-critical thinking problems. Although, when this subset of students is analyzed by class level it appears that sophomores reverse the pattern and improve much more in critical thinking type questions than their upper classmen. The implications of this are discussed.

Shaw, Jason

313

(re)producing Good Science Students: Girls' Participation in High School Physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this ethnographic study, the author describes the meanings of science and science student in a physics classroom in an upper-middle-class high school and the ways girls participated within these meanings. The classroom practices reproduced prototypical meanings of science (as authoritative) and science student (as "dutiful"). The results highlight girls' embrace of prototypical school science. Yet at the end of the school year, the girls did not consider themselves "science people," nor did they want to pursue physics further. The author's interpretation of these results takes seriously girls' agency in producing the meaning of the physics class (as a way to polish one's transcript) and draws attention to the promoted identities (prototypical good student identities) in the classroom. The author argues that students' agency in resisting or accepting the practices, identities, and knowledge of school science is worth understanding for the improvement of science education.

Carlone, Heidi B.

314

Views about Science and Physics Achievement: The VASS Story.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Views About Sciences Survey (VASS) is a survey of student views about knowing and learning science for the purpose of assessing the relation of these views to achievement in science courses. This paper discusses the survey's design, development, results, and implications for science education. The survey assesses student views along two broad…

Halloun, Ibrahim

315

The cultural production of science in reform-based physics: Girls' access, participation, and resistance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent literature in science education suggests that, to transform girls' participation, learning, and identities within school science, we must think about ways to engage girls in different kinds of educational activities that promote broader meanings of science and scientist. This study was designed to examine more deeply this call for a changed science curriculum and its implications for girls' participation, interest, and emerging science identities. In this ethnographic study, I examine the culturally produced meanings of science and scientist in a reform-based physics classroom that used a curriculum called Active Physics, how these meanings reproduced and contested larger sociohistorical (and prototypical) meanings of science and scientist, and the ways girls participated within and against these meanings. The girls in this upper middle class school were mostly concerned with accessing and maintaining a good student identity (rather than connecting to science in any meaningful way) and resisted promoted meanings of science and scientist that they perceived as threatening to their good student identities. Their embrace of the ways school defined success (via grades and college admission) produced a meaning of Active Physics as a way to get credentials on a transcript and ensured their disconnection from real-world, meaningful science and science identities. The story of girls' participation and resistance in Active Physics complicates our quest for gender-fair science and highlights the power of sociohistorical meanings of schooling and science in producing educational subjects.

Carlone, Heidi B.

2004-04-01

316

Statistical Modelling of Multiple-Choice and True/False Tests: Ways of Considering, and of Reducing, the Uncertainties Attributable To Guessing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses statistical procedures for increasing test unreliability due to guessing in multiple choice and true/false tests. Proposes two new measures of test unreliability: one concerned with resolution of defined levels of knowledge and the other with the probability of examinees being incorrectly ranked. Both models are based on the binomial…

Burton, Richard F.; Miller, David J.

1999-01-01

317

The Empirical Power and Type I Error Rates of the GBT and [omega] Indices in Detecting Answer Copying on Multiple-Choice Tests  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The generalized binomial test (GBT) and [omega] indices are the most recent methods suggested in the literature to detect answer copying behavior on multiple-choice tests. The [omega] index is one of the most studied indices, but there has not yet been a systematic simulation study for the GBT index. In addition, the effect of the ability levels…

Zopluoglu, Cengiz; Davenport, Ernest C., Jr.

2012-01-01

318

Beyond the Bubble, Grades 2-3: How to Use Multiple-Choice Tests to Improve Math Instruction, Grades 2-3  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Multiple-choice testing is an educational reality. Rather than complain about the negative impact these tests may have on teaching and learning, why not use them to better understand your students' true mathematical knowledge and comprehension? Maryann Wickett and Eunice Hendrix-Martin show teachers how to move beyond the student's answer--right…

Wickett, Maryann; Hendrix-Martin, Eunice

2011-01-01

319

How Are the Form and Magnitude of DIF Effects in Multiple-Choice Items Determined by Distractor-Level Invariance Effects?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores how the magnitude and form of differential item functioning (DIF) effects in multiple-choice items are determined by the underlying differential distractor functioning (DDF) effects, as modeled under the nominal response model. The results of a numerical investigation indicated that (a) the presence of one or more nonzero DDF…

Penfield, Randall D.

2011-01-01

320

The Validity of Pre-Calculus Multiple Choice and Performance-Based Testing as a Predictor of Undergraduate Mathematics and Chemistry Achievement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There has been concern over the validity of the Algebra Diagnostic Test (ADT) used to determine the actual level of student preparation for the first quarter of calculus as taught at the University of California, Santa Barbara. It has been hypothesized that performance-based questions, along with the more traditional multiple choice questions,…

Fisher, Gwen Laura

321

Using IRT To Combine Multiple-Choice and Free-Response Sections of a Test onto a Common Scale Using A Priori Weights.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Free-response (FR) item formats, such as essay questions, are popular in educational assessment. The criticisms against FR items are that they are more expensive to score, take up more testing time, provide less content coverage, and are less reliable than multiple-choice (MC) items. For these reasons, FR items are often combined with MC items.…

Lukhele, Robert; Sireci, Stephen G.

322

Comment on Effect Size Estimation for One-Sample Multiple-Choice-Type Data: Design, Analysis, and Meta-Analysis by Rosenthal and Rubin (1989)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rosenthal and Rubin proposed a measure of effect size for multiple-choice data that adjusts for differences in percentage correct due to different numbers of response alternatives. The adjustment is based on a logit model. Under an alternative simple guessing model, the appropriate adjustment can differ considerably, and the 2 models lead to radically different prescriptions for study design. Adoption of

Juliet Popper Shaffer

1991-01-01

323

Effects of Writing-Related Contingencies on Both Quality of Writing and Multiple-Choice Exam Performance in Large College Courses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students (N = 158) in three sections of an undergraduate educational psychology course equivalent in content and assessment procedures completed five-min writing quizzes over assigned subject matter at the beginning of most class sessions. The study compared the effects of three separate writing contingencies on writing scores and multiple-choice

Krohn, Katherine R.; Parker, Megan R.; Foster, Lisa N.; Aspiranti, Kathleen B.; McCleary, Daniel F.; Williams, Robert L.

2008-01-01

324

Measuring the Consistency in Change in Hepatitis B Knowledge among Three Different Types of Tests: True/False, Multiple Choice, and Fill in the Blanks Tests.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The recall of information about Hepatitis B demonstrated by 180 seventh graders was tested with three test types: (1) short-answer; (2) true/false; and (3) multiple-choice. Short answer testing was the most reliable. Suggestions are made for the use of short-answer tests in evaluating student knowledge. (SLD)

Sahai, Vic; Demeyere, Petra; Poirier, Sheila; Piro, Felice

1998-01-01

325

Using a Theorem by Andersen and the Dichotomous Rasch Model to Assess the Presence of Random Guessing in Multiple Choice Items  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Andersen (1995, 2002) proves a theorem relating variances of parameter estimates from samples and subsamples and shows its use as an adjunct to standard statistical analyses. The authors show an application where the theorem is central to the hypothesis tested, namely, whether random guessing to multiple choice items affects their estimates in the…

Andrich, David; Marais, Ida; Humphry, Stephen

2012-01-01

326

A Clarification of the Effects of Rapid Guessing on Coefficient [Alpha]: A Note on Attali's "Reliability of Speeded Number-Right Multiple-Choice Tests"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Attali (2005) recently demonstrated that Cronbach's coefficient [alpha] estimate of reliability for number-right multiple-choice tests will tend to be deflated by speededness, rather than inflated as is commonly believed and taught. Although the methods, findings, and conclusions of Attali (2005) are correct, his article may inadvertently invite a…

Wise, Steven L.; DeMars, Christine E.

2009-01-01

327

A Comparison of the Performance on Three Multiple Choice Question Papers in Obstetrics and Gynecology Over a Period of Three Years Administered at Five London Medical Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Five of the medical schools in the University of London collaborated in administering one multiple choice question paper in obstetrics and gynecology, and results showed differences in performance between the five schools on questions and alternatives within questions. The rank order of the schools may result from differences in teaching methods.…

Stevens, J. M.; And Others

1977-01-01

328

Spatial multiple-choice matching in a harbour seal (Phoca vitulina): differential encoding of landscape versus local feature information?  

PubMed

The nature of spatial information used for memorizing and recalling places is largely unclear. Earlier studies tested integration of geometric and feature information mostly during reorientation in artificial environments without including time as a memory-critical component. Here, we tested a harbour seal in a delayed matching-to-sample task (DMTS) in a familiar environment under two spatial multiple-choice conditions. The feature condition consisted of a DMTS task with four comparison stimuli presented on fixed positions in a classic matching apparatus and was designed to make stimulus features the most prominent information. The landscape condition consisted of a DMTS task in a familiar environment with four places marked by comparison stimuli and allowed the use of all available spatial information including geometrical and feature information. The seal's performance was impaired by delays of 3, 6, 9 or 12 s only in the feature condition; a delay of 12 s resulted in chance level performance. Replacing the comparison stimuli at the apparatus with identical spheres resulted in impaired performance. Performance in the landscape condition was impaired neither by delays nor by replacing comparison stimuli with spheres. Landscape information obviously was encoded redundantly and could be recalled more reliably and longer than feature information, which reveals feature information to be a less valuable type of spatial information for memorizing and recalling places. PMID:17377825

Mauck, Björn; Dehnhardt, Guido

2007-10-01

329

A comparative analysis of multiple-choice and student performance-task assessment in the high school biology classroom  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study compared the performance of high school students on laboratory assessments. Thirty-four high school students who were enrolled in the second semester of a regular biology class or had completed the biology course the previous semester participated in this study. They were randomly assigned to examinations of two formats, performance-task and traditional multiple-choice, from two content areas, using a compound light microscope and diffusion. Students were directed to think-aloud as they performed the assessments. Additional verbal data were obtained during interviews following the assessment. The tape-recorded narrative data were analyzed for type and diversity of knowledge and skill categories, and percentage of in-depth processing demonstrated. While overall mean scores on the assessments were low, elicited statements provided additional insight into student cognition. Results indicated that a greater diversity of knowledge and skill categories was elicited by the two microscope assessments and by the two performance-task assessments. In addition, statements demonstrating in-depth processing were coded most frequently in narratives elicited during clinical interviews following the diffusion performance-task assessment. This study calls for individual teachers to design authentic assessment practices and apply them to daily classroom routines. Authentic assessment should be an integral part of the learning process and not merely an end result. In addition, teachers are encouraged to explicitly identify and model, through think-aloud methods, desired cognitive behaviors in the classroom.

Cushing, Patrick Ryan

330

Comparing delay discounting rates when using the fill-in-the-blank and multiple-choice methods.  

PubMed

Several methods have been devised to measure delay discounting. The present study recruited university students to complete a delay-discounting task involving five different outcomes (finding a dating partner, free cigarettes, winning $100,000, being owed $100,000, and obtaining one's ideal body image) that was administered using either the fill-in-the blank (FITB) or multiple-choice (MC) method. Results showed that the different administration methods sometimes produced significantly different rates of discounting, the direction of which differed by outcome. Hyperbolic discounting and the area under the discounting curve were nearly always significantly correlated when the FITB method was used but were never significantly correlated when the MC method was used. Discounting across the five outcomes produced a two-factor solution when the FITB data were factor analyzed. The MC data were described by a one-factor solution. The present results illustrate that procedural variables have a potentially profound impact on delay-discounting data, and generalizing from studies on delay discounting should be done with caution until those variables are fully understood. PMID:24836568

Weatherly, Jeffrey N; Derenne, Adam

2011-01-01

331

The Social Attribution Task-Multiple Choice (SAT-MC): A Psychometric and Equivalence Study of an Alternate Form  

PubMed Central

The Social Attribution Task-Multiple Choice (SAT-MC) uses a 64-second video of geometric shapes set in motion to portray themes of social relatedness and intentions. Considered a test of “Theory of Mind,” the SAT-MC assesses implicit social attribution formation while reducing verbal and basic cognitive demands required of other common measures. We present a comparability analysis of the SAT-MC and the new SAT-MC-II, an alternate form created for repeat testing, in a university sample (n = 92). Score distributions and patterns of association with external validation measures were nearly identical between the two forms, with convergent and discriminant validity supported by association with affect recognition ability and lack of association with basic visual reasoning. Internal consistency of the SAT-MC-II was superior (alpha = .81) to the SAT-MC (alpha = .56). Results support the use of SAT-MC and new SAT-MC-II as equivalent test forms. Demonstrating relatively higher association to social cognitive than basic cognitive abilities, the SAT-MC may provide enhanced sensitivity as an outcome measure of social cognitive intervention trials.

Johannesen, Jason K.; Lurie, Jessica B.; Fiszdon, Joanna M.; Bell, Morris D.

2013-01-01

332

General Multiple Choice Quiz.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Program specifics, problems, modification, and use of a general quiz program that can be utilized by teachers with essentially no programing experience are described. A printout of the program is included. Written in BASIC for the TRS-80 I/II, it can be adapted to any computer. (MBR)

Watson, James, Jr.

1983-01-01

333

The material co-construction of hard science fiction and physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article explores the relationship between hard science fiction and physics and a gendered culture of science. Empirical studies indicate that science fiction references might spur some students' interest in physics and help develop this interest throughout school, into a university education and even further later inspire the practice of doing science. There are many kinds of fiction within the science fiction genre. In the presented empirical exploration physics students seem particularly fond of what is called `hard science fiction': a particular type of science fiction dealing with technological developments (Hartwell and Cramer in The hard SF renaissance, Orb/TOR, New York, 2002). Especially hard science fiction as a motivating fantasy may, however, also come with a gender bias. The locally materialized techno-fantasies spurring dreams of the terraforming of planets like Mars and travels in time and space may not be shared by all physics students. Especially female students express a need for other concerns in science. The entanglement of physics with hard science fiction may thus help develop some students' interest in learning school physics and help create an interest for studying physics at university level. But research indicates that especially female students are not captured by the hard techno-fantasies to the same extent as some of their male colleagues. Other visions (e.g. inspired by soft science fiction) are not materialized as a resource in the local educational culture. It calls for an argument of how teaching science is also teaching cultural values, ethics and concerns, which may be gendered. Teaching materials, like the use of hard science fiction in education, may not just be (yet another) gender bias in science education but also carrier of particular visions for scientific endeavours.

Hasse, Cathrine

2014-02-01

334

The Nobel Prize in the Physics Class: Science, History, and Glamour  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper introduces a novel strategy for teaching physics: using the Nobel Physics Prize as an organizational theme for high school or even first year university physics, bringing together history, social contexts of science, and central themes in modern physics. The idea underlying the strategy is that the glamour and glitter of the Nobel Prize…

Eshach, Haim

2009-01-01

335

The Status of Physics 12 in BC: Reflections from UBC Science Teacher Candidates.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As part of attempts to find out why few high school science students take Physics 12, this case study sought University of British Columbia (UBC) science teacher educators' perspectives on the topic. A survey method employing questionnaires and interviews as part of the study was used to elicit science teacher candidates' perspectives. Forty-five…

Nashon, Samson Madera

336

Annual Report of the Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Resources.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report highlights and presents examples of the Commission on Physical Science, Mathematics, and Resources' (CPSMR) recent activities and future plans. Selected programs and activities from the 224 boards and committees that operate within CPSMR are reviewed. These range from studies of basic science to examinations of applied science and…

National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Resources.

337

Exploring Science Curriculum Emphases in Relation to the Alberta Physics Program-of-Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using Roberts' (1982, 1988, 1995, 1998, 2003) seven science curriculum emphases as its framework, this investigation into Alberta's physics program-of-study found that pre-service and novice teachers reported focusing on four of the emphases--"Structure of Science"; "Scientific Skill Development"; "Science, Technology, and Decisions"; and "Correct…

Chu, Man-Wai

2012-01-01

338

Preparing future science teachers: the physics component of a new programme  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A programme that prepares school science and mathematics teachers has been created through the efforts of the science and education faculty of Kansas State University. The programme includes close connections between the students' science courses, their experiences in the schools and learning how to teach. This article describes the physics component.

Zollman, Dean A.

2007-03-08

339

Measurement in Physical Education and Exercise Science (MPEES): Accomplishments and Challenges  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This year marks the 10th year of publication for "Measurement in Physical Education and Exercise Science" (MPEES). As we are forging into future, it would be very helpful to evaluate the role MPEES has played in the evolution of the research in physical education and exercise science. In this issue, the authors address the challenges that MPEES…

Liu, Yuanlong

2007-01-01

340

Relation between Classroom Climate and Achievement in Physical Science of Secondary School Pupils  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study estimates the extent of relationship between "Achievement in Physical Science" and "Classroom Climate" for the total sample and Sub sample based on gender. The tools used for collecting the data are scale of classroom climate and achievement test in physical science. The study reveals that boys show indifferent or negligible but…

R., Smitha; Sajan, K. S.

2010-01-01

341

What Attracts High-Achieving Socioeconomically Disadvantaged Students to the Physical Sciences and Engineering?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Socioeconomically disadvantaged (SED) students are less likely to major in physical sciences or engineering. To guide recruitment and retention of a diversity of talent, this study examined what attracts high-achieving SED students to these fields. Participants were 50 undergraduates majoring in physical sciences or engineering enrolled in the…

Conrad, Sarah; Canetto, Silvia Sara; MacPhee, David; Farro, Samantha

2009-01-01

342

Longitudinal effects of college type and selectivity on degrees conferred upon undergraduate females in physical science, life science, math and computer science, and social science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There has been much research to suggest that a single-sex college experience for female undergraduate students can increase self-confidence and leadership ability during the college years and beyond. The results of previous studies also suggest that these students achieve in the workforce and enter graduate school at higher rates than their female peers graduating from coeducational institutions. However, some researchers have questioned these findings, suggesting that it is the selectivity level of the colleges rather than the comprised gender of the students that causes these differences. The purpose of this study was to justify the continuation of single-sex educational opportunities for females at the post-secondary level by examining the effects that college selectivity, college type, and time have on the rate of undergraduate females pursuing majors in non-traditional fields. The study examined the percentage of physical science, life science, math and computer science, and social science degrees conferred upon females graduating from women's colleges from 1985-2001, as compared to those at comparable coeducational colleges. Sampling for this study consisted of 42 liberal arts women's (n = 21) and coeducational (n = 21) colleges. Variables included the type of college, the selectivity level of the college, and the effect of time on the percentage of female graduates. Doubly multivariate repeated measures analysis of variance testing revealed significant main effects for college selectivity on social science graduates, and time on both life science and math and computer science graduates. Significant interaction was also found between the college type and time on social science graduates, as well as the college type, selectivity level, and time on math and computer science graduates. Implications of the results and suggestions for further research are discussed.

Stevens, Stacy Mckimm

343

Physics Myth Busting: A Lab-Centered Course for Non-Science Students  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is ongoing interest in how and what we teach in physics courses for non-science students, so-called ``physics for poets'' courses. Art Hobson has effectively argued that teaching science literacy should be a key ingredient in these courses.1 Hobson uses Jon Millers definition of science literacy, which has two components: first, ``a basic knowledge of key scientific concepts,'' and second, ``an understanding of the process of science.''2 In preparing to teach our course for non-science students, I found that the majority of textbooks and courses focus on the first component. However, I wanted a lab-centered course that would give students hands-on practice doing science. I describe in this article a course I designed and implemented at Wabash College that focused on teaching students ``the process of science.'' The course was titled ``Adventures in Physics: Mythbusters'' and was based loosely on the popular Discovery Channel show ``MythBusters.''3

Madsen, Martin John

2011-10-01

344

Creation Science: A Challenge in the Physics Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses incidents of brush-ins with student proponents of the theory of creation science. Provides and answers eight questions typical of both the misinformation spread in creation science literature and the lack of research done by students. (MVL)

Kessler, Gary

1993-01-01

345

Solar and Space Physics: A Science for a Technological Society.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Strategic planning activities within NASAs Science Mission Directorate (SMD) and several National Science Foundation (NSF) divisions draw heavily on reports issued by the National Research Council (NRC), particularly those from the Space Studies Board (SS...

2013-01-01

346

Sex, Class, and Physical Science Educational Attainment: Portions due to Achievement Versus Recruitment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nationally representative data from the National Education Longitudinal Study are used to investigate why males (rather than females) and children of parents with advanced degrees (rather than those from less-educated parents) are more highly represented among physical science bachelor's degrees and graduate students. Parental education is measured by three categories: neither parent has a bachelor's degree, at least one parent has a bachelor's degree, or at least one parent has a degree beyond the bachelor's. Physical science is defined as students majoring in physics, engineering, mathematics, or computer science. The effects of mathematics achievement and effects not accounted for by mathematics achievement (what the authors call "recruitment" effects) are isolated for parental education categories and for sex, allowing inequality in physical science degree attainment to be decomposed into portions due to achievement and portions due to recruitment. Additionally, the results from logistic regressions predicting the attainment of a bachelor's degree in physical science as well as the pursuit of a graduate degree in physical science are presented. It is found that for parental education categories, the gaps in physical science educational attainment are nearly entirely accounted for by differences in mathematics achievement, suggesting that if achievement could be equalized, physical science educational attainment differences among parental education categories would disappear. However, the sex gap in physical science educational attainment operates almost entirely independent of achievement effects, suggesting that if the mathematics achievement distributions of males and females were identical, the sex gap in physical science educational attainment would be unchanged from what it is today.

Simon, Richard M.; Farkas, George

347

Physical Sciences Program area: 1987 research status report. Annual summary report  

SciTech Connect

The 1987 annual summary of the research funded and managed by GRI's Physical Sciences Department discusses the status of ongoing and planned activities in thirteen research areas grouped according to the elements of GRI's mission: Gas Supply Options (Gasification Chemistry, Geosciences, and Biological Sciences); End Use (Combustion, Heat and Mass Transfer Science, Electrochemistry, High Temperature Materials, Methane Reaction Science, and Bioengineering Sciences); Operations (Piping Materials Research and Gas Flow Research); Fundamental Sciences (Properties Research); and Exploratory Research (Exploratory Concepts). Presented are objectives and goals, accomplishments, strategy and basis for each project area, and a status review sheet for projects within the project area.

Not Available

1987-07-01

348

Exploring what contributes to the knowledge development of secondary physics and physical science teachers in a continuous professional development context  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation used qualitative methodologies, specifically phenomenological research, to investigate what contributes to the development of pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) of physics and physical science teachers who participate in a content-specific continuous professional development program. There were five participants in this study. The researcher conducted participant observations and interviews, rated participants degree of reformed teaching practices using the Reformed Teaching Observation Protocol, surveyed participants' self-efficacy beliefs using the Science Teacher Efficacy Belief Instrument "A," and rated participants'' level of PCK using the PCK Rubrics.. All data were analyzed, and a composite description of what contributes to physics and physical science teachers' PCK development through a continuous professional development program emerged. A theory also emerged from the participants' experiences pertaining to how teachers' assimilate new conditions into their existing teaching schema, how conditions change teachers' perceptions of their practice, and outcomes of teachers' new ideas towards their practice. This study contributed to the literature by suggesting emergent themes and a theory on the development of physics and physical science teachers' PCK. PCK development is theorized to be a spiral process incorporating new conditions into the spiral as teachers employ new science content knowledge and pedagogical practices in their individual classroom contexts.

Nelms, April Wagnon

349

Factors that affect the physical science career interest of female students: Testing five common hypotheses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are many hypotheses regarding factors that may encourage female students to pursue careers in the physical sciences. Using multivariate matching methods on national data drawn from the Persistence Research in Science and Engineering (PRiSE) project (n=7505), we test the following five commonly held beliefs regarding what factors might impact females’ physical science career interest: (i) having a single-sex physics class, (ii) having a female physics teacher, (iii) having female scientist guest speakers in physics class, (iv) discussing the work of female scientists in physics class, and (v) discussing the underrepresentation of women in physics class. The effect of these experiences on physical science career interest is compared for female students who are matched on several factors, including prior science interests, prior mathematics interests, grades in science, grades in mathematics, and years of enrollment in high school physics. No significant effects are found for single-sex classes, female teachers, female scientist guest speakers, and discussing the work of female scientists. However, discussions about women’s underrepresentation have a significant positive effect.

Hazari, Zahra; Potvin, Geoff; Lock, Robynne M.; Lung, Florin; Sonnert, Gerhard; Sadler, Philip M.

2013-12-01

350

Development and evaluation of large-enrollment, active-learning physical science curriculum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on the initial field tests of Learning Physical Science (LEPS), a new curriculum adapted from Physical Science and Everyday Thinking (PSET). PSET is an inquiry-based, hands-on, physical science curriculum that includes an explicit focus on nature of science and nature of learning. PSET was developed for small enrollment discussion/lab settings. The Learning Physical Science (LEPS) curriculum maintains the same research-based learning principles as PSET but is suitable for classes taught in lecture format. LEPS has been field tested by eight instructors at different universities. In this paper, we describe the adaptation process, the resulting LEPS curriculum, and present student learning outcomes for LEPS and PSET.

Goldberg, Fred; Price, Edward; Harlow, Danielle; Robinson, Steve; Kruse, Rebecca; McKean, Michael

2010-10-01

351

Effectiveness of Ninth-Grade Physics in Maine: Conceptual Understanding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Physics First movement-teaching a true physics course to ninth-grade students-is gaining popularity in high schools. There are several different rhetorical arguments for and against this movement, and it is quite controversial in physics education. However, there is no actual evidence to assess the success, or failure, of this substantial shift in the science teaching sequence. We have undertaken a comparison study of physics classes taught in ninth- and 12th-grade classes in Maine. Comparisons of student understanding and gains with respect to mechanics concepts were made with excerpts from well-known multiple-choice surveys and individual student interviews. Results indicate that both populations begin physics courses with similar content knowledge and specific difficulties, but when learning concepts, ninth-graders are more sensitive to the instructional method used.

O'Brien, Michael J.; Thompson, John R.

2009-04-01

352

Physics, Computer Science and Mathematics Division. Annual report, 1 January--31 December 1977. [LBL, 1977  

SciTech Connect

This annual report of the Physics, Computer Science and Mathematics Division describes the scientific research and other work carried out within the Division during 1977. The Division is concerned with work in experimental and theoretical physics, with computer science and applied mathematics, and with the operation of a computer center. The major physics research activity is in high-energy physics, although there is a relatively small program of medium-energy research. The High Energy Physics research program in the Physics Division is concerned with fundamental research which will enable man to comprehend the nature of the physical world. The major effort is now directed toward experiments with positron-electron colliding beam at PEP. The Medium Energy Physics program is concerned with research using mesons and nucleons to probe the properties of matter. This research is concerned with the study of nuclear structure, nuclear reactions, and the interactions between nuclei and electromagnetic radiation and mesons. The Computer Science and Applied Mathematics Department engages in research in a variety of computer science and mathematics disciplines. Work in computer science and applied mathematics includes construction of data bases, computer graphics, computational physics and data analysis, mathematical modeling, and mathematical analysis of differential and integral equations resulting from physical problems. The Computer Center provides large-scale computational support to LBL's scientific programs. Descriptions of the various activities are quite short; references to published results are given. 24 figures. (RWR)

Lepore, J.V. (ed.)

1977-01-01

353

What Goes Well with Physics? Measuring and Altering the Image of Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: In view of the shortage of students majoring in science, we examined the image of physics in terms of students' implicit, automatic associations with physics. Aims: To describe the specific image of physics that might alienate students ("difficulty," "masculinity," "heteronomy") and test an intervention for altering the image.…

Kessels, Ursula; Rau, Melanie; Hannover, Bettina

2006-01-01

354

Collider physics based on e-Science paradigm of experiment-computing-theory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Researches in the 21st century are characterized by e-Science paradigm, which is the data centric analysis as a unified concept of experiment-computing-theory. In this paper the e-Science paradigm has been realized in collider physics by constructing the unified research environment of experiment-theory and theory-computing as well as that of computing-experiment performed at KISTI (Korea Institute of Science and Technology Information). In other words, the fusion concept of collider physics of experiment, computing and theory has been applied. The goal of this approach is to study collider physics anytime, anywhere for more efficient research process. The construction of e-Science paradigm of experiment, computing and theory in collider physics provides us with new research methodology in computational physics.

Cho, Kihyeon; Kim, Junghyun; Nam, Soo-hyeon

2011-09-01

355

Physics 300 Provincial Examination.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document consists of the physics 300 provincial examination (English version), a separate "provincial summary report" on the results of giving the test, and a separate French language version of the examination. This physics examination contains a 53-item multiple choice section and an 12 item free response section. Subsections of the test…

Manitoba Dept. of Education and Training, Winnipeg.

356

Activities in Planetary Geology for the Physical and Earth Sciences.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The activities in this guide deal with concepts in planetary geology, but they can be generalized to illustrate broad problems in the earth sciences. They are designed to supplement or introduce topics usually encountered in earth science courses. The exercises, organized into independent units which can be presented in any order, are appropriate…

D'Alli, Richard, Ed.; Greely, Ronald, Ed.

357

College Students' Opinions of Engaging Approaches in a Physical Science Course  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Physical science courses have historically been taught from a variety of perspectives or emphases. In many cases, the instructor decides on the perspective and textbook for nonscience majors, so students rarely have a voice in the decision. This top-down approach and a potential gap between what instructors and students expect from a general education physical science course partly explain why students tend to see this course as boring and not applicable to their daily lives. In this study, college students weigh in on what emphasis might be more interesting and engaging in a physical science course for nonmajors.

Gonzalez-Espada, Wilson

2009-05-01

358

Factors that encourage females to pursue physical science careers: Testing five common hypotheses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are many hypotheses regarding factors that may encourage female students to pursue careers in the physical sciences. Using Propensity Score Matching (PSM) on national data (n=7505) drawn from the Persistence Research in Science and Engineering (PRiSE) project, we test five commonly held beliefs including having a single-sex physics class, having a female physics teacher, having female scientist guest speakers in physics class, discussing the work of women scientists in physics class, and discussing the under-representation of women in physics class. The effect of these experiences is compared for female students who are matched on several factors, including parental education, prior science/math interests, and academic background, thereby controlling for the effect of many confounding variables.

Hazari, Zahra; Potvin, Geoff; Lock, Robynne M.; Lung, Florin; Sadler, Philip M.; Sonnert, Gerhard

2012-03-01

359

From the history of physics (Scientific session of the General Meeting of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 17 December 2012)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A scientific session of the General Meeting of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS) was held in the conference hall of the Lebedev Physical Institute, RAS on 17 December 2012.The following reports were put on the session's agenda posted on the website http://www.gpad.ac.ru of the RAS Physical Sciences Division: (1) Dianov E M (Fiber Optics Research Center, RAS, Moscow) "On the threshold of a peta era"; (2) Zabrodskii A G (Ioffe Physical Technical Institute, RAS, St. Petersburg) "Scientists' contribution to the great victory in WWII using the example of the Leningrad (now A F Ioffe) Physical Technical Institute"; (3) Ilkaev R I (Russian Federal Nuclear Center --- All-Russian Research Institute of Experimental Physics, Sarov) "Major stages of the Soviet Atomic Project"; (4) Cherepashchuk A M (Sternberg State Astronomical Institute of Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow) "History of the Astronomy history ". Papers written on the basis of the reports are published below. • On the Threshold of Peta-era, E M Dianov Physics-Uspekhi, 2013, Volume 56, Number 5, Pages 486-492 • Scientists' contribution to the Great Victory in WWII on the example of the Leningrad (now A F Ioffe) Physical Technical Institute, A G Zabrodskii Physics-Uspekhi, 2013, Volume 56, Number 5, Pages 493-502 • Major stages of the Atomic Project, R I Ilkaev Physics-Uspekhi, 2013, Volume 56, Number 5, Pages 502-509 • History of the Universe History, A M Cherepashchuk Physics-Uspekhi, 2013, Volume 56, Number 5, Pages 509-530

2013-05-01

360

Language in Science Classrooms: An Analysis of Physics Teachers' Use of and Beliefs About Language  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The world over, secondary school science is viewed mainly as a practical subject. This may be one reason why effectiveness of teaching approaches in science education has often been judged on the kinds of practical activity with which teachers and students engage. In addition to practical work, language—often written (as in science texts) or oral (as in the form of teacher and student talk)—is unavoidable in effective teaching and learning of science. Generally however, the role of (instructional) language in quality of learning of school science has remained out of focus in science education research. This has been in spite of findings in empirical research on difficulties science students encounter with words of the instructional language used in science. The findings have suggested that use of (instructional) language in science texts and classrooms can be a major influence on the level of students' understandings and retention of science concepts. This article reports and discusses findings in an investigation of physics teachers' approaches to use of and their beliefs about classroom instructional language. Direct classroom observations of, interviews with, as well as content analyses of the participant teachers' verbatim classroom talk, were used as the methods of data collection. Evidence is presented of participant physics teachers' lack of explicit awareness of the difficulty, nature, and functional value of different categories of words in the instructional language. In conclusion, the implications of this lack of explicit awareness on the general education (initial and in-service) of school physics teachers are considered.

Oyoo, Samuel Ouma

2012-10-01

361

Diversity in the Physical Science Curriculum: The Intellectual Challenge  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this chapter, the author argues that integrating science with the real and pressing concerns of human beings on this planet is a powerful way to give race, ethnicity, class, and gender a rightful place in our science classrooms. In the process, we create synergism: We draw our students into the world of science as we in turn are drawn into the world and its communities of people. As we do this, we will face intellectual challenges. To meet these challenges, we not only must ask new questions but also must keep reexamining what we ask so that we can better meet the needs of our increasingly diverse students and world.

Middlecamp, Catherine H.

2006-01-01

362

Physics at the proposed National Underground Science Facility  

SciTech Connect

The scientific, technical, and financial reasons for building a National Underground Science Facility are discussed. After reviewing examples of other underground facilities, we focus on the Los Alamos proposal and the national for its choice of site.

Nieto, M.M.

1983-01-01

363

The Nobel Prize in the Physics Class: Science, History, and Glamour  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces a novel strategy for teaching physics: using the Nobel Physics Prize as an organizational theme for\\u000a high school or even first year university physics, bringing together history, social contexts of science, and central themes\\u000a in modern physics. The idea underlying the strategy is that the glamour and glitter of the Nobel Prize story may attract and\\u000a motivate

Haim Eshach

2009-01-01

364

Differences within: A comparative analysis of women in the physical sciences --- Motivation and background factors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education has become a critical focus in the United States due to economic concerns and public policy (National Academy of Sciences, 2007; U.S. Department of Education, 2006). Part of this focus has been an emphasis on encouraging and evaluating career choice and persistence factors among underrepresented groups such as females in the physical sciences (Hill et al., 2010; National Academy of Sciences, 2007). The majority of existing STEM research studies compare women to men, yet a paucity of research exists that examines what differentiates female career choice within the physical sciences. In light of these research trends and recommendations, this study examines the following questions: 1. On average, do females who select chemistry or physics doctoral programs differ in their reported personal motivations and background factors prior to entering the field? 2. Do such variables as racial and ethnic background, age, highest level of education completed by guardians/parents, citizenship status, family interest in science, first interest in general science, first interest in the physical sciences, average grades in high school and undergraduate studies in the physical sciences, and experiences in undergraduate physical science courses explain a significant amount of variance in female physical scientists' years to Ph.D. completion? These questions are analyzed using variables from the Project Crossover Survey dataset through a subset of female physical science doctoral students and scientists. Logistic regression analyses are performed to uncover what differentiates women in the physical sciences based on their background, interest, academic achievement, and experiences ranging prior to elementary school through postsecondary education. Significant variables that positively predict a career choice in chemistry or physics include content specific high school and undergraduate academic achievement and positive undergraduate experiences. Two multiple regression models, one composed of female chemists and one of female physicists, examine significant predictors that positively associated with time to doctoral degree completion. The models account for little differentiation in the outcome of time to doctoral completion. In addition, significant predictors are based on demographic and achievement factors that were not paralleled in the two multiple regressions.

Dabney, Katherine Patricia Traudel

365

Star Trek Physics: Where Does the Science End and the Fiction Begin?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Uses the science fiction television show "Star Trek" as an instructional medium to teach physics concepts. Includes suggestions on how to motivate students through "Star Trek" episodes and the Internet. (YDS)

Radhe, Sue Ellen; Cole, Lynn

2002-01-01

366

Fostering Preservice Teachers' "Nature of Science" Understandings in a Physics Course  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this paper, the authors examine an algebra-based physics course designed for preservice teachers and explore how the course integrated two pedagogical strategies to bridge the gap between inquiry-learning experiences and the teachers' nature of science

Kattoula, Ehsan; Verma, Geeta; Martin-Hansen, Lisa

2009-09-01

367

Tribute to Emil Wolf: Science and Engineering Legacy of Physical Optics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An icon in the world of optics, Emil Wolf laid the foundations of contemporary physical optics by documenting the concept of spatial coherence before lasers were introduced. This powerful concept has influenced many areas of optical science and engineerin...

T. P. Jannson

2004-01-01

368

The Influence of Selected Physical Science Study Committee (PSSC) Films on Certain Learning Outcomes in the Teaching of High School Physics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students whose Physical Science Study Committee (PSSC) physics course was supplemented with the PSSC films did not achieve significantly higher scores on the PSSC Achievement Test or the Test on Understanding Science than students who did not see the films, when intelligence and science background were used as covariates. (AL)

Woodman, Charles A.

1972-01-01

369

Plasmonics (Scientific session of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 21 February 2012)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A scientific session of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS), entitled 'Plasmonics', was held in the Conference Hall of the Lebedev Physical Institute, RAS on 21 February 2012. The following reports were put on the session agenda posted on the website www.gpad.ac.ru of the RAS Physical Sciences Division: (1) Kukushkin I V, Murav'ev V M (Institute of Solid State Physics, RAS, Chernogolovka, Moscow region) "Terahertz plasmonics"; (2) Lozovik Yu E (Institute of Spectroscopy, RAS, Troitsk, Moscow region) "Plasmonics and magnetoplasmonics based on graphene and a topological insulator"; (3) Protsenko I E (P N Lebedev Physical Institute, RAS, Moscow) "Dipole nanolaser"; (4) Vinogradov A P, Andrianov E S, Pukhov A A, Dorofeenko A V (Institute for Theoretical and Applied Electrodynamics, RAS, Moscow), Lisyansky A A (Queens College of the City University of New York, USA) "Quantum plasmonics of metamaterials: loss compensation using spasers"; (5) Klimov V V (Lebedev Physical Institute, RAS, Moscow) "Quantum theory of radiation of optically active molecules in the vicinity of chiral nano-meta-particles". The papers written on the basis of oral reports 2-5 are published below. • Plasmonics and magnetoplasmonics based on graphene and a topological insulator, Yu E Lozovik Physics-Uspekhi, 2012, Volume 55, Number 10, Pages 1035-1039 • Theory of the dipole nanolaser, I E Protsenko Physics-Uspekhi, 2012, Volume 55, Number 10, Pages 1040-1046 • Quantum plasmonics of metamaterials: loss compensation using spasers, A P Vinogradov, E S Andrianov, A A Pukhov, A V Dorofeenko, A A Lisyansky Physics-Uspekhi, 2012, Volume 55, Number 10, Pages 1046-1053 • Using chiral nano-meta-particles to control chiral molecule radiation, V V Klimov, D V Guzatov Physics-Uspekhi, 2012, Volume 55, Number 10, Pages 1054-1058

2012-10-01

370

Influence of experience on intake and feeding behavior of dairy sheep when offered forages from woody plants in a multiple-choice situation.  

PubMed

A satisfactory intake of novel low-quality forages by ruminants may require previous experience with this feed. Therefore, this study tested in sheep whether experience with forages from woody plants had an influence on feed intake, feeding behavior, and nutrient supply when offered in a multiple-choice arrangement. Two sheep experiments were conducted, 1 in Syria (Mediterranean region; Exp. 1) and the other in Switzerland (Central Europe; Exp. 2), that investigated 5 and 6 woody test plants, respectively. In Exp. 1, the test plants were Artemisia herba-alba, Atriplex leucoclada, Haloxylon articulatum, Noaea mucronata, and Salsola vermiculata. In Exp. 2, Betula pendula, Castanea sativa, and Juglans regia were used in addition to A. leucoclada, H. articulatum, and S. vermiculata (the plants most consumed in Exp. 1). In each experiment, 12 lactating sheep (Awassi sheep in Exp. 1 and East Friesian Milk sheep in Exp. 2) were allocated to 2 groups ("experienced" and "naďve"). Experienced sheep subsequently were familiarized with each test plant during a learning period of binary choices (1 test plant vs. barley straw) for 4 h in the morning for 7 d each. The naďve group received only straw. During the rest of the day, a basal diet composed of barley straw (ad libitum) and concentrate was offered to both groups. For the 2 wk following the learning period, the sheep were subjected to feeding of the basal diet to avoid carryover effects of the last offered test plant. In the following multiple-choice period, both groups were allowed to select from all test plants during 4 h in the morning for 14 d. Forage intake after 4 and 24 h and feeding behavior during the first 30 min of the test feeding were assessed. Milk yield and composition were measured at the end of the multiple-choice period. Nutrient intake was calculated using feed intake measurements and compositional analyses. Only in Exp. 2, group differences (P < 0.05) were found on d 1 of the multiple-choice period. The experienced sheep consumed more total forage, straw, OM, NDF, ADF, and ADL (nutrients without concentrate). However, across the entire multiple-choice period, there were no differences (P ? 0.05) in forage and nutrient intake, feeding behavior, and milk yield and composition between the groups in both experiments. This suggests that sheep can quickly adapt to previously unknown woody feeds of varying origin and quality offered as dried supplements. PMID:23989878

Meier, J S; Liesegang, A; Rischkowsky, B; Louhaichi, M; Zaklouta, M; Kreuzer, M; Marquardt, S

2013-10-01

371

A Guide to Federal Funding in the Physical and Mathematical Sciences.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide provides summaries of federal programs in the physical and mathematical sciences of interest to colleges and universities. Programs from the following federal agencies are included: National Science Foundation; Department of Energy; Environmental Protection Agency; Office of Education; Department of Interior; Smithsonian Institution;…

Ficklen, Myra

372

(Dis)Solving the Differences: A Physical Science Lesson Using Universal Design  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Universal design for learning (UDL) holds promise for teachers who are struggling with creating lessons that allow all students access to and engagement with the general science curriculum. In this article, the authors demonstrate how a secondary physical science lesson about solubility and concentration can be designed for diverse learners' needs…

Kurtts, Stephanie A.; Matthews, Catherine E.; Smallwood, Tammy

2009-01-01

373

The Influence of Teachers' Knowledge on Student Learning in Middle School Physical Science Classrooms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the relationship between teacher knowledge and student learning for 9,556 students of 181 middle school physical science teachers. Assessment instruments based on the National Science Education Standards with 20 items in common were administered several times during the school year to both students and their teachers. For items…

Sadler, Philip M.; Sonnert, Gerhard; Coyle, Harold P.; Cook-Smith, Nancy; Miller, Jaimie L.

2013-01-01

374

Persuading Girls to Take Elective Physical Science Courses in High School: Who Are the Credible Communicators?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Identifies communicators whom eighth-grade girls perceive as credible regarding reasons for taking elective physical science courses in high school. Finds that father, woman science teacher, mother, and boy high school student are ranked highly. Attributes associated with the communicators were classified as prestige, trustworthiness, similarity,…

Koballa, Thomas R., Jr.

1988-01-01

375

Challenging traditional assumptions of high school science through the physics and Everyday Thinking Curriculum(TM)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Science education in the U.S. has failed for over a century to bring the experience of scientific induction to classrooms, from elementary science to undergraduate courses. The achievement of American students on international comparisons of science proficiency is unacceptable, and the disparities between groups underrepresented in STEM and others are large and resistant to reform efforts. This study investigated the enactment of a physics curriculum designed upon the inductive method in a high school serving mostly students from groups underrepresented in science. The Physics and Everyday Thinking curriculum was designed to model the central practices of science and to provide opportunities for students to both extract general principles of physics and to develop scientific models from laboratory evidence. The findings of this study suggest that scientific induction is not only a process that is well within the capacity of high school students, but they enjoy it as well. Students that engaged in the central practices of science through the inductive method reported a new sense of agency and control in their learning. These findings suggest that modeling the pedagogy of the science classroom upon the epistemology of science can result in a mode of learning that can lead to positive identification with physics and the development of scientific literacy.

Ross, Michael J.

376

Physical and Chemical Sciences Center: Research briefs. Volume 9-94  

SciTech Connect

As Sandia National Laboratories and the Physical and Chemical Sciences Center develop an increasingly diverse set of customers, research partners, and Cooperative Research and Development Agreements (CRADA`s) with industry, there is a need for providing more concise information describing the technical achievements and capabilities. This publication, Research Briefs, is designed to inform the present and potential partners in research and technology advancement. The research emphasizes semiconductor physics, electronic materials, surface physics and chemistry, plasma and chemical processing sciences, lasers and optics, vision science, ion-solid interactions and defect physics, and advanced materials physics. The specific programs pursued are driven by the research goals which are greatly influenced by interactions with the government and industrial customers.

Vook, F.L.; Samara, G.A. [eds.

1994-12-31

377

Integrating Physics and the Philosophy of Science Through Guided Design  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a "guided design" instructional method utilized to introduce introductory physics students to decision-making processes and the role such processes play in physics. Guided design involves students in making decisions one step at a time in the solution of an open-ended problem, and is applicable to other disciplines. (SL)

Goldberg, Fred M.; D'Amour, Gene

1976-01-01

378

Plasma physics - A frontier in science of matter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper is a tutorial paper on the recent developments of plasma physics. Plasma physics has been systematized through intensive research efforts in various application fields. Recent developments are quite significant and this paper summarizes the important achievements in this field.

Kikuchi, M.

2014-03-01

379

A Survey of Computational Physics: Introductory Computational Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This text presents a broad survey of key topics in computational physics for advanced undergraduates and beginning graduate students, including new discussions of visualization tools, wavelet analysis, molecular dynamics, and computational fluid dynamics. Rubin Landau has taught computational physics for many years, and has been part of HPC outreach efforts for nearly as many.

Landau, Rubin H.

380

Econophysics and evolutionary economics (Scientific session of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 2 November 2010)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The scientific session "Econophysics and evolutionary economics" of the Division of Physical Sciences of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS) took place on 2 November 2010 in the conference hall of the Lebedev Physical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences. The session agenda announced on the website www.gpad.ac.ru of the RAS Physical Sciences Division listed the following reports: (1) Maevsky V I (Institute of Economics, RAS, Moscow) "The transition from simple reproduction to economic growth"; (2) Yudanov A Yu (Financial University of the Government of the Russian Federation, Moscow) "Experimental data on the development of fast-growing innovative companies in Russia"; (3) Pospelov I G (Dorodnitsyn Computation Center, RAS, Moscow) "Why is it sometimes possible to successfully model an economy? (4) Chernyavskii D S (Lebedev Physical Institute, RAS, Moscow) "Theoretical economics"; (5) Romanovskii M Yu (Prokhorov Institute of General Physics, RAS, Moscow) "Nonclassical random walks and the phenomenology of fluctuations of the yield of securities in the securities market"; (6) Dubovikov M M, Starchenko N V (INTRAST Management Company, Moscow Engineering Physics Institute, Moscow) "Fractal analysis of financial time series and the prediction problem"; Papers written on the basis of these reports are published below. • The transition from simple reproduction to economic growth, V I Maevsky, S Yu Malkov Physics-Uspekhi, 2011, Volume 54, Number 7, Pages 729-733 • High-growth firms in Russia: experimental data and prospects for the econophysical simulation of economic modernization, A Yu Yudanov Physics-Uspekhi, 2011, Volume 54, Number 7, Pages 733-737 • Equilibrium models of economics in the period of a global financial crisis, I G Pospelov Physics-Uspekhi, 2011, Volume 54, Number 7, Pages 738-742 • On econophysics and its place in modern theoretical economics, D S Chernavskii, N I Starkov, S Yu Malkov, Yu V Kosse, A V Shcherbakov Physics-Uspekhi, 2011, Volume 54, Number 7, Pages 742-749 • Nonclassical random walks and the phenomenology of fluctuations of securities returns in the stock market, P V Vidov, M Yu Romanovsky Physics-Uspekhi, 2011, Volume 54, Number 7, Pages 749-753 • Econophysics and the fractal analysis of financial time series, M M Dubovikov, N V Starchenko Physics-Uspekhi, 2011, Volume 54, Number 7, Pages 754-761

2011-07-01

381

Integrating nature of science instruction into a physical science content course for preservice elementary teachers: NOS views of teaching assistants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Teacher education programs have met with limited success in improving teachers' understanding of the nature of science (NOS). Research suggests that such efforts could be enhanced by addressing NOS in preservice teachers' science courses. We planned NOS instruction in a physical science content course for preservice elementary teachers. Our first concern was the NOS views of the instructors for the course, which included undergraduate teaching assistants (UTAs). We examined the NOS views of nine UTAs, and the impact of job-embedded professional development on their views. Although initially UTAs held a number of views inconsistent with science education reforms, four modes of explicit-and-reflective interventions, including analysis of NOS views of preservice teachers, resulted in favorable changes in UTAs' views.

Hanuscin, Deborah L.; Akerson, Valarie L.; Phillipson-Mower, Teddie

2006-09-01

382

Hands On Physical Science Activities for Middle Schools. First Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book was written on the premise that learning science should be fun and rewarding. The teacher may use it as the foundation for an extended middle school curriculum spanning more than one year or to supplement an existing curriculum with individual sections or exercises from the book. The activities have been organized and designed in a…

Levy, Salvator S.

383

Cloud physics laboratory project science and applications working group  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The conditions of the expansion chamber under zero gravity environment were simulated. The following three branches of fluid mechanics simulation under low gravity environment were accomplished: (1) oscillation of the water droplet which characterizes the nuclear oscillation in nuclear physics, bubble oscillation of two phase flow in chemical engineering, and water drop oscillation in meteorology; (2) rotation of the droplet which characterizes nuclear fission in nuclear physics, formation of binary stars and rotating stars in astrophysics, and breakup of the water droplet in meteorology; and (3) collision and coalescence of the water droplets which characterizes nuclear fusion in nuclear physics and processes of rain formation in meteorology.

Hung, R. J.

1977-01-01

384

Integrating Geology and Physics To Enhance Science Learning Experience of Students and Serve the Community.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggests an integrated approach to make science teaching and learning more effective, interesting and motivating to students. Argues that team teaching by physics and geology departments enables students to learn concepts and principles of physics and apply them to solve geological problems facing the local community. Reports that a typical…

Revetta, Frank A.; Das, Biman

2002-01-01

385

Learning Activity Package, Physical Science. LAP Numbers 1, 2, 3, and 4.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These four units of the Learning Activity Packages (LAPs) for individualized instruction in physical science cover measuring techniques, operations of instruments, metric system heat, matter, energy, elements, atomic numbers, isotopes, molecules, mixtures, compounds, physical and chemical properties, liquids, solids, and gases. Each unit contains…

Williams, G. J.

386

Calculating and Understanding: Formal Models and Causal Explanations in Science, Common Reasoning and Physics Teaching  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents an analysis of the different types of reasoning and physical explanation used in science, common thought, and physics teaching. It then reflects on the learning difficulties connected with these various approaches, and suggests some possible didactic strategies. Although causal reasoning occurs very frequently in common thought…

Besson, Ugo

2010-01-01

387

Information Literacy of Physical Science Graduate Students in the Information Age  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reports on findings from a survey exploring the information literacy of physical science graduate students. The study also describes the graduate studentsí perceptions of the physical and psychological components that enhance or detract from their ability to find, appraise, and use information and how they feel during the various stages of an information search. This snapshot investigation illustrates

Cecelia M. Brown

388

Unfolding the Labyrinth: Open Problems in Mathematics, Physics, Astrophysics, and Other Areas of Science  

Microsoft Academic Search

Throughout this book, we discuss some open problems in various branches of science, including mathematics, theoretical physics, astro-physics, geophysics etc. It is of our hope that some of the problems discussed in this book will find their place either in theoretical exploration or further experiments, while some parts of these problems may be found useful for scholarly stimulation. The present

Florentin Smarandache; V. Christianto; Fu Yuhua; R. Khrapko; J. Hutchison

2006-01-01

389

Developing a Framework for Critical Science Agency through Case Study in a Conceptual Physics Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this manuscript we examine how two students develop and express agency in and through high school physics. We tell the stories of two youth from a low-income, urban community to elucidate the important components of critical science agency in a physics context, and to situate a set of claims about how youth develop and express this concept.…

Basu, Sreyashi Jhumki; Barton, Angela Calabrese; Clairmont, Neil; Locke, Donya

2009-01-01

390

Developing an Inquiry-Based Physical Science Course For Preservice Elementary Teachers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Preservice elementary teachers should experience science through inquiry in order to be effective in teaching science. In addition, inquiry as a mode of teaching is mandated by Kansas and National Science Education Standards. As a result of the No Child Left Behind Act, teachers also need to be prepared to include basic skills in reading and mathematics in all instruction. To address these issues, Fort Hays State University (FHSU) is adapting and extending the NSF-developed teacher enhancement materials Operation Primary Physical Science (OPPS) for use in a physical science course for preservice elementary teachers. This paper presents main features of OPPS, describes advantages of using it as a template in developing desired course material and discusses results collected with students enrolled in the adapted course during 2004/2005 academic year.

Hrepic, Zdeslav; Adams, Paul; Zeller, Jason; Talbott, Nancy; Taggart, Germaine; Young, Lanee

2009-07-13

391

Developing an Inquiry-Based Physical Science Course For Preservice Elementary Teachers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Preservice elementary teachers should experience science through inquiry in order to be effective in teaching science. In addition, inquiry as a mode of teaching is mandated by Kansas and National Science Education Standards. As a result of the No Child Left Behind Act, teachers also need to be prepared to include basic skills in reading and mathematics in all instruction. To address these issues, Fort Hays State University (FHSU) is adapting and extending the NSF-developed teacher enhancement materials Operation Primary Physical Science (OPPS) for use in a physical science course for preservice elementary teachers. This paper presents main features of OPPS, describes advantages of using it as a template in developing desired course material and discusses results collected with students enrolled in the adapted course during 2004/2005 academic year.

Hrepic, Zdeslav; Adams, Paul; Zeller, Jason; Talbott, Nancy; Taggart, Germaine; Young, Lanee

2006-02-01

392

Science Sampler: Enhancing student understanding of physical and chemical changes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students within the Findlay, Ohio, City School District, as well as students across the country, struggle with understanding physical and chemical changes. Therefore, in this article, the authors suggest some standards-based activities to clarify misconce

Mcintosh, Julie; Suter, Robert; White, Sandra

2009-10-01

393

NASA GSFC Science Symposium on Atomic and Molecular Physics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This document is the proceedings of a conference on atomic and molecular physics in honor of the retirements of Dr. Aaron Temkin and Dr. Richard Drachman. The conference contained discussions on electron, positron, atomic, and positronium physics, as well as a discussion on muon catalyzed fusion. This proceedings document also contains photographs taken at the symposium, as well as speeches and a short biography made in tribute to the retirees.

Bhatia, Anand K. (Editor)

2007-01-01

394

Chemical energy in an introductory physics course for the life sciences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Energy is a complex idea that cuts across scientific disciplines. An approach to energy that incorporates chemical bonds and chemical reactions is better equipped to meet the needs of life sciences students than a traditional introductory physics approach that focuses primarily on mechanical energy. We present a curricular sequence, or thread, designed to build up students' understanding of chemical energy in an introductory physics course for the life sciences. This thread is designed to connect ideas about energy from physics, biology, and chemistry. We describe the kinds of connections among energy concepts that we develop to build interdisciplinary coherence and present some examples of curricular materials and student data that illustrate our approach.

Dreyfus, Benjamin W.; Gouvea, Julia; Geller, Benjamin D.; Sawtelle, Vashti; Turpen, Chandra; Redish, Edward F.

2014-05-01

395

The cultural production of "science" and "scientist" in high school physics: Girls' access, participation, and resistance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For over three decades, the gender gap in science and science education has received attention from teachers, policy makers, and scholars of various disciplines. During this time, feminist scholars have posited many reasons why the gender gap in science and science education exists. Early feminist discourse focused on girls' "deficits," while more recent work has begun to consider the problems with science and school science in the quest for a more gender inclusive science. Specifically, feminist scholars advocate a transformation of both how students learn science and the science curriculum that students are expected to learn. This study was designed to examine more deeply this call for a changed science curriculum and its implications for girls' participation, interest, and scientist identities. If we reinvisioned ways to "do" science, "learn" science, and "be a scientist" in school science, would girls come to see science as something interesting and worth pursuing further? This question framed my ethnographic investigation. I examined the culturally produced meanings of "science" and "scientist" in two high school physics classrooms (one traditional and one non-traditional class framed around real-world themes), how these meanings reproduced and contested larger sociohistorical (and prototypical) meanings of science and scientist, and how girls participated within and against these meanings. The results complicate the assumption that a classroom that enacts a non-traditional curriculum is "better" for girls. This study explained how each classroom challenged sociohistorical legacies of school science in various "spaces of possibility" and how prototypical meanings pushed the potential of these spaces to the margins. Girls in the traditional physics class generally embraced prototypical meanings because they could easily access "good student" identities. Girls in the non-traditional class, though attracted to alternative practices, struggled with the conflicting promoted student identities that did not allow them easy access to "good student" identities. In neither class were girls' perceptions of what it meant to do science and be a scientist challenged. And, in neither class did girls connect to a legitimate scientist identity. These findings leave unanswered the question of whether changes in pedagogy and curriculum alone will produce more gender fair school science.

Carlone, Heidi Berenson

2000-10-01

396

Initial Interest, Goals, and Changes in CLASS Scores in Introductory Physics for Life Sciences  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

To examine the effect of extensive life science applications on student attitudes to learning physics, we analyzed CLASS data from life science students in introductory physics. We compare the same studentsâ responses from the first semester, taught with a standard syllabus, to the second semester, taught with extensive life science applications (IPLS). Although first semester responses become less favorable (pre to post), IPLS responses show an increase in favorable and a decrease in unfavorable responses. This is noteworthy because improvement is rarely observed without direct attention to attitudes/beliefs, and suggests IPLS courses are one possible approach to improving attitudes. Finally, we analyzed CLASS responses by gender, major, studentsâ stated goals in taking physics, and initial interest in physics; initial interest was determined from CLASS items chosen based on the Four-Phase Model of Interest Development. Most notably, we find that in the IPLS course, students identified as having low interest initially had the greatest gains.

Crouch, Catherine H.; Wisittanawat, Panchompoo; Renninger, K. A.

2014-01-30

397

The Nature of Science and Its Implications for Physics Textbooks: The Case of Classical Magnetic Field Theory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study aims to analyse, based on common characteristics of the Nature of Science, how first year university Physics textbooks present the introduction of the concept and theories of magnetic field. It shows that despite the increasing number of studies into the Nature of Science in Science Education, Physics textbooks fail to adopt the results…

Guisasola, Jenaro; Almudi, Jose M.; Furio, Carlos

2005-01-01

398

An Annotated Bibliography of Research into the Teaching and Learning of the Physical Sciences at the Higher Education Level.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains an annotated bibliography aimed at the teaching of the physical sciences at the tertiary level to those who wish to become more informed about teaching related research evidence and undertake science education research. The bibliography offers an overview of teaching and learning in the physical sciences and key references…

Palmer, David

399

The Development and Measurement of Identity across the Physical Sciences  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Drawing from earlier work of Gee, Carlone, Johnson, and Shanahan, we developed a framework for âgood physics student role identityâ or, more simply, âphysics identityâ which is a reliable proxy for studentsâ affinity towards physics and is predictive of studentsâ physics-related career choices. This framework was postulated to be comprised of performance beliefs, competence beliefs, recognition beliefs, and interest. Subsequent investigations showed that performance and competence beliefs are not distinct and the combined performance/competence construct is somewhat akin to Banduraâs self-efficacy. Recent work has extended this framework to mathematics and engineering. We conclude with a brief discussion of the future of the framework for understanding âbest practicesâ in STEM classrooms.

Potvin, Geoff; Hazari, Zahra

2014-02-01

400

Science Education in the 21st Century: Using the tools of physics to teach physics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Guided by experimental tests of theory and practice, science has advanced rapidly in the past 500 years. Guided primarily by tradition and dogma, science education meanwhile has remained largely medieval. Research on how people learn is now revealing how many teachers badly misinterpret what students are thinking and learning from traditional science classes and exams. However, research is also providing insights on how to do much better. The combination of this research with modern information technology is setting the stage for a new approach that can provide the relevant and effective science education for all students that is needed for the 21st century. This presentation shows the failures of traditional educational practices, even as used by "very good" teachers, and the successes of some new practices and technology that characterize this more effective approach, and how these results are highly consistent with findings from cognitive science.

Wieman, Carl E.

2007-03-24

401

Physical Geography: Science and Systems of the Human Environment; Animations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website contains Flash animations and real footage movies (QuickTime format) from a physical geography textbook. Animations show phenomena associated with the atmosphere, biosphere, lithosphere, and hydrosphere/cryosphere. Animations are slow to download and cannot be rewound to stress important points. Users may also follow links to PowerPoint slides, interactive activities, an image library and an instructor's manual.

Strahler, Alan H.; University, Boston; Education, Wiley H.

402

Science Sampler: Enhancing Student Understanding of Physical and Chemical Changes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students within the Findlay, Ohio, City School District, as well as students across the country, struggle with understanding physical and chemical changes. Therefore, in this article, the authors suggest some standards-based activities to clarify misconceptions and provide formative assessments to measure your students' progress as they determine…

McIntosh, Julie; White, Sandra; Suter, Robert

2009-01-01

403

Future Prospects of Accelerator Science for Particle Physics  

SciTech Connect

Future advances in understanding fundamental questions of nature require revolutionary developments in accelerator science to allow several orders of magnitude enhancements in terms of energy, intensity, faster timing, and higher resolution. The challenges of the 21st century (energy, power, environment, resources, cost, and space) also play a significant role in the development of accelerator tools. In this overview article, we consider several recent developments and ideas that may become steps in addressing the challenges and which may find their way into designs of accelerator tools of the future.

Seryi, Andrei; /SLAC

2012-06-15

404

Bayesian Logical Data Analysis for the Physical Sciences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Preface; Acknowledgements; 1. Role of probability theory in science; 2. Probability theory as extended logic; 3. The how-to of Bayesian inference; 4. Assigning probabilities; 5. Frequentist statistical inference; 6. What is a statistic?; 7. Frequentist hypothesis testing; 8. Maximum entropy probabilities; 9. Bayesian inference (Gaussian errors); 10. Linear model fitting (Gaussian errors); 11. Nonlinear model fitting; 12. Markov Chain Monte Carlo; 13. Bayesian spectral analysis; 14. Bayesian inference (Poisson sampling); Appendix A. Singular value decomposition; Appendix B. Discrete Fourier transforms; Appendix C. Difference in two samples; Appendix D. Poisson ON/OFF details; Appendix E. Multivariate Gaussian from maximum entropy; References; Index.

Gregory, Phil

2010-05-01

405

Physical Science Experiments in K-12 Schools Related to Space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this talk I shall show movies on the demonstration of surface science experiments at various education levels ranging from middle schools to the university. These experiments demonstrate the concepts of surface tension, surface flows, surface reactions and even miscible interfaces. Experiments that demonstrate capillary effects, pressure variations on account of diameter changes, emulsions and foams will be discussed. Applications involving household agents such as space processing, food and detergents will also be given. All of these experiments are part of a kit that we have assembled for free distribution to area schools.

Narayanan, Ranga

406

Evaluating seismology-based curriculum for use in high school physical science and physics classes as a part of the South Carolina Earth Physics Project (SCEPP)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The South Carolina Earth Physics Project (SCEPP) has created a set of Inquiry-based learning modules utilizing the Learning Cycle Method of instruction. In addition software entitled the Global Earthquake Explorer (GEE) has been developed for use with the modules and as a tool to explore worldwide seismic activity. Modules are intended for use in either high school 9th grade physical science or 12th grade physics classes. The modules integrate wave phenomenon concepts normally taught in a physical science class with concepts and real world examples from seismology. The modules created make use of a statewide seismic network and the advance GEE software in order to allow students to access actual seismic data in near real time. Teachers from across the state reviewed the modules as apart of a professional development program and through a focus group discussion. Teachers see SCEPP as a valuable resource that effectively engages students in science, requires the student to use skills from several disciplines simultaneously, and helps students understand the interdisciplinary nature of science. The modules and associated software were subjected to rigorous field-testing in science classes across South Carolina. Studies conducted in 2001 and 2002 utilizing a pre-test, post-test design showed that students were able to use the modules and GEE effectively. A third study was conducted in 2003 that utilized both a treatment and control group in its design. This study was an attempt to quantify the amount of cognitive subject matter gain and any attitude changes in students toward science from exposure to the SCEPP materials but was not successful. Improper implementation of the modules appeared to have negated any positive effects SCEPP had with students. The project was able to gain valuable information for how to properly implement the modules with implications for how science may be better taught in K--12 schools.

Bartholomew, James Walter, Jr.

407

New computer architectures and their relationship to physics or why computer science is no good  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the past, computation scientists have found it convenient and productive to adopt a model of the computational universe that was very different from our models of the physical universe. This is chaning. As we build bigger computers out of smaller components, our models of computation are forced to change. There is reason to hope that our new models, for specific systems, will be similar to the models of physics. The paper is divided into three sections. The first argues that computer science is missing many of the things that make the laws of physics so powerful—locality, symmetry, invariance of scale. This is why physics is so nice and computer science isn't. The second section gives an example of a new-wave computing machine, and shows some physicslike laws that apply to its computations. The final section gives some reasons for expecting this convergence of physical and computational law.

Daniel Hillis, W.

1982-04-01

408

An analysis of science content and representations in introductory college physics textbooks and multimodal learning resources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study features a comparative descriptive analysis of the physics content and representations surrounding the first law of thermodynamics as presented in four widely used introductory college physics textbooks representing each of four physics textbook categories (calculus-based, algebra/trigonometry-based, conceptual, and technical/applied). Introducing and employing a newly developed theoretical framework, multimodal generative learning theory (MGLT), an analysis of the multimodal characteristics of textbook and multimedia representations of physics principles was conducted. The modal affordances of textbook representations were identified, characterized, and compared across the four physics textbook categories in the context of their support of problem-solving. Keywords: college science, science textbooks, multimodal learning theory, thermodynamics, representations

Donnelly, Suzanne M.

409

100th anniversary of the discovery of cosmic rays (Scientific session of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 24 October 2012)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A scientific session of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS), entitled "100th anniversary of the discovery of cosmic rays," was held on 24 October 2012 in the conference hall of the Lebedev Physical Institute, RAS.The agenda of the session announced on the RAS Physical Sciences Division website www.gpad.ac.ru included the following reports: (1) Panasyuk M I (Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics of the Lomonosov State University, Moscow) "The contribution of Russian scientists to the centennial history of the development of the physics of cosmic rays"; (2) Ryazhskaya O G (Institute for Nuclear Research, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow) "On experiments in underground physics"; (3) Krymskii G F, Berezhko E G (Shafer Institute of Cosmophysical Research and Aeronomy, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Yakutsk) "The origin of cosmic rays"; (4) Stozhkov Yu I (Lebedev Physical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow) "Cosmic rays in the heliosphere"; (5) Troitsky S V (Institute for Nuclear Research, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow) "Cosmic particles of energies >1019 eV: a short review of results."Papers based on reports 2 and 5 are presented below. • On experiments in Underground Physics, O G Ryazhskaya Physics-Uspekhi, 2013, Volume 56, Number 3, Pages 296-304 • Cosmic particles with energies above 1019 eV: a brief summary of results, S V Troitsky Physics-Uspekhi, 2013, Volume 56, Number 3, Pages 304-310

2013-03-01

410

The Ways University Physics Students Conceive of the Nature of Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this research, university physics students were asked their opinion with respect to major ideas on the way science creates knowledge. The sample of the research consists of 140 students from different physics departments of Marmara University. The purpose of the study is to investigate student ideas about science and to find out their intuitive philosophical beliefs of science with respect to gender differences, class, and their different socio-economic status of study. In order to find out the students' own philosophies of science through their responses to specific statements, a questionnaire was used. (The questionnaire was taken from Nott and Wellington and translated into Turkish by experts). The obtained data was evaluated by computer, commented on, and proposals have been stated according to the obtained results.

Turanli, M.; Ozden, U. H.; Demirhan, D.; Gurel, Z.

2006-10-11

411

Experts' Views on Using History and Philosophy of Science in the Practice of Physics Instruction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study examines the views of a representative sample of experts in physics, physics education and history and philosophy of science (HPS) on the incorporation of HPS based materials in physics instruction. The obtained spectrum of views addresses three areas: the rationale to include HPS, the most appropriate ways of doing so, and anticipated difficulties in such a new educational approach. The elicited views, interpreted and categorized, reflect the attitude of the community of science educators in Israeli colleges and universities with regard to the subject. The constructed profiles indicate low awareness of the recent changes in the understanding of learning and the role of HPS in the light of these changes. Such knowledge can guide the activities of those who devote their efforts to constructing and implementing learning materials utilizing HPS contents in science education.

Galili, Igal; Hazan, Amnon

412

Incipient sexual isolation in the nasuta-albomicans complex of Drosophila: mating preference in male-, female- and multiple-choice mating experiments.  

PubMed

Interracial divergence is an important facet of speciation. The nasuta-albomicans complex of Drosophila with sixteen morphologically identical, karyotypically different but cross-fertile races is an excellent system to study a few dimensions of raciation. Drosophila nasuta nasuta, Drosophila nasuta albomicans, Cytorace 1, Cytorace 2, Cytorace 3 and Cytorace 4 of this subgroup have been subjected to male-, female- and multiple-choice mating experiments. Out of 8456 crosses conducted, 7185 had successful matings. The overall impression is that mating is far from random amongst these six closely related races of the nasuta-albomicans complex. The males of D. n. albomicans, Cytorace 1 and Cytorace 4 in male-choice, the females of Cytorace 1 and Cytorace 2 in female-choice, and the males and females of D. n. nasuta, D. n. albomicans, Cytorace 1 and Cytorace 4 against the males and females of Cytorace 2 in multiple-choice experiments, had significantly more homogamic matings than expected. Thus in this study of evolutionary experimentation on raciation under laboratory conditions, we have documented the initiation of preference for conspecific matings among closely related and independently evolving members of the nasuta-albomicans complex of Drosophila. PMID:11568482

Tanuja, M T; Ramachandra, N B; Ranganath, H A

2001-09-01

413

Salary-Trend Studies of Faculty for the Years 1985-86 and 1988-89 in the following Disciplines: Nursing; Philosophy and Religion; Physical Education; Physical Sciences; Physics; Political Science and Government; Psychology; Reading Education; Secretarial and Related Programs; Social Sciences; Sociology; Special Education; Student Counseling and Personnel Services; Teacher Education; General Programs; and Visual and Performing Arts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The volume provides comparative data for faculty salaries in public and private colleges, based on an annual survey of over 700 colleges and universities. The following 15 disciplines are included: nursing, philosophy and religion, physical education, physical sciences, physics, political science and government, psychology, reading education,…

Howe, Richard D.; And Others

414

Angelo State Society of Physics Students Science Outreach: West Texas Road Trip 2008  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Angelo State Society of Physics Students readily embraces the opportunity to give back to the community. For the past three years, the ASU Peer Pressure Team has presented science demonstrations to elementary and junior high students in the West Texas area. The annual week-long trip involves college students seeking to inspire a younger generation about physics and science in general. The Road Trip 2008 took ten undergraduate students on a nearly 600 mile round trip. The reactions and responses from the students, teachers and administrators received by the local SPS chapter's efforts have been overwhelmingly positive, and opportunities continue to present themselves.

Estes, Lacy; Sauncy, Toni

2008-10-01

415

The Cutting Edge in Physical Education and Exercise Science Research. American Academy of Physical Education Papers No. 20. Papers Presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Academy of Physical Education (58th, Cincinnati, Ohio, April 7-8, 1986).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ten papers that address the theoretical advances being made in various areas of specialization in physical education and exercise science are included in this volume of American Academy of Physical Education Papers. General trends are reviewed in selected areas, including the social sciences, the biological sciences, motor learning, curriculum and…

American Academy of Physical Education, Washington, DC.

416

The Little Shop of Physics: Lessons from Informal Science Education for the College Classroom  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Little Shop of Physics is a hands-on science outreach program of the Physics Department at Colorado State University. We have been presenting programs at schools and workshops for teachers for over 20 years. All of our projects are developed by undergraduate students at Colorado State University, who also present our school programs. Our interns and volunteers receive very valuable experience in science and communication; the Little Shop experience is an important component of the college experience for these students. Over the past several years we have begun a thorough assessment of all aspects of the work we do that has given us valuable insight into what works and what doesn't in our interactive, informal physics education programs. These lessons can be easily adapted to the college classroom. In this session, I will begin with an overview of the Little Shop of Physics program, including how we involve undergraduate students in all aspects of our work. Along the way, I will share some easy-to-reproduce demonstrations that came out of the Little Shop that I have found to be very effective. I will then discuss our assessment efforts and the lessons we've learned about presenting science concepts to students that have informed and improved my college teaching. At the end of this formal presentation, we will give participants a chance to explore our hands-on science projects, and to ask questions of the Little Shop of Physics team members in a more informal setting.

Jones, Brian

2013-04-01

417

Physical Oceanography: Project Earth Science. Material for Middle School Teachers in Earth Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book is one in a series of Earth science books and contains a collection of 18 hands-on activities/demonstrations developed for the middle/junior high school level. The activities are organized around three key concepts. First, students investigate the unique properties of water and how these properties shape the ocean and the global…

Ford, Brent A.; Smith, P. Sean

418

A Physics of Semiconductors Concept Inventory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Following the trend in science and engineering education generated by the visible impact that the Force Concept Inventory (FCI) has created, a Physics of Semiconductors Concept Inventory (PSCI) has been developed. Whereas most classroom tests measure how many facts students can remember, or if they can manipulate equations, PSCI measures how well students interpret concepts and how well they can infer new knowledge from already learned knowledge. Operationalized in accordance with the revised Bloom's taxonomy, the multiple--choice items of the PSCI address the "understand", "apply", "analyze" and "evaluate" levels of cognition. Once standardized, PSCI may be used as a predictor for students' academic performance in the field of semiconductors and as an assessment instrument for instructional strategies.

Ene, Emanuela

2011-03-01

419

Applications of statistical physics to the social and economic sciences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis applies statistical physics concepts and methods to quantitatively analyze socioeconomic systems. For each system we combine theoretical models and empirical data analysis in order to better understand the real-world system in relation to the complex interactions between the underlying human agents. This thesis is separated into three parts: (i) response dynamics in financial markets, (ii) dynamics of career trajectories, and (iii) a stochastic opinion model with quenched disorder. In Part I we quantify the response of U.S. markets to financial shocks, which perturb markets and trigger "herding behavior" among traders. We use concepts from earthquake physics to quantify the decay of volatility shocks after the "main shock." We also find, surprisingly, that we can make quantitative statements even before the main shock. In order to analyze market behavior before as well as after "anticipated news" we use Federal Reserve interest-rate announcements, which are regular events that are also scheduled in advance. In Part II we analyze the statistical physics of career longevity. We construct a stochastic model for career progress which has two main ingredients: (a) random forward progress in the career and (b) random termination of the career. We incorporate the rich-get-richer (Matthew) effect into ingredient (a), meaning that it is easier to move forward in the career the farther along one is in the career. We verify the model predictions analyzing data on 400,000 scientific careers and 20,000 professional sports careers. Our model highlights the importance of early career development, showing that many careers are stunted by the relative disadvantage associated with inexperience. In Part III we analyze a stochastic two-state spin model which represents a system of voters embedded on a network. We investigate the role in consensus formation of "zealots", which are agents with time-independent opinion. Our main result is the unexpected finding that it is the number and not the density of zealots which deter- mines the steady-state opinion polarization. We compare our findings with results for United States Presidential elections.

Petersen, Alexander M.

420

Promoting Success in the Physical Sciences: The University of Wisconsin's Physics Learning Program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Physics Learning Program at the University of Wisconsin-Madison provides small group, academic and mentoring support for students enrolled in algebra-based introductory physics courses. Those students accepted into our program are potentially at-risk academically in their physics course or for feeling isolated at the University. They include, among others, students who have not taken high school physics, returning adults, minority students, students with disabilities, and students with English as a second language. A core component of the program is the peer-lead teaching and mentoring groups that match upper level undergraduate physics majors with students potentially at-risk in introductory physics. The tutors receive ongoing training and supervision throughout the year. The program has expanded over the years to include staff tutors, the majority of whom are scientists who seek additional teaching experience. The Physics Peer Mentor Tutor Program is run in collaboration with a similar chemistry program at the University of Wisconsin's Chemistry Learning Center. We will describe our Physics Learning Programs and discuss some of the challenges, successes, and strategies used to work with our tutors and students.

Nossal, S. M.; Jacob, A. T.

2002-05-01

421

Skylab experiments. Volume 1: Physical science, solar astronomy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The basic subject of this volume is the solar astronomy program conducted on Skylab. In addition to descriptions of the individual experiments and the principles involved in their performance, a brief description is included of the sun and the energy characteristics associated with each zone. Wherever possible, related classroom activities have been identified and discussed in some detail. It will be apparent that the relationships rest not only in the field of solar astronomy, but also in the following subjects: (1) physics - optics, electromagnetic spectrum, atomic structure, etc.; (2) chemistry - emission spectra, kinetic theory, X-ray absorption, etc.; (3) biology - radiation and dependence on the sun; (4) electronics - cathode ray tubes, detectors, photomultipliers, etc.; (5) photography; (6) astronomy; and (7) industrial arts.

1973-01-01

422

Research in space science and technology. [including X-ray astronomy and interplanetary plasma physics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Progress in various space flight research programs is reported. Emphasis is placed on X-ray astronomy and interplanetary plasma physics. Topics covered include: infrared astronomy, long base line interferometry, geological spectroscopy, space life science experiments, atmospheric physics, and space based materials and structures research. Analysis of galactic and extra-galactic X-ray data from the Small Astronomy Satellite (SAS-3) and HEAO-A and interplanetary plasma data for Mariner 10, Explorers 47 and 50, and Solrad is discussed.

Beckley, L. E.

1977-01-01

423

Calculating and Understanding: Formal Models and Causal Explanations in Science, Common Reasoning and Physics Teaching  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an analysis of the different types of reasoning and physical explanation used in science, common thought,\\u000a and physics teaching. It then reflects on the learning difficulties connected with these various approaches, and suggests\\u000a some possible didactic strategies. Although causal reasoning occurs very frequently in common thought and daily life, it has\\u000a long been the subject of debate

Ugo Besson

2010-01-01

424

Learning Physics with Digital Game Simulations in Middle School Science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this work is to share our findings in using video gaming technology to facilitate the understanding of basic electromagnetism with middle school students. To this end, we explored the impact of using a game called Supercharged! on middle school students' understanding of electromagnetic concepts compared to students who conducted a more traditional inquiry-oriented investigation of the same concepts. This study was a part of a larger design experiment examining the pedagogical potential of Supercharged! The control group learned through a series of guided inquiry methods while the experimental group played Supercharged! during the laboratory sections of the science course. There was significant difference, F(2,91) = 3.6, p < 0.05, ? 2 = 0.77, between the control and experimental groups on the gains from pre- to post-assessment. Additionally, students in the experimental group were able to give more nuanced responses about the descriptions of electric fields and the influence of distance on the forces that charges experience due to their interactions with the Supercharged! game. Results of this study show that video games can lead to positive learning outcomes, as demonstrated by the increase in test scores from pre- to post-assessment and the student interviews. This study also suggests that a complementary approach, in which video games and hands-on activities are integrated, with each activity informing the other, could be a very powerful technique for supporting student scientific understanding. Further, our findings suggest that game designers should embed meta-cognitive activities such as reflective opportunities into educational video games in order to provide scaffolds for students and to reinforce that they are engaged in an educational learning experience.

Anderson, Janice L.; Barnett, Mike

2013-12-01

425

Physics and Everyday Thinking (PET), Physical Science and Everyday Thinking (PSET)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This presentation outlines two curricula for elementary school teachers and non-science majors. The main topics of these materials and examples of the activities and resources available are described. Results of evaluation efforts studying students using these materials also are given.

Goldberg, Fred

2008-05-22

426

The Role of Mathematics in Physical Sciences and Dirac's Methodological Revolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In our paper, avoiding any strong metaphysical commitment on the world, we face the topic of the interplay between mathematics and physics by starting from a semiotic approach. It will be shown that it allows us to insert in a unitary and coherent framework answers to questions such as: Why mathematics is physics? What is the role of mathematics in physics? Why is mathematics effective in physical sciences? In the second part of the paper, and by utilizing what discussed in the first one, we analyse what we call Dirac's methodological revolution, according to which to do good and new physics we must first work on good and promising mathematics. Finally, we exemplify Dirac's methodological revolution by recalling the role of the mathematical theory of simple spinors in constructing new perspectives for theoretical physics.

Boniolo, Giovanni; Budinich, Paolo

427

The Periodic Table. Physical Science in Action[TM]. Schlessinger Science Library. [Videotape].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Kids know that when they are lost, they look at a map to find their way. It's no different in the world of science, as they'll learn in The Periodic Table--a fun and engaging look at the road map of the elements. Young students will learn about key information included on the table, including atomic number, atomic mass and chemical symbol. They'll…

2000

428

Microgravity: Teacher's guide with activities for physical science  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This guide is an educational tool for teachers of grades 5 through 12. It is an introduction to microgravity and its application to spaceborne laboratory experiments. Specific payloads and missions are mentioned with limited detail, including Spacelab, the International Microgravity Laboratory, and the United States Microgravity Laboratory. Activities for students demonstrate chemistry, mathematics, and physics applications of microgravity. Activity objectives include: modeling how satellites orbit Earth; demonstrating that free fall eliminates the local effects of gravity; measuring the acceleration environments created by different motions; using a plasma sheet to observe acceleration forces that are experienced on board a space vehicle; demonstrating how mass can be measured in microgravity; feeling how inertia affects acceleration; observing the gravity-driven fluid flow that is caused by differences in solution density; studying surface tension and the fluid flows caused by differences in surface tension; illustrating the effects of gravity on the burning rate of candles; observing candle flame properties in free fall; measuring the contact angle of a fluid; illustrating the effects of gravity and surface tension on fiber pulling; observing crystal growth phenomena in a 1-g environment; investigating temperature effects on crystal growth; and observing crystal nucleation and growth rate during directional solidification. Each activity includes a background section, procedure, and follow-up questions.

Vogt, Gregory L.; Wargo, Michael J.; Rosenberg, Carla B. (editor)

1995-01-01

429

The Acquisition of Stereochemical Knowledge by Algerian Students Intending to Teach Physical Sciences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this work we evaluated the level of difficulty found in learning stereochemistry concepts, by students intending to teach physical sciences at the Ecole Normale Superieure (ENS) Kouba (Algeria). A paper and pencil questionnaire was administered to 170 students to evaluate: their familiarity with Newman representations; their ability of linking…

Boukhechem, Mohamed-Salah; Dumon, Alain; Zouikri, Mohamed

2011-01-01

430

Wind, Water, Fire, and Earth. Energy Lessons for the Physical Sciences.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current energy situation in the United States is a web of complicated and related elements. This document attempts to address some of these variables in presenting interdisciplinary energy lessons taken from instructional packets previously developed by the Project for an Energy-Enriched Curriculum (PEEC). The 19 physical science lessons…

Watt, Shirley L., Ed.; And Others

431

Cultivating the capacity for formal reasoning: Objectives and procedures in an introductory physical science course  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Experience in a physical science course for preservice elementary teachers, inservice elementary teachers, and other nonscience majors has led to the identification of certain specific factors and procedures that seem to assist the attainment of the formal operational level of intellectual development on the part of students who are initially at a concrete or transitional stage.

Arons, Arnold B.

2005-10-11

432

Teachers' Manual: Using Teams-Games-Tournament (TGT) in the Physical Science Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This teacher's manual provides general and specific guidelines for use of Teams-Games-Tournaments (TGT) Physical Science Curriculum materials at the junior high-middle school level. TGT is an innovative instructional model which focuses on the learning of basic skills, information, and concepts, rewarding students in small teams rather than at the…

Hollifield, John H.; Leavey, Marshall B.

433

Teaching the Nature of Science in Physics Courses: The Contribution of Classroom Historical Inquiries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Physics and chemistry programs at the secondary school level in France recommend introducing components of the history of science (HS). Emphasis is placed on a "cultural" dimension, which is poorly defined but essentially refers to elements of epistemological nature. Moreover, the few examples of activities based on HS suggested by the programs…

Maurines, Laurence; Beaufils, Daniel

2013-01-01

434

Learning in a Non-Physical Science Domain: The Human Circulatory System.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research explores the moment-by-moment understanding students exhibit in the learning of a non-physical science domain--the human circulatory system. The goal was to understand how students learn by capturing the nature of their initial mental models (naive conceptions), and by seeing how new information gets assimilated into their mental…

Chi, Michelene T. H.; And Others

435

Earth and Physical Science. Nevada Competency-Based Adult High School Diploma Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document is one of ten curriculum guides developed by the Nevada Competency-Based Adult High School Diploma (CBAHSD) Project. This curriculum guide on earth and physical science is divided into twelve topics. The topics included are Geology, Meteorology, Astronomy, Natural Disasters, Chemical Reaction, Laboratory, States of Matter, Force and…

Nevada Univ., Las Vegas. Coll. of Education.

436

Japanese Government Policies in Education, Science, Sports and Culture, 1998. Mental and Physical Health and Sports.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This annual publication introduces Japan's educational policies in education, science, sports, and culture. Part 1, "Trends in Education Reform," discusses fundamental concepts in educational reform. Part 2, "Mental and Physical Health and Sports," includes two chapters. Chapter 1, "Health and Sports into the Future," examines 5 concepts:…

Ministry of Education, Science, and Culture, Tokyo (Japan).

437

The Biome Project: Developing a Legitimate Parallel Curriculum for Physical Education and Life Sciences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this article is to describe the outcomes of a parallel curriculum project between life sciences and physical education. Throughout a 6-week period, students in grades two through five became members of teams that represented different animal species and biomes, and concurrently participated in a season of gymnastics skills and…

Hastie, Peter Andrew

2013-01-01

438

The Representation of Science-Technology Relationships in Canadian Physics Textbooks.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Identifies four views of the nature of the science/technology relationship: Idealist, Demarcationist, Materialist, and Interactionist. Analyzes high school physics textbooks in light of these relationship types and finds that the texts are dominated by an idealist storyline that presents a limited view of the history and philosophy of…

Gardner, Paul L.

1999-01-01

439

Review and Evaluation of Physical Sciences Program, AFOSR (Air Force Office of Scientific Research).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the past year, the University of Maryland has monitored and arranged for the convening of 10 Research Evaluation Groups or Panels to review and evaluate various aspects of the Physical Sciences Program, AFOSR, ranging over such diverse disciplines as h...

A. J. Dragt

1982-01-01

440

Research for a Future in Space: The Role of Life and Physical Sciences.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This booklet is based on the Space Studies Board (SSB) report Recapturing a Future for Space Exploration: Life and Physical Sciences Research for a New Era, available for free online at www.nap.edu. Details about obtaining copies of the full report, as we...

2012-01-01

441

New horizons for extreme light physics with mega-science project XCELS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A short review of the Russian mega-science project XCELS and scientific problems to be solved are presented. We discuss the origin of multi-beam design to attain the highest field magnitude at optimal focusing. Then, we formulate particular physical problems of fundamental interest that can be solved within this project.

Bashinov, A. V.; Gonoskov, A. A.; Kim, A. V.; Mourou, G.; Sergeev, A. M.

2014-05-01

442

PROBABILITY ESTIMATES OF THE CAPACITIES OF INTERMEDIATE PUPILS TO UNDERSTAND SELECTED PHYSICAL SCIENCE GENERALIZATIONS. FINAL REPORT.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THE CAPACITY OF INTERMEDIATE PUPILS TO UNDERSTAND AND RETAIN GENERALIZATIONS RELATED TO SIMPLE MACHINES, ELECTRICAL ENERGY, AND HEAT ENERGY WAS INVESTIGATED. A STRATIFIED RANDOM SAMPLE OF APPROXIMATELY 1,200 FOURTH, FIFTH, AND SIXTH GRADE PUPILS WAS SELECTED FROM THE METROPOLITAN DETROIT AREA. GENERALIZATIONS FOR THE THREE PHYSICAL SCIENCE AREAS…

SMITH, GARY R.

443

Accelerated Integrated Science Sequence (AISS): An Introductory Biology, Chemistry, and Physics Course  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A new interdisciplinary, introductory science course was offered for the first time during the 2007-2008 school year. The purpose of the course is to introduce students to the idea of working at the intersections of biology, chemistry, and physics and to recognize interconnections between the disciplines. Interdisciplinary laboratories are a key…

Purvis-Roberts, Kathleen L.; Edwalds-Gilbert, Gretchen; Landsberg, Adam S.; Copp, Newton; Ulsh, Lisa; Drew, David E.

2009-01-01

444

THE DETERMINATION OF SUITABLE LABORATORY EXPERIENCES FOR A PHYSICAL SCIENCE COURSE FOR PROSPECTIVE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHERS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A SEARCH OF RECENT SCIENCE EDUCATION LITERATURE WAS MADE TO DETERMINE TOPICS IN PHYSICS AND CHEMISTRY THAT WOULD BE TESTED FOR SUITABILITY WITH PROSPECTIVE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHERS. EIGHT CRITERIA WERE SELECTED AND USED TO GUIDE THE WRITING OF LABORATORY ACTIVITIES. SIXTY-NINE PROSPECTIVE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHERS USED THE EXPERIMENTAL…

WEICHINGER, THEODORE, JR.

445

The History and Philosophy of Science in Physics Teaching: A Research Synthesis of Didactic Interventions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This work is a systematic review of studies that investigate teaching experiences applying History and Philosophy of Science (HPS) in physics classrooms, with the aim of obtaining critical and reliable information on this subject. After a careful process of selection and exclusion of studies compiled from a variety of databases, an in-depth review…

Teixeira, Elder Sales; Greca, Ileana Maria; Freire, Olival, Jr.

2012-01-01

446

Competency-Based Reforms of the Undergraduate Biology Curriculum: Integrating the Physical and Biological Sciences  

PubMed Central

The National Experiment in Undergraduate Science Education project funded by the Howard Hughes Medical Institute is a direct response to the Scientific Foundations for Future Physicians report, which urged a shift in premedical student preparation from a narrow list of specific course work to a more flexible curriculum that helps students develop broad scientific competencies. A consortium of four universities is working to create, pilot, and assess modular, competency-based curricular units that require students to use higher-order cognitive skills and reason across traditional disciplinary boundaries. Purdue University; the University of Maryland, Baltimore County; and the University of Miami are each developing modules and case studies that integrate the biological, chemical, physical, and mathematical sciences. The University of Maryland, College Park, is leading the effort to create an introductory physics for life sciences course that is reformed in both content and pedagogy. This course has prerequisites of biology, chemistry, and calculus, allowing students to apply strategies from the physical sciences to solving authentic biological problems. A comprehensive assessment plan is examining students’ conceptual knowledge of physics, their attitudes toward interdisciplinary approaches, and the development of specific scientific competencies. Teaching modules developed during this initial phase will be tested on multiple partner campuses in preparation for eventual broad dissemination.

Thompson, Katerina V.; Chmielewski, Jean; Gaines, Michael S.; Hrycyna, Christine A.; LaCourse, William R.

2013-01-01

447

Physical Science and Engineering Societies in the United States as Publishers, 1939-1964.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study attempted to (1) identify and delineate the factors that influence engineering and physical science organization publishing activities in the United States between 1939 and 1964, (2) describe the effects of these influences on the publishing activities and publications of organizations, and (3) to assess the role of the organization as…

Shank, Russell

448

Teaching the Nature of Science in Physics Courses: The Contribution of Classroom Historical Inquiries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Physics and chemistry programs at the secondary school level in France recommend introducing components of the history of science (HS). Emphasis is placed on a `cultural' dimension, which is poorly defined but essentially refers to elements of epistemological nature. Moreover, the few examples of activities based on HS suggested by the programs and science textbooks are means to learn scientific content and convey a reductive and false image of the nature of science (NoS). Our main issue is to examine the possibility to communicate a more authentic image of NoS with HS. We begin by demonstrating how our historical and epistemological analysis led us to distinguish different learning goals about NoS. We then show how these goals can generate classroom activities involving collective inquiry based on the implementation of documents. These documents may or may not be paired with experiments. Finally, we discuss the tensions that our choices created with science curricula and among teachers.

Maurines, Laurence; Beaufils, Daniel

2013-06-01

449

Changes in Properties of Matter. Physical Science in Action[TM]. Schlessinger Science Library. [Videotape].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

All matter possesses certain properties--mass, weight, volume and density. But what happens to these properties when the matter changes form? How does wood become ash when it burns? And how does ice cream change when it melts? Students will learn the difference between chemical and physical changes in this excellent introduction to the changes of…

2000

450

Informal science participation positively affects the communication and pedagogical skills of university physics students  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many undergraduate and graduate physics students choose to participate in an informal science program at the University of Colorado Boulder (Partnerships for Informal Science Education in the Community (PISEC)). They coach elementary and middle school students in inquiry-based physics activities during weekly, afterschool sessions. Observations from the afterschool sessions, field notes from the students, and pre/post surveys are collected. University students are also pre/post- videotaped explaining a textbook passage on a physics concept to an imagined audience for the Communications in Everyday Language assessment (CELA). We present findings from these data that indicate informal experiences improve the communication and pedagogical skills of the university student as well as positively influence their self-efficacy as scientific communicators and teachers.

Hinko, Kathleen; Finkelstein, Noah

2013-04-01

451

The role of sounding rocket microgravity experiments within the German Physical Sciences Programme  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The German Physical Sciences Programme, managed by the German Space Agency DLR, deals with investigations of the effects of weightlessness ("microgravity") on physical and chemical processes and phenomena. The research priorities concern materials design from the melt, fluid flow dynamics, basic mechanisms of combustion processes, and fundamental particle interactions. In retrospect, using different flight opportunities, in total more than 600 microgravity experiments involving German principal investigators in the field of physical sciences were performed till now. It turns out that more than a quarter of them flew on sounding rockets. Among the different rocket types used the TEXUS carrier proved to be the "workhorse" of the huge majority of the German experiments during three decades. Some characteristic examples of facility developments and experimental results are given to highlight the pioneering gain of knowledge using sounding rocket flights.

Kuhl, R.; Roth, M.; Binnenbruck, H.; Dreier, W.; Forke, R.; Preu, P.

2005-08-01

452

Meeting Urban Science Students Where They Are: Perspectives from Two Physics Teachers and Four Schools  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The phrase `urban education' tends to be used in ways that suggest we see urban education (and urban students) as a monolithic construct. Often, `urban' indexes children of color, with low levels of academic readiness from low socio-economic status communities in crowded, under-resourced classrooms taught by poorly prepared and/or poorly motivated teachers. While teachers and students in urban schools do face challenges that those in more suburban or rural areas may not, we argue that the differences across urban school contexts, even within the same city, outweigh the similarities. Furthermore, these differences have profound implications for the kind of work urban science teachers must do and the support they need from the science and science education research communities. In this talk, two high school physics teachers with experience in four radically different urban teaching contexts discuss the differences across schools that shape their teaching practice and their students' learning. Against this backdrop, we'll address the most common `misconceptions' about inquiry science teaching in urban schools that we've encountered among scientists, science education researchers and teacher educators. The presentation will conclude with our synthesis of how scientists and science education researchers can best support urban science teachers and students.

Echols, Rosalind

2013-03-01

453

Basic teaching methods in physics and social science classroom: Reality and upper secondary school students' expectations in Norway and Finland  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the 1990s, there was a worldwide discussion about the decreasing interest in science and technology studies on all levels. Much research has been organised to clarify what might affect student motivation to study science and, in particular, physics. The answers to what might motivate students are typically sought by investigating their interests or attitudes to (i) science (or domains

Jari Lavonen; Carl Angell; Reijo Byman; Ellen Henriksen; Ismo Koponen

454

A univariate analysis of variance design for multiple-choice feeding-preference experiments: A hypothetical example with fruit-eating birds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I consider statistical problems in the analysis of multiple-choice food-preference experiments, and propose a univariate analysis of variance design for experiments of this type. I present an example experimental design, for a hypothetical comparison of fruit colour preferences between two frugivorous bird species. In each fictitious trial, four trays each containing a known weight of artificial fruits (red, blue, black, or green) are introduced into the cage, while four equivalent trays are left outside the cage, to control for tray weight loss due to other factors (notably desiccation). The proposed univariate approach allows data from such designs to be analysed with adequate power and no major violations of statistical assumptions. Nevertheless, there is no single "best" approach for experiments of this type: the best analysis in each case will depend on the particular aims and nature of the experiments.

Larrinaga, Asier R.

2010-01-01

455

A Study on the Relationship between Logical Thinking Level and the Achievement in Enrichment Physics of School Science High Achievers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigates science high achievers' achievement in enrichment physics and logical thinking levels, and analyzes the relationship between logical thinking level and achievement in enrichment physics of high achievers in science. Involves (n=35) 7th and 8th grade junior high school students in the study. Uses the Group Assessment of Logical…

Kim, Young-Min; Lee, Sung-Yi

2001-01-01

456

Integration of physical activity and technology motion devices within a combined 5th and 6th grade science curriculum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Background: National recommendations to increase school-based physical activity and promote academic success advise incorporating movement into traditional classroom lessons. Classroom-based physical activities have favorable associations with indicators of cognitive functioning, academic behaviors, and academic achievement. Purpose: This study analyzed the Active Science framework, which incorporated school-based physical activity within interactive science classroom lessons. Specifically, the study measured the effects of the Active Science framework on student physical activity levels in the classroom, student learning of science inquiry skills and content knowledge, and student perceptions of physical activity and science. A secondary purpose was to evaluate the teachers' perceptions on the implementation of the framework. Subjects: Participants were 37 Hispanic girls (age=11.1 +/-0.8 yr) in mixed 5th/6th grade science classes in a private, urban middle school. Methods: Physical activity levels of the students during the Active Science framework were measured using pedometers and heart rate monitors. Pre- and post-tests were used to assess the levels of learning achieved by the students in science inquiry skills and content during the Active Science framework. Student perceptions and attitudes toward science and physical activity were measured during student focus groups and pre-post perception surveys. Lesson plan evaluations completed by the teachers and structured interviews provided data on implementation of the framework. Results: Physical activity results showed heart rate (146 +/-9 bpm); maximal heart rate (196 +/-10.6 bpm); time (35 +/-2.5 mins); steps (3050 +/-402.7); calories (99 +/-8.4 kcal); and distance (1.1 +/-0.2 miles) while performing the activity portion of the science lessons were consistent with national recommendations for accumulating school-based physical activity. Significant increases in science content and skills test scores with a 22.4% increase (43.9% to 66.3%; p<0.05) from pre to post (p<0.05). Students enjoyed the integration of physical activity into science lessons and the teachers described the positive effect of the framework on student interest/engagement. Conclusions: The findings from this study suggest that the Active Science framework helped to promote physical activity, facilitate student learning of science inquiry skills and content knowledge and excite students about integrating physical activity into science lessons.

Finn, Kevin Eugene

457

The Impact of Internet Virtual Physics Laboratory Instruction on the Achievement in Physics, Science Process Skills and Computer Attitudes of 10th-Grade Students  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to investigate and compare the impact of Internet Virtual Physics Laboratory (IVPL) instruction with traditional laboratory instruction in physics academic achievement, performance of science process skills, and computer attitudes of tenth grade students. One-hundred and fifty students from four classes at one private senior high school in Taoyuan Country, Taiwan, R.O.C. were sampled. All four classes contained 75 students who were equally divided into an experimental group and a control group. The pre-test results indicated that the students' entry-level physics academic achievement, science process skills, and computer attitudes were equal for both groups. On the post-test, the experimental group achieved significantly higher mean scores in physics academic achievement and science process skills. There was no significant difference in computer attitudes between the groups. We concluded that the IVPL had potential to help tenth graders improve their physics academic achievement and science process skills.

Yang, Kun-Yuan; Heh, Jia-Sheng

2007-10-01

458

A study of preservice elementary teachers enrolled in a discrepant-event-based physical science class  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research evaluated the POWERFUL IDEAS IN PHYSICAL SCIENCE (PIiPS) curriculum model used to develop a physical science course taken by preservice elementary teachers. The focus was on the evaluation of discrepant events used to induce conceptual change in relation to students' ideas concerning heat, temperature, and specific heat. Both quantitative and qualitative methodologies were used for the analysis. Data was collected during the 1998 Fall semester using two classes of physical science for elementary school teachers. The traditionally taught class served as the control group and the class using the PIiPS curriculum model was the experimental group. The PIiPS curriculum model was evaluated quantitatively for its influence on students' attitude toward science, anxiety towards teaching science, self efficacy toward teaching science, and content knowledge. An analysis of covariance was performed on the quantitative data to test for significant differences between the means of the posttests for the control and experimental groups while controlling for pretest. It was found that there were no significant differences between the means of the control and experimental groups with respect to changes in their attitude toward science, anxiety toward teaching science and self efficacy toward teaching science. A significant difference between the means of the content examination was found (F(1,28) = 14.202 and p = 0.001), however, the result is questionable. The heat and energy module was the target for qualitative scrutiny. Coding for discrepant events was adapted from Appleton's 1996 work on student's responses to discrepant event science lessons. The following qualitative questions were posed for the investigation: (1) what were the ideas of the preservice elementary students prior to entering the classroom regarding heat and energy, (2) how effective were the discrepant events as presented in the PIiPS heat and energy module, and (3) how much does the "risk taking factor" associated with not telling the students the answer right away, affect the learning of the material. It was found that preservice elementary teachers harbor similar preconceptions as the general population according to the literature. The discrepant events used in this module of the PIiPS curriculum model met with varied results. It appeared that those students who had not successfully confronted their preconceptions were less likely to accept the new concepts that were to be developed using the discrepant events. Lastly, students had shown great improvement in content understanding and developed the ability to ask deep and probing questions.

Lilly, James Edward

459

Attracting young women to the physical sciences: The Newton Summer Science Academy and other extra curricular programs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Early familiarity is regarded as one of the keys to attracting female students to traditionally male professions. I will describe four different extra curricular programs that my collaborators in the local school district and I have developed for students in grades 5-12. These programs are part of a project entitled ``Promoting Young Women in the Physical sciences", which also includes teacher training and programs in which parents participate with the child. Through these sustained and broad based interventions, we provide early experiences that we expect will prove positive to students. In particular, I will describe the Newton Summer Academy, a program for female high school students which integrates Physics, Chemistry, Math, Engineering and Economics. I will also address the successes and difficulties in starting and sustaining these programs.

Chandrasekhar, Meera

2000-03-01

460

Teaching physics to life science students - Examining the role of biological context  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We describe a research agenda to inform renovating the introductory physics course commonly taught to life science majors. The theoretical framework of the renovation is the cognitive apprenticeship model, in which learning occurs most effectively in an environment of expert practices so that students can articulate why their learning matters. This model is supported by studies of transfer that suggest for students to successfully apply physics to another field, they need practice making such applications. Guided by this theoretical framework, we have begun to restructure our introductory physics courses for these students around biologically rich contexts - examples in which fundamental physics plays a significant role in understanding a biological system - to make explicit the value of physics to the life sciences. This requires restructuring the course content to reflect the topics most relevant to biology. In this paper we describe our approach to this course, identify research directions addressing (1) the role of biological context in learning for these students and (2) issues in implementing such a course for physics faculty, and summarize preliminary results.

Crouch, Catherine H.; Heller, Kenneth

2012-05-15

461

Air, Ocean and Climate Monitoring Enhancing Undergraduate Training in the Physical, Environmental and Computer Sciences  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Faculty in the Department of Physical, Environmental and Computer Sciences strongly believe in the concept that undergraduate research and research-related activities must be integrated into the fabric of our undergraduate Science and Technology curricula. High level skills, such as problem solving, reasoning, collaboration and the ability to engage in research, are learned for advanced study in graduate school or for competing for well paying positions in the scientific community. One goal of our academic programs is to have a pipeline of research activities from high school to four year college, to graduate school, based on the GISS Institute on Climate and Planets model.

Hope, W. W.; Johnson, L. P.; Obl, W.; Stewart, A.; Harris, W. C.; Craig, R. D.

2000-01-01

462

Entropy and spontaneity in an introductory physics course for life science students  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Life science students develop a variety of resources for thinking about entropy and spontaneity in their biology, chemistry, and introductory physics courses. Helping students to develop a deeper and more coherent conceptual framework for organizing these varied ideas means attending carefully to the ways in which students interact with different disciplinary descriptions and to the ways in which these descriptions may be in tension. Canonical introductory physics treatments of the second law of thermodynamics, while useful in some contexts, may not be the most productive ones in authentic biological or chemical contexts. We draw on case-study interviews with introductory physics for life science students to argue that an approach to the second law of thermodynamics that emphasizes the interplay of energy and entropy in determining spontaneity (one that involves a central role for free energy) is one that draws on students' resources from biology and chemistry in particularly effective ways. We see the positioning of entropic arguments alongside energetic arguments in the determination of spontaneity as an important step toward making our life science students' biology, chemistry, and physics experiences more coherent.

Geller, Benjamin D.; Dreyfus, Benjamin W.; Gouvea, Julia; Sawtelle, Vashti; Turpen, Chandra; Redish, Edward F.

2014-05-01

463

The emergence of time's arrows and special science laws from physics.  

PubMed

In this paper, I will argue that there is an important connection between two questions concerning how certain features of the macro world emerge from the laws and processes of fundamental microphysics and suggest an approach to answering these questions. The approach involves a kind of emergence but quite different from 'top-down' emergence discussed at the conference, for which an earlier version of this paper was written. The two questions are (i) How do 'the arrows of time' emerge from microphysics? (ii) How do macroscopic special science laws and causation emerge from microphysics? Answering these questions is especially urgent for those, who like myself, think that a certain version of physicalism, which I call 'micro-physical completeness' (MC), is true. According to MC, there are fundamental dynamical laws that completely govern (deterministically or probabilistically), the evolution of all micro-physical events and there are no additional ontologically independent dynamical or causal special science laws. In other words, there is no ontologically independent 'top-down' causation. Of course, MC does not imply that physicists now or ever will know or propose the complete laws of physics. Or even if the complete laws were known we would know how special science properties and laws reduce to laws and properties of fundamental physics. Rather, MC is a contingent metaphysical claim about the laws of our world. After a discussion of the two questions, I will argue the key to showing how it is possible for the arrows of time and the special science laws to emerge from microphysics and a certain account of how thermodynamics is related to fundamental dynamical laws. PMID:23386956

Loewer, Barry

2012-02-01

464

New instrument for measuring student beliefs about physics and learning physics: The Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey (CLASS) is a new instrument designed to measure student beliefs about physics and about learning physics. This instrument extends previous work by probing additional aspects of student beliefs and by using wording suitable for students in a wide variety of physics courses. The CLASS has been validated using interviews, reliability studies, and extensive statistical analyses of responses from over 5000 students. In addition, a new methodology for determining useful and statistically robust categories of student beliefs has been developed. This paper serves as the foundation for an extensive study of how student beliefs impact and are impacted by their educational experiences. For example, this survey measures the following: that most teaching practices cause substantial drops in student scores; that a studentâs likelihood of becoming a physics major correlates with their âPersonal Interestâ score; and that, for a majority of student populations, womenâs scores in some categories, including âPersonal Interestâ and âReal World Connections,â are significantly different from menâs scores.

Adams, Wendy K.; Perkins, Katherine K.; Podolefsky, Noah S.; Dubson, Michael; Finkelstein, Noah D.; Wieman, Carl E.

2007-11-19

465

New instrument for measuring student beliefs about physics and learning physics: The Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey (CLASS) is a new instrument designed to measure student beliefs about physics and about learning physics. This instrument extends previous work by probing additional aspects of student beliefs and by using wording suitable for students in a wide variety of physics courses. The CLASS has been validated using interviews, reliability studies, and extensive statistical analyses of responses from over 5000 students. In addition, a new methodology for determining useful and statistically robust categories of student beliefs has been developed. This paper serves as the foundation for an extensive study of how student beliefs impact and are impacted by their educational experiences. For example, this survey measures the following: that most teaching practices cause substantial drops in student scores; that a student's likelihood of becoming a physics major correlates with their Personal Interest score; and that, for a majority of student populations, women's scores in some categories, including Personal Interest and Real World Connections, are significantly different from men's scores.

Adams, Wendy; Perkins, Kathy

466

Integrating Science Content and Pedagogy in the Earth, Life, and Physical Sciences: A K-8 Pre-Service Teacher Preparation Continuum at the University of Delaware  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

University of Delaware faculty in the geological sciences, biological sciences, and the physics and astronomy departments have partnered with faculty and researchers from the school of education to form a continuum for K- 8 pre-service teacher preparation in science. The goal of the continuum is to develop integrated understandings of content and pedagogy so that these future teachers can effectively use inquiry-based approaches in teaching science in their classrooms. Throughout the continuum where earth science content appears an earth system science approach, with emphasis on inquiry-based activities, is employed. The continuum for K-8 pre-service teachers includes a gateway content course in the earth, life, or physical sciences taken during the freshman year followed by integrated science content and methods courses taken during the sophomore year. These integrated courses, called the Science Semester, were designed and implemented with funding from the National Science Foundation. During the Science Semester, traditional content and pedagogy subject matter boundaries are crossed to stress shared themes that teachers must understand to teach standards-based science. Students work collaboratively on multidisciplinary problem-based learning (PBL) activities that place science concepts in authentic contexts and build learning skills. They also critically explore the theory and practice of elementary science teaching, drawing on their shared experiences of inquiry learning during the Science Semester. The PBL activities that are the hallmark of the Science Semester provide the backdrop through which fundamental earth system interactions can be studied. For example in a PBL investigation that focuses on kids, cancer, and the environment, the hydrologic cycle with emphasis on surface runoff and ground water contamination is studied. Those students seeking secondary certification in science will enroll, as a bridge toward their student teaching experience, in an additional content course within a science discipline that is concurrently taught with a science methods course. Emphasizing inquiry-based activities, these bridge courses also focus on developing integrated understandings of the sciences. The continuum extends beyond the student teaching experience by tracking cohorts of science teachers during their in-service years. With funding from the National Science Foundation's Teacher Professional Continuum program, we are conducting research on this inquiry-based professional development approach for K-8 teachers across this continuum.

Madsen, J.; Allen, D.; Donham, R.; Fifield, S.; Ford, D.; Shipman, H.; Dagher, Z.

2007-12-01

467