Sample records for physical weathering processes

  1. Weathering

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Pamela Gore

    1995-08-29

    This course handout covers the processes and effects of weathering. The purpose of this handout is to contrast weathering and erosion, contrast and discuss chemical and mechanical weathering, list the products resulting from the chemical weathering of igneous rocks, and list and discuss the factors that influence the type and rate of rock weathering. Many photographs accompany this summary which depict weathered landscapes. Links are provided to the online Physical Geology resources at Georgia Perimeter College.

  2. The Chemical Weathering End Member of the Coupled Physical and Chemical Weathering System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. K. Navarre; C. I. Steefel; P. B. Sak; S. L. Brantley

    2004-01-01

    It is widely recognized that physical and chemical weathering processes are coupled. In natural systems erosion is constantly removing chemically weathered material making it difficult to decouple physical and chemical contributions. In order to understand these complicated systems it will be necessary to study end-member systems where processes that control chemical and physical weathering can be considered separately. We use

  3. Soil Genesis and Development, Lesson 2 - Processes of Weathering

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Weathering processes — which include physical, chemical, and biological — contribute to the development of soil. The learning objectives of the lesson are: 1) Define and distinguish physical, chemical, and biological weathering processes; and 2) Describe how rock and mineral properties and environm...

  4. Influence of Weathering on Physical and Mechanical Properties of Mudstone

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pankaj Bhattarai; Hideaki Marui; Binod Tiwari; Naoki Watanabe; Gyanu R. Tuladhar; Kiyomichi Aoyama

    Majority of the landslides in Niigata prefecture, Japan are occurred at Neogene sedimentary soft rocks. Weathering of such rocks is an important geological, environmental and engineering process. In order to study the chemical and physical weathering and their impact on the shear strength of the soil mass, soil samples were collected from ground surface to 15 m depth at two

  5. Weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ms. Williams

    2005-10-25

    Have you ever wondered how the weather man, or meteorolgist, on TV knows what to say about tomorrow\\'s weather? It\\'s because they have certain tools that they use that help them predict what the weather will be. Throughout this school year you are going to be making tools and predicting weather just like a meterorologist! Task You are going to be weather forcasters! You are going to record and track weather patterns throughout the year. You will also use weather tools to make predictions about the weather like real weather forecasters! The Process 1. First we need to learn a little bit about weather so ...

  6. Physical weathering and modification of a rhyolitic hyaloclastite in Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Vet, S. J.; Mittelmeijer-Hazeleger, M. C.; Braakhekke, J. J. M.; Cammeraat, L. H.

    2014-06-01

    Fragmental volcanic glass or `hyaloclastite' is a common glaciovolcanic eruption product that is formed in large abundance during basaltic, andesitic and rhyolitic subglacial eruptions. The physical weathering of rhyolitic hyaloclastites differs notably from basaltic hyaloclastites due to differences in cementation and edifice consolidation. As rhyolitic glasses are also much rarer, comparatively little is known about their physical weathering and fracturing characteristics. In the presented study, we provide a process-oriented analysis of the physical modification of subglacially erupted rhyolitic hyaloclastites from the Bláhnúkur edifice in Torfajökull (Iceland). Frost weathering experiments were performed to determine how vesicular glass particles fragment to finer particle sizes. The surficial porosity of the glass drives such frost weathering through the process of pore pressurisation and was quantified using high-pressure mercury intrusion. Uniaxial compression experiments were carried out to understand how the glass structure responds to the application of external stress. The observed fracturing in both experimental treatments was found to adhere to fractal statistics, which allowed the compression experiments to be used in conjunction with the frost weathering experiments for inferring the fracturing characteristics of rhyolitic volcanic glasses. Transport processes by wind and gravity were simulated by long-duration abrasion experiments in rock tumblers (through granular avalanching), but these low-energy particle interactions were not found to significantly abrade particles. A notable result from our fragmentation experiments was the production of <10 ?m particles. This size range is considered respirable and illustrates how physical weathering can continuously create potentially harmful ash textures; a process which is often overlooked in health hazard assessments after volcanic eruptions. Fragmentation by post-eruptive weathering can lead to overestimations of the fine ash fraction produced by syneruptive fragmentation and granulometric studies therefore need to be appreciative of the effects of such secondary fracturing processes.

  7. Space Physics Beyond Space Weather

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pulkkinen, T. I.

    2002-12-01

    Dictated by nature, space physics throughout its history has advanced through large observational programs: The International Geophysical Year in 1957-1958 produced the first series of simultaneous auroral pictures from multiple stations. These images led to the definition of the "auroral substorm" and its connection to "the magnetosphericsubstorm". During the International Magnetospheric Study 1976-1979 coordinated space-borne and ground-based measurements guided the way to the conclusion that magnetospheric substorms were powered by magnetic reconnection. Recently, the International Solar Terrestrial Physics Program has completed our picture of the large-scale energy flow from the Sun through the solar wind into the magnetosphere and ionosphere. From the early space age, two still open key questions have been the physics of magnetic reconnection in the fully collisionless plasma environment and the physics of (relativistic) particle acceleration in the magnetosphere. This talk aims at learning from the advances made by the earlier programs, outlining some of the still open issues, and suggesting ways how to entangle them through strong coupling of theory, numerical simulation, ground-based and space-borne observations as well as enhanced collaboration between neighboring fields.

  8. S-290 Unit 4: Basic Weather Processes

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-09-14

    The “S-290 Unit 4: Basic Weather Processes” distance learning module summarizes atmospheric structure and composition, the Sun-Earth radiation budget, weather elements used to describe the atmosphere, the greenhouse effect, and temperature lags observed both daily and seasonally. The content introduces the concepts of pressure, atmospheric heating, and temperature and provides a basis for understanding weather topics that are explored in more detail in other modules of the Intermediate Wildland Fire Behavior Course.

  9. Quantifying the physical and chemical mass transfer processes for the fate and transport of Co(II)EDTA in a partially-weathered limestone shale saprolite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gwo, Jin-Ping; Mayes, Melanie A.; Jardine, Philip M.

    2007-03-01

    The objective of the research is to quantify the relative contributions of physical and chemical mass transfer to the movement of Co(II/III)EDTA (chelates of Cobalt and Ethylene Diamine Tetraacetic Acid or EDTA) through a limestone-shale saprolite soil. Saprolite is a collective term referring to partially-weathered bedrock. It exists extensively in the subsurface. Because the parent bedding structures are maintained during the weathering process, saprolite soils are characterized by intensive fractures and secondary deposits of minerals such as Al-, Fe- and Mn-oxides on the fracture surfaces. Movement of reactive species through the soils may be influenced by diffusion into the rock matrix, a physical mass transfer (PMT) process, and interfacial chemical reactions, a chemical mass transfer (CMT) process. The PMT and CMT processes are phenomenologically similar but mechanistically different. In this research, previous laboratory observations from a Br and Co(II)EDTA tracer injection into an undisturbed saprolite soil column were used. Mechanistic reactive transport models were formulated to quantify the PMT and CMT processes. The PMT process was independently characterized by using the non-reactive tracer Br. Model parameters thus obtained were subsequently used as constraints to quantify the CMT processes involving Co(II)EDTA and its oxidation product Co(III)EDTA. Our calculations indicated that the PMT rates of the less reactive Co(III)EDTA were comparable with their theoretical CMT rates. In contrast, for the more reactive species Co(II)EDTA, CMT rates are higher than PMT rates. Evaluations of alternative CMT process models further confirmed one of our hypotheses on the basis of previous experimental understandings. The hypothesis suggested that competition from Fe-oxide for Co(II)EDTA may account for the majority of the decrease of Co(III)EDTA effluent concentrations that resulted in the separation of total Co and Co(III)EDTA breakthrough curves. Because Co(III)EDTA is more mobile than Co(II)EDTA in the subsurface, the results of this research suggest independent quantifications of CoEDTA PMT and CMT processes if laboratory results are to be interpreted correctly and scaled up for field and predictive uses.

  10. The Chemical Weathering End Member of the Coupled Physical and Chemical Weathering System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navarre, A. K.; Steefel, C. I.; Sak, P. B.; Brantley, S. L.

    2004-12-01

    It is widely recognized that physical and chemical weathering processes are coupled. In natural systems erosion is constantly removing chemically weathered material making it difficult to decouple physical and chemical contributions. In order to understand these complicated systems it will be necessary to study end-member systems where processes that control chemical and physical weathering can be considered separately. We use 3 cm weathering rinds developed on basalt clasts within 125 ka fluvial terraces along the Pacific coast of Costa Rica as a proxy for saprolite development in the absence of physical weathering. This highly controlled system enables us to examine the weathering interface in detail. The weathering interface is comprised of thin reaction fronts where element concentrations vary from parent rock to rind concentrations. Electron microprobe data indicate a 2 mm thick reaction front of mobile elements (i.e., Ca and Na) at the interface and ~ 4 mm thick reaction fronts of less mobile elements (i.e., Si). These reaction fronts are 3 orders of magnitude narrower than those recognized at the bedrock-saprolite interface in landscape-scale studies. Iso-volumetric weathering of labradorite and augite has produced a rind of gibbsite and iron oxide. This transition is accompanied by a pronounced change in porosity from <1% in the core to 50% in the rind. Petrographic and SEM images reveal labradorite dissolution coreward of the rind/core interface producing secondary porosity and increased permeability into the core. Reactive transport modeling allows simulation of rind development using appropriate values of diffusion, mineral surface area, and reaction rate. A controlling feature appears to be porosity of the basalt clast which controls both diffusion of reactants and products into and away from the weathering front. Initial reaction-diffusion simulations were based on the assumption of constant porosity so as to understand important controls on the thickness of the reaction front and the rate at which it advances. Results indicate that the initial rate of rind advancement is a mix of interface- and transport-control. However, once a dissolution front is established, the long-term rate of rind advancement becomes transport-limited and shows the parabolic time dependence characteristic of diffusion processes. Field data, however, indicate that rind advance rates are constant through time, suggesting that more complicated transport within the rind simple diffusion. One possibility is that the increase in rind porosity allows for flow through the rind, thus causing the fixed concentration boundary condition to migrate coreward along with the weathering front. Such a mechanism could result in linear rather than parabolic rind advance rate with time. Diffusion rates and mineral surface area were varied to match initial rind advance rates to 2.4x10-4 mm/year calculated from field data. Effective diffusion coefficients for dissolved aqueous species ranged from 0.51x10-5 cm2/sec to 8.57x10-5 cm2/sec for Fe3+ and H+, respectively. Initial rind advance rate (2.1x10-4 mm/yr) and reaction front thickness (2 mm) were closest to observed values when formation factor, labradorite surface area, and augite surface area were 6.7E-5, 1500 m2/m3, and 500 m2/m3, respectively. Further modeling is ongoing to investigate how porosity changes affect transport within the weathering rind and rind advance rate. These modeling efforts will help clarify the coupling of physical and chemical processes at the reaction front.

  11. Weathering

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Smoothstone

    This interactive Flash resource provides information regarding physical and chemical weathering at an introductory physical geology or Earth science level. It includes animations, diagrams, and supplementary information and is suitable for high school or undergraduate students.

  12. Physics 137, Section 1, Fall Semester Severe and Hazardous Weather

    E-print Network

    Hart, Gus

    Physics 137, Section 1, Fall Semester Severe and Hazardous Weather OBSERVATION PROJECTS During project or present one TV-type weather forecast. A list of a few possible observational projects is here of the project, information in the report might include times, dates and places of observations; weather

  13. Weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ms. Lauren

    2010-11-17

    You will learn how to describe and observe changes in weather patterns by completing the following activities. The students will record and report changes in weather on their data sheet. The Process: Read the information on How Air Pressure Affects You. In this article you will see the term barometer. Write its definition. Now look over Weather Facts. Now go to Investigate Climate Conditions and use the weather maker to observe the effects of certain changes. Answer the questions: How much of a change in temperature is needed to make it ...

  14. The Physical Basis of Weather Forecasting & Predictability

    E-print Network

    Read, Peter L.

    ;Outline of lectures · INTRODUCTION ­ Great storm of 1987; French `Lothar' storms of 1999 · WEATHER, forecast evaluation, ensemble forecasting #12;Motivating questions · Weather forecasts familiar on TV...! ­ `Great' storm of 1987; French storms of 1999 · How are Forecasts made? · Why do they sometimes go wrong

  15. Regolith behaviour and physical weathering of clayey mudrock as dependent on seasonal weather conditions in a badland area at Vallcebre, Eastern Pyrenees

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Regüés; Giovanni Pardini; Francesc Gallart

    1995-01-01

    Studies on badland areas in the Vallcebre basin (Pyrenees) suggest that erosion rates are controlled by the weathering rate of mudrocks. To obtain the temporal pattern of physical weathering and its control on the erosive processes, monitoring of regolith temperatures at different aspect, depth and lithology, and periodical determination of regolith moisture and bulk density were carried out. Changes in

  16. Weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ms. Bullough

    2010-06-24

    This lesson is written for fourth grade students. Students will explore weather and the effects it has on their lives. What is weather? video of what is weather Let's take a walk through the weather. Put on your hats and coats! Clouds Cloud Types Clouds - Dan's Wild Weather Page What to Wear? What to Wear? What to Drink? Weather Patterns and Climatic Regions ...

  17. Weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ms. Stearns

    2008-10-25

    This is a first grade weather unit. SEASONS Fall Winter Build a Snowman Spring Summer What things determine and effect the weather? Cloud Precipitation Sunshine Temperature Visibility Wind Direction Wind Force WEATHER VIDEOS Tornado Hurricane Hail Lightning FUN AND GAMES Dress the Bear for the Weather The Great Weather Race Game Weather coloring books for kids ...

  18. Weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mrs. Hyde

    2007-02-08

    Learn all about the aspects of weather that effect us every day. Click here to see a weather forecast for anywhere in the world World Wide Weather Watch See what happens to weather when you change conditions at your house Weather Maker Weather Games ...

  19. Introducing Space Weather to the Standard Physics Curriculum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Barker; I. Doxas

    2002-01-01

    A series of computer based modules is being developed that use the real-life effects of Space Weather to motivate the study of the basic concepts of Electricity and Magnetism at the level of a typical introductory physics course for non-majors. The modules are designed to enable instructors to engage students in exploring problems that are complex enough to be of

  20. Weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Miss Jennie

    2009-10-22

    What are the different types of weather? In this project you will compare different types of weather by drawing pictures and making it into a flip book. First you will begin by learning about the different types of weather. Read about each topic. Then get together with your partner and draw a picture of each type of weather. 1. Thunder storm Thunder storm Thunder storm Kids 2. Lightning Lightning Lightning picture 3. Tornado Tornadoes Tornado Kids 4. ...

  1. Physics 137, Section 1, Winter Semester Introduction to the Atmosphere and Weather

    E-print Network

    Hart, Gus

    Physics 137, Section 1, Winter Semester Introduction to the Atmosphere and Weather OBSERVATIONAL observational project or present one TV-type weather forecast. A list of a few possible observational projects; weather conditions at times of observations, data tables, charts, sketches, graphs, descriptions of what

  2. Multilayer Scintillation Detector for Nuclear Physics Monitoring of Space Weather

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleksandrin, Sergey; Mayorov, Andrey; Koldashov, Sergey; Batischev, Alexey; Lapushkin, Sergey; Gurov, Yury

    The physical characteristics of the multilayer scintillation spectrometer for identification and energy measurement of cosmic electrons, positrons and nuclei are considered in this presentation. The nuclei energy measurement range is 3-100 MeV/nucleon. This spectrometer is planning for space weather monitoring and investigation of solar-magnetospheric and geophysics effects on satellite. These characteristics were estimated by means of computer simulation. The ionization loss fluctuations, ion charge exchange during pass through detector and, especially, scintillation quenching effect (Bircs effect) were taken into account in calculations. The main results are: 1.) Ions mass identification is possible for hydrogen and helium isotopes 2.) Ions charge identification without mass identification is possible for nuclei from lithium to oxygen The preliminary estimation indicate, that including to spectrometer of thin semiconductor detector (SCD) as first layer makes possible charge identification for Z>8. This may be done by means of comparison of ion range in spectrometer with its energy loss in SCD.

  3. Future L5 Missions for Solar Physics and Space Weather

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auchere, Frederic; Gopalswamy, Nat

    Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and corotating interaction regions (CIR) are the sources of intense space weather in the heliosphere. Most of the current knowledge on CMEs accumulated over the past few decades has been derived from observations made from the Sun-Earth line, which is not the ideal vantage point to observe Earth-affecting CMEs (Gopalswamy et al., 2011a,b). In this paper, the advantages of remote-sensing and in-situ observations from the Sun-Earth L5 point are discussed. Locating a mission at Sun-Earth L5 has several key benefits for solar physics and space weather: (1) off the Sun-Earth line view is critical in observing Earth-arriving parts of CMEs, (2) L5 coronagraphic observations can also provide near-Sun space speed of CMEs, which is an important input to models that forecast Earth-arrival time of CMEs, (3) backside and frontside CMEs can be readily distinguished even without inner coronal imagers, (4) preceding CMEs in the path of Earth-affecting CMEs can be identified for a better estimate of the travel time, (5) CIRs reach the L5 point a few days before they arrive at Earth, and hence provide significant lead time before CIR arrival, (6) L5 observations can provide advance knowledge of CME and CIR source regions (coronal holes) rotating to Earth view, and (7) magnetograms obtained from L5 can improve the surface magnetic field distribution used as input to MHD models that predict the background solar wind. The paper also discusses L5 mission concepts that can be achieved in the near future. References Gopalswamy, N., Davila, J. M., St. Cyr, O. C., Sittler, E. C., Auchère, F., Duvall, T. L., Hoeksema, J. T., Maksimovic, M., MacDowall, R. J., Szabo, A., Collier, M. R. (2011a), Earth-Affecting Solar Causes Observatory (EASCO): A potential International Living with a Star Mission from Sun-Earth L5 JASTP 73, 658-663, DOI: 10.1016/j.jastp.2011.01.013 Gopalswamy, N., Davila, J. M., Auchère, F., Schou, J., Korendyke, C. M. Shih, A., Johnston, J. C., MacDowall, R. J., Maksimovic, M., Sittler, E., et al. (2011b), Earth-Affecting Solar Causes Observatory (EASCO): a mission at the Sun-Earth L5, Solar Physics and Space Weather Instrumentation IV. Ed. Fineschi, S. & Fennelly, J., Proceedings of the SPIE, Volume 8148, article id. 81480Z, DOI: 10.1117/12.901538

  4. Identification and modelling of dry weather processes in gully pots.

    PubMed

    Memon, F A; Butler, D

    2002-03-01

    This paper presents the results of a monitoring and modelling programme, carried out to study the processes occurring in gully pots during dry weather. The monitoring programme involved estimation of the change in gully pot liquor quality, under field and laboratory conditions. The contents (i.e. liquor and sludge) of pots draining five different types of roads were monitored over dry periods in the winter and summer. A bench scale study was carried out to study the influence of temperature variations and sludge digestion by-products on gully liquor quality. The change in quality was measured in terms of chemical oxygen demand (COD), dissolved oxygen (DO) and ammonium concentration. The trends for change in COD and DO, were found to be broadly similar for all road types. However, ammonium transformation was found to follow different patterns at different locations. Several dry weather processes, such as COD decay, ammonium transformation, oxygen depletion and uptake by sludge, oxygen transfer from the atmosphere and benthic release of COD, have been identified. Other processes, found to take place during dry weather, include development of a scum layer over the surface of the gully liquor and sludge bulking. A model is proposed which can predict the change in gully liquor quality in terms of COD, DO and ammonium concentrations. Data collected during the study has been used to successfully calibrate and verify the model. PMID:11902790

  5. Weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ms. Caitlin

    2009-10-21

    In the project you will learn about thunderstorms and tornadoes and play a weather matching game. What exactly are thunderstorms and tornadoes? Use your T- chart to explain some facts about a thunderstorm and a tornado as we review each. T-Chart Begin by reviewing what a thunderstorm is and how they form. Thunderstorm information What is a thunderstorm? What are thunderstorms most likely to occur? What causes thunder? Next review what a tornado ...

  6. Process evaluation: Weatherization Residential Assistance Partnership (WRAP Program). [Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-10-01

    The ``Weatherization Residential Assistance Partnership,`` or WRAP program, is a fuel-blind conservation program designed to assist Northeast Utilities` low-income customers to use energy safely and efficiently. Innovative with respect to its collaborative approach and its focus on utilizing and strengthening the existing low-income weatherization service delivery network, and WRAP program offers an interesting model to other utilities which traditionally have relied on for-profit energy service contractors and highly centralized program implementation structures. This report presents the findings of a process evaluation and WRAP customer survey conducted by the Technical Development Corporation (TDC). TDC`s work is one part of a multi-part evaluation project being conducted under the management of ICF Resources, Inc.

  7. Process evaluation: Weatherization Residential Assistance Partnership (WRAP Program)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-10-01

    The Weatherization Residential Assistance Partnership,'' or WRAP program, is a fuel-blind conservation program designed to assist Northeast Utilities' low-income customers to use energy safely and efficiently. Innovative with respect to its collaborative approach and its focus on utilizing and strengthening the existing low-income weatherization service delivery network, and WRAP program offers an interesting model to other utilities which traditionally have relied on for-profit energy service contractors and highly centralized program implementation structures. This report presents the findings of a process evaluation and WRAP customer survey conducted by the Technical Development Corporation (TDC). TDC's work is one part of a multi-part evaluation project being conducted under the management of ICF Resources, Inc.

  8. Weathering and Erosion

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Medina, Philip

    This unit provides an introduction for younger students to the concepts of weathering and erosion. Topics include types of weathering (physical versus chemical), rates of weathering, and weathering products (soil). The section on erosion explains the importance of water and gravity in the process, and discusses some of the more important erosional agents such as wind, water and ice, streams and glaciers. A vocabulary list and downloadable, printable student worksheets are provided.

  9. Physical process Mechanical mechanisms

    E-print Network

    Berlin,Technische Universität

    1 Physical process Generation · Mechanical mechanisms F = m·a · Electric/Magnetic mechanisms F = B·i·l · Fluid dynamic/Hydraulic mechanisms q, p, ij · Thermal/Optical #12;2 Source unit and source mechanisms ­ Monopoles......volume fluctuations ­ Dipoles ......pressure fluctuations

  10. Anvil Forecast Tool in the Advanced Weather Interactive Processing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrett, Joe H., III; Hood, Doris

    2009-01-01

    Meteorologists from the 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) and National Weather Service Spaceflight Meteorology Group (SMG) have identified anvil forecasting as one of their most challenging tasks when predicting the probability of violations of the Lightning Launch Commit Criteria and Space Shuttle Flight Rules. As a result, the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) was tasked to create a graphical overlay tool for the Meteorological Interactive Data Display System (MIDDS) that indicates the threat of thunderstorm anvil clouds, using either observed or model forecast winds as input. The tool creates a graphic depicting the potential location of thunderstorm anvils one, two, and three hours into the future. The locations are based on the average of the upper level observed or forecasted winds. The graphic includes 10 and 20 n mi standoff circles centered at the location of interest, as well as one-, two-, and three-hour arcs in the upwind direction. The arcs extend outward across a 30 sector width based on a previous AMU study that determined thunderstorm anvils move in a direction plus or minus 15 of the upper-level wind direction. The AMU was then tasked to transition the tool to the Advanced Weather Interactive Processing System (AWIPS). SMG later requested the tool be updated to provide more flexibility and quicker access to model data. This presentation describes the work performed by the AMU to transition the tool into AWIPS, as well as the subsequent improvements made to the tool.

  11. Solar Physics, Space Weather, and Wide-field X-ray Telescopes

    E-print Network

    Van Stryland, Eric

    Solar Physics, Space Weather, and Wide-field X-ray Telescopes CREOL & FPCE: The College of Optics of the Earth). The detrimental effects of solar storm induced "space weather" ranges from disruption of our. The National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and NASA are cooperating on a Solar X-ray Imager (SXI

  12. Evidence of Space Weathering Processes Across the Surface of Vesta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pieters, C. M.; Blewett, D. T.; Gaffey, M.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.; De sanctis, M.; Reddy, V.; Coradini, A.; Nathues, A.; Denevi, B. W.; Li, J.; McCord, T. B.; Marchi, S.; Palmer, E. E.; Sunshine, J. M.; Filacchione, G.; Ammannito, E.; Raymond, C. A.; Russell, C. T.

    2011-12-01

    As NASA's Dawn spacecraft explores the surface of Vesta, it has become abundantly clear that Vesta is like no other planetary body visited to date. Dawn is collecting global data at increasingly higher spatial resolution during its one-year orbital mission. The bulk properties of Vesta have previously been linked to the HED meteorites through remote mineral characterization of its surface from Earth-based spectroscopy. A principal puzzle has been why Vesta exhibits relatively unweathered diagnostic optical features compared to other large asteroids. Is this due to the composition of this proto-planet or the space environment at Vesta? Alteration or weathering of materials in space normally develops as the products of several processes accumulate on the surface or in an evolving particulate regolith, transforming the bedrock into fragmental material with properties that may be measurably different from the original. Data from Dawn reveal that the regolith of Vesta is exceptionally diverse. Regional surface units are observed that have not been erased by weathering with time. Several morphologically-fresh craters have excavated bright, mafic-rich materials and exhibit bright ray systems. Some of the larger craters have surrounding subdued regions (often asymmetric) that are lower in albedo and relatively red-sloped in the visible while exhibiting weaker mafic signatures. Several other prominent craters have rim exposures containing very dark material and/or display a system of prominent dark rays. Most, but not all, dark areas associated with craters exhibit significantly lower spectral contrast, suggesting that either a Vesta lithology with an opaque component has been exposed locally or that the surface has been contaminated by a relatively dark impactor. Similarly, most, but not all, bright areas associated with craters exhibit enhanced mafic signatures compared to surroundings. On a regional scale, the large south polar structure and surrounding terrain exhibit relatively strong mafic absorption features, suggesting either a concentration of mafic materials or that materials exposed have been less affected by space weathering products. These combined initial observations indicate some space weathering processes are active in this part of the main asteroid belt, but are highly variable across the surface of Vesta. Such processes include: impacts from wandering asteroidal debris and local mixing at both micro- and macro-scales, irradiation by solar wind and galactic particles, production and distribution of impact breccias or melt products, and local movement of materials to gravity lows (gradual as well as sudden).

  13. Evidence of Space Weathering Processes Across the Surface of Vesta

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pieters, Carle M.; Blewett, David T.; Gaffey, Michael; Mittlefehldt, David W.; CristinaDeSanctis, Maria; Reddy, Vishnu; Coradini, Angioletta; Nathues, Andreas; Denevi, Brett W.; Li, Jian-Yang; McCord, Thomas B.; Marchi, Simone; Palmer, Eric E.; Sunshine, Jessica M.; Filacchione, Gianrico; Ammannito, Eleonora; Raymond, Carol A.; Russell, Christopher T.

    2011-01-01

    As NASA s Dawn spacecraft explores the surface of Vesta, it has become abundantly clear that Vesta is like no other planetary body visited to date. Dawn is collecting global data at increasingly higher spatial resolution during its one-year orbital mission. The bulk properties of Vesta have previously been linked to the HED meteorites through remote mineral characterization of its surface from Earth-based spectroscopy. A principal puzzle has been why Vesta exhibits relatively unweathered diagnostic optical features compared to other large asteroids. Is this due to the composition of this proto-planet or the space environment at Vesta? Alteration or weathering of materials in space normally develops as the products of several processes accumulate on the surface or in an evolving particulate regolith, transforming the bedrock into fragmental material with properties that may be measurably different from the original. Data from Dawn reveal that the regolith of Vesta is exceptionally diverse. Regional surface units are observed that have not been erased by weathering with time. Several morphologically-fresh craters have excavated bright, mafic-rich materials and exhibit bright ray systems. Some of the larger craters have surrounding subdued regions (often asymmetric) that are lower in albedo and relatively red-sloped in the visible while exhibiting weaker mafic signatures. Several other prominent craters have rim exposures containing very dark material and/or display a system of prominent dark rays. Most, but not all, dark areas associated with craters exhibit significantly lower spectral contrast, suggesting that either a Vesta lithology with an opaque component has been exposed locally or that the surface has been contaminated by a relatively dark impactor. Similarly, most, but not all, bright areas associated with craters exhibit enhanced mafic signatures compared to surroundings. On a regional scale, the large south polar structure and surrounding terrain exhibit relatively strong mafic absorption features, suggesting either a concentration of mafic materials or that materials exposed have been less affected by space weathering products. These combined initial observations indicate some space weathering processes are active in this part of the main asteroid belt, but are highly variable across the surface of Vesta. Such processes include: impacts from wandering asteroidal debris and local mixing at both micro- and macro-scales, irradiation by solar wind and galactic particles, production and distribution of impact breccias or melt products, and local movement of materials to gravity lows (gradual as well as sudden).

  14. Stealth CMEs: A Challenge for Solar Physics and Space Weather

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nitta, N.; Srivastava, N.

    2013-12-01

    It is commonly believed that coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are a primary driver of intense disturbances in the inner heliosphere. Although many of these CMEs are associated with clear solar transient phenomena such as flares, there have been a number of events without unambiguous solar origin, presenting a significant challenge not only for solar physics research, but also for space weather forecasts. For example, nearly 20% of major geomagnetic storms in solar cycle 23 that involved the interplanetary counterparts of CMEs (i.e., ICMEs) did not leave compelling signatures in EUV or X-ray images. We now tend to consider such orphan CMEs to be 'stealth' CMEs as first identified in data from the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO) during last solar minimum. In the meantime the sensitivity of coronal observations has been tremendously improved as the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) was launched in February 2010; SDO carries the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA), which provides high-cadence, full-disk images in a broad temperature range as sampled in EUV wavelengths. In principle, AIA should allow us to trace the origin of every Earth-directed CME observed as a limb event by the coronagraphs (COR-1, COR-2, HI-1 and HI-2) on STEREO. In reality, however, we have at least a handful of ICMEs whose origin may not clearly be tracked down to the low corona. Some of them were indeed geo-effective, further complicated by other factors including co-rotating interaction regions (CIRs). Here we give a survey of these events, discussing AIA and STEREO observations of their onsets and propagations in reference to their in-situ manifestations. We list key questions that should be answered by observational and modeling work in order to get more solid understanding of the origin of geomagnetic storms.

  15. Physical mechanisms of solar variability influence on weather and climate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sergei Avakyan

    2010-01-01

    Numerous researches into correlation of weather and climate characteristics with solar and geomagnetic activity confirm that such correlation does exist. However there is some uncertainty in interpretation of the Sun-weather-climate relations. The paper considers the main causes of this uncertainty which are as follows - the lack of permanent monitoring data on ionizing solar EUV\\/X-ray radiation including periods of flares;

  16. Chemical and Physical Weathering Field and Lab Experiment: Development and Testing of Hypotheses

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Lisa Greer

    The primary purpose of this exercise is to learn about chemical and/or physical weathering rates and processes via a self-designed experiment. A second, but important, goal of this exercise is to introduce students to all aspects of the scientific process via a mini-research experience. As such, the instructions for the exercise are somewhat open-ended and specific outcomes can vary widely depending on the focus of each student working group. This exercise is presented in two parts (chemical and physical weathering). Students break into groups that focus on one type of weathering and then share results with the other working groups at the termination of the project period. First, students use geologic and topographic maps to create hypotheses concerning the nature (composition, grain size distribution, sorting, shape, etc.) of sediments that will be found at several pre-determined field locations. They then design an experiment or data collection protocol to test their hypotheses using samples collected from the field (alternately, students could be given samples to work with). Students are responsible (with guidance when needed) for all aspects of the experiment and often must learn to adapt field and analytical data collection techniques throughout the project period. The exercise culminates in a scientific paper that is rigorously edited by the instructor and a presentation to other student working groups in the classroom. A discussion of 'lessons learned' can be very valuable at this time as results must be presented in a larger context (does this 'fit' with what you learn in your textbook?).

  17. Evidence for Physical Weathering of Iron Meteorite Meridiani Planum (Heat Shield Rock) on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashley, J. W.; McCoy, T. J.; Schröder, C.

    2009-12-01

    Meteorites on the surfaces of other solar system bodies can provide natural experiments for monitoring weathering processes. In the case of Mars, clues to the more subtle aspects of water occurrence and reaction may be revealed by the effects of highly sensitive aqueous alteration processes, while physical processes may be recorded through aeolian abrasion effects. Over the past 2000 sols, the two Mars Exploration Rover (MER) spacecraft have formally identified a minimum of 11 meteorite candidates [1-3], with many more unofficial candidates likely, posing an intriguing set of questions concerning their chemical, mineralogical, and morphological conditions. Five meteorite candidates, including the newly discovered MER-B rock Block Island, and one confirmed meteorite [Meridiani Planum (MP; originally Heat Shield Rock)] [4] have been investigated with the rover arm instruments. All contain levels of ferric iron, which should not be present in pristine samples (i.e. without fusion crust and/or alteration phases). Moreover, preliminary morphologic evidence contributes to the case of possible chemical weathering in Block Island. Scrutiny of a Microscopic Imager (MI) mosaic of MP shows clear evidence for both localized aeolian sculpting, and the Widmanstätten pattern common to sliced and acid-etched surfaces of many iron-nickel meteorites. These latter features are manifest as millimeter-sized chevrons and subparallel linearities, most prominent across a partially brushed surface approximately 3 x 2 cm in area. Similar patterns are observed on a number of hot and cold desert meteorites (e.g. Drum Mountain and Ft. Stockton), and are attributed to physical ablation by sand grains differentially weathering the kamacite and taenite lamellae within the rock. A similar or identical process is interpreted as responsible for the features observed in MP. Other macro-scale features on MP are of questionable weathering origin. While some prefer a regmaglypt interpretation for the cavities in MP, others question whether differential weathering (either aqueous or physical) of softer sulfide (troilite) nodules or other inclusions such as schreibersite [5] in the metal matrix may be at least partly responsible. A discontinuous coating of darker material, interpreted to be oxide (though it is uncertain whether this is relict fusion crust or weathering rind), appears in the MI images also to have been polished and sculpted by abrasive forces. Laboratory experiments designed to address the requirements for iron shaping by wind abrasion would help provide constraints on the wind velocities involved in these processes. Preliminary results for Block Island display many features that are also consistent with aeolian abrasion. References: [1] Schröder C. et al. (2008) JGR 113, E06S22, doi:10.1029/2007JE002990. [2] Ashley J. W. et al. (2009) LPSC XL. [3] Schröder C. et al. (2009) LPSC XL. [4] Connolly H.C.J. et al. (2006) Meteoritical Bulletin #90, Meteoritics and Planet Sci. 41(9): p. 1383-1418. [5] Fleischer I. et al. (2009) Meteoritics and Planet Sci. 44, p. A70.

  18. Efficient Methods of Doppler Processing for Coexisting Land and Weather Clutter

    E-print Network

    Candan, Cagatay

    Efficient Methods of Doppler Processing for Coexisting Land and Weather Clutter C¸ a~gatay Candan@metu.edu.tr, aoyilmaz@metu.edu.tr Abstract--The joint suppression of returns from land and weather clutter is required in many radar applications. Although the optimal method of land-weather clutter suppression is known

  19. Antarctic glaciers and rock weathering: Exploring chemical and mineralogy processes within the blue ice fields

    E-print Network

    Guo, Zaoyang

    Antarctic glaciers and rock weathering: Exploring chemical and mineralogy processes within the blue of Antarctic ordinary chondrites that have undergone different degrees of weathering. Questions to be asked the Antarctic ice, and meltwater pools, so that weathering rates can be determined. The student will work

  20. Physics as Information Processing

    SciTech Connect

    D'Ariano, Giacomo Mauro [QUIT Group, Dipartimento di Fisica 'A. Volta', 27100 Pavia (Italy) and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Gruppo IV, Sezione di Pavia (Italy)

    2011-03-28

    I review some recent advances in foundational research at Pavia QUIT group. The general idea is that there is only Quantum Theory without quantization rules, and the whole Physics - including space-time and relativity - is emergent from the quantum-information processing. And since Quantum Theory itself is axiomatized solely on informational principles, the whole Physics must be reformulated in information-theoretical terms: this is the It from bit of J. A. Wheeler.The review is divided into four parts: a) the informational axiomatization of Quantum Theory; b) how space-time and relativistic covariance emerge from quantum computation; c) what is the information-theoretical meaning of inertial mass and of ({h_bar}/2{pi}), and how the quantum field emerges; d) an observational consequence of the new quantum field theory: a mass-dependent refraction index of vacuum. I will conclude with the research lines that will follow in the immediate future.

  1. Dissolution associated with simulated physical weathering of lunar breccia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beiersdorfer, R. E.; Ming, D. W.; Galindo, C.; Golden, D. C.; Wentworth, S. J.; McKay, D. S.

    1997-03-01

    The present examination of a solution in contact with lunar breccia 79135 gives attention to the question as to whether lunar materials can provide a 'soil' for plant growth in lunar base environments. The results obtained show that the essential plant micronutrients Mn, Fe, Cu, and Zn, can be freed from such soil via simulated mechanical weathering.

  2. Space Weathering on 4 Vesta: Processes and Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pieters, C. M.; Blewett, D. T.; Gaffey, M.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.; De Sanctis, M. C.; Reddy, V.; Nathues, A.; Denevi, B. W.; Li, J. Y.; McCord, T. B.; Marchi, S.; Palmer, E. E.; Sunshine, J. M.; Ammannito, E.; Raymond, C. A.; Russell, C. T.

    2012-01-01

    The bulk properties of Vesta have previously been linked directly to the howardite, eucrite, and diogenite (HED) meteorites through remote mineral characterization of its surface from Earth-based spectroscopy [e.g., 1]. A long-standing enigma has been why does Vesta s surface appear to have suffered so little alteration from the space environment, whereas materials exposed on the Moon and some S-type asteroids are significantly changed (grains develop rims containing nano-phase opaques [e.g. 2]). The Dawn spacecraft is well suited to address this issue and is half through its extended mapping phase of this remarkable proto-planet [3]. On a local scale Dawn sees evidence of recent exposures at craters, but distinctive surface materials blend into background at older craters. The presence of space weathering processes are thus evident at Vesta, but the character and form are controlled by the unique environment and geologic history of this small body.

  3. Weathering processes implied from analysis of small Martian avalanche chutes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, R.

    1992-01-01

    It has been proposed that the smaller features of martian spur and gully slope morphology, located along the upper walls of Valles Marineris, are avalanche chutes. A three-dimensional stability back-analysis technique was developed and applied to these small avalanche chutes, yielding average values of cohesion and angle of internal friction for the mobile layer materials on these slopes at the time of each slope failure. Generally, the analysis showed that at the time of each slope failure material strengths had been reduced to those of moderately cohesive debris down through depths of tens of meters. These results have implications and possible constraints for the nature and rate of martian weathering processes.

  4. Weathering Experiment

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Pete Stelling

    After discussing weathering and erosion in class, students are asked to do a small amount of research on different types of chemical weathering, physical weathering, and erosion processes (mostly out of their textbook). Outside of class students then dirty at least four similar dishes with the same type, thickness and aerial extent of food, preferably baked on to ensure maximum stick. One dish is set aside as a control (no weathering or erosion will occur for that dish). For each of the remaining three dishes, students devise an experiment that mimics some sort of chemical weathering, physical weathering, or erosion process (freeze/thaw, sand abrasion, oxidation, etc.). Prior to the experiments, the thickness of food is measured. Experiments are timed, and at the end of the experiment each plate is turned over to determine how much which method removed the greatest aerial extent of food. Experimental results are compared to the control plate to determine the actual effectiveness. Erosion/weathering rates are determined by dividing the thickness of food removed by the experimental time. Students then calculate how long it would take to remove a pile of food the size of the Geology building (assume a 50 m radius sphere), and to remove an amount of food equivalent to the depth of the Grand Canyon. Students then compare these results to rock erosion and weathering rates, performing similar calculations using these "real" rates (see the full project description for details). Photos of each step and the scientists are encouraged in their 2-3 page writeup.

  5. Physical weathering of marbles caused by anisotropic thermal expansion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Siegesmund; K. Ullemeyer; T. Weiss; E. K. Tschegg

    2000-01-01

    Marbles as building stones as well as in their natural environments show complex weathering phenomena. The most important\\u000a damage scenario is based on the highly anisotropic thermal expansion coefficient ? of calcite, i.e. extreme expansion parallel and contraction normal to the crystallographic c-axis. Therefore, the rock fabric\\u000a and especially the lattice-preferred orientation (texture) of calcite and\\/or dolomite as the predominant

  6. Weather Modification: Finding Common Ground

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Garstang; Roelof Bruintjes; Robert Serafin; Harold Orville; Bruce Boe; William Cotton; Joseph Warburton

    2005-01-01

    Research and operational approaches to weather modification expressed in the National Research Council's 2003 report on ``Critical Issues in Weather Modification Research'' and in the Weather Modification Association's response to that report form the basis for this discussion. There is agreement that advances in the past few decades over a broad front of understanding physical processes and in technology have

  7. Zeolite Formation and Weathering Processes in Dry Valleys of Antartica: Martian Analogs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, E. K., Jr.; Wentworth, S. J.; McKay, D. S.; Socki, R. A.

    2004-01-01

    Terrestrial weathering processes in cold-desert climates such as the Dry Valleys of Antarctica may provide an excellent analog to chemical weathering and diagenesis of soils on Mars. Detailed studies of soil development and the chemical and mineralogical alterations occurring within soil columns in Wright Valley, Antarctica show incredible complexity in the upper meter of soil. Previous workers noted the ice-free Dry Valleys are the best terrestrial approximations to contemporary Mars. Images returned from the Pathfinder and Spirit landers show similarities to surfaces observed within the Dry Valleys. Similarities to Mars that exist in these valleys are: mean temperatures always below freezing (-20 C), no rainfall, sparse snowfall-rapidly removed by sublimation, desiccating winds, diurnal freeze-thaw cycles (even during daylight hours), low humidity, oxidative environment, relatively high solar radiation and low magnetic fields . The Dry Valley soils contain irregular distributions and low abundances of soil microorganisms that are somewhat unusual on Earth. Physical processes-such as sand abrasion-are dominant mechanisms of rock weathering in Antarctica. However, chemical weathering is also an important process even in such extreme climates. For example, ionic migration occurs even in frozen soils along liquid films on individual soil particles. It has also been shown that water with liquid-like properties is present in soils at temperatures on the order of approx.-80 C and it has been observed that the percentage of oxidized iron increases with increasing soil age and enrichments in oxidized iron occurs toward the surface. The presence of evaporates is evident and appear similar to "evaporite sites" within the Pathfinder and Spirit sites. Evaporites indicate ionic migration and chemical activity even in the permanently frozen zone. The presence of evaporates indicates that chemical weathering of rocks and possibly soils has been active. Authogenic zeolites have been identified within the soil columns because they are fragile; i.e. they are euhedral, unabraded, and unfractured, strongly suggesting in situ formation. Their presence in Antarctic samples is another indication that diagenic processes are active in cold-desert environments. The presence of zeolites, and other clays along with halites, sulfates, carbonates, and hydrates are to be expected within the soil columns on Mars at the Gusev and Isidis Planitia regions. The presence of such water-bearing minerals beneath the surface supplies one of the requirements to support biological activity on Mars.

  8. Low-Frequency Weather and the Emergence of the Climate Department of Physics, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada

    E-print Network

    Lovejoy, Shaun

    Low-Frequency Weather and the Emergence of the Climate S. Lovejoy Department of Physics, Mc, Paris, France Meteo France, Paris, France We survey atmospheric variability from weather scales up are rapidly quenched, leading to a scaling "low-frequency weather" regime extending out to Le::::: 10

  9. Low-Frequency Weather and the Emergence of the Climate Department of Physics, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada

    E-print Network

    Lovejoy, Shaun

    Low-Frequency Weather and the Emergence of the Climate S. Lovejoy Department of Physics, Mc, Paris, France Météo France, Paris, France We survey atmospheric variability from weather scales up quenched, leading to a scaling "low-frequency weather" regime extending out to c 10­100 years

  10. The Space Physics of Life: Searching for Biosignatures on Habitable Icy Worlds Affected by Space Weathering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, John F.

    2006-01-01

    Accessible surfaces of the most likely astrobiological habitats (Mars, Europa, Titan) in the solar system beyond Earth are exposed to various chemical and hydrologic weathering processes directly or indirectly induced by interaction with the overlying space environment. These processes can be both beneficial, through provision of chemical compounds and energy, and destructive, through chemical dissociation or burial, to detectable presence of biosignatures. Orbital, suborbital, and surface platforms carrying astrobiological instrumentation must survive, and preferably exploit, space environment interactions to reach these habitats and search for evidence of life or its precursors. Experience from Mars suggests that any detection of biosignatures must be accompanied by characterization of the local chemical environment and energy sources including irradiation by solar ultraviolet photons and energetic particles from the space environment. Orbital and suborbital surveys of surface chemistry and astrobiological potential in the context of the space environment should precede targeted in-situ measurements to maximize probability of biosignature detection through site selection. The Space Physics of Life (SPOL) investigation has recently been proposed to the NASA Astrobiology Institute and is briefly described in this presentation. SPOL is the astrobiologically relevant study of the interactions and relationships of potentially? or previously inhabited, bodies of the solar system with the surrounding environments. This requires an interdisciplinary effort in space physics, planetary science, and radiation biology. The proposed investigation addresses the search for habitable environments, chemical resources to support life, and techniques for detection of organic and inorganic signs of life in the context of the space environment.

  11. Image processing for hazard recognition in on-board weather radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, Wallace E. (Inventor); Rand, Timothy W. (Inventor); Uckun, Serdar (Inventor); Ruokangas, Corinne C. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A method of providing weather radar images to a user includes obtaining radar image data corresponding to a weather radar image to be displayed. The radar image data is image processed to identify a feature of the weather radar image which is potentially indicative of a hazardous weather condition. The weather radar image is displayed to the user along with a notification of the existence of the feature which is potentially indicative of the hazardous weather condition. Notification can take the form of textual information regarding the feature, including feature type and proximity information. Notification can also take the form of visually highlighting the feature, for example by forming a visual border around the feature. Other forms of notification can also be used.

  12. A reactive transport perspective on the links between physical erosion rates, fluid flow and chemical weathering rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maher, K.; Kouba, C. M.; Rosen, V. B.; Weinman, B. A.; Yoo, K.; Mudd, S. M.

    2012-12-01

    Chemical weathering rates are theoretically governed by the balance between the time that fluid spends in contact with the rock, or the fluid transit time, and the time required to reach chemical equilibrium. Physical erosion is expected to be the first order control on the chemical equilibrium timescale because the supply of fresh mineral increases the rate of approach to chemical equilibrium. In weathering environments where fluid transit times are long relative to the equilibrium timescale, chemical weathering rates should increase with increasing water flux (or runoff) because the concentration of weathering products is always fixed by chemical equilibrium. By extension, short fluid transit times and/or long chemical equilibrium times result in lower concentrations and a plateau in chemical weathering rates with increasing runoff. To assess the relationship between physical erosion and equilibrium time scales, we analyzed soil water, stream and gas compositions across multiple seasons along three hillslope transects in the Feather River Basin, California, with varying erosion rates but identical lithology, vegetation and climate. We use the depth gradients in solute profiles and mineral saturation states to assess the equilibrium length scales (the depth over which fluids reach chemical equilibrium), which can then be compared to the equilibrium and transit time scales based on water fluxes measured by chloride mass balance. Calculated equilibrium length scales increase from an average of 30-40 cm at high erosion rate transect, to 80 to 100 cm at lower erosion rates. At high erosion rates, the fluids reach chemical equilibrium in the soil zone, and there is little driving force for chemical weathering in the saprolite. At lower erosion rates, the equilibrium length scale extends into the saprolite, while minimal weathering occurs in the soil zone because of passivation of mineral surfaces by secondary minerals. Liquid saturation also increases with decreasing erosion rate—this may favor biological activity that further enhances weathering in the saprolite resulting in the high CO2 levels (ca. 2 to 5%) in the saprolite at low erosion rates. Across all three transects, chemical weathering rates are limited by the rate of fluid flow and not the rate of mineral supply: average infiltration rates are highest at the higher erosion rate transect, resulting in higher rates of chemical denudation. Thermodynamic limitation of chemical weathering rates is consistent with the streamwater concentrations, which show minimal variation with discharge (i.e. chemostatic behavior). A substantial reservoir of immobile solute, which is observed here to increase with increasing erosion rate, appears to play an important role in facilitating thermodynamic limitation. Collectively, these results support the theoretical model for solute production described above, and emphasize the importance of considering the thermodynamic limitations on chemical weathering rates that are set by the physical process of erosion and fluid flow.

  13. Activity 3SOLAR PHYSICS AND TERRESTRIAL EFFECTS 59Space Weather Prediction Center

    E-print Network

    stabilize to a mean air temperature by placing the collector in the shade for 20­30 min or until a checkActivity 3SOLAR PHYSICS AND TERRESTRIAL EFFECTS 2+ 4= 59Space Weather Prediction Center Activity 3 Measuring the Solar Constant Purpose With this activity, we will let solar radiation raise the temperature

  14. Using MSG-SEVIRI Cloud Physical Properties and Weather Radar Observations for the Detection of Cb/TCu Clouds

    E-print Network

    Schmeits, Maurice

    Using MSG-SEVIRI Cloud Physical Properties and Weather Radar Observations for the Detection of Cb (SEVIRI) on board Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) satellites and weather radar reflectivity factors/TCu clouds for the collection of pixels that pass the CCM. In this model, MSG-SEVIRI cloud physical

  15. Coupling of physical erosion and chemical weathering after phases of intense human activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoonejans, Jerome; Vanacker, Veerle; Opfergelt, Sophie; Ameijeiras-Mariño, Yolanda; Kubik, Peter W.

    2014-05-01

    Anthropogenic disturbance of natural vegetation profoundly alters the lateral and vertical fluxes of soil nutrients and particles at the land surface. Human-induced acceleration of soil erosion can thereby result in an imbalance between physical erosion, soil production and chemical weathering. The (de-)coupling between physical erosion and chemical weathering in ecosystems with strong anthropogenic disturbances is not yet fully understood, as earlier studies mostly focused on natural ecosystems. In this study, we explore the chemical weathering intensity for four study sites located in the Internal Zone of the Spanish Betic Cordillera. Most of the sites belong to the Nevado-Filabres complex, but are characterized by different rates of long-term exhumation, 10Be catchment-wide denudation and hill slope morphology. Denudation rates are generally low, but show large variation between the three sites (from 23 to 246 mm kyr-1). The magnitude of denudation rates is consistent with longer-term uplift rates derived from marine deposits, fission-track measurements and vertical fault slip rates. Two to three soil profiles were sampled per study site at exposed ridge tops. All soils overly fractured mica schist, and are very thin (< 60cm). In each soil profile, we sampled 5 depth slices, rock fragments and the (weathered) bedrock. In total, 38 soil and 20 rock samples were analyzed for their chemical composition. The chemical weathering intensity is constrained by the Chemical Depletion Fraction that is based on a chemical mass balance approach using Zr as an immobile element. Chemical weathering accounts for 5 to 35% of the total mass lost due to denudation. We observe systematically higher chemical weathering intensities (CDFs) in sites with lower denudation rates (and vice versa), suggesting that weathering is supply-limited. Our measurements of soil elemental losses from 10 soil profiles suggest that the observed variation in chemical weathering is strongly associated with long-term 10Be derived denudation rates, and tectonic uplift rates. Our data do not provide direct evidence of an imbalance between soil production and chemical weathering, despite more than 2000 years of intense human activity.

  16. UNDERSTANDING SEVERE WEATHER PROCESSES THROUGH SPATIOTEMPORAL RELATIONAL RANDOM FORESTS

    E-print Network

    McGovern, Amy

    , JEFFREY BASARA5, AND JOHN K. WILLIAMS6 Abstract. Major severe weather events can cause a significant loss the formation of tornadoes near strong frontal boundaries, and understanding the translation of drought across. For example, a thunderstorm evolves over time and may eventually produce a tornado through the spatiotemporal

  17. Weathering processes and landforms The International Encyclopedia of Geography: People, the Earth,

    E-print Network

    Dorn, Ron

    ForReview Only Weathering processes and landforms Journal: The International Encyclopedia Keywords: Abstract: The International Encyclopedia of Geography: People, the Earth, Environment illustrate how the appearance of bare-rock landforms relates to rock decay. The last section details

  18. Gombosi Receives 2013 Space Weather and Nonlinear Waves and Processes Prize: Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gombosi, Tamas

    2014-08-01

    It is a great honor to be the recipient of AGU's inaugural Space Weather and Nonlinear Waves and Processes Prize. I am truly humbled by this recognition because there are many other highly deserving colleagues in our research field.

  19. Transitioning From Space Physics Research to Space Weather Application at The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, C. I.

    2003-12-01

    The ability to monitor and predict our near-Earth space environment ("space weather") lags its sister discipline of terrestrial weather studies by years, in both observational and forecast capabilities. However, with current rapid progress in space physics research, and with current and near-future space environment sensors on research and operational satellites, the space weather operational community can reach new levels of maturity. A rapid transition of scientific research results into prototype operational products is especially important. This paper addresses the concept of rapid transition and presents examples carried out recently by scientists at JHU/APL, such as: OVATION (Oval Variation, Assessment, Tracking, Intensity and Online Nowcasting), and real-time geomagnetic activity nowcasting using observations from limited ground magnetometer stations. Several potential future application projects will be discussed as well; these space-environment products are designed to coincide with operationally significant events, such as communication outages or space object tracking.

  20. CHEMICAL WEATHERING AND SOLUTION CHEMISTRY IN ACID FOREST SOILS: DIFFERENTIAL INFLUENCE OF SOIL TYPE, BIOTIC PROCESSES, AND H+ DEPOSITION

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the investigation, weathering rates were calculated for three eastern North American forest soils using five separate estimation techniques. In addition, leaching experiments were performed to examine the influence of selected environmental variables on the weathering process....

  1. Understanding Magnetic Reconnection: The Physical Mechanism Driving Space Weather

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Black, Carrie; Antiochos, Spiro K.; Karpen, Judith T.; Germaschewski, Kai; Bessho, Naoki

    2015-04-01

    The explosive energy release in solar eruptive events is believed to be due to magnetic reconnection. In the standard model for coronal mass ejections (CME) and/or solar flares, the free energy for the event resides in the strongly sheared magnetic field of a filament channel. The pre-eruption force balance consists of an upward force due to the magnetic pressure of the sheared field countered by the downward tension of the overlying unsheared field. Magnetic reconnection disrupts this force balance. Therefore, to understand CME/flare initiation, it is critical to model the onset of reconnection driven by the build-up of magnetic shear. In MHD simulations, the application of a magnetic-field shear is trivial. However, kinetic effects are important in the diffusion region and thus, it is important to examine this process with PIC simulations as well. The implementation of such a driver in PIC methods is nontrivial, however, and indicates the necessity of a true multiscale model for such processes in the solar environment. The field must be sheared self-consistently and indirectly to prevent the generation of waves that destroy the desired system. In the work presented here, we show reconnection in an X-Point geometry due to a velocity shear driver perpendicular to the plane of reconnection.This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Award No. AGS-1331356 and NASA's Living With a Star Targeted Research and Technology program.

  2. Long-term rates of chemical weathering and physical erosion from cosmogenic nuclides and geochemical mass balance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Clifford S. Riebe; James W. Kirchner; Robert C. Finkel

    2003-01-01

    Quantifying long-term rates of chemical weathering and physical erosion is important for understanding the long-term evolution of soils, landscapes, and Earth's climate. Here we describe how long-term chemical weathering rates can be measured for actively eroding landscapes using cosmogenic nuclides together with a geochemical mass balance of weathered soil and parent rock. We tested this approach in the Rio Icacos

  3. Chemical Weathering of Soils from the Dry Valleys of Antarctica: a Terrestrial Analog of Martian Weathering Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, E. K., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Martian soil subjected to chemical weathering processes could contain the following likely constituents: (1) fresh primary silicate material; (2) partially altered primary silicates; (3) secondary minerals, possibly including clay minerals, evaporites, carbonates, sulfates, hydrates, and zeolites; and (4) altered volcanic glass or impact glass. The soil may also include palogonite and other alteration products and secondary minerals. It is unlikely therefore that an equilibrium assemblage of minerals would be present. From the detailed study of the soils from the Dry Valleys of Antarctica, it is obvious that the complex processes in operation produce major changes in the parent materials, depending upon where the constituents reside and the degree to which weathering and diagenesis operates. It is clear that natural near surface environments, even in very cold and dry regions, may produce extremely complex soils. Extreme caution must be taken when interpreting the results and drawing conclusions, especially about possible processes operating in regoliths in cold, arid environments similar to those of the Dry Valleys or Mars.

  4. Topic Physical Process Enterprise Enterprise

    E-print Network

    Topic Physical Process Inputs: Outputs: Enterprise Enterprise Performance Measures and Gaps of collision risk vague). Project Plan weak. No project risk mitigation Gravity Survey Survey logistics Process Graduation Rates Ranking of transition probabilities improvements to improve Enterprise metrics A (who is end

  5. Constraining the physical-chemical conditions of Pleistocene cavernous weathering in Late Paleozoic granites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dill, Harald G.; Weber, Berthold; Gerdes, Axel

    2010-09-01

    Cavernous weathering such as tafoni, alveoles and honeycomb structures have been recorded from a great variety of bedrocks and landforms. In the present study cavernous weathering from late Variscan granites was discussed as to its physical-chemical regime of formation. U/Pb dating yielded a maximum age of 1.52 ± 0.03 Ma. Supergene U mineralization is accompanied by kaolinite, nontronite and Fe(III) phosphates. Based upon Eh-pH diagrams calculated for U-Fe-P mineralization the physical-chemical conditions may be described as oxidizing with pH values fluctuating around neutral at near-ambient temperatures of 25 °C. Alteration occurs in two stages: dissolution of rock-forming minerals and neoformation of hydrosilicates under mildly acidic conditions, followed by phosphate precipitation under near-neutral conditions.

  6. Processing of Indian Doppler Weather Radar data for mesoscale applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy Bhowmik, S. K.; Sen Roy, Soma; Srivastava, Kuldeep; Mukhopadhay, B.; Thampi, S. B.; Reddy, Y. K.; Singh, Hari; Venkateswarlu, S.; Adhikary, Sourav

    2011-03-01

    This paper demonstrates the usefulness of Indian Doppler Weather Radar (DWR) data for nowcasting applications, and assimilation into a mesoscale Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) model. Warning Decision Support System Integrated Information (WDSS-II) developed by National Severe Storm Laboratory (NSSL) and Advanced Regional Prediction System (ARPS) developed at the Centre for Analysis and Prediction, University of Oklahoma are used for this purpose. The study reveals that the WDSS-II software is capable of detecting and removing anomalous propagation echoes from the Indian DWR data. The software can be used to track storm cells and mesocyclones through successive scans. Radar reflectivity mosaics are created for a land-falling tropical cyclone—Khaimuk of 14 November 2008 over the Bay of Bengal using observations from three DWR stations, namely, Visakhapatnam, Machilipatnam and Chennai. Assimilation of the quality-controlled radar data (DWR, Chennai) of the WDSS-II software in a very high-resolution NWP model (ARPS) has a positive impact for improving mesoscale prediction. This has been demonstrated for a land-falling tropical cyclone Nisha of 27 November 2008 of Tamil Nadu coast. This paper also discusses the optimum scan strategy and networking considerations. This work illustrates an important step of transforming research to operation.

  7. Conversion of bedrock to soil and feedback processes between the surface and the weathering front in a deeply weathered regolith, Central Sri Lankan Highlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behrens, Ricarda; Bouchez, Julien; Schuessler, Jan A.; Dultz, Stefan; Hewawasam, Tilak; von Blanckenburg, Friedhelm

    2014-05-01

    In the Sri Lankan highlands denudation rates and chemical weathering rates represent the low-end-member in global weathering rates [1, 2]. Here we explore the causes for these low rates by a detailed soil-mineralogical study of a highly weathered deep saprolite profile developed from charnockite bedrock. Spheroidal weathering of the bedrock characterized the weathering front where rounded corestones are produced at the rock-saprolite interface. The first mineral attacked by weathering was found to be pyroxene but plagioclase is the first mineral depleted to near-completion at the corestone-saprolite-boundary. Weathering of pyroxene is initiated by in situ iron oxidation, leading to an increase of porosity due to micro-cracking [3]. The accrued micro cracks allow for fluid transport and the dissolution of biotite and plagioclase. The strong plagioclase weathering leads to formation of high secondary porosity over a small distance and the final disaggregation of bedrock to saprolite. Sequential extraction showed that the first secondary phases are amorphous oxides from which secondary minerals (gibbsite, kaolinite, goethite and minor amounts of smectites) precipitate. Modeling of the strain formation due to increasing volume during iron oxidation in pyroxene and biotite showed that spheroidal weathering can be explained with this process only if the formation of secondary porosity, due to a negative volume budget during primary mineral weathering to secondary phases, occurs. As oxidation is the first occurring reaction, O2 is a rate limiting factor for chemical weathering in this setting. Hence the supply of oxygen and the consumption at depth connects processes at the weathering front with those at the surface as a feedback mechanism. Advective and diffusive transport modeling shows that the feedback will be much more pronounced with dominating diffusive transport. Due to the low porosity of the bedrock the O2 transport in the pristine bedrock occurs via diffusion. The slow weathering rate is, beside tectonic quiescence, related to this feedback and to lithological factors such as low porosity and the amount of Fe-bearing primary minerals. 1. Hewawasam, T., et al., Slow advance of the weathering front during deep, supply-limited saprolite formation in the tropical Highlands of Sri Lanka. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 2013. 118: p. 202-230. 2. von Blanckenburg, F., T. Hewawasam, and P. Kubik, Cosmogenic nuclide evidence for low weathering and denudation in the wet tropical Highlands of Sri Lanka. J. Geoph. Res., 2004. 109: p. doi10.1029/2003JF000049. 3. Buss, H.L., et al., Weathering of the Rio Blanco quartz diorite, Luquillo Mountains, Puerto Rico: Coupling oxidation, dissolution, and fracturing. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 2008. 72(18): p. 4488-4507.

  8. Development of alteration rinds by oxidative weathering processes in Beacon Valley, Antarctica, and implications for Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvatore, M. R.; Mustard, J. F.; Head, J. W.; Cooper, R. F.; Marchant, D. R.; Wyatt, M. B.

    2013-08-01

    Alteration of fresh rock surfaces proceeds very rapidly in most terrestrial environments so that initial stages of modification of newly exposed surfaces are quickly masked by subsequent aqueous weathering processes. The hyper-arid and hypo-thermal environment of Beacon Valley, Antarctica, is limited in terms of available liquid water and energy available for alteration, which severely slows weathering processes so that the initial stages of alteration can be studied in detail. We report on the nature of initial chemical alteration of the Ferrar Dolerite in Beacon Valley, Antarctica, using a multiplicity of approaches to characterize the process. We suggest that initial chemical alteration is primarily driven by cation migration in response to the oxidizing environment. Morphological studies of altered rock surfaces reveal evidence of small-scale leaching and dissolution patterns as well as physical erosion due to surface weakening. Within the alteration front, mineral structures are largely preserved and alteration is only indicated by discrete zones of discoloration. Mineralogical investigations expose the complexity of the alteration process; visible/near-infrared reflectance and mid-infrared emission spectroscopy reveal significant variations in mineralogical contributions that are consistent with the introduction of oxide and amorphous phases at the surfaces of the rocks, while X-ray diffraction analyses reveal no definitive changes in mineralogy or material properties. Chemical analyses reveal large-scale trends that are consistent with cation migration and leaching, while small-scale electron microprobe analyses indicate that chemical variations associated with magmatic processes are still largely preserved within the alteration rind. This work confirms the incomplete and immature chemical alteration processes at work in the McMurdo Dry Valleys. Liquid water is not a significant contributor to the alteration process at this early stage of rind development, but assists in the removal of alteration products and their local accumulation in the surrounding sediments. These results also suggest that the McMurdo Dry Valleys (and Beacon Valley, in particular) are relevant terrestrial analogs to hyper-arid and hypo-thermal alteration processes that may be dominant on the martian surface.

  9. Understanding space weather to shield society

    E-print Network

    Schrijver, Karel

    Understanding space weather to shield society Improving understanding and forecasts of space weather requires addressing scientific challenges within the network of physical processes that connect the Sun to society. The roadmap team identified the highest-priority areas within the Sun-Earth space-weather

  10. The Colorado Student Space Weather Experiment : A CubeSat for Space Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palo, Scott; Li, Xinlin; Gerhardt, David; Turner, Drew; Hoxie, V.; Kohnert, Rick; Batiste, Susan

    Energetic particles, electrons and protons either directly associated with solar flares or trapped in the terrestrial radiation belt, have a profound space weather impact. A National Science Foundation supported 3U CubeSat mission with a single instrument, Relativistic Electrons and Proton Telescope integrated little experiment (REPTile), is proposed to address fundamental scientific questions relating to these high energy particles. Of key importance are the relation-ship between solar flares and energetic particles and the acceleration and loss mechanism of outer radiation belt electrons. REPTile, operating in a highly inclined low earth orbit, will measure differential fluxes of relativistic electrons in the energy range of 0.5-3.5 MeV and pro-tons in 10-40 MeV. The Colorado Student Space Weather Experiment cubesat will be designed, integrated and testing by students at the University of Colorado under the oversight of pro-fessional engineers with the Laboratory of Atmospheric and Space Physics who have extensive space hardware experience. Our design philosophy is to use commercially off the shelf (COTS) parts where available and only engage in detailed designed where COTS parts cannot meet the system needs. The top level science requirements for the mission have driven the system and subsystem level performance requirements and the specific design choices such as a passive magnetic attitude system and instrument design. In this paper we will present details of the CSSWE design and management approach. Specifically we will discuss the top level science requirements for the mission and show that these measurements are novel and will address open questions in the scientific community. The overall system architecture resulting from a flow-down of these requirements will be presented with a focus on the novel aspects of the system including the instrument design. Finally we will discuss how this project is organized and man-aged as part of the Department of Aerospace Engineering graduate projects course sequence along with the integration of professional engineers in the program. It is often underappreciated that the management of a student project, given the transient nature of the students in the program, is more challenging than many of the technical aspects. We will discuss our process to managing this project risk along with our pedagological philosophy for student learning and its relationship to a small satellite program.

  11. Chemical weathering processes in the Great Artesian Basin: Evidence from lithium and silicon isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pogge von Strandmann, Philip A. E.; Porcelli, Don; James, Rachael H.; van Calsteren, Peter; Schaefer, Bruce; Cartwright, Ian; Reynolds, Ben C.; Burton, Kevin W.

    2014-11-01

    Variations in lithium and silicon isotope ratios in groundwaters of the Great Artesian Basin in Australia, and the causes of these variations, have been explored. The chemistries of Li and Si in groundwater are influenced by the dissolution of primary phases, the formation of secondary minerals, and the reaction of solid phases with dissolved constituents, while isotopic variations are generated by uptake into clays, which preferentially incorporate the light isotopes. The lithium isotopic composition (expressed as ? 7Li) of the groundwaters ranges from +9 to +16‰ , and clearly reflects changes in aquifer conditions. Reaction-transport modelling indicates that changes in Li concentrations are principally controlled by the ratio of the weathering rate of primary minerals to the precipitation rate of secondary minerals, whereas ? 7Li is affected by the extent of isotope fractionation during secondary mineral formation (which is dependent on mineralogy). The patterns of groundwater Si concentrations and ? 30Si values versus flow distance suggest that Si is at steady state in the aquifer. The ? 30Si value of most of the groundwater samples is close to -1‰ , which is significantly lower than the ? 30Si value of the reservoir rocks (?0‰ ). Since precipitation of clays preferentially removes the light Si isotopes from solution, the most plausible explanation for these low groundwater ? 30Si values is addition of Si by dissolution of isotopically light secondary minerals. These data, together with model calculations, show that Li isotopes are extremely sensitive to changes in the chemical and physical conditions in the aquifer, whereas Si is not. Importantly, the model suggests that even in large aquifers with long fluid residence times, where steady-state would be expected to be reached, the concentrations and isotopic fractionation of trace elements are not controlled by Li adsorption. The model developed here provides a basis for using Li isotopes measured in groundwaters and surface waters to constrain weathering processes.

  12. Space Weather data processing and Science Gateway for the Van Allen Probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romeo, G.; Barnes, R. J.; Weiss, M.; Fox, N. J.; Mauk, B.; Potter, M.; Kessel, R.

    2013-12-01

    A near real-time data processing pipeline for the Space Weather broadcast data from the Van Allen Probes is presented. The Van Allen Probes broadcasts a sub-set of the science data in real-time when not downlinking the principal science data. This broadcast is received by several ground stations and relayed to APL in near real time to be ingested into the space weather processing pipeline. This pipeline processes the available level zero space weather data into higher level science data products. These products are made available to the public via the Van Allen Probes Science Gateway website (http://athena.jhuapl.edu). The website acts as pivotal point though which all other instrument SOC's can be accessed. Several other data products (e.g KP/DST indices) and tools (e.g orbit calculator) are made also available to the general public.

  13. Physical Processing of Cometary Nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weissman, Paul R.; Stern, S. Alan

    1997-01-01

    Cometary nuclei preserve a cosmo-chemical record of conditions and processes in the primordial solar nebula, and possibly even the interstellar medium. However, that record is not perfectly preserved over the age of the solar system due to a variety of physical processes which act to modify cometary surfaces and interiors. Possible structural and/or internal processes include: collisional accretion, disruption, and reassembly during formation; internal heating by long and short-lived radionuclides; amorphous to crystalline phase transitions, and thermal stresses. Identified surface modification processes include: irradiation by galactic cosmic rays, solar protons, UV photons, and the Sun's T Tauri stage mass outflow; heating by passing stars and nearby supernovae; gardening by debris impacts; the accretion of interstellar dust and gas and accompanying erosion by hypervelocity dust impacts and sputtering; and solar heating with accompanying crust formation. These modification processes must be taken into account in both the planning and the interpretation of the results of a Comet Nucleus Sample Return Mission. Sampling of nuclei should be done at as great a depth below the surface crust as technically feasible, and at vents or fissures leading to exposed volatiles at depth. Samples of the expected cometary crust and near-surface layers also need to be returned for analysis to achieve a better understanding of the effects of these physical processes. We stress that comets are still likely less modified dm any other solar system bodies, but the degree of modification can vary greatly from one comet to the next.

  14. [Role of microscopic fungi in the process of weathering of pegmatite deposit rocks and minerals].

    PubMed

    Avakian, Z A; Karavaiko, G I; Mel'nikova, E O; Krutsko, V S; Ostroushko, Iu I

    1981-01-01

    The object of this work was to study the effect of microscopic fungi isolated from the weathering zone of a pegmatite deposit on the transport of elements and the degradation of rocks and minerals. Regardless of the chemical composition of rocks and minerals, microscopic fungi accelerated the leaching of elements as compared to the purely chemical process. The extraction of Li, Si, Al and Fe under the action of microorganisms increased by factors of 1.4-1.7, 2.7-4.0, 5.0-8.7 and 4-18, respectively. In the case of chemical weathering, the extraction of elements occurred at a high rate only at the beginning; then the process either decelerated or stopped. The mechanism of action of microscopic fungi on rocks and minerals is discussed as well as the role of these microorganisms in the weathering of spodumene and the surrounding rocks, pegmatites an shales, which occurs in the zone of hypergenesis. PMID:7194415

  15. Chemical weathering processes in the Yalong River draining the eastern Tibetan Plateau, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Si-Liang; Chetelat, Benjamin; Yue, Fujun; Zhao, Zhiqi; Liu, Cong-Qiang

    2014-07-01

    To better understand chemical weathering and controlling processes in the Yalong River of the eastern Tibetan Plateau, this study presents major ion concentrations and stable isotopes of the dissolved loads. The isotopic compositions (?13C-DIC, ?34S and ?18O-SO4) of the dissolved loads are very useful to quantify solute sources and define the carbon budget related with chemical weathering in riverine systems. The isotopic composition of sulphate demonstrates that most of the sulphate is derived from sulphide oxidation, particularly in the upper reach of the Yalong River. The correlations between ?13C-DIC, water chemistry and isotopes of sulphate, suggest that the carbon dynamics are mainly affected by carbonate weathering by sulphuric acid and equilibration processes. Approximately 13% of the dissolved inorganic carbon in the Yalong River originates from carbonate weathering by strong acid. The CO2 consumption rates are estimated to be 2.8 × 105 mol/km2/yr and 0.9 × 105 mol/km2/yr via carbonate and silicate weathering in the Yalong River, respectively. In this study, the influence of sulphide oxidation and metamorphic CO2 on the carbon budget is estimated for the Yalong River draining the eastern Tibetan Plateau.

  16. a 100% Renewable Power System for Europe -- let the Weather and Physics DECIDE!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greiner, Martin; Heide, Dominik; Rasmussen, Morten; Andresen, Gorm

    2012-01-01

    The design of sustainable energy systems is no longer only the domain of politics, economics and engineering. Mathematical physics is able to contribute with its generic understanding of everything. A new modelling approach is presented and applied to design a fully renewable European power system. This approach is based on weather data with good spatio-temporal resolution, which is first converted into wind and solar power generation and then used to derive estimates on the optimal mix between the renewable resources and the storage needs.

  17. Pb isotope systematics in volcanic river system: Constraints about weathering processes

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Pb isotope systematics in volcanic river system: Constraints about weathering processes Ph. NEGREL.negrel@brgm.fr, r.millot@brgm.fr, e.petelet@brgm.fr, We present a series of lead isotopes in soils and sediments developed on volcanic rocks forming a small watershed flowing through the Massif Central (France

  18. Major ion chemistry and weathering processes in the Midyan Basin, northwestern Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Ghrefat, Habes A; Batayneh, Awni; Zaman, Haider; Zumlot, Taisser; Elawadi, Eslam; Nazzal, Yousef

    2013-10-01

    Chemical characteristics of 72 groundwater samples collected from Midyan Basin have been studied to evaluate major ion chemistry together with the geochemical and weathering processes controlling the water composition. Water chemistry of the study area is mainly dominated by Na, Ca, SO4, and Cl. The molar ratios of (Ca?+?Mg)/total cations, (Na?+?K)/total cations, (Ca?+?Mg)/(Na?+?K), (Ca?+?Mg)/(HCO3?+?SO4), (Ca?+?Mg)/HCO3, and Na/Cl reveal that water chemistry of the Midyan Basin is controlled by evaporite dissolution (gypsum and/or anhydrite, and halite), silicate weathering, and minor contribution of carbonate weathering. The studied groundwater samples are largely undersaturated with respect to dolomite, gypsum, and anhydrite. These waters are capable of dissolving more of these minerals under suitable physicochemical conditions. PMID:23609922

  19. Shenandoah National Park Phenology Project-Weather data collection, description, and processing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, John W.; Aiello, Danielle P.; Osborne, Jesse D.

    2010-01-01

    The weather data described in this document are being collected as part of a U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) study of changes in Shenandoah National Park (SNP) landscape phenology (Jones and Osbourne, 2008). Phenology is the study of the timing of biological events, such as annual plant flowering and seasonal bird migration. These events are partially driven by changes in temperature and precipitation; therefore, phenology studies how these events may reflect changes in climate. Landscape phenology is the study of changes in biological events over broad areas and assemblages of vegetation. To study climate-change relations over broad areas (at landscape scale), the timing and amount of annual tree leaf emergence, maximum foliage, and leaf fall for forested areas are of interest. To better link vegetation changes with climate, weather data are necessary. This report documents weather-station data collection and processing procedures used in the Shenandoah National Park Phenology Project.

  20. Paleopedological reconstruction and quantitative analysis of weathering processes in the Southern Piedmont Province

    SciTech Connect

    Feldman, S.B.; Zelazny, L.W. (Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States)); Pavich, M.J. (Geological Survey, Reston, VA (United States))

    1992-01-01

    Soils and paleosols are commonly used to estimate ages of deposits and geomorphic surfaces, and to infer paleoenvironmental conditions during pedogenesis. Accurate interpretation of these and other parameters is currently limited, however, by considerable uncertainty in many fundamental areas of soils-geomorphic research. These include: (1) lack of accurate estimates of weathering rates for reliably-dated surfaces, (2) inability to quantitatively differentiate between the complex effects of climate vs. geomorphic age on weathering rates, processes, and pedogenic properties, and (3) difficulty in assessing which soil properties persist, alter, or become obliterated in the weathering environment as conditions change. In this paper, the authors discuss a method for assessing, on a regional basis, the quantitative relationships between climate, time, and weathering processes along a soil climosequence in the Southern Piedmont Province. Their approach involves sampling exclusively in areas of granitic plutons that exhibit a high degree of homogeneity with regard to total Fe content, bulk mineralogy, and absence of secondary phyllosilicates or sesquioxides. Independent age control is being established by [sup 10]Be dating, and analytical techniques include, in part, (1) geochemical speciation of soil solution and mineral equilibrium determination, (2) elemental analysis and mass balance calculations of elemental flux during pedogenesis, and (3) detailed analysis of Fe-oxide crystallinity, structure, and Al substitution using selective dissolution analysis, and both X-ray and differential X-ray diffraction.

  1. Urbanization impacts on severe weather dynamical processes and climatology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Ming

    Rainfall changes are a complex manifestation of multi-scale processes that are influenced by both natural and anthropogenic activities. This dissertation focuses on understanding the relationship between rainfall climatology and urbanization. Even though there is a long-term increase in the rainfall amounts under a global warming background, the land use / land cover change can also be an additional factor contributing to regional climate change. This research study investigates the urbanization effect on rainfall at regional scales: (i) Multidecadal large scale: by investigating the eastern US urban rainfall climatology from 1958-2008; (ii) Decadal mesoscale summer-time thunderstorm climatology over central Indiana from 2000- 2009, and high resolution model studies for representative thunderstorms. For the multi-decadal rainfall climatology over eastern US, we examined the relationship between rainfall characteristics and urbanization by analyzing data from 4593 surface stations over the last 50 years (1958-2008), Parameter-elevation Regressions on Independent Slopes Model (PRISM) data in last two decades, North America Regional Reanalysis (NARR) winds, and a proxy for urbanization through gridded human population data. Results indicate that the summer monthly rainfall amount shows an increasing trend under the influence of urbanization changes. The frequency of heavy rainfall events shows a preferential positive bias towards urbanized regions. Most notably, consistent with case studies for individual cities, the frequency of rainfall amounts downwind of urban-rural boundaries shows a climatologically increasing trend. Analysis of heavy (top 2 percentile) and extreme (top 0.5 percentile) rainfall events indicates decreasing trends of heavy (top 10 percentile) rainfall event frequency and possible increasing trends of extreme rainfall event frequency over urban areas. Spatially the urbanization impact on rainfall was more pronounced in the North and the Central US with an increase in rainfall amounts, while the southern region showed mixed results. For the mesoscale thunderstorm climatology, we used both subjective and objective methods to analyze the summertime thunderstorm behavior over Indianapolis from 2000 to 2009. Results indicate that the intensity of thunderstorm is relatively lower over urban center and higher over upwind and downwind direction. Observations indicate that thunderstorm often split into smaller cells over the urban region and reintensify as larger, merged cells downwind. This splitting or morphology change in the thunderstorm characteristics was noted for nearly 30% of the daytime storms, with a bias for daytime cold fronts. Mesoscale model studies suggest that the urban-rural heterogeneity aids the formation of a mesoscale convergence zone which can alter the thunderstorm characteristics. Overall, this study highlights the important role of land use /land cover and urbanization for understanding the mesoscale rainfall changes as part of regional climate change.

  2. Chemical Weathering

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Kira Lawrence

    This tombstone weathering lab is designed to provide students with tangible understanding of chemical weathering and weathering rates. To prepare for this lab, students will have learned in previous labs to identify common minerals and rocks and will have attended lectures about the process of chemical weathering. During the first part of the lab we travel to the city cemetery to collect data on the age and extent of chemical weathering of tombstones that are made of limestone and igneous rocks. After collecting data for ~1 hour, we return to the computer lab where students use Microsoft Excel to analyze and interpret their data. Their task is to calculate a chemical weathering rate for limestone for our region and compare that rate to those from other regions. This activity gives students experience in the process of scientific inquiry: data collection, data analysis and data interpretation. Students develop Microsoft Excel skills: writing formulas, producing charts, understanding trendlines and R2 values.

  3. Comparison of rate of physical and chemical decomposition of rocks in weathering by wetting-drying and wetting-freezing-drying cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vezmar, T.; Kasanin-Grubin, M.; Kuhn, N. J.; Milovanovic, D.

    2012-04-01

    The type and amount of weathering is determined by a complex combination of physico-chemical properties of the material and climatic conditions. Different materials respond differently in the same environments, but also the same materials can respond in different ways to the same processes in different environments. Weathering processes are often acting simultaneously at one site and it is sometimes hard to determine the exact weathering process that resulted in a certain weathering product. Rock characteristics, alternation of wetting and drying cycles and presence of joints and fissures are crucial for weathering processes. However, there is a big difference in the material response to precipitation depending on whether or not it is followed by freezing when more deterioration occurs. In order to study in detail the behaviour of different rocks under moisture and temperature regimes, weathering experiments with multiple cycles were carried out. The aim of these experiments was to obtain data about dynamics of decomposition of rocks under controlled laboratory conditions. Six rocks were selected for the weathering experiments due to their geological setting in mountain regions and their physico-chemical and mineralogical characteristics: red and grey sandstone (Germany), red sandstone (Serbia), tuffaceous rock (Island), gabbro (Serbia), and dunite (Germany). Samples of each of these rocks were examined in two separate experimental sets. First set consisted of 10 identical cycles that included 4 steps: raining, freezing, thawing and drying. After each step, sample mass was measured. Second set also had 10 cycles, but consisted of two steps: raining and drying. Leachate was collected after each cycle during both sets and volume, pH and conductivity was measured. Contents of Ca, K, Mg, Si, Al and Fe were determined in collected leachate after cycles 1, 5 and 10. Leachate characteristics were similar in both experimental sets. Volume, conductivity and pH of leachate were constant throughout all cycles. Furthermore, the concentrations of analyzed elements in the leachate were low throughout both sets of the experiment. As expected, freezing of samples did not show significant influence on concentration of tested elements in the leachate. However, the rate of mass loss differentiated samples from two experimental sets. Mass loss in samples submitted to freezing was constantly increasing with the number of cycles for all tested rocks. According to mass loss, dunite was most quickly deteriorating from all tested rocks during both experimental sets. Dunite lost about twice as much mass when frozen then when rained on. Both red sandstones behaved similarly to dunite. On the contrary, mass loss in grey sandstone, tuffaceous rock and gabbro during raining was <1%, but increased 4 times with freezing. Rock characteristics crucial for weathering are mineralogical composition and physico-mechanical characteristics. Obtained results indicate that the physical weathering processes are important in all tested rocks. Furthermore, they indicate that the rate of physical weathering during rainfall is not an indication of deterioration that will occur during freezing. Key words: weathering experiment, raining, freezing, rocks

  4. Physical and chemical weathering in modern and Permian proximal fluvial systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keiser, Leslie Jo

    Chapter 1 Inferring paleoclimate from ancient fluvial strata can be challenging, and conflicting interpretations for a given system are common in the literature. This research uses a combination of physical and chemical weathering signals in an attempt to better define the paleoclimatic interpretations for the proximal Cutler Formation near Gateway, Colorado (Chapter 3) and the Post Oak Conglomerate in the Wichita Mountains, Oklahoma (Chapter 4), both Permian units. Chapter 4 includes a comparison of weathering signals from modern sediments in the Wichita Mountains. A methodology for pretreatment techniques used for grain-size analysis was evaluated during the course of the research and is the topic of Chapter 2. This dissertation is organized as three stand-alone manuscripts and a brief summary of each is presented below. Chapter 2 Pretreatment drying of mud-sized sediment (<63 im) resulted in clayrich (>39%) samples exhibiting more sensitivity to drying techniques than clay-poor (<39%) samples. This demonstrates an influence of the drying technique on the granulometric results. Employing freeze drying for sample drying yielded the most consistent results. However, for samples with <39% clay-sized material, all drying techniques are equally effective, and no apparent need exists for the extra effort (and expense) that accompanies freeze drying. Chapter 3 Scanning Electron Microscopy is a useful tool in the study of quartz grain microtextures. Microtextures on quartz grains from the proximal Cutler Formation near Gateway, CO were documented for the presence/absence of 18 distinct microtextures. Averaging of presence/absence data for the samples provided a means to use more quantitative techniques than previously employed for SEM microtextural analysis. These continuous quantitative variables were utilized for non-metric multidimensional scaling, a purely quantitative technique that does not rely on initial assumptions of what environments produce specific microtextures. Chapter 4 The Post Oak Conglomerate was deposited in a climate much wetter than the modern climate of the Wichita Mountains today. Significant amounts of clay, high percentages of Al2O3 in the mud fraction, spheroidal weathering, thick weathering rinds, and hyperconcentrated flood flow deposits are prominent in the Post Oak conglomerate and lacking in the modern Blue Beaver Creek sediment. When compared to other modern climates, the Post Oak Conglomerate fits best with a tropical climate. The climate of the region for the Early Permian is commonly interpreted to be arid. However; these results suggest a brief time period of wet conditions in the Wichita Mountains prior to the onset of the aridity documented in younger Permian units of the area.

  5. Spectrometric investigation of the weathering process affecting historical glasses of León Cathedral, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro, M. A.; Pereira, F. J.; Aller, A. J.; Littlejohn, D.

    2014-12-01

    Atmospheric pollution plays important roles in the weathering of the historical buildings and glass windows. Samples of white powdered weathering products, recovered during restoration of the stained-glass windows of León Cathedral in Spain, were characterised using a combination of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive-X ray spectrometry (ED-XRS), Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and Raman spectrometry. The presence of sulphates, and to a lesser extent carbonates, in the white powdered product is clear indication of the participation of atmospheric acidifying gases, particularly SOx, in the weathering process. It is interesting to note that there was no indication of the participation of NOx gases. There was, however, evidence that the putty and mortar used to seal/join the glasses were major sources of the weathering products. In this way, this study suggests sealants more resistant to oxidation, such as silicone- and zirconia-based materials, should be considered for repairing glass windows in historic buildings to avoid exacerbating degradation.

  6. Physics as quantum information processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauro D'Ariano, Giacomo

    2011-10-01

    The experience from Quantum Information has lead us to look at Quantum Theory (QT) and the whole Physics from a different angle. The information-theoretical paradigm—It from Bit— prophesied by John Archibald Wheeler is relentlessly advancing. Recently it has been shown that QT is derivable from pure informational principles. The possibility that there is only QT at the foundations of Physics has been then considered, with space-time, Relativity, quantization rules and Quantum Field Theory (QFT) emerging from a quantum-information processing. The resulting theory is a discrete version of QFT with automatic relativistic invariance, and without fields, Hamiltonian, and quantization rules. In this paper I review some recent advances on these lines. In particular: i) How space-time and relativistic covariance emerge from the quantum computation; ii) The derivation of the Dirac equation as free information flow, without imposing Lorentz covariance; iii) the information-theoretical meaning of inertial mass and Planck constant; iv) An observable consequence of the theory: a mass-dependent refraction index of vacuum. I will then conclude with two possible routes to Quantum Gravity.

  7. Adaptive contrast enhancement involving CNN-based processing for foggy weather conditions & non-uniform lighting conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher Schwarzlmuller; Fadi Al Machot; Alireza Fasih; Kyandoghere Kyamakya

    2011-01-01

    Adaptive image processing in the context of Ad- vanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) is a crucial issue because bad weather conditions lead to poor vision. In a foggy weather, image contrast and visibility are low due to the presence of airlight that is generated by scattering light, which in turn is caused by fog particles. Since vision based ADAS are

  8. Weathering processes as predisposing factors of the landscape evolution along plutono-metamorphic profiles of the Sila Massif, Calabria, southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perri, Francesco; Borrelli, Luigi; Muto, Francesco; Gullà, Giovanni; Critelli, Salvatore; Conforti, Massimo; Filomena, Luciana; Rago, Valeria

    2013-04-01

    This work is aimed to join interdisciplinary research topics of weathering profile stages on plutonic (granitoid) and metamorphic (gneissic) rocks related to tectonic and landscape evolution of the western Sila Grande Massif (southern Italy). The grain-size of the studied samples is related to the parent rocks in response to physical and chemical weathering processes. Weathering processes produce an unconsolidated rock characterized by sand-gravel grain-size fraction for the granitoid rocks and by sand-silt grain-size fraction for the gneissic rocks. Chemical and mineralogical analyses confirm the granulometric observations. The difference between granitoid and gneissic rocks are mainly related to a higher content of quartz and feldspars for the first one rock type, whereas the second rock type shows higher content of neoformed clay minerals as well expandable phases. The main mineralogical changes concern the partial transformation of biotite and the partial destruction of feldspars, associated with the neoformation of secondary minerals (clay minerals and Fe-oxides) during the most advanced weathering stage; these processes also produce a substitution of the original rock fabric. All these petrological, chemical and mineralogical observations associated to microfractures and morphological variations occur on both plutonic and metamorphic original rocks and, thereby, affect the surrounding landscape processes. Generally, the granitoid profiles are regular and simple, characterized by gradual variation in the degree of weathering from bottom to top; where granitoid rocks show strong morphologies characterized by high relief energy and steep slopes, earth and debris slides, soil slips and earth flow can occur especially when fresher granitoids is near the surface and is covered by organic debris, colluvium, or soil. The gneissic profiles are characterized by structural complexity may be related to several factors such as presence of faults, high state of fracturing and the compositional heterogeneity of the gneiss. These profile characteristics are strongly related to the tectonic setting of the studied area. In particular, many fractured zone associated to fault planes and completely degraded rocks associated to thrust planes have been observed along the cutslope studied, where physical and chemical weathering produce argillified levels. These profile features represents a predisposing factor to the development of mass movements such as deep landslide (e.g., rock slide) and DSGSD (Deep Seated Gravitational Slope Deformation) in the fresher rocks. The weathering puzzle resulting from this preliminary study, based on the reconstruction of the weathering profiles in the plutonic and metamorphic rocks will help to evaluate the landslides susceptibility and hazard assessment in homogeneous geological context.

  9. Lithium and carbon isotopes in river catchment: combined tracers to constrain chemical weathering processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rad, S.; Rive, K.; Assayag, N.; Dictor, M.; Garcin, M.

    2012-12-01

    Water-rock interactions produced in river catchment are accompanied by fractionation or changes in stable isotopes such as H, Li, C and O during chemical weathering processes. Li is a fluid-mobile element that tends to preferentially partition into the fluid phase during water-rock interaction. The relative mass difference between the two isotopes is considerable, generating large mass dependent fractionation during chemical weathering processes. The CO2 dissolves into the water providing the main acid that attack the rock during chemical weathering. Carbon stable isotopes and concentration of Dissolved Inorganic Carbon (DIC) in the river catchment can be used to determine the origin and consumption rates of CO2. In the present work, stable isotopes were analyzed in Allier River, one of the major river basins of France. The lithology is dominated by granite rocks within current upstream, while it is mainly basaltic and Oligocene sediments in the downstream with hydrothermal manifestations. We propose a new isotopic approach by combining ?7Li and ?13CDIC analyses in river catchment waters. A first method has been applied to volcanic tropical environments with Li concentrations correlated to ?13CDIC (Rad et al., 2011). Here, we have completed this approach by lithium isotopes. Water samples were collected during several field trips. Our results show a large variation in Li isotopes and C isotopes within the catchment from 3.3 ‰ to 30.3 ‰ and from -17.9‰ to -3.5‰, respectively. Chemical weathering rates linearly increase from upstream to downstream over 400km distance, whereas Li isotope signatures decrease and global C signature increases. This is due to low water-rock interaction dominated in upstream, whereas the downstream is punctually impacted by hydrothermalism. From Li and C isotopes, our results show 4 groups reflecting different chemical weathering processes: the first group with high fractionation of Li and C, for Li, the heavy lithium partitioned into surface waters, leaving lighter lithium behind in the weathered products, the signature of C is mainly due to organic matter or partially due to biochemical interaction with assimilation of CO2 by microorganism. The second group involves atmospheric equilibrium with CO2 degassing with organic origin or "cold" CO2 degassing with important fraction of Li. The third group present high fractionation of C, reflecting presence of superficial C with organic origin, with low fractionation of Li underling the hydrothermalism impact. Finally a fourth group with low fractionation mainly due to high temperature water-rock interaction. Therefore, the combination of the two tracers, Li and C isotopes, offers a powerful tool to discriminate chemical weathering processes from sources of alteration during water-rock interactions under multi-lithology terrains. Reference: Rad, S., Rivé, K., Allègre, C.J., 2011. Weathering regime associated with subsurface circulation on volcanic islands. Aquat. Geochem. 17, 3, 221-241.

  10. Process-based modeling of silicate mineral weathering responses to increasing atmospheric CO2 and climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banwart, Steven A.; Berg, Astrid; Beerling, David J.

    2009-12-01

    A mathematical model describes silicate mineral weathering processes in modern soils located in the boreal coniferous region of northern Europe. The process model results demonstrate a stabilizing biological feedback mechanism between atmospheric CO2 levels and silicate weathering rates as is generally postulated for atmospheric evolution. The process model feedback response agrees within a factor of 2 of that calculated by a weathering feedback function of the type generally employed in global geochemical carbon cycle models of the Earth's Phanerozoic CO2 history. Sensitivity analysis of parameter values in the process model provides insight into the key mechanisms that influence the strength of the biological feedback to weathering. First, the process model accounts for the alkalinity released by weathering, whereby its acceleration stabilizes pH at values that are higher than expected. Although the process model yields faster weathering with increasing temperature, because of activation energy effects on mineral dissolution kinetics at warmer temperature, the mineral dissolution rate laws utilized in the process model also result in lower dissolution rates at higher pH values. Hence, as dissolution rates increase under warmer conditions, more alkalinity is released by the weathering reaction, helping maintain higher pH values thus stabilizing the weathering rate. Second, the process model yields a relatively low sensitivity of soil pH to increasing plant productivity. This is due to more rapid decomposition of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) under warmer conditions. Because DOC fluxes strongly influence the soil water proton balance and pH, this increased decomposition rate dampens the feedback between productivity and weathering. The process model is most sensitive to parameters reflecting soil structure; depth, porosity, and water content. This suggests that the role of biota to influence these characteristics of the weathering profile is as important, if not more important, than the role of biota to influence mineral dissolution rates through changes in soil water chemistry. This process-modeling approach to quantify the biological weathering feedback to atmospheric CO2 demonstrates the potential for a far more mechanistic description of weathering feedback in simulations of the global geochemical carbon cycle.

  11. A new CO 2 disposal process via artificial weathering of calcium silicate accelerated by acetic acid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Kakizawa; A. Yamasaki; Y. Yanagisawa

    2001-01-01

    A new disposal process for anthropogenic CO2 via an artificially accelerated weathering reaction is proposed to counteract global warming. The process is essentially composed of the following two steps:(1)CaSiO3+2CH3COOH?Ca2++2CH3COO?+H2O+SiO2(2)Ca2++2CH3COO?+CO2+H2O?CaCO3?+2CH3COOHStep (1) is the extraction of calcium ions by acetic acid from calcium silicate, for example, wollastonite rocks. Step (2) is the deposition of calcium carbonate from the solution of calcium ions

  12. Gravestone Weathering

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-06-26

    In this activity (located on pages 9-14 of PDF), learners visit a cemetery to examine the distinguishing characteristics of rock weathering. After researching stone weathering and acid rain, learners apply their knowledge to collect data related to chemical decomposition and physical disintegration at a cemetery site. This detailed lesson guide includes tips for educators, pre/post activity suggestions, hands-outs, and background information.

  13. Generation of abnormal trace element abundances in Antarctic eucrites by weathering processes

    SciTech Connect

    Mittlefehldt, D.W. (Lockheed ESC, Houston, TX (USA)); Lindstrom, M.M. (NASA/Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX (USA))

    1991-01-01

    Based on REEs, Antarctic eucrites can be divided into two groups: those showing normal trace element characteristics and those showing abnormal trace element abundances. Many Antarctic eucrite, polymict eucrite, and basaltic clast samples show the abnormal trace element abundances with REE patterns exhibiting positive Ce anomalies, positive Eu anomalies, and low abundances of the remainder of the REEs, with the LREEs generally being at lower relative abundances than the HREEs. We believe the unusual REE patterns of abnormal Antarctic eucrites arise from weathering effects generated in or on the Antarctic ice. Our suggested scenario involves formation of melt water and its equilibration in or on the Antarctic ice. Our suggested scenario involves formation of melt water and its equilibration with the atmosphere which promotes dissolution of REE-rich phosphates and oxidation of Ce. Tetravalent CE can then be fractionated from the trivalent REE in solution. The details of the weathering process are unclear and will require detailed chemical and SEM investigations of eucrites for their elucidation. We predict that rapidly chilled eucrites with glassy, rather than crystalline, mesostates will be more likely to survive the Antarctic environment without alteration of their REE patterns. Occasional S, Se, and K enrichments are likely due to weathering in the Antarctic environment as well, but these enrichments are not well correlated with Ce anomalies.

  14. Severe and Unusual Weather Spring 2012

    E-print Network

    Droegemeier, Kelvin K.

    METR 2603 Severe and Unusual Weather Spring 2012 Instructors: Prof. Susan Postawko (spostawk: Meteorology 2603 is a survey course of the physical processes that are important in the formation of various

  15. Process Coupling Between Mineral Transformation and U Speciation in Acid Waste Weathered Sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perdrial, N.; Kanematsu, M.; Wang, G.; Um, W.; O'Day, P. A.; Chorover, J.

    2013-12-01

    The need for better prediction of contaminant transport motivates multi-faceted lines of inquiry to build a strong bridge between molecular- and field-scale information. At Hanford (WA), millions of liters of U-containing acidic wastes have been discharged to the soil. In order to predict reactive contaminant migration in the soil, it is necessary to determine the process coupling that occurs between mineral transformation and uranium speciation in these acid-uranium waste weathered sediments. Furthermore, we seek to establish linkages between molecular-scale contaminant speciation and meso-scale contaminant lability, release and reactive transport. Unweathered Hanford sediments were reacted for 365 days with acidic (pH 3), uranium bearing waste solutions in batch experiments. The presence and absence of phosphate in the waste as a control on uranium speciation was also investigated. At dedicated reaction times (7, 14, 30, 90, 180 and 365 days) solid and solution chemistry were analyzed to determine weathering trajectories and contaminant speciation. As observed by XRD and U-EXAFS, when present, PO4 exerted a strong controls over uranium speciation at all pH with the rapid precipitation of meta-ankoleite [K(UO2PO4).3H2O] and near complete immobilization of U. Over prolonged reaction time, however, small fractions of boltwoodite [K(UO2)(HSiO4).3H2O] increased in PO4-high U systems. When PO4 was excluded from the reaction systems, U speciation was indirectly controlled by the pH of the reactant solution and its effect on primary mineral weathering. In this case, U immobilization remained limited with 25 to 50% of the uranium precipitated as becquerelite ([Ca(UO2)6O4(OH)6.3H2O] or the K equivalent - compreignacite) and suspected boltwoodite. Differences between the systems are attributed to process coupling between acid chemistry and U geochemistry. Carbonate weathering contributed to rapidly buffer the pH to pH 7-8 in the absence of PO4 and to 6-7 in its presence, promoting subsequent silicate weathering that makes aqueous Si available for boltwoodite precipitation. Comparison with homogeneous nucleation experiments and thermodynamic calculations confirmed the strong phosphate control over U speciation and the multispeciation of U in its absence.

  16. Space Weathering of Small Bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McFadden, L. A.

    2002-12-01

    Space weathering is defined as any process that wears away and alters surfaces, here confined to small bodies in the Solar System. Mechanisms which possibly alter asteroid and comet surfaces include solar wind bombardment, UV radiation, cosmic ray bombardment, micrometeorite bombardment. These processes are likely to contribute to surface processes differently. For example, solar wind bombardment would be more important on a body closer to the Sun compared to a comet where cosmic ray bombardment might be a more significant weathering mechanism. How can we measure the effects of space weathering? A big problem is that we don't know the nature of the surface before it was weathered. We are in a new era in the study of surface processes on small bodies brought about by the availability of spatially resolved, color and spectral measurements of asteroids from Galileo and NEAR. What processes are active on which bodies? What physics controls surface processes in different regions of the solar system? How do processes differ on different bodies of different physical and chemical properties? What combinations of observable parameters best address the nature of surface processes? Are there alternative explanations for the observed parameters that have been attributed to space weathering? Should we retain the term, space weathering? How can our understanding of space weathering on the Moon help us understand it on asteroids and comets? Finally, we have to leave behind some presuppositions, one being that there is evidence of space weathering based on the fact that the optical properties of S-type asteroids differs from those of ordinary chondrites.

  17. Will Somebody do the Dishes? Weathering Analogies, Geologic Processes and Geologic Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stelling, P.; Wuotila, S.; Giuliani, M.

    2006-12-01

    A good analogy is one of the most powerful tools in any instructors' arsenal, and encouraging students to explore the links between an analogy and a scientific concept can cement both ideas in a student's mind. A common analogy for weathering and erosion processes is doing the dishes. Oxidation, hydration, and solution reactions can be intimidating on the chalkboard but easily understood in the context of cleaning up after dinner. Rather than present this analogy as a lecture demonstration, students are encouraged to experimentally determine which type of weathering works best on their dirty dishes. The experiment must use at least four identically dirty dishes: three experimental dishes and one control dish. The experimental dishes are subjected to simulated weathering and erosion processes of the student's design. Common techniques developed by students are cold or warm water baths, baths with and without acid (lemon juice or soda), and freeze-thaw cycles. Occasionally creative experiments result in unexpected discoveries, such the inefficiency of abrasion from wind-blown sand, especially when compared to soaking dishes in Canadian Whiskey. The effectiveness of each experimental run is determined by comparison to the control plate after loose debris is removed from each. The dish with the smallest aerial extent of remaining food is the declared the most effective. Discussion sections of the experimental write-up includes a description of which geologic processes were being simulated in each experiment, comparisons of the effectiveness of each techniques, and statements of how these experiments differ from reality. In order to advance this project, a second stage of the assignment, a direct comparison of weathering and erosion techniques on food and on geologic materials, will be added this fall. Ideally, students will empirically derive erosion rates and calculate the time required to remove the volume of material represented by a geologically important feature, such as Mt. Rainier or the Grand Canyon. In the end, students completing this project gain an understanding of how geologic processes work, the time scales required, the differences between analogies and the real thing, and arguably the most important aspect, a best-practices approach to doing the dishes.

  18. Space-weathering processes and products on volatile-rich asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Britt, D.; Schelling, P.; Consolmagno, G.; Bradley, T.

    2014-07-01

    Space weathering is a generic term for the effects on atmosphereless solid bodies in the solar system from a range of processes associated with direct exposure to the space environment. These include impact processes (shock, vaporization, fragmentation, heating, melting, and ejecta formation), radiation damage (from galactic and solar cosmic rays), solar-wind effects (irradiation, ion implantation, and sputtering), and the chemical reactions driven by these processes. The classic example of space weathering is the formation of the lunar spectral red slope associated with the production of nanophase Fe (npFe0) in the dusty lunar regolith (C.R. Chapman, 2004, Annual Review of Earth & Planet. Sci. 32, C.M. Pieters, 2000, MAPS 35). Similar npFe0 has been recovered from asteroid (25143) Itokawa and some asteroid classes do exhibit modest spectral red slopes (T. Noguchi, 2011, Science 333). Space weathering can be thought of as driven by a combination of the chemical environment of space (hard vacuum, low oxygen fugacity, solar-wind implantation of hydrogen) along with thermal energy supplied by micrometeorite impacts. The forward modeling of space weathering as thermodynamically-driven decomposition of common rock-forming minerals suggests the production of a range of daughter products: (1) The silicate products typically lose oxygen, other volatile elements (i.e., sulfur and sodium), and metallic cations, producing minerals that are typically more disordered and less optically active than the original parent materials. (2) The decomposed metallic cations form in nano-sized blebs including npFe0, on the surfaces or in condensing rims of mineral grains. This creates a powerful optical component as seen in the lunar red slope. Surfaces with exposed npFe0 are an ideal environment for catalyzing further reactions. (3) The liberated volatile elements and gases (O, S, Na) may form an observable exosphere (e.g., Moon and Mercury) and can either escape from the body or recombine with available solar-wind-implanted hydrogen to form trace amounts of water and OH. Mineral decomposition can be thought of as the first stage of space weathering. It produces weathered surfaces somewhat depleted in volatile elements, creates a predictable set of minor or trace minerals, and leaves the surfaces with catalytic species, primarily npFe0. However, a second stage of further reactions and weathering depends upon the presence of ''feed-stock'' components that can participate in catalyzed chemical reactions on exposed surfaces. For volatile-rich small bodies, the available materials are not only silicates, but a volatile feedstock that can include water, carbon monoxide, ammonia, to name a few. Thermodynamically-driven decomposition of silicates will produce trace amounts of npFe0 which are ideal sites for Fischer-Tropsch type (FTT) catalytic reactions that can produce organics in situ on the asteroids including alkanes, polyaromatic hydrocarbons, and amino acids (J.E. Elsila, 2012, MAPS 47). The mix and range of products depends on the composition and morphology of the mineral surface, energy inputs produced by the micrometeorite impacts or other processes, and the composition of the input volatile feedstock. FFT reactions generate long-chain carbon compounds and amino acids. Secondary reactions that generate more complex carbon compounds and amino acids are likely to occur as the organic material matures. Weathering maturity can be thought of as a function of the abundance and diversity of the weathering products. Since the npFe0 is not destroyed in the reaction, continued micrometeorite bombardment would result in continuing processing and recombination of the existing organic feedstock. More weathering would result in progressively longer-chain carbon compounds as well as more complex and diverse amino acids, and eventually the kerogen-like insoluble-organic matter that forms a large fraction of carbonaceous meteorites. This insight has several major implications for our planetary science and, potentially, the formation of the precursors of l

  19. Chemical weathering and diagenesis of a cold desert soil from Wright Valley, Antarctica - An analog of Martian weathering processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, E. K.; Mckay, D. S.; Wentworth, S. J.

    1983-01-01

    Weathering, diagenesis, and chemical alteration of a soil profile from the Dry Valleys of Antarctica are investigated as an analog to soil development within the Martian regolith. Soil samples from a soil pit one meter deep on Prospect Mesa, Wright Valley, are examined for their major element concentrations, water-soluble cations and anions, carbon, sulfur, and water concentrations, and related petrographic characteristics of weathering in a cold, dry environment. A petrographic study of the samples suggests that most silicate mineral and lithic fragments exhibit some degree of alteration. Chemical alteration occurs both in samples above and within the permanently frozen zone. The concentrations of water-soluble cations, for example, Na(+), K(+), Ca(2+), and anions, Cl(-), SO4(2-), NO3(-), are found to decrease significantly from the surface to the permanently frozen zone, suggesting a major movement of water-soluble species. It is also found that enrichments in secondary mineral abundances correlate with the water soluble ion concentrations. The formation of zeolites is seen throughout the soil column; these, it is thought, may be reservoirs for volatile storage within the regolith.

  20. A One-Dimensional Physically-Based Lake Model for Weather and Climate Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, S.; Jin, J.

    2012-12-01

    A one-dimensional eddy diffusion model to study the water mass and energy exchanges between the atmosphere and inland lakes is developed. This model considers seasonal ice melting and freezing processes, and it also explicitly takes energy transfer due to convective mixing in the lake into account. The model uses enthalpy instead of temperature as a prognostic variable, which more efficiently deals with water phase changes and numerical scheme design in the model. The performance of the model is fully evaluated with high-quality observations in two deep lakes, including lake temperature profile data from an Israeli lake and seasonal ice cover data from a U.S. lake. Our results show that the model realistically simulates the spatiotemporal temperature variations and phase changes of the lakes, and it also reasonably describes the mass and energy exchanges between the lakes and atmosphere. The successful development of this lake model is essential to reliable predictions of lake processes and their impact on weather and climate at local and regional scales.

  1. Mathematical and physical modelling of materials processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Mathematical and physical modeling of turbulence phenomena in metals processing, electromagnetically driven flows in materials processing, gas-solid reactions, rapid solidification processes, the electroslag casting process, the role of cathodic depolarizers in the corrosion of aluminum in sea water, and predicting viscoelastic flows are described.

  2. Favorite Demonstration: Differential Weathering

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mark Francek

    2002-10-01

    In this inquiry-based demonstration, the consumption of a Baby Ruth candy bar is used to nurture students' interest in chemical and physical weathering. In addition, two other concepts can be illustrated: the difference between weathering and erosion and

  3. Physics of glass manufacturing processes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Rawson

    1974-01-01

    After briefly describing some general features of continuous glass manufacturing processes, the article reviews advances in the theoretical understanding of these processes with particular emphasis on those aspects which involve an interaction between heat transfer and fluid flow. The following topics are included: radiation heat transfer in the large thicknesses of glass encountered in glass melting furnaces, heat transfer in

  4. Weather Forecasting

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    John Nielsen-Gammon

    1996-09-01

    Weather Forecasting is a set of computer-based learning modules that teach students about meteorology from the point of view of learning how to forecast the weather. The modules were designed as the primary teaching resource for a seminar course on weather forecasting at the introductory college level (originally METR 151, later ATMO 151) and can also be used in the laboratory component of an introductory atmospheric science course. The modules assume no prior meteorological knowledge. In addition to text and graphics, the modules include interactive questions and answers designed to reinforce student learning. The module topics are: 1. How to Access Weather Data, 2. How to Read Hourly Weather Observations, 3. The National Collegiate Weather Forecasting Contest, 4. Radiation and the Diurnal Heating Cycle, 5. Factors Affecting Temperature: Clouds and Moisture, 6. Factors Affecting Temperature: Wind and Mixing, 7. Air Masses and Fronts, 8. Forces in the Atmosphere, 9. Air Pressure, Temperature, and Height, 10. Winds and Pressure, 11. The Forecasting Process, 12. Sounding Diagrams, 13. Upper Air Maps, 14. Satellite Imagery, 15. Radar Imagery, 16. Numerical Weather Prediction, 17. NWS Forecast Models, 18. Sources of Model Error, 19. Sea Breezes, Land Breezes, and Coastal Fronts, 20. Soundings, Clouds, and Convection, 21. Snow Forecasting.

  5. Tires, Worms and Weathering: Investigating the Role of Earthworm Processes in Urban Soils Receiving Roadway Derived Contaminants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carroll, W.; Lev, S. M.; Szlavecz, K.; Landa, E. R.; Casey, R.; Snodgrass, J. W.

    2006-05-01

    Increased development around urban centers has altered the biogeochemistry of near surface systems. One major impact of development has been an increase in the availability of potentially toxic trace metals in soils and surface waters. A primary source of trace metals to near surface environments in urban systems is roadway runoff and dust. The potential hazard that roadway runoff and dust pose to biota is not well understood and is an area of extensive investigation in the multi-disciplinary field of environmental biogeochemistry. Because earthworms ingest, transport, process and excrete large amounts of soil on a daily basis, earthworms can have a profound impact on soil chemistry and the bioavailability of potentially toxic trace metals. Therefore, it is important to investigate how earthworms are affecting the distribution and bioavailability of potentially toxic metals in the soils that they re-work. Results from a set of mesocosm experiments using the native endogeic earthworm species Eisenoides loennbergi and soils from the Red Run watershed in Baltimore County, MD, exhibit evidence of the physical and chemical earthworm weathering processes over time periods as short as 3 week. The target element for this experiment was Zn which is highly enriched in roadway dust. In this study, 200 g of soil was amended with roadway dust. The total mass of Zn introduced was 20 mg making the target concentration 159 ppm. Six replicates were prepared with leaf litter added as a food source. Ten earthworms were then introduced into the soils. Two duplicate batches were then held at constant moisture (70%) and temperature (16 degrees C) for three weeks. An additional four were let run for six weeks. Control samples for both time periods show no change in either total Zn or extractable (1 M MgCl2) Zn concentration. The amended samples however, display evidence of extensive mixing and an increase in the extractable Zn that can be attributed to earthworm weathering processes. The results from this initial experimental work suggest that there is an important physical component to trace metal fate and transport in urban soils that is earthworm dominated and that earthworm processing can alter the extractable fraction of roadway dust.

  6. Physical Processes Controlling Earth's Climate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Genio, Anthony Del

    2013-01-01

    As background for consideration of the climates of the other terrestrial planets in our solar system and the potential habitability of rocky exoplanets, we discuss the basic physics that controls the Earths present climate, with particular emphasis on the energy and water cycles. We define several dimensionless parameters relevant to characterizing a planets general circulation, climate and hydrological cycle. We also consider issues associated with the use of past climate variations as indicators of future anthropogenically forced climate change, and recent advances in understanding projections of future climate that might have implications for Earth-like exoplanets.

  7. Process Physics: Inertia, Gravity and the Quantum

    E-print Network

    Reginald T. Cahill

    2001-10-29

    Process Physics models reality as self-organising relational or semantic information using a self-referentially limited neural network model. This generalises the traditional non-process syntactical modelling of reality by taking account of the limitations and characteristics of self-referential syntactical information systems, discovered by Goedel and Chaitin, and the analogies with the standard quantum formalism and its limitations. In process physics space and quantum physics are emergent and unified, and time is a distinct non-geometric process. Quantum phenomena are caused by fractal topological defects embedded in and forming a growing three-dimensional fractal process-space. Various features of the emergent physics are briefly discussed including: quantum gravity, quantum field theory, limited causality and the Born quantum measurement metarule, inertia, time-dilation effects, gravity and the equivalence principle, a growing universe with a cosmological constant, black holes and event horizons, and the emergence of classicality.

  8. Water quality mapping and assessment, and weathering processes of selected aflaj in Oman.

    PubMed

    Ghrefat, Habes Ahmad; Jamarh, Ahmad; Al-Futaisi, Ahmed; Al-Abri, Badr

    2011-10-01

    There are more than 4,000 falaj (singular of a peculiar dug channel) distributed in different regions in Oman. The chemical characteristics of the water in 42 falaj were studied to evaluate the major ion chemistry; geochemical processes controlling water composition; and suitability of water for drinking, domestic, and irrigation uses. GIS-based maps indicate that the spatial distribution of chemical properties and concentrations vary within the same region and the different regions as well. The molar ratios of (Ca + Mg)/Total cations, (Na + K)/Total cations, (Ca + Mg)/(Na + K), (Ca + Mg)/(HCO? + SO?), and Na/Cl reveal that the water chemistry of the majority of aflaj are dominated by carbonate weathering and evaporite dissolution, with minor contribution of silicate weathering. The concentrations of most of the elements were less than the permissible limits of Omani standards and WHO guidelines for drinking water and domestic use and do not generally pose any health and environmental problems. Some aflaj in ASH Sharqiyah and Muscat regions can be used for irrigation with slight to severe restriction because of the high levels of electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, chloride, and sodium absorption ratio. PMID:21210214

  9. Displaying Composite and Archived Soundings in the Advanced Weather Interactive Processing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrett, Joe H., III; Volkmer, Matthew R.; Blottman, Peter F.; Sharp, David W.

    2008-01-01

    This presentation describes work done by the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) to add composite soundings to the Advanced Weather Interactive Processing System (AWIPS). This allows National Weather Service (NWS) forecasters to compare the current atmospheric state with climatology. In a previous task, the AMU created composite soundings for four rawinsonde observation stations in Florida, for each of eight flow regimes. The composite soundings were delivered to the NWS Melbourne (MLB) office for display using the NSHARP software program. NWS MLB requested that the AMU make the composite soundings available for display in AWIPS. The AMU first created a procedure to customize AWIPS so composite soundings could be displayed. A unique four-character identifier was created for each of the 32 composite soundings. The AMIU wrote a Tool Command Language/Tool Kit (TclITk) software program to convert the composite soundings from NSHARP to Network Common Data Form (NetCDF) format. The NetCDF files were then displayable by AWIPS.

  10. Weathering Experiments

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This experiment is designed to allow students to observe and understand chemical and physical weathering of simulated "rocks". They will place the materials in plastic bags, one wet and one dry, and store them for 3-4 days. At the end of the storage period, they will observe the contents of both bags and answer some questions about what they see.

  11. Identifying weathering processes by Si isotopes in two small catchments in the Black Forest (Germany)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinhoefel, G.; Breuer, J.; von Blanckenburg, F.; Horn, I.; Kaczorek, D.; Sommer, M.

    2013-12-01

    Stable Si isotopes are potentially an ideal proxy to investigate weathering as the release or precipitation of Si during abiotic or biotic processes causes significant shifts in the isotope signature depending on the weathering intensity. In this study, we determine the Si isotope signature of spring and stream waters and of the principle Si pools of typical soil profiles within two small catchments located on sandstone and paragneiss, respectively, in the cold, perhumid Black Forest (Germany). The Si isotope data were obtained on a Neptune MC-ICP-MS in solution for the water samples and in situ by coupling a UV femtosecond laser ablation system for solid samples, respectively. Bulk soils show a largely homogeneous Si isotope signature for different horizons and locations, which is close to those of bulk bedrocks with ?30Si value around -0.3‰. Soil clay formation is associated with limited Si mobility, which preserves initial Si isotope signatures of parental minerals. Biogenic mineral, i.e. phytoliths, exhibit negative Si isotope signature of about -0.4‰. An exception are the topsoil layers in the paragneiss catchment where the organic-rich environment promotes high Si mobility leading to a significant depletion of heavy Si isotopes. Springs and streams, sampled in spring and late summer, vary between -0.7 to 1.1‰ in ?30Si showing spatial and temporal variations dependent on the water pathways. Groundwater originated from sandstone and overlying periglacial debris layers reveals constant ?30Si values of 0.3 to 0.5‰, which is attributed to kaolinite formation. In contrast, water passing the soil zone shows very variable signatures. Low ?30Si values down to -0.7‰ most likely reflects dissolution processes of clay minerals and phytoliths during spring. In late summer, positive ?30Si values expose the impact of preferential uptake of light Si isotopes by plants. In the paragneiss catchment, this effect is likely increased by co-precipitation of isotopically light Si with Fe-oxides, which shifts surface water to ?30Si values up to 1.1‰. The Si isotope signature of the main stream depends on variable proportion of inflowing surface water and groundwater. The results on these small catchments demonstrate that Si isotopes are a powerful tool to identify weathering processes and the sources of dissolved Si, which can now be used to constrain the isotope signature of large river systems.

  12. Biological processes and links to the physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinrichsen, Hans-Harald

    2009-10-01

    Analysis of the temporal and spatial variability of biological processes and identification of the main variables that drive the dynamic regime of marine ecosystems is complex. Correlation between physical variables and long-term changes in ecosystems has routinely been identified, but the specific mechanisms involved remain often unclear. Reasons for this could be various: the ecosystem can be very sensitive to the seasonal timing of the anomalous physical forcing; the ecosystem can be contemporaneously influenced by many physical variables and the ecosystem can generate intrinsic variability on climate time scales. Marine ecosystems are influenced by a variety of physical factors, e.g., light, temperature, transport, turbulence. Temperature has a fundamental forcing function in biology, with direct influences on rate processes of organisms and on the distribution of mobile species that have preferred temperature ranges. Light and transport also affect the physiology and distribution of marine organisms. Small-scale turbulence determines encounter between larval fish and their prey and additionally influences the probability of successful pursuit and ingestion. The impact of physical forcing variations on biological processes is studied through long-term observations, process studies, laboratory experiments, retrospective analysis of existing data sets and modelling. This manuscript reviews the diversity of physical influences on biological processes, marine organisms and ecosystems and their variety of responses to physical forcing with special emphasis on the dynamics of zooplankton and fish stocks.

  13. The effect of weather on walking behavior among older adults4 Accepted and forthcoming, Journal of Aging and Physical Activity8

    E-print Network

    Shaw, W. Douglass

    , Journal of Aging and Physical Activity8 9 April, 201110 11 12 13 Richard A. Dunn, W. Douglass Shaw Mouton, 2003) and the role of weather on physical activity (hereafter PA) (Eisenberg & Okeke,7 2009 common form of physical activity for older Americans17 (Simpson, Serdula, Galuska, Gillespie, Donehoo

  14. Creating Interactive Graphical Overlays in the Advanced Weather Interactive Processing System Using Shapefiles and DGM Files

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrett, Joe H., III; Lafosse, Richard; Hood, Doris; Hoeth, Brian

    2007-01-01

    Graphical overlays can be created in real-time in the Advanced Weather Interactive Processing System (AWIPS) using shapefiles or Denver AWIPS Risk Reduction and Requirements Evaluation (DARE) Graphics Metafile (DGM) files. This presentation describes how to create graphical overlays on-the-fly for AWIPS, by using two examples of AWIPS applications that were created by the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) located at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS), Florida. The first example is the Anvil Threat Corridor Forecast Tool, which produces a shapefile that depicts a graphical threat corridor of the forecast movement of thunderstorm anvil clouds, based on the observed or forecast upper-level winds. This tool is used by the Spaceflight Meteorology Group (SMG) at Johnson Space Center, Texas and 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) at CCAFS to analyze the threat of natural or space vehicle-triggered lightning over a location. The second example is a launch and landing trajectory tool that produces a DGM file that plots the ground track of space vehicles during launch or landing. The trajectory tool can be used by SMG and the 45 WS forecasters to analyze weather radar imagery along a launch or landing trajectory. The presentation will list the advantages and disadvantages of both file types for creating interactive graphical overlays in future AWIPS applications. Shapefiles are a popular format used extensively in Geographical Information Systems. They are usually used in AWIPS to depict static map backgrounds. A shapefile stores the geometry and attribute information of spatial features in a dataset (ESRI 1998). Shapefiles can contain point, line, and polygon features. Each shapefile contains a main file, index file, and a dBASE table. The main file contains a record for each spatial feature, which describes the feature with a list of its vertices. The index file contains the offset of each record from the beginning of the main file. The dBASE table contains records for each attribute. Attributes are commonly used to label spatial features. Shapefiles can be viewed, but not created in AWIPS. As a result, either third-party software can be installed on an AWIPS workstation, or new software must be written to create shapefiles in the correct format.

  15. Physical conditions for the r-process

    SciTech Connect

    Wanajo, S.; Tachibana, T.; Goriely, S. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Excellence Cluster Universe, Boltzmannstr. 2, D-85748 Garching and Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Senior High School of Waseda University, Nerima, Tokyo 177-0044 (Japan); Institut d'Astronomie et d'Astrophysique, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, C.P. 226, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium)

    2012-11-12

    Recent works show that the r-process can proceed by competition between neutron capture and {beta}-decay in low temperature environments (< 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 8} K; cold r-process) where photo-disintegration plays no role. This is in contrast to the traditional picture of the r-process in high temperature environments ({approx} 1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 9} K; hot r-process) where the (n, {gamma})-({gamma}, n) equilibrium holds. In this study, we explore nucleosynthesis calculations based on a site-independent model to elucidate the physical conditions leading to cold and hot r-processes.

  16. Hands-on, online, and workshop-based K-12 weather and climate education resources from the Center for Multi-scale Modeling of Atmospheric Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, S. Q.; Johnson, R. M.; Randall, D. A.; Denning, A.; Burt, M. A.; Gardiner, L.; Genyuk, J.; Hatheway, B.; Jones, B.; La Grave, M. L.; Russell, R. M.

    2009-12-01

    The need for improving the representation of cloud processes in climate models has been one of the most important limitations of the reliability of climate-change simulations. Now in its fourth year, the National Science Foundation-funded Center for Multi-scale Modeling of Atmospheric Processes (CMMAP) at Colorado State University (CSU) is addressing this problem through a revolutionary new approach to representing cloud processes on their native scales, including the cloud-scale interaction processes that are active in cloud systems. CMMAP has set ambitious education and human-resource goals to share basic information about the atmosphere, clouds, weather, climate, and modeling with diverse K-12 and public audiences. This is accomplished through collaborations in resource development and dissemination between CMMAP scientists, CSU’s Little Shop of Physics (LSOP) program, and the Windows to the Universe (W2U) program at University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR). Little Shop of Physics develops new hands on science activities demonstrating basic science concepts fundamental to understanding atmospheric characteristics, weather, and climate. Videos capture demonstrations of children completing these activities which are broadcast to school districts and public television programs. CMMAP and LSOP educators and scientists partner in teaching a summer professional development workshops for teachers at CSU with a semester's worth of college-level content on the basic physics of the atmosphere, weather, climate, climate modeling, and climate change, as well as dozens of LSOP inquiry-based activities suitable for use in classrooms. The W2U project complements these efforts by developing and broadly disseminating new CMMAP-related online content pages, animations, interactives, image galleries, scientists’ biographies, and LSOP videos to K-12 and public audiences. Reaching nearly 20 million users annually, W2U is highly valued as a curriculum enhancement resource, because its content is written at three levels in English and Spanish. Links between science topics and literature, art, and mythology enable teachers of English Language Learners, literacy, and the arts to integrate science into their classrooms. In summary, the CMMAP NSF-funded Science and Technology Center has established a highly effective and productive partnership of scientists and educators focused on enhancing public science literacy about weather, climate, and global change. All CMMAP, LSOP, and W2U resources can be accessed online at no cost by the entire atmospheric science K-12 and informal science education community.

  17. Clouds, weather, climate, and modeling for K-12 and public audiences from the Center for Multi-scale Modeling of Atmospheric Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, S. Q.; Johnson, R. M.; Randall, D. A.; Denning, A.; Russell, R. M.; Gardiner, L. S.; Hatheway, B.; Jones, B.; Burt, M. A.; Genyuk, J.

    2010-12-01

    The need for improving the representation of cloud processes in climate models has been one of the most important limitations of the reliability of climate-change simulations. Now in its fifth year, the National Science Foundation-funded Center for Multi-scale Modeling of Atmospheric Processes (CMMAP) at Colorado State University (CSU) is addressing this problem through a revolutionary new approach to representing cloud processes on their native scales, including the cloud-scale interaction processes that are active in cloud systems. CMMAP has set ambitious education and human-resource goals to share basic information about the atmosphere, clouds, weather, climate, and modeling with diverse K-12 and public audiences. This is accomplished through collaborations in resource development and dissemination between CMMAP scientists, CSU’s Little Shop of Physics (LSOP) program, and the Windows to the Universe (W2U) program at University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR). Little Shop of Physics develops new hands on science activities demonstrating basic science concepts fundamental to understanding atmospheric characteristics, weather, and climate. Videos capture demonstrations of children completing these activities which are broadcast to school districts and public television programs. CMMAP and LSOP educators and scientists partner in teaching a summer professional development workshops for teachers at CSU with a semester's worth of college-level content on the basic physics of the atmosphere, weather, climate, climate modeling, and climate change, as well as dozens of LSOP inquiry-based activities suitable for use in classrooms. The W2U project complements these efforts by developing and broadly disseminating new CMMAP-related online content pages, animations, interactives, image galleries, scientists’ biographies, and LSOP videos to K-12 and public audiences. Reaching nearly 20 million users annually, W2U is highly valued as a curriculum enhancement resource, because its content is written at three levels in English and Spanish. Links between science topics and literature, art, and mythology enable teachers of English Language Learners, literacy, and the arts to integrate science into their classrooms. In summary, the CMMAP NSF-funded Science and Technology Center has established a highly effective and productive partnership of scientists and educators focused on enhancing public science literacy about weather, climate, and global change. All CMMAP, LSOP, and W2U resources can be accessed online at no cost by the entire atmospheric science K-12 and informal science education community.

  18. Mineralogy of weathering processes on the spoil dumps in the Ostrava-Karvina Coal District

    SciTech Connect

    Matysek, D.; Bielesz, M. [Univ. of Mining and Metallurgy, Ostrava (Czechoslovakia)

    1994-12-31

    Exploitation of coal in the Ostrava-Karvina Coal District is accompanies by the accumulation of large amounts of waste materials: spoil rocks from mine works, wastes from processing plants, and coal slurries. This waste often is sued for landscape preparation, or it is deposited on spoil dumps. According to their composition, carboniferous materials (siltstones, silt-claystones with admixtures of coal matter prevailing, and fine-grained feldspathic sandstones and subgraywackes) are considered to be relatively harmless to the environment. Problems resulting from reclaiming spoil dumps have resulted in more detailed study of the relationship between carboniferous materials and the environment, specifically, the relationship between spoil dumps and such factors as the ecosystems and acidification, geochemical reactivity of carboniferous rocks,a nd stability of minerals. Geological processes of environmental concern in this case include the mineralogy of weathering products with production of salts (evaporation) and the degradation of clay fractions. Geochemical and botanical factors of origin of soils on spoil dumps were described by Stalmachova and Matysek. The authors report a study in which changes in the clay minerals from dumps are compared with paragneiss of clay minerals on the carboniferous outcrops.

  19. Yellowstone Weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Yellowstone National Park

    Yellowstone National Park's high altitude and mountainous terrain makes weather prediction very difficult. This website provides seasonal weather information, average temperature and precipitation data, links to weather forecasts, and other weather links.

  20. Statistical Physics for Natural Language Processing

    E-print Network

    Moreno, Juan-Manuel Torres; SanJuan, Eric

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we study the {\\sc Enertex} model that has been applied to fundamental tasks in Natural Language Processing (NLP) including automatic document summarization and topic segmentation. The model is language independent. It is based on the intuitive concept of Textual Energy, inspired by Neural Networks and Statistical Physics of magnetic systems. It can be implemented using simple matrix operations and on the contrary of PageRank algorithms, it avoids any iterative process.

  1. The Themis-Beagle families: Investigation of space-weathering processes on primitive surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fornasier, S.; Perna, D.; Lantz, C.; Barucci, M.

    2014-07-01

    In the past 20 years, enormous progress has been reached in the study of space-weathering (SW) effects on silicates and silicate asteroids. The so-called ordinary chondrite paradox, that is, lack of asteroids similar to the ordinary chondrites, which represent 80 % of meteorite falls, has been solved. These meteorites are now clearly related to S-type asteroids, as proved also by the direct measurements of the NEAR and HAYABUSA missions on the near-Earth asteroids Eros and Itokawa. Spectral differences between S-type asteroids and ordinary chondrites are caused by space-weathering effects, which produce a darkening in the albedo, a reddening of the spectra, and diminish the silicate absorption bands on the asteroids surfaces, exposed to cosmic radiation and solar wind. On the other hand, our understanding of space-weathering effects on primitive asteroids is still poor. Only few laboratory experiments have been devoted to the investigation of SW effects on dark carbonaceous chondrites and on complex organic materials. Irradiation of transparent organic materials produces firstly redder and darker materials that upon further processing turn flatter-bluish and darker (Kanuchova et al. 2012; Moroz et al. 2004). The Themis family is a natural laboratory to study primitive asteroids and space-weathering effects. The Themis family is located between 3.05 and 3.24 au, beyond the snow line, and it is composed of primitive asteroids. Themis is one of the most statistically reliable families in the asteroid belt. First discovered by Hirayama (1918), it has been identified as a family in all subsequent works, and it has 550 members as determined by Zappalà et al. (1995) and more than 4000 as determined by Nesvorny et al. (2010). The family formed probably about 2.3 Gyr ago as a result of a large-scale catastrophic disruption event of a parent asteroid 400 km in diameter colliding with a 190-km projectile (Marzari et al. 1995). Several Themis family members show absorption features associated to hydrated silicates, and, recently, water-ice and organics features have been detected on the surface of (24) Themis (Campins et al. 2010, Rivkin & Emery 2010). Hydrated silicates are produced by the aqueous-alteration process, which require low temperature (< 320 K) and the presence of liquid water in the past. The Themis family may be an important reservoir of water ice. Moreover, the main-belt comets 133P, 238P, and 176P seem to be related to the Themis family because of orbital proximities and spectral properties analogies. Within the old Themis family members, a young sub-family, Beagle, formed less than 10 Myr ago, has been identified. This sub-family has 65 members up to 2 km of diameter (Nesvorny et al. 2008). So, the Themis family is very important to shed light on the asteroid-comet continuum, to constrain the abundances of water ices in the outer part of the main belt, and to probe space-weathering effects on old Themis and young Beagle families' members. To investigate all these aspects, we carried out a spectroscopic survey in the visible and near-infrared range at the 3.6-m Italian telescope TNG (La Palma, Spain) during 6 nights in February and December 2012. We got new spectra of 8 Beagle and 22 Themis members using the DOLORES (with the LR-R and LR-B grisms) and the NICS (with the Amici prism) instruments. To look for possible coma around the targets, we also performed deep imaging in the R filter. Data are currently under analysis, and the results will be presented at the ACM meeting. None of the investigated spectra show water-ice absorption features at 1.5 and 2 microns, while few Themis members have visible absorption bands associated with hydrated silicates. The best meteoritic analogues to both Themis and Beagle members are the carbonaceous chondrites, especially CM2. The spectra of Beagle and Themis asteroids show significant differences: 'old' Themis members exhibit a wide range of spectra, including asteroids with blue/neutral and moderately red spectra (relative to the Sun), while the young Beagle members in

  2. Space plasma physics: I - Stationary processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hasegawa, Akira; Sato, Tetsuya

    1989-01-01

    The physics of stationary processes in space plasmas is examined theoretically in an introduction intended for graduate students. The approach involves the extensive use of numerical simulations. Chapters are devoted to fundamental principles, small-amplitude waves, and the stationary solar plasma system; typical measurement data and simulation results are presented graphically.

  3. Pb isotope systematics in volcanic river system: Constraints about weathering processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negrel, P. J.; Millot, R.; Petelet-Giraud, E.; Guerrot, C.

    2012-12-01

    We present a series of lead isotopes in soils and sediments developed on volcanic rocks forming a small watershed flowing through the Massif Central (France). The Massif Central volcanic province is a widespread area of Tertiary to Recent continental alkaline volcanism comprising alkali basalts and basanites. The Allanche watershed has an area of 160 km2, a maximum altitude in the watershed of 1400 m (a.s.l.) and the relief between the extreme sampling points of 340 m The river is 29 km long from headwaters to the outlet and from its origin in the Cézallier area to its mouth in the Allagnon river (a tributary of the Allier river), the Allanche river flows through the volcanic terrains of the lava plateau (11 to 2.5 Ma). Main bedrocks are basanites (nepheline or leucitic basalts), with SiO2 around 41-45%, low Na2O + K2O (<5%), and with modal or normative nepheline or leucite and a ground mass of clinopyroxene and plagioclase. Surrounding rocks are feldspatic basalts with SiO2 close to 46-49%, low Na2O + K2O (<5%). The main phase in these basalts is plagioclase with normative nepheline, hyperstene and olivine. Crustal contamination (e.g. by granite, gneiss or metasedimentary granulite, as stated by Downes, 1987, doi: 10.1144/GSL.SP.1987.030.01.25) has occurred in the differentiated magmas of both series, as witnessed by lead isotopic variations in conjunction with Rb/La ratios and lead contents. Using Pb isotope ratios, major and trace elements (from Négrel and Deschamps, 1996, Aquatic Geochemistry, 2, 1-27) we therefore compare sediments and soils evolution over the Allanche river watershed. K and Ca are considered as mobile reference elements and illustrate the weathering state of soils and sediments relative to parent rocks through a large decrease in K and Ca content when compared to Si; the sediments being less depleted than soils. Lead, with regards to Si shows three behaviour with depleted Si content- same lead content that bedrock, depleted Si content- less lead content and depleted Si content - high lead content that bedrock. The comparison of 1000Pb/K versus Si/K ratio evidenced the evolution line from weathering processes and the lead enrichment from atmospheric deposition as a major contributor to explain the deviation of several points from this line. Lead isotopes decrease from bedrock to sediments-soils without any clear relationship when compared to lead contents. The use of Pb-isotopic compositions showed that most of the lead budget in sediments and soils result from bedrock weathering with an influence of gasoline additive-lead derived inputs and a lack of lead input from agricultural activities.

  4. The snowball Earth aftermath: Exploring the limits of continental weathering processes

    E-print Network

    Pierrehumbert, Raymond

    xxxx Editor: P. DeMenocal Keywords: snowball Earth greenhouse cap dolostones weathering modelling to background Neoproterozoic levels. Regarding the origin of the cap dolostones, we show that continental

  5. Process for the physical segregation of minerals

    DOEpatents

    Yingling, Jon C.; Ganguli, Rajive

    2004-01-06

    With highly heterogeneous groups or streams of minerals, physical segregation using online quality measurements is an economically important first stage of the mineral beneficiation process. Segregation enables high quality fractions of the stream to bypass processing, such as cleaning operations, thereby reducing the associated costs and avoiding the yield losses inherent in any downstream separation process. The present invention includes various methods for reliably segregating a mineral stream into at least one fraction meeting desired quality specifications while at the same time maximizing yield of that fraction.

  6. River dissolved and solid loads in the Lesser Antilles: New insight into basalt weathering processes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sétareh Rad; Pascale Louvat; Caroline Gorge; Jérôme Gaillardet; Claude Jean Allègre

    2006-01-01

    We present here the first available estimations of chemical weathering and associated atmospheric CO2 consumption rates as well as mechanical erosion rate for the Lesser Antilles. The chemical weathering (100–120 t\\/km2\\/year) and CO2 consumption (1.1–1.4×106 mol\\/km2\\/year) rates are calculated after subtraction of the atmospheric and hydrothermal inputs in the chemical composition of the river dissolved loads. These rates thus reflect

  7. Commercializing Space Weather using GAIM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobiska, W. Kent; Schunk, Robert; Sojka, Jan J.

    Space weather's effects upon the near-Earth environment are due to dynamic changes in the en-ergy transfer processes from the Sun's photons, particles, and fields. Of the space environment domains that are affected by space weather, the ionosphere is the key region that affects com-munication and navigation systems. The Utah State University (USU) Space Weather Center (SWC) was organized in 2009 to develop commercial space weather applications. It uses the Global Assimilation of Ionospheric Measurements (GAIM) system as the basis for providing improvements to communication and navigation systems. For example, in August 2009 SWC released, in conjunction with Space Environment Technologies, the world's first real-time space weather via an iPhone app, Space WX. It displays the real-time, current global ionosphere to-tal electron content along with its space weather drivers, is available through the Apple iTunes store, and is used around the world. The GAIM system is run operationally at SWC for global and regional (continental U.S.) conditions. Each run stream continuously ingests up to 10,000 slant TEC measurements every 15-minutes from approximately 500 stations in a Kalman filter to adjust the background output from the physics-based Ionosphere Forecast Model (IFM). Additionally, 80 real-time digisonde data streams from around the world provide ionosphere characterization up to the F-region peak. The combination of these data dramatically improves the current epoch ionosphere specification beyond the physics-based solution. The altitudinal range is 90-1500 km for output TEC, electron densities, and other data products with a few degrees resolution in latitude and longitude at 15-minute time granularity. We describe the existing SWC products that are used as commercial space weather information. SWC funding is provided by the State of Utah's Utah Science Technology and Research (USTAR) initiative. The SWC is physically located on the USU campus in Logan, Utah.

  8. Weather and Road Management

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-09-14

    Anticipating and dealing with weather and the hazards it creates is a real challenge for those in departments of transportation. This module gives road and highway managers a basic understanding of meteorology and weather hazards so that they can better interpret weather forecast information used to make road management decisions. The module also highlights web-based forecast products available from the National Weather Service that can help in the decision-making process.

  9. Sulphur isotope hydrology in Skeidararsandur, Iceland: Identification of sources and implications for weathering processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Z. P.; Fairchild, I. J.; Spiro, B.

    2009-04-01

    The hydrochemistry of sulphur in various environments in the active ice-marginal outwash plain of Skeiðarársandur, SE Iceland shows considerable variety reflecting differences in sources and processes, and is investigated in this paper using ^34S values of dissolved sulphate and igneous sulphide minerals, ^18O-H2O, electrical conductivity and ionic concentrations in waters. Seawater-derived sulphate is a notable component only in the lower sandur (^34S-SO4 values of +6.8 o/ooVCDT). Sulphur isotope samples from the Skeiðará glacial melt river range from +3.4 to +8.8 o/oo^34S. The higher values occur during a flood event and reflect geothermal reduced sulphate contributions from the Grímsvötn caldera. Groundwater-fed 'kettle-hole lakes' formed since 1996 form important ecological niches within an otherwise relatively barren region and have the lowest ^34S-SO4values (average -0.8 o/oo ^34S) attributed to bacterially-mediated sulphide oxidation and coupled to carbonate and possibly silicate dissolution. The hydrochemistry of eastern sandur groundwater is influenced by a hydrothermal source of reduced sulphate from the Grímsvötn caldera or an area of geothermal springs routed beneath the Skeiðará river, and contrasts with the hydrochemistry of the Sulá and Gígjukvísl rivers in the western part of the sandur and the majority of the groundwaters. These have lower concentrations of [Ca2++Mg2+], [Na++K+] and SO42- and ^34S values consistent with sulphate derived from the oxidation of igneous sulphides reflecting geochemical evolution and modified weathering processes from that of supraglacial streams. The significant influence of internal contributions of sulphate (rock-derived and geothermal) on Skeiðarársandur means this catchment buffers recent reductions in anthropogenic sulphur emissions.

  10. Space Weathering of Asteroids: Issues Remain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, C. R.

    2003-05-01

    After decades of debate, consensus now exists that asteroid reflectance spectra are affected by space weathering. Based on a recent consensus [1] about the physical processes that space weather the Moon, we can realistically hypothesize about the causes of asteroidal space weathering and about how the processes might be manifested on different types of asteroids. But issues and questions remain. While vapor deposition on grains dominates lunar space weathering, for asteroids the relative vapor production by solar wind sputtering versus micrometeorite impact (or even other processes masked on the Moon) remains uncertain. Particularly troublesome are the different styles of space weathering on Ida and Eros; these otherwise similarly sized SIV asteroids differ mainly in being either in the belt or in near-Earth space, but how does that affect space weathering so dramatically? A vital issue is the timescale for space weathering to be manifested, or to mature, under various conditions (e.g. in or out of the belt, for different taxonomic types, or for different sizes). An extraordinary discovery may finally help provide an answer. Nesvorny et al. [2,3] have discovered how to date the creation of specific asteroids (i.e. in a catastrophic collisional break-up) with a robust precision of several percent, competitive with meteoritic age-dating techniques except that we know which specific asteroids the dates pertain to. The Karin cluster, within the S-type Koronis family, formed 5.8 +/-0.2 Myr ago. This age is of the order of estimates of space-weathering/regolith-evolution timescales. Spectral studies of Karin cluster members, and members of other dated families, may determine the absolute rates of space weathering processes. That in turn can elucidate the physical processes and permit better extrapolation to other asteroids. References: [1] B. Hapke (2001) J. Geophys. Res. 106, 10039-10073; [2] D. Nesvorny et al. (2002) Nature 417, 720-722; [3] D. Nesvorny et al. (2003) Astrophys. J. 591, 486-497.

  11. Soil redistribution and weathering controlling the fate of geochemical and physical carbon stabilization mechanisms in soils of an eroding landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doetterl, S.; Cornelis, J.-T.; Six, J.; Bodé, S.; Opfergelt, S.; Boeckx, P.; Van Oost, K.

    2015-03-01

    The role of eroding landscapes in organic carbon stabilization operating as C sinks or sources has been frequently discussed, but the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. Our analysis aims to clarify the effects of soil redistribution on physical and biogeochemical soil organic carbon (SOC) stabilization mechanisms along a hillslope transect. The observed mineralogical differences seem partly responsible for the effectiveness of geochemical and physical SOC stabilization mechanisms as the mineral environment along the transect is highly variable and dynamic. The abundance of primary and secondary minerals and the weathering status of the investigated soils differ drastically along this transect. Extractable iron and aluminum components are generally abundant in aggregates, but show no strong correlation to SOC, indicating their importance for aggregate stability but not for SOC retention. We further show that pyrophosphate extractable soil components, especially manganese, play a role in stabilizing SOC within non-aggregated mineral fractions. The abundance of microbial residues and measured 14C ages for aggregated and non-aggregated SOC fractions demonstrate the importance of the combined effect of geochemical and physical protection to stabilize SOC after burial at the depositional site. Mineral alteration and the breakdown of aggregates limit the protection of C by minerals and within aggregates temporally. The 14C ages of buried soil indicate that C in aggregated fractions seems to be preserved more efficiently while C in non-aggregated fractions is released, allowing a re-sequestration of younger C with this fraction. Old 14C ages and at the same time high contents of microbial residues in aggregates suggest either that microorganisms feed on old carbon to build up microbial biomass or that these environments consisting of considerable amounts of old C are proper habitats for microorganisms and preserve their residues. Due to continuous soil weathering and, hence, weakening of protection mechanisms, a potential C sink through soil burial is finally temporally limited.

  12. Soil redistribution and weathering controlling the fate of geochemical and physical carbon stabilization mechanisms in soils of an eroding landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doetterl, S.; Cornelis, J.-T.; Six, J.; Bodé, S.; Opfergelt, S.; Boeckx, P.; Van Oost, K.

    2014-11-01

    It has been suggested that eroding landscapes can form C sinks or sources, but the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. Our analysis aims to clarify the effects of soil redistribution on physical and biogeochemical soil organic carbon (SOC) stabilization mechanisms along a hillslope transect. The observed mineralogical differences seem partly responsible for the effectiveness of geochemical and physical SOC stabilization mechanisms as the mineral environment along the transect is highly variable and dynamic. The abundance of primary and secondary minerals and the weathering status of the investigated soils differ drastically along this transect. Extractable iron and aluminum components are largely abundant in aggregates, but show no strong correlation to SOC, indicating their importance for aggregate stability but not for SOC retention. We further show that pyrophosphate extractable soil components, especially manganese, play a role in stabilizing SOC within non-aggregated mineral fractions. The abundance of microbial residues and measured 14C ages for aggregated and non-aggregated SOC fractions demonstrate the importance of the combined effect of geochemical and physical protection to stabilize SOC after burial at the depositional site. Mineral alteration and the breakdown of aggregates limit the protection of C by minerals and within aggregates temporally. The 14C ages of buried soil indicate that C in aggregated fractions seem to be preserved more efficiently while C in non-aggregated fractions is released, allowing a re-sequestration of younger C with this fraction. Old 14C ages and at the same time high contents of microbial residues in aggregates suggest that microorganisms either feed on old carbon to build up microbial biomass, or that these environments consisting of considerable amounts of old C are proper habitats for microorganisms and preserve their residues. Due to continuous soil weathering and, hence, weakening of protection mechanisms, a potential C sink through soil burial is finally temporally limited.

  13. The Effects of Chemical Weathering on Thermal-Infrared Spectral Data and Models: Implications for Aqueous Processes on the Martian Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rampe, Elizabeth Barger

    2011-12-01

    Chemical and mineralogical data from Mars shows that the surface has been chemically weathered on local to regional scales. Chemical trends and the types of chemical weathering products present on the surface and their abundances can elucidate information about past aqueous processes. Thermal-infrared (TIR) data and their respective models are essential for interpreting Martian mineralogy and geologic history. However, previous studies have shown that chemical weathering and the precipitation of fine-grained secondary silicates can adversely affect the accuracy of TIR spectral models. Furthermore, spectral libraries used to identify minerals on the Martian surface lack some important weathering products, including poorly-crystalline aluminosilicates like allophane, thus eliminating their identification in TIR spectral models. It is essential to accurately interpret TIR spectral data from chemically weathered surfaces to understand the evolution of aqueous processes on Mars. Laboratory experiments were performed to improve interpretations of TIR data from weathered surfaces. To test the accuracy of deriving chemistry of weathered rocks from TIR spectroscopy, chemistry was derived from TIR models of weathered basalts from Baynton, Australia and compared to actual weathering rind chemistry. To determine how specific secondary silicates affect the TIR spectroscopy of weathered basalts, mixtures of basaltic minerals and small amounts of secondary silicates were modeled. Poorly-crystalline aluminosilicates were synthesized and their TIR spectra were added to spectral libraries. Regional Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) data were modeled using libraries containing these poorly-crystalline aluminosilicates to test for their presence on the Mars. Chemistry derived from models of weathered Baynton basalts is not accurate, but broad chemical weathering trends can be interpreted from the data. TIR models of mineral mixtures show that small amounts of crystalline and amorphous silicate weathering products (2.5-5 wt.%) can be detected in TIR models and can adversely affect modeled plagioclase abundances. Poorly-crystalline aluminosilicates are identified in Northern Acidalia, Solis Planum, and Meridiani. Previous studies have suggested that acid sulfate weathering was the dominant surface alteration process for the past 3.5 billion years; however, the identification of allophane indicates that alteration at near-neutral pH occurred on regional scales and that acid sulfate weathering is not the only weathering process on Mars.

  14. Displaying Composite and Archived Soundings in the Advanced Weather Interactive Processing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrett, Joe H., III; Volkmer, Matthew R.; Blottman, Peter F.; Sharp, David W.

    2008-01-01

    In a previous task, the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) developed spatial and temporal climatologies of lightning occurrence based on eight atmospheric flow regimes. The AMU created climatological, or composite, soundings of wind speed and direction, temperature, and dew point temperature at four rawinsonde observation stations at Jacksonville, Tampa, Miami, and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, for each of the eight flow regimes. The composite soundings were delivered to the National Weather Service (NWS) Melbourne (MLB) office for display using the National version of the Skew-T Hodograph analysis and Research Program (NSHARP) software program. The NWS MLB requested the AMU make the composite soundings available for display in the Advanced Weather Interactive Processing System (AWIPS), so they could be overlaid on current observed soundings. This will allow the forecasters to compare the current state of the atmosphere with climatology. This presentation describes how the AMU converted the composite soundings from NSHARP Archive format to Network Common Data Form (NetCDF) format, so that the soundings could be displayed in AWl PS. The NetCDF is a set of data formats, programming interfaces, and software libraries used to read and write scientific data files. In AWIPS, each meteorological data type, such as soundings or surface observations, has a unique NetCDF format. Each format is described by a NetCDF template file. Although NetCDF files are in binary format, they can be converted to a text format called network Common data form Description Language (CDL). A software utility called ncgen is used to create a NetCDF file from a CDL file, while the ncdump utility is used to create a CDL file from a NetCDF file. An AWIPS receives soundings in Binary Universal Form for the Representation of Meteorological data (BUFR) format (http://dss.ucar.edu/docs/formats/bufr/), and then decodes them into NetCDF format. Only two sounding files are generated in AWIPS per day. One file contains all of the soundings received worldwide between 0000 UTC and 1200 UTC, and the other includes all soundings between 1200 UTC and 0000 UTC. In order to add the composite soundings into AWIPS, a procedure was created to configure, or localize, AWIPS. This involved modifying and creating several configuration text files. A unique fourcharacter site identifier was created for each of the 32 soundings so each could be viewed separately. The first three characters were based on the site identifier of the observed sounding, while the last character was based on the flow regime. While researching the localization process for soundings, the AMU discovered a method of archiving soundings so old soundings would not get purged automatically by AWl PS. This method could provide an alternative way of localizing AWl PS for composite soundings. In addition, this would allow forecasters to use archived soundings in AWIPS for case studies. A test sounding file in NetCDF format was written in order to verify the correct format for soundings in AWIPS. After the file was viewed successfully in AWIPS, the AMU wrote a software program in the Tool Command Language/Tool Kit (Tcl/Tk) language to convert the 32 composite soundings from NSHARP Archive to CDL format. The ncgen utility was then used to convert the CDL file to a NetCDF file. The NetCDF file could then be read and displayed in AWIPS.

  15. Physical processes in spin polarized plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Kulsrud, R.M.; Valeo, E.J.; Cowley, S.

    1984-05-01

    If the plasma in a nuclear fusion reactor is polarized, the nuclear reactions are modified in such a way as to enhance the reactor performance. We calculate in detail the modification of these nuclear reactions by different modes of polarization of the nuclear fuel. We also consider in detail the various physical processes that can lead to depolarization and show that they are by and large slow enough that a high degree of polarization can be maintained.

  16. Chemistry of uranium, thorium, and radium isotopes in the Ganga-Brahmaputra river system: Weathering processes and fluxes to the Bay of Bengal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. M. Sarin; S. Krishnaswami; B. L. K. Somayajulu; W. S. Moore

    1990-01-01

    Rivers are the major pathways for the transport of weathered materials from the land to the oceans. The geochemical studies on river waters provide an insight into the weathering processes that control the distribution of elements in dissolved and particulate phases and their fluxes to the estuaries. Consequently, a detailed and systematic study of the major ion composition and radionuclide

  17. USING SPATIOTEMPORAL RELATIONAL RANDOM FORESTS TO IMPROVE OUR UNDERSTANDING OF SEVERE WEATHER PROCESSES

    E-print Network

    McGovern, Amy

    , AND JOHN K. WILLIAMS5 Abstract. Major severe weather events can cause a significant loss of life: predicting atmospheric turbulence across the continental United States, examining the formation of tornadoes and time. For example, a thunderstorm evolves over time and may eventually produce a tornado through

  18. Mineralogy and weathering processes in historical smelting slags and their effect on the mobilisation of lead

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Clare Gee; Michael H. Ramsey; John Maskall; Iain Thornton

    1997-01-01

    The mineralogy and weathering of historical lead slags and contaminated soils from five historical smelting sites in Britain were examined using scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM\\/EDX). Slags were found to be highly heterogeneous materials, dominated by calcium and barium compounds and a variety of lead phases. In this preliminary study, evidence was found which indicates that

  19. Winter Weather

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Matters What's New A - Z Index Disasters & Severe Weather Earthquakes Extreme Heat Floods Hurricanes Landslides Tornadoes Tsunamis Volcanoes Wildfires Winter Weather Winter Weather Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ...

  20. Weather Watch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bratt, Herschell Marvin

    1973-01-01

    Suggests a number of ways in which Federal Aviation Agency weather report printouts can be used in teaching the weather section of meteorology. These weather sequence reports can be obtained free of charge at most major airports. (JR)

  1. Protein Folding as a Physical Stochastic Process

    E-print Network

    Kerson Huang

    2007-07-17

    We model protein folding as a physical stochastic process as follows. The unfolded protein chain is treated as a random coil described by SAW (self-avoiding walk). Folding is induced by hydrophobic forces and other interactions, such as hydrogen bonding, which can be taken into account by imposing conditions on SAW. The resulting model is termed CSAW (conditioned self-avoiding walk. Conceptually, the mathematical basis is a generalized Langevin equation. In practice, the model is implemented on a computer by combining SAW and Monte Carlo. To illustrate the flexibility and capabilities of the model, we consider a number of examples, including folding pathways, elastic properties, helix formation, and collective modes.

  2. Ameliorating physical and chemical properties of highly weathered soils in the tropics with charcoal - a review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bruno Glaser; Johannes Lehmann; Wolfgang Zech

    2002-01-01

    Rapid turnover of organic matter leads to a low efficiency of organic fertilizers applied to increase and sequester C in soils of the humid tropics. Charcoal was reported to be responsible for high soil organic matter contents and soil fertility of anthropogenic soils (Terra Preta) found in central Amazonia. Therefore, we reviewed the available information about the physical and chemical

  3. Avalanche Weather Forecasting

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    COMET

    2010-09-30

    Avalanches form through the interaction of snowpack, terrain, and weather, the latter being the focus of this module. The module begins with basic information about avalanches, highlighting weather's role in their development. The rest of the module teaches weather forecasters how to make an avalanche weather forecast, that is, one in which key weather parameters are evaluated for their impact on avalanche potential. The forecasts are used primarily by avalanche forecasters, who integrate them with other information to determine when to issue avalanche hazard warnings. The module contains five cases that let users apply the avalanche weather forecast process to different combinations of snowpack, terrain, and weather conditions. It is a companion to the COMET module "Snowpack and Its Assessment," which describes snowpack development and various assessment techniques.

  4. Anvil Forecast Tool in the Advanced Weather Interactive Processing System, Phase II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrett, Joe H., III

    2008-01-01

    Meteorologists from the 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) and Spaceflight Meteorology Group have identified anvil forecasting as one of their most challenging tasks when predicting the probability of violations of the Lightning Launch Commit Criteria and Space Light Rules. As a result, the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) created a graphical overlay tool for the Meteorological Interactive Data Display Systems (MIDDS) to indicate the threat of thunderstorm anvil clouds, using either observed or model forecast winds as input.

  5. Creating Interactive Graphical Overlays in the Advanced Weather Interactive Processing System (AWIPS) Using Shapefiles and DGM Files

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrett, Joe H., III; Lafosse, Richard; Hood, Doris; Hoeth, Brian

    2007-01-01

    Graphical overlays can be created in real-time in the Advanced Weather Interactive Processing System (AWIPS) using shapefiles or DARE Graphics Metafile (DGM) files. This presentation describes how to create graphical overlays on-the-fly for AWIPS, by using two examples of AWIPS applications that were created by the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU). The first example is the Anvil Threat Corridor Forecast Tool, which produces a shapefile that depicts a graphical threat corridor of the forecast movement of thunderstorm anvil clouds, based on the observed or forecast upper-level winds. This tool is used by the Spaceflight Meteorology Group (SMG) and 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) to analyze the threat of natural or space vehicle-triggered lightning over a location. The second example is a launch and landing trajectory tool that produces a DGM file that plots the ground track of space vehicles during launch or landing. The trajectory tool can be used by SMG and the 45 WS forecasters to analyze weather radar imagery along a launch or landing trajectory. Advantages of both file types will be listed.

  6. Neutron radiography and X-ray computed tomography for quantifying weathering and water uptake processes inside porous limestone used as building material

    SciTech Connect

    Dewanckele, J., E-mail: jan.dewanckele@gmail.com [Department of Geology and Soil Science—UGCT, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281 S8, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); De Kock, T. [Department of Geology and Soil Science—UGCT, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281 S8, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Fronteau, G. [University of Reims Champagne-Ardenne (URCA), GEGENAA, EA3795 Reims (France); Derluyn, H. [Chair of Building Physics, ETH Zurich, HIL E 47.2, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 15, 8093 Zürich Hönggerberg (Switzerland); Vontobel, P. [Spallation Neutron Source Division, Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Dierick, M.; Van Hoorebeke, L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy—UGCT, Ghent University, Proeftuinstraat 86, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Jacobs, P.; Cnudde, V. [Department of Geology and Soil Science—UGCT, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281 S8, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium)

    2014-02-15

    Euville and Savonnières limestones were weathered by acid test and this resulted in the formation of a gypsum crust. In order to characterize the crystallization pattern and the evolution of the pore structure below the crust, a combination of high resolution X-ray computed tomography and SEM–EDS was used. A time lapse sequence of the changing pore structure in both stones was obtained and afterwards quantified by using image analysis. The difference in weathering of both stones by the same process could be explained by the underlying microstructure and texture. Because water and moisture play a crucial role in the weathering processes, water uptake in weathered and non-weathered samples was characterized based on neutron radiography. In this way the water uptake was both visualized and quantified in function of the height of the sample and in function of time. In general, the formation of a gypsum crust on limestone slows down the initial water uptake in the materials. - Highlights: • Time lapse sequence in 3D of changing pore structures inside limestone • A combination of X-ray CT, SEM and neutron radiography was used. • Quantification of water content in function of time, height and weathering • Characterization of weathering processes due to gypsum crystallization.

  7. Tales of future weather

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazeleger, W.; van den Hurk, B. J. J. M.; Min, E.; van Oldenborgh, G. J.; Petersen, A. C.; Stainforth, D. A.; Vasileiadou, E.; Smith, L. A.

    2015-02-01

    Society is vulnerable to extreme weather events and, by extension, to human impacts on future events. As climate changes weather patterns will change. The search is on for more effective methodologies to aid decision-makers both in mitigation to avoid climate change and in adaptation to changes. The traditional approach uses ensembles of climate model simulations, statistical bias correction, downscaling to the spatial and temporal scales relevant to decision-makers, and then translation into quantities of interest. The veracity of this approach cannot be tested, and it faces in-principle challenges. Alternatively, numerical weather prediction models in a hypothetical climate setting can provide tailored narratives for high-resolution simulations of high-impact weather in a future climate. This 'tales of future weather' approach will aid in the interpretation of lower-resolution simulations. Arguably, it potentially provides complementary, more realistic and more physically consistent pictures of what future weather might look like.

  8. Severe Weather

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forde, Evan B.

    2004-01-01

    Educating the public about safety issues related to severe weather is part of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) mission. This article deals with a poster entitled, "Severe Weather," that has been created by NOAA to help educate the public about hazardous weather conditions. The four types of severe weather highlighted in…

  9. Severe Weather

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forde, Evan B.

    2004-01-01

    Educating the public about safety issues related to severe weather is part of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) mission. This month's insert, Severe Weather, has been created by NOAA to help educate the public about hazardous weather conditions. The four types of severe weather highlighted in this poster are hurricanes,…

  10. Weather Forecasting

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-09-18

    Students consider how weather forecasting plays an important part in their daily lives. They learn about the history of weather forecasting — from old weather proverbs to modern forecasting equipment — and how improvements in weather technology have saved lives by providing advance warning of natural hazards.

  11. UM Weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Sponsored by The Weather Underground at the University of Michigan at Ann Arbor, UM Weather bills itself as the "Internet's premier source of weather information." The site offers several general audience tools such as the Fast Forecast for any city in the US, ski weather, and weather cams. But, it also provides access to over two dozen weather software packages, a new computer model forecasts page, and most impressively a list of close to 400 other weather related Web sites. Professionals and researchers will appreciate the non-technical feel of the site and the valuable information they can procure from it.

  12. Digital Signal Processing applied to Physical Signals

    E-print Network

    Alberto, Diego; Musa, L

    2011-01-01

    It is well known that many of the scientific and technological discoveries of the XXI century will depend on the capability of processing and understanding a huge quantity of data. With the advent of the digital era, a fully digital and automated treatment can be designed and performed. From data mining to data compression, from signal elaboration to noise reduction, a processing is essential to manage and enhance features of interest after every data acquisition (DAQ) session. In the near future, science will go towards interdisciplinary research. In this work there will be given an example of the application of signal processing to different fields of Physics from nuclear particle detectors to biomedical examinations. In Chapter 1 a brief description of the collaborations that allowed this thesis is given, together with a list of the publications co-produced by the author in these three years. The most important notations, definitions and acronyms used in the work are also provided. In Chapter 2, the last r...

  13. Bringing life to soil physical processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallett, P. D.

    2013-12-01

    When Oklahoma's native prairie grass roots were replaced by corn, the greatest environmental (and social) disaster ever to hit America ensued. The soils lost structure, physical binding by roots was annihilated and when drought came the Great Dust Bowl commenced. This form of environmental disaster has repeated over history and although not always apparent, similar processes drive the degradation of seemingly productive farmland and forests. But just as negative impacts on biology are deleterious to soil physical properties, positive impacts could reverse these trends. In finding solutions to soil sustainability and food security, we should be able to exploit biological processes to improve soil physical properties. This talk will focus on a quantitative understanding of how biology changes soil physical behaviour. Like the Great Dust Bowl, it starts with reinforcement mechanisms by plant roots. We found that binding of soil by cereal (barley) roots within 5 weeks of planting can more than double soil shear strength, with greater plant density causing greater reinforcement. With time, however, the relative impact of root reinforcement diminishes due to root turnover and aging of the seedbed. From mechanical tests of individual roots, reasonable predictions of reinforcement by tree roots are possible with fibre bundle models. With herbaceous plants like cereals, however, the same parameters (root strength, stiffness, size and distribution) result in a poor prediction. We found that root type, root age and abiotic factors such as compaction and waterlogging affect mechanical behaviour, further complicating the understanding and prediction of root reinforcement. For soil physical stability, the interface between root and soil is an extremely important zone in terms of resistance of roots to pull-out and rhizosphere formation. Compounds analogous to root exudates have been found with rheological tests to initially decrease the shear stress where wet soils flow, but after decomposition of these exudates by microbes the shear stress increases. This suggests an initial dispersion, followed by aggregation of the soil, which explains the structural arrangement of soil particles in the rhizosphere observed by microscopy. Dispersion of soil minerals in the root zone is important to release bound nutrients from mineral surfaces. Using fracture mechanics we measured large impacts of biological exudates on the toughness and interparticle bond energy of soils. Now novel tests are being developed to quantify interparticle bonding by biological exudates on single and multiple particle contacts, including mechanical test specimens that can be inoculated with specific bacteria or fungi. This will allow for clay mineralogy, water potential and solution chemistry impacts on interparticle bonding to be quantified directly. Wettability experiments with the same samples measure hydrological properties such as contact angle. Basic information from these tests will help explain biological processes that drive soil structure formation and stabilisation, providing data for models of soil structure dynamics.

  14. BBC Weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    At this website, the BBC offers an array of materials dealing with weather. Meteorologists can discover employment opportunities. Individuals with spectacular photographs of weather phenomenon can submit their images to the photo gallery. Students and educators can find introductory materials on basic weather concepts, forecasting, extreme events, and broadcasting the weather. The website offers fun weather-related games and projects, a meteorology glossary, and links to other educational websites.

  15. Winter Weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mrs. Bellows

    2009-09-28

    This project explores factors that help create severe winter weather. An interactive simulation provides hands-on experience, followed by guiding questions and resource exploration. Weather affects our everyday lives. Some days it's sunny and some days its not. The years weather is split up into seasons. 1. What are the four seasons? 2. What kind of weather do you see in the summer? 3. What kind of weather is unique to winter? 4. ...

  16. Space Weathering in the Inner Solar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noble, Sarah K.

    2010-01-01

    "Space weathering" is the term given to the cumulative effects incurred by surfaces which are exposed to the harsh environment of space. Lunar sample studies over the last decade or so have produced a clear picture of space weathering processes in the lunar environment. By combining laboratory and remote spectra with microanalytical methods (scanning and transmission electron microscopy), we have begun to unravel the various processes (irradiation, micrometeorite bombardment, etc) that contribute to space weathering and the physical and optical consequences of those processes on the Moon. Using the understanding gleaned from lunar samples, it is possible to extrapolate weathering processes to other airless bodies from which we have not yet returned samples (i.e. Mercury, asteroids). Through experiments which simulate various components of weathering, the expected differences in environment (impact rate, distance from Sun, presence of a magnetic field, reduced or enhanced gravity, etc) and composition (particularly iron content) can be explored to understand how space weathering will manifest on a given body.

  17. Physical processes in collapse driven supernova

    SciTech Connect

    Mayle, R.W.

    1985-11-01

    A model of the supernova explosion is discussed. The method of neutrino transport is discussed, since the explosive mechanism depends on neutrino heating of the material behind the accretion shock. The core region of these exploding stars becomes unstable to convective motions during the supernova evolution. Convective mixing allows more neutrinos to escape from under the neutrinosphere, and thus increases the amount of heating by neutrinos. An approximate method of incorporating convection is described, and some results of including convection in a computer model is presented. Another phenomena is seen in computer simulations of supernova, oscillations in the neutrino luminosity and mass accretion rate onto the protoneutron star. The last topic discussed in this thesis describes the attempt to understand this oscillation by perturbation of the steady state solution to equations approximating the complex physical processes occurring in the late time supernova. 42 refs., 31 figs.

  18. Weathering of Minerals

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Wendy Van Norden

    Students determine the % change in mass of mineral samples that have been placed in a rock tumbler. They graph the relationship between the hardness of the mineral and the % change in mass. They then consider why some of the mineral samples do not conform the the relationship they graphed. They investigate the physical properties of the outliers and consider how the physical properties contributed to the rate of weathering, and what kind of weathering occured in the rock tumbler.

  19. Weather Forecasting for Radio Astronomy

    E-print Network

    Groppi, Christopher

    Weather Forecasting for Radio Astronomy Part I: The Mechanics and Physics Ronald J Maddalena August 1, 2008 #12;Outline Part I Background -- research inspirations and aspirations Vertical weather, .... Part II Results on refraction & air mass (with Jeff Paradis) Part III Results on opacity, weather

  20. Generation of abnormal trace element abundances in Antarctic eucrites by weathering processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mittlefehldt, David W.; Lindstrom, Marilyn M.

    1991-01-01

    Data were obtained on the trace- and major-element compositions of 16 Antarctic abnormal eucrites, many of which exhibiting positive (but sometimes negative) Ce anomalies, positive Eu anomalies, and low abundances of the remainder of the REEs. The results of data analysis suggest that the unusual REE patterns of abnormal Antarctic eucrites arise from weathering effects generated in or on the Antarctic ice. The suggested scenario involves the formation of melt water and its equilibration with the atmosphere, promoting the dissolution of REE-rich phosphates and the oxidation of Ce. As a result, tetravalent Ce is fractionated from the trivalent REE in solution.

  1. WWW - Wonderful Web Weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Jason Parrish

    2007-12-12

    This is a web quest for students to research weather forecasting using the Internet. Students work in groups to study how accurate weather forecasts are by tracking the weather for 3 days in several locations. Using graphs students then compare how each location scored in accuracy and present their findings to the class. This site contains links for students to use for more background information, a process for the students to follow, and evaluation rubrics for the student-produced graphs and presentation.

  2. A New Perspective on Surface Weather Maps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Steve

    2006-01-01

    A two-dimensional weather map is actually a physical representation of three-dimensional atmospheric conditions at a specific point in time. Abstract thinking is required to visualize this two-dimensional image in three-dimensional form. But once that visualization is accomplished, many of the meteorological concepts and processes conveyed by the…

  3. Proposed Initiative Would Study Earth's Weathering Engine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Suzanne P. Anderson; Joel Blum; Susan L. Brantley; Oliver Chadwick; Jon Chorover; Louis A. Derry; James I. Drever; Janet G. Hering; James W. Kirchner; Lee R. Kump; Daniel Richter; Art F. White

    2004-01-01

    At the Earth's surface, a complex suite of chemical, biological, and physical processes combines to create the engine that transforms bedrock into soil (Figure 1). Earth's weathering engine provides nutrients to nourish ecosystems and human society, mediates the transport of toxic components within the biosphere, creates water flow paths that carve and weaken bedrock, and contributes to the evolution of

  4. Bioremediation of a weathered and a recently oil-contaminated soils from Brazil: a comparison study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. V. O. Trindade; L. G. Sobral; A. C. L. Rizzo; S. G. F. Leite; A. U. Soriano

    2005-01-01

    The facility with which hydrocarbons can be removed from soils varies inversely with aging of soil samples as a result of weathering. Weathering refers to the result of biological, chemical and physical processes that can affect the type of hydrocarbons that remain in a soil. These processes enhance the sorption of hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs) to the soil matrix, decreasing

  5. Weather impacts on space operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madura, J.; Boyd, B.; Bauman, W.; Wyse, N.; Adams, M.

    The efforts of the 45th Weather Squadron of the USAF to provide weather support to Patrick Air Force Base, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Eastern Range, and the Kennedy Space Center are discussed. Its weather support to space vehicles, particularly the Space Shuttle, includes resource protection, ground processing, launch, and Ferry Flight, as well as consultations to the Spaceflight Meteorology Group for landing forecasts. Attention is given to prelaunch processing weather, launch support weather, Shuttle launch commit criteria, and range safety weather restrictions. Upper level wind requirements are examined. The frequency of hourly surface observations with thunderstorms at the Shuttle landing facility, and lightning downtime at the Titan launch complexes are illustrated.

  6. Physical processes in EUV sources for microlithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banine, V. Y.; Koshelev, K. N.; Swinkels, G. H. P. M.

    2011-06-01

    The source is an integral part of an extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) tool. Such a source, as well as the EUVL tool, has to fulfil very high demands both technical and cost oriented. The EUVL tool operates at a wavelength of 13.5 nm, which requires the following new developments. The light production mechanism changes from conventional lamps and lasers to relatively high-temperature emitting plasmas. The light transport, mainly refractive for deep ultraviolet (DUV), should be reflective for EUV. The source specifications as derived from the customer requirements on wafer throughput mean that the output EUV source power has to be hundreds of watts. This in its turn means that tens to hundreds of kilowatts of dissipated power has to be managed in a relatively small volume. In order to keep lithography costs as low as possible, the lifetime of the components should be as long as possible and at least of the order of thousands of hours. This poses a challenge for the sources, namely how to design and manufacture components robust enough to withstand the intense environment of high heat dissipation, flows of several keV ions as well as the atomic and particular debris within the source vessel. As with all lithography tools, the imaging requirements demand a narrow illumination bandwidth. Absorption of materials at EUV wavelengths is extreme with extinguishing lengths of the order of tens of nanometres, so the balance between high transmission and spectral purity requires careful engineering. All together, EUV lithography sources present technological challenges in various fields of physics such as plasma, optics and material science. These challenges are being tackled by the source manufacturers and investigated extensively in the research facilities around the world. An overview of the published results on the topic as well as the analyses of the physical processes behind the proposed solutions will be presented in this paper.

  7. Thermodynamics of Irreversible Processes. Physical Processes in Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecosystems, Transport Processes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, Michael; Gallucci, V. F.

    These materials were designed to be used by life science students for instruction in the application of physical theory to ecosystem operation. Most modules contain computer programs which are built around a particular application of a physical process. This module describes the application of irreversible thermodynamics to biology. It begins with…

  8. Living in the Weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)

    2006-12-13

    What is weather? Is climate different from weather? It doesn't matter where you live or where you travel, weather patterns influence your daily life. In this guide, students will engage in exploring and predicting the conditions in the atmosphere that are responsible for weather patterns and climatic conditions, and investigate how extreme weather impacts humans and the environment. While many of the keywords embedded into the "Living in the Weather" themes will be familiar, do your students really understand them? This guide provides teacher-tested, reliable links that allow you and your students to "surf" the internet in a quest to better understand how atmospheric conditions directly relate to weather on Earth. Understanding weather and climate can be a great opportunity for you to engage students in topics and themes that connect Earth and space science, life science, and physical science in a real way. The National Science Education Standards (NSES) focus on the study of weather and climate and their impact on human life. This guide uses the ongoing work and technology of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (known to the public simply as NOAA). NOAA scientists study our planet Earth in a global way. Working together with scientists worldwide, NOAA scientists study the diversity of living organisms (including humans) and their impact on our environment--not only in our country but in every country and continent around the world.

  9. Weathering patterns in high latitude regolith

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stromsoe, J.; Paasche, O.

    2011-12-01

    Large areas distributed on the Earth's surface are covered by regolith, an unconsolidated heterogeneous material overlying bedrock. In high latitude areas, most of the land surface has been reworked and eroded by both glacial and fluvial processes, leaving only remnants of formerly extensive regolith covers. In an effort to further the understanding of weathering patterns and processes in old regolith covers, a comprehensive study of localities spread across Norway was carried out. Based on the distribution of minerals and elements within regolith, as well as its internal structure and geomorphologic setting, we ascertained that it was formed in situ and originated in pre-Quaternary times. There are similarities between the study sites with respect to regolith thickness, zonation, and composition. The Chemical Index of Alteration (CIA) and the Weathering Index of Parker (WIP) suggests that the degree of chemical weathering in the regolith is advanced compared to the parental bedrock with a maximum change of over 80%, which indicates a substantial increase in the proportion of secondary versus primary minerals. Mineral analysis identified kaolinite and gibbsite, which are considered indicative of advanced weathering and therefore support this observation. On the basis of statistical relationships between different grain size fractions (<125 ?m), we observed a consistent pattern, which revealed that physical weathering becomes progressively less important in the production of grains smaller than 32 ?m. Based on this finding, we infer that chemical weathering progressively dominates the production of fine silt, very fine silt, and clay, whereas physical weathering primarily controls the production of grain size fractions larger than 32 ?m. This particular pattern is suggested to be an intrinsic feature in the formation of weathered high latitude regolith.

  10. Weathering patterns in high-latitude regolith

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    StrøMsøE, JøRund Raukleiv; Paasche, Øyvind

    2011-09-01

    Large areas distributed on the Earth's surface are covered by regolith, an unconsolidated heterogeneous material overlying bedrock. In high-latitude areas, most of the land surface has been reworked and eroded by both glacial and fluvial processes, leaving only remnants of formerly extensive regolith covers. In an effort to further the understanding of weathering patterns and processes in old regolith covers, a comprehensive study of localities spread across Norway was carried out. On the basis of the distribution of minerals and elements within regolith, as well as its internal structure and geomorphologic setting, we ascertained that it was formed in situ and originated in pre-Quaternary times. There are similarities between the study sites with respect to regolith thickness, zonation, and composition. The Chemical Index of Alteration (CIA) and the Weathering Index of Parker (WIP) suggests that the degree of chemical weathering in the regolith is advanced compared to the parental bedrock with a maximum change of over 80%, which indicates a substantial increase in the proportion of secondary versus primary minerals. Mineral analysis identified kaolinite and gibbsite, which are considered indicative of advanced weathering and therefore support this observation. On the basis of statistical relationships between different grain size fractions (<125 ?m), we observed a consistent pattern, which revealed that physical weathering becomes progressively less important in the production of grains smaller than 32 ?m. On the basis of this finding, we infer that chemical weathering progressively dominates the production of fine silt, very fine silt, and clay, whereas physical weathering primarily controls the production of grain size fractions larger than 32 ?m. This particular pattern is suggested to be an intrinsic feature in the formation of weathered high-latitude regolith.

  11. The Stress Process in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blankenship, Bonnie Tjeerdsma

    2007-01-01

    Negative stress in physical education can reduce a student's enjoyment of physical activity and destroy the individual's desire to be a lifelong mover. The purpose of this article is to explore the concept of stress in physical education. Stress is defined as a substantial imbalance between the demand of a situation and the individual's capability…

  12. Space Weathering of Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noble, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    Space weathering discussions have generally centered around soils but exposed rocks will also incur the effects of weathering. On the Moon, rocks make up only a very small percentage of the exposed surface and areas where rocks are exposed, like central peaks, are often among the least space weathered regions we find in remote sensing data. However, our studies of weathered Ap 17 rocks 76015 and 76237 show that significant amounts of weathering products can build up on rock surfaces. Because rocks have much longer surface lifetimes than an individual soil grain, and thus record a longer history of exposure, we can study these products to gain a deeper perspective on the weathering process and better assess the relative impo!1ance of various weathering components on the Moon. In contrast to the lunar case, on small asteroids, like Itokowa, rocks make up a large fraction of the exposed surface. Results from the Hayabusa spacecraft at Itokowa suggest that while the low gravity does not allow for the development of a mature regolith, weathering patinas can and do develop on rock surfaces, in fact, the rocky surfaces were seen to be darker and appear spectrally more weathered than regions with finer materials. To explore how weathering of asteroidal rocks may differ from lunar, a set of ordinary chondrite meteorites (H, L, and LL) which have been subjected to artificial space weathering by nanopulse laser were examined by TEM. NpFe(sup 0) bearing glasses were ubiquitous in both the naturally-weathered lunar and the artificially-weathered meteorite samples.

  13. Terrestrial-marine teleconnections in the Devonian: links between the evolution of land plants, weathering processes, and marine anoxic events

    PubMed Central

    Algeo, T. J.

    1998-01-01

    The Devonian Period was characterized by major changes in both the terrestrial biosphere, e.g. the evolution of trees and seed plants and the appearance of multi-storied forests, and in the marine biosphere, e.g. an extended biotic crisis that decimated tropical marine benthos, especially the stromatoporoid-tabulate coral reef community. Teleconnections between these terrestrial and marine events are poorly understood, but a key may lie in the role of soils as a geochemical interface between the lithosphere and atmosphere/hydrosphere, and the role of land plants in mediating weathering processes at this interface. The effectiveness of terrestrial floras in weathering was significantly enhanced as a consequence of increases in the size and geographic extent of vascular land plants during the Devonian. In this regard, the most important palaeobotanical innovations were (1) arborescence (tree stature), which increased maximum depths of root penetration and rhizoturbation, and (2) the seed habit, which freed land plants from reproductive dependence on moist lowland habitats and allowed colonization of drier upland and primary successional areas. These developments resulted in a transient intensification of pedogenesis (soil formation) and to large increases in the thickness and areal extent of soils. Enhanced chemical weathering may have led to increased riverine nutrient fluxes that promoted development of eutrophic conditions in epicontinental seaways, resulting in algal blooms, widespread bottomwater anoxia, and high sedimentary organic carbon fluxes. Long-term effects included drawdown of atmospheric pCO2 and global cooling, leading to a brief Late Devonian glaciation, which set the stage for icehouse conditions during the Permo-Carboniferous. This model provides a framework for understanding links between early land plant evolution and coeval marine anoxic and biotic events, but further testing of Devonian terrestrial-marine teleconnections is needed.

  14. World weather program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    A brief description of the Global Weather Experiment is presented. The world weather watch program plan is described and includes a global observing system, a global data processing system, a global telecommunication system, and a voluntary cooperation program. A summary of Federal Agency plans and programs to meet the challenges of international meteorology for the two year period, FY 1980-1981, is presented.

  15. Home Weatherization Visit

    ScienceCinema

    Chu, Steven

    2013-05-29

    Secretary Steven Chu visits a home that is in the process of being weatherized in Columbus, OH, along with Ohio Governor Ted Strickland and Columbus Mayor Michael Coleman. They discuss the benefits of weatherization and how funding from the recovery act is having a direct impact in communities across America.

  16. Statistical physics of media processes: Mediaphysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsov, Dmitri V.; Mandel, Igor

    2007-04-01

    The processes of mass communications in complicated social or sociobiological systems such as marketing, economics, politics, animal populations, etc. as a subject for the special scientific subbranch-“mediaphysics”-are considered in its relation with sociophysics. A new statistical physics approach to analyze these phenomena is proposed. A keystone of the approach is an analysis of population distribution between two or many alternatives: brands, political affiliations, or opinions. Relative distances between a state of a “person's mind” and the alternatives are measures of propensity to buy (to affiliate, or to have a certain opinion). The distribution of population by those relative distances is time dependent and affected by external (economic, social, marketing, natural) and internal (influential propagation of opinions, “word of mouth”, etc.) factors, considered as fields. Specifically, the interaction and opinion-influence field can be generalized to incorporate important elements of Ising-spin-based sociophysical models and kinetic-equation ones. The distributions were described by a Schrödinger-type equation in terms of Green's functions. The developed approach has been applied to a real mass-media efficiency problem for a large company and generally demonstrated very good results despite low initial correlations of factors and the target variable.

  17. Proton computed tomography from multiple physics processes.

    PubMed

    Bopp, C; Colin, J; Cussol, D; Finck, Ch; Labalme, M; Rousseau, M; Brasse, D

    2013-10-21

    Proton CT (pCT) nowadays aims at improving hadron therapy treatment planning by mapping the relative stopping power (RSP) of materials with respect to water. The RSP depends mainly on the electron density of the materials. The main information used is the energy of the protons. However, during a pCT acquisition, the spatial and angular deviation of each particle is recorded and the information about its transmission is implicitly available. The potential use of those observables in order to get information about the materials is being investigated. Monte Carlo simulations of protons sent into homogeneous materials were performed, and the influence of the chemical composition on the outputs was studied. A pCT acquisition of a head phantom scan was simulated. Brain lesions with the same electron density but different concentrations of oxygen were used to evaluate the different observables. Tomographic images from the different physics processes were reconstructed using a filtered back-projection algorithm. Preliminary results indicate that information is present in the reconstructed images of transmission and angular deviation that may help differentiate tissues. However, the statistical uncertainty on these observables generates further challenge in order to obtain an optimal reconstruction and extract the most pertinent information. PMID:24076769

  18. Proton computed tomography from multiple physics processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bopp, C.; Colin, J.; Cussol, D.; Finck, Ch; Labalme, M.; Rousseau, M.; Brasse, D.

    2013-10-01

    Proton CT (pCT) nowadays aims at improving hadron therapy treatment planning by mapping the relative stopping power (RSP) of materials with respect to water. The RSP depends mainly on the electron density of the materials. The main information used is the energy of the protons. However, during a pCT acquisition, the spatial and angular deviation of each particle is recorded and the information about its transmission is implicitly available. The potential use of those observables in order to get information about the materials is being investigated. Monte Carlo simulations of protons sent into homogeneous materials were performed, and the influence of the chemical composition on the outputs was studied. A pCT acquisition of a head phantom scan was simulated. Brain lesions with the same electron density but different concentrations of oxygen were used to evaluate the different observables. Tomographic images from the different physics processes were reconstructed using a filtered back-projection algorithm. Preliminary results indicate that information is present in the reconstructed images of transmission and angular deviation that may help differentiate tissues. However, the statistical uncertainty on these observables generates further challenge in order to obtain an optimal reconstruction and extract the most pertinent information.

  19. Weather Report

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This printable weather report is designed to help students easily note a field site's important meteorological details. The one-page PDF form asks for the following information: date, temperature, precipitation, weather type, and wind speed (based on environmental clues).

  20. Weather Forecasting

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This website, supplied by Annenberg / CPB, discusses weather satellites, Doppler radar, and additional tools forecasters use to predict the weather. Students can find a wind chill calculator along with a brief discussion of the history of forecasting and weather lore. Once you have a firm grasp on the science of weather forecasting, be sure to check out the other sections of this site, which include: "ice and snow," "our changing climate," "the water cycle," and "powerful storms."

  1. Evaluating the effects of terrestrial ecosystems, climate and carbon dioxide on weathering over geological time: a global-scale process-based approach

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Lyla L.; Banwart, Steve A.; Valdes, Paul J.; Leake, Jonathan R.; Beerling, David J.

    2012-01-01

    Global weathering of calcium and magnesium silicate rocks provides the long-term sink for atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) on a timescale of millions of years by causing precipitation of calcium carbonates on the seafloor. Catchment-scale field studies consistently indicate that vegetation increases silicate rock weathering, but incorporating the effects of trees and fungal symbionts into geochemical carbon cycle models has relied upon simple empirical scaling functions. Here, we describe the development and application of a process-based approach to deriving quantitative estimates of weathering by plant roots, associated symbiotic mycorrhizal fungi and climate. Our approach accounts for the influence of terrestrial primary productivity via nutrient uptake on soil chemistry and mineral weathering, driven by simulations using a dynamic global vegetation model coupled to an ocean–atmosphere general circulation model of the Earth's climate. The strategy is successfully validated against observations of weathering in watersheds around the world, indicating that it may have some utility when extrapolated into the past. When applied to a suite of six global simulations from 215 to 50 Ma, we find significantly larger effects over the past 220 Myr relative to the present day. Vegetation and mycorrhizal fungi enhanced climate-driven weathering by a factor of up to 2. Overall, we demonstrate a more realistic process-based treatment of plant fungal–geosphere interactions at the global scale, which constitutes a first step towards developing ‘next-generation’ geochemical models. PMID:22232768

  2. Evaluating the effects of terrestrial ecosystems, climate and carbon dioxide on weathering over geological time: a global-scale process-based approach.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Lyla L; Banwart, Steve A; Valdes, Paul J; Leake, Jonathan R; Beerling, David J

    2012-02-19

    Global weathering of calcium and magnesium silicate rocks provides the long-term sink for atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO(2)) on a timescale of millions of years by causing precipitation of calcium carbonates on the seafloor. Catchment-scale field studies consistently indicate that vegetation increases silicate rock weathering, but incorporating the effects of trees and fungal symbionts into geochemical carbon cycle models has relied upon simple empirical scaling functions. Here, we describe the development and application of a process-based approach to deriving quantitative estimates of weathering by plant roots, associated symbiotic mycorrhizal fungi and climate. Our approach accounts for the influence of terrestrial primary productivity via nutrient uptake on soil chemistry and mineral weathering, driven by simulations using a dynamic global vegetation model coupled to an ocean-atmosphere general circulation model of the Earth's climate. The strategy is successfully validated against observations of weathering in watersheds around the world, indicating that it may have some utility when extrapolated into the past. When applied to a suite of six global simulations from 215 to 50 Ma, we find significantly larger effects over the past 220 Myr relative to the present day. Vegetation and mycorrhizal fungi enhanced climate-driven weathering by a factor of up to 2. Overall, we demonstrate a more realistic process-based treatment of plant fungal-geosphere interactions at the global scale, which constitutes a first step towards developing 'next-generation' geochemical models. PMID:22232768

  3. Antarctic Weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Visitors to this site can read a discussion about the weather in Anarctica, including why it is so cold, how weather observations are conducted there, and what role the continent plays in the global weather system. Links to related topics, a wind chill calculator, and a Fahrenheit-Celsius-Kelvin temperature converter are also provided.

  4. Antarctic Weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2010-01-01

    Visitors to this site can read a discussion about the weather in Antarctica, including why it is so cold, how weather observations are conducted there, and what role the continent plays in the global weather system. Links to related topics, a wind chill calculator, and a Fahrenheit-Celsius-Kelvin temperature converter are also provided.

  5. Physical and Chemical Changes in the Digestion Process

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Monica Clark

    2012-09-16

    This lesson demonstrates how students can determine the cause and effect relationship in the digestion process. Students will be able to determine where chemical and physical changes occur in the digestion process and support their findings from an informational text. This lesson provides students with an opportunity to apply their knowledge of physical and chemical changes in matter to the process of digestion.

  6. Characterization and nultivariate analysis of physical properties of processing peaches

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Characterization of physical properties of fruits represents the first vital step to ensure optimal performance of fruit processing operations and is also a prerequisite in the development of new processing equipment. In this study, physical properties of engineering significance to processing of th...

  7. Enabling Effective Space Weather and Climatology (SWaC) Capabilities: The NRC Decadal Survey in Solar and Space Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, D. N.

    2012-12-01

    The U.S. very much needs long-term observations of the space weather environment and must support the development and application of coupled space weather models to protect critical societal infrastructure, including communication, navigation, and terrestrial weather satellites. As just one example, solar and space physicists partnering with power grid engineers have created the capability to model the effects of geomagnetically-induced currents on electricity transmission and distribution systems. This crucially important work has produced sophisticated software to assess the response of the electrical power system to geomagnetic storms, to assess the vulnerabilities, and to develop mitigation strategies. To fulfill the requirements for space weather presented in the June 2010 U.S. National Space Policy and envisioned in the 2010 National Space Weather Program Plan, we must develop a new approach. The National Research Council's 2013-2022 Decadal Survey presents a vision for renewed national commitment to a comprehensive program in Space Weather and Climatology, building on agency strengths. Enabling an effective SWaC capability will require action across multiple agencies. To coordinate the development of this plan, the National Space Weather Program should be re-chartered under the auspices of the National Science and Technology Council and include active participation from the Office of Science and Technology Policy and the Office of Management and Budget. The plan should take into account current agency efforts and capabilities, leverage the new capabilities and knowledge that will arise from implementation of the Decadal Survey, and develop additional monitoring capabilities and platforms specifically tailored to space weather monitoring and prediction.

  8. Fair weather atmospheric electricity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, R. G.

    2011-06-01

    Not long after Franklin's iconic studies, an atmospheric electric field was discovered in "fair weather" regions, well away from thunderstorms. The origin of the fair weather field was sought by Lord Kelvin, through development of electrostatic instrumentation and early data logging techniques, but was ultimately explained through the global circuit model of C.T.R. Wilson. In Wilson's model, charge exchanged by disturbed weather electrifies the ionosphere, and returns via a small vertical current density in fair weather regions. New insights into the relevance of fair weather atmospheric electricity to terrestrial and planetary atmospheres are now emerging. For example, there is a possible role of the global circuit current density in atmospheric processes, such as cloud formation. Beyond natural atmospheric processes, a novel practical application is the use of early atmospheric electrostatic investigations to provide quantitative information on past urban air pollution.

  9. The influence of regional urbanization and abnormal weather conditions on the processes of human climatic adaptation on mountain resorts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artamonova, M.; Golitsyn, G.; Senik, I.; Safronov, A.; Babyakin, A.; Efimenko, N.; Povolotskaya, N.; Topuriya, D.; Chalaya, E.

    2012-04-01

    This work is a further development in the study of weather pathogenic index (WPI) and negative influence of urbanization processes on the state of people's health with adaptation disorder. This problem is socially significant. According to the data of the WHO, in the world there are from 20 to 45% of healthy people and from 40 to 80% of people with chronic diseases who suffer from the raised meteosensitivity. As a result of our researches of meteosensitivity of people during their short-duration on mountain resorts there were used negative adaptive reactions (NAR) under 26 routine tests, stress-reactions under L.H. Garkavi's hemogram, vegetative indices, tests of neuro-vascular reactivity, signs of imbalance of vegetative and neurohumoral regulation according to the data of biorhythm fractal analysis and sudden aggravations of diseases (SAD) as an indicator of negative climatic and urbanization influence. In 2010-2011 the Caucasian mountain resorts were having long periods of climatic anomalies, strengthening of anthropogenic emissions and forest fires when record-breaking high waves of NAR and SAD were noticed. There have also been specified indices ranks of weather pathogenicity from results of comparison of health characteristics with indicators of synoptico-dynamic processes according to Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF); air ionization N+, N-, N+/N- spectra of aerosol particles (the size from 500 to 20000 nanometers) and concentrations of chemically active gases (O3, NO, NO2, ), volatile phytoorganic substances in the surface atmosphere, bactericidal characteristics of vegetation by criterion ?2 (not above 0,05). It has allowed us to develop new physiological optimum borders, norm and pessimum, to classify emergency ecologo-weather situations, to develop a new techniques of their forecasting and prevention of meteopathic reactions with meteosensitive patients (Method of treatment and the early (emergency) and planned prevention meteopatic reactions in patients with coronary heart disease, hypertension stage I-II syndrome disadaptative using the transcranial mezo diencephalic modulation / L.I.Zherlitsina, N.V. Efimenko, N.P. Povolotskaya, I.I. Velikanov. the Patent for the invention No.2422128, RU (11) 2 422 128 (13) C1 from 6/27/2011; Bull.13). We have observed that such anthropogenic characteristics as accumulation of aerosol with the size of particles 500-5000 nanometers in the lower atmosphere in the quantity more than 60 particles/sm3 (getting to alveoli); decrease in quantity of negative ions (N-) lower than 200 ions/sm3, high coefficient of ions unipolarity (N+/N-) - more than 4-6; mass concentration of aerosol more than 150 mkg/m3 and other modules of the environment can act as limited markers for the forecast of dangerous NAR, SAD and taking of urgent radical preventive measures. These techniques of medical weather forecast and meteo prevention can be used in other mountain regions of the world. The studies were performed by support of the Program "Basic Sciences for Medicine" and RFBR project No.10-05-01014_a.

  10. Wide variability in physical activity environments and weather-related outdoor play policies in child-care centers within a single county of Ohio

    PubMed Central

    Copeland, Kristen A; Sherman, Susan N; Khoury, Jane C; Foster, Karla E; Saelens, Brian E; Kalkwarf, Heidi J

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To examine the variability of physical activity environments and outdoor play-policies in child-care centers, and to determine if they are associated with center demographic characteristics Design Telephone survey—the Early Learning Environments Physical Activity and Nutrition Telephone Survey (ELEPhANTS) Setting Child-care centers in Hamilton County (Cincinnati area), Ohio, 2008–9. Participants Directors of all 185 licensed full-time child-care centers in Hamilton County. Outcome Measures Descriptive measures of center playground and indoor physical activity environments, and weather-related outdoor-play policies. Results 162 (88%) centers responded. Most (93%) centers reported an on-site playground, but only half reported their playgrounds as large, at least 1/3rd covered in shade, or having a variety of portable play equipment. Only half reported having a dedicated indoor gross-motor room where children could be active during inclement weather. Only 20% of centers allowed children to go outside in temperatures below 32°F, and 43% of centers reported allowing children outdoors during light rain. A higher percent of children receiving tuition-assistance was associated with lower quality physical activity facilities and stricter weather-related practices. National accreditation was associated with more physical-activity promoting practices. Conclusion We found considerable variability in the indoor and outdoor playground offerings among child-care centers, even within a single county of Ohio. Per center policy and limited inside options, children’s active opportunities are curtailed due to sub-freezing temperatures or light rain. Policy change and parent/teacher education may be needed to ensure children achieve ample opportunity for daily physical activity. PMID:21199969

  11. World Weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Elias, Jaume Sanchez

    2014-02-20

    What's going on in the world of weather? Are there storms around Sri Lanka? What about the snows of Kilimanjaro? These can be pressing questions, indeed, and the World Weather app is a great way to stay in touch with weather patterns around the globe. Users will find that they can just type in a city name to see the current weather and also zoom around the globe as they see fit. It's a remarkable addition to the world of existing weather tracking apps and is compatible with all operating systems.

  12. Severe Weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Evan B. Forde

    2004-04-01

    Educating the public about safety issues related to severe weather is part of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) mission. The National Weather Service (NWS)--which is part of NOAA and its parent agency, the Department of Commerce--is charged with the critical responsibility of observing and reporting the weather and with issuing forecasts and warnings of weather and floods in the interest of national safety and economy. Through a massive network of weather-monitoring and reporting stations around the globe, including land, sea, air, and space-borne instruments, NWS scientists constantly assimilate all of the reliable weather data available. Much of this data are then used in numerical computer models of the atmosphere that help to accurately describe and interpret current conditions and produce the best possible forecasts of future weather.

  13. Cockpit weather information needs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scanlon, Charles H.

    1992-01-01

    The primary objective is to develop an advanced pilot weather interface for the flight deck and to measure its utilization and effectiveness in pilot reroute decision processes, weather situation awareness, and weather monitoring. Identical graphical weather displays for the dispatcher, air traffic control (ATC), and pilot crew should also enhance the dialogue capabilities for reroute decisions. By utilizing a broadcast data link for surface observations, forecasts, radar summaries, lightning strikes, and weather alerts, onboard weather computing facilities construct graphical displays, historical weather displays, color textual displays, and other tools to assist the pilot crew. Since the weather data is continually being received and stored by the airborne system, the pilot crew has instantaneous access to the latest information. This information is color coded to distinguish degrees of category for surface observations, ceiling and visibilities, and ground radar summaries. Automatic weather monitoring and pilot crew alerting is accomplished by the airborne computing facilities. When a new weather information is received, the displays are instantaneously changed to reflect the new information. Also, when a new surface or special observation for the intended destination is received, the pilot crew is informed so that information can be studied at the pilot's discretion. The pilot crew is also immediately alerted when a severe weather notice, AIRMET or SIGMET, is received. The cockpit weather display shares a multicolor eight inch cathode ray tube and overlaid touch panel with a pilot crew data link interface. Touch sensitive buttons and areas are used for pilot selection of graphical and data link displays. Time critical ATC messages are presented in a small window that overlays other displays so that immediate pilot alerting and action can be taken. Predeparture and reroute clearances are displayed on the graphical weather system so pilot review of weather along the route can be accomplished prior to pilot acceptance of the clearance. An ongoing multiphase test series is planned for testing and modifying the graphical weather system. Preliminary data shows that the nine test subjects considered the graphical presentation to be much better than their current weather information source for situation awareness, flight safety, and reroute decision making.

  14. Analysis of weather patterns associated with air quality degradation and potential health impacts

    EPA Science Inventory

    Emissions from anthropogenic and natural sources into the atmosphere are determined in large measure by prevailing weather conditions through complex physical, dynamical and chemical processes. Air pollution episodes are characterized by degradation in air quality as reflected by...

  15. A model of weathering intensity for the Australian continent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilford, J.

    2013-12-01

    Regolith encompasses all weathered materials in the zone between the Earth's surface and fresh bedrock at depth. This weathered zone includes the soil, which may constitute the whole of the regolith profile or represent only its upper part. Important hydrological and biogeochemical processes operate within the regolith, including the infiltration and storage of near-surface water and nutrients, which sustain agricultural productivity. The degree to which the regolith is weathered (or its weathering intensity) is intrinsically linked to the factors involved in soil formation including parent material, climate, topography, biota and time. The degree to which the bedrock or sediments are weathered has a significant effect on the nature and distribution of regolith materials. There is commonly a strong correlation between weathering intensity and the degree of soil development as well as the depth of the weathering front. Changes in weathering intensity correspond to changes in the geochemical and physical properties of bedrock, ranging from essentially unweathered parent materials through to intensely weathered and leached regolith where all traits of the original protolith (original unweathered rock) are overprinted or lost altogether. With increasing weathering intensity we see mineral and geochemical convergence to more resistant secondary weathered materials including clay, silica, and various oxides. A weathering intensity index (WII) over the Australian continent has been developed at a 100 m resolution using two regression models based on airborne gamma-ray spectrometry imagery and the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) elevation data. Airborne gamma-ray spectrometry measures the concentration of three radioelements -- potassium (K), thorium (Th) and uranium (U) at the Earth's surface. The total gamma-ray flux (dose) is also calculated based on the weighted additions of the three radioelements. In general K is leached with increasing weathering whereas Th and U typically show increases due to their association in clays and oxides in the profile. These geochemical relationships underpin the first model prediction. In the case where no gamma-ray data is available or where the bedrock is very low in radioelements (e.g. basalt, quartz-rich sandstone) surface relief is used as surrogate in the second prediction model. The two models are combined to generate a weathering intensity index of the Australian continent. The weathering intensity index has been developed for erosional landscapes but also provides useful information on deposition processes and materials. The weathering intensity prediction is evaluated with surface geochemistry (compared with geochemical indices) and previous regolith-landform mapping. The use of the weathering intensity index in natural resource management and mineral exploration is discussed.

  16. Observe the effects of mechanical weathering

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    TERC. Center for Earth and Space Science Education

    2003-01-01

    In this interactive Earth science resource, students are first presented with six photographs, each featuring a different mechanical weathering event in which rock is broken down. Examples of the events include road damage due to ice heaving and the expansion of cracks in rocks due to tree growth. Students are instructed to click on each labeled image to see an enlarged version of it. In the enlarged view, brief text, often accompanied by visual cues such as arrows, explains the physical weathering process shown. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

  17. JOINT DRY/WET WEATHER TREATMENT OF MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER AT CLATSKANIE, OREGON

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report describes the two year plant scale evaluation of physical and biological processes used for joint treatment of dry weather and storm generated sanitary sewer flow. The project was conducted in Clatskanie, OR at the City's new joint dry/wet weather sewage treatment pla...

  18. Biogenic catalysis in sulphide minerals' weathering processes and acid mine drainage genesis.

    PubMed

    Kušnierová, Mária; Praš?áková, Mária; Nowak, Anna K; Gorazda, Katarzyna; Wzorek, Zbigniew

    2014-01-01

    Bioleaching and biogenesis are the main outputs from a large group of environmental processes participating in the natural material cycle, used in raw materials processing. Bio-oxidation reactions are the main basis for bioleaching procedures, often participating in parallel leaching processes. During the leaching processes of polycomponent sulphide substrates, the factor of process selection also plays an important role, being in direct relation to the electric properties and galvanic effect occurring between the individual components of the leaching substrate. This work gives a summary of the results of a research focused on the possibilities of using biotechnological procedures for treatment of Slovak sulphide ores. The object of the research is extraction of valuable metals, undesirable admixtures and degradation of crystal lattice of sulphides for subsequent chemical leaching processing of precious metals. The results of experiments on the existence of biogenic processes in situ on waste dumps from exploitation containing residual sulphides are also presented. The processes result in acid mine drainage water generation. These waters are strongly mineralised (over 48 g/L) and of low pH; that is why they are very caustic. The arsenic content (2.558 mg/L) in outflowing waters from old mines is high and over the limits set by the law. PMID:24445359

  19. Bell Labs - Physical Sciences - Silicon Processing Introduction

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This website includes a description of silicon processing from Bell Laboratories. Silicon chips are prepared by an elaborate sequence of processing steps applied to a silicon wafer. Keywords: Patterning, implantation, oxidation, metallization, photoresist

  20. Space Weathering of Lunar Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noble, S. K.; Keller, L. P.; Christoffersen, R.; Rahman, Z.

    2012-01-01

    All materials exposed at the lunar surface undergo space weathering processes. On the Moon, boulders make up only a small percentage of the exposed surface, and areas where such rocks are exposed, like central peaks, are often among the least space weathered regions identified from remote sensing data. Yet space weathered surfaces (patina) are relatively common on returned rock samples, some of which directly sample the surface of larger boulders. Because, as witness plates to lunar space weathering, rocks and boulders experience longer exposure times compared to lunar soil grains, they allow us to develop a deeper perspective on the relative importance of various weathering processes as a function of time.

  1. Weathering processes in the Rio Icacos and Rio Mameyes watersheds in Eastern Puerto Rico: Chapter I in Water quality and landscape processes of four watersheds in eastern Puerto Rico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buss, Heather L.; White, Arthur F.

    2012-01-01

    Streams draining watersheds of the two dominant lithologies (quartz diorite and volcaniclastic rock) in the Luquillo Experimental Forest of eastern Puerto Rico have very high fluxes of bedrock weathering products. The Río Blanco quartz diorite in the Icacos watershed and the Fajardo volcaniclastic rocks in the Mameyes watershed have some of the fastest documented rates of chemical weathering of siliceous rocks in the world. Rapid weathering produces thick, highly leached saprolites in both watersheds that lie just below the soil and largely isolate subsurface biogeochemical and hydrologic processes from those in the soil. The quartz diorite bedrock in the Icacos watershed weathers spheroidally, leaving large, relatively unweathered corestones that are enveloped by slightly weathered rock layers called rindlets. The rindlets wrap around the corestones like an onionskin. Within the corestones, biotite oxidation is thought to induce the spheroidal fracturing that leads to development of rindlets; plagioclase in the rindlets dissolves, creating additional pore spaces. Near the rindlet-saprolite interface, the remaining plagioclase dissolves, hornblende dissolves to completion, and precipitation of kaolinite, gibbsite, and goethite becomes pervasive. In the saprolite, biotite weathers to kaolinite and quartz begins to dissolve. In the soil layer, both quartz and kaolinite dissolve. The volcaniclastic bedrock of the Mameyes watershed weathers even faster than the quartz diorite bedrock of the Icacos watershed, leaving thicker saprolites that are devoid of all primary minerals except quartz. The quartz content of volcaniclastic bedrock may help to control watershed geomorphology; high-quartz rocks form thick saprolites that blanket ridges. Hydrologic flow paths within the weathering profiles vary with total fluid flux, and they influence the chemistry of streams. Under low-flow conditions, the Río Icacos and its tributaries are fed by rainfall and by groundwater from the fracture zones; during storm events, intense rainfall rapidly raises stream levels and water is flushed through the soil as shallow flow. As a result, weathering constituents that shed into streamwaters are dominated by rindlet-zone weathering processes during base flow and by soil weathering processes during stormflow. The upper reaches of the Mameyes watershed are characterized by regolith more than 35 meters thick in places that contains highly fractured rock embedded in its matrix. Weathering contributions to stream chemistry at base flow are predicted to be more spatially variable in the Mameyes watershed than in the Icacos watershed owing to the more complex subsurface weathering profile of the volcaniclastic bedrocks of the Mameyes watershed.

  2. TIME SERIES ANALYSIS OF REMOTELY-SENSED TIR EMISSION: linking anomalies to physical processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlidou, E.; van der Meijde, M.; Hecker, C.; van der Werff, H.; Ettema, J.

    2013-12-01

    In the last 15 years, remote sensing has been evaluated for detecting thermal anomalies as precursor to earthquakes. Important issues that need yet to be tackled include definition of: (a) thermal anomaly, taking into account weather conditions, observation settings and ';natural' variability caused by background sources (b) the length of observations required for this purpose; and (c) the location of detected anomalies, which should be physically related to the tectonic activity. To determine whether thermal anomalies are statistical noise, mere meteorological conditions, or actual earthquake-related phenomena, we apply a novel approach. We use brightness temperature (top-of-atmosphere) data from thermal infrared imagery acquired at a hypertemporal (sub-hourly) interval, from geostationary weather satellites over multiple years. The length of the time series allows for analysis of meteorological effects (diurnal, seasonal or annual trends) and background variability, through the application of a combined spatial and temporal filter to distinguish extreme occurrences from trends. The definition of potential anomalies is based on statistical techniques, taking into account published (geo)physical characteristics of earthquake related thermal anomalies. We use synthetic data to test the performance of the proposed detection method and track potential factors affecting the results. Subsequently, we apply the method on original data from Iran and Turkey, in quiescent and earthquake-struck periods alike. We present our findings with main focus to assess resulting anomalies in relation to physical processes thereby considering: (a) meteorological effects, (b) the geographical, geological and environmental settings, and (c) physically realistic distances and potential physical relations with the activity of causative faults.

  3. Statistical physics of active processes in cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jülicher, Frank

    2006-09-01

    Simple concepts from statistical physics are discussed to describe the transduction of chemical energy of a fuel to mechanical work on the molecular level. Such approaches can characterize general physical features of motor proteins that generate forces in the cell cytoskeleton. In integrated cellular systems such as cilia and hair bundles, cytoskeletal filaments and motors form complex structures and interact in large numbers. In such systems the interplay of filaments and motors can lead to emergent dynamic behaviors such as oscillating collective modes or to wave-like patterns. We discuss general aspects of such dynamic states and relate them to the dynamics of cytoskeletal structures in cells.

  4. What similar physical processes occur on both Earth and Mars?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2002-05-26

    This NASA Module investigation compares and contrasts physical processes that occur on Both Earth and Mars. Students are given unidentified images of Earth and Mars. Their task is to arrange the images into pairs that show evidence of similar physical processes. Then they identify each image as one of Earth or of Mars by comparing and contrasting physical features that they observe in the image pairs. It includes teacher background materials and an answer key where appropriate.

  5. Getting Middle-School Students up and Moving: What's the Role of School and Neighborhood Environments...and the Weather: Studying the Effect of Neighborhood and School Environments on Youth Physical Activity Levels. Program Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakashian, Mary

    2008-01-01

    Researchers at the Harvard Prevention Research Center at Harvard University School of Public Health examined how physical and social environments of schools and neighborhoods shape routine physical activities of students attending 10 middle schools in the Boston area. They also analyzed the effect of weather conditions on student physical

  6. Natural arsenic contamination of Holocene alluvial aquifers by linked tectonic, weathering, and microbial processes

    E-print Network

    Fayek, Mostafa

    tectonic, geochemical, and biologic processes lead to natural arsenic contamination of groundwater As to groundwater under moderately reducing conditions. Components: 3380 words, 3 figures. Keywords: arsenic- crobiology of arsenic in the alluvial aquifers. Moreover, the widespread As contamination of groundwater

  7. DOE Workshop; Pan-Gass Conference on the Representation of Atmospheric Processes in Weather and Climate Models

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, PI Hugh

    2012-09-21

    This is the first meeting of the whole new GEWEX (Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment) Atmospheric System Study (GASS) project that has been formed from the merger of the GEWEX Cloud System Study (GCSS) Project and the GEWEX Atmospheric Boundary Layer Studies (GABLS). As such, this meeting will play a major role in energizing GEWEX work in the area of atmospheric parameterizations of clouds, convection, stable boundary layers, and aerosol-cloud interactions for the numerical models used for weather and climate projections at both global and regional scales. The representation of these processes in models is crucial to GEWEX goals of improved prediction of the energy and water cycles at both weather and climate timescales. This proposal seeks funds to be used to cover incidental and travel expenses for U.S.-based graduate students and early career scientists (i.e., within 5 years of receiving their highest degree). We anticipate using DOE funding to support 5-10 people. We will advertise the availability of these funds by providing a box to check for interested participants on the online workshop registration form. We will also send a note to our participants' mailing lists reminding them that the funds are available and asking senior scientists to encourage their more junior colleagues to participate. All meeting participants are encouraged to submit abstracts for oral or poster presentations. The science organizing committee (see below) will base funding decisions on the relevance and quality of these abstracts, with preference given to under-represented populations (especially women and minorities) and to early career scientists being actively mentored at the meeting (e.g. students or postdocs attending the meeting with their advisor).

  8. Weather Data

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ms. Harris

    2011-01-24

    The listed websites are recommended safe kid friendly sites that may be used when gathering data for the at home data project. Use the websites listed to learn more about daily weather patterns in different cities around the world. After you have collected and organized your data, create a graph representing the different weather patterns in that city. Use this site to record the daily high temperature for your assigned city. The Weather Channel Use this ...

  9. Weather Instruments

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This Topic in Depth discusses the variety of instruments used to collect climate and weather data. The first two websites provide simple introductions to the many weather instruments. Bethune Academy's Weather Center (1) discusses the functions of psychrometers, anemometers, weather balloons, thermometers, and barometers. The Illinois State Water Survey (2) furnishes many images of various instruments that collect data daily for legal issues, farmers, educators, students, and researchers. The third website (3), created by the Center for Improving Engineering and Science Education (CIESE), provides a classroom activity to educate users on how to build and use weather instruments. By the end of the group project, students should know all about wind vanes, rain gauges, anemometers, and thermometers. Next, the Miami Museum of Science provides a variety of activities to help students learn about the many weather instruments including wind scales and wind chimes (4). Students can learn about the wind, air pressure, moisture, and temperature. At the fifth website, the Tyson Research Center at Washington University describes the devices it uses in its research (5). At the various links, users can find out the center's many projects that utilize meteorological data such as acid rain monitoring. The sixth website, a pdf document created by Dr. John Guyton at the Mississippi State University Extension Service, provides guidance to teachers about the education of weather patterns and instruments (6). Users can find helpful information on pressure systems, humidity, cloud patterns, and much more. Next, the University of Richmond discusses the tools meteorologists use to learn about the weather (7). While providing materials about the basic tools discussed in the other websites, this site also offers information about weather satellites, radar, and computer models. After discovering the many weather instruments, users can learn about weather data output and analysis at the Next Generation Weather Lab website (8). This expansive website provides an abundance of surface data and upper air data as well as satellite and radar images for the United States.

  10. Predicting Weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    By performing the activities presented in this website, fourth grade students can learn about weather instruments and data collection. This website, produced by the Government of Saskatchewan, also explores how the weather can impact local communities. Each activity presented here includes both objectives and assessment techniques for the lesson. Sixteen different activity suggestions provide students and teachers with ample opportunities to explore weather in the classroom.

  11. Weather Watch

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    R. Hopson

    The weather watch activity is designed to provide instruction on how to collect weather data from on-line databases. Following completion of this activity the user will be able to look up weather conditions for any city in North America, know what radar maps are used for and how to access them, and know how to access satellite images and make estimated guesses on cloud conditions for their area from them.

  12. Weather Experiments

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2010-01-01

    Looking for fun ways to learn about weather? Weather Wiz Kids has 39 fun weather related experiments for you to try. These experiments can be done in the classroom with your friends or even at home! Some of the experiments on the site include: tornado in a bottle, make lightning, make it rain, cloud in a bottle, what's in the wind, the Doppler Effect, and baking soda volcano.

  13. CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL PROCESS AND MECHANISM MODELING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The goal of this task is to develop and test chemical and physical mechanisms for use in the chemical transport models of EPA's Models-3. The target model for this research is the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model. These mechanisms include gas and aqueous phase ph...

  14. Uranium and thorium isotopes in the rivers of the Amazonian basin: hydrology and weathering processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marques, Aguinaldo N., Jr.; Al-Gharib, Iyad; Bernat, Michel; Fernex, François

    2003-01-01

    Two expeditions (October 1989 and May 1992) were carried out to two points of the main Amazon River channel and four tributaries. The Solimões and Madeira rivers, taking their origin in the Andes, are whitewater rivers. The Negro River is a typical acid, blackwater river. The Trombetas River flows through bauxite-rich areas, and is characterized by low concentrations of dissolved humic substances. The 238U, 234U, 232Th and 230Th activities were recorded from dissolved, suspended particulate phases and river bank sediments. The latter were analysed for their 226Ra, 228Ra and 210Pb contents, and also subjected to leaching with 0·2 M hydroxylamine-hydrochloride solution to determine the concentrations of radionuclides bound to amorphous Fe hydroxides and Mn oxides and hydroxides.The dissolved U average concentration in the Amazon system is ten times lower than the mean world river concentration. The uranium concentration observed at Óbidos in the lower Amazon (0·095 µg L-1), where the U content in the river bank sediments and suspended matter is lowest, suggests U release from the solid phase during river transport. About 485 t of U are transported annually to the Amazon delta area in dissolved form, and 1943 t bound to suspended particulate matter.Total U and Th concentrations in the river bank sediments ranged from 1·59 to 7·14 µg g-1 and from 6·74 to 32 µg g-1, respectively. The highest concentrations were observed in the Trombetas River. The proportion extracted by means of the hydroxylamine solution (HL) was relatively high for U in the Trombetas river bank sediment (31%) and for Th in the Solimões sediment (30%).1, but were <1 in the Negro River (at Manaus). The activity ratios of dissolved U correlate with pH and also with the U activity ratios in the river bank sediment hydroxylamine extracts. As expected, the 1 in the Trombetas and Negro rivers. Such ratios probably result from the binding of dissolved uranium to solid sediment.weathering rate of rocks in the Amazon system, which was estimated to be 2·7 cm 1000 year

  15. Physical Modeling of Hydrologic Processes in South Central Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Hassan, A.; Sharif, H.; Xie, H.; Terrance, J.; Mcclelland, J.

    2012-04-01

    Flood magnitude and recurrence modeling and analysis play an important role in water resources planning, management, and permitting. In both urban and rural situations, flood analysis is important to flood plain mapping and the development of best management practices for both environmental and engineering concerns. The majority of annual precipitation in South Texas results from extreme, large storm events, which produce flash floods (the number one cause of weather-related deaths in Texas). Surface geology such as such as Edward out crop faulting zone at Balcones escarpment has different properties than the classified soil; affect the soil parameters such as infiltration or hydraulic conductivity. This result in a very high infiltration and channel loss as a recharge component to the Edward aquifer from the surface runoff and rivers that are crossing the recharge zone, such as Nueces, San Antonio, Guadalupe and Colorado Rivers. Water quality is another issue in hydrological modeling, specifically in south central Texas. Water quality assessment is another issue on hydrological modeling in south central Texas. SWAT Soil and water assessment tool model is used for water quality assessment in San Antonio River basin since the rainfall runoff simulation is a necessity to derive the surface water quality process especially in the streams. With the advances in the Geographical information system (GIS) and instant precipitation products such as next generation radar (NEXRAD) and data acquisition for these products, the accuracy of the hydrological models has improved. Different hydrological models were used to evaluate the surface water and other hydrological cycle components in different watersheds in south central Texas through different events and their different causes and effects in these watersheds. Some of them are semi distributed and lumped models such as Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), Hydrologic Modeling System (HEC-HMS) and physically based distributed model Girded Surface Subsurface Hydrologic Assessment GSSHA taking the advances of GIS, NEXRAD product, remote sensing and other product such as gridded land use and soil map to achieve the highest accuracy of these models.

  16. Turbulence and Fluid Flow: Perspectives. Physical Processes in Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecosystems, Transport Processes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, James R.

    This module is part of a series on Physical Processes in Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecosystems. The materials were designed to be used by life science students for instruction in the application of physical theory to ecosystem operation. Most modules contain computer programs which are built around a particular application of a physical process.…

  17. NATURAL ARSENIC CONTAMINATION OF HOLOCENE ALLUVIAL AQUIFERS BY LINKED TECTONIC, WEATHERING, AND MICROBIAL PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Linked tectonic, geochemical, and biologic processes lead to natural arsenic contamination of groundwater in Holocene alluvial aquifers, which are the main threat to human health around the world. These groundwaters are commonly found a long distance from their ultimate source of...

  18. Extrapolation of space weathering processes to other small solar system bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaffey, M. J.

    1993-01-01

    A diverse range of processes were invoked as the dominant factor or as important contributory factors in the modification of the optical surface and regolith of the moon. These include impact vitrification by large and small projectiles, solar wind implantation and the reduction of oxidized iron during energetic events, sputtering and crystal lattice damage by energetic cosmic rays, shock metamorphism of minerals, mixing of diverse lithologies by impacts, and contamination by external materials. These processes are also potentially important on the rocky surfaces of other small solar system bodies. For icy bodies, several additional processes are also possible, including formation of complex organic compounds from methane and ammonia-bearing ices by ultraviolet irradiation and the condensation of vapor species to form frost layers in the polar or cooler regions of objects at appropriate heliocentric distances. The lunar case, even when completely understood, will not extend in a simple linear fashion to other small rocky objects, nor will the optical surfaces of those objects all be affected to the same degree by each process. The major factors that will control the relative efficacy of a possible mechanism include the efficiency of ejecta retention and the degree to which the regolith materials experience multiple events (primarily a function of body size, escape velocity, and impactor velocities); the mean duration of typical regolith particle exposure at the optical surface and within reach of the micrometeorite, cosmic ray, solar wind, or UV fluxes (a function of the rate and scale of regolith mixing, production, and removal processes); the incident flux of solar (low energy) cosmic rays, solar wind, or UV radiation (inverse square of heliocentric distance) or of galactic (high energy) cosmic rays (slowly increasing flux with heliocentric distance); and the compositional and mineralogical nature of the surface being affected. In general, those processes that depend upon either the retention of impact ejecta or on the presence of multigenerational regoliths should be substantially less effective on smaller bodies with lower escape velocities. However, there are important exceptions to this generalization. For example, a process that involves the hypervelocity impact of small particles into a fine-grained regolith may be able to effectively retain highly shocked or melted material due to the nature of shock wave propagation in such a heterogeneous material.

  19. AN overview of the FLYSAFE datalink solution for the exchange of weather information: supporting aircrew decision making processes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirza, A.; Drouin, A.

    2009-09-01

    FLYSAFE is an Integrated Project of the 6th framework of the European Commission with the aim to improve flight safety through the development of an avionics solution the Next Generation Integrated Surveillance System (NGISS), which is supported by a ground based network of Weather Information Management Systems (WIMS) and access points in the form of the Ground Weather Processor (GWP). The NGISS provides information to the flight crew on the three major external hazards for aviation: weather, air traffic and terrain. The NGISS has the capability of displaying data about all three hazards on a single display screen, facilitating rapid appreciation of the situation by the flight crew. Weather Information Management Systems (WIMS) were developed to provide the NGISS and the flight crew with weather related information on in-flight icing, thunderstorms and clear-air turbulence. These products are generated on the ground from observations and model forecasts. WIMS will supply relevant information on three different scales: global, regional and local (over airport Terminal Manoeuvring Area). The Ground Weather Processor is a client-server architecture that utilises open source components, which include a geospatial database and web feature services. The GWP stores Weather Objects generated by the WIMS. An aviation user can retrieve on-demand all Weather Objects that intersect the volume of space that is of interest to them. The Weather Objects are fused with in-situ observation data and can be used by the flight management system to propose a route to avoid the hazard. In addition they can be used to display the current hazardous weather to the Flight Crew thereby raising their awareness. Within the FLYSAFE program, around 120 hours of flight trials were performed during February 2008 and August 2008. Two aircraft were involved each with separate objectives: - to assess FLYSAFE's innovative solutions for the data-link, on-board data-fusion and data-display and data-updates during flight; - to evaluate the new weather information management systems (in-flight icing and thunderstorms) using in-situ measurements recorded on-board the test aircraft. In this presentation we will focus on the data link solution to uplink the Weather Objects to the NGISS. As part of the solution, a brief description is given on how grid data created by the WIMS are transformed to Weather Objects; which describe the weather hazard and are formatted using the Geospatial Mark-up Language.

  20. Extreme Weather: Understanding the Science of Hurricanes, Tornadoes, Floods, Heat Waves, Snow Storms, Global Warming and Other Atmospheric Disturbances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, Harold

    2008-07-01

    Extreme weather is of importance because of the threats it makes to life and property. At the same time, extreme weather is a great fascination for meteorologists as well as for the general public. The conditions and processes that lead to extreme weather-although governed by the same physical principles as ``ordinary'' weather-frequently are far from the average state of the atmosphere. Thus, explaining them in simple terms can be difficult. This book represents an effort to explain the development of extreme weather to the public.

  1. Water quality mapping and assessment, and weathering processes of selected aflaj in Oman

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Habes Ahmad Ghrefat; Ahmad Jamarh; Ahmed Al-Futaisi; Badr Al-Abri

    There are more than 4,000 falaj (singular of a peculiar dug channel) distributed in different regions in Oman. The chemical\\u000a characteristics of the water in 42 falaj were studied to evaluate the major ion chemistry; geochemical processes controlling\\u000a water composition; and suitability of water for drinking, domestic, and irrigation uses. GIS-based maps indicate that the\\u000a spatial distribution of chemical properties

  2. Wacky Weather

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabarre, Amy; Gulino, Jacqueline

    2013-01-01

    What do a leaf blower, water hose, fan, and ice cubes have in common? Ask the students who participated in an integrative science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (I-STEM) education unit, "Wacky Weather," and they will tell say "fun and severe weather"--words one might not have expected! The purpose of the unit…

  3. Weather Instruments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brantley, L. Reed, Sr.; Demanche, Edna L.; Klemm, E. Barbara; Kyselka, Will; Phillips, Edwin A.; Pottenger, Francis M.; Yamamoto, Karen N.; Young, Donald B.

    This booklet presents some activities to measure various weather phenomena. Directions for constructing a weather station are included. Instruments including rain gauges, thermometers, wind vanes, wind speed devices, humidity devices, barometers, atmospheric observations, a dustfall jar, sticky-tape can, detection of gases in the air, and pH of…

  4. Weather Forecasting

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Twin Cities Public Television, Inc.

    2005-01-01

    This activity (on page 2 of the PDF) is a full inquiry investigation into meteorology and forecasting. Learners will research weather folklore, specifically looking for old-fashioned ways of predicting the weather. Then, they'll record observations of these predictors along with readings from their own homemade barometer, graphing the correct predictions for analysis. Relates to linked video, DragonflyTV: Forecasting.

  5. Space Weather Basics, 2nd Edition

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    COMET

    2012-01-11

    This module presents an overview of space weather processes, their impacts on Earth and human activities, and the technologies used for forecasting space weather events. The module goal is to provide NWS forecasters a basic understanding of space weather and the operations of NOAA's Space Weather Prediction Center (SWPC). It will be of interest to a general audience as well.

  6. Zeolite Formation and Weathering Processes Within the Martian Regolith: An Antarctic Analog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, E. K.; McKay, D. S.; Wentworth, S. J.; Socki, R. A.

    2003-01-01

    As more information is obtained about the nature of the surface compositions and processes operating on Mars, it is clear that significant erosional and depositional features are present on the surface. Apparent aqueous or other fluid activity on Mars has produced many of the erosional and outflow features observed. Evidence of aqueous activity on Mars has been reported by earlier studies. Gooding and colleagues championed the cause of pre-terrestrial aqueous alteration processes recorded in Martian meteorites. Oxygen isotope studies on Martian meteorites by Karlsson et al. and Romenek et al. gave evidence for two separate water reservoirs on Mars. The oxygen isotopic compositions of the host silicate minerals was different from the oxygen isotopic composition of the secondary alteration products within the SNC meteorites. This implied that the oxygen associated with fluids which produced the secondary alteration was from volatiles which were possibly added to the planetary inventory after formation of the primary silicates from which the SNC s were formed. The source of the oxygen may have been from a cometary or volatile-rich veneer added to the planet in its first 600 million years.

  7. Genesis of karren in Kentucky Lake, Tennessee: Interaction of geologic structure, weathering processes, and bioerosion

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, M.A.; Smith, W.L. (Univ. of Tennessee, Martin, TN (United States))

    1993-03-01

    While karst features formed along marine coastlines are commonly reported, shoreline karst features produced within lacustrine systems have received little attention. The shoreline of Bond Island'' in Kentucky Lake has evolved a distinctive karren geomorphology not recognized elsewhere in the lake. The karren consist of well-developed clint and grike topography, trench formation, solution pits, flutes, and runnels, and pit and tunnel development. Two processes are responsible for the karren. First, freshwater dissolution and wave action on structurally fractured Decatur Limestone (Silurian) mechanically and chemically weaken the entire exposed surface. Second, a seasonal cycle of winter freeze-thaw and frost wedging followed by spring bioerosion overprints the first set of processes. Bioerosion by chemical dissolution involving a complex association of predominantly chironomids, algae, fungi, and bryozoa results in preferential dissolution along joints, stylolites, and bedding planes to form shallow spindle-shaped solution pits over the entire surface and sides of the karren. The solution pits average 1 cm length by 0.4 cm depth densely covering rock surfaces. This study suggests that seasonal bioerosion may constitute a more important geomorphic factor in lacustrine systems than previously recognized.

  8. Rates of Chemical Weathering

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Michael Passow

    In this activity, students will investigate the weathering of rocks by chemical processes. They will use effervescent cleansing tablets as a model for rock, and vary surface area, temperature, and acidity to see how rapidly the "rock" dissolves. This investigation will help them understand three of the factors that affect the rate of chemical weathering and develop better understanding of how to design controlled experiments by exploring only one experimental variable at a time.

  9. Weathering and Erosion

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Lise Whitfield

    2010-01-01

    In this multi-station lab, learners conduct a series of experiments to explore the processes and effects of weathering and erosion. Using the results from these explorations, learners design and conduct an experiment comparing the rate of erosion in different biomes. Use this activity to teach weathering and erosion, and also to illustrate how scientists often use the results of one experiment to inspire another. This activity is intended to be conducted over multiple meetings.

  10. Pre-earthquake signals: Underlying physical processes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Friedemann Freund

    2011-01-01

    Prior to large earthquakes the Earth sends out transient signals, sometimes strong, more often subtle and fleeting. These signals may consist of local magnetic field variations, electromagnetic emissions over a wide range of frequencies, a variety of atmospheric and ionospheric phenomena. Great uncertainty exists as to the nature of the processes that could produce such signals, both inside the Earth’s

  11. The use of imprecise processing to improve accuracy in weather and climate prediction

    SciTech Connect

    Düben, Peter D., E-mail: dueben@atm.ox.ac.uk [University of Oxford, Atmospheric, Oceanic and Planetary Physics (United Kingdom); McNamara, Hugh [University of Oxford, Mathematical Institute (United Kingdom); Palmer, T.N. [University of Oxford, Atmospheric, Oceanic and Planetary Physics (United Kingdom)

    2014-08-15

    The use of stochastic processing hardware and low precision arithmetic in atmospheric models is investigated. Stochastic processors allow hardware-induced faults in calculations, sacrificing bit-reproducibility and precision in exchange for improvements in performance and potentially accuracy of forecasts, due to a reduction in power consumption that could allow higher resolution. A similar trade-off is achieved using low precision arithmetic, with improvements in computation and communication speed and savings in storage and memory requirements. As high-performance computing becomes more massively parallel and power intensive, these two approaches may be important stepping stones in the pursuit of global cloud-resolving atmospheric modelling. The impact of both hardware induced faults and low precision arithmetic is tested using the Lorenz '96 model and the dynamical core of a global atmosphere model. In the Lorenz '96 model there is a natural scale separation; the spectral discretisation used in the dynamical core also allows large and small scale dynamics to be treated separately within the code. Such scale separation allows the impact of lower-accuracy arithmetic to be restricted to components close to the truncation scales and hence close to the necessarily inexact parametrised representations of unresolved processes. By contrast, the larger scales are calculated using high precision deterministic arithmetic. Hardware faults from stochastic processors are emulated using a bit-flip model with different fault rates. Our simulations show that both approaches to inexact calculations do not substantially affect the large scale behaviour, provided they are restricted to act only on smaller scales. By contrast, results from the Lorenz '96 simulations are superior when small scales are calculated on an emulated stochastic processor than when those small scales are parametrised. This suggests that inexact calculations at the small scale could reduce computation and power costs without adversely affecting the quality of the simulations. This would allow higher resolution models to be run at the same computational cost.

  12. The use of imprecise processing to improve accuracy in weather & climate prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Düben, Peter D.; McNamara, Hugh; Palmer, T. N.

    2014-08-01

    The use of stochastic processing hardware and low precision arithmetic in atmospheric models is investigated. Stochastic processors allow hardware-induced faults in calculations, sacrificing bit-reproducibility and precision in exchange for improvements in performance and potentially accuracy of forecasts, due to a reduction in power consumption that could allow higher resolution. A similar trade-off is achieved using low precision arithmetic, with improvements in computation and communication speed and savings in storage and memory requirements. As high-performance computing becomes more massively parallel and power intensive, these two approaches may be important stepping stones in the pursuit of global cloud-resolving atmospheric modelling. The impact of both hardware induced faults and low precision arithmetic is tested using the Lorenz '96 model and the dynamical core of a global atmosphere model. In the Lorenz '96 model there is a natural scale separation; the spectral discretisation used in the dynamical core also allows large and small scale dynamics to be treated separately within the code. Such scale separation allows the impact of lower-accuracy arithmetic to be restricted to components close to the truncation scales and hence close to the necessarily inexact parametrised representations of unresolved processes. By contrast, the larger scales are calculated using high precision deterministic arithmetic. Hardware faults from stochastic processors are emulated using a bit-flip model with different fault rates. Our simulations show that both approaches to inexact calculations do not substantially affect the large scale behaviour, provided they are restricted to act only on smaller scales. By contrast, results from the Lorenz '96 simulations are superior when small scales are calculated on an emulated stochastic processor than when those small scales are parametrised. This suggests that inexact calculations at the small scale could reduce computation and power costs without adversely affecting the quality of the simulations. This would allow higher resolution models to be run at the same computational cost.

  13. Device Physics of Solution Processable Solar Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jason Erik Lewis

    2011-01-01

    This Ph.D work reports the studies of photovoltaic devices produced by solution processable methods. Two material systems are of interest: one is based on organic semiconductors, and another on organic\\/inorganic hybrid composites. Specifically, organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices are made using photoactive materials consisted of a ?-conjugated polymer [Poly(3-hexylthiophene), or P3HT] and fullerene derivative [phenyl-C60-butric acid methyl ester, or PCBM] in

  14. Fourth National Aeronautics and Space Administration Weather and Climate Program Science Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kreins, E. R. (editor)

    1979-01-01

    The NASA Weather and Climate Program has two major thrusts. The first involves the development of experimental and prototype operational satellite systems, sensors, and space facilities for monitoring and understanding the atmosphere. The second thrust involves basic scientific investigation aimed at studying the physical and chemical processes which control weather and climate. This fourth science review concentrated on the scientific research rather than the hardware development aspect of the program. These proceedings contain 65 papers covering the three general areas: severe storms and local weather research, global weather, and climate.

  15. Planetary Weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This lesson plan is part of the DiscoverySchool.com lesson plan library for grades 6-8. It focuses on the weather conditions on other planets. After learning more about weather patterns, students research the weather on a given planet and create a visual display of the conditions there. It includes objectives, materials, procedures, discussion questions, evaluation ideas, suggested readings, and vocabulary. There are videos available to order which complement this lesson, and links to teaching tools for making custom quizzes, worksheets, puzzles and lesson plans.

  16. Distributed System of Processing of Data of Physical Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazarov, A. A.; Moiseev, A. N.

    2014-11-01

    Complication of physical experiments and increasing volumes of experimental data necessitate the application of supercomputer and distributed computing systems for data processing. Design and development of such systems, their mathematical modeling, and investigation of their characteristics and functional capabilities is an urgent scientific and practical problem. In the present work, the characteristics of operation of such distributed system of processing of data of physical experiments are investigated using the apparatus of theory of queuing networks.

  17. Chemical weathering and soil production 1 Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Earth Surf. Process. Landforms (in press)

    E-print Network

    Heimsath, Arjun M.

    , the chemical index of alteration (CIA), Parker's index, and the silicon­aluminium ratio ­ with saprolite pH. Measurements of the CIA were the most closely correlated with saprolite pH, showing that weathering intensity

  18. Quantum speed limit for physical processes.

    PubMed

    Taddei, M M; Escher, B M; Davidovich, L; de Matos Filho, R L

    2013-02-01

    The evaluation of the minimal evolution time between two distinguishable states of a system is important for assessing the maximal speed of quantum computers and communication channels. Lower bounds for this minimal time have been proposed for unitary dynamics. Here we show that it is possible to extend this concept to nonunitary processes, using an attainable lower bound that is connected to the quantum Fisher information for time estimation. This result is used to delimit the minimal evolution time for typical noisy channels. PMID:23414007

  19. Field Observations of Weathering and Mass Wasting

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Lisa Davis

    This activity requires students to locate local examples of physical and chemical weathering, as well mass wasting, for which they must identify the type of process involved and describe the resulting effects on landform development. The students must write up their observations in a brief, written report using a technical writing style, which must include labeled photographs and sketches that support their observations and descriptions.

  20. Rainy Weather Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Karen

    1996-01-01

    Presents ideas on the use of rainy weather for activities in the earth, life, and physical sciences. Topics include formation and collision of raindrops, amount and distribution of rain, shedding of water by plants, mapping puddles and potholes, rainbow formation, stalking storms online, lightning, and comparing particles in the air before and…

  1. Waste glass weathering

    SciTech Connect

    Bates, J.K.; Buck, E.C.

    1993-12-31

    The weathering of glass is reviewed by examining processes that affect the reaction of commercial, historical, natural, and nuclear waste glass under conditions of contact with humid air and slowly dripping water, which may lead to immersion in nearly static solution. Radionuclide release data from weathered glass under conditions that may exist in an unsaturated environment are presented and compared to release under standard leaching conditions. While the comparison between the release under weathering and leaching conditions is not exact, due to variability of reaction in humid air, evidence is presented of radionuclide release under a variety of conditions. These results suggest that both the amount and form of radionuclide release can be affected by the weathering of glass.

  2. Two-Photon Physics in Hadronic Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Carl Carlson; Marc Vanderhaeghen

    2007-11-01

    Two-photon exchange contributions to elastic electron-scattering are reviewed. The apparent discrepancy in the extraction of elastic nucleon form factors between unpolarized Rosenbluth and polarization transfer experiments is discussed, as well as the understanding of this puzzle in terms of two-photon exchange corrections. Calculations of such corrections both within partonic and hadronic frameworks are reviewed. In view of recent spin-dependent electron scattering data, the relation of the two-photon exchange process to the hyperfine splitting in hydrogen is critically examined. The imaginary part of the two-photon exchange amplitude as can be accessed from the beam normal spin asymmetry in elastic electron-nucleon scattering is reviewed. Further extensions and open issues in this field are outlined.

  3. Weather One

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Duane Friend

    This website contains summaries and lessons about various aspects of weather. This includes the seasons, types of clouds, air, winds, global warming, hurricanes, tornadoes and lightning. Worksheets are provided to accompany the lesson themes.

  4. Winter Weather

    MedlinePLUS

    ... weather presents hazards including slippery roads/surfaces, strong winds and environmental cold. Employers must prevent illnesses, injuries, ... from surfaces) Use extreme caution when working near power lines Prevent harmful exposure to cold temperatures and ...

  5. Weatherizing America

    ScienceCinema

    Stewart, Zachary; Bergeron, T.J.; Barth, Dale; Qualis, Xavier; Sewall, Travis; Fransen, Richard; Gill, Tony;

    2013-05-29

    As Recovery Act money arrives to expand home weatherization programs across the country, Zachary Stewart of Phoenix, Ariz., and others have found an exciting opportunity not only to start working again, but also to find a calling.

  6. Weatherizing America

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, Zachary; Bergeron, T.J.; Barth, Dale; Qualis, Xavier; Sewall, Travis; Fransen, Richard; Gill, Tony

    2009-01-01

    As Recovery Act money arrives to expand home weatherization programs across the country, Zachary Stewart of Phoenix, Ariz., and others have found an exciting opportunity not only to start working again, but also to find a calling.

  7. Process Physics: From Quantum Foam to General Relativity

    E-print Network

    Reginald T. Cahill

    2002-03-05

    Progress in the new information-theoretic process physics is reported in which the link to the phenomenology of general relativity is made. In process physics the fundamental assumption is that reality is to be modelled as self-organising semantic (or internal or relational) information using a self-referentially limited neural network model. Previous progress in process physics included the demonstration that space and quantum physics are emergent and unified, with time a distinct non-geometric process, that quantum phenomena are caused by fractal topological defects embedded in and forming a growing three-dimensional fractal process-space, which is essentially a quantum foam. Other features of the emergent physics were: quantum field theory with emergent flavour and confined colour, limited causality and the Born quantum measurement metarule, inertia, time-dilation effects, gravity and the equivalence principle, a growing universe with a cosmological constant, black holes and event horizons, and the emergence of classicality. Here general relativity and the technical language of general covariance is seen not to be fundamental but a phenomenological construct, arising as an amalgam of two distinct phenomena: the `gravitational' characteristics of the emergent quantum foam for which `matter' acts as a sink, and the classical `spacetime' measurement protocol, but with the later violated by quantum measurement processes. Quantum gravity, as manifested in the emergent Quantum Homotopic Field Theory of the process-space or quantum foam, is logically prior to the emergence of the general relativity phenomenology, and cannot be derived from it.

  8. Weather Maps

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This lesson plan is part of the DiscoverySchool.com lesson plan library for grades K-5. It focuses on basic information about the weather and how different weather maps depict conditions. Included are objectives, materials, procedures, discussion questions, evaluation ideas, suggested readings, and vocabulary. There are videos available to order which complement this lesson, and links to teaching tools for making custom quizzes, worksheets, puzzles and lesson plans.

  9. Weather Creator

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    KShumway

    2009-09-28

    This project explores factors that help create severe winter weather. An interactive simulation provides hands-on experience, followed by guiding questions and resource exploration. Form groups of three. Explore the following simulation: Weather Maker Simulator Use the simulation to answer the following questions on paper. 1. In general, when are winds formed? 2. When winds are blowing, how can you get them to stop? 3. What can you do to make it rain or even snow? 4. Does it always snow when ...

  10. Exploring Weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Miss Emily

    2010-01-29

    Second Grade Standard 3: Students will develop an understanding of their environment. Objective 2: Observe and describe weather. Indicator a: Observe and describe patterns of change in weather. Monday, February 1st: Look at the five-day forecast for Salt Lake City, Utah at Five day forecasts. The high temperature for the day will be in red and the low temperature will be in blue. Make sure you look at the temperature listed in degrees Farenheit (F) not degrees Celcius (C). Make ...

  11. Space Weather at Earth and its Relationship to Planetary Space Weather

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eastwood, J. P.

    2013-09-01

    Space weather research at Earth largely concerns the practical impact of space plasma physics. In this overview talk we will consider the sources of space weather, areas of impact, and the monitoring of space weather including a presentation of the Sunjammer solar sail technology demonstration mission. We will then consider the concept of planetary space weather, and explore the differences and synergies that exist between this general research area and the study of space weather at Earth.

  12. Comparison between physical variables acquired by a new multiparametric platform, ELFO, and data calculated by a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model in different weather conditions at Tiber River mouth (Latium coast, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonamano, Simone; Piermattei, Viviana; Marcelli, Marco; Peviani, Maximo

    2010-05-01

    The coastal ecosystem is characterized by high variability physical processes, which are strongly influenced by sudden changes in weather conditions. For this reason instruments able to collect data in a short time or mathematical models able to simulate the same phenomena from experimental data are basic. In this study in situ data are compared with data calculated by three-dimensional hydrodynamic model. The multiparametric platform was developed ad hoc by Laboratory of Experimental Oceanology and Marine Ecology (DECOS, Tuscia University) for coastal monitoring by small vessels (ELFO), and integrates temperature, conductivity, dissolved oxygen and suspended solids measures with bio-optical measures like fluorescence, photosynthetic efficiency and PAR. The hydrodynamic model is the three-dimensional coastal hydrodynamic DELFT3D-FLOW simulating processes of temperature and salinity diffusion and the transport of suspended sediment (cohesive and non cohesive) in the water column. This study analyses the area at mouth of Tiber river investigated by two surveys wiht different weather conditions. Data collected during the first survey were used to calibrate the DELFT3D-FLOW model which computational domain extends from the Argentario headland to Capo Anzio. A microscale wind field (resolution of about 7 km), provided by the atmospheric model COSMO-ME (developed by CNMCA of Aeronautica Militare, Italy), was used to reproduce the hydrodynamic field and the distribution of the physical variables of the whole period. In this way the data calculated by the model can be compared with those collected in situ during the second survey. Moreover dynamic phenomena existed between the two monitoring periods can be investigated.

  13. Physical Properties and Processing of Asteroid Regoliths and Interiors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pascal Clayton-Clyde Lee

    1997-01-01

    Four aspects of the physical properties and processing of asteroid regoliths and interiors are examined: (1) impact cratering, (2) thermal cycling, (3) electrostatic processing, and (4) asteroid densities. These aspects contribute to understanding the production, emplacement, redistribution, segregation, disruption, loss, and overall state of regoliths on asteroids. Impact cratering (Chapter 2) is considered through a study of the scaling characteristics

  14. Process evaluation results from the HEALTHY physical education intervention

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Process evaluation is an assessment of the implementation of an intervention. A process evaluation component was embedded in the HEALTHY study, a primary prevention trial for Type 2 diabetes implemented over 3 years in 21 middle schools across the United States. The HEALTHY physical education (PE) i...

  15. Physical-chemical processes in a protoplanetary cloud

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lavrukhina, Avgusta K.

    1991-01-01

    Physical-chemical processes in a protoplanetary cloud are discussed. The following subject areas are covered: (1) characteristics of the chemical composition of molecular interstellar clouds; (2) properties and physico-chemical process in the genesis of interstellar dust grains; and (3) the isotope composition of volatiles in bodies of the Solar System.

  16. Process Evaluation Results from the HEALTHY Physical Education Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, William J.; Zeveloff, Abigail; Steckler, Allan; Schneider, Margaret; Thompson, Deborah; Pham, Trang; Volpe, Stella L.; Hindes, Katie; Sleigh, Adriana; McMurray, Robert G.

    2012-01-01

    Process evaluation is an assessment of the implementation of an intervention. A process evaluation component was embedded in the HEALTHY study, a primary prevention trial for Type 2 diabetes implemented over 3 years in 21 middle schools across the United States. The HEALTHY physical education (PE) intervention aimed at maximizing student…

  17. Snowslip Mountain Weather Station, MT

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    USGS Physical Scientist Erich Peitzsch sets up a weather station on Snowslip Mountain in Glacier National Park.  It provides meteorological data for avalanche forecasting and research, including wind speed and direction, air temperature, relative humidity, and net radiation measurements....

  18. Ontology of physics for biology: representing physical dependencies as a basis for biological processes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In prior work, we presented the Ontology of Physics for Biology (OPB) as a computational ontology for use in the annotation and representations of biophysical knowledge encoded in repositories of physics-based biosimulation models. We introduced OPB:Physical entity and OPB:Physical property classes that extend available spatiotemporal representations of physical entities and processes to explicitly represent the thermodynamics and dynamics of physiological processes. Our utilitarian, long-term aim is to develop computational tools for creating and querying formalized physiological knowledge for use by multiscale “physiome” projects such as the EU’s Virtual Physiological Human (VPH) and NIH’s Virtual Physiological Rat (VPR). Results Here we describe the OPB:Physical dependency taxonomy of classes that represent of the laws of classical physics that are the “rules” by which physical properties of physical entities change during occurrences of physical processes. For example, the fluid analog of Ohm’s law (as for electric currents) is used to describe how a blood flow rate depends on a blood pressure gradient. Hooke’s law (as in elastic deformations of springs) is used to describe how an increase in vascular volume increases blood pressure. We classify such dependencies according to the flow, transformation, and storage of thermodynamic energy that occurs during processes governed by the dependencies. Conclusions We have developed the OPB and annotation methods to represent the meaning—the biophysical semantics—of the mathematical statements of physiological analysis and the biophysical content of models and datasets. Here we describe and discuss our approach to an ontological representation of physical laws (as dependencies) and properties as encoded for the mathematical analysis of biophysical processes. PMID:24295137

  19. On the persistence of 'weathering'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Kevin; Thorn, Colin; Sumner, Paul

    2012-05-01

    The term 'weathering' has been in use for a very long time but it has come to mean different things to different people and hence, as scientific short-hand, it no longer functions. Here we question the tenets underpinning the most common usage of the term and note that the climate-process linkage implicit to the term is often missing and amounts to misdirection. Rather than climate as the primary driver behind specific weathering processes, it is argued that rock properties constitute the dominant control. Further, a case is made for reconsideration of our present bipartite (mechanical/chemical) division of weathering processes and of the weathering processes currently deemed to be 'those that occur'. As process studies become evermore reductionist in nature, so the functionality of the term comes more and more into question. The linkage between process and landform, the scaling-up attribute, is seen as a current weakness and one that will become more confusing as reductionist approaches continue. As a 'way forward' it is suggested that weathering, stripped of specific preconceived notions of specific processes, be envisaged as a function of energy transfer and be investigated in that light. Identification of new processes as well as restructuring of known processes, particularly when considering weathering on other planets, is a potential outcome of such an approach. With a process foundation rooted in energy transfer, 'rock decay' provides a better umbrella term and liberates researchers from the inescapable conceptual baggage implicit to the term 'weathering'.

  20. Impact of terrestrial weather on the upper atmosphere

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. J. Fuller-Rowell; R. A. Akmaev; F. Wu; A. Anghel; N. Maruyama; D. N. Anderson; M. V. Codrescu; M. Iredell; S. Moorthi; H.-M. Juang; Y.-T. Hou; G. Millward

    2008-01-01

    A whole atmosphere model has been developed to demonstrate the impact of terrestrial weather on the upper atmosphere. The dynamical core is based on the NWS Global Forecast System model, which has been extended to cover altitudes from the ground to 600 km. The model includes the physical processes responsible for the stochastic nature of the lower atmosphere, which is

  1. Delicious Differential Weathering

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mary Gorte

    Students are asked to place a Baby Ruth candy bar in their mouths but are asked not to bite it. Once they have sucked off all the chocolate and caramel the students are given permission to bite the peanuts. After lecturing on the differences between chemical and physical weathering students are asked to list the order of ingredients they tasted. Each group is given a sample of granite. Students are asked to list three visible minerals in the granite. Relate the minerals of the granite (hornblende, feldspar, and quartz) to the ingredients of the candy bar. Explain Bowen's reaction series and how different minerals will weather first and how climate will affect weathering rates.

  2. The role of biological weathering in periglacial areas: a study of weathering rinds in south Iceland

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Samuel Etienne

    2002-01-01

    The importance of biogeochemical processes in the morphogenic system of periglacial environments has been underestimated for decades. Weathering rind studies help to characterise and quantify biogeochemical weathering over time. Experiments using fungi strains isolated from basaltic boulders allow one to decipher biological weathering. A historical approach using heterochronous moraines provides the opportunity to follow the life of weathering rinds and

  3. Process description and evaluation of Canadian Physical Activity Guidelines development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark S Tremblay; Michelle E Kho; Andrea C Tricco; Mary Duggan

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This paper describes the process used to arrive at recommended physical activity guidelines for Canadian school-aged children and youth (5-17 years), adults (18-64 years) and older adults (?65 years). METHODS: The Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology (CSEP) Physical Activity Measurement and Guidelines (PAMG) Steering Committee used the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research Evaluation (AGREE II) Instrument to inform the

  4. The Weather Doctor

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Heidorn, Keith.

    Published by Spectrum Educational Enterprises, The Weather Doctor Web site is maintained by meteorologist Keith Heidorn. Visitors to the site will find everything from the joys of weather watching, to making rain, to weather history, to much more. Coming from someone who clearly enjoys what they do, this site explores unique aspects of weather including weather people, weather history, and weather and arts.

  5. Heat Transfer Processes for the Thermal Energy Balance of Organisms. Physical Processes in Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecosystems, Transport Processes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, R. D.

    This module is part of a series designed to be used by life science students for instruction in the application of physical theory to ecosystem operation. Most modules contain computer programs which are built around a particular application of a physical process. This module describes heat transfer processes involved in the exchange of heat…

  6. Space Weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2004-02-06

    With three levels to choose from on each page - beginner, intermediate or advanced - this site provides information on Space Weather and the terms scientists use to describe the everchanging conditions in space. Explosions on the Sun create storms of radiation, fluctuating magnetic fields, and swarms of energetic particles. These phenomena travel outward through the Solar System with the solar wind. Upon arrival at Earth, they interact in complex ways with Earth's magnetic field, creating Earth's radiation belts and the Aurora. Some space weather storms can damage satellites, disable electric power grids, and disrupt cell phone communications systems. This site provides images, activities, and interesting facts about all of these events.

  7. Wonderful Weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ms. Broadhead

    2007-11-06

    Second Grade Standard 3: Students will develop an understanding of their environment. Objective 2: Observe and describe weather. Indicator a: Observe and describe patterns of change in weather. Monday November 6th: Look at the five-day forecast for Logan Utah at Five Day Forecast in Utah. The high temperature for the day will be in red and the low temperature will be in blue. Look at the temperature listed in degrees Farenheit (F) not degrees Celcius (C). Make a bar graph for the ...

  8. Wild Weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In this online, interactive module, students learn about severe weather (thunderstorms, hurricanes, tornadoes, and blizzards) and the key features for each type of "wild weather" using satellite images. The module is part of an online course for grades 7-12 in satellite meteorology, which includes 10 interactive modules. The site also includes lesson plans developed by teachers and links to related resources. Each module is designed to serve as a stand-alone lesson, however, a sequential approach is recommended. Designed to challenge students through the end of 12th grade, middle school teachers and students may choose to skim or skip a few sections.

  9. Weather Forecasting

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In this online, interactive module, students will learn how to interpret weather patterns from satellite images, predict storm paths and forecast the weather for their area. The module is part of an online course for grades 7-12 in satellite meteorology, which includes 10 interactive modules. The site also includes lesson plans developed by teachers and links to related resources. Each module is designed to serve as a stand-alone lesson, however, a sequential approach is recommended. Designed to challenge students through the end of 12th grade, middle school teachers and students may choose to skim or skip a few sections.

  10. Weather Activity

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    missy.jones@gmail.com

    2009-09-28

    This project explores factors that help create severe winter weather. An interactive simulation provides hands-on experience, followed by guiding questions and resource exploration. Form groups of three. Explore the following simulation: Weather Maker Simulator Use the simulation to answer the following questions on paper. 1. Why does the wind blow? 2. When winds are blowing, how can you get them to stop? 3. What happens when the temperature is the same? 4. What happens when there is high relative humidity? 5. What ...

  11. Impact of climate and related weathering processes on the authigenesis of clay minerals: Examples from circum-Baikal region, Siberia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thea Vogt; Norbert Clauer; Philippe Larqué

    2010-01-01

    The widely outcropping igneous and metamorphic rocks of the circum-Baikal region all contain illite and chlorite resulting from early alteration of primary minerals. These rocks were deeply weathered and leached, mainly to kaolinite, under the warm and mostly wet Upper-Cretaceous and Palaeogene climates. During the following severely dry and cold Pleistocene episodes, the glacier cover was restricted, allowing the formation

  12. TESTING SOLIDS SETTING APPARATUSES FOR DESIGN AND OPERATION OF WET-WEATHER FLOW SOLIDS-LIQUID SEPARATION PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study was a side-by-side comparison of two settling evaluation methods: one traditional and one new. The project investigated whether these column tests were capable of capturing or representing the rapidly settling particles present in wet-weather flows (WWF). The report r...

  13. The Topographic Control of Chemical Weathering in Hillslope Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, K.; Amundson, R.; Heimsath, A. M.; Dietrich, W. E.; Brimhall, G. H.

    2004-12-01

    Chemical weathering drives biogeochemical cycles from local to global scales, and has the power to regulate the earth's climate on geological time scales. However, little is known of the spatial variation in weathering on hillslopes, and the mechanisms behind those variations. This study addresses the topographic control on soil chemical weathering on convex uplands. We developed a process-based mass balance model that integrates chemical mass losses with physical sediment transport. We applied the model along a ˜60 meter long, semi-arid eucalyptus-grassland savanna hillslope underlain by granodiorite, in the southwestern Australian Highlands. Measurements of soil elemental chemistry, cosmogenic isotope-based saprolite-to-soil conversion rates, and a fine scale topographic survey provided model data. The soil weathering rates varied from the losses of ˜35 g m-2 yr-1 on the ridge to the net gains of ˜28 g m-2 yr-1 at the lowest portion of the slope. A net chemical mass loss occurred in all soils along the entire slope, decreasing from ˜65 % near the convex ridge to ˜35 % at the base of the slope. The mechanism for the apparent discrepancy between spatially constrained weathering rates and net weathering losses (relative to saprolite) is that as sediment moves faster with an increasing slope gradient in the downslope direction, soils eroded from upslope positions pass quickly through the downslope zones of chemical gains, which are able to only partially replenish the pre-weathered soil material. Differences in chemical mobility of elements, and biological nutrient demand, significantly modified the spatial redistribution of elements released by weathering: P and Ca, relative to Si, Al, and Fe, were preferentially retained, particularly within an apron of relatively high fertility that mantled the hillslope base. Finally, when chemical weathering losses were subtracted from the overall sediment mass balance, the slope-dependent physical soil transport rate was reduced by half, and the resulting physical transport was found to increase nonlinearly with increasing slope gradients. In conclusion, this study integrates chemical weathering and physical transport on convex uplands, complementing recent watershed scale analyses and providing a spatial perspective of both weathering and elemental redistribution on hillslopes that have applications to ecology as well as geochemistry.

  14. Weather Forecasting Systems and Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mecikalski, John (Inventor); MacKenzie, Wayne M., Jr. (Inventor); Walker, John Robert (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A weather forecasting system has weather forecasting logic that receives raw image data from a satellite. The raw image data has values indicative of light and radiance data from the Earth as measured by the satellite, and the weather forecasting logic processes such data to identify cumulus clouds within the satellite images. For each identified cumulus cloud, the weather forecasting logic applies interest field tests to determine a score indicating the likelihood of the cumulus cloud forming precipitation and/or lightning in the future within a certain time period. Based on such scores, the weather forecasting logic predicts in which geographic regions the identified cumulus clouds will produce precipitation and/or lighting within during the time period. Such predictions may then be used to provide a weather map thereby providing users with a graphical illustration of the areas predicted to be affected by precipitation within the time period.

  15. What characterizes planetary space weather?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lilensten, Jean; Coates, Andrew J.; Dehant, Véronique; Dudok de Wit, Thierry; Horne, Richard B.; Leblanc, François; Luhmann, Janet; Woodfield, Emma; Barthélemy, Mathieu

    2014-11-01

    Space weather has become a mature discipline for the Earth space environment. With increasing efforts in space exploration, it is becoming more and more necessary to understand the space environments of bodies other than Earth. This is the background for an emerging aspect of the space weather discipline: planetary space weather. In this article, we explore what characterizes planetary space weather, using some examples throughout the solar system. We consider energy sources and timescales, the characteristics of solar system objects and interaction processes. We discuss several developments of space weather interactions including the effects on planetary radiation belts, atmospheric escape, habitability and effects on space systems. We discuss future considerations and conclude that planetary space weather will be of increasing importance for future planetary missions.

  16. Weathering processes and the composition of inorganic material transported through the orinoco river system, Venezuela and Colombia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stallard, R.F.; Koehnken, L.; Johnsson, M.J.

    1991-01-01

    The composition of river-borne material in the Orinoco River system is related primarily to erosion regime, which in turn is related to tectonic setting; especially notable is the contrast between material derived from tectonically active mountain belts and that from stable cratonic regions. For a particular morpho-tectonic region, the compositional suites of suspended sediment, bed material, overback deposits, and dissolved phases are fairly uniform are are typically distinct from whose of other regions. For each region, a consistent set of chemical weathering reactions can be formulated to explain the composition of dissolved and solid loads. In developing these formulations, erosion on slopes and storage of solids in soils and alluvial sediments are important considerations. Compositionally verymature sediment is derived from areas of thick soils where erosion is transport limited and from areas where sediments are stored for extended periods of time in alluvial deposits. Compositionally immature sediments are derived from tectonically active mountain belts where erosion is weathering limited. Weathering-limited erosion also is important in the elevated parts of the Guayana Shield within areas of sleep topography. Compared to the mountain belts, sediments derived from elevated parts of the Shield are more mature. A greater degree of chemical weathering seems to be needed to erode the rock types typical of the Shield. The major-element chemistry and mineral composition of sediment delivered by the Orinoco River to the ocean are controlled by rivers that have their headwaters in mountain belts and cross the Llanos, a region of alluvial plains within the foreland basin. The composition of sediments in rivers that drain the Shield seems to be established primarily at the site of soil formation, whereas for rivers that drain the mountain belts, additional weathering occurs during s episodes of storage on alluvial plains as sediments are transported across the Llanos to the main stem of the Orinoco. After mixing into the main stem, there seems to be little subsequent alteration of sediment. ?? 1991.

  17. Mineralogical, micromorphological and geochemical transformations in the initial steps of the weathering process of charnockite from the Caparaó Range, southeastern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soares, Caroline Cibele Vieira; Varajão, Angélica Fortes Drummond Chicarino; Varajão, César Augusto Chicarino; Boulangé, Bruno

    2014-12-01

    X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray Fluorescence (XRF), optical microscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy coupled with Energy Dispersive Spectrometry (SEM-EDS) and Electron Probe micro-analyser (EPMA) and Wavelength-Dispersive Spectroscopy (WDS) were conducted on charnockite from the Caparaó Suite and its alteration cortex to determine the mineralogical, micromorphological and geochemical transformations resulting from the weathering process. The hydrolysis of the charnockite occurred in different stages, in accordance with the order of stability of the minerals with respect to weathering: andesine/orthopyroxene, pargasite and alkali feldspar. The rock modifications had begun with the formation of a layer of incipient alteration due to the percolation of weathering solutions first in the pressure relief fractures and then in cleavage and mineral edges. The iron exuded from ferromagnesian minerals precipitated in the intermineral and intramineral discontinuities. The layer of incipient alteration evolves into an inner cortex where the plagioclase changes into gibbsite by direct alitisation, the ferromagnesian minerals initiate the formation of goethitic boxworks with kaolinitic cores, and the alkali feldspar initiates indirect transformation into gibbsite, forming an intermediate phase of illite and kaolinite. In the outer cortex, mostly traces of alkali feldspar remain, and they are surrounded by goethite and gibbsite as alteromorphics, characterising the formation of the isalteritic horizon that occurs along the slope and explains the bauxitization process at the Caparaó Range, SE Brazil.

  18. The s Process: Nuclear Physics, Stellar Models, Observations

    E-print Network

    Kaeppeler, Franz; Bisterzo, Sara; Aoki, Wako

    2010-01-01

    Nucleosynthesis in the s process takes place in the He burning layers of low mass AGB stars and during the He and C burning phases of massive stars. The s process contributes about half of the element abundances between Cu and Bi in solar system material. Depending on stellar mass and metallicity the resulting s-abundance patterns exhibit characteristic features, which provide comprehensive information for our understanding of the stellar life cycle and for the chemical evolution of galaxies. The rapidly growing body of detailed abundance observations, in particular for AGB and post-AGB stars, for objects in binary systems, and for the very faint metal-poor population represents exciting challenges and constraints for stellar model calculations. Based on updated and improved nuclear physics data for the s-process reaction network, current models are aiming at ab initio solution for the stellar physics related to convection and mixing processes. Progress in the intimately related areas of observations, nuclear...

  19. Space Weather

    E-print Network

    Shepherd, Simon

    Space Weather :: Printer Friendly Version of Article 2005SW000176 http://www.agu.org/journals/sw/swa/feature/article/print.php?id=2005S... 1 of 5 07/07/2006 12:22 PM Shielding Space Explorers From Cosmic Rays Expert opinions-inducing radiation in space. Eugene N. Parker 18 August 2005 Any space traveler far removed from the protective

  20. Weather Stations

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-12-19

    This is a series of seven brief activities about Jupiter's atmosphere and weather. Learners will look at Jupiter's distinct banded appearance, violent storms, and clouds of many different colors. The activities are part of Explore! Jupiter's Family Secrets, a series designed to engage children in space and planetary science in libraries and informal learning environments.

  1. Wacky Weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Barbara Chichetti

    2002-01-01

    This 5-lesson unit gives students practice in using calculating, graphing and modeling skills to analyze varoius aspects of weather. Students calculate fractions of a set of rainfall data, graph damage costs of selected hurricanes, and make Venn diagrams to compare droughts and hurricanes. Visuals and student handouts are provided.

  2. Weather Alert

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Integrated Teaching and Learning Program,

    Students discuss the characteristics of storms, including the relationship of weather fronts and storms. Using everyday materials, they develop models of basic lightning detection systems (similar to a Benjamin Franklin design) and analyze their models to determine their effectiveness as community storm warning systems.

  3. Wonderful Weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mission Science Workshop

    2013-01-01

    In this activity, learners conduct three experiments to examine temperature, the different stages of the water cycle, and how convection creates wind. These activities can be used individually or as a group for a lesson on weather. Note: boiling water is required for this activity; adult supervision required.

  4. Today's Weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This activity is part of Planet Diary and contains an online exploration of weather maps. Students use current maps to learn about and locate different features such as low-pressure areas and fronts. They then explore how these are related to severe storms.

  5. Challenges in Teaching Space Physics to Different Target Groups From Space Weather Forecasters to Heavy-weight Theorists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koskinen, H. E.

    2008-12-01

    Plasma physics as the backbone of space physics is difficult and thus the space physics students need to have strong foundations in general physics, in particular in classical electrodynamics and thermodynamics, and master the basic mathematical tools for physicists. In many universities the number of students specializing in space physics at Master's and Doctoral levels is rather small and the students may have quite different preferences ranging from experimental approach to hard-core space plasma theory. This poses challenges in building up a study program that has both the variety and depth needed to motivate the best students to choose this field. At the University of Helsinki we require all beginning space physics students, regardless whether they enter the field as Master's or Doctoral degree students, to take a one-semester package consisting of plasma physics and its space applications. However, some compromises are necessary. For example, it is not at all clear, how thoroughly Landau damping should be taught at the first run or how deeply should the intricacies of collisionless reconnection be discussed. In both cases we have left the details to an optional course in advanced space physics, even with the risk that the student's appreciation of, e.g., reconnection may remain at the level of a magic wand. For learning experimental work, data analysis or computer simulations we have actively pursued arrangements for the Master's degree students to get a summer employments in active research groups, which usually lead to the Master's theses. All doctoral students are members of research groups and participate in experimental work, data analysis, simulation studies or theory development, or any combination of these. We emphasize strongly "learning by doing" all the way from the weekly home exercises during the lecture courses to the PhD theses which in Finland consist typically of 4-6 peer-reviewed articles with a comprehensive introductory part.

  6. Physical Processes in the Far and Near Space

    E-print Network

    B., Dubovichenko S; M, Chechin L

    2010-01-01

    The book examines some of the questions of modern cosmology, the physics of atmospheric phenomena, the physics of quasi-particles and atomic nuclei in the Universe. It consists of three parts, each discusses the theoretical problems of various subjects of cosmic physics. The first part examines the physics of the expanding Universe, with emphasis on the content of the latest revolution in cosmology. It is today well established that the universe is dominated by a vacuum that exceeds the density of baryonic forms of cosmic matter, that the dynamics of the cosmic expansion controls the vacuum antigravity and, finally, that the cosmological expansion is accelerating. In the second part we investigate the processes leading to the electrization of gas fluxes in the solar atmosphere and the generation of neutrons in the active regions of its atmosphere, issues of electrization of thunderstorm clouds in the troposphere of the Earth, the formation and development of noctilucent clouds in the area of the mesosphere. I...

  7. Effective Physical Processes and Active Information in Quantum Computing

    E-print Network

    Ignazio Licata

    2007-10-23

    The recent debate on hypercomputation has arisen new questions both on the computational abilities of quantum systems and the Church-Turing Thesis role in Physics. We propose here the idea of "effective physical process" as the essentially physical notion of computation. By using the Bohm and Hiley active information concept we analyze the differences between the standard form (quantum gates) and the non-standard one (adiabatic and morphogenetic) of Quantum Computing, and we point out how its Super-Turing potentialities derive from an incomputable information source in accordance with Bell's constraints. On condition that we give up the formal concept of "universality", the possibility to realize quantum oracles is reachable. In this way computation is led back to the logic of physical world.

  8. Quantum Information Processing with NMR MIT Department of Physics

    E-print Network

    Seager, Sara

    Quantum Information Processing with NMR MIT Department of Physics (Dated: August 26, 2010) This experiment will let you perform a series of simple quantum computations on a two spin system, demonstrating one and two quantum-bit quantum logic gates, and a circuit implementing the Deutsch-Jozsa quantum

  9. Soil Heat Flow. Physical Processes in Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecosystems, Transport Processes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, James R.

    These materials were designed to be used by life science students for instruction in the application of physical theory to ecosystem operation. Most modules contain computer programs which are built around a particular application of a physical process. Soil heat flow and the resulting soil temperature distributions have ecological consequences…

  10. Transpiration and Leaf Temperature. Physical Processes in Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecosystems, Transport Processes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gates, David M.

    These materials were designed to be used by life science students for instruction in the application of physical theory to ecosystem operation. Most modules contain computer programs which are built around a particular application of a physical process. This report introduces two models of the thermal energy budget of a leaf. Typical values for…

  11. Pressure and Buoyancy in Aquatic Ecosystems. Physical Processes in Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecosystems, Transport Processes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowan, Christina E.

    This module is part of a series designed to be used by life science students for instruction in the application of physical theory to ecosystem operation. Most modules contain computer programs which are built around a particular application of a physical process. This module explores some of the characteristics of aquatic organisms which can be…

  12. Biological Production in Lakes. Physical Processes in Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecosystems, Ecological Processes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walters, R. A.; Carey, G. F.

    These materials were designed to be used by life science students for instruction in the application of physical theory to ecosystem operation. Most modules contain computer programs which are built around a particular application of a physical process. Primary production in aquatic ecosystems is carried out by phytoplankton, microscopic plants…

  13. Exploring clouds, weather, climate, and modeling using bilingual content and activities from the Windows to the Universe program and the Center for Multiscale Modeling of Atmospheric Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, S. Q.; Johnson, R. M.; Randall, D.; Denning, S.; Russell, R.; Gardiner, L.; Hatheway, B.; Genyuk, J.; Bergman, J.

    2008-12-01

    The need for improving the representation of cloud processes in climate models has been one of the most important limitations of the reliability of climate-change simulations. Now in its third year, the National Science Foundation-funded Center for Multi-scale Modeling of Atmospheric Processes (CMMAP) at Colorado State University is addressing this problem through a revolutionary new approach to representing cloud processes on their native scales, including the cloud-scale interaction processes that are active in cloud systems. CMMAP has set ambitious education and human-resource goals to share basic information about the atmosphere, clouds, weather, climate, and modeling with diverse K-12 and public audiences through its affiliation with the Windows to the Universe (W2U) program at University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR). W2U web pages are written at three levels in English and Spanish. This information targets learners at all levels, educators, and families who seek to understand and share resources and information about the nature of weather and the climate system, and career role models from related research fields. This resource can also be helpful to educators who are building bridges in the classroom between the sciences, the arts, and literacy. Visitors to the W2U's CMMAP web portal can access a beautiful new clouds image gallery; information about each cloud type and the atmospheric processes that produce them; a Clouds in Art interactive; collections of weather-themed poetry, art, and myths; links to games and puzzles for children; and extensive classroom- ready resources and activities for K-12 teachers. Biographies of CMMAP scientists and graduate students are featured. Basic science concepts important to understanding the atmosphere, such as condensation, atmosphere pressure, lapse rate, and more have been developed, as well as 'microworlds' that enable students to interact with experimental tools while building fundamental knowledge. These resources can be accessed online at no cost by the entire atmospheric science K-12 and informal science education community.

  14. The WegenerNet observing weather and climate at 1 km-scale resolution: a new look at convective precipitation and other local-scale processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirchengast, G.; Kabas, T.; Stieb, C.; Leuprecht, A.; Bichler, C.

    2009-04-01

    The region Feldbach in Eastern Styria, Austria, characteristic for experiencing a rich variety of weather and climate patterns, has been selected by the WegCenter as a focus area for a pioneering weather and climate observation experiment at very high resolution: The WegenerNet climate station network region Feldbach (in brief WegenerNet) is comprised of 151 meteorological stations, which measure temperature, humidity, precipitation, and other parameters, with high accuracy in a tightly spaced grid (one station per ~2 km2; each with 5-min time sampling; ~1.4 km x 1.4 km grid in an ~20 km x 15 km area centered near the City of Feldbach at 46.93 °N, 15.90 °E). Since Jan 2007 the WegenerNet is providing, as part of the pilot and demonstration phase, regular measurements from the entire grid and since fall 2008 a complete quality-controlled data stream is available in near real time (data latency less than 1-2 hours) for visualization and download via the WegenerNet data portal (www.wegenernet.org). Currently (early 2009) the network demonstration is moving into its final phase, with consolidating maintenance procedures, advancing weather and climate data product development and completing the data portal bilingually (German, English). Full operations is foreseen to be reached mid 2009, from which on the net is scheduled as a long-term field experiment serving as a high-resolution monitoring and validation site for weather and climate research and applications. Adding further value, the WegenerNet data are complemented by lightening measurements in cooperation with the Inst. of Physics/Univ. of Munich (European LiNet network, including dedicated stations in Feldbach and Graz). In addition, a 3D-steerable Doppler weather radar (of the Styrian Hail Protection Society at Reicherhöhe near Graz) is available with un-obscured view of clouds and rain over the WegenerNet area, focusing its measurements on hail and heavy rainfall. Complementary hailpad measurements are planned as well (as of 2009). Many research projects investigating climate and environmental change and impacts, as well as local weather (extremes), will benefit from WegenerNet data covering the local scales from 1-10 km. This is a key domain for future high-resolution climate modeling and analysis, currently mainly covering the 10-50 km scale, for meeting the needs of climate impact models and studies in heterogeneous orography such as the Alpine region. Applications include validation of non-hydrostatic climate models operated at 1-10 km resolution for dynamical downscaling, validation of statistical climate downscaling techniques, in particular for precipitation, "ground-truth" provision for and validation of high-resolution atmospheric and hydrologic Earth observation data from satellites, validation of weather radar rain rate estimates, study of orography-local climate relationships, basin-scale and local water balance assessments, and many others. The presentation will introduce the WegenerNet and its characteristics and capabilities along the lines above and will show example applications of its (1 km x 1 km) weather and climate products, with focus on the highly-variable convective summer precipitation. On-line access will also be demonstrated (www.wegcenter.at/wegenernet, www.wegenernet.org).

  15. Weather from the Stratosphere?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baldwin, Mark P.; Thompson, David W. J.; Shuckburgh, Emily F.; Norton, Warwick A.; Gillett, Nathan P.

    2006-01-01

    Is the stratosphere, the atmospheric layer between about 10 and 50 km, important for predicting changes in weather and climate? The traditional view is that the stratosphere is a passive recipient of energy and waves from weather systems in the underlying troposphere, but recent evidence suggests otherwise. At a workshop in Whistler, British Columbia (1), scientists met to discuss how the stratosphere responds to forcing from below, initiating feedback processes that in turn alter weather patterns in the troposphere. The lowest layer of the atmosphere, the troposphere, is highly dynamic and rich in water vapor, clouds, and weather. The stratosphere above it is less dense and less turbulent (see the figure). Variability in the stratosphere is dominated by hemispheric-scale changes in airflow on time scales of a week to several months. Occasionally, however, stratospheric air flow changes dramatically within just a day or two, with large-scale jumps in temperature of 20 K or more. The troposphere influences the stratosphere mainly through atmospheric waves that propagate upward. Recent evidence shows that the stratosphere organizes this chaotic wave forcing from below to create long-lived changes in the stratospheric circulation. These stratospheric changes can feed back to affect weather and climate in the troposphere.

  16. National Weather Service

    MedlinePLUS

    HOME FORECAST Local Graphical Aviation Marine Rivers and Lakes Hurricanes Severe Weather Fire Weather Sun/Moon Long Range Forecasts Climate Prediction PAST WEATHER Past Weather Heating/Cooling Days Monthly ...

  17. Activities in Teaching Weather

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tonn, Martin

    1977-01-01

    Presented is a unit composed of activities for teaching weather. Topics include cloud types and formation, simple weather instruments, and the weather station. Illustrations include a weather chart and instruments. A bibliography is given. (MA)

  18. Using peer review process for teaching introductory physics laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bykov, Tikhon

    2012-03-01

    In recent years various peer instruction methods have been widely used and proven to be successful for teaching of introductory physics courses. Most of these methods refer to student interactions in small peer groups during lectures and/or discussion sessions. At the same time peer review process has been a standard part of any scientific enterprise and/or scientific publication process for more than a century. We have incorporated a method very similar to professional peer review into teaching of introductory physics laboratory. In this process students are asked to review anonymous copies of each other's lab reports and determine whether or not these reports are suitable for publication in a scientific journal. This technique has become an essential part of the Modular Curriculum Approach (MCA) teaching model designed and adopted at McMurry University. MCA has demonstrated significant gains in student learning.

  19. Weather Cycles

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mrs. Mitchell

    2010-09-23

    We are professionals in the teaching profession. We designed this project for children ranging from 4th grade to 6th grade. This project explores factors that help create severe winter weather. An interactive simulation provides hands-on experience, followed by guiding questions and resource exploration. YOU WILL NEED: Paper with copied questions, Overhead projector and Students broken up into groups of 3. Form groups of three. Have each group explore the following simulation: Weather Maker Simulator Have students use the simulation to answer the following questions on paper. They should be discussing the questions in their groups. 1. In general, when are winds formed? 2. When winds are blowing, how can you get them to stop? 3. What ...

  20. Weather Watchers

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Integrated Teaching and Learning Program,

    Students are introduced to some essential meteorology concepts so they more fully understand the impact of meteorological activity on air pollution control and prevention. First, they develop an understanding of the magnitude and importance of air pressure. Next, they build a simple aneroid barometer to understand how air pressure information is related to weather prediction. Then, students explore the concept of relative humidity and its connection to weather prediction. Finally, students learn about air convection currents and temperature inversions. In an associated literacy activity, students learn how scientific terms are formed using Latin and Greek roots, prefixes and suffixes, and are introduced to the role played by metaphor in language development. Note: Some of these activities can be conducted simultaneously with the air quality activity (What Color Is Your Air Today?) of Air Pollution unit, Lesson 1.

  1. Remote sensing of atmospheric particulates: Technological innovation and physical limitations in applications to short-range weather prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curran, R. J.; Kropfil, R.; Hallett, J.

    1984-01-01

    Techniques for remote sensing of particles, from cloud droplet to hailstone size, using optical and microwave frequencies are reviewed. The inherent variability of atmospheric particulates is examined to delineate conditions when the signal can give information to be effectively utilized in a forecasting context. The physical limitations resulting from the phase, size, orientation and concentration variability of the particulates are assessed.

  2. Reconstructing chemical weathering, physical erosion and monsoon intensity since 25 Ma in the northern South China Sea: A review of competing proxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clift, Peter D.; Wan, Shiming; Blusztajn, Jerzy

    2014-03-01

    Reconstructing the changing strength of the East Asian summer monsoon has been controversial because different proxies, many being indirect measures of rainfall, tell contrasting stories about how this has varied over long periods of geologic time. Here we present new Sr isotope, grain-size and clastic flux data and synthesize existing proxies to reconstruct changing chemical erosion in the northern South China Sea since the Oligocene, using the links between weathering rates and monsoon strength established in younger sediments as a way to infer intensity. Chemical proxies such as K/Rb, K/Al and the Chemical Index of Alteration (CIA), together with clay proxies like kaolinite/(illite + chlorite) show a steady decline in alteration after a sharp fall following a maximum at the Mid Miocene Climatic Optimum (MMCO; 15.5-17.2 Ma), probably as a result of cooling global temperatures. In contrast, physical erosion proxies, including bulk Ti/Ca and clastic mass accumulation rates (MAR), show peaks at 21-23 Ma, ~ 19 Ma and 15.5-17.2 Ma, implying faster run-off in the absence of drainage capture. Rates increase again, likely driven by slightly increased run-off after 13 Ma, but decrease after 8 Ma, which is identified as a period of summer monsoon weakening. Sr isotope composition correlates with hematite/goethite and the spectral proxy CRAT to show stronger weathering linked to more monsoonal seasonality. These proxies argue for a strengthening of the East Asian Monsoon after 22-23 Ma, followed by an extended period of monsoon maximum between 18 and 10 Ma, then weakening. There is some suggestion that the summer monsoon may have strengthened since 3-4 Ma after reaching a minimum in the Pliocene.

  3. Twelve testable hypotheses on the geobiology of weathering.

    PubMed

    Brantley, S L; Megonigal, J P; Scatena, F N; Balogh-Brunstad, Z; Barnes, R T; Bruns, M A; Van Cappellen, P; Dontsova, K; Hartnett, H E; Hartshorn, A S; Heimsath, A; Herndon, E; Jin, L; Keller, C K; Leake, J R; McDowell, W H; Meinzer, F C; Mozdzer, T J; Petsch, S; Pett-Ridge, J; Pregitzer, K S; Raymond, P A; Riebe, C S; Shumaker, K; Sutton-Grier, A; Walter, R; Yoo, K

    2011-03-01

    Critical Zone (CZ) research investigates the chemical, physical, and biological processes that modulate the Earth's surface. Here, we advance 12 hypotheses that must be tested to improve our understanding of the CZ: (1) Solar-to-chemical conversion of energy by plants regulates flows of carbon, water, and nutrients through plant-microbe soil networks, thereby controlling the location and extent of biological weathering. (2) Biological stoichiometry drives changes in mineral stoichiometry and distribution through weathering. (3) On landscapes experiencing little erosion, biology drives weathering during initial succession, whereas weathering drives biology over the long term. (4) In eroding landscapes, weathering-front advance at depth is coupled to surface denudation via biotic processes. (5) Biology shapes the topography of the Critical Zone. (6) The impact of climate forcing on denudation rates in natural systems can be predicted from models incorporating biogeochemical reaction rates and geomorphological transport laws. (7) Rising global temperatures will increase carbon losses from the Critical Zone. (8) Rising atmospheric P(CO2) will increase rates and extents of mineral weathering in soils. (9) Riverine solute fluxes will respond to changes in climate primarily due to changes in water fluxes and secondarily through changes in biologically mediated weathering. (10) Land use change will impact Critical Zone processes and exports more than climate change. (11) In many severely altered settings, restoration of hydrological processes is possible in decades or less, whereas restoration of biodiversity and biogeochemical processes requires longer timescales. (12) Biogeochemical properties impart thresholds or tipping points beyond which rapid and irreversible losses of ecosystem health, function, and services can occur. PMID:21231992

  4. Significant impacts of radiation physics in the Weather Research and Forecasting model on the precipitation and dynamics of the West African Monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, R.; Jin, J.; Wang, S.-Y.; Gillies, R. R.

    2014-08-01

    Precipitation from the West African Monsoon (WAM) provides food security and supports the economy in the region. As a consequence of the intrinsic complexities of the WAM's evolution, accurate simulations of the WAM and its precipitation regime, through the application of regional climate models, are challenging. We used the coupled Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) and Community Land Model (CLM) to explore impacts of radiation physics on the precipitation and dynamics of the WAM. Our results indicate that the radiation physics schemes not only produce biases in radiation fluxes impacting radiative forcing, but more importantly, result in large bias in precipitation of the WAM. Furthermore, the different radiation schemes led to variations in the meridional gradient of surface temperature between the north that is the Sahara desert and the south Guinean coastline. Climate diagnostics indicated that the changes in the meridional gradient of surface temperature affect the position and strength of the African Easterly Jet as well as the low-level monsoonal inflow from the Gulf of Guinea. The net result was that each radiation scheme produced differences in the WAM precipitation regime both spatially and in intensity. Such considerable variances in the WAM precipitation regime and dynamics, resulting from radiation representations, likely have strong feedbacks within the climate system and so have inferences when it comes to aspects of predicted climate change both for the region and globally.

  5. Significant impacts of radiation physics in the Weather Research and Forecasting model on the precipitation and dynamics of the West African Monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, R.; Jin, J.; Wang, S.-Y.; Gillies, R. R.

    2015-03-01

    Precipitation from the West African Monsoon (WAM) provides food security and supports the economy in the region. As a consequence of the intrinsic complexities of the WAM's evolution, accurate simulations of the WAM and its precipitation regime, through the application of regional climate models, are challenging. We used the coupled Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) and Community Land Model (CLM) to explore impacts of radiation physics on the precipitation and dynamics of the WAM. Our results indicate that the radiation physics schemes not only produce biases in radiation fluxes impacting radiative forcing, but more importantly, result in large bias in precipitation of the WAM. Furthermore, the different radiation schemes led to variations in the meridional gradient of surface temperature between the north that is the Sahara desert and the south Guinean coastline. Climate diagnostics indicated that the changes in the meridional gradient of surface temperature affect the position and strength of the African Easterly Jet as well as the low-level monsoonal inflow from the Gulf of Guinea. The net result was that each radiation scheme produced differences in the WAM precipitation regime both spatially and in intensity. Such considerable variances in the WAM precipitation regime and dynamics, resulting from radiation representations, likely have strong feedbacks within the climate system and so have inferences when it comes to aspects of predicted climate change both for the region and globally.

  6. What controls the composition of weathered materials transported by large river systems (Invited)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Gaillardet; J. Bouchez; L. Maurice

    2009-01-01

    The critical zone of the Earth is a complex reactor where physical, biological and chemical processes interact to transform the crustal rocks into weathered materials. The river system is selectively transporting materials according to the intensity of physical erosion and the transport capacity of the river system it self. The main advantage of rivers is that they integrate the diversity

  7. Assessing processes in uncertain, complex physical phenomena and manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Booker, J. M. (Jane M.); Kerscher, W. J. III (William J.); Smith, R. E. (Ronald E.)

    2002-01-01

    PREDICT (Performance and Reliability Evaluation with Diverse Information Combination and Tracking) is a set of structured quantitative approaches for the evaluation of system performance based on multiple information sources. The methodology integrates diverse types and sources of information, and their associated uncertainties, to develop full distributions for performance metrics, such as reliability. The successful application of PREDICT has involved system performance assessment in automotive product development, aging nuclear weapons, and fatigued turbine jet engines. In each of these applications, complex physical, mechanical and materials processes affect performance, safety and reliability assessments. Processes also include the physical actions taken during manufacturing, quality control, inspections, assembly, etc. and the steps involved in product design, development and certification. In this paper, we will examine the various types of processes involved in the decision making leading to production in an automotive system reliability example. Analysis of these processes includes not only understanding their impact on performance and reliability, but also the uncertainties associated with them. The automotive example demonstrates some of the tools used in tackling the complex problem of understanding processes. While some tools and methods exist for understanding processes (man made and natural) and the uncertainties associated with them, many of the complex issues discussed are open for continued research efforts.

  8. Contrast Restoration of Weather Degraded Images

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Srinivasa G. Narasimhan; Shree K. Nayar

    2003-01-01

    Images of outdoor scenes captured in bad weather suffer from poor contrast. Under bad weather conditions, the light reaching a camera is severely scattered by the atmosphere. The resulting decay in contrast varies across the scene and is exponential in the depths of scene points. Therefore, traditional space invariant image processing techniques are not sufficient to remove weather effects from

  9. Being qua becoming: Aristotle's "Metaphysics", quantum physics, and Process Philosophy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, David Kelley

    In Aristotle's First Philosophy, science and philosophy were partners, but with the rise of empiricism, went their separate ways. Metaphysics combined the rational and irrational (i.e. final cause/unmoved mover) elements of existence to equate being with substance, postulating prime matter as pure potential that was actuated by form to create everything. Modern science reveres pure reason and postulates its theory of being by a rigorous scientific methodology. The Standard Model defines matter as energy formed into fundamental particles via forces contained in fields. Science has proved Aristotle's universe wrong in many ways, but as physics delves deeper into the quantum world, empiricism is reaching its limits concerning fundamental questions of existence. To achieve its avowed mission of explaining existence completely, physics must reunite with philosophy in a metascience modeled on the First Philosophy of Aristotle. One theory of being that integrates quantum physics and metaphysics is Process Philosophy.

  10. Physical Processes in the Far and Near Space

    E-print Network

    Dubovichenko S. B.; Takibaev N. Zh.; Chechin L. M

    2010-12-08

    The book examines some of the questions of modern cosmology, the physics of atmospheric phenomena, the physics of quasi-particles and atomic nuclei in the Universe. It consists of three parts, each discusses the theoretical problems of various subjects of cosmic physics. The first part examines the physics of the expanding Universe, with emphasis on the content of the latest revolution in cosmology. It is today well established that the universe is dominated by a vacuum that exceeds the density of baryonic forms of cosmic matter, that the dynamics of the cosmic expansion controls the vacuum antigravity and, finally, that the cosmological expansion is accelerating. In the second part we investigate the processes leading to the electrization of gas fluxes in the solar atmosphere and the generation of neutrons in the active regions of its atmosphere, issues of electrization of thunderstorm clouds in the troposphere of the Earth, the formation and development of noctilucent clouds in the area of the mesosphere. In the third part the methods of calculating the wave functions of cluster systems in continuous and discrete spectrum for a given intercluster interaction are proposed. It presents the theoretical study of astrophysical S-factors in the photonuclear reactions, which are part of the helium thermonuclear processes cycle which determine the bulk of the energy yield in stellar systems. Although the book is written in Russian, it might have some interest.

  11. CLARA: A Contemporary Approach to Physics Data Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gyurjyan, V.; Abbott, D.; Carbonneau, J.; Gilfoyle, G.; Heddle, D.; Heyes, G.; Paul, S.; Timmer, C.; Weygand, D.; Wolin, E.

    2011-12-01

    CLARA (CLAS12 Reconstruction and Analysis framework) is CLAS12 physics data processing (PDP) application development framework based on a service oriented architecture (SOA). This framework allows users to design and deploy data processing services as well as dynamically compose PDP applications using available services. Services can be written in Java, C++, and Python languages. The PDP service bus provides a layer on top of a distributed pub-sub middleware implementation. This allows complex service composition and integration without writing a code. We believe that by deviating from the traditional self contained, monolithic PDP application models we can improve maintenance, scalability and quality of physics data analysis. The SOA approach also helps us to separate a specific service programmer from a PDP application designer. Examples of service creation and deployment, along with the CLAS12 track reconstruction application design are presented.

  12. Honeycomb Weathering of Limestone Formations

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Honeycomb weathering of sandstone located on the shores of Puget Sound occurs when expanding salt crystals break fragments of rock, creating a small hole that becomes larger as the process repeats itself over time....

  13. Physical process first law and caustic avoidance for Rindler horizon

    E-print Network

    Bhattacharjee, Srijit

    2014-01-01

    We study the perturbation induced by a slowly rotating massive object as it passes through a Rindler horizon. It is shown that the passage of this object can be approximately modeled as Delta\\,function type tidal distortions hitting the horizon. Further, following the analysis presented by Amsel, Marolf and Virmani related to the issue of the validity of physical process first law, we establish a condition on the size of the object so that this law holds for the Rindler horizon.

  14. Physical process first law and caustic avoidance for Rindler horizon

    E-print Network

    Srijit Bhattacharjee; Sudipta Sarkar

    2014-12-03

    We study the perturbation induced by a slowly rotating massive object as it passes through a Rindler horizon. It is shown that the passage of this object can be approximately modeled as Delta\\,function type tidal distortions hitting the horizon. Further, following the analysis presented by Amsel, Marolf and Virmani related to the issue of the validity of physical process first law, we establish a condition on the size of the object so that this law holds for the Rindler horizon.

  15. Stacking of blocks by chimpanzees: developmental processes and physical understanding

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Misato Hayashi

    2007-01-01

    The stacking-block task has been used to assess cognitive development in both humans and chimpanzees. The present study reports\\u000a three aspects of stacking behavior in chimpanzees: spontaneous development, acquisition process following training, and physical\\u000a understanding assessed through a cylindrical-block task. Over 3 years of longitudinal observation of block manipulation, one\\u000a of three infant chimpanzees spontaneously started to stack up cubic

  16. Contaminants from Cretaceous Black Shale Part 1: Natural weathering processes controlling contaminant cycling in Mancos Shale, southwestern United States, with emphasis on salinity and selenium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tuttle, Michele L.; Fahy, Juli W.; Elliott, John G.; Grauch, Richard I.; Stillings, Lisa L.

    2013-01-01

    Soils derived from black shale can accumulate high concentrations of elements of environmental concern, especially in regions with semiarid to arid climates. One such region is the Colorado River basin in the southwestern United States where contaminants pose a threat to agriculture, municipal water supplies, endangered aquatic species, and water-quality commitments to Mexico. Exposures of Cretaceous Mancos Shale (MS) in the upper basin are a major contributor of salinity and selenium in the Colorado River. Here, we examine the roles of geology, climate, and alluviation on contaminant cycling (emphasis on salinity and Se) during weathering of MS in a Colorado River tributary watershed. Stage I (incipient weathering) began perhaps as long ago as 20 ka when lowering of groundwater resulted in oxidation of pyrite and organic matter. This process formed gypsum and soluble organic matter that persist in the unsaturated, weathered shale today. Enrichment of Se observed in laterally persistent ferric oxide layers likely is due to selenite adsorption onto the oxides that formed during fluctuating redox conditions at the water table. Stage II weathering (pedogenesis) is marked by a significant decrease in bulk density and increase in porosity as shale disaggregates to soil. Rainfall dissolves calcite and thenardite (Na2SO4) at the surface, infiltrates to about 1 m, and precipitates gypsum during evaporation. Gypsum formation (estimated 390 kg m?2) enriches soil moisture in Na and residual SO4. Transpiration of this moisture to the surface or exposure of subsurface soil (slumping) produces more thenardite. Most Se remains in the soil as selenite adsorbed to ferric oxides, however, some oxidizes to selenate and, during wetter conditions is transported with soil moisture to depths below 3 m. Coupled with little rainfall, relatively insoluble gypsum, and the translocation of soluble Se downward, MS landscapes will be a significant nonpoint source of salinity and Se to the Colorado River well into the future. Other trace elements weathering from MS that are often of environmental concern include U and Mo, which mimic Se in their behavior; As, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, and Pb, which show little redistribution; and Cd, Sb, V, and Zn, which accumulate in Stage I shale, but are lost to varying degrees from upper soil intervals. None of these trace elements have been reported previously as contaminants in the study area.

  17. Destructive Weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    alizabethirwin

    2010-11-03

    What are the effects of different types of destructive weather? Learn All About Hurricanes Record on your chart 3 things that you learned. Watch a Hurricane Video These are the devastating Effects of Hurricanes Learn All About Tornadoes Record on your chart 3 things that you learned. Watch a Tornado Video These are the devastating Effects of tornadoes Learn All About Thunderstorms Record on your chart 3 things that you learned. These are the devastating Effects of thunderstorms Follow these important tips To keep safe. ...

  18. Weather Photography

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ph.D. student Harald Edens describes himself as a "photographer of lightning, clouds, atmospheric optical phenomena and astronomy". His Web site entitled Weather Photography proves this by providing a stunning collection of photographs and movies of atmospheric optics, lightning, clouds, and astronomy. The author describes how the photographs were taken, what equipment was used, and even discusses many of the phenomenon being observed such as mirages and halos. An added bonus of this very interesting site is that the author generously allows free personal use of the photographs.

  19. Weather Activities

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This entertaining, interactive website is the perfect tool to educate users about the basics of weather forecasting and reporting. The two educational modules, created by EdHeads, each contain three levels and are designed for grades four through nine. While discovering how to predict a three-day forecast, students learn about warm and cold fronts, wind direction and speed, high and low pressure systems, isobars, and humidity. Teachers can find a helpful guide discussing how best to use the site as well as providing an overview of science standards, lesson plans, and pre- and post-tests for students.

  20. Mountain Weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mountains can be awe-inspiring both for the vistas they provide and for the weather events and long-term climate systems they support. This interactive feature illustrates how a moisture-laden air mass interacts with a mountain slope to produce characteristic patterns of precipitation over the mountain and surrounding areas. Viewers can see how clouds and precipitation form as the air mass ascends the windward side of the peak, and observe the rain shadow created on the leeward side by the descending, warmed, and moisture-depleted air. A background essay and list of discussion questions supplement the interactive feature.

  1. Process evaluation results from the HEALTHY physical education intervention

    PubMed Central

    Hall, William J.; Zeveloff, Abigail; Steckler, Allan; Schneider, Margaret; Thompson, Deborah; Pham, Trang; Volpe, Stella L.; Hindes, Katie; Sleigh, Adriana; McMurray, Robert G.

    2012-01-01

    Process evaluation is an assessment of the implementation of an intervention. A process evaluation component was embedded in the HEALTHY study, a primary prevention trial for Type 2 diabetes implemented over 3 years in 21 middle schools across the United States. The HEALTHY physical education (PE) intervention aimed at maximizing student engagement in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity through delivery of structured lesson plans by PE teachers. Process evaluation data collected via class observations and interventionist interviews assessed fidelity, dose delivered, implementor participation, dose received and barriers. Process evaluation results indicate a high level of fidelity in implementing HEALTHY PE activities and offering 225 min of PE every 10 school days. Concerning dose delivered, students were active for approximately 33 min of class, representing an average of 61% of the class time. Results also indicate that PE teachers were generally engaged in implementing the HEALTHY PE curriculum. Data on dose received showed that students were highly engaged with the PE intervention; however, student misbehavior was the most common barrier observed during classes. Other barriers included teacher disengagement, large classes, limited gym space and poor classroom management. Findings suggest that the PE intervention was generally implemented and received as intended despite several barriers. PMID:22156231

  2. Graphene growth process modeling: a physical-statistical approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jian; Huang, Qiang

    2014-09-01

    As a zero-band semiconductor, graphene is an attractive material for a wide variety of applications such as optoelectronics. Among various techniques developed for graphene synthesis, chemical vapor deposition on copper foils shows high potential for producing few-layer and large-area graphene. Since fabrication of high-quality graphene sheets requires the understanding of growth mechanisms, and methods of characterization and control of grain size of graphene flakes, analytical modeling of graphene growth process is therefore essential for controlled fabrication. The graphene growth process starts with randomly nucleated islands that gradually develop into complex shapes, grow in size, and eventually connect together to cover the copper foil. To model this complex process, we develop a physical-statistical approach under the assumption of self-similarity during graphene growth. The growth kinetics is uncovered by separating island shapes from area growth rate. We propose to characterize the area growth velocity using a confined exponential model, which not only has clear physical explanation, but also fits the real data well. For the shape modeling, we develop a parametric shape model which can be well explained by the angular-dependent growth rate. This work can provide useful information for the control and optimization of graphene growth process on Cu foil.

  3. A New Approach to Understanding Brown Dwarf Weather

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morley, Caroline

    2014-10-01

    Over 130 HST orbits and 3000 Spitzer hours have been dedicated to observing variability in the emission of brown dwarfs, but we do not yet understand the physical processes that cause brown dwarf weather. The aim of the proposed work is to build the modeling tools to turn brown dwarf light curves into constraints on their atmospheric physics. Light curves of variable brown dwarfs are not simple sinusoids, but show spectral dependence in both amplitude and phase. Many objects exhibit evolution in the amplitude or shape of the light curve from one observation to another, indicating evolution of weather patterns. These complexities mean that while the two likely causes of variability--patchy clouds and temperature perturbations--should have distinct spectral signatures, the data are proving challenging to explain with simple prescriptions. Our tool to understand this extrasolar weather is to use a retrieval technique to extract the physical parameters that cause brown dwarf variability, directly from brown dwarf spectra. Using this tool with the information-rich HST data, we probe the temperature and cloud structure in multiple spatial dimensions as well as the time-evolution of these structures. These constraints provide crucial information for the development of atmospheric dynamical models, currently in their infancy for brown dwarfs. The retrieval technique we propose will allow us to leave the confines of pre-calculated grid models and measure the causes of brown dwarf weather directly from spectra. This tool will provide the information necessary to understand the atmospheric physics underlying warm substellar weather, decades before we can study weather on exoplanets.

  4. FTIR investigation of the damage produced on human hair by weathering and bleaching processes: implementation of different sampling techniques and data processing.

    PubMed

    Signori, V; Lewis, D M

    1997-02-01

    Untreated and bleached hair samples were analysed by FTIR spectroscopy. Cysteic acid and cysteine-S-thiosulphate were analysed by different data manipulations and various sampling techniques. Single-fibre analysis was achieved using the IR-microscope attachment to the FTIR instrument (transmission mode). An ATR diamond crystal was also used for both single fibres and tresses; this sampling technique was compared to a contact sample ATR cell based on a ZnSe crystal. The microscope was found to be very useful for the analysis of small portions of hair fibres; the effect of weathering along the length of the fibres and the extent of variability among the single fibres was assessed by this technique. The results clearly show a trend in the cysteic acid content increasing from the mid-point to the tip; it was found that hair samples are very heterogeneous. A standard variation of up to 11% is reported for the mean value of the intensity of absorption of cysteic acid in untreated fibres belonging to the same tress sample. The value of the variation decreases when the tress is bleached -- the longer the bleaching process the lower the value of the standard variation (4.5% for hair fibres bleached for 60 min using hydrogen peroxide). The contact sample ATR cell gave poor reproducibility as only poor sample-crystal contact was achieved and the level of noise recorded was too high to allow accurate detection. However the ATR diamond crystal was found to give sensitive and reproducible spectra since much higher levels of transmittance were achieved (better sample-crystal contact); this technique allowed measurements of groups of seven to nine hair fibres at once, but did not provide reproducible spectra of single fibres. Different data manipulations have been assessed; these include derivatization and calculation of peak heights and areas (ratioed by the intensity of absorption of the peaks chosen as internal standards to the amide III 1232--1242 cm-1 and CH2 stretching 1451 cm-1), normalization, averaging spectra and spectral subtraction. PMID:18507645

  5. Adaptive numerical algorithms in space weather modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tóth, Gábor; van der Holst, Bart; Sokolov, Igor V.; De Zeeuw, Darren L.; Gombosi, Tamas I.; Fang, Fang; Manchester, Ward B.; Meng, Xing; Najib, Dalal; Powell, Kenneth G.; Stout, Quentin F.; Glocer, Alex; Ma, Ying-Juan; Opher, Merav

    2012-02-01

    Space weather describes the various processes in the Sun-Earth system that present danger to human health and technology. The goal of space weather forecasting is to provide an opportunity to mitigate these negative effects. Physics-based space weather modeling is characterized by disparate temporal and spatial scales as well as by different relevant physics in different domains. A multi-physics system can be modeled by a software framework comprising several components. Each component corresponds to a physics domain, and each component is represented by one or more numerical models. The publicly available Space Weather Modeling Framework (SWMF) can execute and couple together several components distributed over a parallel machine in a flexible and efficient manner. The framework also allows resolving disparate spatial and temporal scales with independent spatial and temporal discretizations in the various models. Several of the computationally most expensive domains of the framework are modeled by the Block-Adaptive Tree Solarwind Roe-type Upwind Scheme (BATS-R-US) code that can solve various forms of the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations, including Hall, semi-relativistic, multi-species and multi-fluid MHD, anisotropic pressure, radiative transport and heat conduction. Modeling disparate scales within BATS-R-US is achieved by a block-adaptive mesh both in Cartesian and generalized coordinates. Most recently we have created a new core for BATS-R-US: the Block-Adaptive Tree Library (BATL) that provides a general toolkit for creating, load balancing and message passing in a 1, 2 or 3 dimensional block-adaptive grid. We describe the algorithms of BATL and demonstrate its efficiency and scaling properties for various problems. BATS-R-US uses several time-integration schemes to address multiple time-scales: explicit time stepping with fixed or local time steps, partially steady-state evolution, point-implicit, semi-implicit, explicit/implicit, and fully implicit numerical schemes. Depending on the application, we find that different time stepping methods are optimal. Several of the time integration schemes exploit the block-based granularity of the grid structure. The framework and the adaptive algorithms enable physics-based space weather modeling and even short-term forecasting.

  6. Health physics aspects of processing EBR-I coolant

    SciTech Connect

    Burke, L.L.; Thalgott, J.O.; Poston, J.W. Jr.

    1998-12-31

    The sodium-potassium reactor coolant removed from the Experimental Breeder Reactor Number One after a partial reactor core meltdown had been stored at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory for 40 years. The State of Idaho considered this waste the most hazardous waste stored in the state and required its processing. The reactor coolant was processed in three phases. The first phase converted the alkali metal into a liquid sodium-potassium hydroxide. The second phase converted this caustic to a liquid sodium-potassium carbonate. The third phase solidified the sodium-potassium carbonate into a form acceptable for land disposal. Health physics aspects and dose received during each phase of the processing are discussed.

  7. Detectors and signal processing for high-energy physics

    SciTech Connect

    Rehak, P.

    1981-01-01

    Basic principles of the particle detection and signal processing for high-energy physics experiments are presented. It is shown that the optimum performance of a properly designed detector system is not limited by incidental imperfections, but solely by more fundamental limitations imposed by the quantum nature and statistical behavior of matter. The noise sources connected with the detection and signal processing are studied. The concepts of optimal filtering and optimal detector/amplifying device matching are introduced. Signal processing for a liquid argon calorimeter is analyzed in some detail. The position detection in gas counters is studied. Resolution in drift chambers for the drift coordinate measurement as well as the second coordinate measurement is discussed.

  8. Building a Weather-Ready Nation Winter Weather Safety

    E-print Network

    Building a Weather-Ready Nation Winter Weather Safety NOAA/NWS Winter Weather Safety Seasonal Campaign www.weather.gov #12;Building a Weather-Ready Nation Winter Weather Hazards Winter Weather Safety www.weather.gov · Snow/Ice · Blizzards · Flooding · Cold Temperatures #12;Building a Weather

  9. Physical processes in the growth of the continental crust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, G.

    1988-01-01

    Major mechanisms of crustal addition are volcanism and plutonism at plate boundaries and within plate interiors. One approach to deciding if island arc magmatism dominated ancient crustal growth is to assess the rate at which the process has operated in the recent past. The localized addition rates were found to be comparable to present day global rates. One physical observable that was used to constrain models of crustal growth is sea level. A simple physical model was developed to explore the consequences of constant freeboard (the height of the continents above sea level). Global geoid and sea floor topography data were used to identify and study oceanic plateaus and swells that have either continental crustal roots or anomalously thick ocean crusts.

  10. Biogeochemical Weathering Processes in a California Marine Chronosequence as Implicated by Pore-Water Major-Constituent Concentrations and Germanium-Silicon Fractionation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vivit, D.; Schulz, M.; White, A.; Anderson, S.

    2002-12-01

    Silicate weathering processes dominate weathering rates from terraced grassland surfaces in the drainage basin of Wilder Creek (Wilder Ranch State Park, Santa Cruz County, California). This study uses Si, Na, and Ge concentrations from soil pore-water samples taken from a flight of five marine terrace locations in the watershed. A sample-concentration procedure preceded ICP-MS instrumental analysis in order to determine Ge at parts-per-trillion levels. At two sites (Terraces 3 and 4), higher Si and Na concentration levels at the surface or near-surface depths showed the effect of evapo-transpiration. Minimum levels of these two elements occurred from 15 cm to 90 cm deep, and for each the concentration increased gradually with depth. These increases showed that plagioclase dissolution controlled pore-water Si and Na deep in the respective soil profiles. Samples from both Terrace 3 (137 ka in age) and Terrace 4 (139 ka) had Ge/Si ratio values ranging from 0.3 x 10-6 to 5 x 10-6. For both terrace sites, larger ratios occurred in samples taken from shallower depths. The ratio values progressively decreased with increasing depth, down to about 1 to 2 meters below the surface. Larger Ge/Si values provided evidence of uptake and incorporation of Si into phytoliths in leaf structures by prevailing native grasses that depleted Si at shallower depths. As the end of the annual growth cycle for the grasses coincides with the onset of seasonal rains, the phytolithic Si becomes readily available for fluvial transport. These results have important ramifications in interpreting Si fluxes for the estimation of weathering rates in watersheds.

  11. Regional Satrep: A new way of analysing the actual weather situation

    E-print Network

    Frans Debie; Koninklijk Nederlands Meteorologisch Instituut

    Shift meteorologists are supposed to understand the weather situation and have to make a forecast that is consistent with the actual situation. To get grip on the weather situation in most of the weather rooms the forecaster starts an analysis of the weather by looking at surface observations. Drawing surface charts is the second activity and hereby isobars, (Norwegian) fronts and troughs are the most important features. Filling in weather symbols will be the finishing touch of the surface chart. To get a more 3D-picture of the weather radiosondes are looked at and every 6 hours higher level isolines are analysed. Since the middle of 2000 the approach at the KNMI is different and from this time satellite images are the starting point for forecasters to analyse the weather situation. The meteorologists try to recognise the cloud patterns in these images by using the knowledge of conceptual models. Cloud tops and cloud patterns seen by satellites, are the fingerprints of physical processes in the troposphere. Conceptual models describe the physical processes trough clouds phenomena, physical parameters, life cycles and weather events. The thinking of a forecaster in terms of conceptual models is a way to get a 3D- or even 4D-mental weather picture. (See in this respect: “Manual of Synoptic satellite Meteorology Conceptual Models ” supported by EUMETSAT). A Regional Satrep (abbreviation of Satellite report) is a satellite image overlayed with the names of the conceptual models. The trajectories for the very short-range forecast period, up to 18 hours, determine the area of interest (region). As guidance the overlayed images and the describing text are given or send to (remote) forecasters. Discrepancies between NWP model output and Regional Satrep can also be a trigger for the highest alert and a starting point for model modification.

  12. Evidence for biological mediation of K and P weathering inferred from a new process-based soil evolution model and soil chronosequences from Hawaii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, M.; Gloor, E.

    2012-12-01

    The productivity of many tropical forests is limited by the availability of nutrients such as phosphorus (P). Nutrient limitation thus has consequences for the global climate because it alters the response of vegetation productivity to changing CO2 concentrations. The amount of mineral derived nutrients available to vegetation depends upon a number of factors such as the age of the soil, the weatherability of rock minerals, the mechanism of nutrient uptake by the vegetation and the leaching intensity of the soils. An understanding of the interactions between pedogenetic processes and nutrient cycling can therefore enhance our understanding of ecosystem dynamics. Studies examining the interactions between soil processes and nutrient availability are limited, mainly because of the long timescales over which many of these processes operate and of the difficulty in isolating individual soil processes. Data from soil climate-sequences and chronosequences can potentially shed light on these interactions when combined with a model which includes soil forming processes over pedogenic timescales. We have developed a process-based soil evolution model which can be evaluated with measurements of soil properties in order to understand such biogeochemical cycles. The mechanistic, soil evolution model presented includes the major processes of soil formation including i) mineral weathering, ii) percolation of rainfall, iii) leaching of solutes, iv) surface erosion, v) bioturbation and vi) vegetation-soil interactions. The specific properties the model simulates over timescales of tens to hundreds of thousand years are, soil depth, vertical profiles of elemental composition, soil solution pH and organic carbon distribution. Modelled soil properties are compared with measured soil properties from basaltic soil chronosequences in Hawaii. The model generally agrees well with the soil chronosequences. Here we focus on one particularly interesting result regarding the role of the biosphere on weathering. Model results demonstrate that the biosphere greatly influences modelled soil properties. A good agreement is observed between measured and modelled Na, which is not a plant nutrient and Mg and Ca which are less strongly cycled, across both an age and rainfall gradient, suggesting a good understanding of modelled soil processes. However, the model underestimates the relative depletion of K and P from the soil profiles. Nutrient uptake in the model is controlled by the rate of evapotranspiration and the concentration of the nutrient in the soil solution. Independently, there is experimental evidence for roots actively inducing the release of non-exchangeable nutrients from minerals. The differences between measured and modelled K and P profiles therefore indirectly provides evidence for this mechanism of nutrient acquisition and highlights the important role vegetation and mycorrhiza play in accelerating the release of specific nutrients from minerals. This result suggests that biologically enhanced mineral weathering should be recognized when interpreting soil properties in order to understand soil-vegetation interactions.

  13. Relationship between physical, chemical and processing properties of rice

    E-print Network

    Parial, Lucila Beatrice Calupitan

    1968-01-01

    The physical, chemical and processing characteristics of 56 rice var1eties were evaluated, Measurements taken included milling yield, thousand kernel weight, kernel d1mensions, alkal1 reaction, water uptake at 77 and 82 C, starch-iod1ne-blue-value, amylose 0... of properties studied. The protein content of each group of varieties studied covered the range 5. 6 - 12. 0%%d. The potential of a dye-binding techn1que for determining protein content of brown and m1lled r1ce was invest1gated. Two procedures were tried...

  14. The r-process nucleosynthesis: Nuclear physics challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Goriely, S. [Institut d'Astronomie et d'Astrophysique, Universite Libre de Bruxelles Campus de la Plaine, CP 226, 1050 Brussels (Belgium)

    2012-10-20

    About half of the nuclei heavier than iron observed in nature are produced by the socalled rapid neutron capture process, or r-process, of nucleosynthesis. The identification of the astrophysics site and the specific conditions in which the r-process takes place remains, however, one of the still-unsolved mysteries of modern astrophysics. Another underlying difficulty associated with our understanding of the r-process concerns the uncertainties in the predictions of nuclear properties for the few thousands exotic neutron-rich nuclei involved and for which essentially no experimental data exist. The present contribution emphasizes some important future challenges faced by nuclear physics in this problem, particularly in the determination of the nuclear structure properties of exotic neutron-rich nuclei as well as their radiative neutron capture rates and their fission probabilities. These quantities are particularly relevant to determine the composition of the matter resulting from the r-process. Their impact on the r-abundance distribution resulting from the decompression of neutron star matter is discussed.

  15. FAWN: Florida Automated Weather Network

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Florida Automated Weather Network (FAWN) provides up-to-date weather information through a system of automated weather stations distributed throughout the State of Florida. Research scientists at the University of Florida work closely with extension agents to monitor the FAWN system and make sure it provides fast, reliable, and convenient access. Overall, there are four parts to the FAWN system: collecting data, transmitting it to the collection site, processing the data, and redistributing it to the end user. FAWN database servers maintained by IFAS Information Technologies receive weather data about the date and time of collection, the air temperature, soil temperature, relative humidity, dewpoint, rainfall, wind direction, wind speed, and radiation from remote stations every 15 minutes. The information is processed and made available almost instantaneously through several different search methods accessible through FAWN web server, as well as an interactive voice-response system.

  16. Insight into the Physical and Dynamical Processes that Control Rapid Increases in Total Flash Rate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schultz, Christopher J.; Carey, Lawrence D.; Schultz, Elise V.; Blakeslee, Richard J.; Goodman, Steven J.

    2015-01-01

    Rapid increases in total lightning (also termed "lightning jumps") have been observed for many decades. Lightning jumps have been well correlated to severe and hazardous weather occurrence. The main focus of lightning jump work has been on the development of lightning algorithms to be used in real-time assessment of storm intensity. However, in these studies it is typically assumed that the updraft "increases" without direct measurements of the vertical motion, or specification of which updraft characteristic actually increases (e.g., average speed, maximum speed, or convective updraft volume). Therefore, an end-to-end physical and dynamical basis for coupling rapid increases in total flash rate to increases in updraft speed and volume must be understood in order to ultimately relate lightning occurrence to severe storm metrics. Herein, we use polarimetric, multi-Doppler, and lightning mapping array measurements to provide physical context as to why rapid increases in total lightning are closely tied to severe and hazardous weather.

  17. Weather information network including graphical display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leger, Daniel R. (Inventor); Burdon, David (Inventor); Son, Robert S. (Inventor); Martin, Kevin D. (Inventor); Harrison, John (Inventor); Hughes, Keith R. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    An apparatus for providing weather information onboard an aircraft includes a processor unit and a graphical user interface. The processor unit processes weather information after it is received onboard the aircraft from a ground-based source, and the graphical user interface provides a graphical presentation of the weather information to a user onboard the aircraft. Preferably, the graphical user interface includes one or more user-selectable options for graphically displaying at least one of convection information, turbulence information, icing information, weather satellite information, SIGMET information, significant weather prognosis information, and winds aloft information.

  18. Influence of Model Physics on NWP Forecasts

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This module describes model parameterizations of sub-surface, boundary-layer,and free atmospheric processes, such as surface snow processes, soil characteristics, vegetation, evapotranspiration, PBL processes and parameterizations, and trace gases, and their interaction with the radiative transfer process. It specifically addresses how models treat these physical processes and how they can influence forecasts of sensible weather elements.

  19. Solar physics applications of computer graphics and image processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Altschuler, M. D.

    1985-01-01

    Computer graphics devices coupled with computers and carefully developed software provide new opportunities to achieve insight into the geometry and time evolution of scalar, vector, and tensor fields and to extract more information quickly and cheaply from the same image data. Two or more different fields which overlay in space can be calculated from the data (and the physics), then displayed from any perspective, and compared visually. The maximum regions of one field can be compared with the gradients of another. Time changing fields can also be compared. Images can be added, subtracted, transformed, noise filtered, frequency filtered, contrast enhanced, color coded, enlarged, compressed, parameterized, and histogrammed, in whole or section by section. Today it is possible to process multiple digital images to reveal spatial and temporal correlations and cross correlations. Data from different observatories taken at different times can be processed, interpolated, and transformed to a common coordinate system.

  20. To Photon Concept and to Physics of Quantum Absorption Process

    E-print Network

    Dmitri Yerchuck; Yauhen Yerchak; Alla Dovlatova; Vyacheslav Stelmakh; Felix Borovik

    2014-06-03

    The status of the photon in the modern physics was analysed. Within the frames of the Standard Model of particle physics the photon is considered to be the genuine elementary particle, being to be the messenger of the electromagnetic interaction to which are subject charged particles. In contrast, the experts in quantum electodynamics (in particular, in quantum optics) insist, that the description of an photon to be the particle is impossible. The given viewpoint was carefully analysed and its falseness was proved. The expression for a photon wave function is presented. So, the status of the photon in quantum electodynamics was restored. The physics of a quantum absorption process is analysed. It is argued in accordance with Dirac guess, that the photon revival takes place by its absorption. Being to be a soliton, it seems to be keeping safe after an energy absorption in a pinned state, possessing the only by spin. It is shown, that the time of the transfer of absorbing systems in an excited state is finite and moreover, that it can govern the stationary signal registered. The given result is significant for the all stationary spectroscopy, in which at present the transfer of absorbing systems in an excited state is considered to be instantaneous.

  1. Influence of wheat kernel physical properties on the pulverizing process.

    PubMed

    Dziki, Dariusz; Cacak-Pietrzak, Gra?yna; Mi?, Antoni; Jo?czyk, Krzysztof; Gawlik-Dziki, Urszula

    2014-10-01

    The physical properties of wheat kernel were determined and related to pulverizing performance by correlation analysis. Nineteen samples of wheat cultivars about similar level of protein content (11.2-12.8 % w.b.) and obtained from organic farming system were used for analysis. The kernel (moisture content 10 % w.b.) was pulverized by using the laboratory hammer mill equipped with round holes 1.0 mm screen. The specific grinding energy ranged from 120 kJkg(-1) to 159 kJkg(-1). On the basis of data obtained many of significant correlations (p?physical properties and pulverizing process of wheat kernel, especially wheat kernel hardness index (obtained on the basis of Single Kernel Characterization System) and vitreousness significantly and positively correlated with the grinding energy indices and the mass fraction of coarse particles (> 0.5 mm). Among the kernel mechanical properties determined on the basis of uniaxial compression test only the rapture force was correlated with the impact grinding results. The results showed also positive and significant relationships between kernel ash content and grinding energy requirements. On the basis of wheat physical properties the multiple linear regression was proposed for predicting the average particle size of pulverized kernel. PMID:25328207

  2. Framework for Understanding Lenr Processes, Using Conventional Condensed Matter Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chubb, Scott R.

    2006-02-01

    Conventional condensed matter physics provides a unifying framework for understanding low-energy nuclear reactions (LENRs) in solids. In the paper, standard many-body physics techniques are used to illustrate this fact. Specifically, the paper shows that formally the theories by Schwinger, Hagelstein, and Chubb and Chubb (C&C), all can be related to a common set of equations, associated with reaction rate and energy transfer, through a standard many-body physics procedure (R-matrix theory). In each case, particular forms of coherence are used that implicitly provide a mechanism for understanding how LENRs can proceed without the emission of high-energy particles. In addition, additional ideas, associated with Conventional Condensed Matter physics, are used to extend the earlier ion band state (IBS) model by C&C. The general model clarifies the origin of coherent processes that initiate LENRs, through the onset of ion conduction that can occur through ionic fluctuations in nanoscale crystals. In the case of PdDx, these fluctuations begin to occur as x ? 1 in sub-lattice structures with characteristic dimensions of 60 nm. The resulting LENRs are triggered by the polarization between injected d's and electrons (immediately above the Fermi energy) that takes place in finite-size PdD crystals. During the prolonged charging of PdDx, the applied, external electric field induces these fluctuations through a form of Zener tunneling that mimics the kind of tunneling, predicted by Zener, that is responsible for possible conduction (referred to as Zener-electric breakdown) in insulators. But because the fluctuations are ionic, and they occur in PdD, nano-scale structures, a more appropriate characterization is Zener-ionic breakdown in nano-crystalline PdD. Using the underlying dynamics, it is possible to relate triggering times that are required for the initiation of the effect, to crystal size and externally applied fields.

  3. CLARA: A Contemporary Approach to Physics Data Processing

    SciTech Connect

    V Gyurjyan, D Abbott, J Carbonneau, G Gilfoyle, D Heddle, G Heyes, S Paul, C Timmer, D Weygand, E Wolin

    2011-12-01

    In traditional physics data processing (PDP) systems, data location is static and is accessed by analysis applications. In comparison, CLARA (CLAS12 Reconstruction and Analysis framework) is an environment where data processing algorithms filter continuously flowing data. In CLARA's domain of loosely coupled services, data is not stored, but rather flows from one service to another, mutating constantly along the way. Agents, performing event processing, can then subscribe to particular data/events at any stage of the data transformation, and make intricate decisions (e.g. particle ID) by correlating events from multiple, parallel data streams and/or services. This paper presents a PDP application development framework based on service oriented and event driven architectures. This system allows users to design (Java, C++, and Python languages are supported) and deploy data processing services, as well as dynamically compose PDP applications using available services. The PDP service bus provides a layer on top of a distributed pub-sub middleware implementation, which allows complex service composition and integration without writing code. Examples of service creation and deployment, along with the CLAS12 track reconstruction application design will be presented.

  4. Controlling The Global Weather.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffman, Ross N.

    2002-02-01

    the weather controller is extremely complex, the existence of the required technology is plausible in the time range of several decades.While the concept of controlling the weather has often appeared in science fiction literature, this statement of the problem provides a scientific basis and a system architecture to actually implement global weather control. Large-scale weather control raises important legal and ethical questions. The nation that controls its own weather will perforce control the weather of other nations. Weather "wars" are conceivable. An international treaty may be required, limiting the use of weather control technology.

  5. Operational Space Weather in USAF Education

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Smithtro; S. Quigley

    2006-01-01

    Most education programs offering space weather courses are understandably and traditionally heavily weighted with theoretical space physics that is the basis for most of what is researched and modeled. While understanding the theory is a good and necessary grounding for anyone working the field of space weather, few military or commercial jobs employ such theory in real-time operations. The operations

  6. The Space Weather Modeling Framework

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Toth

    2009-01-01

    The Center for Space Environment Modeling (CSEM) at the University of Michigan has developed the Space Weather Modeling Framework (SWMF) that integrates independently developed models into a high performance simulation tool. The SWMF models a dozen physics domains spanning from the solar corona and heliosphere to the magnetosphere, ionosphere and thermosphere of the Earth. The SWMF can perform a realistic

  7. Solar variability, weather, and climate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Advances in the understanding of possible effects of solar variations on weather and climate are most likely to emerge by addressing the subject in terms of fundamental physical principles of atmospheric sciences and solar-terrestrial physis. The limits of variability of solar inputs to the atmosphere and the depth in the atmosphere to which these variations have significant effects are determined.

  8. Deeply weathered basement rocks in Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bönner, Marco; Knies, Jochen; Fredin, Ola; Olesen, Odleiv; Viola, Giulio

    2014-05-01

    Recent studies show that, in addition to tectonic processes, surface processes have also had a profound impact on the topography of Norway. This is especially obvious for the northernmost part of the Nordland county and for western Norway, where the current immature Alpine-type topography cannot be easily explained by tectonic processes only. Erosion of the sedimentary succession also does not seem sufficient to explain the observed relief. Common remnants of deeply weathered basement rocks, however, indicate a history of deep alteration and later erosion of the bedrock, which needs to be considered as another important factor in the development of the topographic relief. Most of the sites with deeply weathered basement exhibit a clay-poor grussy type of weathering, which is generally considered to be of relatively young age (Plio-/Pleistocene) and thought to represent an intermediate stage of weathering. Unfortunately, small amounts or complete absence of clay minerals in these weathering products precluded the accurate dating of this weathered material. Scandinavia was exposed to a large range of glaciations and the once extensive sedimentary successions have been almost entirely eroded, which impedes a minimum age estimate of the weathering profile. Although several sites preserving remnants of deep weathering can still be observed onshore Norway, they are all covered by Quaternary overburden and the age of the regolith remains thus unconstrained and a matter of debate. The only exception is a small Mesozoic basin on Andøya, northern Norway, where weathered and clay-poor saprolite was found underlying Jurassic and Cretaceous sedimentary rocks. Over the last few years the Geological Survey of Norway (NGU) has mapped and investigated deep weathering onshore Norway to better understand weathering processes and to constrain the age of the weathering remnants. The combined interpretation of geophysical, mineralogical and geochemical data, together with recent observations from the Norwegian shelf, where grussy type of weathered bedrock was found buried under Mesozoic sediments, leads to the conclusion that coarse-grained, clay-poor saprolite does not necessarily indicate a young age of weathering but could in fact be of Early Mesozoic age or even older. The Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous faults in the Lofoten-Vesterålen area are for instance little affected by weathering processes. With the goal to refine our understanding of the complex weathering processes and to constrain them in time, the NGU is establishing a new K-Ar laboratory for the dating and characterization of illite grown authigenically in the saprolites. It is expected that the data generated therein will contribute new quantitative constraints to the long-lasting debate as to the age of weathering processes in Scandinavia.

  9. Framework for Understanding LENR Processes, Using Ordinary Condensed Matter Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chubb, Scott

    2005-03-01

    As I have emphasizedootnotetextS.R. Chubb, Proc. ICCF10 (in press). Also, http://www.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/ChubbSRnutsandbol.pdf http://www.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/ChubbSRnutsandbol.pdf, S.R. Chubb, Trans. Amer. Nuc. Soc. 88 , 618 (2003)., in discussions of Low Energy Nuclear Reactions(LENRs), mainstream many-body physics ideas have been largely ignored. A key point is that in condensed matter, delocalized, wave-like effects can allow large amounts of momentum to be transferred instantly to distant locations, without any particular particle (or particles) acquiring high velocity through a Broken Gauge Symmetry. Explicit features in the electronic structure explain how this can occur^1 in finite size PdD crystals, with real boundaries. The essential physics^1 can be related to standard many-body techniquesootnotetextBurke,P.G. and K.A. Berrington, Atomic and Molecular Processes:an R matrix Approach (Bristol: IOP Publishing, 1993).. In the paper, I examine this relationship, the relationship of the theory^1 to other LENR theories, and the importance of certain features (for example, boundaries^1) that are not included in the other LENR theories.

  10. Introduction to statistical physics of media processes: Mediaphysics

    E-print Network

    Kuznetsov, D V; Kuznetsov, Dmitri V.; Mandel, Igor

    2005-01-01

    Processes of mass communications in complicated social or sociobiological systems such as marketing, economics, politics, animal populations, etc. as a subject for the special scientific discipline - "mediaphysics" - are considered in its relation with sociophysics. A new statistical physics approach to analyze these phenomena is proposed. A keystone of the approach is an analysis of population distribution between two or many alternatives: brands, political affiliations, or opinions. Relative distances between a state of a "person's mind" and the alternatives are measures of propensity to buy (to affiliate, or to have a certain opinion). The distribution of population by those relative distances is time dependent and affected by external (economic, social, marketing, natural) and internal (mean-field influential propagation of opinions, synergy effects, etc.) factors, considered as fields. Specifically, the interaction and opinion-influence field can be generalized to incorporate important elements of Ising-...

  11. Physical processes mediating climate change impacts on regional sea ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holt, J.; Schrum, C.; Cannaby, H.; Daewel, U.; Allen, I.; Artioli, Y.; Bopp, L.; Butenschon, M.; Fach, B. A.; Harle, J.; Pushpadas, D.; Salihoglu, B.; Wakelin, S.

    2014-02-01

    Regional seas are exceptionally vulnerable to climate change, yet are the most directly societally important regions of the marine environment. The combination of widely varying conditions of mixing, forcing, geography (coastline and bathymetry) and exposure to the open-ocean makes these seas subject to a wide range of physical processes that mediates how large scale climate change impacts on these seas' ecosystems. In this paper we explore these physical processes and their biophysical interactions, and the effects of atmospheric, oceanic and terrestrial change on them. Our aim is to elucidate the controlling dynamical processes and how these vary between and within regional seas. We focus on primary production and consider the potential climatic impacts: on long term changes in elemental budgets, on seasonal and mesoscale processes that control phytoplankton's exposure to light and nutrients, and briefly on direct temperature response. We draw examples from the MEECE FP7 project and five regional models systems using ECOSMO, POLCOMS-ERSEM and BIMS_ECO. These cover the Barents Sea, Black Sea, Baltic Sea, North Sea, Celtic Seas, and a region of the Northeast Atlantic, using a common global ocean-atmosphere model as forcing. We consider a common analysis approach, and a more detailed analysis of the POLCOMS-ERSEM model. Comparing projections for the end of the 21st century with mean present day conditions, these simulations generally show an increase in seasonal and permanent stratification (where present). However, the first order (low- and mid-latitude) effect in the open ocean projections of increased permanent stratification leading to reduced nutrient levels, and so to reduced primary production, is largely absent, except in the NE Atlantic. Instead, results show a highly heterogeneous picture of positive and negative change arising from the varying mixing and circulation conditions. Even in the two highly stratified, deep water seas (Black and Baltic Seas) the increase in stratification is not seen as a first order control on primary production. The approaches to downscaled experiment design and lessons learned from the MEECE project are also discussed.

  12. Space Weather Modeling Services at the Community Coordinated Modeling Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hesse, Michael

    2006-01-01

    The Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMC) is a multi-agency partnership, which aims at the creation of next generation space weather models. The goal of the CCMC is to support the research and developmental work necessary to substantially increase the present-day modeling capability for space weather purposes, and to provide models for transition to the Rapid Prototyping Centers at the space weather forecast centers. This goal requires close collaborations with and substantial involvement of the research community. The physical regions to be addressed by CCMC-related activities range from the solar atmosphere to the Earth's upper atmosphere. The CCMC is an integral part of the National Space Weather Program Implementation Plan, of NASA's Living With a Star (LWS) initiative, and of the Department of Defense Space Weather Transition Plan. CCMC includes a facility at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. CCMC also provides, to the research community, access to state-of-the-art space research models. In this paper we will provide a description of the current CCMC status, discuss current plans, research and development accomplishments and goals, and describe the model testing and validation process undertaken as part of the CCMC mandate. Special emphasis will be on solar and heliospheric models currently residing at CCMC, and on plans for validation and verification.

  13. Space Weather Modeling at the Community Coordinated Modeling Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hesse M.

    2005-01-01

    The Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMC) is a multi-agency partnership, which aims at the creation of next generation space weather models. The goal of the CCMC is to support the research and developmental work necessary to substantially increase the present-day modeling capability for space weather purposes, and to provide models for transition to the rapid prototyping centers at the space weather forecast centers. This goal requires dose collaborations with and substantial involvement of the research community. The physical regions to be addressed by CCMC-related activities range from the solar atmosphere to the Earth's upper atmosphere. The CCMC is an integral part of the National Space Weather Program Implementation Plan, of NASA's Living With a Star (LWS) initiative, and of the Department of Defense Space Weather Transition Plan. CCMC includes a facility at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, as well as distributed computing facilities provided by the US Air Force. CCMC also provides, to the research community, access to state-of-the-art space research models. In this paper we will provide updates on CCMC status, on current plans, research and development accomplishments and goals, and on the model testing and validation process undertaken as part of the CCMC mandate. Special emphasis will be on solar and heliospheric models currently residing at CCMC, and on plans for validation and verification.

  14. Process evaluation results from the HEALTHY physical education intervention

    E-print Network

    2011-01-01

    Physical education and physical activity: results from the School Healthhealth policies and practices, indicated that 78% of schools required that students take physical education (Physical Education [18]. Each lesson was struc- tured and included three activity components: instant activities (IAs), health-

  15. Physical processes effecting the baryonic matter content of the Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panayotova, Mariana

    2015-01-01

    We have discussed physical processes effecting the generation of the matter content of the Universe. First we have studied the processes effecting Big Bang Nucleosynthesis during which the chemical content of the baryonic component of the Universe was produced. We have provided detail numerical analysis of the BBN production of ^4He, Y_p, in the presence of ?_e ? ?_s neutrino oscillations, effective after electron neutrino decoupling. We have accounted for all known effects of neutrino oscillations on cosmological nucleosyntesis. We have obtained cosmological bounds corresponding to ? Y_p/Y_p= 5.2 % in correspondance with the recently found higher uncertainty in ^4He. Iso-helium contours for ? Y_p/Y_p > 5% and population of the ?_s state ? N_s = 0; 0.5; 0.7; 0.9, both for resonant and non-resonant oscillations have been calculated. Next we have studied the processes effecting the formation of the baryon content of the Universe. We have investigated a baryogenesis model based on Affleck and Dine baryogenesis scenario, Scalar Field Condensate (SFC) baryogenesis model. We have provided precise numerical analysis of the SFC baryogenesis model numerically accounting for the particle creation processes by the time varying scalar field. We have numerically obtained the dependence of the field and baryon charge evolution and their final values on the model's parameters, namely: the gauge coupling constant ?, the Hubble constant during inflation H_I, the mass of the field m and the self coupling constants ?_i. We have found the range of the model parameters for which a baryon asymmetry value close to the observed one can be generated.

  16. Weather satellite activity mixed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    On August 21 at 7:15 P.M. EDT, controllers lost contact with the NOAA-13 weather satellite due to a power system failure aboard the craft. Almost simultaneously, however, representatives of U.S. and European agencies signed an agreement promising mutual cooperation and backup of one another's geostationary weather satellites, effective when both agencies have systems in place, expected in 1995.The newest in a series of polar-orbiting weather satellites, NOAA-13 was launched on August 9 from Vandenburg Air Force Base, Calif., to monitor the Earth's ocean and atmosphere, collecting data for direct transmission to users around the world and to central data-processing centers. According to officials at NASA and the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration, the spacecraft showed steadily decreasing battery voltages and currents during ground passes after 3:45 EDT on August 21, although output from the solar panels remained normal. Charles E. Thienel, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., stated that these circumstances indicate a failure in the circuitry between the solar arrays and the batteries.

  17. Geomorphology's role in the study of weathering of cultural stone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pope, Gregory A.; Meierding, Thomas C.; Paradise, Thomas R.

    2002-10-01

    Great monumental places—Petra, Giza, Angkor, Stonehenge, Tikal, Macchu Picchu, Rapa Nui, to name a few—are links to our cultural past. They evoke a sense of wonderment for their aesthetic fascination if not for their seeming permanence over both cultural and physical landscapes. However, as with natural landforms, human constructs are subject to weathering and erosion. Indeed, many of our cultural resources suffer from serious deterioration, some natural, some enhanced by human impact. Groups from the United Nations to local civic and tourism assemblies are deeply interested in maintaining and preserving such cultural resources, from simple rock art to great temples. Geomorphologists trained in interacting systems, process and response to thresholds, rates of change over time, and spatial variation of weathering processes and effects are able to offer insight into how deterioration occurs and what can be done to ameliorate the impact. Review of recent literature and case studies presented here demonstrate methodological and theoretical advances that have resulted from the study of cultural stone weathering. Because the stone was carved at a known date to a "baseline" or zero-datum level, some of the simplest methods (e.g., assessing surface weathering features or measuring surface recession in the field) provide useful data on weathering rates and processes. Such data are difficult or impossible to obtain in "natural" settings. Cultural stone weathering studies demonstrate the importance of biotic and saline weathering agents and the significance of weathering factors such as exposure (microclimate) and human impact. More sophisticated methods confirm these observations, but also reveal discrepancies between field and laboratory studies. This brings up two important caveats for conservators and geomorphologists. For the conservator, are laboratory and natural setting studies really analogous and useful for assessing stone damage? For the geomorphologist, does cultural stone data have any real relevance to the natural environment? These are questions for future research and debate. In any event, cultural stone weathering studies have been productive for both geomorphologists and conservators. Continued collaboration and communication between the geomorphic, historic preservation, archaeological, and engineering research communities are encouraged.

  18. NASA's Advancements in Space-Based Spectrometry Lead to Improvements in Weather Prediction and Understanding of Climate Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Susskind, Joel; Iredell, Lena

    2010-01-01

    AIRS (Atmospheric Infra-Red Sounder), was launched, in conjunction with AMSU-A (Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A) on the NASA polar orbiting research satellite EOS (Earth Observing System) Aqua satellite in May 2002 as a next generation atmospheric sounding system. Atmospheric sounders provide information primarily about the vertical distribution of atmospheric temperature and water vapor distribution. This is achieved by measuring outgoing radiation in discrete channels (spectral intervals) which are sensitive primarily to variations of these geophysical parameters. The primary objectives of AIRS/AMSU were to utilize such information in order to improve the skill of numerical weather prediction as well as to measure climate variability and trends. AIRS is a multi-detector array grating spectrometer with 2378 channels covering the spectral range 650/cm (15 microns) to 2660/cm (3.6 microns) with a resolving power (i/a i) of roughly 1200 where a i is the spectral channel bandpass. Atmospheric temperature profile can be determined from channel observations taken within the 15 micron (the long-wave CO2 absorption band) and within the 4.2 micron (the short-wave CO2 absorption band). Radiances in these (and all other) spectral intervals in the infrared are also sensitive to the presence of clouds in the instrument?s field of view (FOV), which are present about 95% of the time. AIRS was designed so as to allow for the ability to produce accurate Quality Controlled atmospheric soundings under most cloud conditions. This was achieved by having 1) extremely low channel noise values in the shortwave portion of the spectrum and 2) a very flat spatial response function within a channel?s FOV. IASI, the high spectral resolution IR interferometer flying on the European METOP satellite, does not contain either of these important characteristics. The AIRS instrument was also designed to be extremely stabile with regard to its spectral radiometric characteristics, which is critical with regard to the ability to measure accurate long term trends.

  19. Yaquina Bay Weather & Tides

    E-print Network

    Wright, Dawn Jeannine

    Yaquina Bay Weather & Tides Clay Creech Phil Barbour #12;HMSC Weather Station #12;Temp-Humidity Sensor at Library #12;http://weather.hmsc.oregonstate.edu #12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;Archived Data is Available every 15 mins. #12;#12;A pyranometer measures solar radiation #12;#12;National Weather Service

  20. Weather in Your Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kannegieter, Sandy; Wirkler, Linda

    Facts and activities related to weather and meteorology are presented in this unit. Separate sections cover the following topics: (1) the water cycle; (2) clouds; (3) the Beaufort Scale for rating the speed and force of wind; (4) the barometer; (5) weather prediction; (6) fall weather in Iowa (sleet, frost, and fog); (7) winter weather in Iowa…

  1. Flight Deck Weather Avoidance Decision Support: Implementation and Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Shu-Chieh; Luna, Rocio; Johnson, Walter W.

    2013-01-01

    Weather related disruptions account for seventy percent of the delays in the National Airspace System (NAS). A key component in the weather plan of the Next Generation of Air Transportation System (NextGen) is to assimilate observed weather information and probabilistic forecasts into the decision process of flight crews and air traffic controllers. In this research we explore supporting flight crew weather decision making through the development of a flight deck predicted weather display system that utilizes weather predictions generated by ground-based radar. This system integrates and presents this weather information, together with in-flight trajectory modification tools, within a cockpit display of traffic information (CDTI) prototype. that the CDTI features 2D and perspective 3D visualization models of weather. The weather forecast products that we implemented were the Corridor Integrated Weather System (CIWS) and the Convective Weather Avoidance Model (CWAM), both developed by MIT Lincoln Lab. We evaluated the use of CIWS and CWAM for flight deck weather avoidance in two part-task experiments. Experiment 1 compared pilots' en route weather avoidance performance in four weather information conditions that differed in the type and amount of predicted forecast (CIWS current weather only, CIWS current and historical weather, CIWS current and forecast weather, CIWS current and forecast weather and CWAM predictions). Experiment 2 compared the use of perspective 3D and 21/2D presentations of weather for flight deck weather avoidance. Results showed that pilots could take advantage of longer range predicted weather forecasts in performing en route weather avoidance but more research will be needed to determine what combinations of information are optimal and how best to present them.

  2. Compensation for Lithography Induced Process Variations during Physical Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chin, Eric Yiow-Bing

    This dissertation addresses the challenge of designing robust integrated circuits in the deep sub micron regime in the presence of lithography process variability. By extending and combining existing process and circuit analysis techniques, flexible software frameworks are developed to provide detailed studies of circuit performance in the presence of lithography variations such as focus and exposure. Applications of these software frameworks to select circuits demonstrate the electrical impact of these variations and provide insight into variability aware compact models that capture the process dependent circuit behavior. These variability aware timing models abstract lithography variability from the process level to the circuit level and are used to estimate path level circuit performance with high accuracy with very little overhead in runtime. The Interconnect Variability Characterization (IVC) framework maps lithography induced geometrical variations at the interconnect level to electrical delay variations. This framework is applied to one dimensional repeater circuits patterned with both 90nm single patterning and 32nm double patterning technologies, under the presence of focus, exposure, and overlay variability. Studies indicate that single and double patterning layouts generally exhibit small variations in delay (between 1--3%) due to self compensating RC effects associated with dense layouts and overlay errors for layouts without self-compensating RC effects. The delay response of each double patterned interconnect structure is fit with a second order polynomial model with focus, exposure, and misalignment parameters with 12 coefficients and residuals of less than 0.1ps. The IVC framework is also applied to a repeater circuit with cascaded interconnect structures to emulate more complex layout scenarios, and it is observed that the variations on each segment average out to reduce the overall delay variation. The Standard Cell Variability Characterization (SCVC) framework advances existing layout-level lithography aware circuit analysis by extending it to cell-level applications utilizing a physically accurate approach that integrates process simulation, compact transistor models, and circuit simulation to characterize electrical cell behavior. This framework is applied to combinational and sequential cells in the Nangate 45nm Open Cell Library, and the timing response of these cells to lithography focus and exposure variations demonstrate Bossung like behavior. This behavior permits the process parameter dependent response to be captured in a nine term variability aware compact model based on Bossung fitting equations. For a two input NAND gate, the variability aware compact model captures the simulated response to an accuracy of 0.3%. The SCVC framework is also applied to investigate advanced process effects including misalignment and layout proximity. The abstraction of process variability from the layout level to the cell level opens up an entire new realm of circuit analysis and optimization and provides a foundation for path level variability analysis without the computationally expensive costs associated with joint process and circuit simulation. The SCVC framework is used with slight modification to illustrate the speedup and accuracy tradeoffs of using compact models. With variability aware compact models, the process dependent performance of a three stage logic circuit can be estimated to an accuracy of 0.7% with a speedup of over 50,000. Path level variability analysis also provides an accurate estimate (within 1%) of ring oscillator period in well under a second. Another significant advantage of variability aware compact models is that they can be easily incorporated into existing design methodologies for design optimization. This is demonstrated by applying cell swapping on a logic circuit to reduce the overall delay variability along a circuit path. By including these variability aware compact models in cell characterization libraries, design metrics such as circuit timing, power, area, and delay var

  3. Enhanced Weather Radar (EWxR) System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kronfeld, Kevin M. (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    An airborne weather radar system, the Enhanced Weather Radar (EWxR), with enhanced on-board weather radar data processing was developed and tested. The system features additional weather data that is uplinked from ground-based sources, specialized data processing, and limited automatic radar control to search for hazardous weather. National Weather Service (NWS) ground-based Next Generation Radar (NEXRAD) information is used by the EWxR system to augment the on-board weather radar information. The system will simultaneously display NEXRAD and on-board weather radar information in a split-view format. The on-board weather radar includes an automated or hands-free storm-finding feature that optimizes the radar returns by automatically adjusting the tilt and range settings for the current altitude above the terrain and searches for storm cells near the atmospheric 0-degree isotherm. A rule-based decision aid was developed to automatically characterize cells as hazardous, possibly-hazardous, or non-hazardous based upon attributes of that cell. Cell attributes are determined based on data from the on-board radar and from ground-based radars. A flight path impact prediction algorithm was developed to help pilots to avoid hazardous weather along their flight plan and their mission. During development the system was tested on the NASA B757 aircraft and final tests were conducted on the Rockwell Collins Sabreliner.

  4. Factors Affecting the Earth's Weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This Classroom Connectors lesson plan discusses factors affecting the weather on Earth. Students learn about solar radiation, wind circulation, precipitation, and biomes that result from weather patterns. The site provides goals, objectives, an outline, time required, materials, activities, and closure ideas for the lesson. The Classroom Connectors address content with an activity approach while incorporating themes necessary to raise the activity to a higher cognition level. The major motivation is to employ instructional strategies that bring the students physically and mentally into touch with the science they are studying.

  5. What's the Weather?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2005-01-01

    In this lesson, students use daily observations, videos, and activities to learn about meteorology and the changing nature of weather. They will also identify weather events that are commonly reported in the news and discuss how weather affects lives. They should understand that weather can change daily and weather patterns change over the seasons, and that it has characteristics that can be measured and predicted. Suggestions for an optional field trip are also provided.

  6. Australian Severe Weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Australian Severe Weather Web site is maintained by self proclaimed severe weather enthusiasts Michael Bath and Jimmy Deguara. Other weatherphobes will fully appreciate what the authors have assembled. Everything from weather images, storm news, tropical cyclone data, bush fire and wild fire information, weather observation techniques, and even video clips and Web cam links. Although these other items make the site well rounded, the extensive amount of categorized weather pictures (which are quite extraordinary) are reason enough to visit.

  7. Estuarine Physical Processes Research: Some Recent Studies and Progress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uncles, R. J.

    2002-12-01

    The literature on estuarine physical studies is vast, diverse and contains many valuable case studies in addition to pure, process-based research. This essay is an attempt to summarize both some of the more recent studies that have been undertaken during the last several years, as well as some of the trends in research direction and progress that they represent. The topics covered include field and theoretical studies on hydrodynamics, turbulence, salt and fine sediment transport and morphology. The development and ease-of-application of numerical and analytical models and technical software has been essential for much of the progress, allowing the interpretation of large amounts of data and assisting with the understanding of complex processes. The development of instrumentation has similarly been essential for much of the progress with field studies. From a process viewpoint, much more attention is now being given to interpreting intratidal behaviour, including the effects of tidal straining and suspended fine sediment on water column stratification, stability and turbulence generation and dissipation. Remote sensing from satellites and aircraft, together with fast sampling towed instruments and high frequency radar now provide unique, frequently high resolution views of spatial variability, including currents, frontal and plume phenomena, and tidal and wave-generated turbidity. Observations of fine sediment characteristics (floc size, aggregation mechanisms, organic coatings and settling velocity) are providing better parameterizations for sediment transport models. These models have enhanced our understanding both of the estuarine turbidity maximum and its relationship to fronts and intratidal hydrodynamic and sedimentological variability, as well as that of simple morphological features such as intertidal mudflats. Although few, interdisciplinary studies to examine the relationships between biology and estuarine morphology show that bivalve activity and the surface diatom biofilm on an intertidal mudflat can be important in controlling the erosion of the surface mud layer.

  8. Physical Education Resources, Class Management, and Student Physical Activity Levels: A Structure-Process-Outcome Approach to Evaluating Physical Education Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bevans, Katherine B.; Fitzpatrick, Leslie-Anne; Sanchez, Betty M.; Riley, Anne W.; Forrest, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Background: This study was conducted to empirically evaluate specific human, curricular, and material resources that maximize student opportunities for physical activity during physical education (PE) class time. A structure-process-outcome model was proposed to identify the resources that influence the frequency of PE and intensity of physical

  9. The Rhetoric of Physics: AN Ethnography of the Research and Writing Processes in a Physics Laboratory.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graves, Heather Ann Brodie

    1992-01-01

    This dissertation explores the extent to which rhetoric plays a role in the research and writing processes of physicists. It seeks to join the on-going conversation in the rhetoric of inquiry about the ways in which rhetorical forces shape all knowledge systems. Based on data collected during a six-month ethnography in a thin films laboratory, this study argues that these physicists use rhetoric in all stages of the knowledge creation process. After following the experimental process through all its stages from the inception of an experiment through to publication, this study maps out the types of heuristic devices employed by the physicists as they analyzed, interpreted, and presented their research data in a persuasive scientific article. In light of the insights gained from studying the dynamic interactions between physicists, this dissertation also comments on the theoretical and philosophical debates under discussion in the rhetoric of inquiry and the rhetoric of science. It examines current theories of language (as expressed by rhetoricians, critical theorists, and the physicists in this laboratory) to explore the relationship between reality and language, the role that rhetoric plays in knowledge creation in physics, and the ways in which reality and knowledge may be socially constructed. It concludes that these physicists use rhetorical invention strategies to interpret and present their data. It also argues that scientific knowledge is subject to rhetorical forces because it deals with contingent affairs--phenomena about which scientists advance propositions which appear to be true but about which there is no way to gain absolute certainty or truth. Finally, it concludes that rhetoric both is and is not epistemic in the physics research studied here, and it argues that instead of asking "Is rhetoric epistemic?" perhaps we might shift our attention to inquiring "When is rhetoric epistemic?".

  10. A graphical weather system design for the NASA transport systems research vehicle B-737

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scanlon, Charles H.

    1992-01-01

    A graphical weather system was designed for testing in the NASA Transport Systems Research Vehicle B-737 airplane and simulator. The purpose of these tests was to measure the impact of graphical weather products on aircrew decision processes, weather situation awareness, reroute clearances, workload, and weather monitoring. The flight crew graphical weather interface is described along with integration of the weather system with the flight navigation system, and data link transmission methods for sending weather data to the airplane.

  11. Weather data dissemination to aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcfarland, Richard H.; Parker, Craig B.

    1990-01-01

    Documentation exists that shows weather to be responsible for approximately 40 percent of all general aviation accidents with fatalities. Weather data products available on the ground are becoming more sophisticated and greater in number. Although many of these data are critical to aircraft safety, they currently must be transmitted verbally to the aircraft. This process is labor intensive and provides a low rate of information transfer. Consequently, the pilot is often forced to make life-critical decisions based on incomplete and outdated information. Automated transmission of weather data from the ground to the aircraft can provide the aircrew with accurate data in near-real time. The current National Airspace System Plan calls for such an uplink capability to be provided by the Mode S Beacon System data link. Although this system has a very advanced data link capability, it will not be capable of providing adequate weather data to all airspace users in its planned configuration. This paper delineates some of the important weather data uplink system requirements, and describes a system which is capable of meeting these requirements. The proposed system utilizes a run-length coding technique for image data compression and a hybrid phase and amplitude modulation technique for the transmission of both voice and weather data on existing aeronautical Very High Frequency (VHF) voice communication channels.

  12. Physical activity across the curriculum: year one process evaluation results

    E-print Network

    Gibson, Cheryl A.; Smith, Bryan K.; DuBose, Katrina D.; Greene, Leon; Bailey, Bruce W.; Williams, Shannon L.; Ryan, Joseph J.; Schmelzle, Kristin H.; Washburn, Richard A.; Sullivan, Debra K.; Mayo, Matthew S.; Donnelly, Joseph E.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Physical Activity Across the Curriculum (PAAC) is a 3-year elementary school-based intervention to determine if increased amounts of moderate intensity physical activity performed in the classroom will diminish gains in body mass index...

  13. Weather Camp 2012 "Weather and Climate All Around Us"

    E-print Network

    Farritor, Shane

    Weather Camp 2012 "Weather and Climate All Around Us" Are you interested in the weather? Come to Weather Camp at UNL What is Weather Camp? For more information Weather camp is a week long day camp for students who will be 11-14 years old at the time of the camp Most of the activities at Weather Camp 2012

  14. Questa Baseline and Pre-mining Ground-Water Quality Investigation, 7. A Pictorial Record of Chemical Weathering, Erosional Processes, and Potential Debris-flow Hazards in Scar Areas Developed on Hydrothermally Altered Rocks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Plumlee, Geoffrey S.; Ludington, Steve; Vincent, Kirk R.; Verplanck, Philip L.; Caine, Jonathan S.; Livo, K. Eric

    2009-01-01

    Erosional scar areas developed along the lower Red River basin, New Mexico, reveal a complex natural history of mineralizing processes, rapid chemical weathering, and intense physical erosion during periodic outbursts of destructive, storm-induced runoff events. The scar areas are prominent erosional features with craggy headwalls and steep, denuded slopes. The largest scar areas, including, from east to west, Hottentot Creek, Straight Creek, Hansen Creek, Lower Hansen Creek, Sulfur Gulch, and Goat Hill Gulch, head along high east-west trending ridges that form the northern and southern boundaries of the lower Red River basin. Smaller, topographically lower scar areas are developed on ridge noses in the inner Red River valley. Several of the natural scar areas have been modified substantially as a result of large-scale open-pit and underground mining at the Questa Mine; for example, much of the Sulfur Gulch scar was removed by open pit mining, and several scars are now partially or completely covered by mine waste dumps.

  15. Evidence of Space Weathering in Regolith Breccias II: Asteroidal Regolith Breccias

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noble, Sarah K.; Keller, Lindsay P.; Pieters, Carle M.

    2011-01-01

    Space weathering products, such as agglutinates and nanophaase iron-bearing rims are easily preserved through lithifcation in lunar regolith breccias, thus such products, if produced, should be preserved in asteroidal regotith breccias as well. A study of representative regolith breecia meteorites, Fayetteville (H4) and Kapoeta (howardite), was undertaken to search for physical evidence of space weathering on asteroids. Amorphous or npFe(sup 0)-bearing rim cannot be positively identified in Fayetteville, although possible glass rims were found. Extensive friction melt was discovered in the meteorite that is difficult to differentiate from weathered materials. Several melt products, including spherules and agglutinates, as well as one irradiated rim and one possible npFe(sup 0)-bearing rim were identified in Kapoeta. The existence of these products suggests that lunar-like space weathering processes are, or have been, active on asteroids.

  16. Carbonate Beaches: A Balance Between Biological and Physical Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nairn, R.; Risk, M.

    2004-12-01

    Carbonate beaches are a unique example of the interaction between biological processes, creating the sediments, and physical processes, moving and often removing the sediments. On the sediment supply side, carbonate sediments are born, not made. They exist in dynamic equilibrium between production and destruction. Following the creation of carbonate sediment in coral reef and lagoon environments, the sediments are moved shoreward to the beach, transport along the shore and sometimes, eventually lost offshore, often as the result of tropical storms. Comprehensive studies of the balance between the supply and loss of carbonate sediments and beach dynamics have been completed for the islands of Mauritius and Barbados. Field studies and remote sensing (Compact Airborne Spectrometry Imaging) have been applied to develop carbonate sediment production rates for a range of reef and lagoon conditions. Using GIS, these production rates have been integrated to determine sediment supply rates for different segments of the coastline. 1-D and 2-D models of waves, hydrodynamics, sediment transport and morphodynamics were set-up and tested against observed beach response to storm events or a sequence of storm events. These complex deterministic models are not suitable for application over periods of decades. However, it was possible to characterize storm events by the extent of sand loss, and relate this to key descriptive factors for groups of storm events, thereby encapsulating the erosion response. A long-term predictive tool for evaluating beach erosion and accretion response, over a period of several decades, was developed by combining the supply rates for carbonate sediment and the encapsulated representation of the loss rates through physical processes. The ability of this predictive tool was successfully tested against observed long term beach evolution along sections of the coast in Barbados and Mauritius using air photo analysis in GIS for shoreline change over periods of 40 years. The long-term predictive tool for carbonate beach evolution provided valuable support to developing coastal zone management policy and actions to preserve the beaches in their natural form, minimizing the need for artificial nourishment of the beaches. Many models of sediment movement on shorelines are derived from clastic examples, and fit carbonate coastlines only with difficulty. We have combined field surveys of benthic biota, estimates of sediment production from skeletal growth and bioerosion, and sediment destruction by comminution and dissolution with dynamic models of sediment movement in the littoral zone, achieving improved understanding of coastal processes of erosion and deposition. Mauritius is fringed by shallow lagoons, often with luxuriant stands of Acropora. The offshore region is exhumed Pleistocene-all the sediment on the beaches comes from the lagoons. From surveys of coral cover, and estimates of sediment production from reef, sand and hardground areas, we produced dynamic models that faithfully hindcast shoreline dynamics for decades, and allowed identification of regions especially vulnerable to erosion. On the south coast of Barbados, one of the main issues in stabilising and rehabilitation the coastline is the balance between sediment from longshore drift and local sources. By identifying localised areas of characteristic sediment-producers (e.g., the foraminiferan Homotrema rubrum, the green alga Halimeda), we were able to determine the balance between proximal and distal sediment sources. The resulting model hindcasts the coastline through all the major hurricanes of the past 30 years.

  17. Introduction to statistical physics of media processes: Mediaphysics

    E-print Network

    Dmitri V. Kuznetsov; Igor Mandel

    2005-06-30

    Processes of mass communications in complicated social or sociobiological systems such as marketing, economics, politics, animal populations, etc. as a subject for the special scientific discipline - "mediaphysics" - are considered in its relation with sociophysics. A new statistical physics approach to analyze these phenomena is proposed. A keystone of the approach is an analysis of population distribution between two or many alternatives: brands, political affiliations, or opinions. Relative distances between a state of a "person's mind" and the alternatives are measures of propensity to buy (to affiliate, or to have a certain opinion). The distribution of population by those relative distances is time dependent and affected by external (economic, social, marketing, natural) and internal (mean-field influential propagation of opinions, synergy effects, etc.) factors, considered as fields. Specifically, the interaction and opinion-influence field can be generalized to incorporate important elements of Ising-spin based sociophysical models and kinetic-equation ones. The distributions were described by a Schrodinger-type equation in terms of Green's functions. The developed approach has been applied to a real mass-media efficiency problem for a large company and generally demonstrated very good results despite low initial correlations of factors and the target variable.

  18. Weather Modification A Theoretician's Viewpoint.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Kenneth C.

    1996-11-01

    Early progress in weather modification is attributed to a healthy interaction between theory and experiment. During the 1970s, a divergence of approaches took place. A "theoretical/experimental" approach, exemplified by the Cascade Project, focused on testing scientific hypotheses; an "observational/experimental" approach, exemplified by the Colorado River Basin Pilot Project, sought to enhance understanding of the seeding process through more detailed observations.The theoretical/experimental school soon came to focus almost exclusively on natural cloud processes, leaving the field of weather modification nearly devoid of a theoretical component. It is suggested that this theoretical component is necessary to revitalize the field of weather modification.Key questions are addressed. These include 1) identification of clouds that are amenable to seeding; 2) glaciogenic versus hygroscopic seeding; 3) optimizing critical seeding variables, such as seed particle concentration for glaciogenic seeding and seed particle size for hygroscopic seeding; and 4) seeding for hail suppression.

  19. 4.4 Nanoscale: Mineral Weathering Boundary RI Dorn, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, USA

    E-print Network

    Dorn, Ron

    by digital image processing of microscope imagery and conceptually through connections to weathering forms Weathering Scale is a vitally important concern in the development of geomorphic weathering theory (Phillips

  20. Weather Information System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    WxLink is an aviation weather system based on advanced airborne sensors, precise positioning available from the satellite-based Global Positioning System, cockpit graphics and a low-cost datalink. It is a two-way system that uplinks weather information to the aircraft and downlinks automatic pilot reports of weather conditions aloft. Manufactured by ARNAV Systems, Inc., the original technology came from Langley Research Center's cockpit weather information system, CWIN (Cockpit Weather INformation). The system creates radar maps of storms, lightning and reports of surface observations, offering improved safety, better weather monitoring and substantial fuel savings.

  1. Pilot weather advisor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kilgore, W. A.; Seth, S.; Crabill, N. L.; Shipley, S. T.; Graffman, I.; Oneill, J.

    1992-01-01

    The results of the work performed by ViGYAN, Inc., to demonstrate the Pilot Weather Advisor cockpit weather data system using a broadcast satellite communication system are presented. The Pilot Weather Advisor demonstrated that the technical problems involved with transmitting significant amount of weather data to an aircraft in-flight or on-the-ground via satellite are solvable with today's technology. The Pilot Weather Advisor appears to be a viable solution for providing accurate and timely weather information for general aviation aircraft.

  2. Space Weather FX

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Space Weather FX is a vodcast (video podcast) series that explores the science of space weather and how it can impact our every day lives. Episodes include Space Weather and its Effects, Connecting the Sun and Earth, When Space Weather Attacks, Stratospheric Sudden Warming, A Tour of Haystack's Radars, GPS and Space Weather, It Came from the Sun, and The Big Picture. The site also contain links to space weather information and educational materials. The episodes will run on one of four free video players.

  3. The Weather Man

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mrs. Emma Grasser

    2012-09-27

    This project is designed to let you be "The Weather Man" and control the weather through simulation, and hands on experience, followed by guided questioning and resource exploration. Form groups of three. Explore the following simulation: Weather Maker Simulator Use the simulation to answer the following questions on paper. 1. How does humility play a role in weather? How does more or less change weather? 2. What is water vapor? Where does it come from? 3. What happens when the weather drops below zero degrees? ...

  4. Edheads: Weather Activities

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2010-01-01

    This great interactive resource allows you multiple opportunities to explore weather related concepts. After clicking start, you will learn how to report and predict the weather at the underground W.H.E.D weather caves! Each activity has three different levels, and each level is harder than the one before it. This resource also includes a teacher's guide (with pre- and post- tests) and links to additional weather related resources. These include a weather glossary, a Fahrenheit to Celsius & Celsius to Fahrenheit converter, and a link that provides information about interesting people in the weather field.

  5. Science Sampler: Weather RATS

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mary Taft

    2006-02-01

    Weather RATS, or Weather Research and Tracking Systems, is a collaborative effort among a national network of K-12 students, their teachers, wireless weather stations, internet data sharing, and professional engineers and meteorologists. Weather Rats is a new way to teach K-12 science and technology by tracking and comparing weather data from schools in Massachusetts, Arizona, Oklahoma, and Puerto Rico. In addition, it is hoped through this enriching project that Weather RATS will inspire many more students, especially girls and minorities, to pursue careers in science and engineering as a result of this project.

  6. The problems of solar-terrestrial coupling and new processes introduced to the physics of the ionosphere from the physics of atomic collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avakyan, Sergei

    2010-05-01

    Further progress in research of solar-terrestrial coupling requires better understanding of solar variability influence on the ionosphere. The most powerful manifestations of solar variability are solar flares and geomagnetic storms. During a flare EUV/X-ray irradiations are completely absorbed in the ionosphere producing SID. During geomagnetic storms precipitations of electrons with energy of several keV (and to a lesser extent protons precipitations) from radiation belts and geomagnetosphere produce additional ionization and low latitude auroras. Considering the physics of ionosphere during the last several decades we have been taking into account three novel processes well known in the physics of atomic collisions. These are Auger effect [S. V. Avakyan, The consideration of Auger processes in the upper atmosphere of Earth. In Abstracts of paper presented at the Tenth scien. and techn. Conf. of young specialists of S.I. Vavilov State Optical Institute, 1974, 29-31.], multiple photoionization of upper, valence shell [S.V. Avakyan, The source of O++ ions in the upper atmosphere, 1979, Cosmic Res, 17, 942 - 943] and Rydberg excitation of all the components of upper atmosphere [S.V. Avakyan, The new factor in the physics of solar - terrestrial relations - Rydberg atomic and molecules states. Conf. on Physics of solar-terrestrial relationships, 1994, Almaty, 3 - 5]. In the present paper the results of bringing these new processes in the ionospheric physics are discussed and also its possible role in the physics of solar-terrestrial coupling is considered. Involving these processes to the model estimations allowed us for the first time to come to the following important conclusions: - Auger electrons play the determinant role at the formation of energy spectrum of photoelectrons and secondary auroral electrons at the range above 150 eV; - double photoionization of the outer shell of the oxygen atom (by a single photon) plays a dominant role in the formation of ionospheric doubly charged positive ions, and Auger effect mainly determines the formation of double- and triple charged ions in the low ionosphere of planets and also comets; - transitions in the Rydberg excited ionospheric atoms and molecules play the main role in generation of new type of upper atmospheric emission - microwave characteristic radiation. The ionospheric O++ ions fill the magnetosphere after geomagnetic storms. These ions scatter the solar radiation in one of the most intense lines with a wavelength of 30.4 nm (He+) and also in the 50.7-, 70.3-, 83.3-83.5-nm lines in geocorona to the nocturnal side, giving rise to additional ionization and optical excitation in the F-region. The first calculations of the excitation rate of Rydberg states by photoelectrons and by auroral electrons (including Auger electrons) were carried out. It was shown that such process can generate the microwave ionospheric radioemission. Such emissions were observed during solar flares and in auroras. We suggest that Rydberg microwave radioemissions which take place during ionospheric disturbances produced by the solar flares and geomagnetic storms can be considered as an agent of influence of solar-geomagnetic activity on the biosphere and also as a factor of Sun-weather-climate links All these results obtained experimental confirmation in space investigations and in some ground-based measurements carried out with radiophysical and optical methods. The new processes which we introduced to the physics of upper atmosphere and ionosphere are now widely used in the ionospheric science for interpretation of spacecraft measurement data (the spacecrafts ISIS, GEOS-1, IMAGE, the satellites DE-1,-B, EXOS-D (AKEBOHO), FAST, Intercosmos-19, -24, -25, the orbital stations "Salut", "Mir"). There is a Russian patent on the method of remote registration of radioactive atmospheric clouds and nuclear weapon tests over the atmosphere by means of optical fluorescence which is based on Auger processes.

  7. Controls on chemical weathering kinetics: Implications from modelling of stable isotope fractionations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bickle, M. J.; Tipper, E.; De La Rocha, C. L.; Galy, A.; Li, S.

    2013-12-01

    The kinetic controls on silicate chemical weathering rates are thought central to the feedback process that regulates global climate on geological time scales. However the nature and magnitude of these kinetic controls are controversial. In particular the importance of physical erosion rates is uncertain with some arguing that there is an upper limit on chemical weathering fluxes irrespective of physical erosion rates (e.g. Dixon and von Blackenburg, 2012). Others argue that it is the hydrology of catchments which determines flow path lengths and fluid residence times which are critical to chemical weathering fluxes (e.g. Maher, 2011). Understanding these physical controls is essential to predicting how chemical weathering fluxes will respond the key climatic controls. Chemical weathering fluxes are best estimated by the integrated riverine outputs from catchments as soil profiles may not integrate all the flow paths. However the interpretation of chemical weathering processes based solely on flux data is difficult, because of both the multiple processes acting and multiple phases dissolving that contribute to these fluxes. Fractionations of stable isotopes of the soluble elements including Li, Mg, Si and Ca should place additional constraints on chemical weathering processes. Here we use a simple reactive-transport model to interpret stable isotope fractionations. Although still a simplification of the natural system, this offers a much closer representation than simple batch and Rayleigh models. The isotopic fractionations are shown to be a function of the ratio of the amount of the element supplied by mineral dissolution to that lost to secondary mineral formation and the extent of reaction down the flow path. The modelling is used to interpret the evolution of dissolved Li, Mg and Si-isotope ratios in Ganges river system. The evolution of Si isotopic ratios in the rapidly eroding Himalayan catchments is distinct from that in the flood planes. Critically the extent of the isotopic fractionations is a measure of the approach of the system to chemical equilibrium, a key indicator of the temperature sensitivity of the chemical weathering rate and hence important to understanding the climate-weathering feedback. Dixon JL, & von Blanckenburg, F, (2012) Soils as pacemakers and limiters of global silicate weathering. Comptes Rendus Geoscience, 344:597-609. Maher, K (2011) The role of fluid residence time and topographic scales in determining chemical fluxes from landscapes. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 312:48-58.

  8. Weather Camp 2012: Weather and Climate All Around Us Are you interested in the weather?

    E-print Network

    Farritor, Shane

    Weather Camp 2012: Weather and Climate All Around Us Are you interested in the weather? Come to Weather Camp at UNL! What is Weather Camp? For more information Weather camp is a week-long day camp for students who will be 11-14 years old at the time of the camp. Most of the activities at Weather Camp 2012

  9. From Physical to Human Capital Accumulation: Inequality and the Process of Development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Oded Galor; Omer Moav

    2004-01-01

    This paper develops a growth theory that captures the replacement of physical capital accumulation by human capital accumulation as a prime engine of growth along the process of development. It argues that the positive impact of inequality on the growth process was reversed in this process. In early stages of the Industrial Revolution, when physical capital accumulation was the prime

  10. From Physical to Human Capital Accumulation: Inequality in the Process of Development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Oded Galor; Omer Moav

    2000-01-01

    This paper develops a growth theory that captures the replacement of physical capital ac- cumulation by human capital accumulation as a prime engine of growth along the process of development. It argues that the positive impact of inequality on the growth process was reversed in this process. In early stages of the Industrial Revolution, when physical capital accumula- tion was

  11. Chemical weathering and CO? consumption in the Lower Mekong River.

    PubMed

    Li, Siyue; Lu, X X; Bush, Richard T

    2014-02-15

    Data on river water quality from 42 monitoring stations in the Lower Mekong Basin obtained during the period 1972-1996 was used to relate solute fluxes with controlling factors such as chemical weathering processes. The total dissolved solid (TDS) concentration of the Lower Mekong varied from 53 mg/L to 198 mg/L, and the median (114 mg/L) was compared to the world spatial median value (127 mg/L). Total cationic exchange capacity (Tz(+)) ranged from 729 to 2,607 ?molc/L, and the mean (1,572 ?molc/L) was 1.4 times higher than the world discharge-weighted average. Calcium and bicarbonate dominated the annual ionic composition, accounting for ~70% of the solute load that equalled 41.2×10(9)kg/y. TDS and major elements varied seasonally and in a predictable way with river runoff. The chemical weathering rate of 37.7t/(km(2)y), with respective carbonate and silicate weathering rates of 27.5t/(km(2) y) (13.8mm/ky) and 10.2t/(km(2) y) (3.8mm/ky), was 1.5 times higher than the global average. The CO2 consumption rate was estimated at 191×10(3)molCO2/(km(2)y) for silicate weathering, and 286×10(3)molCO2/(km(2)y) by carbonate weathering. In total, the Mekong basin consumed 228×10(9)molCO2/y and 152×10(9)molCO2/y by the combined weathering of carbonate and silicate, constituting 1.85% of the global CO2 consumption by carbonate weathering and 1.75% by silicates. This is marginally higher than its contribution to global water discharge ~1.3% and much higher than (more than three-fold) its contribution to world land surface area. Remarkable CO2 consumed by chemical weathering (380×10(9)mol/y) was similar in magnitude to dissolved inorganic carbon as HCO3(-) (370×10(9)mol/y) exported by the Mekong to the South China Sea. In this landscape, atmospheric CO2 consumption by rock chemical weathering represents an important carbon sink with runoff and physical erosion controlling chemical erosion. PMID:24291559

  12. Winter Weather: Frostbite

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Matters What's New A - Z Index Disasters & Severe Weather Earthquakes Extreme Heat Floods Hurricanes Landslides Tornadoes Tsunamis ... related health problems. More Information: Hypothermia Disasters & Severe Weather Earthquakes Extreme Heat Floods Hurricanes Landslides Tornadoes Tsunamis ...

  13. Winter Weather Emergencies

    MedlinePLUS

    Severe winter weather can lead to health and safety challenges. You may have to cope with Cold related health problems, including ... there are no guarantees of safety during winter weather emergencies, you can take actions to protect yourself. ...

  14. Owlie Skywarn's Weather Book

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Cris Garcia

    2001-06-22

    This is an online activity book from the National Weather Service that teaches about hazardous weather. The site also includes links to kids sites for the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Agency (NOAA).

  15. On Observing the Weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Peter Crane

    2004-05-01

    In this article, Mount Washington Observatory meteorologist Tim Markle shares the ins and outs of his daily weather-observing routine and offers insights on making weather observations at home or at school.

  16. Framework for Understanding LENR Processes, Using Conventional Condensed Matter Physics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Scott R. Chubb

    Conventional Condensed Matter physics provides a unifying framework for understanding Low Energy Nuclear Reactions (LENR's) in solids. In the paper, standard many-body physics techniques are used to illustrate this fact. Specifically, the paper shows that formally the theories by Schwinger, Hagelstein, and Chubb and Chubb (C&C), all can be related to a common set of equations, associated with reaction rate

  17. Fire Weather Climatology

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    COMET

    2008-04-28

    The “Fire Weather Climatology” module provides a comprehensive look at fire regions across the United States and characteristics of typical fire seasons in each region. In addition, critical fire weather patterns are described in terms of their development, duration and impact on fire weather. Numerous case studies provide examples and opportunities to practice recognizing these critical patterns and how they can affect fire ignition and spread. This module is part of the Advanced Fire Weather Forecasters Course.

  18. Enviropedia: Introduction to Weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2007-12-12

    This resource provides an overview of weather, the day-to-day changes in temperature, air pressure, moisture, wind, cloudiness, rainfall and sunshine. Links embedded in the text provide access to descriptions of cloud types and to information on weather hazards such as fog, hurricanes, thunderstorms, and tornadoes. Other topics include meteorology, weather measurements, and weather mapping. Materials are also provided on the water cycle and its elements, such as evaporation, uplift and cooling of air, dew point, condensation, and precipitation.

  19. Stormfax Weather Services

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2002-06-10

    This site offers links to a variety of weather information, including national, international and local weather maps and forecasts, satellite and radar imagery, and severe weather warnings. There are also links to diverse resources such as fire maps, glacier inventories, snow depths, storm surges and tropical storms. There are reports and advisories about El Nino and La Nina. The site also has a glossary of weather terms and conversion charts for temperature, wind speed and atmospheric pressure.

  20. Extreme Weather on Earth

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Anna Mika

    In this activity, students utilize a set of photographs and a 30 minute video on weather to investigate extreme weather events. They are posed with a series of questions that ask them to identify conditions predictive of these events, and record them on a worksheet. Climate and weather concepts defined.

  1. METEOROLOGICAL Weather and Forecasting

    E-print Network

    AMERICAN METEOROLOGICAL SOCIETY Weather and Forecasting EARLY ONLINE RELEASE This is a preliminary and interpretation of information from National Weather Service watches and warnings by10 decision makers such an outlier to the regional severe weather climatology. An analysis of the synoptic and13 mesoscale

  2. Predicting Seasonal Weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Cheryl Dybas

    2008-12-07

    This module is about a new method of predicting seasonal weather. The site describes the effects of El Nino on global weather and the accuracy of the new model. It includes links to classroom resources for a variety of weather-based units.

  3. Weather Fundamentals: Meteorology. [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1998

    The videos in this educational series, for grades 4-7, help students understand the science behind weather phenomena through dramatic live-action footage, vivid animated graphics, detailed weather maps, and hands-on experiments. This episode (23 minutes) looks at how meteorologists gather and interpret current weather data collected from sources…

  4. Severe Weather Perceptions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrams, Karol

    Severe weather is an element of nature that cannot be controlled. Therefore, it is important that the general public be aware of severe weather and know how to react quickly and appropriately in a weather emergency. This study, done in the community surrounding the Southern Illinois University at Carbondale, was conducted to compile and analyze…

  5. Hot Weather Tips

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Form - A A + A You are here Home HOT Weather Tips Printer-friendly version We all suffer in hot weather. However, for elderly and disabled people and ... stress and following these tips for dealing with hot weather. Wear cool clothing: See that the person ...

  6. Weather Maps in Motion

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Charles Burrows

    In this activity, students learn to interpret current weather maps. They will observe weather map loop animations on the internet, learn the concept of Zulu time (Universal Time Coordinated, UTC) and visualize the movement of fronts and air masses. They will then analyze a specific weather station model, generate a meteogram from their observations, and answer a set of questions about their observations.

  7. Weather Girl Goes Rogue

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Deep Rogue Ram

    This humorous video suggests what might happen if a weather forecaster reported the weather in the context of climate change. There is a sharp contrast between the anchor focusing on short-term local concerns and the weather forecaster describing what is happening on a long-term global basis.

  8. American Weather Stories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Patrick

    Weather has shaped United States' culture, national character and folklore; at times it has changed the course of history. The seven accounts compiled in this publication highlight some of the nation's weather experiences from the hurricanes that threatened Christopher Columbus to the peculiar run of bad weather that has plagued American…

  9. Space Weather Now

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Space Environment Center

    The Space Weather Now page is intended to give the non-technical user a "plain language" look at space weather. It includes information about relevant events and announcements, data from and about different instruments and satellites watching various aspects of space weather, alerts and advisories, daily themes of products and services, and links appropriate for the various groups of users.

  10. Climate and Weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    National Geographic

    This video discusses the differences between climate and weather by defining and presenting examples of each. When presenting examples of weather, the video focuses on severe events and how meteorologists predict and study the weather using measurement, satellites, and radar. The climate focus is primarily on an overview of climate zones.

  11. Aviation weather services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sprinkle, C. H.

    1983-01-01

    The primary responsibilities of the National Weather Service (NWS) are to: provide warnings of severe weather and flooding for the protection of life and property; provide public forecasts for land and adjacent ocean areas for planning and operation; and provide weather support for: production of food and fiber; management of water resources; production, distribution and use of energy; and efficient and safe air operations.

  12. Writing TAFS for Winter Weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-09-14

    "Writing TAFs for Winter Weather" is the fourth unit in the Distance Learning Aviation Course 2 (DLAC2) series on producing TAFs that meet the needs of the aviation community. In addition to providing information about tools for diagnosing winter weather and its related impacts, the module extends the Practically Perfect TAF (PPTAF) process to address an airport’s operational thresholds. By understanding the thresholds at airports for which they produce TAFs, forecasters will be better able to produce a PPTAF. The unit also examines how to communicate effectively the logic and uncertainty using the aviation forecast discussion (AvnFD) and addresses maintaining an effective TAF weather watch and updating the TAF proactively.

  13. Convective Weather Avoidance with Uncertain Weather Forecasts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karahan, Sinan; Windhorst, Robert D.

    2009-01-01

    Convective weather events have a disruptive impact on air traffic both in terminal area and in en-route airspaces. In order to make sure that the national air transportation system is safe and efficient, it is essential to respond to convective weather events effectively. Traffic flow control initiatives in response to convective weather include ground delay, airborne delay, miles-in-trail restrictions as well as tactical and strategic rerouting. The rerouting initiatives can potentially increase traffic density and complexity in regions neighboring the convective weather activity. There is a need to perform rerouting in an intelligent and efficient way such that the disruptive effects of rerouting are minimized. An important area of research is to study the interaction of in-flight rerouting with traffic congestion or complexity and developing methods that quantitatively measure this interaction. Furthermore, it is necessary to find rerouting solutions that account for uncertainties in weather forecasts. These are important steps toward managing complexity during rerouting operations, and the paper is motivated by these research questions. An automated system is developed for rerouting air traffic in order to avoid convective weather regions during the 20- minute - 2-hour time horizon. Such a system is envisioned to work in concert with separation assurance (0 - 20-minute time horizon), and longer term air traffic management (2-hours and beyond) to provide a more comprehensive solution to complexity and safety management. In this study, weather is dynamic and uncertain; it is represented as regions of airspace that pilots are likely to avoid. Algorithms are implemented in an air traffic simulation environment to support the research study. The algorithms used are deterministic but periodically revise reroutes to account for weather forecast updates. In contrast to previous studies, in this study convective weather is represented as regions of airspace that pilots are likely to avoid. The automated system periodically updates forecasts and reassesses rerouting decisions in order to account for changing weather predictions. The main objectives are to reroute flights to avoid convective weather regions and determine the resulting complexity due to rerouting. The eventual goal is to control and reduce complexity while rerouting flights during the 20 minute - 2 hour planning period. A three-hour simulation is conducted using 4800 flights in the national airspace. The study compares several metrics against a baseline scenario using the same traffic and weather but with rerouting disabled. The results show that rerouting can have a negative impact on congestion in some sectors, as expected. The rerouting system provides accurate measurements of the resulting complexity in the congested sectors. Furthermore, although rerouting is performed only in the 20-minute - 2-hour range, it results in a 30% reduction in encounters with nowcast weather polygons (100% being the ideal for perfectly predictable and accurate weather). In the simulations, rerouting was performed for the 20-minute - 2-hour flight time horizon, and for the en-route segment of air traffic. The implementation uses CWAM, a set of polygons that represent probabilities of pilot deviation around weather. The algorithms were implemented in a software-based air traffic simulation system. Initial results of the system's performance and effectiveness were encouraging. Simulation results showed that when flights were rerouted in the 20-minute - 2-hour flight time horizon of air traffic, there were fewer weather encounters in the first 20 minutes than for flights that were not rerouted. Some preliminary results were also obtained that showed that rerouting will also increase complexity. More simulations will be conducted in order to report conclusive results on the effects of rerouting on complexity. Thus, the use of the 20-minute - 2-hour flight time horizon weather avoidance teniques performed in the simulation is expected to provide benefits for short-term weather avoidan

  14. External Resource: Weathering and Erosion

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1900-01-01

    This activity includes background information about weathering, as well as simple demonstrations/activities to model how weather conditions contribute to weathering and erosion. Topics include: chemical weathering, dunes, erosion, floods, glaciers, physi

  15. 24 CFR 200.857 - Administrative process for scoring and ranking the physical condition of multifamily housing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...Administrative process for scoring and ranking the physical condition of multifamily...Administrative process for scoring and ranking the physical condition of multifamily housing properties. (a) Scoring and ranking of the physical condition of...

  16. 24 CFR 200.857 - Administrative process for scoring and ranking the physical condition of multifamily housing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...Administrative process for scoring and ranking the physical condition of multifamily...Administrative process for scoring and ranking the physical condition of multifamily housing properties. (a) Scoring and ranking of the physical condition of...

  17. 24 CFR 200.857 - Administrative process for scoring and ranking the physical condition of multifamily housing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...Administrative process for scoring and ranking the physical condition of multifamily...Administrative process for scoring and ranking the physical condition of multifamily housing properties. (a) Scoring and ranking of the physical condition of...

  18. Framework for Understanding Lenr Processes, Using Conventional Condensed Matter Physics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Scott R. Chubb

    2006-01-01

    Conventional condensed matter physics provides a unifying framework for understanding low-energy nuclear reactions (LENRs) in solids. In the paper, standard many-body physics techniques are used to illustrate this fact. Specifically, the paper shows that formally the theories by Schwinger, Hagelstein, and Chubb and Chubb (C&C), all can be related to a common set of equations, associated with reaction rate and

  19. Physical and chemical controls on the critical zone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, S.P.; Von Blanckenburg, F.; White, A.F.

    2007-01-01

    Geochemists have long recognized a correlation between rates of physical denudation and chemical weathering. What underlies this correlation? The Critical Zone can be considered as a feed-through reactor. Downward advance of the weathering front brings unweathered rock into the reactor. Fluids are supplied through precipitation. The reactor is stirred at the top by biological and physical processes. The balance between advance of the weathering front by mechanical and chemical processes and mass loss by denudation fixes the thickness of the Critical Zone reactor. The internal structure of this reactor is controlled by physical processes that create surface area, determine flow paths, and set the residence time of material in the Critical Zone. All of these impact chemical weathering flux.

  20. WeatherHawk Weather Station Protocol

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The GLOBE Program, UCAR (University Corporation for Atmospheric Research)

    2003-08-01

    This resource provides instructions on how to log atmosphere data using a WeatherHawk weather station. A weather station is setup to measure and record atmospheric measurements at 15-minute intervals and can be transferred to the GLOBE program via email. Students can view data for their school that are continuous and show variations within a day. The data collected includes wind speed and direction and pressure thereby supporting a more complete study of meteorology using GLOBE. Students pursue a more extensive set of research investigations.

  1. Fabulous Weather Day

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Candice Marshall

    2007-01-01

    Each year, first graders at Kensington Parkwood Elementary School in Kensington, Maryland, look forward to Fabulous Weather Day. After studying weather for three months, we celebrate what we have learned and stretch our thinking further into the weather world around us! Students learn how meteorologists collect data about the weather, how they study wind, temperature, precipitation, basic types/characteristics of clouds, and how they forecast. The project helps the students grow in their understanding of how the weather works and how it can affect their lives. Our unit focused on guiding students to formulate explanations about animals based on scientific evidence.

  2. Graphing in Physics: Processes and Sources of Error in Tertiary Entrance Examinations in Western Australia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patricia A. Forster

    2004-01-01

    Interpretation and construction of graphs are central to the study of physics and to performance in physics. In this paper, I explore the interpretation and construction processes called upon in questions with a graphical component, in Western Australian Physics Tertiary Entrance Examinations. In addition, I list errors made by students as reported by examiners and offer explanations for the errors.

  3. Plymouth State Weather Center

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Plymouth State Weather Center provides a variety of weather information, including a tropical weather menu with current and archived data on tropical depressions, storms, or hurricanes in the Atlantic or Eastern Pacific Oceans. An interactive Weather Product Generator allows students to make their own surface data maps and meteograms (24-hour summaries of weather at a specific location), and view satellite imagery. There are also interactive weather maps for the U.S., Canada, and Alaska that display the latest observations, and text servers which provide current written observations for New England and North America. A set of past and current weather data products provides information on minimum and maximum temperatures, wind chill, and heat index. In addition, there are collections of satellite loops/movies, radar/lightning images, loops, and movies, and a set of tutorials on clouds, the sun and its effects on the environment, and balanced atmospheric flows.

  4. Spatial patterns and controls of soil chemical weathering rates along a transient hillslope

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yoo, K.; Mudd, S.M.; Sanderman, J.; Amundson, R.; Blum, A.

    2009-01-01

    Hillslopes have been intensively studied by both geomorphologists and soil scientists. Whereas geomorphologists have focused on the physical soil production and transport on hillslopes, soil scientists have been concerned with the topographic variation of soil geochemical properties. We combined these differing approaches and quantified soil chemical weathering rates along a grass covered hillslope in Coastal California. The hillslope is comprised of both erosional and depositional sections. In the upper eroding section, soil production is balanced by physical erosion and chemical weathering. The hillslope then transitions to a depositional slope where soil accumulates due to a historical reduction of channel incision at the hillslope's base. Measurements of hillslope morphology and soil thickness were combined with the elemental composition of the soil and saprolite, and interpreted through a process-based model that accounts for both chemical weathering and sediment transport. Chemical weathering of the minerals as they moved downslope via sediment transport imparted spatial variation in the geochemical properties of the soil. Inverse modeling of the field and laboratory data revealed that the long-term soil chemical weathering rates peak at 5 g m- 2 yr- 1 at the downslope end of the eroding section and decrease to 1.5 g m- 2 yr- 1 within the depositional section. In the eroding section, soil chemical weathering rates appear to be primarily controlled by the rate of mineral supply via colluvial input from upslope. In the depositional slope, geochemical equilibrium between soil water and minerals appeared to limit the chemical weathering rate. Soil chemical weathering was responsible for removing 6% of the soil production in the eroding section and 5% of colluvial influx in the depositional slope. These were among the lowest weathering rates reported for actively eroding watersheds, which was attributed to the parent material with low amount of weatherable minerals and intense coating of the primary minerals by secondary clay and iron oxides. We showed that both the morphologic disequilibrium of the hillslope and the spatial heterogeneity of soil properties are due to spatial variations in the physical and chemical processes that removed mass from the soil. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V.

  5. Beyond the Weather Chart: Weathering New Experiences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huffman, Amy Bruno

    1996-01-01

    Describes an early childhood educator's approach to teaching children about rain, rainbows, clouds, precipitation, the sun, air, and wind. Recommends ways to organize study topics and describes experiments that can help children better understand the different elements of weather. (MOK)

  6. National Weather Service- Severe Weather Awareness

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This website provides access to information designed to protect and prepare individuals from severe weather. Materials presented here include forecasts for aviation and marine interests and the general public, maps, statistical data, educational materials, publications, and links to related sites.

  7. Comprehensive study of the weathered condition of welded tuff from a historic stone bridge in Kagoshima, Japan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Esaki; K. Jiang

    2000-01-01

    This paper deals with the problematic weathering of a 150year old historic stone bridge made of welded tuff. The weathered condition of the structurally important arch stone from the bridge is studied comprehensively by physical, chemical, and mechanical methods. As a result of this study, a physical weathering degree index (PWD), a chemical weathering degree index (CWD) and related experimental

  8. Comprehensive study of the weathered condition of welded tuff from a historic stone bridge in Kagoshima, Japan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Esaki; K. Jiang

    2000-01-01

    This paper deals with the problematic weathering of a 150 year old historic stone bridge made of welded tuff. The weathered condition of the structurally important arch stone from the bridge is studied comprehensively by physical, chemical, and mechanical methods. As a result of this study, a physical weathering degree index (PWD), a chemical weathering degree index (CWD) and related

  9. A Library Manager's Guide to the Physical Processing of Nonprint Materials. The Greenwood Library Management Collection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Driessen, Karen C.; Smyth, Shelia A.

    The librarian is presented with a foundation for decision making as it relates to the physical processing of nonprint materials, and with a demonstration of how these decisions move from theoretical to practical physical processing issues. Such issues include packaging and repackaging; treating accompanying materials; labeling; preparing…

  10. Dissolution of Olivine, Siderite, and Basalt at 80 Deg C in 0.1 M H2SO4 in a Flow Through Process: Insights into Acidic Weathering on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golden, D. C.; Ming, D. W.; Hausrath, E. M.; Morris, R. V.; Niles, P. B.; Achilles, C. N.; Ross, D. K.; Cooper, B. L.; Gonzalex, C. P.; Mertzman, S. A.

    2012-01-01

    The occurrence of jarosite, other sulfates (e.g., Mg-and Ca-sulfates), and hematite along with silicic-lastic materials in outcrops of sedimentary materials at Meridiani Planum (MP) and detection of silica rich deposits in Gusev crater, Mars, are strong indicators of local acidic aqueous processes [1,2,3,4,5]. The formation of sediments at Meridiani Planum may have involved the evaporation of fluids derived from acid weathering of Martian basalts and subsequent diagenesis [6,7]. Also, our previous work on acid weathering of basaltic materials in a closed hydro-thermal system was focused on the mineralogy of the acid weathering products including the formation of jarosite and gray hematite spherules [8,9,10]. The object of this re-search is to extend our earlier qualitative work on acidic weathering of rocks to determine acidic dissolution rates of Mars analog basaltic materials at 80 C using a flow-thru reactor. We also characterized residual phases, including poorly crystalline or amorphous phases and precipitates, that remained after the treatments of olivine, siderite, and basalt which represent likely MP source rocks. This study is a stepping stone for a future simulation of the formation of MP rocks under a range of T and P.

  11. Weather: What Forces Affect Our Weather?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2002-06-11

    This website provides an easy-to-understand look at our weather system. Topics covered include the atmosphere, the water cycle, storms, ice and snow, weather forecasting and Earth's changing climate. There are features on ozone depletion, global warming, El Nino and La Nina. An activity allows users to identify cloud formations associated with tornadoes, complete with photographs. There is also a wind chill calculator.

  12. A Sandbagging Process that Accommodates the Mentally and Physically Disabled

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul B. Koeneman; Stephen G. Grupinski; Chin S. Chu

    With the current trend of integrating persons with developmental disabilities into society as much as possible, many organizations are finding employment for the developmentally disabled with the intention of giving them a more independent life style. Some residents of the Austin State School earn money by producing sandbags. Their mental and physical disabilities make the labor difficult for them. A

  13. Weather and Atmosphere

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Integrated Teaching and Learning Program,

    In this unit, students learn the basics about weather and the atmosphere. They investigate materials engineering as it applies to weather and the choices available to us for clothing to counteract the effects of weather. Students have the opportunity to design and analyze combinations of materials for use in specific weather conditions. In the next lesson, students also are introduced to air masses and weather forecasting instrumentation and how engineers work to improve these instruments for atmospheric measurements on Earth and in space. Then, students learn the distinguishing features of the four main types of weather fronts that accompany high and low pressure air masses and how those fronts are depicted on a weather map. During this specific lesson, students learn different ways that engineers help with storm prediction, analysis and protection. In the final lesson, students consider how weather forecasting plays an important part in their daily lives by learning about the history of weather forecasting and how improvements in weather technology have saved lives by providing advance warning of natural disasters.

  14. Dimension of physical systems, information processing, and thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunner, Nicolas; Kaplan, Marc; Leverrier, Anthony; Skrzypczyk, Paul

    2014-12-01

    We ask how quantum theory compares to more general physical theories from the point of view of dimension. To do so, we first give two model-independent definitions of the dimension of physical systems, based on measurements and the capacity of storing information. While both definitions are equivalent in classical and quantum mechanics, they are different in generalized probabilistic theories. We discuss in detail the case of a theory known as ‘boxworld’, and show that such a theory features systems with dimension mismatch. This dimension mismatch can be made arbitrarily large using an amplification procedure. Furthermore, we show that the dimension mismatch of boxworld has strong consequences on its power for performing information-theoretic tasks, leading to the collapse of communication complexity and to the violation of information causality. Finally, we discuss the consequences of a dimension mismatch from the perspective of thermodynamics, and ask whether this effect could break Landauer's erasure principle and thus the second law.

  15. Effect of degree of weathering on dynamic properties of residual soils

    SciTech Connect

    Macari, E.J.; Loyos, L. Jr. [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)] [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    1996-12-01

    The process of soil formation in the tropics is quite different than that of more temperate regions. The weathering processes tend to be intensified by the warm and humid climates that are prevalent in tropical regions. Chemical weathering processes that dominate in these regions, such as decomposition and dissolution, are fairly well understood phenomena. However, the effect this weathering has on the physical, mechanical, and dynamic properties of the rock/soil is not fully understood. This paper presents some laboratory test results and correlations that indicate behavioral trends to be caused by the effects that weathering has on a residual soil from the western coast of Puerto Rico. The study focuses on the dynamic shear modulus G and material damping ratio D of both natural (undisturbed) and remolded samples, for low- to mid-level amplitudes of vibration. The understanding of these effects will allow for a better prediction of phenomena such as soil amplification that may trigger landslides in such soil formations. This study was accomplished with the aid of a computerized resonant column device. Correlations and empirical formulations are presented that demonstrate the effects that the degree of weathering has on the dynamic properties of these residual soils for undisturbed and remolded samples.

  16. Weather Radar Fundamentals

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-09-14

    This 2-hour module presents the fundamental principles of Doppler weather radar operation and how to interpret common weather phenomena using radar imagery. This is accomplished via conceptual animations and many interactive radar examples in which the user can practice interpreting both radar reflectivity and radar velocity imagery. Although intended as an accelerated introduction to understanding and using basic Doppler weather radar products, the module can also serve as an excellent refresher for more experienced users.

  17. Weather and climate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Recommendations for using space observations of weather and climate to aid in solving earth based problems are given. Special attention was given to: (1) extending useful forecasting capability of space systems, (2) reducing social, economic, and human losses caused by weather, (3) development of space system capability to manage and control air pollutant concentrations, and (4) establish mechanisms for the national examination of deliberate and inadvertent means for modifying weather and climate.

  18. Winter weather activity

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Whitney Frankovic

    2009-09-28

    This project explores factors that help create severe winter weather. An interactive simulation provides hands-on experience, followed by guiding questions and resource exploration. Weather Maker Simulator Use the weather simulation above to answer the following questions in complete sentences on paper. 1. In general, when are winds formed? 2. When winds are blowing, how can you get them to stop? 3. What usually happens when there is a large difference between the temperatures? 4. What happens when there is high ...

  19. Cosmic weather and cybernetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avdiushin, Sergei Ivanovich; Danilov, Aleksei Dmitrievich; Dlikman, Fishel'l'vovich

    1987-09-01

    The use of computer techniques to study cosmic weather (i.e., manifestations of solar activity in near-earth space, the ionosphere, and the lower atmosphere) is examined. A scheme of observational facilities for the acquisition of data on cosmic weather is described; the basic types of observations that yield information on the state of the ionosphere at different altitudes are considered; and the role of computers in the prediction of cosmic weather is assessed.

  20. Everything Weather- Archived Data

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2001-01-01

    Users can obtain current weather forecasts for their own areas by entering a ZIP code, or they can access a large archive of historic data on severe weather (tornadoes, hail, high winds, hurricanes). Materials presented in the archive include dates, times, and intensities of storms, a photo gallery, maps, radar and other satellite data, storm chaser reports, and links to other weather sites. Raw data can be found in several forms for teachers wishing to have unprocessed data to work with.

  1. National Weather Service

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Sick and tired of the heat? Feel like it will never end? Then check out the National Weather Service's (NWS) Heat Wave, a site devoted to the extreme weather that is crippling the south. The NWS provides information on the heat index, heat's affect on the body, and how to beat the heat. For those who want an up-to-the-minute look at the weather, the site links to current conditions, forecasts, and watches and warnings.

  2. Weather: You Like It or Not - Learning about the Importance of and Flaws in Weather Prediction

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Rachel McClain Klein

    2001-03-07

    In this lesson, students explore the importance of weather prediction and learn about some of the flaws inherent in the process. By researching specific storm types, they are able to prepare and deliver their own weather reports. The material includes links to additional information and resources.

  3. Weathering: methods and techniques to measure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez-Arce, P.; Zornoza-Indart, A.; Alvarez de Buergo, M.; Fort, R.

    2012-04-01

    Surface recession takes place when weathered material is removed from the rocks. In order to know how fast does weathering and erosion occur, a review of several methods, analyses and destructive and non-destructive techniques to measure weathering of rocks caused by physico-chemical changes that occur in bedrocks due to salt crystallization, freezing-thaw, thermal shock, influence of water, wind, temperature or any type of environmental agent leading to weathering processes and development of soils, in-situ in the field or through experimental works in the laboratory are addressed. From micro-scale to macro-scale, from the surface down to more in depth, several case studies on in-situ monitoring of quantification of decay on soils and rocks from natural landscapes (mountains, cliffs, caves, etc) or from urban environment (foundations or facades of buildings, retaining walls, etc) or laboratory experimental works, such as artificial accelerated ageing tests (a.a.e.e.) or durability tests -in which one or more than one weathering agents are selected to assess the material behaviour in time and in a cyclic way- performed on specimens of these materials are summarised. Discoloration, structural alteration, precipitation of weathering products (mass transfer), and surface recession (mass loss) are all products of weathering processes. Destructive (SEM-EDX, optical microscopy, mercury intrusion porosimetry, drilling resistance measurement, flexural and compression strength) and Non-destructive (spectrophotocolorimetry, 3D optical surface roughness, Schmidt hammer rebound tester, ultrasound velocity propagation, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance NMR, X ray computed micro-tomography or CT-scan, geo-radar differential global positioning systems) techniques and characterization analyses (e.g. water absorption, permeability, open porosity or porosity accessible to water) to assess their morphological, physico-chemical, mechanical and hydric weathering; consolidation products or methods to stop or to slow down their weathering or durability and stability of soils and rocks are also topics where the methods and techniques deal with the quantification of weathering. Cultural stone weathering studies contribute substantially to the knowledge of weathering rates revealing the importance of specific weathering agents and weathering factors.

  4. Time delayed processes in physics, biophysics and archaeology

    E-print Network

    Magdalena Anna Pelc

    2007-05-31

    The motion of particles, where the particles: electrons, ions in microtubules or migrated peoples can be described as the superposition of diffusion and ordered waves. In this paper it is shown that the master equation for transport processes can be formulated as the time delayed hyperbolic partial equation. The equation describes the processes with memory. For characteristic times shorter than the relaxation time the master equation is the generalized Klein - Gordon equation. Key words: hyperbolic transport, microtubules, heat waves, Neolithic migration

  5. Meteorology:Meteorology: Weather and ClimateWeather and Climate

    E-print Network

    1 Meteorology:Meteorology: Weather and ClimateWeather and Climate Large Scale Weather SystemsLarge--scale Weather Systemsscale Weather Systems Tropical cyclones (1-2) Location, Structure, Life-cycle Formation and modification, airmasses that effect the British Isles Airmasses affecting the British Isles

  6. Space Weather: Welcome, SEC

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    COMET

    2005-01-11

    This video presentation welcomes the Space Weather Prediction Center, formerly known as the Space Environment Center or SEC to the National Weather Service (NWS) as an operational entity of the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) family. Describing the ways in which space weather affects global communications and power resources, it demonstrates the importance of space weather forecasting as a part of the NWS family of services. With the inclusion of SWPC, the NWS now provides environmental understanding from the sun to the sea.

  7. Winter Storm (weather)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Aubree Miller

    2009-09-28

    This project explores factors that help create severe winter weather. An interactive simulation provides hands-on experience, followed by guiding questions and resource exploration. First think about these questions: 1. What is your favorite aspect of winter weather? 2. How does the weather effect your everyday life? Form groups of THREE. Explore the following simulation: Weather Maker Simulator Use the simulation to answer the following questions on paper... 1. In general, when are winds formed? 2. When winds are blowing, how can you ...

  8. Pilot Weather Advisor System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindamood, Glenn; Martzaklis, Konstantinos Gus; Hoffler, Keith; Hill, Damon; Mehrotra, Sudhir C.; White, E. Richard; Fisher, Bruce D.; Crabill, Norman L.; Tucholski, Allen D.

    2006-01-01

    The Pilot Weather Advisor (PWA) system is an automated satellite radio-broadcasting system that provides nearly real-time weather data to pilots of aircraft in flight anywhere in the continental United States. The system was designed to enhance safety in two distinct ways: First, the automated receipt of information would relieve the pilot of the time-consuming and distracting task of obtaining weather information via voice communication with ground stations. Second, the presentation of the information would be centered around a map format, thereby making the spatial and temporal relationships in the surrounding weather situation much easier to understand

  9. Washington Post Weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Washington Post makes a bid for the already crowded Internet weather market with WeatherPost. Coverage includes current conditions and four-day forecasts for 3,600 cities worldwide, as well as snapshot and time-lapse satellite maps (provided by Accu Weather). For US cities, users may also access UV and air quality maps and data, as well as seasonal maps (snow cover, tanning index, heat index, and BeachCast) and other radar images such as precipitation. Users may enter a city name into the homepage search box, or may browse by country or state/province. The historical weather database offers compiled monthly average weather data for nearly 1,000 cities worldwide; the database is searchable. An aspect of the site that sets it apart from many other weather pages is the weather reference desk, which includes a weather glossary, weather calculators (JavaScript converters for temperature, wind chill, heat index, etc.) and a page devoted to storm chasers.

  10. Reviews Book: Marie Curie and Her Daughters Resource: Cumulus Equipment: Alpha Particle Scattering Apparatus Equipment: 3D Magnetic Tube Equipment: National Grid Transmission Model Book: Einstein's Physics Equipment: Barton's Pendulums Equipment: Weather Station Web Watch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2013-09-01

    WE RECOMMEND Marie Curie and Her Daughters An insightful study of a resilient and ingenious family and their achievements Cumulus Simple to install and operate and with obvious teaching applications, this weather station 'donationware' is as easy to recommend as it is to use Alpha Particle Scattering Apparatus Good design and construction make for good results National Grid Transmission Model Despite its expense, this resource offers excellent value Einstein's Physics A vivid, accurate, compelling and rigorous treatment, but requiring an investment of time and thought WORTH A LOOK 3D Magnetic Tube Magnetic fields in three dimensions at a low cost Barton's Pendulums A neat, well-made and handy variant, but not a replacement for the more traditional version Weather Station Though not as robust or substantial as hoped for, this can be put to good use with the right software WEB WATCH An online experiment and worksheet are useful for teaching motor efficiency, a glance at CERN, and NASA's interesting information on the alpha-magnetic spectrometer and climate change

  11. Framework for Understanding LENR Processes, Using Ordinary Condensed Matter Physics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Scott Chubb

    2005-01-01

    As I have emphasized ootnotetextS.R. Chubb, Proc. ICCF10 (in press). Also, http:\\/\\/www.lenr-canr.org\\/acrobat\\/ChubbSRnutsandbol.pdf http:\\/\\/www.lenr-canr.org\\/acrobat\\/ChubbSRnutsandbol.pdf, S.R. Chubb, Trans. Amer. Nuc. Soc. 88 , 618 (2003)., in discussions of Low Energy Nuclear Reactions(LENRs), mainstream many-body physics ideas have been largely ignored. A key point is that in condensed matter, delocalized, wave-like effects can allow large amounts of momentum to be transferred instantly to

  12. A Model for Formation of Dust, Soil and Rock Coatings on Mars: Physical and Chemical Processes on the Martian Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, Janice; Murchie, Scott L.; Pieters, Carle M.; Zent, Aaron P.

    2001-01-01

    This model is one of many possible scenarios to explain the generation of the current surface material on Mars using chemical, magnetic and spectroscopic data From Mars and geologic analogs from terrestrial sites. One basic premise of this model is that the dust/soil units are not derived exclusively from local rocks, but are rather a product of global, and possibly remote, weathering processes. Another assumption in this model is that there are physical and chemical interactions of the atmospheric dust particles and that these two processes create distinctly different results on the surface. Physical processes distribute dust particles on rocks and drift units, forming physically-aggregated layers; these are reversible processes. Chemical reactions of the dust/soil particles create alteration rinds on rock surfaces and cohesive, crusted surface units between rocks, both of which are relatively permanent materials. According to this model the dominant components of the dust/soil particles are derived from alteration of volcanic ash and tephra, and contain primarily nanophase and poorly crystalline ferric oxides/oxyhydroxide phases as well as silicates. These phases are the alteration products that formed in a low moisture environment. These dust/soil particles also contain a smaller amount of material that was exposed to more water and contains crystalline ferric oxides/oxyhydroxides, sulfates and clay silicates. These components could have formed through hydrothermal alteration at steam vents or fumeroles, thermal fluids, or through evaporite deposits. Wet/dry cycling experiments are presented here on mixtures containing poorly crystalline and crystalline ferric oxides/oxyhydroxides, sulfates and silicates that range in size from nanophase to 1-2 pm diameter particles. Cemented products of these soil mixtures are formed in these experiments and variation in the surface texture was observed for samples containing smectites, non-hydrated silicates or sulfates. Reflectance spectra were measured of the initial particulate mixtures, the cemented products and ground versions of the cemented material. The spectral contrast in the visible/near-infrared and mid-infrared regions is significantly reduced for the cemented material compared to the initial soil, and somewhat reduced for the ground, cemented soil compared to the initial soil. The results of this study suggest that diurnal and seasonal cycling on Mars will have a profound effect on the texture and spectral properties of the dust/soil particles on the surface. The model developed in this study provides an explanation for the generation of cemented or crusted soil units and rock coatings on Mars and may explain albedo variations on the surface observed near large rocks or crater rims.

  13. Coupled model of physical and biological processes affecting maize pollination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arritt, R.; Westgate, M.; Riese, J.; Falk, M.; Takle, E.

    2003-04-01

    Controversy over the use of genetically modified (GM) crops has led to increased interest in evaluating and controlling the potential for inadvertent outcrossing in open-pollinated crops such as maize. In response to this problem we have developed a Lagrangian model of pollen dispersion as a component of a coupled end-to-end (anther to ear) physical-biological model of maize pollination. The Lagrangian method is adopted because of its generality and flexibility: first, the method readily accommodates flow fields of arbitrary complexity; second, each element of the material being transported can be identified by its source, time of release, or other properties of interest. The latter allows pollen viability to be estimated as a function of such factors as travel time, temperature, and relative humidity, so that the physical effects of airflow and turbulence on pollen dispersion can be considered together with the biological aspects of pollen release and viability. Predicted dispersion of pollen compares well both to observations and to results from a simpler Gaussian plume model. Ability of the Lagrangian model to handle complex air flows is demonstrated by application to pollen dispersion in the vicinity of an agricultural shelter belt. We also show results indicating that pollen viability can be quantified by an "aging function" that accounts for temperature, humidity, and time of exposure.

  14. Perceptual and processing differences between physical and dichorhinic odor mixtures.

    PubMed

    Schütze, M; Negoias, S; Olsson, M J; Hummel, T

    2014-01-31

    Perceptual integration of sensory input from our two nostrils has received little attention in comparison to lateralized inputs for vision and hearing. Here, we investigated whether a binary odor mixture of eugenol and l-carvone (smells of cloves and caraway) would be perceived differently if presented as a mixture in one nostril (physical mixture), vs. the same two odorants in separate nostrils (dichorhinic mixture). In parallel, we investigated whether the different types of presentation resulted in differences in olfactory event-related potentials (OERP). Psychophysical ratings showed that the dichorhinic mixtures were perceived as more intense than the physical mixtures. A tendency for shift in perceived quality was also observed. In line with these perceptual changes, the OERP showed a shift in latencies and amplitudes for early (more "sensory") peaks P1 and N1 whereas no significant differences were observed for the later (more "cognitive") peak P2. The results altogether suggest that the peripheral level is a site of interaction between odorants. Both psychophysical ratings and, for the first time, electrophysiological measurements converge on this conclusion. PMID:24240030

  15. Weather and emotional state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spasova, Z.

    2010-09-01

    Introduction Given the proven effects of weather on the human organism, an attempt to examine its effects on a psychic and emotional level has been made. Emotions affect the bio-tonus, working ability and concentration, hence their significance in various domains of economic life, such as health care, education, transportation, tourism, etc. Data and methods The research has been made in Sofia City within a period of 8 months, using 5 psychological methods (Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Test for Self-assessment of the emotional state (developed by Wessman and Ricks), Test for evaluation of moods and Test "Self-confidence - Activity - Mood" (developed by the specialists from the Military Academy in Saint Petersburg). The Fiodorov-Chubukov's complex-climatic method was used to characterize meteorological conditions because of the purpose to include in the analysis a maximal number of meteorological elements. 16 weather types are defined in dependence of the meteorological elements values according to this method. Abrupt weather changes from one day to another, defined by the same method, were considered as well. Results and discussions The results obtained by t-test show that the different categories of weather lead to changes in the emotional status, which indicates a character either positive or negative for the organism. The abrupt weather changes, according to expectations, have negative effect on human emotions but only when a transition to the cloudy weather or weather type, classified as "unfavourable" has been realized. The relationship between weather and human emotions is rather complicated since it depends on individual characteristics of people. One of these individual psychological characteristics, marked by the dimension "neuroticism", has a strong effect on emotional reactions in different weather conditions. Emotionally stable individuals are more "protected" to the weather influence on their emotions, while those who are emotionally unstable have a stronger dependence to the impacts of the weather.

  16. Physical Review Letters (at press) Edge-mediated dislocation processes in carbon nano-onions?

    E-print Network

    Dumitrica,Traian

    Physical Review Letters (at press) Edge-mediated dislocation processes in carbon nano-onions? E processes in individual nanometer-sized carbon onions. Essential for these processes is the counter] in nested multi-shell car- bon onions [5, 6], a complex system that was not consid- ered before

  17. McRunjob: A High Energy Physics Workflow Planner for Grid Production Processing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gregory E. Graham; David Evans; Iain Bertram

    2003-01-01

    McRunjob is a powerful grid workflow manager used to manage the generation of large numbers of production processing jobs in High Energy Physics. In use at both the DZero and CMS experiments, McRunjob has been used to manage large Monte Carlo production processing since 1999 and is being extended to uses in regular production processing for analysis and reconstruction. Described

  18. MCRUNJOB: A High energy physics workflow planner for grid production processing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gregory E

    2004-01-01

    McRunjob is a powerful grid workflow manager used to manage the generation of large numbers of production processing jobs in High Energy Physics. In use at both the DZero and CMS experiments, McRunjob has been used to manage large Monte Carlo production processing since 1999 and is being extended to uses in regular production processing for analysis and reconstruction. Described

  19. Effect of Microbial Weathering on Carbonate Rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LIAN, Bin; CHEN, Ye; ZHU, Lijun; YANG, Ruidong

    The interaction between microorganisms and minerals can facilitate the process of exogenic biogeochemical reaction, which is one of the important research contents in exogenic geochemistry. Microbes and their geological effects were summarized, and a variety of microbial weathering phenomena toward carbonate rocks, especially on different microcosmic scales, were analyzed. Weathering products and mechanisms of carbonate rocks by microbes were also expounded. The authors put forward four microbial weathering mechanisms of carbonate rocks: (1) microorganisms grow on rock surface or in crevices, resulting in bio-corrosion, bio-erosion, and boring, and accelerate rock decomposition and weathering; (2) boring meshes produced by microbial colony could increase the efficient superficial area of chemical denudation of rocks and could lead to the intensification of rock surface weathering to promote mechanical erosion, and the microbial destruction and loosing of cementation structure of rock particles would also accelerate the decomposition of mineral particles; (3) rock weathering can be intensified by the effects of microbial water-keeping, acidification of organic acids secreted by microorganisms, and the release of CO 2 induced by microbial respiration onto rock surface; (4) microorganisms obtain nutrition from rock surface to produce complicated organic ligands and promote the release of mineral elements in the growing process of microorganisms. Finally, how to carry out studies on the microbial weathering of carbonate rocks was proposed. The authors suggest to comprehensively exploit local low-grade mineral resources, which contain potassium and phosphate, and accelerate soil formation and evolution in karst regions by using microbial technology.

  20. Speaking and Speaking Education as Physical Process in Turkish Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurudayioglu, Mehmet

    2011-01-01

    Speaking is sending the message which is desired to be transferred to another one with vocal organs and produced by complicated operations in the brain. Speaking, which is a complicated process, is the most common and important means of communication among people. Speaking, which has essential place both individually and socially, affects success…

  1. Relativity Based on Physical Processes Rather Than Space-Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giese, Albrecht

    2013-09-01

    Physicists' understanding of relativity and the way it is handled is at present dominated by the interpretation of Albert Einstein, who related relativity to specific properties of space and time. The principal alternative to Einstein's interpretation is based on a concept proposed by Hendrik A. Lorentz, which uses knowledge of classical physics to explain relativistic phenomena. In this paper, we will show that on the one hand the Lorentz-based interpretation provides a simpler mathematical way of arriving at the known results for both Special and General Relativity. On the other hand, it is able to solve problems which have remained open to this day. Furthermore, a particle model will be presented, based on Lorentzian relativity, which explains the origin of mass without the use of the Higgs mechanism, based on the finiteness of the speed of light, and which provides the classical results for particle properties that are currently only accessible through quantum mechanics.

  2. 2007 Weather and Aeolian Sand-Transport Data from the Colorado River Corridor, Grand Canyon, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Draut, Amy E.; Andrews, Timothy; Fairley, Helen C.; Brown, Christopher R.

    2009-01-01

    Weather data constitute an integral part of ecosystem monitoring in the Colorado River corridor and are particularly valuable for understanding processes of landscape change that contribute to the stability of archeological sites. Data collected in 2007 are reported from nine weather stations in the Colorado River corridor through Grand Canyon, Ariz. The stations were deployed in February and March 2007 to measure wind speed and direction, rainfall, air temperature, relative humidity, and barometric pressure. Sand traps near each weather station collect windblown sand, from which daily aeolian sand-transport rates are calculated. The data reported here were collected as part of an ongoing study to test and evaluate methods for quantifying processes that affect the physical integrity of archeological sites along the river corridor; as such, these data can be used to identify rainfall events capable of causing gully incision and to predict likely transport pathways for aeolian sand, two landscape processes integral to the preservation of archeological sites. Weather data also have widespread applications to other studies of physical, cultural, and biological resources in Grand Canyon. Aeolian sand-transport data reported here, collected in the year before the March 2008 High-Flow Experiment (HFE) at Glen Canyon Dam, represent baseline data against which the effects of the 2008 HFE on windblown sand will be compared in future reports.

  3. Aerosol physical properties and their impact on climate change processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strzalkowska, Agata; Zielinski, Tymon; Petelski, Tomasz; Makuch, Przemyslaw; Pakszys, Paulina; Markuszewski, Piotr; Piskozub, Jacek; Drozdowska, Violetta; Gutowska, Dorota; Rozwadowska, Anna

    2013-04-01

    Characterizing aerosols involves the specification of not only their spatial and temporal distributions but their multi-component composition, particle size distribution and physical properties as well. Due to their light attenuation and scattering properties, aerosols influence radiance measured by satellite for ocean color remote sensing. Studies of marine aerosol production and transport are important for many earth sciences such as cloud physics, atmospheric optics, environmental pollution studies, and interaction between ocean and atmosphere. It was one of the reasons for the growth in the number of research programs dealing with marine aerosols. Sea salt aerosols are among the most abundant components of the atmospheric aerosol, and thus it exerts a strong influence on radiation, cloud formation, meteorology and chemistry of the marine atmosphere. An accurate understanding and description of these mechanisms is crucial to modeling climate and climate change. This work provides information on combined aerosol studies made with lidars and sun photometers onboard the ship and in different coastal areas. We concentrate on aerosol optical thickness and its variations with aerosol advections into the study area. We pay special attention to the problem of proper data collection and analyses techniques. We showed that in order to detect the dynamics of potential aerosol composition changes it is necessary to use data from different stations where measurements are made using the same techniques. The combination of such information with air mass back-trajectories and data collected at stations located on the route of air masses provides comprehensive picture of aerosol variations in the study area both vertically and horizontally. Acknowledgements: The support for this study was provided by the project Satellite Monitoring of the Baltic Sea Environment - SatBa?tyk founded by European Union through European Regional Development Fund contract No. POIG 01.01.02-22-011/09. It has also been made within the framework of the NASA/AERONET Program.

  4. System Science approach to Space Weather forecast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balikhin, Michael A.

    There are many dynamical systems in nature that are so complex that mathematical models of their behaviour can not be deduced from first principles with the present level of our knowledge. Obvious examples are organic cell, human brain, etc often attract system scientists. A example that is closer to space physics is the terrestrial magnetosphere. The system approach has been developed to understand such complex objects from the observation of their dynamics. The systems approach employs advanced data analysis methodologies to identify patterns in the overall system behaviour and provides information regarding the linear and nonlinear processes involved in the dynamics of the system. This, in combination with the knowledge deduced from the first principles, creates the opportunity to find mathematical relationships that govern the evolution of a particular physical system. Advances and problems of systems science applications to provide a reliable forecasts of space weather phenomena such as geomagnetic storms, substorms and radiation belts particle fluxes are reviewed and compared with the physics based models.

  5. Highlights of Space Weather Services/Capabilities at NASA/GSFC Space Weather Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fok, Mei-Ching; Zheng, Yihua; Hesse, Michael; Kuznetsova, Maria; Pulkkinen, Antti; Taktakishvili, Aleksandre; Mays, Leila; Chulaki, Anna; Lee, Hyesook

    2012-01-01

    The importance of space weather has been recognized world-wide. Our society depends increasingly on technological infrastructure, including the power grid as well as satellites used for communication and navigation. Such technologies, however, are vulnerable to space weather effects caused by the Sun's variability. NASA GSFC's Space Weather Center (SWC) (http://science.gsfc.nasa.gov//674/swx services/swx services.html) has developed space weather products/capabilities/services that not only respond to NASA's needs but also address broader interests by leveraging the latest scientific research results and state-of-the-art models hosted at the Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMC: http://ccmc.gsfc.nasa.gov). By combining forefront space weather science and models, employing an innovative and configurable dissemination system (iSWA.gsfc.nasa.gov), taking advantage of scientific expertise both in-house and from the broader community as well as fostering and actively participating in multilateral collaborations both nationally and internationally, NASA/GSFC space weather Center, as a sibling organization to CCMC, is poised to address NASA's space weather needs (and needs of various partners) and to help enhancing space weather forecasting capabilities collaboratively. With a large number of state-of-the-art physics-based models running in real-time covering the whole space weather domain, it offers predictive capabilities and a comprehensive view of space weather events throughout the solar system. In this paper, we will provide some highlights of our service products/capabilities. In particular, we will take the 23 January and the 27 January space weather events as examples to illustrate how we can use the iSWA system to track them in the interplanetary space and forecast their impacts.

  6. Weathering Database Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Robert

    2005-01-01

    Collecting weather data is a traditional part of a meteorology unit at the middle level. However, making connections between the data and weather conditions can be a challenge. One way to make these connections clearer is to enter the data into a database. This allows students to quickly compare different fields of data and recognize which…

  7. Exercising in Cold Weather

    MedlinePLUS

    ... www.nia.nih.gov/Go4Life Exercising in Cold Weather Exercise has benefits all year, even during winter. ... activities when it’s cold outside: l Check the weather forecast. If it’s very windy or cold, exercise ...

  8. On Observing the Weather

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crane, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Rain, sun, snow, sleet, wind... the weather affects everyone in some way every day, and observing weather is a terrific activity to attune children to the natural world. It is also a great way for children to practice skills in gathering and recording information and to learn how to use simple tools in a standardized fashion. What better way to…

  9. Fabulous Weather Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Candice; Mogil, H. Michael

    2007-01-01

    Each year, first graders at Kensington Parkwood Elementary School in Kensington, Maryland, look forward to Fabulous Weather Day. Students learn how meteorologists collect data about the weather, how they study wind, temperature, precipitation, basic types/characteristics of clouds, and how they forecast. The project helps the students grow in…

  10. Northwest Weather Watch

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Sue Palewicz

    This educational module is designed to teach students about predicting weather. This includes a series of activites about clouds, moisture, air and rain for students to complete. There are curriculum connections to art, writing and math as well as links for more resources and live weather data.

  11. The Home Weather Station.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinke, Steven D.

    1991-01-01

    Described is how an amateur weather observer measures and records temperature and precipitation at a well-equipped, backyard weather station. Directions for building an instrument shelter and a description of the instruments needed for measuring temperature and precipitation are included. (KR)

  12. Designing a Weather Station

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2012-01-01

    The collection and analysis of weather data is crucial to the location of alternate energy systems like solar and wind. This article presents a design challenge that gives students a chance to design a weather station to collect data in advance of a large wind turbine installation. Data analysis is a crucial part of any science or engineering…

  13. Winter Storms Weather Quizzes

    E-print Network

    Quizzes pg 3 pg 22 pg 7 pg 29 pg 13 pg 17 #12;Weather can be calm and peaceful. It also can be violent and the news media. We will tell you what is happening. Stay tuned! Hurricane Warning When the National Weather

  14. Sedimentary Rocks and Weathering

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Timothy Heaton

    This site contains 42 questions on the topic of sedimentary rocks and weathering including clast sizes, depositional environments, and products of weathering. This is part of the Principles of Earth Science course at the University of South Dakota. Users select an answer and are provided immediate feedback.

  15. Next Generation Weather Lab

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Users can learn about weather data output and analysis at the Next Generation Weather Lab website. This expansive website provides an abundance of surface data and upper air data as well as satellite and radar images for the United States. Types of data include plotting maps, contoured images, soundings, and cross sections.

  16. Weather Data Gamification

    E-print Network

    Gargate, Rohit

    2013-07-25

    of the weather patterns and climate change trends for those cities. We do a user-study to evaluate our application and prove its feasibility. An evaluation of the fantasy weather game indicates that the game had the desired effect of causing players to explore...

  17. Weather and Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Contemporary Learning Center, Houston, TX.

    This document is a minicourse on the interaction of weather, environment, and culture. It is designed for the high school student to read and self-administer. Performance objectives, enabling activities, and postassessment questions are given for each of eight modules. The modules are: (1) Basic Facts About Your Weather Known As Rain, (2) The…

  18. Weather Theory Introduction

    E-print Network

    protects life on Earth from high energy radiation and the frigid vacuum of space. Composition a Flight Service Station (FSS) weather specialist and other aviation weather services. Be it a local flight, and waves that travel for great distances. Life on Earth is supported by the atmosphere, solar energy

  19. Weather Fundamentals: Clouds. [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1998

    The videos in this educational series, for grades 4-7, help students understand the science behind weather phenomena through dramatic live-action footage, vivid animated graphics, detailed weather maps, and hands-on experiments. This episode (23 minutes) discusses how clouds form, the different types of clouds, and the important role they play in…

  20. Mild and Wild Weather.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NatureScope, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Presents background information and six activities that focus on clouds, precipitation, and stormy weather. Each activity includes an objective, recommended age level(s), subject area(s), and instructional strategies. Also provided are two ready-to-copy pages (a coloring page on lightning and a list of weather riddles to solve). (JN)

  1. Weather Vane and Anemometer

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Watsonville Environmental Science Workshop

    2011-01-01

    In this meteorology activity, learners construct simple devices to measure the direction and speed of wind. Learners will explore wind and air resistance as well as how weather vanes and generators work to analyze weather patterns. Note: a drill and other specialty tools are required for this activity, but are not included in the cost of materials.

  2. Teacher's Weather Sourcebook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konvicka, Tom

    This book is a teaching resource for the study of weather-related phenomena. A "weather unit" is often incorporated into school study because of its importance to our daily lives and because of its potential to cut across disciplinary content. This book consists of two parts. Part I covers the major topics of atmospheric science such as the modern…

  3. Tracking Weather Satellites.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Helen E.

    1996-01-01

    Describes the use of weather satellites in providing an exciting, cohesive framework for students learning Earth and space science and in providing a hands-on approach to technology in the classroom. Discusses the history of weather satellites and classroom satellite tracking. (JRH)

  4. EMERGENCY, DISASTER, & WEATHER INFORMATION

    E-print Network

    Weber, David J.

    EMERGENCY, DISASTER, & WEATHER INFORMATION University · Campus Emergency and Inclement Weather.umaryland.edu/health · Dental Care: 6-7102 or 6-7063 www.dental.umaryland.edu/ patientinfo · Student Counseling Center: 8.parking.umaryland.edu Police and Public Safety 6-6882, 711 (emergency) www.umaryland.edu/police Recreation and Fitness 6-PLAY

  5. What Is Space Weather?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This resource provides a brief overview of the phenomenon known as space weather, which happens when energetic particles emitted by the Sun impact the Earth's magnetosphere. Users can view images, video clips, and animations of auroras and other types of space weather. A set of links to related websites is also provided.

  6. Weather Fundamentals: Wind. [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1998

    The videos in this educational series, for grades 4-7, help students understand the science behind weather phenomena through dramatic live-action footage, vivid animated graphics, detailed weather maps, and hands-on experiments. This episode (23 minutes) describes the roles of the sun, temperature, and air pressure in creating the incredible power…

  7. Solar and Space Physics PhD Production and Job Availability: Implications for the Future of the Space Weather Research Workforce

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moldwin, M.; Morrow, C. A.; Moldwin, L. A.; Torrence, J.

    2012-12-01

    To assess the state-of-health of the field of Solar and Space Physics an analysis of the number of Ph.D.s produced and number of Job Postings each year was done for the decade 2001-2010. To determine the number of Ph.D's produced in the field, the University of Michigan Ph.D. Dissertation Archive (Proquest) was queried for Solar and Space Physics dissertations produced in North America. The field generated about 30 Ph.D. per year from 2001 to 2006, but then saw the number increase to 50 to 70 per year for the rest of the decade. Only 14 institutions account for the majority of Solar and Space Physics PhDs. To estimate the number of jobs available each year in the field, a compilation of the job advertisements listed in the American Astronomical Society's Solar Physics Division (SPD) and the American Geophysical Union's Space Physics and Aeronomy (SPA) electronic newsletters was done. The positions were sorted into four types (Faculty, Post-doctoral Researcher, and Scientist/Researcher or Staff), institution type (academic, government lab, or industry) and if the position was located inside or outside the United States. Overall worldwide, 943 Solar and Space Physics positions were advertised over the decade. Of this total, 52% were for positions outside the US. Within Solar Physics, 44% of the positions were in the US, while in Space Physics 57% of the positions were for US institutions. The annual average for positions in the US were 26.9 for Solar Physics and 31.5 for Space Physics though there is much variability year-to-year particularly in Solar Physics positions outside the US. A disconcerting trend is a decline in job advertisements in the last two years for Solar Physics positions and between 2009 and 2010 for Space Physics positions. For both communities within the US in 2010, the total job ads reached their lowest levels in the decade (14), approximately half the decadal average number of job advertisements.

  8. An integrated numerical and physical modeling system for an enhanced in situ bioremediation process.

    PubMed

    Huang, Y F; Huang, G H; Wang, G Q; Lin, Q G; Chakma, A

    2006-12-01

    Groundwater contamination due to releases of petroleum products is a major environmental concern in many urban districts and industrial zones. Over the past years, a few studies were undertaken to address in situ bioremediation processes coupled with contaminant transport in two- or three-dimensional domains. However, they were concentrated on natural attenuation processes for petroleum contaminants or enhanced in situ bioremediation processes in laboratory columns. In this study, an integrated numerical and physical modeling system is developed for simulating an enhanced in situ biodegradation (EISB) process coupled with three-dimensional multiphase multicomponent flow and transport simulation in a multi-dimensional pilot-scale physical model. The designed pilot-scale physical model is effective in tackling natural attenuation and EISB processes for site remediation. The simulation results demonstrate that the developed system is effective in modeling the EISB process, and can thus be used for investigating the effects of various uncertainties. PMID:16631288

  9. Cosmochemical implications of the physical processing of cometary nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    McSween, H.Y. Jr. (Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville (USA)); Weissman, P.R. (Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA (USA))

    1989-12-01

    Comets are not necessarily pristine nebular and interstellar material, despite a common perception to that effect. Alteration processes may occur during comet formation in the outer planet region, during their dispersal to or residence within the Oort cloud, and after their return to the planetary region. Processes that may have significantly modified cometary nuclei include heating, impacts, and irradiation. Possible consequences include phase changes in ices, hydration reactions in silicates, synthesis of organic compounds, collisional disruption and re-accretion, shock and irradiation effects in minerals and ices, cosmogenic nuclide formation, redistribution or loss of volatiles, and formation of a refractory veneer. A model of cometary nuclei that emerges from these considerations provides a framework for understanding observations of comets and future samples.

  10. A physical interpretation for the natural photosynthetic process.

    PubMed

    Hill, R; Rich, P R

    1983-02-01

    The efficiency of the process of photosynthesis is shown to depend on the molecular conversion of power. This requires establishment of a discipline that is now implicit in current thought and that offers a definition of relationship between equilibrium state and power. The quantum aspect for the microscopic process is different from the macroscopic system idealized as the heat engine and is required for the interpretation of molecular machinery. By using three postulates the ideal maximal efficiency for the molecular energy conversion is calculated from the data, which are assembled in the form of the "Z scheme" for photosynthesis. The observed and the calculated efficiencies for a green plant are substantially in agreement. PMID:16593282

  11. Control of physical properties on solid surface via laser processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yonemoto, Yukihiro; Nishimura, Akihiko

    2012-07-01

    In a safety operation of a nuclear power plant, vapor conditions such as a droplet or liquid membrane toward a solid surface of a heat exchanger and reactor vessel is important. In the present study, focusing on the droplet, the wettability on solid surface and surface free energy of solid are evaluated. In addition, wettability on a metal plate fabricated by laser processing is also considered for the nuclear engineering application.

  12. Control of physical properties on solid surface via laser processing

    SciTech Connect

    Yonemoto, Yukihiro; Nishimura, Akihiko [Applied Laser Technology Institute, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 65-20 Kizaki, Tsuruga, Fukui (Japan)

    2012-07-11

    In a safety operation of a nuclear power plant, vapor conditions such as a droplet or liquid membrane toward a solid surface of a heat exchanger and reactor vessel is important. In the present study, focusing on the droplet, the wettability on solid surface and surface free energy of solid are evaluated. In addition, wettability on a metal plate fabricated by laser processing is also considered for the nuclear engineering application.

  13. Physical modeling and analysis of rain and clouds by anisotropic scaling multiplicative processes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel Schertzer; Shaun Lovejoy

    1987-01-01

    We argue that the basic properties of rain and cloud fields (particularly their scaling and intermittency) are best understood in terms of coupled (anisotropic and scaling) cascade processes. We show how such cascades provide a framework not only for theoretically and empirically investigating these fields, but also for constructing physically based stochastic models. This physical basis is provided by cascade

  14. Physics as Quantum Information Processing: Quantum Fields as Quantum Automata 1

    E-print Network

    D'Ariano, Giacomo Mauro

    Physics as Quantum Information Processing: Quantum Fields as Quantum Automata 1 Giacomo Mauro D Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Gruppo IV, Sezione di Pavia Abstract. Can we reduce Quantum Field Theory (QFT) to a quantum computation? Can physics be simulated by a quantum computer? Do we believe that a quantum field

  15. Estimation of physical parameters for dynamic processes with application to an industrial robot

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. ISERMANN

    1992-01-01

    The unknown parameters of physical laws which govern the dynamics of processes can be gained from measured input and output signals in a two step procedure. First the parameters of differential equations are estimated and then the physical parameters are calculated based on algebraic relations. After considering the model structures a suitable parameter estimation method for continuous time signals is

  16. Analysis of chemical and physical processes during the pyrolysis of large biomass pellets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chan; W. C. R

    1983-01-01

    The detailed chemical and physical processes that occur during the pyrolysis of large biomass pellets have been studied both experimentally and mathematically. The quantitative effects on product distribution of chemical composition and physical variables, such as external heat flux, pellet length, density and wood grain orientation, are determined systematically by using a Box-Behnken experimental design. The yield of each product

  17. Physics as quantum information processing1 Giacomo Mauro D'Ariano

    E-print Network

    D'Ariano, Giacomo Mauro

    Physics as quantum information processing1 Giacomo Mauro D'Ariano QUIT Group, Dipartimento di at the foundations of Physics has been then considered, with space-time, Relativity, quantization rules and Quantum IV, Sezione di Pavia Abstract. The experience from Quantum Information has lead us to look at Quantum

  18. Scholastic: Weather Watch

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Weather Watch series of online projects investigates seasonal weather phenomena. Students discover the scientific explanations for these events, and use tools and resources for enhanced research. The Hurricanes project allows students to monitor patterns and plot the progression of hurricanes. The Winter Storms project contains an interactive weather maker allowing students to create different weather patterns by changing factors. A winter storm timeline provides stories of the harshest blizzards that have occurred in the U.S. The Weather Reporters project includes a selection of hands-on science experiments for classroom participation, leading up to sharing results online with students worldwide. Each project provides assessment tools and lesson plan suggestions for educators. Links are provided for additional resources.

  19. Development of a Fast and Detailed Model of Urban-Scale Chemical and Physical Processing

    E-print Network

    Prinn, Ronald G.

    A reduced form metamodel has been produced to simulate the effects of physical, chemical, and meteorological processing of highly reactive trace species in hypothetical urban areas, which is capable of efficiently simulating ...

  20. The Kinetics and Thermodynamics of the Phenol from Cumene Process: A Physical Chemistry Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Edward C. M.; Sjoberg, Stephen L.

    1980-01-01

    Presents a physical chemistry experiment demonstrating the differences between thermodynamics and kinetics. The experiment used the formation of phenol and acetone from cumene hydroperoxide, also providing an example of an industrially significant process. (CS)