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1

Weathering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This course handout covers the processes and effects of weathering. The purpose of this handout is to contrast weathering and erosion, contrast and discuss chemical and mechanical weathering, list the products resulting from the chemical weathering of igneous rocks, and list and discuss the factors that influence the type and rate of rock weathering. Many photographs accompany this summary which depict weathered landscapes. Links are provided to the online Physical Geology resources at Georgia Perimeter College.

Pamela Gore

1995-08-29

2

Observations and simulations of physical and biological processes at ocean weather station P, 1951-1980  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Physical and biological processes in the mixed layer at ocean weather station (OWS) P (50°N, 145°W) over a 30-year period (1951-1980) were investigated using observations and model simulations. The observations include 30 years of surface meteorological and sea surface temperature data collected at OWS P and Ekman upwelling velocities derived from the Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set, 14 years (1953-1966) of daily temperature profiles, nearly 150 chlorophyll a profiles spanning all months of the year, monthly climatological solar irradiances, and 0- to 50-m integrated nitrate concentrations. The simulations incorporated models for the estimation of surface solar downwelling irradiance, surface heat fluxes, subsurface diffuse attenuation, mixed layer dynamics, and biological processes. The time-dependent model inputs were the surface observations of cloud cover, air temperature, dew point temperature, and wind speed. The atmospheric irradiance, marine diffuse attenuation, and mixed layer models were adapted from existing models developed by others. The biological model, developed by the authors, has four components (nitrate, ammonium, phytoplankton nitrogen, and zooplankton nitrogen) and computes a variety of additional quantities, including chlorophyll a concentration and gross and new production. Model comparisons with in situ time series showed that predictions of sea surface temperature and mixed layer depth were reasonably accurate. Climatological monthly profiles of chlorophyll a and temperature were within 1 standard deviation of the observed values at nearly all depths. Also, the climatological annual cycles of solar irradiance and 0- to 50-m integrated nitrate accurately reproduced observed values. Annual primary production was estimated to be ˜190 g C m-2 yr-1 and varied by no more than ±5% in any year. This estimate is consistent with recent observations but is much greater than earlier estimates, indicating that carbon cycling in the North Pacific is much more important to the global carbon budget than previously thought. Significant interannual variability in sea surface temperature, Ekman upwelling, mixed layer depth, and surface nitrate concentration had little impact on productivity. The model also indicates that the nitrate supply to the euphotic zone is very sensitive to Ekman upwelling and that amplification of the wind stress curl can result in complete nitrate depletion when the winds are persistently downwelling favorable.

McClain, Charles R.; Arrigo, Kevin; Tai, King-Sheng; Turk, Daniella

1996-02-01

3

Physical Weathering Concept Map Exercise  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students review and score a concept map for physical weathering using a grading rubric. They are then asked to reorganize or redraw the diagram to a form that you believe is appropriate to earn the highest score on the rubric.

Mcconnell, David

4

Space Weathering Processes on Mercury  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Like the Moon, Mercury has no atmosphere to protect it from the harsh space environment and therefore it is expected that it will incur the effects of space weathering. These weathering processes are capable of both creating regolith and altering its optical properties. However, there are many important differences between the environments of Mercury and the Moon. These environmental differences will almost certainly affect the weathering processes as well as the products of those processes. It should be possible to observe the effects of these differences in Vis/NIR spectra of the type expected to be returned by MESSENGER. More importantly, understanding these weathering processes and their consequences is essential for evaluating the spectral data returned from MESSENGER and other missions in order to determine the mineralogy and the iron content of the Mercurian surface. Theoretical and experimental work has been undertaken in order to better understand these consequences.

Noble, S. K.; Pieters, C. M.

2002-01-01

5

Quantification of physical weathering rates using thermodynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Physical weathering plays an important role in the global rock cycle in that it breaks up primary rock, thereby increasing the surface area for chemical weathering and providing the substrate for soil formation. We use a simple, thermodynamics based approach to quantify magnitudes of weathering, their spatial variation across climatic regions and their sensitivity to climatic change. Our approach is

F. Gans; S. Arens; S. J. Schymanski; A. Kleidon

2010-01-01

6

Physical and chemical weathering. [of Martian surface and rocks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Physical and chemical weathering processes that might be important on Mars are reviewed, and the limited observations, including relevant Viking results and laboratory simulations, are summarized. Physical weathering may have included rock splitting through growth of ice, salt or secondary silicate crystals in voids. Chemical weathering probably involved reactions of minerals with water, oxygen, and carbon dioxide, although predicted products vary sensitively with the abundance and physical form postulated for the water. On the basis of kinetics data for hydration of rock glass on earth, the fate of weathering-rind formation on glass-bearing Martian volcanic rocks is tentatively estimated to have been on the order of 0.1 to 4.5 cm/Gyr; lower rates would be expected for crystalline rocks.

Gooding, James L.; Arvidson, Raymond E.; Zolotov, Mikhail IU.

1992-01-01

7

Physical weathering and modification of a rhyolitic hyaloclastite in Iceland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fragmental volcanic glass or `hyaloclastite' is a common glaciovolcanic eruption product that is formed in large abundance during basaltic, andesitic and rhyolitic subglacial eruptions. The physical weathering of rhyolitic hyaloclastites differs notably from basaltic hyaloclastites due to differences in cementation and edifice consolidation. As rhyolitic glasses are also much rarer, comparatively little is known about their physical weathering and fracturing characteristics. In the presented study, we provide a process-oriented analysis of the physical modification of subglacially erupted rhyolitic hyaloclastites from the Bláhnúkur edifice in Torfajökull (Iceland). Frost weathering experiments were performed to determine how vesicular glass particles fragment to finer particle sizes. The surficial porosity of the glass drives such frost weathering through the process of pore pressurisation and was quantified using high-pressure mercury intrusion. Uniaxial compression experiments were carried out to understand how the glass structure responds to the application of external stress. The observed fracturing in both experimental treatments was found to adhere to fractal statistics, which allowed the compression experiments to be used in conjunction with the frost weathering experiments for inferring the fracturing characteristics of rhyolitic volcanic glasses. Transport processes by wind and gravity were simulated by long-duration abrasion experiments in rock tumblers (through granular avalanching), but these low-energy particle interactions were not found to significantly abrade particles. A notable result from our fragmentation experiments was the production of <10 ?m particles. This size range is considered respirable and illustrates how physical weathering can continuously create potentially harmful ash textures; a process which is often overlooked in health hazard assessments after volcanic eruptions. Fragmentation by post-eruptive weathering can lead to overestimations of the fine ash fraction produced by syneruptive fragmentation and granulometric studies therefore need to be appreciative of the effects of such secondary fracturing processes.

de Vet, S. J.; Mittelmeijer-Hazeleger, M. C.; Braakhekke, J. J. M.; Cammeraat, L. H.

2014-06-01

8

Weathering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive Flash resource provides information regarding physical and chemical weathering at an introductory physical geology or Earth science level. It includes animations, diagrams, and supplementary information and is suitable for high school or undergraduate students.

Smoothstone; Mifflin, Houghton

9

Physics 137, Section 1, Fall Semester Severe and Hazardous Weather  

E-print Network

Physics 137, Section 1, Fall Semester Severe and Hazardous Weather OBSERVATION PROJECTS During project or present one TV-type weather forecast. A list of a few possible observational projects is here of the project, information in the report might include times, dates and places of observations; weather

Hart, Gus

10

Interactive (De)Weathering of an Image using Physical Models  

E-print Network

Interactive (De)Weathering of an Image using Physical Models Srinivasa G. Narasimhan and Shree K}@cs.columbia.edu Abstract Images of scenes acquired in bad weather have poor con- trasts and colors. It is known that the degradation of image quality due to bad weather is exponential in the depths of the scene points. Therefore

Nayar, Shree K.

11

A Chapter In Space Weather: Physics and Effects  

E-print Network

chapters, space weather comprises a large number of complex electrodynamic and plasma physical phenomena of interest, which are usually electrodynamic and plasma physical phenomena. For instance a space radiation and verification. As a result, today's space weather models are at very different evolution stages. Instead

Vassiliadis, Dimitrios

12

Olivine Weathering: Abiotic Versus Biotic Processes as Possible Biosignatures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A preliminary study to determine how abiotic versus biotic processes affect the weathering of olivine crystals. Perhaps the differences between these weathering processes could be used as biosignatures. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

Longazo, T. G.; Wentworth, S. J.; McKay, D. S.; Southam, G.; Clemett, S. J.

2001-01-01

13

Physical mechanisms of solar variability influence on weather and climate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Numerous researches into correlation of weather and climate characteristics with solar and geomagnetic activity confirm that such correlation does exist. However there is some uncertainty in interpretation of the Sun-weather-climate relations. The paper considers the main causes of this uncertainty which are as follows - the lack of permanent monitoring data on ionizing solar EUV/X-ray radiation including periods of flares; and also the data on electron fluxes of keV energy precipitating from radiation belts first of all during geomagnetic storms; - multiplicity of Sun-weather-climate links; - the lack of understanding what are the mechanisms of solar-geomagnetic activity (flares and storms) influence on weather and climate characteristics; By now mainly the research on galactic cosmic rays (GSR) including Forbush effects and solar cosmic rays (SCR) influences on atmosphere transparence characteristics and further on climate-weather characteristics have been carried out. The GCR flux increase causes the growth of low (usually optically thick) cloudness and therefore produces in generally cooling effect on the mean surface air temperature. The appearance of SCR causes the reduction of stratospheric and tropospheric transparence and produces also usually cooling effect However these events are rare and corresponding variations of fluxes energy are small. At the same time such strong and frequent manifestations of solar activity as flares and magnetic storms are not so far taken into account since it is not known what physical mechanisms could be responsible for energy transfer from solar flares and magnetic storms to the lower atmosphere. The paper describes a novel radio-optical mechanism responsible for the solar-terrestrial links which acts as a three-stage trigger and which could be useful for solving the problem "Sun- weather-climate". This physical mechanism is based on taking into account the excitation of Rydberg states of atoms and molecules in generation of the ionospheric microwave radiation and in realization of the dissociative recombination of cluster ions in troposphere. The mechanism enables agents of solar and geomagnetic activities affect atmospheric processes with help the flux of microwaves from ionosphere. This first agent under consideration is variation of fluxes of solar EUV and X -ray radiation during flares. The second agent is fluxes of electrons and protons which precipitate from radiation belts as a result of geomagnetic storms.. Our novel radiooptical trigger mechanism of influence of solar and geomagnetic activity on the formation of weather and climate changes consists of three stages. The first stage is an increase in generation of the microwave radiation which penetrates from the ionosphere to the earth surface. The microwave radiation arises from the transitions between Rydberg states which are exited by the energetic ionospheric electrons namely photoelectrons, secondary electrons and Auger electrons. The second stage is a change in the proportion of water vapour to water clusters caused by increased microwave radiation. The third stage is a change of the atmosphere transparence in the absorption bands of water vapour and clusters and appearance of optically-thin clouds at high and middle altitudes. These clouds cause a net warming due to their relative transparency at short wavelengths but opacity in the IR region The atmosphere transparence determines the fluxes of solar irradiance coming down as well as flux of the thermal radiation coming out from the underlying surface. We emphasize that all stages of the proposed mechanism are experimentally confirmed: the microwave ionospheric emission, which intensifies during solar and magnetic storms, was detected; the regulation of humidity at altitude higher than 2 km by the solar microwave emission and during of solar flares was registered; a direct influence of solar flares and magnetic storms on the total cloudiness is distinctly registered at least in some geographic areas.

Avakyan, Sergei

2010-05-01

14

Mechanical Weathering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity was designed to give students an opportunity to realize that all rocks weather mechanically and each specific rock type has its own particular rate of weathering. Students discover that mechanical weathering is the process of breaking down bedrock into smaller fragments by physical as opposed to chemical means and that rock weathering, although it seems to occur slowly in human terms, is an extremely significant part of the rock cycle. They will learn that weathered rock materials are called sediments and are the structural basis for soils and can also be compacted into sedimentary rock. Students will realize that rock weathering rates vary widely depending on mineral content, texture, rock type, and climate and that differential weathering (varying weathering rates for two or more rock types in physical contact with each other) has given rise to some of the world's most breathtaking scenery.

15

Enhancement of physical weathering of building stones by microbial populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two limestones from Crete, Greece and a dolomite from Mansfield, UK were subjected to combined microbial and physical weathering simulation cycles, in an attempt to assess the contribution of each agent of decay. Sound stone discs were exposed to different temperature and wet\\/dry cycling regimes involving treatment with distilled water or solutions of sodium chloride or sodium sulphate. Before the

Sophia Papida; William Murphy; Eric May

2000-01-01

16

Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What are the different types of weather? In this project you will compare different types of weather by drawing pictures and making it into a flip book. First you will begin by learning about the different types of weather. Read about each topic. Then get together with your partner and draw a picture of each type of weather. 1. Thunder storm Thunder storm Thunder storm Kids 2. Lightning Lightning Lightning picture 3. Tornado Tornadoes Tornado Kids 4. ...

Jennie, Miss

2009-10-22

17

Gombosi Receives 2013 Space Weather and Nonlinear Waves and Processes Prize: Citation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Space Physics and Aeronomy section of AGU awards the Space Weather and Nonlinear Waves and Processes Prize to Tamas Gombosi of the University of Michigan. Gombosi, the founding director of the Center for Space Environment Modeling, has been a leader in space weather research, a visionary in space weather numerical modeling for several decades, and a pioneer of international space physics collaboration. Gombosi's major contributions to space weather include the development of the first time-dependent numerical model of the terrestrial polar wind and the creation of the BATS-R-US magnetohydrodynamic model, a powerful and versatile numerical tool widely used today for modeling the global geospace, the heliosphere, and the solar interior.

McCoy, Robert P.

2014-08-01

18

Influence of weather-climatic conditions on biospheric processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The significance of meteorological processes and phenomena in the biosphere functioning is revealed. The influence of various weather conditions on human health is considered; the factors and mechanisms of their action are described. The impact of meteorological processes on animals is discussed and concrete examples of such impacts are presented. The influence of meteorological processes and phenomena on plants at different stages of their life (pollination, growth, ripening, transport of seeds, damage, and death) and on some abiotic natural components is shown. It is inferred that weather-climatic conditions have a great influence on biospheric processes.

Govorushko, S. M.

2012-12-01

19

Physics 137, Section 1, Winter Semester Introduction to the Atmosphere and Weather  

E-print Network

Physics 137, Section 1, Winter Semester Introduction to the Atmosphere and Weather OBSERVATIONAL observational project or present one TV-type weather forecast. A list of a few possible observational projects; weather conditions at times of observations, data tables, charts, sketches, graphs, descriptions of what

Hart, Gus

20

Multilayer Scintillation Detector for Nuclear Physics Monitoring of Space Weather  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The physical characteristics of the multilayer scintillation spectrometer for identification and energy measurement of cosmic electrons, positrons and nuclei are considered in this presentation. The nuclei energy measurement range is 3-100 MeV/nucleon. This spectrometer is planning for space weather monitoring and investigation of solar-magnetospheric and geophysics effects on satellite. These characteristics were estimated by means of computer simulation. The ionization loss fluctuations, ion charge exchange during pass through detector and, especially, scintillation quenching effect (Bircs effect) were taken into account in calculations. The main results are: 1.) Ions mass identification is possible for hydrogen and helium isotopes 2.) Ions charge identification without mass identification is possible for nuclei from lithium to oxygen The preliminary estimation indicate, that including to spectrometer of thin semiconductor detector (SCD) as first layer makes possible charge identification for Z>8. This may be done by means of comparison of ion range in spectrometer with its energy loss in SCD.

Aleksandrin, Sergey; Mayorov, Andrey; Koldashov, Sergey; Batischev, Alexey; Lapushkin, Sergey; Gurov, Yury

21

Future L5 Missions for Solar Physics and Space Weather  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and corotating interaction regions (CIR) are the sources of intense space weather in the heliosphere. Most of the current knowledge on CMEs accumulated over the past few decades has been derived from observations made from the Sun-Earth line, which is not the ideal vantage point to observe Earth-affecting CMEs (Gopalswamy et al., 2011a,b). In this paper, the advantages of remote-sensing and in-situ observations from the Sun-Earth L5 point are discussed. Locating a mission at Sun-Earth L5 has several key benefits for solar physics and space weather: (1) off the Sun-Earth line view is critical in observing Earth-arriving parts of CMEs, (2) L5 coronagraphic observations can also provide near-Sun space speed of CMEs, which is an important input to models that forecast Earth-arrival time of CMEs, (3) backside and frontside CMEs can be readily distinguished even without inner coronal imagers, (4) preceding CMEs in the path of Earth-affecting CMEs can be identified for a better estimate of the travel time, (5) CIRs reach the L5 point a few days before they arrive at Earth, and hence provide significant lead time before CIR arrival, (6) L5 observations can provide advance knowledge of CME and CIR source regions (coronal holes) rotating to Earth view, and (7) magnetograms obtained from L5 can improve the surface magnetic field distribution used as input to MHD models that predict the background solar wind. The paper also discusses L5 mission concepts that can be achieved in the near future. References Gopalswamy, N., Davila, J. M., St. Cyr, O. C., Sittler, E. C., Auchère, F., Duvall, T. L., Hoeksema, J. T., Maksimovic, M., MacDowall, R. J., Szabo, A., Collier, M. R. (2011a), Earth-Affecting Solar Causes Observatory (EASCO): A potential International Living with a Star Mission from Sun-Earth L5 JASTP 73, 658-663, DOI: 10.1016/j.jastp.2011.01.013 Gopalswamy, N., Davila, J. M., Auchère, F., Schou, J., Korendyke, C. M. Shih, A., Johnston, J. C., MacDowall, R. J., Maksimovic, M., Sittler, E., et al. (2011b), Earth-Affecting Solar Causes Observatory (EASCO): a mission at the Sun-Earth L5, Solar Physics and Space Weather Instrumentation IV. Ed. Fineschi, S. & Fennelly, J., Proceedings of the SPIE, Volume 8148, article id. 81480Z, DOI: 10.1117/12.901538

Auchere, Frederic; Gopalswamy, Nat

22

Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In the project you will learn about thunderstorms and tornadoes and play a weather matching game. What exactly are thunderstorms and tornadoes? Use your T- chart to explain some facts about a thunderstorm and a tornado as we review each. T-Chart Begin by reviewing what a thunderstorm is and how they form. Thunderstorm information What is a thunderstorm? What are thunderstorms most likely to occur? What causes thunder? Next review what a tornado ...

Caitlin, Ms.

2009-10-21

23

Weathering and Erosion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This unit provides an introduction for younger students to the concepts of weathering and erosion. Topics include types of weathering (physical versus chemical), rates of weathering, and weathering products (soil). The section on erosion explains the importance of water and gravity in the process, and discusses some of the more important erosional agents such as wind, water and ice, streams and glaciers. A vocabulary list and downloadable, printable student worksheets are provided.

Medina, Philip

2010-09-07

24

Stealth CMEs: A Challenge for Solar Physics and Space Weather  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is commonly believed that coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are a primary driver of intense disturbances in the inner heliosphere. Although many of these CMEs are associated with clear solar transient phenomena such as flares, there have been a number of events without unambiguous solar origin, presenting a significant challenge not only for solar physics research, but also for space weather forecasts. For example, nearly 20% of major geomagnetic storms in solar cycle 23 that involved the interplanetary counterparts of CMEs (i.e., ICMEs) did not leave compelling signatures in EUV or X-ray images. We now tend to consider such orphan CMEs to be 'stealth' CMEs as first identified in data from the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO) during last solar minimum. In the meantime the sensitivity of coronal observations has been tremendously improved as the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) was launched in February 2010; SDO carries the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA), which provides high-cadence, full-disk images in a broad temperature range as sampled in EUV wavelengths. In principle, AIA should allow us to trace the origin of every Earth-directed CME observed as a limb event by the coronagraphs (COR-1, COR-2, HI-1 and HI-2) on STEREO. In reality, however, we have at least a handful of ICMEs whose origin may not clearly be tracked down to the low corona. Some of them were indeed geo-effective, further complicated by other factors including co-rotating interaction regions (CIRs). Here we give a survey of these events, discussing AIA and STEREO observations of their onsets and propagations in reference to their in-situ manifestations. We list key questions that should be answered by observational and modeling work in order to get more solid understanding of the origin of geomagnetic storms.

Nitta, N.; Srivastava, N.

2013-12-01

25

Evidence of Space Weathering Processes Across the Surface of Vesta  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As NASA s Dawn spacecraft explores the surface of Vesta, it has become abundantly clear that Vesta is like no other planetary body visited to date. Dawn is collecting global data at increasingly higher spatial resolution during its one-year orbital mission. The bulk properties of Vesta have previously been linked to the HED meteorites through remote mineral characterization of its surface from Earth-based spectroscopy. A principal puzzle has been why Vesta exhibits relatively unweathered diagnostic optical features compared to other large asteroids. Is this due to the composition of this proto-planet or the space environment at Vesta? Alteration or weathering of materials in space normally develops as the products of several processes accumulate on the surface or in an evolving particulate regolith, transforming the bedrock into fragmental material with properties that may be measurably different from the original. Data from Dawn reveal that the regolith of Vesta is exceptionally diverse. Regional surface units are observed that have not been erased by weathering with time. Several morphologically-fresh craters have excavated bright, mafic-rich materials and exhibit bright ray systems. Some of the larger craters have surrounding subdued regions (often asymmetric) that are lower in albedo and relatively red-sloped in the visible while exhibiting weaker mafic signatures. Several other prominent craters have rim exposures containing very dark material and/or display a system of prominent dark rays. Most, but not all, dark areas associated with craters exhibit significantly lower spectral contrast, suggesting that either a Vesta lithology with an opaque component has been exposed locally or that the surface has been contaminated by a relatively dark impactor. Similarly, most, but not all, bright areas associated with craters exhibit enhanced mafic signatures compared to surroundings. On a regional scale, the large south polar structure and surrounding terrain exhibit relatively strong mafic absorption features, suggesting either a concentration of mafic materials or that materials exposed have been less affected by space weathering products. These combined initial observations indicate some space weathering processes are active in this part of the main asteroid belt, but are highly variable across the surface of Vesta. Such processes include: impacts from wandering asteroidal debris and local mixing at both micro- and macro-scales, irradiation by solar wind and galactic particles, production and distribution of impact breccias or melt products, and local movement of materials to gravity lows (gradual as well as sudden).

Pieters, Carle M.; Blewett, David T.; Gaffey, Michael; Mittlefehldt, David W.; CristinaDeSanctis, Maria; Reddy, Vishnu; Coradini, Angioletta; Nathues, Andreas; Denevi, Brett W.; Li, Jian-Yang; McCord, Thomas B.; Marchi, Simone; Palmer, Eric E.; Sunshine, Jessica M.; Filacchione, Gianrico; Ammannito, Eleonora; Raymond, Carol A.; Russell, Christopher T.

2011-01-01

26

Antarctic glaciers and rock weathering: Exploring chemical and mineralogy processes within the blue ice fields  

E-print Network

Antarctic glaciers and rock weathering: Exploring chemical and mineralogy processes within the blue, and precipitation of weathering products (e.g. magnesium carbonates and iron oxyhydroxides, or `rust'), is highly into a virtue by using weathering products to unlock the information that contain regarding the mechanisms

Guo, Zaoyang

27

Efficient Methods of Doppler Processing for Coexisting Land and Weather Clutter  

E-print Network

Efficient Methods of Doppler Processing for Coexisting Land and Weather Clutter C¸ a~gatay Candan@metu.edu.tr, aoyilmaz@metu.edu.tr Abstract--The joint suppression of returns from land and weather clutter is required in many radar applications. Although the optimal method of land-weather clutter suppression is known

Candan, Cagatay

28

Physics as Information Processing  

SciTech Connect

I review some recent advances in foundational research at Pavia QUIT group. The general idea is that there is only Quantum Theory without quantization rules, and the whole Physics - including space-time and relativity - is emergent from the quantum-information processing. And since Quantum Theory itself is axiomatized solely on informational principles, the whole Physics must be reformulated in information-theoretical terms: this is the It from bit of J. A. Wheeler.The review is divided into four parts: a) the informational axiomatization of Quantum Theory; b) how space-time and relativistic covariance emerge from quantum computation; c) what is the information-theoretical meaning of inertial mass and of ({h_bar}/2{pi}), and how the quantum field emerges; d) an observational consequence of the new quantum field theory: a mass-dependent refraction index of vacuum. I will conclude with the research lines that will follow in the immediate future.

D'Ariano, Giacomo Mauro [QUIT Group, Dipartimento di Fisica 'A. Volta', 27100 Pavia (Italy) and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Gruppo IV, Sezione di Pavia (Italy)

2011-03-28

29

Space Weathering on 4 Vesta: Processes and Products  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The bulk properties of Vesta have previously been linked directly to the howardite, eucrite, and diogenite (HED) meteorites through remote mineral characterization of its surface from Earth-based spectroscopy [e.g., 1]. A long-standing enigma has been why does Vesta s surface appear to have suffered so little alteration from the space environment, whereas materials exposed on the Moon and some S-type asteroids are significantly changed (grains develop rims containing nano-phase opaques [e.g. 2]). The Dawn spacecraft is well suited to address this issue and is half through its extended mapping phase of this remarkable proto-planet [3]. On a local scale Dawn sees evidence of recent exposures at craters, but distinctive surface materials blend into background at older craters. The presence of space weathering processes are thus evident at Vesta, but the character and form are controlled by the unique environment and geologic history of this small body.

Pieters, C. M.; Blewett, D. T.; Gaffey, M.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.; De Sanctis, M. C.; Reddy, V.; Nathues, A.; Denevi, B. W.; Li, J. Y.; McCord, T. B.; Marchi, S.; Palmer, E. E.; Sunshine, J. M.; Ammannito, E.; Raymond, C. A.; Russell, C. T.

2012-01-01

30

Weathering Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

After discussing weathering and erosion in class, students are asked to do a small amount of research on different types of chemical weathering, physical weathering, and erosion processes (mostly out of their textbook). Outside of class students then dirty at least four similar dishes with the same type, thickness and aerial extent of food, preferably baked on to ensure maximum stick. One dish is set aside as a control (no weathering or erosion will occur for that dish). For each of the remaining three dishes, students devise an experiment that mimics some sort of chemical weathering, physical weathering, or erosion process (freeze/thaw, sand abrasion, oxidation, etc.). Prior to the experiments, the thickness of food is measured. Experiments are timed, and at the end of the experiment each plate is turned over to determine how much which method removed the greatest aerial extent of food. Experimental results are compared to the control plate to determine the actual effectiveness. Erosion/weathering rates are determined by dividing the thickness of food removed by the experimental time. Students then calculate how long it would take to remove a pile of food the size of the Geology building (assume a 50 m radius sphere), and to remove an amount of food equivalent to the depth of the Grand Canyon. Students then compare these results to rock erosion and weathering rates, performing similar calculations using these "real" rates (see the full project description for details). Photos of each step and the scientists are encouraged in their 2-3 page writeup.

Stelling, Pete

31

wradlib - an Open Source Library for Weather Radar Data Processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Even though weather radar holds great promise for the hydrological sciences, offering precipitation estimates with unrivaled spatial and temporal resolution, there are still problems impeding its widespread use, among which are: almost every radar data set comes with a different data format with public reading software being available only rarely. standard products as issued by the meteorological services often do not serve the needs of original research, having either too many or too few corrections applied. Especially when new correction methods are to be developed, researchers are often forced to start from scratch having to implement many corrections in addition to those they are actually interested in. many algorithms published in the literature cannot be recreated using the corresponding article only. Public codes, providing insight into the actual implementation and how an approach deals with possible exceptions are rare. the radial scanning setup of weather radar measurements produces additional challenges, when it comes to visualization or georeferencing of this type of data. Based on these experiences, and in the hope to spare others at least some of these tedious tasks, wradlib offers the results of the author's own efforts and a growing number of community-supplied methods. wradlib is designed as a Python library of functions and classes to assist users in their analysis of weather radar data. It provides solutions for all tasks along a typical processing chain leading from raw reflectivity data to corrected, georeferenced and possibly gauge adjusted quantitative precipitation estimates. There are modules for data input/output, data transformation including Z/R transformation, clutter identification, attenuation correction, dual polarization and differential phase processing, interpolation, georeferencing, compositing, gauge adjustment, verification and visualization. The interpreted nature of the Python programming language makes wradlib an ideal tool for interactive data exploration and analysis. Based on the powerful scientific python stack (numpy, scipy, matplotlib) and in parts augmented by functions compiled in C or Fortran, most routines are fast enough to also allow data intensive re-analyses or even real-time applications. From the organizational point of view, wradlib is intended to be community driven. To this end, the source code is made available using a distributed version control system (DVCS) with a publicly hosted repository. Code may be contributed using the fork/pull-request mechanism available to most modern DVCS. Mailing lists were set up to allow dedicated exchange among users and developers in order to fix problems and discuss new developments. Extensive documentation is a key feature of the library, and is available online at http://wradlib.bitbucket.org. It includes an individual function reference as well as examples, tutorials and recipes, showing how those routines can be combined to create complete processing workflows. This should allow new users to achieve results quickly, even without much prior experience with weather radar data.

Pfaff, Thomas; Heistermann, Maik; Jacobi, Stephan

2014-05-01

32

Anvil Tool in the Advanced Weather Interactive Processing System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Meteorologists from the 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) and Spaceflight Meteorology Group (SMG) have identified anvil forecasting as one of their most challenging tasks when predicting the probability of violations of the lightning Launch Commit Criteria and Space Shuttle Flight Rules. As a result, the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) created a graphical overlay tool for the Meteorological Interactive Data Display Systems (MIDDS) to indicate the threat of thunderstorm anvil clouds, using either observed or model forecast winds as input. In order for the Anvil Tool to remain available to the meteorologists, the AMU was tasked to transition the tool to the Advanced Weather interactive Processing System (AWIPS). This report describes the work done by the AMU to develop the Anvil Tool for AWIPS to create a graphical overlay depicting the threat from thunderstorm anvil clouds. The AWIPS Anvil Tool is based on the previously deployed AMU MIDDS Anvil Tool. SMG and 45 WS forecasters have used the MIDDS Anvil Tool during launch and landing operations. SMG's primary weather analysis and display system is now AWIPS and the 45 WS has plans to replace MIDDS with AWIPS. The Anvil Tool creates a graphic that users can overlay on satellite or radar imagery to depict the potential location of thunderstorm anvils one, two, and three hours into the future. The locations are based on an average of the upper-level observed or forecasted winds. The graphic includes 10 and 20 nm standoff circles centered at the location of interest, in addition to one-, two-, and three-hour arcs in the upwind direction. The arcs extend outward across a 30 degree sector width based on a previous AMU study which determined thunderstorm anvils move in a direction plus or minus 15 degrees of the upper-level (300- to 150-mb) wind direction. This report briefly describes the history of the MIDDS Anvil Tool and then explains how the initial development of the AWIPS Anvil Tool was carried out. After testing was performed by SMG, 45 WS, and AMU, a number of needed improvements were identified. A bug report document was created that showed the status of each bug and desired improvement. This report lists the improvements that were made to increase the accuracy and user-friendliness of the tool. Final testing was carried out and documented and then the final version of the software and Users Guide was provided to SMG and the 45 WS. Several possible future improvements to the tool are identified that would increase the flexibility of the tool. This report contains a brief history of the development of the Anvil Tool in MIDDS, and then describes the transition and development of software to AWIPS.

Barrett, Joe, III; Bauman, William, III; Keen, Jeremy

2007-01-01

33

Spring Break-Weathering Homework  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students are asked to photograph something that shows either physical or chemical weathering. They must be in the photograph for purposes of scale. They must then write up their description of the weathering feature and explain the actual weathering processes. This assignment can also be expanded to include mass wasting and mass wasting prevention.

Farthing, Dori

34

METR 5233: Cloud and Precipitation Physics CLASSROOM: National Weather Center, Rm. 5930  

E-print Network

METR 5233: Cloud and Precipitation Physics Syllabus CLASSROOM: National Weather Center, Rm. 5930 BOOK: Rogers and Yau: A Short Course in Cloud Physics, Third Edition REFERENCE BOOKS: Pruppacher will be discussed. GRADES Homework problems: 30% Midterm examination: 30% Final examination (12/13/2013, 1:30-3:30pm

Droegemeier, Kelvin K.

35

Zeolite Formation and Weathering Processes in Dry Valleys of Antartica: Martian Analogs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Terrestrial weathering processes in cold-desert climates such as the Dry Valleys of Antarctica may provide an excellent analog to chemical weathering and diagenesis of soils on Mars. Detailed studies of soil development and the chemical and mineralogical alterations occurring within soil columns in Wright Valley, Antarctica show incredible complexity in the upper meter of soil. Previous workers noted the ice-free Dry Valleys are the best terrestrial approximations to contemporary Mars. Images returned from the Pathfinder and Spirit landers show similarities to surfaces observed within the Dry Valleys. Similarities to Mars that exist in these valleys are: mean temperatures always below freezing (-20 C), no rainfall, sparse snowfall-rapidly removed by sublimation, desiccating winds, diurnal freeze-thaw cycles (even during daylight hours), low humidity, oxidative environment, relatively high solar radiation and low magnetic fields . The Dry Valley soils contain irregular distributions and low abundances of soil microorganisms that are somewhat unusual on Earth. Physical processes-such as sand abrasion-are dominant mechanisms of rock weathering in Antarctica. However, chemical weathering is also an important process even in such extreme climates. For example, ionic migration occurs even in frozen soils along liquid films on individual soil particles. It has also been shown that water with liquid-like properties is present in soils at temperatures on the order of approx.-80 C and it has been observed that the percentage of oxidized iron increases with increasing soil age and enrichments in oxidized iron occurs toward the surface. The presence of evaporates is evident and appear similar to "evaporite sites" within the Pathfinder and Spirit sites. Evaporites indicate ionic migration and chemical activity even in the permanently frozen zone. The presence of evaporates indicates that chemical weathering of rocks and possibly soils has been active. Authogenic zeolites have been identified within the soil columns because they are fragile; i.e. they are euhedral, unabraded, and unfractured, strongly suggesting in situ formation. Their presence in Antarctic samples is another indication that diagenic processes are active in cold-desert environments. The presence of zeolites, and other clays along with halites, sulfates, carbonates, and hydrates are to be expected within the soil columns on Mars at the Gusev and Isidis Planitia regions. The presence of such water-bearing minerals beneath the surface supplies one of the requirements to support biological activity on Mars.

Gibson, E. K., Jr.; Wentworth, S. J.; McKay, D. S.; Socki, R. A.

2004-01-01

36

Multi-PRI Signal Processing for the Terminal Doppler Weather Radar. Part I: Clutter Filtering  

E-print Network

Multi-PRI Signal Processing for the Terminal Doppler Weather Radar. Part I: Clutter Filtering JOHN and processing algorithm being developed to aggressively combat range­velocity ambiguity in weather radars-elevation scans and yield low biases of velocity estimates so that accurate velocity dealiasing is possible

Cho, John Y. N.

37

Low-Frequency Weather and the Emergence of the Climate Department of Physics, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada  

E-print Network

Low-Frequency Weather and the Emergence of the Climate S. Lovejoy Department of Physics, Mc, Paris, France Meteo France, Paris, France We survey atmospheric variability from weather scales up are rapidly quenched, leading to a scaling "low-frequency weather" regime extending out to Le::::: 10

Lovejoy, Shaun

38

The Space Physics of Life: Searching for Biosignatures on Habitable Icy Worlds Affected by Space Weathering  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Accessible surfaces of the most likely astrobiological habitats (Mars, Europa, Titan) in the solar system beyond Earth are exposed to various chemical and hydrologic weathering processes directly or indirectly induced by interaction with the overlying space environment. These processes can be both beneficial, through provision of chemical compounds and energy, and destructive, through chemical dissociation or burial, to detectable presence of biosignatures. Orbital, suborbital, and surface platforms carrying astrobiological instrumentation must survive, and preferably exploit, space environment interactions to reach these habitats and search for evidence of life or its precursors. Experience from Mars suggests that any detection of biosignatures must be accompanied by characterization of the local chemical environment and energy sources including irradiation by solar ultraviolet photons and energetic particles from the space environment. Orbital and suborbital surveys of surface chemistry and astrobiological potential in the context of the space environment should precede targeted in-situ measurements to maximize probability of biosignature detection through site selection. The Space Physics of Life (SPOL) investigation has recently been proposed to the NASA Astrobiology Institute and is briefly described in this presentation. SPOL is the astrobiologically relevant study of the interactions and relationships of potentially? or previously inhabited, bodies of the solar system with the surrounding environments. This requires an interdisciplinary effort in space physics, planetary science, and radiation biology. The proposed investigation addresses the search for habitable environments, chemical resources to support life, and techniques for detection of organic and inorganic signs of life in the context of the space environment.

Cooper, John F.

2006-01-01

39

Influence of weathering and pre-existing large scale fractures on gravitational slope failure: insights from 3-D physical modelling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using a new 3-D physical modelling technique we investigated the initiation and evolution of large scale landslides in presence of pre-existing large scale fractures and taking into account the slope material weakening due to the alteration/weathering. The modelling technique is based on the specially developed properly scaled analogue materials, as well as on the original vertical accelerator device enabling increases in the "gravity acceleration" up to a factor 50. The weathering primarily affects the uppermost layers through the water circulation. We simulated the effect of this process by making models of two parts. The shallower one represents the zone subject to homogeneous weathering and is made of low strength material of compressive strength ?l. The deeper (core) part of the model is stronger and simulates intact rocks. Deformation of such a model subjected to the gravity force occurred only in its upper (low strength) layer. In another set of experiments, low strength (?w) narrow planar zones sub-parallel to the slope surface (?wweathered zones. In this configuration landslides were initiated much easier (at lower "gravity force"), were shallower and had smaller horizontal size largely defined by the weak zone size. Pre-existing fractures were introduced into the model by cutting it along a given plan. They have proved to be of small influence on the slope stability, except when they were associated to highly weathered zones. In this latter case the fractures laterally limited the slides. Deep seated rockslides initiation is thus directly defined by the mechanical structure of the hillslope's uppermost levels and especially by the presence of the weak zones due to the weathering. The large scale fractures play a more passive role and can only influence the shape and the volume of the sliding units.

Bachmann, D.; Bouissou, S.; Chemenda, A.

2004-11-01

40

Image processing for hazard recognition in on-board weather radar  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method of providing weather radar images to a user includes obtaining radar image data corresponding to a weather radar image to be displayed. The radar image data is image processed to identify a feature of the weather radar image which is potentially indicative of a hazardous weather condition. The weather radar image is displayed to the user along with a notification of the existence of the feature which is potentially indicative of the hazardous weather condition. Notification can take the form of textual information regarding the feature, including feature type and proximity information. Notification can also take the form of visually highlighting the feature, for example by forming a visual border around the feature. Other forms of notification can also be used.

Kelly, Wallace E. (Inventor); Rand, Timothy W. (Inventor); Uckun, Serdar (Inventor); Ruokangas, Corinne C. (Inventor)

2003-01-01

41

Weathering Animation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Weathering is the term that describes all the processes that break down rocks in the environment near the Earth's surface. This module will help you to understand two weathering processes: mechanical and chemical.

2002-01-01

42

Computer Animations of Physical Processes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website features an extensive collection of animations of physical processes, demonstrating various concepts in waves, optics, mechanics, electricity, and thermodynamics. One distinctive characteristic of this site is that the animations are accompanied by details of the relevant physics theory pertaining to each concept, written in language appropriate for the student of introductory physics. Formulas, equations, and derivations are also provided.

2004-12-18

43

Solar Physics, Space Weather, and Wide-field X-ray Telescopes  

E-print Network

Solar Physics, Space Weather, and Wide-field X-ray Telescopes CREOL & FPCE: The College of Optics at CREOL Industrial Affiliates Day "Optics & Photonics for Space-Based and Medical Applications" April 21, 2006 #12;Abstract The sun is essentially a giant thermonuclear fusion reactor (105 x the size

Van Stryland, Eric

44

Coupling of physical erosion and chemical weathering after phases of intense human activity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anthropogenic disturbance of natural vegetation profoundly alters the lateral and vertical fluxes of soil nutrients and particles at the land surface. Human-induced acceleration of soil erosion can thereby result in an imbalance between physical erosion, soil production and chemical weathering. The (de-)coupling between physical erosion and chemical weathering in ecosystems with strong anthropogenic disturbances is not yet fully understood, as earlier studies mostly focused on natural ecosystems. In this study, we explore the chemical weathering intensity for four study sites located in the Internal Zone of the Spanish Betic Cordillera. Most of the sites belong to the Nevado-Filabres complex, but are characterized by different rates of long-term exhumation, 10Be catchment-wide denudation and hill slope morphology. Denudation rates are generally low, but show large variation between the three sites (from 23 to 246 mm kyr-1). The magnitude of denudation rates is consistent with longer-term uplift rates derived from marine deposits, fission-track measurements and vertical fault slip rates. Two to three soil profiles were sampled per study site at exposed ridge tops. All soils overly fractured mica schist, and are very thin (< 60cm). In each soil profile, we sampled 5 depth slices, rock fragments and the (weathered) bedrock. In total, 38 soil and 20 rock samples were analyzed for their chemical composition. The chemical weathering intensity is constrained by the Chemical Depletion Fraction that is based on a chemical mass balance approach using Zr as an immobile element. Chemical weathering accounts for 5 to 35% of the total mass lost due to denudation. We observe systematically higher chemical weathering intensities (CDFs) in sites with lower denudation rates (and vice versa), suggesting that weathering is supply-limited. Our measurements of soil elemental losses from 10 soil profiles suggest that the observed variation in chemical weathering is strongly associated with long-term 10Be derived denudation rates, and tectonic uplift rates. Our data do not provide direct evidence of an imbalance between soil production and chemical weathering, despite more than 2000 years of intense human activity.

Schoonejans, Jerome; Vanacker, Veerle; Opfergelt, Sophie; Ameijeiras-Mariño, Yolanda; Kubik, Peter W.

2014-05-01

45

Rock weathering processes and landform development in the Sør Rondane Mountains, Antarctica  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Field observations of weathering processes and the related landforms, combined with laboratory analyses of weathering products, permit a synthetic evaluation of Late Cenozoic weathering environments in the Sør Rondane Mountains, Antarctica, an arid upland characterized by low temperatures and strong winds. Rates and character of weathering depend mainly on moisture availability and the bedrock geology. Under the humid weathering regime that occurs only locally around the margin of the present sheet, frequent diurnal freeze-thaw cycles in summer cause relatively rapid rock fragmentation. Most of the mountains are situated in the arid weathering regime, under which rock breakdown is very slow unless the rock contains plenty of salts. Salt weathering becomes more intensive and extensive with exposure age, as a result of salt accumulation in rock, eventually producing soils as small as fine-silt size. Lack of clay mineralization even in weathered rocks having been exposed above the ice sheet prior to 4 Ma ago indicates that hydrolysis or carbonation of rock minerals has been insignificant during the past 4 Ma. The final products of weathering are due mainly to salt action and reflect the parent lithology. Resistant fine-grained granite forms strongly oxidized tors carved with tafoni, or fields of mushroom-like boulders overlying the fractured bedrock. Less resistant rocks, like biotite gneiss and amphibolite, produce stone pavements underlain by saline, silty soils up to 30-40 cm thick, the thickness of which corresponds to the maximum thaw depth.

Matsuoka, Norikazu

1995-07-01

46

New Space Weather and Nonlinear Waves and Processes Prize announced for 2013  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At the 2011 Fall Meeting in San Francisco, Calif., AGU announced the creation of a new award: the Space Weather and Nonlinear Waves and Processes Prize. The prize, which is being made possible by a generous contribution from longtime AGU members and NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), California Institute of Technology, scientists Bruce Tsurutani and Olga Verkhoglyadova, will recognize an AGU member scientist and will come with a $10,000 award. Tsurutani has served as a researcher with JPL since 1972 and is currently a senior research scientist. He was also the president of AGU's Space Physics and Aeronomy section from 1990 to 1992 and is a recipient of AGU's John Adam Fleming Medal, given “for original research and technical leadership in geomagnetism, atmospheric electricity, aeronomy, space physics, and related sciences.” Verkhoglyadova served as a professor of space physics in the Department of Astrophysics and Space Physics at Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, in the Ukraine, prior to coming to the United States. Their leadership and dedication to AGU and to their field are apparent in their passion for this prize.

Thompson, Victoria

2012-01-01

47

Association of Day Length and Weather Conditions with Physical Activity Levels in Older Community Dwelling People  

PubMed Central

Background Weather is a potentially important determinant of physical activity. Little work has been done examining the relationship between weather and physical activity, and potential modifiers of any relationship in older people. We therefore examined the relationship between weather and physical activity in a cohort of older community-dwelling people. Methods We analysed prospectively collected cross-sectional activity data from community-dwelling people aged 65 and over in the Physical Activity Cohort Scotland. We correlated seven day triaxial accelerometry data with daily weather data (temperature, day length, sunshine, snow, rain), and a series of potential effect modifiers were tested in mixed models: environmental variables (urban vs rural dwelling, percentage of green space), psychological variables (anxiety, depression, perceived behavioural control), social variables (number of close contacts) and health status measured using the SF-36 questionnaire. Results 547 participants, mean age 78.5 years, were included in this analysis. Higher minimum daily temperature and longer day length were associated with higher activity levels; these associations remained robust to adjustment for other significant associates of activity: age, perceived behavioural control, number of social contacts and physical function. Of the potential effect modifier variables, only urban vs rural dwelling and the SF-36 measure of social functioning enhanced the association between day length and activity; no variable modified the association between minimum temperature and activity. Conclusions In older community dwelling people, minimum temperature and day length were associated with objectively measured activity. There was little evidence for moderation of these associations through potentially modifiable health, environmental, social or psychological variables. PMID:24497925

Witham, Miles D.; Donnan, Peter T.; Vadiveloo, Thenmalar; Sniehotta, Falko F.; Crombie, Iain K.; Feng, Zhiqiang; McMurdo, Marion E. T.

2014-01-01

48

Modeling land-surface processes and land-atmosphere interactions in the community weather and regional climate WRF model (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model has been widely used with high-resolution configuration in the weather and regional climate communities, and hence demands its land-surface models to treat not only fast-response processes, such as plant evapotranspiration that are important for numerical weather prediction but also slow-evolving processes such as snow hydrology and interactions between surface soil water and deep aquifer. Correctly representing urbanization, which has been traditionally ignored in coarse-resolution modeling, is critical for applying WRF to air quality and public health research. To meet these demands, numerous efforts have been undertaken to improve land-surface models (LSM) in WRF, including the recent implementation of the Noah-MP (Noah Multiple-Physics). Noah-MP uses multiple options for key sub-grid land-atmosphere interaction processes (Niu et al., 2011; Yang et al., 2011), and contains a separate vegetation canopy representing within- and under-canopy radiation and turbulent processes, a multilayer physically-based snow model, and a photosynthesis canopy resistance parameterization with a dynamic vegetation model. This paper will focus on the interactions between fast and slow land processes through: 1) a benchmarking of the Noah-MP performance, in comparison to five widely-used land-surface models, in simulating and diagnosing snow evolution for complex terrain forested regions, and 2) the effects of interactions between shallow and deep aquifers on regional weather and climate. Moreover, we will provide an overview of recent improvements of the integrated WRF-Urban modeling system, especially its hydrological enhancements that takes into account the effects of lawn irrigation, urban oasis, evaporation from pavements, anthropogenic moisture sources, and a green-roof parameterization.

Chen, F.; Barlage, M. J.

2013-12-01

49

Long-term rates of chemical weathering and physical erosion from cosmogenic nuclides and geochemical mass balance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantifying long-term rates of chemical weathering and physical erosion is important for understanding the long-term evolution of soils, landscapes, and Earth's climate. Here we describe how long-term chemical weathering rates can be measured for actively eroding landscapes using cosmogenic nuclides together with a geochemical mass balance of weathered soil and parent rock. We tested this approach in the Rio Icacos

Clifford S. Riebe; James W. Kirchner; Robert C. Finkel

2003-01-01

50

Constraining the physical-chemical conditions of Pleistocene cavernous weathering in Late Paleozoic granites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cavernous weathering such as tafoni, alveoles and honeycomb structures have been recorded from a great variety of bedrocks and landforms. In the present study cavernous weathering from late Variscan granites was discussed as to its physical-chemical regime of formation. U/Pb dating yielded a maximum age of 1.52 ± 0.03 Ma. Supergene U mineralization is accompanied by kaolinite, nontronite and Fe(III) phosphates. Based upon Eh-pH diagrams calculated for U-Fe-P mineralization the physical-chemical conditions may be described as oxidizing with pH values fluctuating around neutral at near-ambient temperatures of 25 °C. Alteration occurs in two stages: dissolution of rock-forming minerals and neoformation of hydrosilicates under mildly acidic conditions, followed by phosphate precipitation under near-neutral conditions.

Dill, Harald G.; Weber, Berthold; Gerdes, Axel

2010-09-01

51

Conversion of bedrock to soil and feedback processes between the surface and the weathering front in a deeply weathered regolith, Central Sri Lankan Highlands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the Sri Lankan highlands denudation rates and chemical weathering rates represent the low-end-member in global weathering rates [1, 2]. Here we explore the causes for these low rates by a detailed soil-mineralogical study of a highly weathered deep saprolite profile developed from charnockite bedrock. Spheroidal weathering of the bedrock characterized the weathering front where rounded corestones are produced at the rock-saprolite interface. The first mineral attacked by weathering was found to be pyroxene but plagioclase is the first mineral depleted to near-completion at the corestone-saprolite-boundary. Weathering of pyroxene is initiated by in situ iron oxidation, leading to an increase of porosity due to micro-cracking [3]. The accrued micro cracks allow for fluid transport and the dissolution of biotite and plagioclase. The strong plagioclase weathering leads to formation of high secondary porosity over a small distance and the final disaggregation of bedrock to saprolite. Sequential extraction showed that the first secondary phases are amorphous oxides from which secondary minerals (gibbsite, kaolinite, goethite and minor amounts of smectites) precipitate. Modeling of the strain formation due to increasing volume during iron oxidation in pyroxene and biotite showed that spheroidal weathering can be explained with this process only if the formation of secondary porosity, due to a negative volume budget during primary mineral weathering to secondary phases, occurs. As oxidation is the first occurring reaction, O2 is a rate limiting factor for chemical weathering in this setting. Hence the supply of oxygen and the consumption at depth connects processes at the weathering front with those at the surface as a feedback mechanism. Advective and diffusive transport modeling shows that the feedback will be much more pronounced with dominating diffusive transport. Due to the low porosity of the bedrock the O2 transport in the pristine bedrock occurs via diffusion. The slow weathering rate is, beside tectonic quiescence, related to this feedback and to lithological factors such as low porosity and the amount of Fe-bearing primary minerals. 1. Hewawasam, T., et al., Slow advance of the weathering front during deep, supply-limited saprolite formation in the tropical Highlands of Sri Lanka. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 2013. 118: p. 202-230. 2. von Blanckenburg, F., T. Hewawasam, and P. Kubik, Cosmogenic nuclide evidence for low weathering and denudation in the wet tropical Highlands of Sri Lanka. J. Geoph. Res., 2004. 109: p. doi10.1029/2003JF000049. 3. Buss, H.L., et al., Weathering of the Rio Blanco quartz diorite, Luquillo Mountains, Puerto Rico: Coupling oxidation, dissolution, and fracturing. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 2008. 72(18): p. 4488-4507.

Behrens, Ricarda; Bouchez, Julien; Schuessler, Jan A.; Dultz, Stefan; Hewawasam, Tilak; von Blanckenburg, Friedhelm

2014-05-01

52

Heuristics for Robust Resource Allocation of Satellite Weather Data Processing on a Heterogeneous Parallel System  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work considers the satellite data processing portion of a space-based weather monitoring system. It uses a heterogeneous distributed processing platform. There is uncertainty in the arrival time of new data sets to be processed, and resource allocation must be robust with respect to this uncertainty. The tasks to be executed by the platform are classified into two broad categories:

Luis Diego Briceno; Howard Jay Siegel; Anthony A. Maciejewski; Mohana Oltikar; Jeff Brateman; Joe White; Jonathan R. Martin; Keith Knapp

2011-01-01

53

The Colorado Student Space Weather Experiment : A CubeSat for Space Physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Energetic particles, electrons and protons either directly associated with solar flares or trapped in the terrestrial radiation belt, have a profound space weather impact. A National Science Foundation supported 3U CubeSat mission with a single instrument, Relativistic Electrons and Proton Telescope integrated little experiment (REPTile), is proposed to address fundamental scientific questions relating to these high energy particles. Of key importance are the relation-ship between solar flares and energetic particles and the acceleration and loss mechanism of outer radiation belt electrons. REPTile, operating in a highly inclined low earth orbit, will measure differential fluxes of relativistic electrons in the energy range of 0.5-3.5 MeV and pro-tons in 10-40 MeV. The Colorado Student Space Weather Experiment cubesat will be designed, integrated and testing by students at the University of Colorado under the oversight of pro-fessional engineers with the Laboratory of Atmospheric and Space Physics who have extensive space hardware experience. Our design philosophy is to use commercially off the shelf (COTS) parts where available and only engage in detailed designed where COTS parts cannot meet the system needs. The top level science requirements for the mission have driven the system and subsystem level performance requirements and the specific design choices such as a passive magnetic attitude system and instrument design. In this paper we will present details of the CSSWE design and management approach. Specifically we will discuss the top level science requirements for the mission and show that these measurements are novel and will address open questions in the scientific community. The overall system architecture resulting from a flow-down of these requirements will be presented with a focus on the novel aspects of the system including the instrument design. Finally we will discuss how this project is organized and man-aged as part of the Department of Aerospace Engineering graduate projects course sequence along with the integration of professional engineers in the program. It is often underappreciated that the management of a student project, given the transient nature of the students in the program, is more challenging than many of the technical aspects. We will discuss our process to managing this project risk along with our pedagological philosophy for student learning and its relationship to a small satellite program.

Palo, Scott; Li, Xinlin; Gerhardt, David; Turner, Drew; Hoxie, V.; Kohnert, Rick; Batiste, Susan

54

Geochemical balance of lateritization processes and climatic signatures in weathering profiles overlain by ferricretes in Central Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple geochemical balance of lateritization processes governing the development of several tens of meters of weathering profiles overlain by ferricretes is estimated on the basis of detailed mineralogical and geochemical data. The lateritic weathering mantle of the “Haut–Mbomou” area in Central Africa is composed of different weathering layers described from the base to the top of vertical profiles as

Anicet Beauvais

1999-01-01

55

TIMBER HARVESTING AND LONG-TERM PRODUCTIVITY: WEATHERING PROCESSES AND SOIL DISTURBANCE  

EPA Science Inventory

Both timber harvesting and amelioration practices can cause chemical and physical changes in soil. hese changes can affect factors which alter soil mineral stability and weathering rates, potentially changing inputs to the nutrient cycle. his paper discusses possible effects of h...

56

The Spatial Variability of Weathering Processes in a Peruvian River System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The role of floodplains in the weathering of sediment exported from mountainous regions is poorly understood and has the potential to play a significant role in the overall weathering budget of large river systems. While high rates of floodplain weathering have been measured in the Himalayan system [1], there are conflicting results concerning the importance of floodplain weathering in the Amazon system [2-3]. To address this issue, the dissolved major element chemistry of the Kosñipata-Madre de Dios river system in Peru was measured monthly in nested catchments spanning the headwater-floodplain transition in order to determine spatially-resolved weathering rates and to examine any associated changes in weathering processes. Analysis of the dissolved major element data reveals a change in the dominant weathering process controlling the Ca2+ and Mg2+ fluxes associated with the headwater-floodplain transition. Based on (Ca2+ + Mg2+) / HCO3- ratios near 0.5, Ca2+ and Mg2+ fluxes in the floodplain are controlled by carbonate dissolution by carbonic acid. In the Andean catchments, variable (Ca2+ + Mg2+) / HCO3- ratios, (Ca2+ + Mg2+) / SO42- ratios near 1, and high SO42- concentrations suggest that either carbonate dissolution by sulfuric acid or sulfate mineral dissolution is the main control on Ca2+ and Mg2+ fluxes. This observed change is significant as it has important implications for the net consumption of CO2 by silicate weathering in this river system. [1] West, AJ et al, 2002, Geology 30: 355-358, [2] Gaillardet, J et al, 2006, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 70: 189, [3] Moquet, J et al, 2011, Chem. Geol 287: 1-26

Torres, M. A.; Ballew, N.; Clark, K.; West, A.

2011-12-01

57

Chemical weathering processes in the Great Artesian Basin: Evidence from lithium and silicon isotopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Variations in lithium and silicon isotope ratios in groundwaters of the Great Artesian Basin in Australia, and the causes of these variations, have been explored. The chemistries of Li and Si in groundwater are influenced by the dissolution of primary phases, the formation of secondary minerals, and the reaction of solid phases with dissolved constituents, while isotopic variations are generated by uptake into clays, which preferentially incorporate the light isotopes. The lithium isotopic composition (expressed as ? 7Li) of the groundwaters ranges from +9 to +16‰ , and clearly reflects changes in aquifer conditions. Reaction-transport modelling indicates that changes in Li concentrations are principally controlled by the ratio of the weathering rate of primary minerals to the precipitation rate of secondary minerals, whereas ? 7Li is affected by the extent of isotope fractionation during secondary mineral formation (which is dependent on mineralogy). The patterns of groundwater Si concentrations and ? 30Si values versus flow distance suggest that Si is at steady state in the aquifer. The ? 30Si value of most of the groundwater samples is close to -1‰ , which is significantly lower than the ? 30Si value of the reservoir rocks (?0‰ ). Since precipitation of clays preferentially removes the light Si isotopes from solution, the most plausible explanation for these low groundwater ? 30Si values is addition of Si by dissolution of isotopically light secondary minerals. These data, together with model calculations, show that Li isotopes are extremely sensitive to changes in the chemical and physical conditions in the aquifer, whereas Si is not. Importantly, the model suggests that even in large aquifers with long fluid residence times, where steady-state would be expected to be reached, the concentrations and isotopic fractionation of trace elements are not controlled by Li adsorption. The model developed here provides a basis for using Li isotopes measured in groundwaters and surface waters to constrain weathering processes.

Pogge von Strandmann, Philip A. E.; Porcelli, Don; James, Rachael H.; van Calsteren, Peter; Schaefer, Bruce; Cartwright, Ian; Reynolds, Ben C.; Burton, Kevin W.

2014-11-01

58

Space Weather data processing and Science Gateway for the Van Allen Probes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A near real-time data processing pipeline for the Space Weather broadcast data from the Van Allen Probes is presented. The Van Allen Probes broadcasts a sub-set of the science data in real-time when not downlinking the principal science data. This broadcast is received by several ground stations and relayed to APL in near real time to be ingested into the space weather processing pipeline. This pipeline processes the available level zero space weather data into higher level science data products. These products are made available to the public via the Van Allen Probes Science Gateway website (http://athena.jhuapl.edu). The website acts as pivotal point though which all other instrument SOC's can be accessed. Several other data products (e.g KP/DST indices) and tools (e.g orbit calculator) are made also available to the general public.

Romeo, G.; Barnes, R. J.; Weiss, M.; Fox, N. J.; Mauk, B.; Potter, M.; Kessel, R.

2013-12-01

59

Investigation of changes in surface properties of bituminous coal during natural weathering processes by XPS and SEM  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this investigation, XPS and SEM were used to indicate the changes in surface properties of bituminous coal during natural weathering processes. Natural weathering processes of bituminous coal were conducted on the roof. XPS results showed that the content of CC and CH groups on bituminous coal surface decreased but the content of CO, CO, and OCO groups increased after natural weathering processes. Meanwhile, the contents of Al and Si elements on bituminous coal surface were also increased. SEM results showed that the surface roughness of bituminous coal was increased after natural weathering processes. Natural weathering processes not only changed surface chemical composition of bituminous coal but also changed surface topography of bituminous coal. In addition, natural weathering processes made bituminous coal surface more hydrophilic.

Xia, Wencheng; Yang, Jianguo; Liang, Chuan

2014-02-01

60

doi:10.1016/S0016-7037(03)00382-X Long-term rates of chemical weathering and physical erosion from cosmogenic nuclides  

E-print Network

doi:10.1016/S0016-7037(03)00382-X Long-term rates of chemical weathering and physical erosion from weathering and physical erosion is important for under- standing the long-term evolution of soils, landscapes, and Earth's climate. Here we describe how long-term chemical weathering rates can be measured for actively

Kirchner, James W.

61

RBSP Space Weather data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On August 23, 2012, NASA will launch two identical probes into the radiation belts to provide unprecedented insight into the physical processes and dynamics of near-Earth space. The RBSP mission in addition to the scientific data return, provides a 1Kbps real-time space weather broadcast data in support of real time space weather modeling, forecast and prediction efforts. Networks of ground stations have been identified to downlink the space weather data. The RBSP instrument suites have selected space weather data to be broadcast from their collected space data on board the spacecraft, a subset from measurements based on information normally available to the instrument. The data subset includes particle fluxes at a variety of energies, and magnetic and electric field data. This selected space weather data is broadcast at all times through the primary spacecraft science downlink antennas when an observatory is not in a primary mission-related ground contact. The collected data will resolve important scientific issues and help researchers develop and improve various models for the radiation belts that can be used by forecasters to predict space weather phenomena and alert astronauts and spacecraft operators to potential hazards. The near real-time data from RBSP will be available to monitor and analyze current environmental conditions, forecast natural environmental changes and support anomaly resolution. The space weather data will be available on the RBSP Science Gateway at http://athena.jhuapl.edu/ and will provide access to the space weather data received from the RBSP real-time space weather broadcast. The near real-time data will be calibrated and displayed on the web as soon as possible. The CCMC will ingest the RBSP space weather data into real-time models. The raw space weather data will be permanently archived at APL. This presentation will provide a first look at RBSP space weather data products.

Weiss, M.; Fox, N. J.; Mauk, B. H.; Barnes, R. J.; Potter, M.; Romeo, G.; Smith, D.

2012-12-01

62

Two-dimensional gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, physical property modeling and automated production of component maps to assess the weathering of pollutants.  

PubMed

Local conditions influence how pollutants will weather in subsurface environments and sediment, and many of the processes that comprise environmental weathering are dependent upon these substances' physical and chemical properties. For example, the effects of dissolution, evaporation, and organic phase partitioning can be related to the aqueous solubility (SW), vapor pressure (VP), and octanol-water partition coefficient (KOW), respectively. This study outlines a novel approach for estimating these physical properties from comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC×GC/MS) retention index-based polyparameter linear free energy relationships (LFERs). Key to robust correlation between GC measurements and physical properties is the accurate and precise generation of retention indices. Our model, which employs isovolatility curves to calculate retention indices, provides improved retention measurement accuracy for families of homologous compounds and leads to better estimates of their physical properties. Results indicate that the physical property estimates produced from this approach have the same error on a logarithmic-linear scale as previous researchers' log-log estimates, yielding a markedly improved model. The model was embedded into a new software program, allowing for automated determination of these properties from a single GC×GC analysis with minimal model training and parameter input. This process produces component maps that can be used to discern the mechanism and progression of how a particular site weathers due to dissolution, organic phase partitioning, and evaporation into the surrounding environment. PMID:25223613

Antle, Patrick M; Zeigler, Christian D; Livitz, Dimitri G; Robbat, Albert

2014-10-17

63

Physical and chemical weathering rates and CO 2 consumption in a tropical lateritic environment: the upper Niger basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemical composition of Niger river water measured bimonthly at Bamako (Mali) during the period 1990–1992 provides an estimate of present weathering rates in the upper Niger basin. The dominant weathering process is kaolinite formation (`monosiallitization'). However, seasonal variations promote gibbsite formation in the rainy season (September) and smectite development in the dry season (May). The results show that lateritic

Jean-Loup Boeglin; Jean-Luc Probst

1998-01-01

64

[Role of microscopic fungi in the process of weathering of pegmatite deposit rocks and minerals].  

PubMed

The object of this work was to study the effect of microscopic fungi isolated from the weathering zone of a pegmatite deposit on the transport of elements and the degradation of rocks and minerals. Regardless of the chemical composition of rocks and minerals, microscopic fungi accelerated the leaching of elements as compared to the purely chemical process. The extraction of Li, Si, Al and Fe under the action of microorganisms increased by factors of 1.4-1.7, 2.7-4.0, 5.0-8.7 and 4-18, respectively. In the case of chemical weathering, the extraction of elements occurred at a high rate only at the beginning; then the process either decelerated or stopped. The mechanism of action of microscopic fungi on rocks and minerals is discussed as well as the role of these microorganisms in the weathering of spodumene and the surrounding rocks, pegmatites an shales, which occurs in the zone of hypergenesis. PMID:7194415

Avakian, Z A; Karavaiko, G I; Mel'nikova, E O; Krutsko, V S; Ostroushko, Iu I

1981-01-01

65

a 100% Renewable Power System for Europe -- let the Weather and Physics DECIDE!  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The design of sustainable energy systems is no longer only the domain of politics, economics and engineering. Mathematical physics is able to contribute with its generic understanding of everything. A new modelling approach is presented and applied to design a fully renewable European power system. This approach is based on weather data with good spatio-temporal resolution, which is first converted into wind and solar power generation and then used to derive estimates on the optimal mix between the renewable resources and the storage needs.

Greiner, Martin; Heide, Dominik; Rasmussen, Morten; Andresen, Gorm

2012-01-01

66

MODELING LAND SURFACE PROCESSES IN SHORT-TERM WEATHER AND CLIMATE STUDIES  

E-print Network

288 MODELING LAND SURFACE PROCESSES IN SHORT-TERM WEATHER AND CLIMATE STUDIES ZONG-LIANG YANG@mail.utexas.edu Website: www.geo.utexas.edu/climate (Manuscript received 31 January 2003) Land exchanges momentum, energy, water, aerosols, carbon dioxide and other trace gases with its overlying atmosphere. The land surface

Yang, Zong-Liang

67

Pb isotope systematics in volcanic river system: Constraints about weathering processes  

E-print Network

Pb isotope systematics in volcanic river system: Constraints about weathering processes Ph. NEGREL.negrel@brgm.fr, r.millot@brgm.fr, e.petelet@brgm.fr, We present a series of lead isotopes in soils and sediments, as witnessed by lead isotopic variations in conjunction with Rb/La ratios and lead contents. Using Pb isotope

Boyer, Edmond

68

Multi-PRI Signal Processing for the Terminal Doppler Weather Radar. Part II: RangeVelocity Ambiguity Mitigation  

E-print Network

Multi-PRI Signal Processing for the Terminal Doppler Weather Radar. Part II: Range­Velocity developed to combat range­velocity (RV) ambiguity for the Terminal Doppler Weather Radar (TDWR). In Part I and velocity dealiasing using multi-PRI signal transmission and processing are presented. The effectiveness

Cho, John Y. N.

69

Calibrating DOE-2 to Weather and Non-Weather-Dependent Loads for a Commercial Building: Data Processing Routines to Calibrate a DOE-2 Model, Volume II  

E-print Network

into LOTUS which, together with the 3DGRAPHIC Add-In package and a LOTUS instruction macro, generates the four *.PIC files that create the plot. Data Processing Routines to Calibrate a DOE-2 Model (C) Copyright 1992 Texas Engineering Experiment Station Beta...ESL-TR-92-04/02 CALIBRATING DOE-2 TO WEATHER AND NON-WEATHER-DEPENDENT LOADS FOR A COMMERCIAL BUILDING, VOLUME 2: DATA PROCESSING ROUTINES TO CALIBRATE A DOE-2 MODEL Written by: John Douglas Bronson May 1992 (C) Copyright 1992 Texas Engineering...

Bronson, J. D.

1992-01-01

70

Spectrometric investigation of the weathering process affecting historical glasses of León Cathedral, Spain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atmospheric pollution plays important roles in the weathering of the historical buildings and glass windows. Samples of white powdered weathering products, recovered during restoration of the stained-glass windows of León Cathedral in Spain, were characterised using a combination of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive-X ray spectrometry (ED-XRS), Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and Raman spectrometry. The presence of sulphates, and to a lesser extent carbonates, in the white powdered product is clear indication of the participation of atmospheric acidifying gases, particularly SOx, in the weathering process. It is interesting to note that there was no indication of the participation of NOx gases. There was, however, evidence that the putty and mortar used to seal/join the glasses were major sources of the weathering products. In this way, this study suggests sealants more resistant to oxidation, such as silicone- and zirconia-based materials, should be considered for repairing glass windows in historic buildings to avoid exacerbating degradation.

Castro, M. A.; Pereira, F. J.; Aller, A. J.; Littlejohn, D.

2014-12-01

71

Mismatched Physical and Chemical Weathering of Rocks on Mars: Clues to Past Climate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Here we quantify the degree of weathering experienced by the Adirondack-class basalts at the MER Spirit site by performing comparative analyses on the strength and chemistry of a series of progressively weathered Columbia River Basalt samples.

Thomson, B. J.; Hurowitz, J. A.; Baker, L. L.; Bridges, N. T.; Lennon, A.; Paulson, G.; Zacny, K.

2014-07-01

72

External Resource: Mechanical Weathering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A student activity with teacher's sheet, to give the students an opportunity to realize that all rocks weather mechanically and each specific rock type has its own particular rate of weathering. Mechanical weathering is the process of breaking down bedroc

1900-01-01

73

Hydrochemistry of reservoirs of Damodar River basin, India: weathering processes and water quality assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water samples collected from the six reservoirs of Damodar River basin in pre- and post-monsoon, have been analysed, to study\\u000a the major ion chemistry and the weathering and geochemical processes controlling the water composition. Ca, Na and HCO3 dominate the chemical composition of the reservoir water. The seasonal data shows a minimum concentration of most of the\\u000a ions in post-monsoon

Abhay Kumar Singh; G. C. Mondal; P. K. Singh; S. Singh; T. B. Singh; B. K. Tewary

2005-01-01

74

Vadose Zone Processes and Chemical Transport Effects of Spent Mushroom Substrate Weathering on the Chemistry of Underlying Soils  

E-print Network

results in the generation of more than 106 m3 of SMS annually, with half of the materialPassive weathering mushroom substrate (SMS) before its reuse. During the weathering process, leachate containing high and inorganic salts is released into through SMS piles and leachate is generated. The lea- the underlying soils

Chorover, Jon

75

Anvil Forecast Tool in the Advanced Weather Interactive Processing System (AWIPS)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Launch Weather Officers (LWOs) from the 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) and forecasters from the National Weather Service (NWS) Spaceflight Meteorology Group (SMG) have identified anvil forecasting as one of their most challenging tasks when predicting the probability of violating the Lightning Launch Commit Criteria (LLCC) (Krider et al. 2006; Space Shuttle Flight Rules (FR), NASA/JSC 2004)). As a result, the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) developed a tool that creates an anvil threat corridor graphic that can be overlaid on satellite imagery using the Meteorological Interactive Data Display System (MIDDS, Short and Wheeler, 2002). The tool helps forecasters estimate the locations of thunderstorm anvils at one, two, and three hours into the future. It has been used extensively in launch and landing operations by both the 45 WS and SMG. The Advanced Weather Interactive Processing System (AWIPS) is now used along with MIDDS for weather analysis and display at SMG. In Phase I of this task, SMG tasked the AMU to transition the tool from MIDDS to AWIPS (Barrett et aI., 2007). For Phase II, SMG requested the AMU make the Anvil Forecast Tool in AWIPS more configurable by creating the capability to read model gridded data from user-defined model files instead of hard-coded files. An NWS local AWIPS application called AGRID was used to accomplish this. In addition, SMG needed to be able to define the pressure levels for the model data, instead of hard-coding the bottom level as 300 mb and the top level as 150 mb. This paper describes the initial development of the Anvil Forecast Tool for MIDDS, followed by the migration of the tool to AWIPS in Phase I. It then gives a detailed presentation of the Phase II improvements to the AWIPS tool.

Barrett, Joe H., III; Hood, Doris

2009-01-01

76

Weathering processes as predisposing factors of the landscape evolution along plutono-metamorphic profiles of the Sila Massif, Calabria, southern Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work is aimed to join interdisciplinary research topics of weathering profile stages on plutonic (granitoid) and metamorphic (gneissic) rocks related to tectonic and landscape evolution of the western Sila Grande Massif (southern Italy). The grain-size of the studied samples is related to the parent rocks in response to physical and chemical weathering processes. Weathering processes produce an unconsolidated rock characterized by sand-gravel grain-size fraction for the granitoid rocks and by sand-silt grain-size fraction for the gneissic rocks. Chemical and mineralogical analyses confirm the granulometric observations. The difference between granitoid and gneissic rocks are mainly related to a higher content of quartz and feldspars for the first one rock type, whereas the second rock type shows higher content of neoformed clay minerals as well expandable phases. The main mineralogical changes concern the partial transformation of biotite and the partial destruction of feldspars, associated with the neoformation of secondary minerals (clay minerals and Fe-oxides) during the most advanced weathering stage; these processes also produce a substitution of the original rock fabric. All these petrological, chemical and mineralogical observations associated to microfractures and morphological variations occur on both plutonic and metamorphic original rocks and, thereby, affect the surrounding landscape processes. Generally, the granitoid profiles are regular and simple, characterized by gradual variation in the degree of weathering from bottom to top; where granitoid rocks show strong morphologies characterized by high relief energy and steep slopes, earth and debris slides, soil slips and earth flow can occur especially when fresher granitoids is near the surface and is covered by organic debris, colluvium, or soil. The gneissic profiles are characterized by structural complexity may be related to several factors such as presence of faults, high state of fracturing and the compositional heterogeneity of the gneiss. These profile characteristics are strongly related to the tectonic setting of the studied area. In particular, many fractured zone associated to fault planes and completely degraded rocks associated to thrust planes have been observed along the cutslope studied, where physical and chemical weathering produce argillified levels. These profile features represents a predisposing factor to the development of mass movements such as deep landslide (e.g., rock slide) and DSGSD (Deep Seated Gravitational Slope Deformation) in the fresher rocks. The weathering puzzle resulting from this preliminary study, based on the reconstruction of the weathering profiles in the plutonic and metamorphic rocks will help to evaluate the landslides susceptibility and hazard assessment in homogeneous geological context.

Perri, Francesco; Borrelli, Luigi; Muto, Francesco; Gullà, Giovanni; Critelli, Salvatore; Conforti, Massimo; Filomena, Luciana; Rago, Valeria

2013-04-01

77

Laboratory Hydrothermal Alteration of Basaltic Tephra by Acid Sulfate Solutions: An Analog Process for Martian Weathering  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of this study is to conduct simulated Mars-like weathering experiments in the laboratory to determine the weathering products that might form during oxidative, acidic weathering of Mars analog materials.

Golden, D. C.; Ming, D. W.; Morris, R. V.

2003-01-01

78

Gravestone Weathering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity (located on pages 9-14 of PDF), learners visit a cemetery to examine the distinguishing characteristics of rock weathering. After researching stone weathering and acid rain, learners apply their knowledge to collect data related to chemical decomposition and physical disintegration at a cemetery site. This detailed lesson guide includes tips for educators, pre/post activity suggestions, hands-outs, and background information.

Wiberg, Leanne; History, National M.

2000-01-01

79

Process Coupling Between Mineral Transformation and U Speciation in Acid Waste Weathered Sediments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The need for better prediction of contaminant transport motivates multi-faceted lines of inquiry to build a strong bridge between molecular- and field-scale information. At Hanford (WA), millions of liters of U-containing acidic wastes have been discharged to the soil. In order to predict reactive contaminant migration in the soil, it is necessary to determine the process coupling that occurs between mineral transformation and uranium speciation in these acid-uranium waste weathered sediments. Furthermore, we seek to establish linkages between molecular-scale contaminant speciation and meso-scale contaminant lability, release and reactive transport. Unweathered Hanford sediments were reacted for 365 days with acidic (pH 3), uranium bearing waste solutions in batch experiments. The presence and absence of phosphate in the waste as a control on uranium speciation was also investigated. At dedicated reaction times (7, 14, 30, 90, 180 and 365 days) solid and solution chemistry were analyzed to determine weathering trajectories and contaminant speciation. As observed by XRD and U-EXAFS, when present, PO4 exerted a strong controls over uranium speciation at all pH with the rapid precipitation of meta-ankoleite [K(UO2PO4).3H2O] and near complete immobilization of U. Over prolonged reaction time, however, small fractions of boltwoodite [K(UO2)(HSiO4).3H2O] increased in PO4-high U systems. When PO4 was excluded from the reaction systems, U speciation was indirectly controlled by the pH of the reactant solution and its effect on primary mineral weathering. In this case, U immobilization remained limited with 25 to 50% of the uranium precipitated as becquerelite ([Ca(UO2)6O4(OH)6.3H2O] or the K equivalent - compreignacite) and suspected boltwoodite. Differences between the systems are attributed to process coupling between acid chemistry and U geochemistry. Carbonate weathering contributed to rapidly buffer the pH to pH 7-8 in the absence of PO4 and to 6-7 in its presence, promoting subsequent silicate weathering that makes aqueous Si available for boltwoodite precipitation. Comparison with homogeneous nucleation experiments and thermodynamic calculations confirmed the strong phosphate control over U speciation and the multispeciation of U in its absence.

Perdrial, N.; Kanematsu, M.; Wang, G.; Um, W.; O'Day, P. A.; Chorover, J.

2013-12-01

80

Will Somebody do the Dishes? Weathering Analogies, Geologic Processes and Geologic Time  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A good analogy is one of the most powerful tools in any instructors' arsenal, and encouraging students to explore the links between an analogy and a scientific concept can cement both ideas in a student's mind. A common analogy for weathering and erosion processes is doing the dishes. Oxidation, hydration, and solution reactions can be intimidating on the chalkboard but easily understood in the context of cleaning up after dinner. Rather than present this analogy as a lecture demonstration, students are encouraged to experimentally determine which type of weathering works best on their dirty dishes. The experiment must use at least four identically dirty dishes: three experimental dishes and one control dish. The experimental dishes are subjected to simulated weathering and erosion processes of the student's design. Common techniques developed by students are cold or warm water baths, baths with and without acid (lemon juice or soda), and freeze-thaw cycles. Occasionally creative experiments result in unexpected discoveries, such the inefficiency of abrasion from wind-blown sand, especially when compared to soaking dishes in Canadian Whiskey. The effectiveness of each experimental run is determined by comparison to the control plate after loose debris is removed from each. The dish with the smallest aerial extent of remaining food is the declared the most effective. Discussion sections of the experimental write-up includes a description of which geologic processes were being simulated in each experiment, comparisons of the effectiveness of each techniques, and statements of how these experiments differ from reality. In order to advance this project, a second stage of the assignment, a direct comparison of weathering and erosion techniques on food and on geologic materials, will be added this fall. Ideally, students will empirically derive erosion rates and calculate the time required to remove the volume of material represented by a geologically important feature, such as Mt. Rainier or the Grand Canyon. In the end, students completing this project gain an understanding of how geologic processes work, the time scales required, the differences between analogies and the real thing, and arguably the most important aspect, a best-practices approach to doing the dishes.

Stelling, P.; Wuotila, S.; Giuliani, M.

2006-12-01

81

Chemical weathering and diagenesis of a cold desert soil from Wright Valley, Antarctica - An analog of Martian weathering processes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Weathering, diagenesis, and chemical alteration of a soil profile from the Dry Valleys of Antarctica are investigated as an analog to soil development within the Martian regolith. Soil samples from a soil pit one meter deep on Prospect Mesa, Wright Valley, are examined for their major element concentrations, water-soluble cations and anions, carbon, sulfur, and water concentrations, and related petrographic characteristics of weathering in a cold, dry environment. A petrographic study of the samples suggests that most silicate mineral and lithic fragments exhibit some degree of alteration. Chemical alteration occurs both in samples above and within the permanently frozen zone. The concentrations of water-soluble cations, for example, Na(+), K(+), Ca(2+), and anions, Cl(-), SO4(2-), NO3(-), are found to decrease significantly from the surface to the permanently frozen zone, suggesting a major movement of water-soluble species. It is also found that enrichments in secondary mineral abundances correlate with the water soluble ion concentrations. The formation of zeolites is seen throughout the soil column; these, it is thought, may be reservoirs for volatile storage within the regolith.

Gibson, E. K.; Mckay, D. S.; Wentworth, S. J.

1983-01-01

82

Space-weathering processes and products on volatile-rich asteroids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Space weathering is a generic term for the effects on atmosphereless solid bodies in the solar system from a range of processes associated with direct exposure to the space environment. These include impact processes (shock, vaporization, fragmentation, heating, melting, and ejecta formation), radiation damage (from galactic and solar cosmic rays), solar-wind effects (irradiation, ion implantation, and sputtering), and the chemical reactions driven by these processes. The classic example of space weathering is the formation of the lunar spectral red slope associated with the production of nanophase Fe (npFe0) in the dusty lunar regolith (C.R. Chapman, 2004, Annual Review of Earth & Planet. Sci. 32, C.M. Pieters, 2000, MAPS 35). Similar npFe0 has been recovered from asteroid (25143) Itokawa and some asteroid classes do exhibit modest spectral red slopes (T. Noguchi, 2011, Science 333). Space weathering can be thought of as driven by a combination of the chemical environment of space (hard vacuum, low oxygen fugacity, solar-wind implantation of hydrogen) along with thermal energy supplied by micrometeorite impacts. The forward modeling of space weathering as thermodynamically-driven decomposition of common rock-forming minerals suggests the production of a range of daughter products: (1) The silicate products typically lose oxygen, other volatile elements (i.e., sulfur and sodium), and metallic cations, producing minerals that are typically more disordered and less optically active than the original parent materials. (2) The decomposed metallic cations form in nano-sized blebs including npFe0, on the surfaces or in condensing rims of mineral grains. This creates a powerful optical component as seen in the lunar red slope. Surfaces with exposed npFe0 are an ideal environment for catalyzing further reactions. (3) The liberated volatile elements and gases (O, S, Na) may form an observable exosphere (e.g., Moon and Mercury) and can either escape from the body or recombine with available solar-wind-implanted hydrogen to form trace amounts of water and OH. Mineral decomposition can be thought of as the first stage of space weathering. It produces weathered surfaces somewhat depleted in volatile elements, creates a predictable set of minor or trace minerals, and leaves the surfaces with catalytic species, primarily npFe0. However, a second stage of further reactions and weathering depends upon the presence of ''feed-stock'' components that can participate in catalyzed chemical reactions on exposed surfaces. For volatile-rich small bodies, the available materials are not only silicates, but a volatile feedstock that can include water, carbon monoxide, ammonia, to name a few. Thermodynamically-driven decomposition of silicates will produce trace amounts of npFe0 which are ideal sites for Fischer-Tropsch type (FTT) catalytic reactions that can produce organics in situ on the asteroids including alkanes, polyaromatic hydrocarbons, and amino acids (J.E. Elsila, 2012, MAPS 47). The mix and range of products depends on the composition and morphology of the mineral surface, energy inputs produced by the micrometeorite impacts or other processes, and the composition of the input volatile feedstock. FFT reactions generate long-chain carbon compounds and amino acids. Secondary reactions that generate more complex carbon compounds and amino acids are likely to occur as the organic material matures. Weathering maturity can be thought of as a function of the abundance and diversity of the weathering products. Since the npFe0 is not destroyed in the reaction, continued micrometeorite bombardment would result in continuing processing and recombination of the existing organic feedstock. More weathering would result in progressively longer-chain carbon compounds as well as more complex and diverse amino acids, and eventually the kerogen-like insoluble-organic matter that forms a large fraction of carbonaceous meteorites. This insight has several major implications for our planetary science and, potentially, the formation of the precursors of l

Britt, D.; Schelling, P.; Consolmagno, G.; Bradley, T.

2014-07-01

83

Some topics on geochemistry of weathering: a review.  

PubMed

Weathering is a complex process comprising physical disaggregation, chemical and biological decomposition of rocks and minerals transforming complex structure minerals in simpler ones. Hydrolysis of silicates is perhaps the most important process but associated certainly to biological weathering. It is discussed the role ofwaters: activities/concentrations of chemical species, pH, Eh, importance of complexes. Weathering is not only a destructive process. It can concentrate chemical species and form mineral deposits (kaolin, bauxite, Fe, Mn, P, Nb, Au). Weathering studies are important in pedology, engineering geology, hydrogeology, paleoclimatology and ecology. The use of stonemeal is based upon the study of rock weathering. PMID:17143414

Formoso, Milton L L

2006-12-01

84

Weathering and weathering rates of natural stone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Physical and chemical weathering were studied as separate processes in the past. Recent research, however, shows that most processes are physicochemical in nature. The rates at which calcite and silica weather by dissolution are dependent on the regional and local climatic environment. The weathering of silicate rocks leaves discolored margins and rinds, a function of the rocks' permeability and of the climatic parameters. Salt action, the greatest disruptive factor, is complex and not yet fully understood in all its phases, but some of the causes of disruption are crystallization pressure, hydration pressure, and hygroscopic attraction of excess moisture. The decay of marble is complex, an interaction between disolution, crack-corrosion, and expansion-contraction cycies triggered by the release of residual stresses. Thin spalls of granites commonly found near the street level of buildings are generally caused by a combination of stress relief and salt action. To study and determine weathering rates of a variety of commercial stones, the National Bureau of Standards erected a Stone Exposure Test Wall in 1948. Of the many types of stone represented, only a few fossiliferous limestones permit a valid measurement of surface reduction in a polluted urban environment.

Winkler, Erhard M.

1987-06-01

85

Favorite Demonstration: Differential Weathering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this inquiry-based demonstration, the consumption of a Baby Ruth candy bar is used to nurture students' interest in chemical and physical weathering. In addition, two other concepts can be illustrated: the difference between weathering and erosion and

Francek, Mark

2002-10-01

86

Weather Forecasting  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Weather Forecasting is a set of computer-based learning modules that teach students about meteorology from the point of view of learning how to forecast the weather. The modules were designed as the primary teaching resource for a seminar course on weather forecasting at the introductory college level (originally METR 151, later ATMO 151) and can also be used in the laboratory component of an introductory atmospheric science course. The modules assume no prior meteorological knowledge. In addition to text and graphics, the modules include interactive questions and answers designed to reinforce student learning. The module topics are: 1. How to Access Weather Data, 2. How to Read Hourly Weather Observations, 3. The National Collegiate Weather Forecasting Contest, 4. Radiation and the Diurnal Heating Cycle, 5. Factors Affecting Temperature: Clouds and Moisture, 6. Factors Affecting Temperature: Wind and Mixing, 7. Air Masses and Fronts, 8. Forces in the Atmosphere, 9. Air Pressure, Temperature, and Height, 10. Winds and Pressure, 11. The Forecasting Process, 12. Sounding Diagrams, 13. Upper Air Maps, 14. Satellite Imagery, 15. Radar Imagery, 16. Numerical Weather Prediction, 17. NWS Forecast Models, 18. Sources of Model Error, 19. Sea Breezes, Land Breezes, and Coastal Fronts, 20. Soundings, Clouds, and Convection, 21. Snow Forecasting.

Nielsen-Gammon, John

1996-09-01

87

Physical Processes Controlling Earth's Climate  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As background for consideration of the climates of the other terrestrial planets in our solar system and the potential habitability of rocky exoplanets, we discuss the basic physics that controls the Earths present climate, with particular emphasis on the energy and water cycles. We define several dimensionless parameters relevant to characterizing a planets general circulation, climate and hydrological cycle. We also consider issues associated with the use of past climate variations as indicators of future anthropogenically forced climate change, and recent advances in understanding projections of future climate that might have implications for Earth-like exoplanets.

Genio, Anthony Del

2013-01-01

88

Process Physics Inertia, Gravity and the Quantum  

E-print Network

Process Physics models reality as self-organising relational or semantic information using a self-referentially limited neural network model. This generalises the traditional non-process syntactical modelling of reality by taking account of the limitations and characteristics of self-referential syntactical information systems, discovered by Goedel and Chaitin, and the analogies with the standard quantum formalism and its limitations. In process physics space and quantum physics are emergent and unified, and time is a distinct non-geometric process. Quantum phenomena are caused by fractal topological defects embedded in and forming a growing three-dimensional fractal process-space. Various features of the emergent physics are briefly discussed including: quantum gravity, quantum field theory, limited causality and the Born quantum measurement metarule, inertia, time-dilation effects, gravity and the equivalence principle, a growing universe with a cosmological constant, black holes and event horizons, and the...

Cahill, R T

2001-01-01

89

Putting Weather into Weather Derivatives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Just as weather forecasting has a colorful and often farsighted history within geophysics, financial mathematics has a long and turbulent history within mathematics. Thus it is no surprise that the intersection of real physics and real financial mathematics provides a rich source of problems and insight in both fields. This presentation targets open questions in one such intersection: quantifying ``weather risk.'' There is no accepted (operational) method for including deterministic information from simulation models (numerical weather forecasts, either best guess or by ensemble forecasting methods), into the stochastic framework most common within financial mathematics. Nor is there a stochastic method for constructing weather surrogates which has been proven successful in application. Inasmuch as the duration of employable observations is short, methods of melding short term, medium-range and long term forecasts are needed. On these time scales, model error is a substantial problem, while many methods of traditional statistical practice are simply inappropriate given our physical understanding of the system. A number of specific open questions, along with a smaller number of potential solutions, will be presented. >http://www.maths.ox.ac.uk/~lenny/WeatherRisk

Smith, L. A.; Smith, L. A.

2001-12-01

90

Characterizing the process and quantifying the rate of subaerial rock weathering on desert surfaces using roughness analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Subaerial weathering of rocks is a common process observed on desert surfaces on Earth and other planetary terrestrial surfaces such as on Mars. On Earth, this weathering process has been previously identified as one of the key erosion agent driving geomorphic surface evolution and the development of desert pavements. And yet, fundamental aspects of the process, such as the relative contribution of the different weathering modes that drive it (e.g., mechanical breakdown of rocks, chemical weathering, aeolian abrasion and exfoliation) as well as the rate by which this weathering process occurs have not been systematically examined. Here, we present a new approach for quantitatively addressing these fundamental aspects of process geomorphology on desert surfaces. We focus here on co-genetic desert alluvial surfaces of different ages, i.e. alluvial chronosequences, which provide excellent recorders for the evolution of boulder-strewn surfaces into smooth desert pavements through in-situ subaerial weathering of rocks. Our approach combines independent measures of two different surface attributes: High resolution (mm-scale) 3D ground-based laser scanning (LiDAR) of surface micro-topography, and numerical dating of surface age. Roughness analysis of the LiDAR data in power spectral density (PSD) space allows us to characterize the geometric manifestation of rock weathering on the surface and to distinguish between the different weathering modes. Numerical age constraints provide independent estimates for the time elapsed since the process began. Accordingly, we are able to constrain surface roughness evolution on alluvial fan desert chronosequences through time, and present PSD analysis of surface roughness as a new quantitative tool to examine the process of subaerial rock weathering in desert environments. In this study we present results from two late Quaternary alluvial chronosequences along the Dead Sea Transform in the hyper-arid Negev desert of southern Israel. LiDAR scanning was applied on representative areas (~30-50 m2) of 10 separate surfaces ranging from rough Holocene surfaces to fairly smooth surfaces with well-developed pavements displaying an OSL age of 87 kyr. We find typical and recurring time-dependent changes in the offset as well as shape of the PSD curves in both chronosequences: PSD offset is continuously reduced over time reflecting the overall reduction in the amplitude of roughness at all wavelengths. The PSD curves display progressive moderation of slopes at the longer wavelengths with the moderation point itself systematically shifted to shorter wavelengths. This characteristic evolution of PSD offset and slope moderation at longer wavelengths reflects the typical break up of boulder-sized clasts through time as the surfaces mature into well-developed desert pavements and points towards mechanical breakdown as the dominant weathering mode. In addition, we are able to determine the rate by which the larger clasts are removed from the system. We build on these new insights into process and rate of rock weathering to propose PSD analysis of surface roughness as a complementary method for constraining the age of desert alluvial surfaces in places where 'conventional' dating cannot be applied.

Mushkin, Amit; Sagy, Amir; Trabelci, Eran

2013-04-01

91

Hands-on, online, and workshop-based K-12 weather and climate education resources from the Center for Multi-scale Modeling of Atmospheric Processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The need for improving the representation of cloud processes in climate models has been one of the most important limitations of the reliability of climate-change simulations. Now in its fourth year, the National Science Foundation-funded Center for Multi-scale Modeling of Atmospheric Processes (CMMAP) at Colorado State University (CSU) is addressing this problem through a revolutionary new approach to representing cloud processes on their native scales, including the cloud-scale interaction processes that are active in cloud systems. CMMAP has set ambitious education and human-resource goals to share basic information about the atmosphere, clouds, weather, climate, and modeling with diverse K-12 and public audiences. This is accomplished through collaborations in resource development and dissemination between CMMAP scientists, CSU’s Little Shop of Physics (LSOP) program, and the Windows to the Universe (W2U) program at University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR). Little Shop of Physics develops new hands on science activities demonstrating basic science concepts fundamental to understanding atmospheric characteristics, weather, and climate. Videos capture demonstrations of children completing these activities which are broadcast to school districts and public television programs. CMMAP and LSOP educators and scientists partner in teaching a summer professional development workshops for teachers at CSU with a semester's worth of college-level content on the basic physics of the atmosphere, weather, climate, climate modeling, and climate change, as well as dozens of LSOP inquiry-based activities suitable for use in classrooms. The W2U project complements these efforts by developing and broadly disseminating new CMMAP-related online content pages, animations, interactives, image galleries, scientists’ biographies, and LSOP videos to K-12 and public audiences. Reaching nearly 20 million users annually, W2U is highly valued as a curriculum enhancement resource, because its content is written at three levels in English and Spanish. Links between science topics and literature, art, and mythology enable teachers of English Language Learners, literacy, and the arts to integrate science into their classrooms. In summary, the CMMAP NSF-funded Science and Technology Center has established a highly effective and productive partnership of scientists and educators focused on enhancing public science literacy about weather, climate, and global change. All CMMAP, LSOP, and W2U resources can be accessed online at no cost by the entire atmospheric science K-12 and informal science education community.

Foster, S. Q.; Johnson, R. M.; Randall, D. A.; Denning, A.; Burt, M. A.; Gardiner, L.; Genyuk, J.; Hatheway, B.; Jones, B.; La Grave, M. L.; Russell, R. M.

2009-12-01

92

Clouds, weather, climate, and modeling for K-12 and public audiences from the Center for Multi-scale Modeling of Atmospheric Processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The need for improving the representation of cloud processes in climate models has been one of the most important limitations of the reliability of climate-change simulations. Now in its fifth year, the National Science Foundation-funded Center for Multi-scale Modeling of Atmospheric Processes (CMMAP) at Colorado State University (CSU) is addressing this problem through a revolutionary new approach to representing cloud processes on their native scales, including the cloud-scale interaction processes that are active in cloud systems. CMMAP has set ambitious education and human-resource goals to share basic information about the atmosphere, clouds, weather, climate, and modeling with diverse K-12 and public audiences. This is accomplished through collaborations in resource development and dissemination between CMMAP scientists, CSU’s Little Shop of Physics (LSOP) program, and the Windows to the Universe (W2U) program at University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR). Little Shop of Physics develops new hands on science activities demonstrating basic science concepts fundamental to understanding atmospheric characteristics, weather, and climate. Videos capture demonstrations of children completing these activities which are broadcast to school districts and public television programs. CMMAP and LSOP educators and scientists partner in teaching a summer professional development workshops for teachers at CSU with a semester's worth of college-level content on the basic physics of the atmosphere, weather, climate, climate modeling, and climate change, as well as dozens of LSOP inquiry-based activities suitable for use in classrooms. The W2U project complements these efforts by developing and broadly disseminating new CMMAP-related online content pages, animations, interactives, image galleries, scientists’ biographies, and LSOP videos to K-12 and public audiences. Reaching nearly 20 million users annually, W2U is highly valued as a curriculum enhancement resource, because its content is written at three levels in English and Spanish. Links between science topics and literature, art, and mythology enable teachers of English Language Learners, literacy, and the arts to integrate science into their classrooms. In summary, the CMMAP NSF-funded Science and Technology Center has established a highly effective and productive partnership of scientists and educators focused on enhancing public science literacy about weather, climate, and global change. All CMMAP, LSOP, and W2U resources can be accessed online at no cost by the entire atmospheric science K-12 and informal science education community.

Foster, S. Q.; Johnson, R. M.; Randall, D. A.; Denning, A.; Russell, R. M.; Gardiner, L. S.; Hatheway, B.; Jones, B.; Burt, M. A.; Genyuk, J.

2010-12-01

93

Physical conditions for the r-process  

SciTech Connect

Recent works show that the r-process can proceed by competition between neutron capture and {beta}-decay in low temperature environments (< 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 8} K; cold r-process) where photo-disintegration plays no role. This is in contrast to the traditional picture of the r-process in high temperature environments ({approx} 1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 9} K; hot r-process) where the (n, {gamma})-({gamma}, n) equilibrium holds. In this study, we explore nucleosynthesis calculations based on a site-independent model to elucidate the physical conditions leading to cold and hot r-processes.

Wanajo, S.; Tachibana, T.; Goriely, S. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Excellence Cluster Universe, Boltzmannstr. 2, D-85748 Garching and Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Senior High School of Waseda University, Nerima, Tokyo 177-0044 (Japan); Institut d'Astronomie et d'Astrophysique, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, C.P. 226, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium)

2012-11-12

94

AGU Honors Space Weather Scientists  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

AGU has recently presented two awards to space weather scientists. Yao Chen is the recipient of the 2008 Sunanda and Santimay Basu Early Career Award in Sun-Earth Systems Science. The award, given by the Space Physics and Aeronomy section of AGU, recognizes an individual scientist from a developing nation for making "outstanding contributions to research in Sun-Earth systems science that further the understanding of both plasma physical processes and their applications for the benefit of society."

Tretkoff, Ernie

2009-08-01

95

Results from the Second Forum on the Future Role of the Human in the Forecast Process. Part II: Cognitive Psychological Aspects of Expert Weather Forecasters  

E-print Network

1 Results from the Second Forum on the Future Role of the Human in the Forecast Process. Part II: Cognitive Psychological Aspects of Expert Weather Forecasters NEIL A. STUART* NOAA/National Weather Service;2 ABSTRACT The Second Forum on the Future Role of the Human in the Forecast Process occurred on 2­3 August

Schultz, David

96

Space plasma physics: I - Stationary processes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The physics of stationary processes in space plasmas is examined theoretically in an introduction intended for graduate students. The approach involves the extensive use of numerical simulations. Chapters are devoted to fundamental principles, small-amplitude waves, and the stationary solar plasma system; typical measurement data and simulation results are presented graphically.

Hasegawa, Akira; Sato, Tetsuya

1989-01-01

97

Weather and Road Management  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Anticipating and dealing with weather and the hazards it creates is a real challenge for those in departments of transportation. This module gives road and highway managers a basic understanding of meteorology and weather hazards so that they can better interpret weather forecast information used to make road management decisions. The module also highlights web-based forecast products available from the National Weather Service that can help in the decision-making process.

Comet

2008-07-21

98

Chemistry of uranium, thorium, and radium isotopes in the Ganga-Brahmaputra river system: Weathering processes and fluxes to the Bay of Bengal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rivers are the major pathways for the transport of weathered materials from the land to the oceans. The geochemical studies on river waters provide an insight into the weathering processes that control the distribution of elements in dissolved and particulate phases and their fluxes to the estuaries. Consequently, a detailed and systematic study of the major ion composition and radionuclide

M. M. Sarin; S. Krishnaswami; B. L. K. Somayajulu; W. S. Moore

1990-01-01

99

Weather Watch  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggests a number of ways in which Federal Aviation Agency weather report printouts can be used in teaching the weather section of meteorology. These weather sequence reports can be obtained free of charge at most major airports. (JR)

Bratt, Herschell Marvin

1973-01-01

100

Weather variability, ecological processes and optimization of soil micro-environment for rangeland restoration  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Arid and semi-arid rangelands occupy over half of the earth’s surface and are characterized by relatively high variability in seasonal and annual patterns of precipitation. Invasive plants compete for soil and water resources and exacerbate inherent weather limitations for native plant establishmen...

101

Cryptomelane: A tool to determine the age and the physical-chemical regime of a Plio-Pleistocene weathering zone in a granitic terrain (Hagendorf, SE Germany)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cryptomelane, a K-Mn-bearing oxide, is widespread in the lowermost part of the weathering/supergene alteration zone of the Hagendorf Pegmatite, SE Germany. This supergene Mn mineral has been used in the present study for K/Ar dating of weathering and paleohydraulic processes as young as Plio-Pleistocene. Different cryptomelane age data found in the same weathering and paleohydraulic system resulted from continuous hydraulic processes in the weathering system rather than from a stepwise uplift that shaped the landscape in the granitic area of the NE Bavarian Basement. An almost pure cryptomelane mineralization is indicative of the basal zone of supergene alteration, because a complete separation of Mn from Fe can favorably be achieved only in the infiltration zone under slightly reducing conditions or in the percolation zone under slightly oxidizing conditions. Cryptomelane is precipitated under slightly oxidizing conditions from alkaline solutions in the percolation zone and cast as a marker for fluctuating (paleo)water levels. Manganese oxides, uranyl phosphates and silicates were found at different depths in the weathering zone of this granitic terrain. They were dated by different dating methods (K/Ar and U/Pb) and yielded the same age of formation. Consequently, the 4 Ma signal of both groups of supergene minerals has geomorphological and paleohydraulic connotation and is related to a unique geomorphological process, the Pliocene peneplanation. Gradual hydraulic adjustments gave rise to the younger Pleistocene age found at shallow depth in the weathering zone.

Dill, H. G.; Hansen, B.; Keck, E.; Weber, B.

2010-09-01

102

Weather-Driven Variation in Dengue Activity in Australia Examined Using a Process-Based Modeling Approach  

PubMed Central

The impact of weather variation on dengue transmission in Cairns, Australia, was determined by applying a process-based dengue simulation model (DENSiM) that incorporated local meteorologic, entomologic, and demographic data. Analysis showed that inter-annual weather variation is one of the significant determinants of dengue outbreak receptivity. Cross-correlation analyses showed that DENSiM simulated epidemics of similar relative magnitude and timing to those historically recorded in reported dengue cases in Cairns during 1991–2009, (r = 0.372, P < 0.01). The DENSiM model can now be used to study the potential impacts of future climate change on dengue transmission. Understanding the impact of climate variation on the geographic range, seasonality, and magnitude of dengue transmission will enhance development of adaptation strategies to minimize future disease burden in Australia. PMID:23166197

Bannister-Tyrrell, Melanie; Williams, Craig; Ritchie, Scott A.; Rau, Gina; Lindesay, Janette; Mercer, Geoff; Harley, David

2013-01-01

103

Space Weathering of Apollo 16 Sample 62255: Lunar Rocks as Witness Plates for Deciphering Regolith Formation Processes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space weathering, or alteration that occurs at the surfaces of materials exposed directly to space, has been one of the primary areas of focus of lunar studies for the past several years. It is caused by processes such as micrometeorite impacts and solar wind bombardment, and effects can include microcraters, spall zones, and vapor deposits. Much of the recent work on space weathering has been concentrated on nanoscale features, especially the amorphous rims commonly found on individual lunar soil grains. The rims typically contain nanophase Fe metal globules, which, along with Fe metal globules in agglutinates, have a profound effect on optical properties of lunar soils. The nanophase metallic iron globules cause the characteristic optical changes (reddening and darkening) found in mature lunar soils.

Wentworth, S. J.; McKay, D. S.; Keller, L. P.

2004-01-01

104

APL experience with space weather modeling and transition to operations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In response to the growing space weather needs, the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (APL) developed and delivered twenty two state of the art space weather products under the auspice of the University Partnering in Operational Support program, initiated in 1998. These products offer nowcasts and forecasts for the region spanning from the Sun to the Earth. Some of these products have been transitioned to the Air Force Weather Agency and other space weather centers. The transition process is quite different from research modeling, requiring additional staff with different sets of expertise. Recently, APL has developed a space weather web page to serve these products to the research and user community. For the initial stage, we have chosen ten of these products to be served from our website, which is presently still under construction. APL’s experience, lessons learned, and successes from developing space weather models, the transition to operations process and the webpage access will be shared and discussed

Zanetti, L. J.; Wing, S.

2009-12-01

105

Activity 2SOLAR PHYSICS AND TERRESTRIAL EFFECTS 53Space Weather Prediction Center  

E-print Network

, etc. Be imaginative! Materials 1 six-sided die 1 pencil 1 sheet of isometric graph paper (example drawing compass Procedures 1. Find the center of the isometric graph paper (marked with an "O") and call choose, but must be used consistently throughout this entire exercise. #12;Activity 2 SOLAR PHYSICS

106

Ameliorating physical and chemical properties of highly weathered soils in the tropics with charcoal - a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rapid turnover of organic matter leads to a low efficiency of organic fertilizers applied to increase and sequester C in soils of the humid tropics. Charcoal was reported to be responsible for high soil organic matter contents and soil fertility of anthropogenic soils (Terra Preta) found in central Amazonia. Therefore, we reviewed the available information about the physical and chemical

Bruno Glaser; Johannes Lehmann; Wolfgang Zech

2002-01-01

107

Anvil Forecast Tool in the Advanced Weather Interactive Processing System, Phase II  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Meteorologists from the 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) and Spaceflight Meteorology Group have identified anvil forecasting as one of their most challenging tasks when predicting the probability of violations of the Lightning Launch Commit Criteria and Space Light Rules. As a result, the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) created a graphical overlay tool for the Meteorological Interactive Data Display Systems (MIDDS) to indicate the threat of thunderstorm anvil clouds, using either observed or model forecast winds as input.

Barrett, Joe H., III

2008-01-01

108

Protein Folding as a Physical Stochastic Process  

E-print Network

We model protein folding as a physical stochastic process as follows. The unfolded protein chain is treated as a random coil described by SAW (self-avoiding walk). Folding is induced by hydrophobic forces and other interactions, such as hydrogen bonding, which can be taken into account by imposing conditions on SAW. The resulting model is termed CSAW (conditioned self-avoiding walk. Conceptually, the mathematical basis is a generalized Langevin equation. In practice, the model is implemented on a computer by combining SAW and Monte Carlo. To illustrate the flexibility and capabilities of the model, we consider a number of examples, including folding pathways, elastic properties, helix formation, and collective modes.

Kerson Huang

2007-07-17

109

Weather Forecasting  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students consider how weather forecasting plays an important part in their daily lives. They learn about the history of weather forecasting — from old weather proverbs to modern forecasting equipment — and how improvements in weather technology have saved lives by providing advance warning of natural hazards.

Integrated Teaching and Learning Program,

110

Preliminary observations on the impact of complex stress histories on sandstone response to salt weathering: laboratory simulations of process combinations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Historic sandstone structures carry an inheritance, or a ‘memory’, of past stresses that the stone has undergone since its placement in a façade. This inheritance, which conditions present day performance, may be made up of long-term exposure to a combination of low magnitude background environmental factors (for example, salt weathering, temperature and moisture cycling) and, superimposed upon these, less frequent but potentially high magnitude events or ‘exceptional’ factors (for example, lime rendering, severe frost events, fire). The impact of complex histories on the decay pathways of historic sandstone is not clearly understood, but this paper seeks to improve that understanding through the use of a laboratory ‘process combination’ study. Blocks of quartz sandstone (Peakmoor, from NW England) were divided into subsets that experienced different histories (lime rendering and removal, fire and freeze-thaw cycles in isolation and combination) that reflected the event timeline of a real medieval sandstone monument in NE Ireland, Bonamargy Friary (McCabe et al. 2006b). These subsets were then subject to salt weathering cycles using a 10% salt solution of NaCl and MgSO4 that represents the ‘every-day’ stress environment of, for example, sandstone structures in coastal, or polluted urban, location. Block response to salt weathering was monitored by collecting, drying and weighing the debris that was released as blocks were immersed in the salt solution at the beginning of each cycle. The results illustrate the complexity of the stone decay system, showing that seemingly small variations in stress history can produce divergent response to salt weathering cycles. Applied to real-world historic sandstone structures, this concept may help to explain the spatial and temporal variability of sandstone response to background environmental factors on a single façade, and encourage conservators to include the role of stress inheritance when selecting and implementing conservation strategies.

McCabe, S.; Smith, B. J.; Warke, P. A.

2007-03-01

111

UM Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sponsored by The Weather Underground at the University of Michigan at Ann Arbor, UM Weather bills itself as the "Internet's premier source of weather information." The site offers several general audience tools such as the Fast Forecast for any city in the US, ski weather, and weather cams. But, it also provides access to over two dozen weather software packages, a new computer model forecasts page, and most impressively a list of close to 400 other weather related Web sites. Professionals and researchers will appreciate the non-technical feel of the site and the valuable information they can procure from it.

112

Tales of future weather  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Society is vulnerable to extreme weather events and, by extension, to human impacts on future events. As climate changes weather patterns will change. The search is on for more effective methodologies to aid decision-makers both in mitigation to avoid climate change and in adaptation to changes. The traditional approach uses ensembles of climate model simulations, statistical bias correction, downscaling to the spatial and temporal scales relevant to decision-makers, and then translation into quantities of interest. The veracity of this approach cannot be tested, and it faces in-principle challenges. Alternatively, numerical weather prediction models in a hypothetical climate setting can provide tailored narratives for high-resolution simulations of high-impact weather in a future climate. This 'tales of future weather' approach will aid in the interpretation of lower-resolution simulations. Arguably, it potentially provides complementary, more realistic and more physically consistent pictures of what future weather might look like.

Hazeleger, W.; van den Hurk, B. J. J. M.; Min, E.; van Oldenborgh, G. J.; Petersen, A. C.; Stainforth, D. A.; Vasileiadou, E.; Smith, L. A.

2015-02-01

113

Neutron radiography and X-ray computed tomography for quantifying weathering and water uptake processes inside porous limestone used as building material  

SciTech Connect

Euville and Savonnières limestones were weathered by acid test and this resulted in the formation of a gypsum crust. In order to characterize the crystallization pattern and the evolution of the pore structure below the crust, a combination of high resolution X-ray computed tomography and SEM–EDS was used. A time lapse sequence of the changing pore structure in both stones was obtained and afterwards quantified by using image analysis. The difference in weathering of both stones by the same process could be explained by the underlying microstructure and texture. Because water and moisture play a crucial role in the weathering processes, water uptake in weathered and non-weathered samples was characterized based on neutron radiography. In this way the water uptake was both visualized and quantified in function of the height of the sample and in function of time. In general, the formation of a gypsum crust on limestone slows down the initial water uptake in the materials. - Highlights: • Time lapse sequence in 3D of changing pore structures inside limestone • A combination of X-ray CT, SEM and neutron radiography was used. • Quantification of water content in function of time, height and weathering • Characterization of weathering processes due to gypsum crystallization.

Dewanckele, J., E-mail: jan.dewanckele@gmail.com [Department of Geology and Soil Science—UGCT, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281 S8, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); De Kock, T. [Department of Geology and Soil Science—UGCT, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281 S8, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Fronteau, G. [University of Reims Champagne-Ardenne (URCA), GEGENAA, EA3795 Reims (France); Derluyn, H. [Chair of Building Physics, ETH Zurich, HIL E 47.2, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 15, 8093 Zürich Hönggerberg (Switzerland); Vontobel, P. [Spallation Neutron Source Division, Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Dierick, M.; Van Hoorebeke, L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy—UGCT, Ghent University, Proeftuinstraat 86, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Jacobs, P.; Cnudde, V. [Department of Geology and Soil Science—UGCT, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281 S8, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium)

2014-02-15

114

Winter Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This project explores factors that help create severe winter weather. An interactive simulation provides hands-on experience, followed by guiding questions and resource exploration. Weather affects our everyday lives. Some days it's sunny and some days its not. The years weather is split up into seasons. 1. What are the four seasons? 2. What kind of weather do you see in the summer? 3. What kind of weather is unique to winter? 4. ...

Mrs. Bellows

2009-09-28

115

Weathering in a Cup.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two easy student activities that demonstrate physical weathering by expansion are described. The first demonstrates ice wedging and the second root wedging. A list of the needed materials, procedure, and observations are included. (KR)

Stadum, Carol J.

1991-01-01

116

Space Weathering in the Inner Solar System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

"Space weathering" is the term given to the cumulative effects incurred by surfaces which are exposed to the harsh environment of space. Lunar sample studies over the last decade or so have produced a clear picture of space weathering processes in the lunar environment. By combining laboratory and remote spectra with microanalytical methods (scanning and transmission electron microscopy), we have begun to unravel the various processes (irradiation, micrometeorite bombardment, etc) that contribute to space weathering and the physical and optical consequences of those processes on the Moon. Using the understanding gleaned from lunar samples, it is possible to extrapolate weathering processes to other airless bodies from which we have not yet returned samples (i.e. Mercury, asteroids). Through experiments which simulate various components of weathering, the expected differences in environment (impact rate, distance from Sun, presence of a magnetic field, reduced or enhanced gravity, etc) and composition (particularly iron content) can be explored to understand how space weathering will manifest on a given body.

Noble, Sarah K.

2010-01-01

117

Generation of abnormal trace element abundances in Antarctic eucrites by weathering processes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Data were obtained on the trace- and major-element compositions of 16 Antarctic abnormal eucrites, many of which exhibiting positive (but sometimes negative) Ce anomalies, positive Eu anomalies, and low abundances of the remainder of the REEs. The results of data analysis suggest that the unusual REE patterns of abnormal Antarctic eucrites arise from weathering effects generated in or on the Antarctic ice. The suggested scenario involves the formation of melt water and its equilibration with the atmosphere, promoting the dissolution of REE-rich phosphates and the oxidation of Ce. As a result, tetravalent Ce is fractionated from the trivalent REE in solution.

Mittlefehldt, David W.; Lindstrom, Marilyn M.

1991-01-01

118

Weather Forecasting for Radio Astronomy  

E-print Network

Weather Forecasting for Radio Astronomy Part I: The Mechanics and Physics Ronald J Maddalena August 1, 2008 #12;Outline Part I Background -- research inspirations and aspirations Vertical weather, .... Part II Results on refraction & air mass (with Jeff Paradis) Part III Results on opacity, weather

Groppi, Christopher

119

Bringing life to soil physical processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When Oklahoma's native prairie grass roots were replaced by corn, the greatest environmental (and social) disaster ever to hit America ensued. The soils lost structure, physical binding by roots was annihilated and when drought came the Great Dust Bowl commenced. This form of environmental disaster has repeated over history and although not always apparent, similar processes drive the degradation of seemingly productive farmland and forests. But just as negative impacts on biology are deleterious to soil physical properties, positive impacts could reverse these trends. In finding solutions to soil sustainability and food security, we should be able to exploit biological processes to improve soil physical properties. This talk will focus on a quantitative understanding of how biology changes soil physical behaviour. Like the Great Dust Bowl, it starts with reinforcement mechanisms by plant roots. We found that binding of soil by cereal (barley) roots within 5 weeks of planting can more than double soil shear strength, with greater plant density causing greater reinforcement. With time, however, the relative impact of root reinforcement diminishes due to root turnover and aging of the seedbed. From mechanical tests of individual roots, reasonable predictions of reinforcement by tree roots are possible with fibre bundle models. With herbaceous plants like cereals, however, the same parameters (root strength, stiffness, size and distribution) result in a poor prediction. We found that root type, root age and abiotic factors such as compaction and waterlogging affect mechanical behaviour, further complicating the understanding and prediction of root reinforcement. For soil physical stability, the interface between root and soil is an extremely important zone in terms of resistance of roots to pull-out and rhizosphere formation. Compounds analogous to root exudates have been found with rheological tests to initially decrease the shear stress where wet soils flow, but after decomposition of these exudates by microbes the shear stress increases. This suggests an initial dispersion, followed by aggregation of the soil, which explains the structural arrangement of soil particles in the rhizosphere observed by microscopy. Dispersion of soil minerals in the root zone is important to release bound nutrients from mineral surfaces. Using fracture mechanics we measured large impacts of biological exudates on the toughness and interparticle bond energy of soils. Now novel tests are being developed to quantify interparticle bonding by biological exudates on single and multiple particle contacts, including mechanical test specimens that can be inoculated with specific bacteria or fungi. This will allow for clay mineralogy, water potential and solution chemistry impacts on interparticle bonding to be quantified directly. Wettability experiments with the same samples measure hydrological properties such as contact angle. Basic information from these tests will help explain biological processes that drive soil structure formation and stabilisation, providing data for models of soil structure dynamics.

Hallett, P. D.

2013-12-01

120

Space Weathering of Rocks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space weathering discussions have generally centered around soils but exposed rocks will also incur the effects of weathering. On the Moon, rocks make up only a very small percentage of the exposed surface and areas where rocks are exposed, like central peaks, are often among the least space weathered regions we find in remote sensing data. However, our studies of weathered Ap 17 rocks 76015 and 76237 show that significant amounts of weathering products can build up on rock surfaces. Because rocks have much longer surface lifetimes than an individual soil grain, and thus record a longer history of exposure, we can study these products to gain a deeper perspective on the weathering process and better assess the relative impo!1ance of various weathering components on the Moon. In contrast to the lunar case, on small asteroids, like Itokowa, rocks make up a large fraction of the exposed surface. Results from the Hayabusa spacecraft at Itokowa suggest that while the low gravity does not allow for the development of a mature regolith, weathering patinas can and do develop on rock surfaces, in fact, the rocky surfaces were seen to be darker and appear spectrally more weathered than regions with finer materials. To explore how weathering of asteroidal rocks may differ from lunar, a set of ordinary chondrite meteorites (H, L, and LL) which have been subjected to artificial space weathering by nanopulse laser were examined by TEM. NpFe(sup 0) bearing glasses were ubiquitous in both the naturally-weathered lunar and the artificially-weathered meteorite samples.

Noble, Sarah

2011-01-01

121

First look at RBSP Space Weather data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA will launch two identical probes into the radiation belts to provide unprecedented insight into the physical processes and dynamics of near-Earth space. The RBSP mission in addition to the scientific data return, provides a 1kbps real-time space weather broadcast data in support of real time space weather modeling, forecast and prediction efforts. Networks of ground stations are being identified to downlink the space weather data. The RBSP instrument suites have selected space weather data to be broadcast from their collected space data on board the spacecraft, a subset from measurements based on information normally available to the instrument. The data subset includes particle fluxes at a variety of energies, and magnetic and electric field data. This selected space weather data is broadcast at all times through the primary spacecraft science downlink antennas when an observatory is not in a primary mission-related ground contact. The collected data will resolve important scientific issues and help researchers develop and improve various models for the radiation belts that can be used by forecasters to predict space weather phenomena and alert astronauts and spacecraft operators to potential hazards. The near real-time data from RBSP will be available to monitor and analyze current environmental conditions, forecast natural environmental changes and support anomaly resolution. When RBSP launches in August 2012, the RBSP instruments will be generating and broadcasting real-time space weather data. These data are used for space weather forecasting. The space weather data will be available on the RBSP Science Data Portal at http://rbspsdp.jhuapl.edu/data.php and will provide access to the space weather data received from the RBSP real-time space weather broadcast. The near real-time data will be calibrated and displayed on the web as soon as possible. The CCMC will ingest the RBSP space weather data into real-time models. The raw space weather data will be permanently archived at APL. This presentation will provide a first look at RBSP space weather data products.

Weiss, M.; Mauk, B. H.; Fox, N. J.; Sotirelis, T.; Barnes, R. J.; Potter, M.

2011-12-01

122

Winter Weather  

MedlinePLUS

... About CDC.gov . Natural Disasters and Severe Weather Earthquakes Being Prepared Emergency Supplies Home Hazards Indoor Safety ... What's New A - Z Index Disasters & Severe Weather Earthquakes Extreme Heat Floods Hurricanes Landslides Tornadoes Tsunamis Volcanoes ...

123

Home Weatherization Visit  

ScienceCinema

Secretary Steven Chu visits a home that is in the process of being weatherized in Columbus, OH, along with Ohio Governor Ted Strickland and Columbus Mayor Michael Coleman. They discuss the benefits of weatherization and how funding from the recovery act is having a direct impact in communities across America.

Chu, Steven

2013-05-29

124

Terrestrial-marine teleconnections in the Devonian: links between the evolution of land plants, weathering processes, and marine anoxic events  

PubMed Central

The Devonian Period was characterized by major changes in both the terrestrial biosphere, e.g. the evolution of trees and seed plants and the appearance of multi-storied forests, and in the marine biosphere, e.g. an extended biotic crisis that decimated tropical marine benthos, especially the stromatoporoid-tabulate coral reef community. Teleconnections between these terrestrial and marine events are poorly understood, but a key may lie in the role of soils as a geochemical interface between the lithosphere and atmosphere/hydrosphere, and the role of land plants in mediating weathering processes at this interface. The effectiveness of terrestrial floras in weathering was significantly enhanced as a consequence of increases in the size and geographic extent of vascular land plants during the Devonian. In this regard, the most important palaeobotanical innovations were (1) arborescence (tree stature), which increased maximum depths of root penetration and rhizoturbation, and (2) the seed habit, which freed land plants from reproductive dependence on moist lowland habitats and allowed colonization of drier upland and primary successional areas. These developments resulted in a transient intensification of pedogenesis (soil formation) and to large increases in the thickness and areal extent of soils. Enhanced chemical weathering may have led to increased riverine nutrient fluxes that promoted development of eutrophic conditions in epicontinental seaways, resulting in algal blooms, widespread bottomwater anoxia, and high sedimentary organic carbon fluxes. Long-term effects included drawdown of atmospheric pCO2 and global cooling, leading to a brief Late Devonian glaciation, which set the stage for icehouse conditions during the Permo-Carboniferous. This model provides a framework for understanding links between early land plant evolution and coeval marine anoxic and biotic events, but further testing of Devonian terrestrial-marine teleconnections is needed.

Algeo, T. J.

1998-01-01

125

Weather Odds  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Weather Odds site helps users learn about the odds of various weather happening at monthly and daily levels. The site relies on past climate data from thousands of locations and it's a fine resource. In the Quick Weather Data area, visitors can check out popular United States locations or use the search engine to breeze along to their preferred habitat. This version of Weather Odds is compatible with all operating systems.

2014-05-08

126

Physical Processes in the Rosette Nebula  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Rosette Nebula is an apparently spherical HII region which, though approximately 5000 light years distant, spans approximately 1.5 degrees of sky. Larger and much less luminous than the nearby Orion nebula, its faintness and angular size have made examination of the physical processes driving its shape, structure, and dynamics difficult. The spatial morphology of the nebula, which interacts with the associated Rosette Molecular Cloud complex, is obscured by the interstellar dust produced by previous generations of star formation. Our research seeks to construct a multispectral data set for the nebula and its environment, and through that to develop an observationally informed three dimensional model for the gas and dust densities, temperature, composition and motion. The distinctive ring of the Rosette is thought to be caused by radiation and winds from a central cluster of recently formed hot (OB) stars. The interaction of these stars with the nebula may be modeled based on physical first principles with CLOUDY and CLOUDY3D, thereby yielding a self-consistent understanding of the flow of energy from its stars and its appearance across the full spectrum from the ultraviolet to the radio. We are searching for evidence of prior episodes of star formation, and an understanding of the development of the heavy elements, molecules, and dust that are precursors to Earth-like planet formation. We have acquired narrow band images and long-slit spectra using wide-field instrumentation at Moore Observatory of the University of Louisville as the first phase of this project. Mosaics of the entire Rosette nebula with a 3.8 degree field of view and 4 arcsecond resolution have been produced in H?, H?, [OIII], and [SII]. Additionally, an initial characterization of the dust density of the region achieved through analysis of the H?/Hß line ratio from these images is presented.

Huber, Jeremy; Kielkopf, J. F.

2011-05-01

127

Evaluating the effects of terrestrial ecosystems, climate and carbon dioxide on weathering over geological time: a global-scale process-based approach  

PubMed Central

Global weathering of calcium and magnesium silicate rocks provides the long-term sink for atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) on a timescale of millions of years by causing precipitation of calcium carbonates on the seafloor. Catchment-scale field studies consistently indicate that vegetation increases silicate rock weathering, but incorporating the effects of trees and fungal symbionts into geochemical carbon cycle models has relied upon simple empirical scaling functions. Here, we describe the development and application of a process-based approach to deriving quantitative estimates of weathering by plant roots, associated symbiotic mycorrhizal fungi and climate. Our approach accounts for the influence of terrestrial primary productivity via nutrient uptake on soil chemistry and mineral weathering, driven by simulations using a dynamic global vegetation model coupled to an ocean–atmosphere general circulation model of the Earth's climate. The strategy is successfully validated against observations of weathering in watersheds around the world, indicating that it may have some utility when extrapolated into the past. When applied to a suite of six global simulations from 215 to 50 Ma, we find significantly larger effects over the past 220 Myr relative to the present day. Vegetation and mycorrhizal fungi enhanced climate-driven weathering by a factor of up to 2. Overall, we demonstrate a more realistic process-based treatment of plant fungal–geosphere interactions at the global scale, which constitutes a first step towards developing ‘next-generation’ geochemical models. PMID:22232768

Taylor, Lyla L.; Banwart, Steve A.; Valdes, Paul J.; Leake, Jonathan R.; Beerling, David J.

2012-01-01

128

World Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What's going on in the world of weather? Are there storms around Sri Lanka? What about the snows of Kilimanjaro? These can be pressing questions, indeed, and the World Weather app is a great way to stay in touch with weather patterns around the globe. Users will find that they can just type in a city name to see the current weather and also zoom around the globe as they see fit. It's a remarkable addition to the world of existing weather tracking apps and is compatible with all operating systems.

Elias, Jaume S.

2014-02-20

129

Proton computed tomography from multiple physics processes.  

PubMed

Proton CT (pCT) nowadays aims at improving hadron therapy treatment planning by mapping the relative stopping power (RSP) of materials with respect to water. The RSP depends mainly on the electron density of the materials. The main information used is the energy of the protons. However, during a pCT acquisition, the spatial and angular deviation of each particle is recorded and the information about its transmission is implicitly available. The potential use of those observables in order to get information about the materials is being investigated. Monte Carlo simulations of protons sent into homogeneous materials were performed, and the influence of the chemical composition on the outputs was studied. A pCT acquisition of a head phantom scan was simulated. Brain lesions with the same electron density but different concentrations of oxygen were used to evaluate the different observables. Tomographic images from the different physics processes were reconstructed using a filtered back-projection algorithm. Preliminary results indicate that information is present in the reconstructed images of transmission and angular deviation that may help differentiate tissues. However, the statistical uncertainty on these observables generates further challenge in order to obtain an optimal reconstruction and extract the most pertinent information. PMID:24076769

Bopp, C; Colin, J; Cussol, D; Finck, Ch; Labalme, M; Rousseau, M; Brasse, D

2013-10-21

130

Statistical physics of media processes: Mediaphysics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The processes of mass communications in complicated social or sociobiological systems such as marketing, economics, politics, animal populations, etc. as a subject for the special scientific subbranch-“mediaphysics”-are considered in its relation with sociophysics. A new statistical physics approach to analyze these phenomena is proposed. A keystone of the approach is an analysis of population distribution between two or many alternatives: brands, political affiliations, or opinions. Relative distances between a state of a “person's mind” and the alternatives are measures of propensity to buy (to affiliate, or to have a certain opinion). The distribution of population by those relative distances is time dependent and affected by external (economic, social, marketing, natural) and internal (influential propagation of opinions, “word of mouth”, etc.) factors, considered as fields. Specifically, the interaction and opinion-influence field can be generalized to incorporate important elements of Ising-spin-based sociophysical models and kinetic-equation ones. The distributions were described by a Schrödinger-type equation in terms of Green's functions. The developed approach has been applied to a real mass-media efficiency problem for a large company and generally demonstrated very good results despite low initial correlations of factors and the target variable.

Kuznetsov, Dmitri V.; Mandel, Igor

2007-04-01

131

Enabling Effective Space Weather and Climatology (SWaC) Capabilities: The NRC Decadal Survey in Solar and Space Physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The U.S. very much needs long-term observations of the space weather environment and must support the development and application of coupled space weather models to protect critical societal infrastructure, including communication, navigation, and terrestrial weather satellites. As just one example, solar and space physicists partnering with power grid engineers have created the capability to model the effects of geomagnetically-induced currents on electricity transmission and distribution systems. This crucially important work has produced sophisticated software to assess the response of the electrical power system to geomagnetic storms, to assess the vulnerabilities, and to develop mitigation strategies. To fulfill the requirements for space weather presented in the June 2010 U.S. National Space Policy and envisioned in the 2010 National Space Weather Program Plan, we must develop a new approach. The National Research Council's 2013-2022 Decadal Survey presents a vision for renewed national commitment to a comprehensive program in Space Weather and Climatology, building on agency strengths. Enabling an effective SWaC capability will require action across multiple agencies. To coordinate the development of this plan, the National Space Weather Program should be re-chartered under the auspices of the National Science and Technology Council and include active participation from the Office of Science and Technology Policy and the Office of Management and Budget. The plan should take into account current agency efforts and capabilities, leverage the new capabilities and knowledge that will arise from implementation of the Decadal Survey, and develop additional monitoring capabilities and platforms specifically tailored to space weather monitoring and prediction.

Baker, D. N.

2012-12-01

132

Wide variability in physical activity environments and weather-related outdoor play policies in child-care centers within a single county of Ohio  

PubMed Central

Objectives To examine the variability of physical activity environments and outdoor play-policies in child-care centers, and to determine if they are associated with center demographic characteristics Design Telephone survey—the Early Learning Environments Physical Activity and Nutrition Telephone Survey (ELEPhANTS) Setting Child-care centers in Hamilton County (Cincinnati area), Ohio, 2008–9. Participants Directors of all 185 licensed full-time child-care centers in Hamilton County. Outcome Measures Descriptive measures of center playground and indoor physical activity environments, and weather-related outdoor-play policies. Results 162 (88%) centers responded. Most (93%) centers reported an on-site playground, but only half reported their playgrounds as large, at least 1/3rd covered in shade, or having a variety of portable play equipment. Only half reported having a dedicated indoor gross-motor room where children could be active during inclement weather. Only 20% of centers allowed children to go outside in temperatures below 32°F, and 43% of centers reported allowing children outdoors during light rain. A higher percent of children receiving tuition-assistance was associated with lower quality physical activity facilities and stricter weather-related practices. National accreditation was associated with more physical-activity promoting practices. Conclusion We found considerable variability in the indoor and outdoor playground offerings among child-care centers, even within a single county of Ohio. Per center policy and limited inside options, children’s active opportunities are curtailed due to sub-freezing temperatures or light rain. Policy change and parent/teacher education may be needed to ensure children achieve ample opportunity for daily physical activity. PMID:21199969

Copeland, Kristen A; Sherman, Susan N; Khoury, Jane C; Foster, Karla E; Saelens, Brian E; Kalkwarf, Heidi J

2011-01-01

133

Physical and Chemical Changes in the Digestion Process  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson demonstrates how students can determine the cause and effect relationship in the digestion process. Students will be able to determine where chemical and physical changes occur in the digestion process and support their findings from an informational text. This lesson provides students with an opportunity to apply their knowledge of physical and chemical changes in matter to the process of digestion.

Clark, Monica

2012-09-16

134

Cockpit weather information needs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The primary objective is to develop an advanced pilot weather interface for the flight deck and to measure its utilization and effectiveness in pilot reroute decision processes, weather situation awareness, and weather monitoring. Identical graphical weather displays for the dispatcher, air traffic control (ATC), and pilot crew should also enhance the dialogue capabilities for reroute decisions. By utilizing a broadcast data link for surface observations, forecasts, radar summaries, lightning strikes, and weather alerts, onboard weather computing facilities construct graphical displays, historical weather displays, color textual displays, and other tools to assist the pilot crew. Since the weather data is continually being received and stored by the airborne system, the pilot crew has instantaneous access to the latest information. This information is color coded to distinguish degrees of category for surface observations, ceiling and visibilities, and ground radar summaries. Automatic weather monitoring and pilot crew alerting is accomplished by the airborne computing facilities. When a new weather information is received, the displays are instantaneously changed to reflect the new information. Also, when a new surface or special observation for the intended destination is received, the pilot crew is informed so that information can be studied at the pilot's discretion. The pilot crew is also immediately alerted when a severe weather notice, AIRMET or SIGMET, is received. The cockpit weather display shares a multicolor eight inch cathode ray tube and overlaid touch panel with a pilot crew data link interface. Touch sensitive buttons and areas are used for pilot selection of graphical and data link displays. Time critical ATC messages are presented in a small window that overlays other displays so that immediate pilot alerting and action can be taken. Predeparture and reroute clearances are displayed on the graphical weather system so pilot review of weather along the route can be accomplished prior to pilot acceptance of the clearance. An ongoing multiphase test series is planned for testing and modifying the graphical weather system. Preliminary data shows that the nine test subjects considered the graphical presentation to be much better than their current weather information source for situation awareness, flight safety, and reroute decision making.

Scanlon, Charles H.

1992-01-01

135

Soil mineralogy at the Mars Exploration Rover landing sites: An assessment of the competing roles of physical sorting and chemical weathering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soils in Gusev Crater and Meridiani Planum derive primarily from a surface dominated by basalt. The modal mineralogy of primary (igneous) and secondary (alteration) phases in the soils is estimated using Mössbauer, MiniTES, and APXS spectra. Primary minerals include plagioclase, pyroxene, and olivine with less common apatite, magnetite, and chromite. Secondary phases are dominated by sulfates, and include nanophase oxides, chlorides, hematite, and are assumed to include amorphous silica and phyllosilicates. Most soil chemical compositions overlap with basalts indicating that despite the presence of a secondary component in the soils, they have not been significantly chemically weathered. We modeled the significance of olivine dissolution by acid-S by iteratively removing the molar FeOT + MgO component (olivine proxy) from the mean bulk compositions of the Gusev rock classes Adirondack, Algonquin, and Irvine until none remained. Regardless of modeling conditions, acid-S alteration cannot account for many soils in Gusev Crater that are either depleted or enriched in molar FeOT + MgO, although it is a process capable of explaining some soil compositions. Based on a rock and mineral mixing model, supports our hypothesis for soil formation that consists of surface comminution by impact gardening, followed by compositional modification by hydrodynamic sorting and admixing of secondary components, including phyllosilicates and sulfates. Such a physical process can produce the range of molar FeOT + MgO in soils by concentrating or depleting specific minerals. For example, dust and fine sands are enriched in molar FeOT + MgO relative to coarse sand, which suggests accumulation of more mafic phases in finer grain fractions.

McGlynn, Ian O.; Fedo, Christopher M.; McSween, Harry Y., Jr.

2012-01-01

136

Delaminations Induced by Weathering in Wood and Wood-Based Composites Panels  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The term “weathering” (Feist 1982) defines any of the physical, mechanical or chemical process by which wood or wood based\\u000a products undergo slow degradation induced by the weather (sunlight, wind, precipitations, diurnal and seasonal changes in\\u000a relative humidity, atmospheric pollution, etc). Knowledge about weathering durability comes from practical experiences of\\u000a end-users, from field tests and from standardized laboratory tests. The

Voichita Bucur

137

Biogenic catalysis in sulphide minerals' weathering processes and acid mine drainage genesis.  

PubMed

Bioleaching and biogenesis are the main outputs from a large group of environmental processes participating in the natural material cycle, used in raw materials processing. Bio-oxidation reactions are the main basis for bioleaching procedures, often participating in parallel leaching processes. During the leaching processes of polycomponent sulphide substrates, the factor of process selection also plays an important role, being in direct relation to the electric properties and galvanic effect occurring between the individual components of the leaching substrate. This work gives a summary of the results of a research focused on the possibilities of using biotechnological procedures for treatment of Slovak sulphide ores. The object of the research is extraction of valuable metals, undesirable admixtures and degradation of crystal lattice of sulphides for subsequent chemical leaching processing of precious metals. The results of experiments on the existence of biogenic processes in situ on waste dumps from exploitation containing residual sulphides are also presented. The processes result in acid mine drainage water generation. These waters are strongly mineralised (over 48 g/L) and of low pH; that is why they are very caustic. The arsenic content (2.558 mg/L) in outflowing waters from old mines is high and over the limits set by the law. PMID:24445359

Kušnierová, Mária; Praš?áková, Mária; Nowak, Anna K; Gorazda, Katarzyna; Wzorek, Zbigniew

2014-01-01

138

Analysis of weather patterns associated with air quality degradation and potential health impacts  

EPA Science Inventory

Emissions from anthropogenic and natural sources into the atmosphere are determined in large measure by prevailing weather conditions through complex physical, dynamical and chemical processes. Air pollution episodes are characterized by degradation in air quality as reflected by...

139

Observe the effects of mechanical weathering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this interactive Earth science resource, students are first presented with six photographs, each featuring a different mechanical weathering event in which rock is broken down. Examples of the events include road damage due to ice heaving and the expansion of cracks in rocks due to tree growth. Students are instructed to click on each labeled image to see an enlarged version of it. In the enlarged view, brief text, often accompanied by visual cues such as arrows, explains the physical weathering process shown. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Education, Terc. C.; Littell, Mcdougal

2003-01-01

140

A model of weathering intensity for the Australian continent  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Regolith encompasses all weathered materials in the zone between the Earth's surface and fresh bedrock at depth. This weathered zone includes the soil, which may constitute the whole of the regolith profile or represent only its upper part. Important hydrological and biogeochemical processes operate within the regolith, including the infiltration and storage of near-surface water and nutrients, which sustain agricultural productivity. The degree to which the regolith is weathered (or its weathering intensity) is intrinsically linked to the factors involved in soil formation including parent material, climate, topography, biota and time. The degree to which the bedrock or sediments are weathered has a significant effect on the nature and distribution of regolith materials. There is commonly a strong correlation between weathering intensity and the degree of soil development as well as the depth of the weathering front. Changes in weathering intensity correspond to changes in the geochemical and physical properties of bedrock, ranging from essentially unweathered parent materials through to intensely weathered and leached regolith where all traits of the original protolith (original unweathered rock) are overprinted or lost altogether. With increasing weathering intensity we see mineral and geochemical convergence to more resistant secondary weathered materials including clay, silica, and various oxides. A weathering intensity index (WII) over the Australian continent has been developed at a 100 m resolution using two regression models based on airborne gamma-ray spectrometry imagery and the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) elevation data. Airborne gamma-ray spectrometry measures the concentration of three radioelements -- potassium (K), thorium (Th) and uranium (U) at the Earth's surface. The total gamma-ray flux (dose) is also calculated based on the weighted additions of the three radioelements. In general K is leached with increasing weathering whereas Th and U typically show increases due to their association in clays and oxides in the profile. These geochemical relationships underpin the first model prediction. In the case where no gamma-ray data is available or where the bedrock is very low in radioelements (e.g. basalt, quartz-rich sandstone) surface relief is used as surrogate in the second prediction model. The two models are combined to generate a weathering intensity index of the Australian continent. The weathering intensity index has been developed for erosional landscapes but also provides useful information on deposition processes and materials. The weathering intensity prediction is evaluated with surface geochemistry (compared with geochemical indices) and previous regolith-landform mapping. The use of the weathering intensity index in natural resource management and mineral exploration is discussed.

Wilford, J.

2013-12-01

141

Space Weathering of Lunar Rocks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

All materials exposed at the lunar surface undergo space weathering processes. On the Moon, boulders make up only a small percentage of the exposed surface, and areas where such rocks are exposed, like central peaks, are often among the least space weathered regions identified from remote sensing data. Yet space weathered surfaces (patina) are relatively common on returned rock samples, some of which directly sample the surface of larger boulders. Because, as witness plates to lunar space weathering, rocks and boulders experience longer exposure times compared to lunar soil grains, they allow us to develop a deeper perspective on the relative importance of various weathering processes as a function of time.

Noble, S. K.; Keller, L. P.; Christoffersen, R.; Rahman, Z.

2012-01-01

142

Predicting Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

By performing the activities presented in this website, fourth grade students can learn about weather instruments and data collection. This website, produced by the Government of Saskatchewan, also explores how the weather can impact local communities. Each activity presented here includes both objectives and assessment techniques for the lesson. Sixteen different activity suggestions provide students and teachers with ample opportunities to explore weather in the classroom.

2008-03-28

143

Weather Watch  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The weather watch activity is designed to provide instruction on how to collect weather data from on-line databases. Following completion of this activity the user will be able to look up weather conditions for any city in North America, know what radar maps are used for and how to access them, and know how to access satellite images and make estimated guesses on cloud conditions for their area from them.

Hopson, R.

144

Weather Instruments  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Topic in Depth discusses the variety of instruments used to collect climate and weather data. The first two websites provide simple introductions to the many weather instruments. Bethune Academy's Weather Center (1) discusses the functions of psychrometers, anemometers, weather balloons, thermometers, and barometers. The Illinois State Water Survey (2) furnishes many images of various instruments that collect data daily for legal issues, farmers, educators, students, and researchers. The third website (3), created by the Center for Improving Engineering and Science Education (CIESE), provides a classroom activity to educate users on how to build and use weather instruments. By the end of the group project, students should know all about wind vanes, rain gauges, anemometers, and thermometers. Next, the Miami Museum of Science provides a variety of activities to help students learn about the many weather instruments including wind scales and wind chimes (4). Students can learn about the wind, air pressure, moisture, and temperature. At the fifth website, the Tyson Research Center at Washington University describes the devices it uses in its research (5). At the various links, users can find out the center's many projects that utilize meteorological data such as acid rain monitoring. The sixth website, a pdf document created by Dr. John Guyton at the Mississippi State University Extension Service, provides guidance to teachers about the education of weather patterns and instruments (6). Users can find helpful information on pressure systems, humidity, cloud patterns, and much more. Next, the University of Richmond discusses the tools meteorologists use to learn about the weather (7). While providing materials about the basic tools discussed in the other websites, this site also offers information about weather satellites, radar, and computer models. After discovering the many weather instruments, users can learn about weather data output and analysis at the Next Generation Weather Lab website (8). This expansive website provides an abundance of surface data and upper air data as well as satellite and radar images for the United States.

145

Weather Experiments  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Looking for fun ways to learn about weather? Weather Wiz Kids has 39 fun weather related experiments for you to try. These experiments can be done in the classroom with your friends or even at home! Some of the experiments on the site include: tornado in a bottle, make lightning, make it rain, cloud in a bottle, what's in the wind, the Doppler Effect, and baking soda volcano.

2010-01-01

146

Getting Middle-School Students up and Moving: What's the Role of School and Neighborhood Environments...and the Weather: Studying the Effect of Neighborhood and School Environments on Youth Physical Activity Levels. Program Results  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Researchers at the Harvard Prevention Research Center at Harvard University School of Public Health examined how physical and social environments of schools and neighborhoods shape routine physical activities of students attending 10 middle schools in the Boston area. They also analyzed the effect of weather conditions on student physical

Nakashian, Mary

2008-01-01

147

DOE Workshop; Pan-Gass Conference on the Representation of Atmospheric Processes in Weather and Climate Models  

SciTech Connect

This is the first meeting of the whole new GEWEX (Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment) Atmospheric System Study (GASS) project that has been formed from the merger of the GEWEX Cloud System Study (GCSS) Project and the GEWEX Atmospheric Boundary Layer Studies (GABLS). As such, this meeting will play a major role in energizing GEWEX work in the area of atmospheric parameterizations of clouds, convection, stable boundary layers, and aerosol-cloud interactions for the numerical models used for weather and climate projections at both global and regional scales. The representation of these processes in models is crucial to GEWEX goals of improved prediction of the energy and water cycles at both weather and climate timescales. This proposal seeks funds to be used to cover incidental and travel expenses for U.S.-based graduate students and early career scientists (i.e., within 5 years of receiving their highest degree). We anticipate using DOE funding to support 5-10 people. We will advertise the availability of these funds by providing a box to check for interested participants on the online workshop registration form. We will also send a note to our participants' mailing lists reminding them that the funds are available and asking senior scientists to encourage their more junior colleagues to participate. All meeting participants are encouraged to submit abstracts for oral or poster presentations. The science organizing committee (see below) will base funding decisions on the relevance and quality of these abstracts, with preference given to under-represented populations (especially women and minorities) and to early career scientists being actively mentored at the meeting (e.g. students or postdocs attending the meeting with their advisor).

Morrison, PI Hugh

2012-09-21

148

Weathering processes in the Rio Icacos and Rio Mameyes watersheds in Eastern Puerto Rico: Chapter I in Water quality and landscape processes of four watersheds in eastern Puerto Rico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Streams draining watersheds of the two dominant lithologies (quartz diorite and volcaniclastic rock) in the Luquillo Experimental Forest of eastern Puerto Rico have very high fluxes of bedrock weathering products. The Río Blanco quartz diorite in the Icacos watershed and the Fajardo volcaniclastic rocks in the Mameyes watershed have some of the fastest documented rates of chemical weathering of siliceous rocks in the world. Rapid weathering produces thick, highly leached saprolites in both watersheds that lie just below the soil and largely isolate subsurface biogeochemical and hydrologic processes from those in the soil. The quartz diorite bedrock in the Icacos watershed weathers spheroidally, leaving large, relatively unweathered corestones that are enveloped by slightly weathered rock layers called rindlets. The rindlets wrap around the corestones like an onionskin. Within the corestones, biotite oxidation is thought to induce the spheroidal fracturing that leads to development of rindlets; plagioclase in the rindlets dissolves, creating additional pore spaces. Near the rindlet-saprolite interface, the remaining plagioclase dissolves, hornblende dissolves to completion, and precipitation of kaolinite, gibbsite, and goethite becomes pervasive. In the saprolite, biotite weathers to kaolinite and quartz begins to dissolve. In the soil layer, both quartz and kaolinite dissolve. The volcaniclastic bedrock of the Mameyes watershed weathers even faster than the quartz diorite bedrock of the Icacos watershed, leaving thicker saprolites that are devoid of all primary minerals except quartz. The quartz content of volcaniclastic bedrock may help to control watershed geomorphology; high-quartz rocks form thick saprolites that blanket ridges. Hydrologic flow paths within the weathering profiles vary with total fluid flux, and they influence the chemistry of streams. Under low-flow conditions, the Río Icacos and its tributaries are fed by rainfall and by groundwater from the fracture zones; during storm events, intense rainfall rapidly raises stream levels and water is flushed through the soil as shallow flow. As a result, weathering constituents that shed into streamwaters are dominated by rindlet-zone weathering processes during base flow and by soil weathering processes during stormflow. The upper reaches of the Mameyes watershed are characterized by regolith more than 35 meters thick in places that contains highly fractured rock embedded in its matrix. Weathering contributions to stream chemistry at base flow are predicted to be more spatially variable in the Mameyes watershed than in the Icacos watershed owing to the more complex subsurface weathering profile of the volcaniclastic bedrocks of the Mameyes watershed.

Buss, Heather L.; White, Arthur F.

2012-01-01

149

Bell Labs - Physical Sciences - Silicon Processing Introduction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website includes a description of silicon processing from Bell Laboratories. Silicon chips are prepared by an elaborate sequence of processing steps applied to a silicon wafer. Keywords: Patterning, implantation, oxidation, metallization, photoresist

2012-12-20

150

Research Papers Leaf Processing by Wild Chimpanzees: Physically Defended Leaves  

E-print Network

Research Papers Leaf Processing by Wild Chimpanzees: Physically Defended Leaves Reveal Complex Andrews, Fife, Scotland Abstract The manual processing of eight species of leaf was investigated in the M-group chimpanzees of Mahale Mountains National Park, Tanzania. Leaf species varied in the extent to which physical

151

Cyber-physical systems in industrial process control  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a large-scale interconnected system of heterogeneous components integrating computation with physical processes, Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) can greatly improve the efficiency of industrial process control systems. However, the inherent heterogeneity and the close integration of different components pose new challenges, which can only be solved by a new unifying network and control theory. This article investigates such challenges in industrial

Yunbo Wang; Mehmet C. Vuran; Steve Goddard

2008-01-01

152

TIME SERIES ANALYSIS OF REMOTELY-SENSED TIR EMISSION: linking anomalies to physical processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the last 15 years, remote sensing has been evaluated for detecting thermal anomalies as precursor to earthquakes. Important issues that need yet to be tackled include definition of: (a) thermal anomaly, taking into account weather conditions, observation settings and ';natural' variability caused by background sources (b) the length of observations required for this purpose; and (c) the location of detected anomalies, which should be physically related to the tectonic activity. To determine whether thermal anomalies are statistical noise, mere meteorological conditions, or actual earthquake-related phenomena, we apply a novel approach. We use brightness temperature (top-of-atmosphere) data from thermal infrared imagery acquired at a hypertemporal (sub-hourly) interval, from geostationary weather satellites over multiple years. The length of the time series allows for analysis of meteorological effects (diurnal, seasonal or annual trends) and background variability, through the application of a combined spatial and temporal filter to distinguish extreme occurrences from trends. The definition of potential anomalies is based on statistical techniques, taking into account published (geo)physical characteristics of earthquake related thermal anomalies. We use synthetic data to test the performance of the proposed detection method and track potential factors affecting the results. Subsequently, we apply the method on original data from Iran and Turkey, in quiescent and earthquake-struck periods alike. We present our findings with main focus to assess resulting anomalies in relation to physical processes thereby considering: (a) meteorological effects, (b) the geographical, geological and environmental settings, and (c) physically realistic distances and potential physical relations with the activity of causative faults.

Pavlidou, E.; van der Meijde, M.; Hecker, C.; van der Werff, H.; Ettema, J.

2013-12-01

153

NATURAL ARSENIC CONTAMINATION OF HOLOCENE ALLUVIAL AQUIFERS BY LINKED TECTONIC, WEATHERING, AND MICROBIAL PROCESSES  

EPA Science Inventory

Linked tectonic, geochemical, and biologic processes lead to natural arsenic contamination of groundwater in Holocene alluvial aquifers, which are the main threat to human health around the world. These groundwaters are commonly found a long distance from their ultimate source of...

154

AN overview of the FLYSAFE datalink solution for the exchange of weather information: supporting aircrew decision making processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

FLYSAFE is an Integrated Project of the 6th framework of the European Commission with the aim to improve flight safety through the development of an avionics solution the Next Generation Integrated Surveillance System (NGISS), which is supported by a ground based network of Weather Information Management Systems (WIMS) and access points in the form of the Ground Weather Processor (GWP).

A. Mirza; A. Drouin

2009-01-01

155

Wacky Weather  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

What do a leaf blower, water hose, fan, and ice cubes have in common? Ask the students who participated in an integrative science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (I-STEM) education unit, "Wacky Weather," and they will tell say "fun and severe weather"--words one might not have expected! The purpose of the unit…

Sabarre, Amy; Gulino, Jacqueline

2013-01-01

156

Weather Forecasting  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity (on page 2 of the PDF) is a full inquiry investigation into meteorology and forecasting. Learners will research weather folklore, specifically looking for old-fashioned ways of predicting the weather. Then, they'll record observations of these predictors along with readings from their own homemade barometer, graphing the correct predictions for analysis. Relates to linked video, DragonflyTV: Forecasting.

2012-06-26

157

AN overview of the FLYSAFE datalink solution for the exchange of weather information: supporting aircrew decision making processes.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

FLYSAFE is an Integrated Project of the 6th framework of the European Commission with the aim to improve flight safety through the development of an avionics solution the Next Generation Integrated Surveillance System (NGISS), which is supported by a ground based network of Weather Information Management Systems (WIMS) and access points in the form of the Ground Weather Processor (GWP). The NGISS provides information to the flight crew on the three major external hazards for aviation: weather, air traffic and terrain. The NGISS has the capability of displaying data about all three hazards on a single display screen, facilitating rapid appreciation of the situation by the flight crew. Weather Information Management Systems (WIMS) were developed to provide the NGISS and the flight crew with weather related information on in-flight icing, thunderstorms and clear-air turbulence. These products are generated on the ground from observations and model forecasts. WIMS will supply relevant information on three different scales: global, regional and local (over airport Terminal Manoeuvring Area). The Ground Weather Processor is a client-server architecture that utilises open source components, which include a geospatial database and web feature services. The GWP stores Weather Objects generated by the WIMS. An aviation user can retrieve on-demand all Weather Objects that intersect the volume of space that is of interest to them. The Weather Objects are fused with in-situ observation data and can be used by the flight management system to propose a route to avoid the hazard. In addition they can be used to display the current hazardous weather to the Flight Crew thereby raising their awareness. Within the FLYSAFE program, around 120 hours of flight trials were performed during February 2008 and August 2008. Two aircraft were involved each with separate objectives: - to assess FLYSAFE's innovative solutions for the data-link, on-board data-fusion and data-display and data-updates during flight; - to evaluate the new weather information management systems (in-flight icing and thunderstorms) using in-situ measurements recorded on-board the test aircraft. In this presentation we will focus on the data link solution to uplink the Weather Objects to the NGISS. As part of the solution, a brief description is given on how grid data created by the WIMS are transformed to Weather Objects; which describe the weather hazard and are formatted using the Geospatial Mark-up Language.

Mirza, A.; Drouin, A.

2009-09-01

158

Computer Animations of Physical Processes: Thermodynamics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This item is a set of eight animations relating to heat and thermodynamics. Topics include Brownian motion, Maxwell distribution, molecular structures, and behavior of gas molecules subjected to heating and cooling. Each image is accompanied by conceptual explanations and calculations. Most also link to videos which more fully explore the phenomena. This item is part of a larger collection of physics animations and simulations.

2007-02-07

159

CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL PROCESS AND MECHANISM MODELING  

EPA Science Inventory

The goal of this task is to develop and test chemical and physical mechanisms for use in the chemical transport models of EPA's Models-3. The target model for this research is the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model. These mechanisms include gas and aqueous phase ph...

160

Procedures for processing satellite-transmitted weather data: Conversion of data from the HP (Hewlett-Packard) computer to the IBM PC system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 1982, weather data from three sites in the Marshall Islands have been transmitted by satellite, retrieved by a local communications program, and stored on disk. Occasionally, descriptive reports were generated displaying rainfall and insolation data from this database. Both the data storage and processing programs resided on a Hewlett-Packard desktop computer system no longer in use by researchers in

Johnson

1988-01-01

161

Turbulence and Fluid Flow: Perspectives. Physical Processes in Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecosystems, Transport Processes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This module is part of a series on Physical Processes in Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecosystems. The materials were designed to be used by life science students for instruction in the application of physical theory to ecosystem operation. Most modules contain computer programs which are built around a particular application of a physical process.…

Simpson, James R.

162

Zeolite Formation and Weathering Processes Within the Martian Regolith: An Antarctic Analog  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As more information is obtained about the nature of the surface compositions and processes operating on Mars, it is clear that significant erosional and depositional features are present on the surface. Apparent aqueous or other fluid activity on Mars has produced many of the erosional and outflow features observed. Evidence of aqueous activity on Mars has been reported by earlier studies. Gooding and colleagues championed the cause of pre-terrestrial aqueous alteration processes recorded in Martian meteorites. Oxygen isotope studies on Martian meteorites by Karlsson et al. and Romenek et al. gave evidence for two separate water reservoirs on Mars. The oxygen isotopic compositions of the host silicate minerals was different from the oxygen isotopic composition of the secondary alteration products within the SNC meteorites. This implied that the oxygen associated with fluids which produced the secondary alteration was from volatiles which were possibly added to the planetary inventory after formation of the primary silicates from which the SNC s were formed. The source of the oxygen may have been from a cometary or volatile-rich veneer added to the planet in its first 600 million years.

Gibson, E. K.; McKay, D. S.; Wentworth, S. J.; Socki, R. A.

2003-01-01

163

Rates of Chemical Weathering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students will investigate the weathering of rocks by chemical processes. They will use effervescent cleansing tablets as a model for rock, and vary surface area, temperature, and acidity to see how rapidly the "rock" dissolves. This investigation will help them understand three of the factors that affect the rate of chemical weathering and develop better understanding of how to design controlled experiments by exploring only one experimental variable at a time.

Passow, Michael

164

Weathering and Erosion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this multi-station lab, learners conduct a series of experiments to explore the processes and effects of weathering and erosion. Using the results from these explorations, learners design and conduct an experiment comparing the rate of erosion in different biomes. Use this activity to teach weathering and erosion, and also to illustrate how scientists often use the results of one experiment to inspire another. This activity is intended to be conducted over multiple meetings.

Whitfield, Lise

2010-01-01

165

Space Weather Basics, 2nd Edition  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module presents an overview of space weather processes, their impacts on Earth and human activities, and the technologies used for forecasting space weather events. The module goal is to provide NWS forecasters a basic understanding of space weather and the operations of NOAA's Space Weather Prediction Center (SWPC). It will be of interest to a general audience as well.

Comet

2012-01-11

166

The use of imprecise processing to improve accuracy in weather & climate prediction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of stochastic processing hardware and low precision arithmetic in atmospheric models is investigated. Stochastic processors allow hardware-induced faults in calculations, sacrificing bit-reproducibility and precision in exchange for improvements in performance and potentially accuracy of forecasts, due to a reduction in power consumption that could allow higher resolution. A similar trade-off is achieved using low precision arithmetic, with improvements in computation and communication speed and savings in storage and memory requirements. As high-performance computing becomes more massively parallel and power intensive, these two approaches may be important stepping stones in the pursuit of global cloud-resolving atmospheric modelling. The impact of both hardware induced faults and low precision arithmetic is tested using the Lorenz '96 model and the dynamical core of a global atmosphere model. In the Lorenz '96 model there is a natural scale separation; the spectral discretisation used in the dynamical core also allows large and small scale dynamics to be treated separately within the code. Such scale separation allows the impact of lower-accuracy arithmetic to be restricted to components close to the truncation scales and hence close to the necessarily inexact parametrised representations of unresolved processes. By contrast, the larger scales are calculated using high precision deterministic arithmetic. Hardware faults from stochastic processors are emulated using a bit-flip model with different fault rates. Our simulations show that both approaches to inexact calculations do not substantially affect the large scale behaviour, provided they are restricted to act only on smaller scales. By contrast, results from the Lorenz '96 simulations are superior when small scales are calculated on an emulated stochastic processor than when those small scales are parametrised. This suggests that inexact calculations at the small scale could reduce computation and power costs without adversely affecting the quality of the simulations. This would allow higher resolution models to be run at the same computational cost.

Düben, Peter D.; McNamara, Hugh; Palmer, T. N.

2014-08-01

167

Extreme Value and Record Statistics in Heavy-Tailed Processes with Long-Range Memory: Application to Space Weather  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Extreme events are of large interest in many fields of research because of their typically devastating effects on society and their scientific complexities. The latter is particularly true if the underlying dynamics does not lead to independent extreme events as often observed in natural systems. Here, we focus on this case and consider stationary stochastic processes that are characterized by long-range memory and heavy-tailed distributions, often called fractional Lévy noise and associated with the Noah and Joseph effect introduced by Mandelbrot. We show that while the size distribution of extreme events is not affected by the long-range memory in the asymptotic limit and remains a Fréchet distribution, there are strong finite-size effects if the memory leads to persistence in the underlying dynamics. Strong persistence also gives rise to significant modifications of the records' statistics. Moreover, we show that this persistence is also present in the extreme events, which allows one to make a time-dependent hazard assessment of future extreme events based on events observed in the past. We show that this has direct applications in the field of space weather. Specifically, we discuss this for the solar power influx into the magnetosphere described by Akasofu's ? parameter.

Schumann, A.; Moloney, N.; Davidsen, J.

2011-12-01

168

Weatherizing America  

ScienceCinema

As Recovery Act money arrives to expand home weatherization programs across the country, Zachary Stewart of Phoenix, Ariz., and others have found an exciting opportunity not only to start working again, but also to find a calling.

Stewart, Zachary; Bergeron, T.J.; Barth, Dale; Qualis, Xavier; Sewall, Travis; Fransen, Richard; Gill, Tony;

2013-05-29

169

Weatherizing America  

SciTech Connect

As Recovery Act money arrives to expand home weatherization programs across the country, Zachary Stewart of Phoenix, Ariz., and others have found an exciting opportunity not only to start working again, but also to find a calling.

Stewart, Zachary; Bergeron, T.J.; Barth, Dale; Qualis, Xavier; Sewall, Travis; Fransen, Richard; Gill, Tony

2009-01-01

170

Fourth National Aeronautics and Space Administration Weather and Climate Program Science Review  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Weather and Climate Program has two major thrusts. The first involves the development of experimental and prototype operational satellite systems, sensors, and space facilities for monitoring and understanding the atmosphere. The second thrust involves basic scientific investigation aimed at studying the physical and chemical processes which control weather and climate. This fourth science review concentrated on the scientific research rather than the hardware development aspect of the program. These proceedings contain 65 papers covering the three general areas: severe storms and local weather research, global weather, and climate.

Kreins, E. R. (editor)

1979-01-01

171

Rainy Weather Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents ideas on the use of rainy weather for activities in the earth, life, and physical sciences. Topics include formation and collision of raindrops, amount and distribution of rain, shedding of water by plants, mapping puddles and potholes, rainbow formation, stalking storms online, lightning, and comparing particles in the air before and…

Reynolds, Karen

1996-01-01

172

Weather Creator  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This project explores factors that help create severe winter weather. An interactive simulation provides hands-on experience, followed by guiding questions and resource exploration. Form groups of three. Explore the following simulation: Weather Maker Simulator Use the simulation to answer the following questions on paper. 1. In general, when are winds formed? 2. When winds are blowing, how can you get them to stop? 3. What can you do to make it rain or even snow? 4. Does it always snow when ...

Kshumway

2009-09-28

173

Exploring Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Second Grade Standard 3: Students will develop an understanding of their environment. Objective 2: Observe and describe weather. Indicator a: Observe and describe patterns of change in weather. Monday, February 1st: Look at the five-day forecast for Salt Lake City, Utah at Five day forecasts. The high temperature for the day will be in red and the low temperature will be in blue. Make sure you look at the temperature listed in degrees Farenheit (F) not degrees Celcius (C). Make ...

Miss Emily

2010-01-29

174

Field Observations of Weathering and Mass Wasting  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity requires students to locate local examples of physical and chemical weathering, as well mass wasting, for which they must identify the type of process involved and describe the resulting effects on landform development. The students must write up their observations in a brief, written report using a technical writing style, which must include labeled photographs and sketches that support their observations and descriptions.

Davis, Lisa

175

Waste glass weathering  

SciTech Connect

The weathering of glass is reviewed by examining processes that affect the reaction of commercial, historical, natural, and nuclear waste glass under conditions of contact with humid air and slowly dripping water, which may lead to immersion in nearly static solution. Radionuclide release data from weathered glass under conditions that may exist in an unsaturated environment are presented and compared to release under standard leaching conditions. While the comparison between the release under weathering and leaching conditions is not exact, due to variability of reaction in humid air, evidence is presented of radionuclide release under a variety of conditions. These results suggest that both the amount and form of radionuclide release can be affected by the weathering of glass.

Bates, J.K.; Buck, E.C.

1993-12-31

176

Physical process first law for bifurcate Killing horizons  

Microsoft Academic Search

The physical process version of the first law for black holes states that the passage of energy and angular momentum through the horizon results in a change in area (\\/8)A=E-J, so long as this passage is quasistationary. A similar physical process first law can be derived for any bifurcate Killing horizon in any spacetime dimension d{>=}3 using much the same

Aaron J. Amsel; Donald Marolf; Amitabh Virmani

2008-01-01

177

Physical process first law for bifurcate Killing horizons  

Microsoft Academic Search

The physical process version of the first law for black holes states that the passage of energy and angular momentum through the horizon results in a change in area (kappa)\\/(8pi)DeltaA=DeltaE-OmegaDeltaJ, so long as this passage is quasistationary. A similar physical process first law can be derived for any bifurcate Killing horizon in any spacetime dimension d>=3 using much the same

Aaron J. Amsel; Donald Marolf; Amitabh Virmani

2008-01-01

178

Distributed System of Processing of Data of Physical Experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Complication of physical experiments and increasing volumes of experimental data necessitate the application of supercomputer and distributed computing systems for data processing. Design and development of such systems, their mathematical modeling, and investigation of their characteristics and functional capabilities is an urgent scientific and practical problem. In the present work, the characteristics of operation of such distributed system of processing of data of physical experiments are investigated using the apparatus of theory of queuing networks.

Nazarov, A. A.; Moiseev, A. N.

2014-11-01

179

Physical Maturation and Information-Processing Speed in Middle Childhood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because developmental increases in processing speed may have a maturational basis, individual differences in physical maturation were hypothesized to be associated with information-processing speed. Physical maturity was estimated for 134 9- and 10-year-olds using relative stature (RS), the percentage of estimated adult height each had attained. Thirty children in the most mature RS quartile and 30 in the least mature

Warren O. Eaton; Kathryn F. M. Ritchot

1995-01-01

180

Process Physics Modelling Reality as Self-Organising Information  

E-print Network

The new Process Physics models reality as self-organising relational information and takes account of the limitations of logic, discovered by Godel and extended by Chaitin, by using the concept of self-referential noise. Space and quantum physics are emergent and unified, and described by a Quantum Homotopic Field Theory of fractal topological defects embedded in a three dimensional fractal process-space.

Cahill, R T; Kitto, K; Cahill, Reginald T.; Klinger, Christopher M.; Kitto, Kirsty

2000-01-01

181

Process Physics: Modelling Reality as Self-Organising Information  

E-print Network

The new Process Physics models reality as self-organising relational information and takes account of the limitations of logic, discovered by Godel and extended by Chaitin, by using the concept of self-referential noise. Space and quantum physics are emergent and unified, and described by a Quantum Homotopic Field Theory of fractal topological defects embedded in a three dimensional fractal process-space.

Reginald T. Cahill; Christopher M. Klinger; Kirsty Kitto

2000-09-08

182

Physical processes in the protoplanetary disk  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Protoplanetary evolution is discussed in both its global and local aspects. The global turbulent evolution implies large scale average chemical fractionation and chondrule-sized grains as the building blocks of planetary and possibly also cometary material. Local processes such as electric discharges and associated flash heating of grains allow for chemical, mineralogical, and morphological alterations of the disk material. Large scale turbulence keeps the disk well stirred; however, time dependent (or intermittent) turbulence (e.g., associated with optical depth variations) could lead to dust sedimentation within the disk and subsequent planetesimal formation. Recent relevant astronomical observations of young T Tauri stars are briefly reviewed.

Volk, H. J.; Morfill, G. E.

1991-04-01

183

Snowslip Mountain Weather Station, MT  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

USGS Physical Scientist Erich Peitzsch sets up a weather station on Snowslip Mountain in Glacier National Park.  It provides meteorological data for avalanche forecasting and research, including wind speed and direction, air temperature, relative humidity, and net radiation measurements....

184

Process evaluation results from the HEALTHY physical education intervention  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Process evaluation is an assessment of the implementation of an intervention. A process evaluation component was embedded in the HEALTHY study, a primary prevention trial for Type 2 diabetes implemented over 3 years in 21 middle schools across the United States. The HEALTHY physical education (PE) i...

185

Process Evaluation Results from the HEALTHY Physical Education Intervention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Process evaluation is an assessment of the implementation of an intervention. A process evaluation component was embedded in the HEALTHY study, a primary prevention trial for Type 2 diabetes implemented over 3 years in 21 middle schools across the United States. The HEALTHY physical education (PE) intervention aimed at maximizing student…

Hall, William J.; Zeveloff, Abigail; Steckler, Allan; Schneider, Margaret; Thompson, Deborah; Pham, Trang; Volpe, Stella L.; Hindes, Katie; Sleigh, Adriana; McMurray, Robert G.

2012-01-01

186

Physical processes within the nocturnal stratus-topped boundary layer  

SciTech Connect

Within the stratus-topped boundary layer many physical processes are involved: longwave radiation cooling, entrainment, latent heating, surface heating, solar heating, drizzling, etc. How all processes combine to maintain the turbulence within the stratus-topped boundary layer remains an unsolved problem. The large-eddy simulation technique is used to examine the first four physical processes mentioned. First, the contribution of each physical process to the thermodynamic differences between the updraft and downdraft branches of turbulent circulations is examined through a conditional sampling. Second, these mean thermodynamic differences are shown to express well the vertical distributions of heat and moisture fluxes within stratus-topped boundary layers. These provide a method to validate the process-partitioning technique. (This technique assumes that the net flux profile can be partitioned into different component-flux profiles according to physical processes and that each partitioned component flux is linear in height.) In this paper, the heat and moisture fluxes are process partitioned, and each component flux is found to contribute to the net flux in a way that is consistent with its corresponding process contribution to the mean thermodynamic differences between updrafts and downdrafts. Also, the net flux obtained by summing all component fluxes agrees well with that obtained directly from the large-eddy simulations.

Moeng, C.H.; Shen, S. (National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States)); Randall, D.A. (Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins (United States))

1992-12-15

187

Delicious Differential Weathering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students are asked to place a Baby Ruth candy bar in their mouths but are asked not to bite it. Once they have sucked off all the chocolate and caramel the students are given permission to bite the peanuts. After lecturing on the differences between chemical and physical weathering students are asked to list the order of ingredients they tasted. Each group is given a sample of granite. Students are asked to list three visible minerals in the granite. Relate the minerals of the granite (hornblende, feldspar, and quartz) to the ingredients of the candy bar. Explain Bowen's reaction series and how different minerals will weather first and how climate will affect weathering rates.

Gorte, Mary

188

Space Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With three levels to choose from on each page - beginner, intermediate or advanced - this site provides information on Space Weather and the terms scientists use to describe the everchanging conditions in space. Explosions on the Sun create storms of radiation, fluctuating magnetic fields, and swarms of energetic particles. These phenomena travel outward through the Solar System with the solar wind. Upon arrival at Earth, they interact in complex ways with Earth's magnetic field, creating Earth's radiation belts and the Aurora. Some space weather storms can damage satellites, disable electric power grids, and disrupt cell phone communications systems. This site provides images, activities, and interesting facts about all of these events.

2004-02-06

189

Wild Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this online, interactive module, students learn about severe weather (thunderstorms, hurricanes, tornadoes, and blizzards) and the key features for each type of "wild weather" using satellite images. The module is part of an online course for grades 7-12 in satellite meteorology, which includes 10 interactive modules. The site also includes lesson plans developed by teachers and links to related resources. Each module is designed to serve as a stand-alone lesson, however, a sequential approach is recommended. Designed to challenge students through the end of 12th grade, middle school teachers and students may choose to skim or skip a few sections.

190

Weather Forecasting  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Weather Forecasting is one of several online guides produced by the Weather World 2010 project at the University of Illinois. These guides use multimedia technology and the dynamic capabilities of the web to incorporate text, colorful diagrams, animations, computer simulations, audio, and video to introduce topics and concepts in the atmospheric sciences. This module introduces forecast methods and the numerous factors one must consider when attempting to make an accurate forecast. Sections include forecasting methods for different scenarios, surface features affecting forecasting, forecasting temperatures for day and night, and factors for forecasting precipitation.

2010-01-01

191

Stable Chromium Isotopes as tracer of changes in weathering processes and redox state of the ocean during Neoproterozoic glaciation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The chemistry of surface environments on Earth has essentially evolved from early anoxic conditions to a present day oxic state. How in detail this transition occurred is still a matter of debate but the last 200 million years (My) of the Neoproterozoic Era [(1000 to 542 million years ago (Ma)] show an emerging picture of large scale fluctuations in the redox state of the oceans [1-2]. The reasons for these fluctuations are to be sought in Earth’s atmospheric oxygenation which led to the rapid radiation of oxygen-utilizing macroscopic metazoans, but details regarding the nature of these fluctuations remain unclear. The Late Neoproterozoic is known for a number of widespread glaciations causing the return of ferruginous oceans which were absent for more than a billion years of Earth history. This study elaborates on the idea that Chromium (Cr) stable isotopes in Fe-rich chemical sediments deposited during glacial events are suitable for tracing oxygenation of surface environments through Earth's history [3]. The focus of this study is to apply the Cr isotope system to one of the Marinoan (650-630 Ma) glacio-marine sequences (Jacadigo Group, Brazil) in order to get a detailed spatial and relative temporal resolution of changes in weathering processes and redox states of the respective ocean basin during the depositional period of the sediments. The Jacadigo Group is a glacio-marine succession which is composed of the Urucum Fm. (sandstones) at the base, the Santa Cruz Fm. (BIFs) and the Puga Fm. (Fe-rich glacial diamictites) at the top. Cr stable isotope measurements on various BIF horizons of the Santa Cruz Fm. yielded positive ?53/52Cr values range from +0.4 to+ 0.9‰, while the overlying Fe-rich glaciogenic diamictites of the Puga Fm. show ?53/52Cr values range from to +0.1 to+ 0.4‰. These positively fractionated values correspond to positive ?53/52Cr values measured in other Late Neoproterozoic BIFs and speak for the occurrence of potential oxygenation pulses of the atmosphere during respective glacier retreat (deglaciation) stages, which enabled the oxidation and mobilization of trivalent Cr on land into the oceans. The nature of upward decreasing ?53/52Cr values from the Santa Cruz into the Puga Fm. has to be investigated further, but a decrease of such values would point to decreasing weathering intensities on land most probably as a consequence of oxygen drawdown from the atmosphere by oxygen-consuming metazoans for which a favourable habitat was created during the glacier retreat stages. [1] D.E. Canfield, S.W. Poulton, A.H. Knoll, G.M. Narbonne, G. Ross, T. Goldberg, H. Strauss, Ferruginous conditions dominated later Neoproterozoic deep-water chemistry, Science 321(2008) 949-952. [2] C. Scott, T.W. Lyons, A. Bekker, Y. Shen, S.W. Poulton, X. Chu, A.D. Anbar, Tracing the stepwise oxygenation of the Proterozoic ocean, Nature 452(2008) 456-U455. [3] R. Frei, C. Gaucher, S.W. Poulton, D.E. Canfield, Fluctuations in Precambrian atmospheric oxygenation recorded by chromium isotopes, Nature 461(2009) 250-253.

Dossing, L. N.; Gaucher, C.; Boggiani, P. C.; Frei, R.

2010-12-01

192

Space Weather and Management of Environmental Risks and Hazards  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

"Space Weather" is defined as electromagnetic and particle conditions in the space environment that can disturb space-borne and ground-based technological systems (e.g. satellite operation, telecommunication, aviation, electric power transmission) and even endanger human health. Thus, space weather is of great importance to the society since people are dependent on reliable operation of modern technology, interruptions of which may lead to large economical and other losses. Physical processes involved in space weather constitute a complicated chain from the Sun to the Earth's surface. Thus, a full understanding of space weather and the risks it produces requires expertise in many different disciplines of science and technology. Space weather is a new subject among the natural risks and hazards which threaten the society and its infrastructure (although the first observations of ground effects of space weather were already made about 150 years ago). Monitoring systems for the management of other risks, such as floods, forest fires, etc., and for security are, to a great extent, based on satellite observations. Spacecraft and the communication between satellites and the ground are vulnerable to space weather. Thus, besides being a direct risk to technological systems, space weather may also be indirectly adverse to risk management. These two aspects of space weather are considered in a proposal to be submitted to EU's Sixth Framework Programme under the "Aeronautics and Space" priority in the "Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES) / Risk Management" area in March 2004. The proposal coordinated by the Finnish Meteorological Institute with five to ten participating institutes is called SW-RISK ("Space Weather - Risk Indices from Scientific Know-how").

Pirjola, R.; Kauristie, K.; Lappalainen, H.

193

Wacky Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This 5-lesson unit gives students practice in using calculating, graphing and modeling skills to analyze varoius aspects of weather. Students calculate fractions of a set of rainfall data, graph damage costs of selected hurricanes, and make Venn diagrams to compare droughts and hurricanes. Visuals and student handouts are provided.

Barbara Chichetti

2002-01-01

194

Today's Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is part of Planet Diary and contains an online exploration of weather maps. Students use current maps to learn about and locate different features such as low-pressure areas and fronts. They then explore how these are related to severe storms.

195

Wonderful Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners conduct three experiments to examine temperature, the different stages of the water cycle, and how convection creates wind. These activities can be used individually or as a group for a lesson on weather. Note: boiling water is required for this activity; adult supervision required.

Mission Science Workshop

2013-01-01

196

Weather Stations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a series of seven brief activities about Jupiter's atmosphere and weather. Learners will look at Jupiter's distinct banded appearance, violent storms, and clouds of many different colors. The activities are part of Explore! Jupiter's Family Secrets, a series designed to engage children in space and planetary science in libraries and informal learning environments.

197

Process description and evaluation of Canadian Physical Activity Guidelines development  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: This paper describes the process used to arrive at recommended physical activity guidelines for Canadian school-aged children and youth (5-17 years), adults (18-64 years) and older adults (?65 years). METHODS: The Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology (CSEP) Physical Activity Measurement and Guidelines (PAMG) Steering Committee used the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research Evaluation (AGREE II) Instrument to inform the

Mark S Tremblay; Michelle E Kho; Andrea C Tricco; Mary Duggan

2010-01-01

198

Tacoma Power Weatherization  

E-print Network

Tacoma Power Weatherization Specifications August 2009 KnowYourPower.com | #12;TACOMA POWER WEATHERIZATION SPECIFICATIONS 2009 edition Page 2 #12;TACOMA POWER WEATHERIZATION SPECIFICATIONS 2009 edition

199

Challenges in Teaching Space Physics to Different Target Groups From Space Weather Forecasters to Heavy-weight Theorists  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plasma physics as the backbone of space physics is difficult and thus the space physics students need to have strong foundations in general physics, in particular in classical electrodynamics and thermodynamics, and master the basic mathematical tools for physicists. In many universities the number of students specializing in space physics at Master's and Doctoral levels is rather small and the students may have quite different preferences ranging from experimental approach to hard-core space plasma theory. This poses challenges in building up a study program that has both the variety and depth needed to motivate the best students to choose this field. At the University of Helsinki we require all beginning space physics students, regardless whether they enter the field as Master's or Doctoral degree students, to take a one-semester package consisting of plasma physics and its space applications. However, some compromises are necessary. For example, it is not at all clear, how thoroughly Landau damping should be taught at the first run or how deeply should the intricacies of collisionless reconnection be discussed. In both cases we have left the details to an optional course in advanced space physics, even with the risk that the student's appreciation of, e.g., reconnection may remain at the level of a magic wand. For learning experimental work, data analysis or computer simulations we have actively pursued arrangements for the Master's degree students to get a summer employments in active research groups, which usually lead to the Master's theses. All doctoral students are members of research groups and participate in experimental work, data analysis, simulation studies or theory development, or any combination of these. We emphasize strongly "learning by doing" all the way from the weekly home exercises during the lecture courses to the PhD theses which in Finland consist typically of 4-6 peer-reviewed articles with a comprehensive introductory part.

Koskinen, H. E.

2008-12-01

200

Heat Transfer Processes for the Thermal Energy Balance of Organisms. Physical Processes in Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecosystems, Transport Processes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This module is part of a series designed to be used by life science students for instruction in the application of physical theory to ecosystem operation. Most modules contain computer programs which are built around a particular application of a physical process. This module describes heat transfer processes involved in the exchange of heat…

Stevenson, R. D.

201

Weathering effects on the structure and reactivity of US coals: Final report, July 15, 1984-July 14, 1987. [Many data  

SciTech Connect

This report covers the work performed from July 1984 to July 1987 under the project entitled ''Weathering Effects on Structure and Reactivity of US Coals'' (grant number FG22-84PC70798). The main objectives of the study were to investigate the structural changes in coal during the weathering process as well as to develop a simple, reliable weathering index, which can monitor indirectly the weathering-induced changes in physical and chemical properties. Although there have been numerous publications on structure and reactivity of coal, most data reported in the literature thus far have been obtained on coal samples of uncertain weathering status and therefore need to be interpreted with great caution. Weathering has a profound effect on many important coal properties such as heating value, caking characteristics, acidity, flotability and reactivity in liquefaction, combustion and gasification processes. The objective of developing a weathering index is to predict these coal property changes due to weathering without resorting to real-time measurements or pilot plant runs. This report is comprised of four main chapters: I. Structural Changes due to Weathering; II. Material Balance in Weathering Process; III. Development of a Reliable Weathering Index; and IV. Proposed Weathering Mechanisms. A battery of sophisticated analytical tools and techniques was employed during this study. Pyrolysis mass spectrometry in time-integrated, as well as in time-resolved modes with computer-aided data analysis techniques (such as factor and discriminant analysis), gas chromatography, thermogravimetry/mass spectrometry and solvent extraction were used for determining the role of oxygen during the weathering process. Pyrolysis mass spectrometry, Free Swelling Index and a novel slurry pH technique were employed as weathering indicators. 170 refs.

Meuzelaar, H.L.C.; Hill, G.R.; Yun, Yongseung; Jakab, E.; Windig, W.; Urban, D.; Yon, Kyung Yol; Oestreich, J.; East, J.

1987-01-01

202

Exploring clouds, weather, climate, and modeling using bilingual content and activities from the Windows to the Universe program and the Center for Multiscale Modeling of Atmospheric Processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The need for improving the representation of cloud processes in climate models has been one of the most important limitations of the reliability of climate-change simulations. Now in its third year, the National Science Foundation-funded Center for Multi-scale Modeling of Atmospheric Processes (CMMAP) at Colorado State University is addressing this problem through a revolutionary new approach to representing cloud processes on their native scales, including the cloud-scale interaction processes that are active in cloud systems. CMMAP has set ambitious education and human-resource goals to share basic information about the atmosphere, clouds, weather, climate, and modeling with diverse K-12 and public audiences through its affiliation with the Windows to the Universe (W2U) program at University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR). W2U web pages are written at three levels in English and Spanish. This information targets learners at all levels, educators, and families who seek to understand and share resources and information about the nature of weather and the climate system, and career role models from related research fields. This resource can also be helpful to educators who are building bridges in the classroom between the sciences, the arts, and literacy. Visitors to the W2U's CMMAP web portal can access a beautiful new clouds image gallery; information about each cloud type and the atmospheric processes that produce them; a Clouds in Art interactive; collections of weather-themed poetry, art, and myths; links to games and puzzles for children; and extensive classroom- ready resources and activities for K-12 teachers. Biographies of CMMAP scientists and graduate students are featured. Basic science concepts important to understanding the atmosphere, such as condensation, atmosphere pressure, lapse rate, and more have been developed, as well as 'microworlds' that enable students to interact with experimental tools while building fundamental knowledge. These resources can be accessed online at no cost by the entire atmospheric science K-12 and informal science education community.

Foster, S. Q.; Johnson, R. M.; Randall, D.; Denning, S.; Russell, R.; Gardiner, L.; Hatheway, B.; Genyuk, J.; Bergman, J.

2008-12-01

203

The WegenerNet observing weather and climate at 1 km-scale resolution: a new look at convective precipitation and other local-scale processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The region Feldbach in Eastern Styria, Austria, characteristic for experiencing a rich variety of weather and climate patterns, has been selected by the WegCenter as a focus area for a pioneering weather and climate observation experiment at very high resolution: The WegenerNet climate station network region Feldbach (in brief WegenerNet) is comprised of 151 meteorological stations, which measure temperature, humidity, precipitation, and other parameters, with high accuracy in a tightly spaced grid (one station per ~2 km2; each with 5-min time sampling; ~1.4 km x 1.4 km grid in an ~20 km x 15 km area centered near the City of Feldbach at 46.93 °N, 15.90 °E). Since Jan 2007 the WegenerNet is providing, as part of the pilot and demonstration phase, regular measurements from the entire grid and since fall 2008 a complete quality-controlled data stream is available in near real time (data latency less than 1-2 hours) for visualization and download via the WegenerNet data portal (www.wegenernet.org). Currently (early 2009) the network demonstration is moving into its final phase, with consolidating maintenance procedures, advancing weather and climate data product development and completing the data portal bilingually (German, English). Full operations is foreseen to be reached mid 2009, from which on the net is scheduled as a long-term field experiment serving as a high-resolution monitoring and validation site for weather and climate research and applications. Adding further value, the WegenerNet data are complemented by lightening measurements in cooperation with the Inst. of Physics/Univ. of Munich (European LiNet network, including dedicated stations in Feldbach and Graz). In addition, a 3D-steerable Doppler weather radar (of the Styrian Hail Protection Society at Reicherhöhe near Graz) is available with un-obscured view of clouds and rain over the WegenerNet area, focusing its measurements on hail and heavy rainfall. Complementary hailpad measurements are planned as well (as of 2009). Many research projects investigating climate and environmental change and impacts, as well as local weather (extremes), will benefit from WegenerNet data covering the local scales from 1-10 km. This is a key domain for future high-resolution climate modeling and analysis, currently mainly covering the 10-50 km scale, for meeting the needs of climate impact models and studies in heterogeneous orography such as the Alpine region. Applications include validation of non-hydrostatic climate models operated at 1-10 km resolution for dynamical downscaling, validation of statistical climate downscaling techniques, in particular for precipitation, "ground-truth" provision for and validation of high-resolution atmospheric and hydrologic Earth observation data from satellites, validation of weather radar rain rate estimates, study of orography-local climate relationships, basin-scale and local water balance assessments, and many others. The presentation will introduce the WegenerNet and its characteristics and capabilities along the lines above and will show example applications of its (1 km x 1 km) weather and climate products, with focus on the highly-variable convective summer precipitation. On-line access will also be demonstrated (www.wegcenter.at/wegenernet, www.wegenernet.org).

Kirchengast, G.; Kabas, T.; Stieb, C.; Leuprecht, A.; Bichler, C.

2009-04-01

204

Weather Cycles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We are professionals in the teaching profession. We designed this project for children ranging from 4th grade to 6th grade. This project explores factors that help create severe winter weather. An interactive simulation provides hands-on experience, followed by guiding questions and resource exploration. YOU WILL NEED: Paper with copied questions, Overhead projector and Students broken up into groups of 3. Form groups of three. Have each group explore the following simulation: Weather Maker Simulator Have students use the simulation to answer the following questions on paper. They should be discussing the questions in their groups. 1. In general, when are winds formed? 2. When winds are blowing, how can you get them to stop? 3. What ...

Mitchell, Mrs.

2010-09-23

205

Weather Watchers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students are introduced to some essential meteorology concepts so they more fully understand the impact of meteorological activity on air pollution control and prevention. First, they develop an understanding of the magnitude and importance of air pressure. Next, they build a simple aneroid barometer to understand how air pressure information is related to weather prediction. Then, students explore the concept of relative humidity and its connection to weather prediction. Finally, students learn about air convection currents and temperature inversions. In an associated literacy activity, students learn how scientific terms are formed using Latin and Greek roots, prefixes and suffixes, and are introduced to the role played by metaphor in language development. Note: Some of these activities can be conducted simultaneously with the air quality activity (What Color Is Your Air Today?) of Air Pollution unit, Lesson 1.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

206

Time-scales of sedimentary transfer and weathering processes from U-series nuclides: Clues from the Himalayan rivers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to define time-scales of erosion and sedimentary transfer in the Himalaya, 238U- 234U- 230Th disequilibria have been analysed in river bank sediments and in bedloads collected along the Kali Gandaki river, one of the main Nepalese rivers, and in the Ghaghara and Gandak rivers, two major plain tributaries of the Ganges. The Th activity ratios and U/Th ratios in river sediments of the two Ganges tributaries constantly decrease from upstream to downstream. This is related to the maturation of sediments by weathering during their transfer to the plain. The U-series data allow to calculate a transfer time for the sediments in the alluvial Gangetic plain from the chain front to the confluence with the Ganges of about 100 kyr for both rivers. The Kali Gandaki river sediment data highlight a decrease of both the Th isotopic and U/Th ratios which is explained by a mixing between two sources with similar U/Th ratios but having suffered a different U-Th fractionation history. Interpretation of the U-series data in the frame of this scenario gives long time-scales of weathering of several 100's kyr for the Himalayan terranes. The results imply that Himalayan bedrocks are submitted to a long in situ stage of weathering before their erosion and transfer into the rivers. In addition, occurrence of similar U-Sr signatures in dissolved (i.e. < 0.1-0.2 ?m) and sediment phases of the Kali Gandaki river suggests that "dissolved" uranium could be carried by colloids constituted by sedimentary microparticles. This precludes the use of U-series disequilibria in this river to calculate weathering budgets and to assess whether the erosion is working at steady-state or not.

Granet, M.; Chabaux, F.; Stille, P.; France-Lanord, C.; Pelt, E.

2007-09-01

207

Weather Observations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We will be observing the weather in our enviornment. Post your observations. Take a hike! Tell us what you see! Make sure and note the date/time/season. Take a walk in your neighboorhood- what signs show you the current season? Vacation? Make observations about the place you visited. Make obseravtions every week! Keep a journal about the changes you observe! Winter Storm ImageSeasonal ChangesAround the WorldSeasonsSeasons of the Year ...

sarahnp

2011-07-18

208

A Process Approach to Problem Solving in Physics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses uses of the process approach to teach problem solving techniques to education students enrolling in a noncalculus physics course. Indicates that the prospective teachers are given opportunities to do real problem solving with the hope that they can foster in secondary school youngsters a better inquiry approach to science. (CC)

Brouwer, Wytze

1973-01-01

209

Gendering Processes in the Field of Physical Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In Finnish secondary schools, girls and boys are taught physical education (PE) in separate groups. A male teacher normally teaches the boys and a female teacher teaches the girls. Focusing on PE teachers' comments in two different ethnographic studies of seventh graders (13-14-year-olds), we examine the processes that reproduce or challenge the…

Berg, Paivi; Lahelma, Elina

2010-01-01

210

Fluid Dynamics Applied to Streams. Physical Processes in Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecosystems, Transport Processes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This module is part of a series designed to be used by life science students for instruction in the application of physical theory to ecosystem operation. Most modules contain computer programs which are built around a particular application of a physical process. This module deals specifically with concepts that are basic to fluid flow and…

Cowan, Christina E.

211

Pressure and Buoyancy in Aquatic Ecosystems. Physical Processes in Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecosystems, Transport Processes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This module is part of a series designed to be used by life science students for instruction in the application of physical theory to ecosystem operation. Most modules contain computer programs which are built around a particular application of a physical process. This module explores some of the characteristics of aquatic organisms which can be…

Cowan, Christina E.

212

Biological Production in Lakes. Physical Processes in Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecosystems, Ecological Processes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These materials were designed to be used by life science students for instruction in the application of physical theory to ecosystem operation. Most modules contain computer programs which are built around a particular application of a physical process. Primary production in aquatic ecosystems is carried out by phytoplankton, microscopic plants…

Walters, R. A.; Carey, G. F.

213

Identification and weather sensitivity of physically based model of residential air-conditioners for direct load control: A case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

In most electricity systems, the residential sector is one of the main contributors to system peaks. Hot and humid summer seasons lead to a significant proportion of the supplied power being used on air-conditioning (AC). In this work, we address the identification problem of the parameters of an aggregated elemental physically based model representing a housing unit with an AC

Sami El-Ferik; Syed A. Hussain; Fouad M. Al-Sunni

2006-01-01

214

Reconstructing chemical weathering, physical erosion and monsoon intensity since 25 Ma in the northern South China Sea: A review of competing proxies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reconstructing the changing strength of the East Asian summer monsoon has been controversial because different proxies, many being indirect measures of rainfall, tell contrasting stories about how this has varied over long periods of geologic time. Here we present new Sr isotope, grain-size and clastic flux data and synthesize existing proxies to reconstruct changing chemical erosion in the northern South China Sea since the Oligocene, using the links between weathering rates and monsoon strength established in younger sediments as a way to infer intensity. Chemical proxies such as K/Rb, K/Al and the Chemical Index of Alteration (CIA), together with clay proxies like kaolinite/(illite + chlorite) show a steady decline in alteration after a sharp fall following a maximum at the Mid Miocene Climatic Optimum (MMCO; 15.5-17.2 Ma), probably as a result of cooling global temperatures. In contrast, physical erosion proxies, including bulk Ti/Ca and clastic mass accumulation rates (MAR), show peaks at 21-23 Ma, ~ 19 Ma and 15.5-17.2 Ma, implying faster run-off in the absence of drainage capture. Rates increase again, likely driven by slightly increased run-off after 13 Ma, but decrease after 8 Ma, which is identified as a period of summer monsoon weakening. Sr isotope composition correlates with hematite/goethite and the spectral proxy CRAT to show stronger weathering linked to more monsoonal seasonality. These proxies argue for a strengthening of the East Asian Monsoon after 22-23 Ma, followed by an extended period of monsoon maximum between 18 and 10 Ma, then weakening. There is some suggestion that the summer monsoon may have strengthened since 3-4 Ma after reaching a minimum in the Pliocene.

Clift, Peter D.; Wan, Shiming; Blusztajn, Jerzy

2014-03-01

215

Significant impacts of radiation physics in the Weather Research and Forecasting model on the precipitation and dynamics of the West African Monsoon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Precipitation from the West African Monsoon (WAM) provides food security and supports the economy in the region. As a consequence of the intrinsic complexities of the WAM's evolution, accurate simulations of the WAM and its precipitation regime, through the application of regional climate models, are challenging. We used the coupled Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) and Community Land Model (CLM) to explore impacts of radiation physics on the precipitation and dynamics of the WAM. Our results indicate that the radiation physics schemes not only produce biases in radiation fluxes impacting radiative forcing, but more importantly, result in large bias in precipitation of the WAM. Furthermore, the different radiation schemes led to variations in the meridional gradient of surface temperature between the north that is the Sahara desert and the south Guinean coastline. Climate diagnostics indicated that the changes in the meridional gradient of surface temperature affect the position and strength of the African Easterly Jet as well as the low-level monsoonal inflow from the Gulf of Guinea. The net result was that each radiation scheme produced differences in the WAM precipitation regime both spatially and in intensity. Such considerable variances in the WAM precipitation regime and dynamics, resulting from radiation representations, likely have strong feedbacks within the climate system and so have inferences when it comes to aspects of predicted climate change both for the region and globally.

Li, R.; Jin, J.; Wang, S.-Y.; Gillies, R. R.

2014-08-01

216

Integrated Research and Education in Solar Physics, Space Weather, and Energetic Charged Particles at the University of Arizona  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I will discuss how a NSF Early-Career Award led to a new emphasis in solar physics at the University of Arizona (UA) that has enabled new opportunities for scientific research in this area, but has also led to new education and public-outreach initiatives. I will discuss the approach used to integrate education with research, emphasizing the importance of the prestige of the CAREER award itself. A particular highlight from this project was a summer school in solar physics that was held for four consecutive years from 2006-2009 aimed at beginning graduate students, but also had a number of advanced undergraduates as well. The award was also used to support workshops for local-area middle-school teachers on topics germane to solar physics that could be instituted in their respective school's curricula. The award also subsidized a number of graduate students and postdoctoral researchers at the UA promoting their career development. While the focus of this presentation will be on the educational and public-outreach aspects of this project, it is important emphasize that this project had a strong research component. The UA is a major research university and the award was instrumental in the development of the principal investigator's career, both in terms of obtaining tenure and promotion to full professor, and also to put him in a good position to secure extramural funding. Therefore, I will also discuss some key research highlights from this project as well.

Giacalone, J.

2011-12-01

217

Contrast Restoration of Weather Degraded Images  

Microsoft Academic Search

Images of outdoor scenes captured in bad weather suffer from poor contrast. Under bad weather conditions, the light reaching a camera is severely scattered by the atmosphere. The resulting decay in contrast varies across the scene and is exponential in the depths of scene points. Therefore, traditional space invariant image processing techniques are not sufficient to remove weather effects from

Srinivasa G. Narasimhan; Shree K. Nayar

2003-01-01

218

Honeycomb Weathering of Limestone Formations  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Honeycomb weathering of sandstone located on the shores of Puget Sound occurs when expanding salt crystals break fragments of rock, creating a small hole that becomes larger as the process repeats itself over time....

219

Mountain Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Mountains can be awe-inspiring both for the vistas they provide and for the weather events and long-term climate systems they support. This interactive feature illustrates how a moisture-laden air mass interacts with a mountain slope to produce characteristic patterns of precipitation over the mountain and surrounding areas. Viewers can see how clouds and precipitation form as the air mass ascends the windward side of the peak, and observe the rain shadow created on the leeward side by the descending, warmed, and moisture-depleted air. A background essay and list of discussion questions supplement the interactive feature.

220

Assessing processes in uncertain, complex physical phenomena and manufacturing  

SciTech Connect

PREDICT (Performance and Reliability Evaluation with Diverse Information Combination and Tracking) is a set of structured quantitative approaches for the evaluation of system performance based on multiple information sources. The methodology integrates diverse types and sources of information, and their associated uncertainties, to develop full distributions for performance metrics, such as reliability. The successful application of PREDICT has involved system performance assessment in automotive product development, aging nuclear weapons, and fatigued turbine jet engines. In each of these applications, complex physical, mechanical and materials processes affect performance, safety and reliability assessments. Processes also include the physical actions taken during manufacturing, quality control, inspections, assembly, etc. and the steps involved in product design, development and certification. In this paper, we will examine the various types of processes involved in the decision making leading to production in an automotive system reliability example. Analysis of these processes includes not only understanding their impact on performance and reliability, but also the uncertainties associated with them. The automotive example demonstrates some of the tools used in tackling the complex problem of understanding processes. While some tools and methods exist for understanding processes (man made and natural) and the uncertainties associated with them, many of the complex issues discussed are open for continued research efforts.

Booker, J. M. (Jane M.); Kerscher, W. J. III (William J.); Smith, R. E. (Ronald E.)

2002-01-01

221

Contaminants from Cretaceous Black Shale Part 1: Natural weathering processes controlling contaminant cycling in Mancos Shale, southwestern United States, with emphasis on salinity and selenium  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Soils derived from black shale can accumulate high concentrations of elements of environmental concern, especially in regions with semiarid to arid climates. One such region is the Colorado River basin in the southwestern United States where contaminants pose a threat to agriculture, municipal water supplies, endangered aquatic species, and water-quality commitments to Mexico. Exposures of Cretaceous Mancos Shale (MS) in the upper basin are a major contributor of salinity and selenium in the Colorado River. Here, we examine the roles of geology, climate, and alluviation on contaminant cycling (emphasis on salinity and Se) during weathering of MS in a Colorado River tributary watershed. Stage I (incipient weathering) began perhaps as long ago as 20 ka when lowering of groundwater resulted in oxidation of pyrite and organic matter. This process formed gypsum and soluble organic matter that persist in the unsaturated, weathered shale today. Enrichment of Se observed in laterally persistent ferric oxide layers likely is due to selenite adsorption onto the oxides that formed during fluctuating redox conditions at the water table. Stage II weathering (pedogenesis) is marked by a significant decrease in bulk density and increase in porosity as shale disaggregates to soil. Rainfall dissolves calcite and thenardite (Na2SO4) at the surface, infiltrates to about 1 m, and precipitates gypsum during evaporation. Gypsum formation (estimated 390 kg m?2) enriches soil moisture in Na and residual SO4. Transpiration of this moisture to the surface or exposure of subsurface soil (slumping) produces more thenardite. Most Se remains in the soil as selenite adsorbed to ferric oxides, however, some oxidizes to selenate and, during wetter conditions is transported with soil moisture to depths below 3 m. Coupled with little rainfall, relatively insoluble gypsum, and the translocation of soluble Se downward, MS landscapes will be a significant nonpoint source of salinity and Se to the Colorado River well into the future. Other trace elements weathering from MS that are often of environmental concern include U and Mo, which mimic Se in their behavior; As, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, and Pb, which show little redistribution; and Cd, Sb, V, and Zn, which accumulate in Stage I shale, but are lost to varying degrees from upper soil intervals. None of these trace elements have been reported previously as contaminants in the study area.

Tuttle, Michele L.; Fahy, Juli W.; Elliott, John G.; Grauch, Richard I.; Stillings, Lisa L.

2013-01-01

222

Being qua becoming: Aristotle's "Metaphysics", quantum physics, and Process Philosophy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Aristotle's First Philosophy, science and philosophy were partners, but with the rise of empiricism, went their separate ways. Metaphysics combined the rational and irrational (i.e. final cause/unmoved mover) elements of existence to equate being with substance, postulating prime matter as pure potential that was actuated by form to create everything. Modern science reveres pure reason and postulates its theory of being by a rigorous scientific methodology. The Standard Model defines matter as energy formed into fundamental particles via forces contained in fields. Science has proved Aristotle's universe wrong in many ways, but as physics delves deeper into the quantum world, empiricism is reaching its limits concerning fundamental questions of existence. To achieve its avowed mission of explaining existence completely, physics must reunite with philosophy in a metascience modeled on the First Philosophy of Aristotle. One theory of being that integrates quantum physics and metaphysics is Process Philosophy.

Johnson, David Kelley

223

Physical activity across the curriculum: year one process evaluation results  

PubMed Central

Background Physical Activity Across the Curriculum (PAAC) is a 3-year elementary school-based intervention to determine if increased amounts of moderate intensity physical activity performed in the classroom will diminish gains in body mass index (BMI). It is a cluster-randomized, controlled trial, involving 4905 children (2505 intervention, 2400 control). Methods We collected both qualitative and quantitative process evaluation data from 24 schools (14 intervention and 10 control), which included tracking teacher training issues, challenges and barriers to effective implementation of PAAC lessons, initial and continual use of program specified activities, and potential competing factors, which might contaminate or lessen program effects. Results Overall teacher attendance at training sessions showed exceptional reach. Teachers incorporated active lessons on most days, resulting in significantly greater student physical activity levels compared to controls (p < 0.0001). Enjoyment ratings for classroom-based lessons were also higher for intervention students. Competing factors, which might influence program results, were not carried out at intervention or control schools or were judged to be minimal. Conclusion In the first year of the PAAC intervention, process evaluation results were instrumental in identifying successes and challenges faced by teachers when trying to modify existing academic lessons to incorporate physical activity. PMID:18606013

Gibson, Cheryl A; Smith, Bryan K; DuBose, Katrina D; Greene, J Leon; Bailey, Bruce W; Williams, Shannon L; Ryan, Joseph J; Schmelzle, Kristin H; Washburn, Richard A; Sullivan, Debra K; Mayo, Matthew S; Donnelly, Joseph E

2008-01-01

224

Influence of different natural physical fields on biological processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In space flight conditions gravity, magnetic, and electrical fields as well as ionizing radiation change both in size, and in direction. This causes disruptions in the conduct of some physical processes, chemical reactions, and metabolism in living organisms. In these conditions organisms of different phylogenetic level change their metabolic reactions undergo changes such as disturbances in ionic exchange both in lower and in higher plants, changes in cell morphology for example, gyrosity in Proteus ( Proteus vulgaris), spatial disorientation in coleoptiles of Wheat ( Triticum aestivum) and Pea ( Pisum sativum) seedlings, mutational changes in Crepis ( Crepis capillaris) and Arabidopsis ( Arabidopsis thaliana) seedling. It has been found that even in the absence of gravity, gravireceptors determining spatial orientation in higher plants under terrestrial conditions are formed in the course of ontogenesis. Under weightlessness this system does not function and spatial orientation is determined by the light flux gradient or by the action of some other factors. Peculiarities of the formation of the gravireceptor apparatus in higher plants, amphibians, fish, and birds under space flight conditions have been observed. It has been found that the system in which responses were accompanied by phase transition have proven to be gravity-sensitive under microgravity conditions. Such reactions include also the process of photosynthesis which is the main energy production process in plants. In view of the established effects of microgravity and different natural physical fields on biological processes, it has been shown that these processes change due to the absence of initially rigid determination. The established biological effect of physical fields influence on biological processes in organisms is the starting point for elucidating the role of gravity and evolutionary development of various organisms on Earth.

Mashinsky, A. L.

2001-01-01

225

CMOS Silicon Physical Unclonable Functions Based on Intrinsic Process Variability  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an extreme-low-power mixed-signal CMOS integrated circuit for product identifi- cation and anti-counterfeiting, which implements a physical unclonable function operating with a challenge-response scheme. We devise a series of circuits and algorithmic solutions based on the use of a process monitor and on the prediction of the erratic response bits which allow to suppress the effects of temperature,

Stefano Stanzione; Daniele Puntin; Giuseppe Iannaccone

2011-01-01

226

Geography and Physical Processes of the Circumpolar World  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module provides a brief introduction to the physical features and processes of the Arctic region and the significant factors that influence them, which include: the climate, including very low winter temperatures, relatively high summer temperatures, and the subsequent freeze-thaw cycle; the long-term glaciation cycle; and the presence or absence of water and the dynamics and influence thereof, both as liquid and ice, on the northern landscape. A review of map reading skills is also included.

227

Physical process first law and caustic avoidance for Rindler horizons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the perturbation induced by a slowly rotating massive object as it passes through a Rindler horizon. It is shown that the passage of this object can be approximately modeled as delta function type tidal distortions hitting the horizon. Further, following the analysis presented by Amsel, Marolf, and Virmani related to the issue of the validity of physical process first law, we establish a condition on the size of the object so that this law holds for the Rindler horizon.

Bhattacharjee, Srijit; Sarkar, Sudipta

2015-01-01

228

Physical process first law and caustic avoidance for Rindler horizon  

E-print Network

We study the perturbation induced by a slowly rotating massive object as it passes through a Rindler horizon. It is shown that the passage of this object can be approximately modeled as Delta\\,function type tidal distortions hitting the horizon. Further, following the analysis presented by Amsel, Marolf and Virmani related to the issue of the validity of physical process first law, we establish a condition on the size of the object so that this law holds for the Rindler horizon.

Srijit Bhattacharjee; Sudipta Sarkar

2014-12-03

229

Quantum Processes and Dynamic Networks in Physical and Biological Systems.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantum theory since its earliest formulations in the Copenhagen Interpretation has been difficult to integrate with general relativity and with classical Newtonian physics. There has been traditionally a regard for quantum phenomena as being a limiting case for a natural order that is fundamentally classical except for microscopic extrema where quantum mechanics must be applied, more as a mathematical reconciliation rather than as a description and explanation. Macroscopic sciences including the study of biological neural networks, cellular energy transports and the broad field of non-linear and chaotic systems point to a quantum dimension extending across all scales of measurement and encompassing all of Nature as a fundamentally quantum universe. Theory and observation lead to a number of hypotheses all of which point to dynamic, evolving networks of fundamental or elementary processes as the underlying logico-physical structure (manifestation) in Nature and a strongly quantized dimension to macroscalar processes such as are found in biological, ecological and social systems. The fundamental thesis advanced and presented herein is that quantum phenomena may be the direct consequence of a universe built not from objects and substance but from interacting, interdependent processes collectively operating as sets and networks, giving rise to systems that on microcosmic or macroscopic scales function wholistically and organically, exhibiting non-locality and other non -classical phenomena. The argument is made that such effects as non-locality are not aberrations or departures from the norm but ordinary consequences of the process-network dynamics of Nature. Quantum processes are taken to be the fundamental action-events within Nature; rather than being the exception quantum theory is the rule. The argument is also presented that the study of quantum physics could benefit from the study of selective higher-scale complex systems, such as neural processes in the brain, by virtue of mathematical and computational models that may be transferred from the macroscopic domain to the microscopic. A consequence of this multi-faceted thesis is that there may be mature analytical tools and techniques that have heretofore not been adequately recognized for their value to quantum physics. These may include adaptations of neural networks, cellular automata, chaotic attractors, and parallel processing systems. Conceptual and practical architectures are presented for the development of software and hardware environments to employ massively parallel computing for the modeling of large populations of dynamic processes.

Dudziak, Martin Joseph

230

Effects of physical erosion on chemical denudation rates: A numerical modeling study of soil-mantled hillslopes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many biogeochemical and Earth surface processes depend critically on chemical weathering. The immediate products of chemical weathering are present as solutes and secondary minerals in groundwater, soils, and streams, and form the nutritional foundation for terrestrial biogeochemistry. Chemical weathering also contributes to physical erosion by weakening bedrock and producing easily erodible regolith, and as the primary long-term sink for atmospheric

Ken L. Ferrier; James W. Kirchner

2008-01-01

231

A New Approach to Understanding Brown Dwarf Weather  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over 130 HST orbits and 3000 Spitzer hours have been dedicated to observing variability in the emission of brown dwarfs, but we do not yet understand the physical processes that cause brown dwarf weather. The aim of the proposed work is to build the modeling tools to turn brown dwarf light curves into constraints on their atmospheric physics. Light curves of variable brown dwarfs are not simple sinusoids, but show spectral dependence in both amplitude and phase. Many objects exhibit evolution in the amplitude or shape of the light curve from one observation to another, indicating evolution of weather patterns. These complexities mean that while the two likely causes of variability--patchy clouds and temperature perturbations--should have distinct spectral signatures, the data are proving challenging to explain with simple prescriptions. Our tool to understand this extrasolar weather is to use a retrieval technique to extract the physical parameters that cause brown dwarf variability, directly from brown dwarf spectra. Using this tool with the information-rich HST data, we probe the temperature and cloud structure in multiple spatial dimensions as well as the time-evolution of these structures. These constraints provide crucial information for the development of atmospheric dynamical models, currently in their infancy for brown dwarfs. The retrieval technique we propose will allow us to leave the confines of pre-calculated grid models and measure the causes of brown dwarf weather directly from spectra. This tool will provide the information necessary to understand the atmospheric physics underlying warm substellar weather, decades before we can study weather on exoplanets.

Morley, Caroline

2014-10-01

232

The Weather Dude  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Weather Dude is a weather education Web site offered by meteorologist Nick Walker of The Weather Channel. For kids, the site offers a great online textbook entitled Weather Basics, which explains everything from precipitation to the seasons, using simple text and fun graphics. Other fun things for kids include weather songs, questions and quizzes, weather proverbs, and more. Teachers are also provided with helpful resources such as weather activity sheets and printable blank maps, as well as many other links to weather forecasts and information that will help make teaching about weather fun.

Walker, Nick.

2002-01-01

233

Process evaluation results from the HEALTHY physical education intervention.  

PubMed

Process evaluation is an assessment of the implementation of an intervention. A process evaluation component was embedded in the HEALTHY study, a primary prevention trial for Type 2 diabetes implemented over 3 years in 21 middle schools across the United States. The HEALTHY physical education (PE) intervention aimed at maximizing student engagement in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity through delivery of structured lesson plans by PE teachers. Process evaluation data collected via class observations and interventionist interviews assessed fidelity, dose delivered, implementor participation, dose received and barriers. Process evaluation results indicate a high level of fidelity in implementing HEALTHY PE activities and offering 225 min of PE every 10 school days. Concerning dose delivered, students were active for approximately 33 min of class, representing an average of 61% of the class time. Results also indicate that PE teachers were generally engaged in implementing the HEALTHY PE curriculum. Data on dose received showed that students were highly engaged with the PE intervention; however, student misbehavior was the most common barrier observed during classes. Other barriers included teacher disengagement, large classes, limited gym space and poor classroom management. Findings suggest that the PE intervention was generally implemented and received as intended despite several barriers. PMID:22156231

Hall, William J; Zeveloff, Abigail; Steckler, Allan; Schneider, Margaret; Thompson, Deborah; Pham, Trang; Volpe, Stella L; Hindes, Katie; Sleigh, Adriana; McMurray, Robert G

2012-04-01

234

Physical process first law for bifurcate Killing horizons  

SciTech Connect

The physical process version of the first law for black holes states that the passage of energy and angular momentum through the horizon results in a change in area ({kappa}/8{pi}){delta}A={delta}E-{omega}{delta}J, so long as this passage is quasistationary. A similar physical process first law can be derived for any bifurcate Killing horizon in any spacetime dimension d{>=}3 using much the same argument. However, to make this law nontrivial, one must show that sufficiently quasistationary processes do in fact occur. In particular, one must show that processes exist for which the shear and expansion remain small, and in which no new generators are added to the horizon. Thorne, MacDonald, and Price considered related issues when an object falls across a d=4 black hole horizon. By generalizing their argument to arbitrary d{>=}3 and to any bifurcate Killing horizon, we derive a condition under which these effects are controlled and the first law applies. In particular, by providing a nontrivial first law for Rindler horizons, our work completes the parallel between the mechanics of such horizons and those of black holes for d{>=}3. We also comment on the situation for d=2.

Amsel, Aaron J.; Marolf, Donald; Virmani, Amitabh [Department of Physics, University of California at Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States)

2008-01-15

235

Process evaluation results from the HEALTHY physical education intervention  

PubMed Central

Process evaluation is an assessment of the implementation of an intervention. A process evaluation component was embedded in the HEALTHY study, a primary prevention trial for Type 2 diabetes implemented over 3 years in 21 middle schools across the United States. The HEALTHY physical education (PE) intervention aimed at maximizing student engagement in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity through delivery of structured lesson plans by PE teachers. Process evaluation data collected via class observations and interventionist interviews assessed fidelity, dose delivered, implementor participation, dose received and barriers. Process evaluation results indicate a high level of fidelity in implementing HEALTHY PE activities and offering 225 min of PE every 10 school days. Concerning dose delivered, students were active for approximately 33 min of class, representing an average of 61% of the class time. Results also indicate that PE teachers were generally engaged in implementing the HEALTHY PE curriculum. Data on dose received showed that students were highly engaged with the PE intervention; however, student misbehavior was the most common barrier observed during classes. Other barriers included teacher disengagement, large classes, limited gym space and poor classroom management. Findings suggest that the PE intervention was generally implemented and received as intended despite several barriers. PMID:22156231

Hall, William J.; Zeveloff, Abigail; Steckler, Allan; Schneider, Margaret; Thompson, Deborah; Pham, Trang; Volpe, Stella L.; Hindes, Katie; Sleigh, Adriana; McMurray, Robert G.

2012-01-01

236

R-process nucleosynthesis calculations with complete nuclear physics input  

E-print Network

The r-process constitutes one of the major challenges in nuclear astrophysics. Its astrophysical site has not yet been identified but there is observational evidence suggesting that at least two possible sites should contribute to the solar system abundance of r-process elements and that the r-process responsible for the production of elements heavier than Z=56 operates quite robustly producing always the same relative abundances. From the nuclear-physics point of view the r-process requires the knowledge of a large number of reaction rates involving exotic nuclei. These include neutron capture rates, beta-decays and fission rates, the latter for the heavier nuclei produced in the r-process. We have developed for the first time a complete database of reaction rates that in addition to neutron-capture rates and beta-decay half-lives includes all possible reactions that can induce fission (neutron-capture, beta-decay and spontaneous fission) and the corresponding fission yields. In addition, we have implemented these reaction rates in a fully implicit reaction network. We have performed r-process calculations for the neutrino-driven wind scenario to explore whether or not fission can contribute to provide a robust r-process pattern.

I. Petermann; A. Arcones; A. Keli?; K. Langanke; G. Martínez-Pinedo; K. -H. Schmidt; W. R. Hix; I. Panov; T. Rauscher; F. -K. Thielemann; N. Zinner

2008-12-04

237

Writing TAFS for Winter Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"Writing TAFs for Winter Weather" is the fourth unit in the Distance Learning Aviation Course 2 (DLAC2) series on producing TAFs that meet the needs of the aviation community. In addition to providing information about tools for diagnosing winter weather and its related impacts, the module extends the Practically Perfect TAF (PPTAF) process to address an airportâs operational thresholds. By understanding the thresholds at airports for which they produce TAFs, forecasters will be better able to produce a PPTAF. The unit also examines how to communicate effectively the logic and uncertainty using the aviation forecast discussion (AvnFD) and addresses maintaining an effective TAF weather watch and updating the TAF proactively.

Comet

2009-09-22

238

Detectors and signal processing for high-energy physics  

SciTech Connect

Basic principles of the particle detection and signal processing for high-energy physics experiments are presented. It is shown that the optimum performance of a properly designed detector system is not limited by incidental imperfections, but solely by more fundamental limitations imposed by the quantum nature and statistical behavior of matter. The noise sources connected with the detection and signal processing are studied. The concepts of optimal filtering and optimal detector/amplifying device matching are introduced. Signal processing for a liquid argon calorimeter is analyzed in some detail. The position detection in gas counters is studied. Resolution in drift chambers for the drift coordinate measurement as well as the second coordinate measurement is discussed.

Rehak, P.

1981-01-01

239

Networked Cyber-Physical Systems As computing and communication get more tightly integrated into the physical processes around us,  

E-print Network

Networked Cyber-Physical Systems As computing and communication get more tightly integrated into the physical processes around us, we are presented with new" plants across medical, industrial control and automotive systems. High

Plotkin, Joshua B.

240

Reconnaissance of Field Sites for the Study of Chemical Weathering on the Guayana Shield, South America  

SciTech Connect

Despite the fact that chemical weathering of silicate rocks plays an important role in the draw-down of CO{sub 2} over geologic time scales (Berner and Berner, 1996), the overall controls on the rate of chemical weathering are still not completely understood. Lacking a mechanistic understanding of these controls, it remains difficult to evaluate a hypothesis such as that presented by Raymo and Ruddiman (1992), who suggested that enhanced weathering and CO{sub 2} draw-down resulting from the uplift of the Himalayas contributed to global cooling during the Cenozoic. At an even more fundamental level, the three to four order of magnitude discrepancy between laboratory and field weathering rates is still unresolved (White et al., 1996). There is as yet no comprehensive, mechanistic model for silicate chemical weathering that considers the coupled effects of precipitation, vadose zone flow, and chemical reactions. The absence of robust process models for silicate weathering and the failure to resolve some of these important questions may in fact be related-the controls on the overall rates of weathering cannot be understood without considering the weathering environment as one in which multiple, time-dependent chemical and physical processes are coupled (Malmstrom, 2000). Once chemical weathering is understood at a mechanistic process level, the important controls on chemical weathering (physical erosion, temperature, precipitation) can be folded into larger scale models tracking the global carbon cycle. Our goal in this study was to carry out the preliminary work needed to establish a field research site for chemical weathering om the Cuayana Shield in South America. The Guayana Shield is a Precambrian province greater than 1.5 billion years old covering portions of Venezuela, Guyana (the country), Surinam, French Guiana, and Brazil (Figure 1). More important than the age of the rocks themselves, however, is the age of the erosion surface developed on the Shield, with estimates ranging as old as 65 million years. Preserved mostly in highlands, this very old erosion surface represents an end-member site where physical erosion has been significantly slower than the rate of chemical weathering. Much of the Shield is also noteworthy for the fact that chemical weathering is still occurring today, thus offering the chance to study a system in which a present day weathering regime is accompanied by an integrated weathering record over millions of years (Soler and Lasaga, 2000). If rates of chemical weathering can be determined for this very old weathering system where physical erosion is minor, they can then be compared with rates determined from sites with similar annual temperatures and rainfall, but much higher physical erosion rates. Comparative studies of this kind can provide a parameterization of chemical weathering rates as a function of physical erosion and tectonic uplift that can be used in global models for the carbon cycle.

Steefell, C I

2003-02-01

241

FAWN: Florida Automated Weather Network  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Florida Automated Weather Network (FAWN) provides up-to-date weather information through a system of automated weather stations distributed throughout the State of Florida. Research scientists at the University of Florida work closely with extension agents to monitor the FAWN system and make sure it provides fast, reliable, and convenient access. Overall, there are four parts to the FAWN system: collecting data, transmitting it to the collection site, processing the data, and redistributing it to the end user. FAWN database servers maintained by IFAS Information Technologies receive weather data about the date and time of collection, the air temperature, soil temperature, relative humidity, dewpoint, rainfall, wind direction, wind speed, and radiation from remote stations every 15 minutes. The information is processed and made available almost instantaneously through several different search methods accessible through FAWN web server, as well as an interactive voice-response system.

242

Weather information network including graphical display  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An apparatus for providing weather information onboard an aircraft includes a processor unit and a graphical user interface. The processor unit processes weather information after it is received onboard the aircraft from a ground-based source, and the graphical user interface provides a graphical presentation of the weather information to a user onboard the aircraft. Preferably, the graphical user interface includes one or more user-selectable options for graphically displaying at least one of convection information, turbulence information, icing information, weather satellite information, SIGMET information, significant weather prognosis information, and winds aloft information.

Leger, Daniel R. (Inventor); Burdon, David (Inventor); Son, Robert S. (Inventor); Martin, Kevin D. (Inventor); Harrison, John (Inventor); Hughes, Keith R. (Inventor)

2006-01-01

243

Identifying weathering sources and processes in an outlet glacier of the Greenland Ice Sheet using Ca and Sr isotope ratios  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chemical and isotope data (?40Ca, ?44/42Ca, 87Sr/86Sr, ?18O) of river water samples were collected twice daily for 28 days in 2009 from the outlet river of Leverett Glacier, West Greenland. The water chemistry data was combined with detailed geochemical analysis and petrography of bulk rock, mineral separates and sediment samples in order to constrain the mineral weathering sources to the river. The average isotopic compositions measured in the river, with 2SD of all the values measured, were ?40Ca = +4.0 ± 1.4, ?44/42Ca = +0.60 ± 0.10‰ and 87Sr/86Sr = 0.74243 ± 0.00327. Based on changes in bulk meltwater discharge, the hydrochemical data was divided into three hydrological periods. The first period was marked by the tail-end of an outburst event and was characterised by water with decreasing suspended sediment concentrations (SSC), ion concentrations and pH. During the second hydrological period, discharge increased whilst 87Sr/86Sr decreased from 0.74550 to 0.74164. Based on binary mixing diagrams using 87Sr/86Sr with Na/Sr, Ca/Sr and ?40Ca, this is interpreted to reflect an increase in reactive mineral weathering, in particular epidote, as the water residence time decreases. The decrease in water residence time is a result of the evolution from a distributed (long water residence time) to a channelised (short water residence time) subglacial drainage network. The third hydrological period was defined as the period when overall discharge was decreasing. This hydrological period was marked by prominent diurnal cycles in discharge. During this period, significant correlations between ?44/42Ca and SSC and ?18O were observed which are suggestive of fractionation during adsorption. This study demonstrates the potential of radiogenic Ca to both identify temporally changing mineral sources in conjunction with 87Sr/86Sr values and to separate source and fractionation effects in ?44/42Ca values.

Hindshaw, Ruth S.; Rickli, Jörg; Leuthold, Julien; Wadham, Jemma; Bourdon, Bernard

2014-11-01

244

Spring Deposits on Mars: Physical Processes from Terrestrial Analogs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An important first step in the current Mars exploration strategy is the detection of sites where there is evidence for past or present near-surface water on Mars. This study evaluates the large-scale morphology of spring deposits and the physical processes of their formation, growth, and evolution in terms that relate to (1) their identification in image data, (2) their formation, evolution, and preservation in the environment of Mars, and (3) their potential as sites of long-term or late stage shallow groundwater emergence at the surface of Mars.

Crumpler, L. S.

2003-01-01

245

Controlling The Global Weather.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

the weather controller is extremely complex, the existence of the required technology is plausible in the time range of several decades.While the concept of controlling the weather has often appeared in science fiction literature, this statement of the problem provides a scientific basis and a system architecture to actually implement global weather control. Large-scale weather control raises important legal and ethical questions. The nation that controls its own weather will perforce control the weather of other nations. Weather "wars" are conceivable. An international treaty may be required, limiting the use of weather control technology.

Hoffman, Ross N.

2002-02-01

246

The r-process nucleosynthesis: Nuclear physics challenges  

SciTech Connect

About half of the nuclei heavier than iron observed in nature are produced by the socalled rapid neutron capture process, or r-process, of nucleosynthesis. The identification of the astrophysics site and the specific conditions in which the r-process takes place remains, however, one of the still-unsolved mysteries of modern astrophysics. Another underlying difficulty associated with our understanding of the r-process concerns the uncertainties in the predictions of nuclear properties for the few thousands exotic neutron-rich nuclei involved and for which essentially no experimental data exist. The present contribution emphasizes some important future challenges faced by nuclear physics in this problem, particularly in the determination of the nuclear structure properties of exotic neutron-rich nuclei as well as their radiative neutron capture rates and their fission probabilities. These quantities are particularly relevant to determine the composition of the matter resulting from the r-process. Their impact on the r-abundance distribution resulting from the decompression of neutron star matter is discussed.

Goriely, S. [Institut d'Astronomie et d'Astrophysique, Universite Libre de Bruxelles Campus de la Plaine, CP 226, 1050 Brussels (Belgium)

2012-10-20

247

Influence of Model Physics on NWP Forecasts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module describes model parameterizations of sub-surface, boundary-layer,and free atmospheric processes, such as surface snow processes, soil characteristics, vegetation, evapotranspiration, PBL processes and parameterizations, and trace gases, and their interaction with the radiative transfer process. It specifically addresses how models treat these physical processes and how they can influence forecasts of sensible weather elements.

2007-07-17

248

Bioremediation of a weathered and a recently oil-contaminated soils from Brazil: a comparison study.  

PubMed

The facility with which hydrocarbons can be removed from soils varies inversely with aging of soil samples as a result of weathering. Weathering refers to the result of biological, chemical and physical processes that can affect the type of hydrocarbons that remain in a soil. These processes enhance the sorption of hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs) to the soil matrix, decreasing the rate and extent of biodegradation. Additionally, pollutant compounds in high concentrations can more easily affect the microbial population of a recently contaminated soil than in a weathered one, leading to inhibition of the biodegradation process. The present work aimed at comparing the biodegradation efficiencies obtained in a recently oil-contaminated soil (spiked one) from Brazil and an weathered one, contaminated for four years, after the application of bioaugmentation and biostimulation techniques. Both soils were contaminated with 5.4% of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs) and the highest biodegradation efficiency (7.4%) was reached for the weathered contaminated soil. It could be concluded that the low biodegradation efficiencies reached for all conditions tested reflect the treatment difficulty of a weathered soil contaminated with a high crude oil concentration. Moreover, both soils (weathered and recently contaminated) submitted to bioaugmentation and biostimulation techniques presented biodegradation efficiencies approximately twice as higher as the ones without the aforementioned treatment (natural attenuation). PMID:15620743

Trindade, P V O; Sobral, L G; Rizzo, A C L; Leite, S G F; Soriano, A U

2005-01-01

249

Solar physics applications of computer graphics and image processing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Computer graphics devices coupled with computers and carefully developed software provide new opportunities to achieve insight into the geometry and time evolution of scalar, vector, and tensor fields and to extract more information quickly and cheaply from the same image data. Two or more different fields which overlay in space can be calculated from the data (and the physics), then displayed from any perspective, and compared visually. The maximum regions of one field can be compared with the gradients of another. Time changing fields can also be compared. Images can be added, subtracted, transformed, noise filtered, frequency filtered, contrast enhanced, color coded, enlarged, compressed, parameterized, and histogrammed, in whole or section by section. Today it is possible to process multiple digital images to reveal spatial and temporal correlations and cross correlations. Data from different observatories taken at different times can be processed, interpolated, and transformed to a common coordinate system.

Altschuler, M. D.

1985-01-01

250

To Photon Concept and to Physics of Quantum Absorption Process  

E-print Network

The status of the photon in the modern physics was analysed. Within the frames of the Standard Model of particle physics the photon is considered to be the genuine elementary particle, being to be the messenger of the electromagnetic interaction to which are subject charged particles. In contrast, the experts in quantum electodynamics (in particular, in quantum optics) insist, that the description of an photon to be the particle is impossible. The given viewpoint was carefully analysed and its falseness was proved. The expression for a photon wave function is presented. So, the status of the photon in quantum electodynamics was restored. The physics of a quantum absorption process is analysed. It is argued in accordance with Dirac guess, that the photon revival takes place by its absorption. Being to be a soliton, it seems to be keeping safe after an energy absorption in a pinned state, possessing the only by spin. It is shown, that the time of the transfer of absorbing systems in an excited state is finite and moreover, that it can govern the stationary signal registered. The given result is significant for the all stationary spectroscopy, in which at present the transfer of absorbing systems in an excited state is considered to be instantaneous.

Dmitri Yerchuck; Yauhen Yerchak; Alla Dovlatova; Vyacheslav Stelmakh; Felix Borovik

2014-06-03

251

COSMIC GPS Ionospheric Sensing and Space Weather  

Microsoft Academic Search

As our civilization becomes more dependent on space based technologies, we become more vulnerable to conditions in space weather. Accurate space weather specification and forecasting require proper modeling which account for the coupling between the sun, the magnetosphere, the thermosphere, the ionosphere and the mesosphere. In spite of the tremendous advances that have been made in understanding the physics behind

G. A. Hajj; L. C. Lee; X. Pi; L. J. Romans; W. S. Schreiner; P. R. Straus; C. Wang

2000-01-01

252

Framework for Understanding LENR Processes, Using Conventional Condensed Matter Physics  

E-print Network

Conventional Condensed Matter physics provides a unifying framework for understanding Low Energy Nuclear Reactions (LENR’s) in solids. In the paper, standard many-body physics techniques are used to illustrate this fact. Specifically, the paper shows that formally the theories by Schwinger, Hagelstein, and Chubb and Chubb (C&C), all can be related to a common set of equations, associated with reaction rate and energy transfer, through a standard many-body physics procedure (R-Matrix theory). In each case, particular forms of coherence are used that implicitly provide a mechanism for understanding how LENR’s can proceed without the emission of high energy particles. In addition, additional ideas, associated with Conventional Condensed Matter physics, are used to extend the earlier Ion Band State (IBS) model by C&C. The general model clarifies the origin of coherent processes that initiate LENR’s, through the onset of ion conduction that can occur through ionic fluctuations in nanoscale crystals. In the case of PdDx, these fluctuations begin to occur as x?1 in sub-lattice structures with characteristic dimensions of 60 nm. The resulting LENR’s are triggered by the polarization between injected d’s and electrons (immediately above the Fermi energy) that takes place in finite-size PdD crystals. During the prolonged charging of PdDx, the applied, external electric field induces these fluctuations through a form of Zener tunneling that mimics the kind of tunneling, predicted by Zener, that is responsible for possible conduction (referred to as Zener-electric breakdown) in insulators. But because the fluctuations are ionic, and they occur in PdD, nano-scale structures, a more appropriate characterization is Zener-ionic breakdown in nano-crystalline PdD. Using the underlying dynamics, it is possible to relate triggering times that are required for the initiation of the effect, to crystal size and externally applied fields.

Scott R. Chubb

253

Physical anthropology: the search for general processes and principles.  

PubMed

Physical anthropology consists of two interdependent types of study: (1) the biological history of man and (2) general biological processes in man (such as mechanisms of evolution and growth). Popular interest may focus on the former, the fascinating story of the origin of man and of specific people, but the latter affords physical anthropology potential practical value in respect to medicine, dentistry, public health, and population policy. The study of general processes is the study of human beings in particular situations, not for what we can learn about these particular populations but for the sake of generalization about mankind anywhere in comparable situations. This is, of course, the purpose of experimental science in general, but in anthropology the method is usually comparative. Long ago the study of the growth of the two sexes and of children in different countries was started on a comparative basis as was the study of the so-called secular change in adult stature. By 1911 Franz Boas had compared the changes in stature and head form of children of several different immigrant groups in the United States. There have since been comparative studies of the amount and distribution of body fat (but not yet adequate comparative measurements of the relation of tissue components to diet and to diseases). Demographic patterns, inbreeding, outbreeding, and their effects are other general problems. The Human Adaptability Project of the International Biological Program promises studies of human response to heat, cold, altitude, and other conditions on a wide international basis. If supported, these could turn physical anthropology's search in a useful direction. The functional biology of people of even out-of-the-way communities will be compared with each other. These studies can yield general statements concerning human response to types of ecological situation including such sociocultural conditions as those of hunting-gathering tribes and urban slums. PMID:19681215

Lasker, G W

1970-02-01

254

CLARA: A Contemporary Approach to Physics Data Processing  

SciTech Connect

In traditional physics data processing (PDP) systems, data location is static and is accessed by analysis applications. In comparison, CLARA (CLAS12 Reconstruction and Analysis framework) is an environment where data processing algorithms filter continuously flowing data. In CLARA's domain of loosely coupled services, data is not stored, but rather flows from one service to another, mutating constantly along the way. Agents, performing event processing, can then subscribe to particular data/events at any stage of the data transformation, and make intricate decisions (e.g. particle ID) by correlating events from multiple, parallel data streams and/or services. This paper presents a PDP application development framework based on service oriented and event driven architectures. This system allows users to design (Java, C++, and Python languages are supported) and deploy data processing services, as well as dynamically compose PDP applications using available services. The PDP service bus provides a layer on top of a distributed pub-sub middleware implementation, which allows complex service composition and integration without writing code. Examples of service creation and deployment, along with the CLAS12 track reconstruction application design will be presented.

V Gyurjyan, D Abbott, J Carbonneau, G Gilfoyle, D Heddle, G Heyes, S Paul, C Timmer, D Weygand, E Wolin

2011-12-01

255

Physics in Action: Space Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article describes the effects on the earth due to radiation received from the sun via its solar flares. The disturbance in the magnetic field of Earth causes huge radiation storms and can be deadly to communications on Earth as well as astronauts in space. Links to more information are provided.

Society, American P.

2004-04-08

256

Yaquina Bay Weather & Tides  

E-print Network

Yaquina Bay Weather & Tides Clay Creech Phil Barbour #12;HMSC Weather Station #12;Temp-Humidity Sensor at Library #12;http://weather.hmsc.oregonstate.edu #12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;Archived Data is Available every 15 mins. #12;#12;A pyranometer measures solar radiation #12;#12;National Weather Service

Wright, Dawn Jeannine

257

Future Weather Station  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity students build dioramas of futuristic weather stations to demonstrate their knowledge of weather forecasting. They will work in groups to research modern forecasting equipment and techniques, and then build a weather station that will do something we cannot do at present (such as stopping tornadoes). They will present their dioramas and then discuss the pros and cons of controlling the weather.

258

Cracks in desert pavement rocks: Further insights into mechanical weathering by directional insolation  

E-print Network

Cracks in desert pavement rocks: Further insights into mechanical weathering by directional August 2010 Keywords: Desert pavements Physical weathering Desert geomorphology Insolation weathering Fractures The formation of cracks is a fundamental first step in the physical weathering of rocks in desert

Ahmad, Sajjad

259

Australian Severe Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Australian Severe Weather Web site is maintained by self proclaimed severe weather enthusiasts Michael Bath and Jimmy Deguara. Other weatherphobes will fully appreciate what the authors have assembled. Everything from weather images, storm news, tropical cyclone data, bush fire and wild fire information, weather observation techniques, and even video clips and Web cam links. Although these other items make the site well rounded, the extensive amount of categorized weather pictures (which are quite extraordinary) are reason enough to visit.

260

Enhanced Weather Radar (EWxR) System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An airborne weather radar system, the Enhanced Weather Radar (EWxR), with enhanced on-board weather radar data processing was developed and tested. The system features additional weather data that is uplinked from ground-based sources, specialized data processing, and limited automatic radar control to search for hazardous weather. National Weather Service (NWS) ground-based Next Generation Radar (NEXRAD) information is used by the EWxR system to augment the on-board weather radar information. The system will simultaneously display NEXRAD and on-board weather radar information in a split-view format. The on-board weather radar includes an automated or hands-free storm-finding feature that optimizes the radar returns by automatically adjusting the tilt and range settings for the current altitude above the terrain and searches for storm cells near the atmospheric 0-degree isotherm. A rule-based decision aid was developed to automatically characterize cells as hazardous, possibly-hazardous, or non-hazardous based upon attributes of that cell. Cell attributes are determined based on data from the on-board radar and from ground-based radars. A flight path impact prediction algorithm was developed to help pilots to avoid hazardous weather along their flight plan and their mission. During development the system was tested on the NASA B757 aircraft and final tests were conducted on the Rockwell Collins Sabreliner.

Kronfeld, Kevin M. (Technical Monitor)

2003-01-01

261

Process evaluation results from the HEALTHY physical education intervention  

E-print Network

Physical education and physical activity: results from the School Healthhealth policies and practices, indicated that 78% of schools required that students take physical education (Physical Education [18]. Each lesson was struc- tured and included three activity components: instant activities (IAs), health-

2011-01-01

262

Flight Deck Weather Avoidance Decision Support: Implementation and Evaluation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Weather related disruptions account for seventy percent of the delays in the National Airspace System (NAS). A key component in the weather plan of the Next Generation of Air Transportation System (NextGen) is to assimilate observed weather information and probabilistic forecasts into the decision process of flight crews and air traffic controllers. In this research we explore supporting flight crew weather decision making through the development of a flight deck predicted weather display system that utilizes weather predictions generated by ground-based radar. This system integrates and presents this weather information, together with in-flight trajectory modification tools, within a cockpit display of traffic information (CDTI) prototype. that the CDTI features 2D and perspective 3D visualization models of weather. The weather forecast products that we implemented were the Corridor Integrated Weather System (CIWS) and the Convective Weather Avoidance Model (CWAM), both developed by MIT Lincoln Lab. We evaluated the use of CIWS and CWAM for flight deck weather avoidance in two part-task experiments. Experiment 1 compared pilots' en route weather avoidance performance in four weather information conditions that differed in the type and amount of predicted forecast (CIWS current weather only, CIWS current and historical weather, CIWS current and forecast weather, CIWS current and forecast weather and CWAM predictions). Experiment 2 compared the use of perspective 3D and 21/2D presentations of weather for flight deck weather avoidance. Results showed that pilots could take advantage of longer range predicted weather forecasts in performing en route weather avoidance but more research will be needed to determine what combinations of information are optimal and how best to present them.

Wu, Shu-Chieh; Luna, Rocio; Johnson, Walter W.

2013-01-01

263

Weathering, landscape equilibrium, and carbon in four watersheds in eastern Puerto Rico: Chapter H in Water quality and landscape processes of four watersheds in eastern Puerto Rico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey's Water, Energy, and Biogeochemical Budgets (WEBB) program research in eastern Puerto Rico involves a double pair-wise comparison of four montane river basins, two on granitic bedrock and two on fine-grained volcaniclastic bedrock; for each rock type, one is forested and the other is developed. A confounding factor in this comparison is that the developed watersheds are substantially drier than the forested (runoff of 900–1,600 millimeters per year compared with 2,800–3,700 millimeters per year). To reduce the effects of contrasting runoff, the relation between annual runoff and annual constituent yield were used to estimate mean-annual yields at a common, intermediate mean-annual runoff of 1,860 millimeters per year. Upon projection to this intermediate runoff, the ranges of mean-annual yields among all watersheds became more compact or did not substantially change for dissolved bedrock, sodium, silica, chloride, dissolved organic carbon, and calcium. These constituents are the primary indicators of chemical weathering, biological activity on the landscape, and atmospheric inputs; the narrow ranges indicate little preferential influence by either geology or land cover. The projected yields of biologically active constituents (potassium, nitrate, ammonium ion, phosphate), and particulate constituents (suspended bedrock and particulate organic carbon) were considerably greater for developed landscapes compared with forested watersheds, consistent with the known effects of land clearing and human waste inputs. Equilibrium rates of combined chemical and physical weathering were estimated by using a method based on concentrations of silicon and sodium in bedrock, river-borne solids, and river-borne solutes. The observed rates of landscape denudation greatly exceed rates expected for a dynamic equilibrium, except possibly for the forested watershed on volcaniclastic rock. Deforestation and agriculture can explain the accelerated physical erosion in the two developed watersheds. Because there has been no appreciable deforestation, something else, possibly climate or forest-quality change, must explain the accelerated erosion in the forested watersheds on granitic rocks. Particulate organic carbon yields are closely linked to sediment yields. This relation implies that much of the particulate organic carbon transport in the four rivers is being caused by this enhanced erosion aided by landslides and fast carbon recovery. The increase in particulate organic carbon yields over equilibrium is estimated to range from 300 kilomoles per square kilometer per year (6 metric tons carbon per square kilometer per year) to 1,700 kilomoles per square kilometer per year (22 metric tons carbon per square kilometer per year) and is consistent with human-accelerated particulate-organic-carbon erosion and burial observed globally. There is no strong evidence of human perturbation of silicate weathering in the four study watersheds, and differences in dissolved inorganic carbon are consistent with watershed geology. Although dissolved organic carbon is slightly elevated in the developed watersheds, that elevation is not enough to unambiguously demonstrate human causes; more work is needed. Accordingly, the dissolved organic carbon and dissolved inorganic carbon yields of tropical rivers, although large, are of secondary importance in the study of the anthropgenically perturbed carbon cycle.

Stallard, Robert F.

2012-01-01

264

Weather data dissemination to aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Documentation exists that shows weather to be responsible for approximately 40 percent of all general aviation accidents with fatalities. Weather data products available on the ground are becoming more sophisticated and greater in number. Although many of these data are critical to aircraft safety, they currently must be transmitted verbally to the aircraft. This process is labor intensive and provides a low rate of information transfer. Consequently, the pilot is often forced to make life-critical decisions based on incomplete and outdated information. Automated transmission of weather data from the ground to the aircraft can provide the aircrew with accurate data in near-real time. The current National Airspace System Plan calls for such an uplink capability to be provided by the Mode S Beacon System data link. Although this system has a very advanced data link capability, it will not be capable of providing adequate weather data to all airspace users in its planned configuration. This paper delineates some of the important weather data uplink system requirements, and describes a system which is capable of meeting these requirements. The proposed system utilizes a run-length coding technique for image data compression and a hybrid phase and amplitude modulation technique for the transmission of both voice and weather data on existing aeronautical Very High Frequency (VHF) voice communication channels.

Mcfarland, Richard H.; Parker, Craig B.

1990-01-01

265

Weather Camp 2012 "Weather and Climate All Around Us"  

E-print Network

Weather Camp 2012 "Weather and Climate All Around Us" Are you interested in the weather? Come to Weather Camp at UNL What is Weather Camp? For more information Weather camp is a week long day camp for students who will be 11-14 years old at the time of the camp Most of the activities at Weather Camp 2012

Farritor, Shane

266

Earth Observation Services Weather Imaging  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Microprocessor-based systems for processing satellite data offer mariners real-time images of weather systems, day and night, of large areas or allow them to zoom in on a few square miles. Systems West markets these commercial image processing systems, which have significantly decreased the cost of satellite weather stations. The company was assisted by the EOCAP program, which provides government co-funding to encourage private investment in, and to broaden the use of, NASA-developed technology for analyzing information about Earth and ocean resources.

1992-01-01

267

Plasma-based physical vapor deposition surface engineering processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plasma-based physical vapor deposition (PVD) process developments occurring over the past few decades now allow the production of tribological coatings with properties which were previously unachievable. These new coatings will be critical in the creation of new products with improved functionality and performance, which will have a dramatic impact on, for example, their operating efficiency and lifetime. The key pioneers behind these PVD developments are discussed here, together with some significant process innovations. The latter include ionization-enhancing systems, such as thermionic assistance and arc evaporation, as well as unbalanced magnetron sputtering and magnetic plasma confinement. These developments have provided the impetus behind the recent growth in the technology field which we now know as surface engineering, and the recognition that surfaces provide the functionality and durability for almost all engineered products. Vacuum plasma technologies can thus be regarded as critical, not only for functional devices and thin film applications (for which their importance was previously most recognized), but also for structural product applications; they will thus underpin the entire spectrum of manufacturing industry.

Matthews, Allan

2003-09-01

268

A graphical weather system design for the NASA transport systems research vehicle B-737  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A graphical weather system was designed for testing in the NASA Transport Systems Research Vehicle B-737 airplane and simulator. The purpose of these tests was to measure the impact of graphical weather products on aircrew decision processes, weather situation awareness, reroute clearances, workload, and weather monitoring. The flight crew graphical weather interface is described along with integration of the weather system with the flight navigation system, and data link transmission methods for sending weather data to the airplane.

Scanlon, Charles H.

1992-01-01

269

Evidence of Space Weathering in Regolith Breccias II: Asteroidal Regolith Breccias  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space weathering products, such as agglutinates and nanophaase iron-bearing rims are easily preserved through lithifcation in lunar regolith breccias, thus such products, if produced, should be preserved in asteroidal regotith breccias as well. A study of representative regolith breecia meteorites, Fayetteville (H4) and Kapoeta (howardite), was undertaken to search for physical evidence of space weathering on asteroids. Amorphous or npFe(sup 0)-bearing rim cannot be positively identified in Fayetteville, although possible glass rims were found. Extensive friction melt was discovered in the meteorite that is difficult to differentiate from weathered materials. Several melt products, including spherules and agglutinates, as well as one irradiated rim and one possible npFe(sup 0)-bearing rim were identified in Kapoeta. The existence of these products suggests that lunar-like space weathering processes are, or have been, active on asteroids.

Noble, Sarah K.; Keller, Lindsay P.; Pieters, Carle M.

2011-01-01

270

Pilot weather advisor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of the work performed by ViGYAN, Inc., to demonstrate the Pilot Weather Advisor cockpit weather data system using a broadcast satellite communication system are presented. The Pilot Weather Advisor demonstrated that the technical problems involved with transmitting significant amount of weather data to an aircraft in-flight or on-the-ground via satellite are solvable with today's technology. The Pilot Weather Advisor appears to be a viable solution for providing accurate and timely weather information for general aviation aircraft.

Kilgore, W. A.; Seth, S.; Crabill, N. L.; Shipley, S. T.; Graffman, I.; Oneill, J.

1992-01-01

271

The Weather Man  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This project is designed to let you be "The Weather Man" and control the weather through simulation, and hands on experience, followed by guided questioning and resource exploration. Form groups of three. Explore the following simulation: Weather Maker Simulator Use the simulation to answer the following questions on paper. 1. How does humility play a role in weather? How does more or less change weather? 2. What is water vapor? Where does it come from? 3. What happens when the weather drops below zero degrees? ...

Grasser, Mrs. E.

2012-09-27

272

Dear Applicant: The process for applying to the Physical Therapist Assistant (PTA) Program at Southern Illinois  

E-print Network

2015 Dear Applicant: The process for applying to the Physical Therapist Assistant (PTA) Program with a Physical Therapist or Physical Therapist Assistant d. Submit all college transcripts. e. If fewer than 26 2-step TB test PROGRAM.APP\\PTA APPLICATION 8/14 (1) #12;2015 Physical Therapist Assistant Southern

Nickrent, Daniel L.

273

The Process of Physics Teaching Assistants' Pedagogical Content Knowledge Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explored the process of physics teaching assistants' (TAs) PCK development in the context of teaching a new undergraduate introductory physics course. "Matter and Interactions" (M&I) has recently adopted a new introductory physics course that focuses on the application of a small number of fundamental physical

Seung, Eulsun

2013-01-01

274

SENSITIVITY OF THE SOUND SPEED TO THE PHYSICAL PROCESSES INCLUDED IN THE STANDARD SOLAR MODEL  

E-print Network

1 SENSITIVITY OF THE SOUND SPEED TO THE PHYSICAL PROCESSES INCLUDED IN THE STANDARD SOLAR MODEL S the results of the different models. Key words: solar models; physical processes; sound speed; solar neutrinos in the energy­generating core; and 3) the sensitivity of the solar sound­speed profile to the physical

Brun, Allan Sacha

275

Teaching Weather and the Seasons in the Lower Elementary Grades: The Weather Calendar and Monthly Weather Graph.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a teaching technique that develops concepts of weather and seasons through the use of a weather calendar and graph. Suggests daily and monthly activities for the first-, second-, and third-grade curriculum. Concludes that this technique helps students develop a foundation of essential geography skills and processes. (KO)

Johnson, Peter C.

1989-01-01

276

Understanding Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson plan is part of the DiscoverySchool.com lesson plan library for grades 6-8. It focuses on the naturally-occurring greenhouse effect on Earth, and its connection to global warming. Students build model greenhouses to see how this process works. Included are objectives, materials, procedures, discussion questions, evaluation ideas, suggested readings, and vocabulary. There are videos available to order which complement this lesson, an audio-enhanced vocabulary list, and links to teaching tools for making custom quizzes, worksheets, puzzles and lesson plans.

277

Precipitation and the dimensional transition from weather to low frequency weather  

E-print Network

Precipitation and the dimensional transition from weather to low frequency weather Lovejoy, Shaun McGill University, Physics department 3600 University st. Montreal, H3A 2T8 Canada Lovejoy. Introduction " " Lovejoy Schertzer 2010 ­ ­ Lovejoy Schertzer 2011 " " " " " " 2

Lovejoy, Shaun

278

Weather Camp 2012: Weather and Climate All Around Us Are you interested in the weather?  

E-print Network

Weather Camp 2012: Weather and Climate All Around Us Are you interested in the weather? Come to Weather Camp at UNL! What is Weather Camp? For more information Weather camp is a week-long day camp for students who will be 11-14 years old at the time of the camp. Most of the activities at Weather Camp 2012

Farritor, Shane

279

Seasonal changes in physical processes controlling evaporation over inland water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

previous studies have shown the distinct characteristics of water surface energy fluxes in different seasons, much less analysis is conducted about how seasonal changes in physical processes and environmental variables in the atmospheric surface layer (ASL) cause variations in flux exchange. Here we analyzed and compared eddy covariance fluxes of sensible heat (H) and latent heat (LE) and other microclimate variables that were measured over a large inland water surface in the winter season (January, February, and March) and the summer season (June, July, and August) of 2008. Our analysis was primarily focused on LE using half-hour time series data on a short-term basis. Our results show that an increase in wind speeds (U) or vapor pressure difference in the ASL (?e) or ASL instability did not necessarily cause an increase in LE, and the opposite changes in LE with changes in these variables were observed. Relative regulations of LE by different environmental variables depended largely on ?e magnitudes. Under low ?e conditions, diurnal LE variations were not sensitive to changes in ?e and U but were controlled primarily by changes in the ASL stability. Under high ?e conditions, diurnal LE variations were mainly determined by changes in ?e, though alternate controls by U and ?e were observed, whereas ASL stability played minor roles in affecting LE variations. Whether these highly nonlinear responses of LE to environmental variables are adequately reflected in the bulk transfer relations requires further studies.

Zhang, Qianyu; Liu, Heping

2014-08-01

280

Introduction to statistical physics of media processes: Mediaphysics  

E-print Network

Processes of mass communications in complicated social or sociobiological systems such as marketing, economics, politics, animal populations, etc. as a subject for the special scientific discipline - "mediaphysics" - are considered in its relation with sociophysics. A new statistical physics approach to analyze these phenomena is proposed. A keystone of the approach is an analysis of population distribution between two or many alternatives: brands, political affiliations, or opinions. Relative distances between a state of a "person's mind" and the alternatives are measures of propensity to buy (to affiliate, or to have a certain opinion). The distribution of population by those relative distances is time dependent and affected by external (economic, social, marketing, natural) and internal (mean-field influential propagation of opinions, synergy effects, etc.) factors, considered as fields. Specifically, the interaction and opinion-influence field can be generalized to incorporate important elements of Ising-spin based sociophysical models and kinetic-equation ones. The distributions were described by a Schrodinger-type equation in terms of Green's functions. The developed approach has been applied to a real mass-media efficiency problem for a large company and generally demonstrated very good results despite low initial correlations of factors and the target variable.

Dmitri V. Kuznetsov; Igor Mandel

2005-06-30

281

Controls on chemical weathering kinetics: Implications from modelling of stable isotope fractionations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The kinetic controls on silicate chemical weathering rates are thought central to the feedback process that regulates global climate on geological time scales. However the nature and magnitude of these kinetic controls are controversial. In particular the importance of physical erosion rates is uncertain with some arguing that there is an upper limit on chemical weathering fluxes irrespective of physical erosion rates (e.g. Dixon and von Blackenburg, 2012). Others argue that it is the hydrology of catchments which determines flow path lengths and fluid residence times which are critical to chemical weathering fluxes (e.g. Maher, 2011). Understanding these physical controls is essential to predicting how chemical weathering fluxes will respond the key climatic controls. Chemical weathering fluxes are best estimated by the integrated riverine outputs from catchments as soil profiles may not integrate all the flow paths. However the interpretation of chemical weathering processes based solely on flux data is difficult, because of both the multiple processes acting and multiple phases dissolving that contribute to these fluxes. Fractionations of stable isotopes of the soluble elements including Li, Mg, Si and Ca should place additional constraints on chemical weathering processes. Here we use a simple reactive-transport model to interpret stable isotope fractionations. Although still a simplification of the natural system, this offers a much closer representation than simple batch and Rayleigh models. The isotopic fractionations are shown to be a function of the ratio of the amount of the element supplied by mineral dissolution to that lost to secondary mineral formation and the extent of reaction down the flow path. The modelling is used to interpret the evolution of dissolved Li, Mg and Si-isotope ratios in Ganges river system. The evolution of Si isotopic ratios in the rapidly eroding Himalayan catchments is distinct from that in the flood planes. Critically the extent of the isotopic fractionations is a measure of the approach of the system to chemical equilibrium, a key indicator of the temperature sensitivity of the chemical weathering rate and hence important to understanding the climate-weathering feedback. Dixon JL, & von Blanckenburg, F, (2012) Soils as pacemakers and limiters of global silicate weathering. Comptes Rendus Geoscience, 344:597-609. Maher, K (2011) The role of fluid residence time and topographic scales in determining chemical fluxes from landscapes. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 312:48-58.

Bickle, M. J.; Tipper, E.; De La Rocha, C. L.; Galy, A.; Li, S.

2013-12-01

282

Owlie Skywarn's Weather Book  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an online activity book from the National Weather Service that teaches about hazardous weather. The site also includes links to kids sites for the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Agency (NOAA).

Cris Garcia

2001-06-22

283

Stormfax Weather Services  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site offers links to a variety of weather information, including national, international and local weather maps and forecasts, satellite and radar imagery, and severe weather warnings. There are also links to diverse resources such as fire maps, glacier inventories, snow depths, storm surges and tropical storms. There are reports and advisories about El Nino and La Nina. The site also has a glossary of weather terms and conversion charts for temperature, wind speed and atmospheric pressure.

2002-06-10

284

Web Weather for Kids  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This set of resources for younger students includes activities and information on thunderstorms, tornadoes, hurricanes, blizzards and clouds: how they form, and how they impact our lives. There are games about clouds, stories about extreme weather events, and a set of activities in which students create simulations of various weather phenomena such as fog, clouds, tornadoes, and others. The 'Recipe for Weather' segment provides an overview of four atmospheric properties (temperature, pressure, volume, and density) which drive most weather phenomena.

285

The problems of solar-terrestrial coupling and new processes introduced to the physics of the ionosphere from the physics of atomic collisions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Further progress in research of solar-terrestrial coupling requires better understanding of solar variability influence on the ionosphere. The most powerful manifestations of solar variability are solar flares and geomagnetic storms. During a flare EUV/X-ray irradiations are completely absorbed in the ionosphere producing SID. During geomagnetic storms precipitations of electrons with energy of several keV (and to a lesser extent protons precipitations) from radiation belts and geomagnetosphere produce additional ionization and low latitude auroras. Considering the physics of ionosphere during the last several decades we have been taking into account three novel processes well known in the physics of atomic collisions. These are Auger effect [S. V. Avakyan, The consideration of Auger processes in the upper atmosphere of Earth. In Abstracts of paper presented at the Tenth scien. and techn. Conf. of young specialists of S.I. Vavilov State Optical Institute, 1974, 29-31.], multiple photoionization of upper, valence shell [S.V. Avakyan, The source of O++ ions in the upper atmosphere, 1979, Cosmic Res, 17, 942 - 943] and Rydberg excitation of all the components of upper atmosphere [S.V. Avakyan, The new factor in the physics of solar - terrestrial relations - Rydberg atomic and molecules states. Conf. on Physics of solar-terrestrial relationships, 1994, Almaty, 3 - 5]. In the present paper the results of bringing these new processes in the ionospheric physics are discussed and also its possible role in the physics of solar-terrestrial coupling is considered. Involving these processes to the model estimations allowed us for the first time to come to the following important conclusions: - Auger electrons play the determinant role at the formation of energy spectrum of photoelectrons and secondary auroral electrons at the range above 150 eV; - double photoionization of the outer shell of the oxygen atom (by a single photon) plays a dominant role in the formation of ionospheric doubly charged positive ions, and Auger effect mainly determines the formation of double- and triple charged ions in the low ionosphere of planets and also comets; - transitions in the Rydberg excited ionospheric atoms and molecules play the main role in generation of new type of upper atmospheric emission - microwave characteristic radiation. The ionospheric O++ ions fill the magnetosphere after geomagnetic storms. These ions scatter the solar radiation in one of the most intense lines with a wavelength of 30.4 nm (He+) and also in the 50.7-, 70.3-, 83.3-83.5-nm lines in geocorona to the nocturnal side, giving rise to additional ionization and optical excitation in the F-region. The first calculations of the excitation rate of Rydberg states by photoelectrons and by auroral electrons (including Auger electrons) were carried out. It was shown that such process can generate the microwave ionospheric radioemission. Such emissions were observed during solar flares and in auroras. We suggest that Rydberg microwave radioemissions which take place during ionospheric disturbances produced by the solar flares and geomagnetic storms can be considered as an agent of influence of solar-geomagnetic activity on the biosphere and also as a factor of Sun-weather-climate links All these results obtained experimental confirmation in space investigations and in some ground-based measurements carried out with radiophysical and optical methods. The new processes which we introduced to the physics of upper atmosphere and ionosphere are now widely used in the ionospheric science for interpretation of spacecraft measurement data (the spacecrafts ISIS, GEOS-1, IMAGE, the satellites DE-1,-B, EXOS-D (AKEBOHO), FAST, Intercosmos-19, -24, -25, the orbital stations "Salut", "Mir"). There is a Russian patent on the method of remote registration of radioactive atmospheric clouds and nuclear weapon tests over the atmosphere by means of optical fluorescence which is based on Auger processes.

Avakyan, Sergei

2010-05-01

286

Asteroids: Does Space Weathering Matter?  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The interpretive calibrations and methodologies used to extract mineralogy from asteroidal spectra appear to remain valid until the space weathering process is advanced to a degree which appears to be rare or absent on asteroid surfaces. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

Gaffey, Michael J.

2001-01-01

287

Winter Weather Introduction  

E-print Network

Winter Weather Management #12;Introduction · Campus Facilities Staff · Other Campus Organizations #12;Purpose · Organize and coordinate the campus response to winter weather events to maintain campus for use by 7 AM. · Response will be modified depending upon forecast and current weather conditions. #12

Taylor, Jerry

288

Aviation weather services  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The primary responsibilities of the National Weather Service (NWS) are to: provide warnings of severe weather and flooding for the protection of life and property; provide public forecasts for land and adjacent ocean areas for planning and operation; and provide weather support for: production of food and fiber; management of water resources; production, distribution and use of energy; and efficient and safe air operations.

Sprinkle, C. H.

1983-01-01

289

Weather Fundamentals: Meteorology. [Videotape].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The videos in this educational series, for grades 4-7, help students understand the science behind weather phenomena through dramatic live-action footage, vivid animated graphics, detailed weather maps, and hands-on experiments. This episode (23 minutes) looks at how meteorologists gather and interpret current weather data collected from sources…

1998

290

Severe Weather Perceptions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Severe weather is an element of nature that cannot be controlled. Therefore, it is important that the general public be aware of severe weather and know how to react quickly and appropriately in a weather emergency. This study, done in the community surrounding the Southern Illinois University at Carbondale, was conducted to compile and analyze…

Abrams, Karol

291

Climate and Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video discusses the differences between climate and weather by defining and presenting examples of each. When presenting examples of weather, the video focuses on severe events and how meteorologists predict and study the weather using measurement, satellites, and radar. The climate focus is primarily on an overview of climate zones.

Geographic, National

292

Hot Weather Tips  

MedlinePLUS

... Form - A A + A You are here Home HOT Weather Tips Printer-friendly version We all suffer in hot weather. However, for elderly and disabled people and ... stress and following these tips for dealing with hot weather. Wear cool clothing: See that the person ...

293

Weather Maps in Motion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students learn to interpret current weather maps. They will observe weather map loop animations on the internet, learn the concept of Zulu time (Universal Time Coordinated, UTC) and visualize the movement of fronts and air masses. They will then analyze a specific weather station model, generate a meteogram from their observations, and answer a set of questions about their observations.

Charles Burrows

294

From Physical to Human Capital Accumulation: Inequality in the Process of Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper develops a growth theory that captures the replacement of physical capital ac- cumulation by human capital accumulation as a prime engine of growth along the process of development. It argues that the positive impact of inequality on the growth process was reversed in this process. In early stages of the Industrial Revolution, when physical capital accumula- tion was

Oded Galor; Omer Moav

2000-01-01

295

From Physical to Human Capital Accumulation: Inequality and the Process of Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper develops a growth theory that captures the replacement of physical capital accumulation by human capital accumulation as a prime engine of growth along the process of development. It argues that the positive impact of inequality on the growth process was reversed in this process. In early stages of the Industrial Revolution, when physical capital accumulation was the prime

Oded Galor; Omer Moav

2004-01-01

296

External Resource: Weathering and Erosion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity includes background information about weathering, as well as simple demonstrations/activities to model how weather conditions contribute to weathering and erosion. Topics include: chemical weathering, dunes, erosion, floods, glaciers, physi

1900-01-01

297

Weather affects us  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

2nd grade weather unit. The students will learn how weather affects us in our daily lives Read and view the video on meteorologists Kid Meteorologist Learn about clouds - watch S'cool Clouds All About Clouds Do scholastic: weather watch and game Weather Read winter storms Interactive Weather Web Pages Read a reason for the season A Reason for the Season Read about precipitation Precipitation Read and view video on flooding Flood: Farming and Erosion Read about air pressure It's a Breeze: How Air Pressure Affects You Read about Hurricanes Hurricanes Do the activities and read ...

Kimmy

2009-11-09

298

Current and future challenges in space weather science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main objective of the space weather science is to provide a scientific basis for reliable space weather forecasting. The importance of space weather forecasting is increasing as our society is becoming more and more dependent on advanced technologies that may be affected by adverse space weather conditions. Space weather forecasting is still a difficult task and requires specific observational inputs that are reviewed in this presentation, with an emphasis on solar and interplanetary weather. A list of key observations that are essential for real-time operational space weather forecasting is established. Further on, the use of observational data to produce reliable predictions requires development of empirical and statistical methods, as well as physical models. Scientific basis of space weather forecasting is briefly described. Several important problems are emphasized, and possible ways of improving our predictive capabilities are discussed, including possible novel space observations to be made in future.

Zhukov, Andrei

299

Space Weathering in the Mercurian Environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space weathering processes are known to be important on the Moon. These processes both create the lunar regolith and alter its optical properties. Like the Moon, Mercury has no atmosphere to protect it from the harsh space environment and therefore it is expected that it will also incur the effects of space weathering. However, there are many important differences between the environments of Mercury and the Moon. These environmental differences will almost certainly affect the weathering processes and the products of those processes. It should be possible to observe the effects of these differences in Vis (visible)/NIR (near infrared) spectra of the type expected to be returned by MESSENGER. More importantly, understanding these weathering processes and their consequences is essential for evaluating the spectral data returned from MESSENGER and other missions in order to determine the mineralogy and the Fe content of the Mercurian surface. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

Noble, S. K.; Pieters, C. M.

2001-01-01

300

Differences in the Processes of Solving Physics Problems Between Good Physics Problem Solvers and Poor Physics Problem Solvers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Good problem solvers and poor problem solvers in advanced physics (N=8) had significantly different levels of ability in translating, planning, and physical reasoning, as well as in problem solving speed; no differences in reliance on algebraic solutions and checking problems were noted. Implications for physics teaching are discussed.

Finegold, Menahem; Mass, R.

2006-05-16

301

Beyond the Weather Chart: Weathering New Experiences.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an early childhood educator's approach to teaching children about rain, rainbows, clouds, precipitation, the sun, air, and wind. Recommends ways to organize study topics and describes experiments that can help children better understand the different elements of weather. (MOK)

Huffman, Amy Bruno

1996-01-01

302

Severe Weather 101: Winter Weather Basics  

MedlinePLUS

... Educators For Students For Everyone Severe Weather 101 Thunderstorms Basics Types Detection Forecasting FAQ Tornadoes Basics Types ... moisture. What we do: NSSL researchers studied winter thunderstorms and found that there is some evidence that ...

303

National Weather Service- Severe Weather Awareness  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website provides access to information designed to protect and prepare individuals from severe weather. Materials presented here include forecasts for aviation and marine interests and the general public, maps, statistical data, educational materials, publications, and links to related sites.

304

Natural Weathering Rates of Silicate Minerals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Silicates constitute more than 90% of the rocks exposed at Earth's land surface (Garrels and Mackenzie, 1971). Most primary minerals comprising these rocks are thermodynamically unstable at surface pressure/temperature conditions and are therefore susceptible to chemical weathering. Such weathering has long been of interest in the natural sciences. Hartt (1853) correctly attributed chemical weathering to "the efficacy of water containing carbonic acid in promoting the decomposition of igneous rocks." Antecedent to the recent interest in the role of vegetation on chemical weathering, Belt (1874) observed that the most intense weathering of rocks in tropical Nicaragua was confined to forested regions. He attributed this effect to "the percolation through rocks of rain water charged with a little acid from decomposing vegetation." Chamberlin (1899) proposed that the enhanced rates of chemical weathering associated with major mountain building episodes in Earth's history resulted in a drawdown of atmospheric CO2 that led to periods of global cooling. Many of the major characteristics of chemical weathering had been described when Merrill (1906) published the groundbreaking volume Rocks, Rock Weathering, and Soils.The major advances since that time, particularly during the last several decades, have centered on understanding the fundamental chemical, hydrologic, and biologic processes that control weathering and in establishing quantitative weathering rates. This research has been driven by the importance of chemical weathering to a number environmentally and economically important issues. Undoubtedly, the most significant aspect of chemical weathering is the breakdown of rocks to form soils, a process that makes life possible on the surface of the Earth. The availability of many soil macronutrients such as magnesium, calcium, potassium, and PO4 is directly related to the rate at which primary minerals weather. Often such nutrient balances are upset by anthropogenic activities. For example, Huntington et al. (2000) show that extensive timber harvesting in the southeastern forests of the United States, which are underlain by intensely weathered saprolites, produces net calcium exports that exceed inputs from weathering, thus creating a long-term regional problem in forest management.The role of chemical weathering has long been recognized in economic geology. Tropical bauxites, which account for most of world's aluminum ores, are typical examples of residual concentration of silicate rocks by chemical weathering over long time periods (Samma, 1986). Weathering of ultramafic silicates such as peridotites forms residual lateritic deposits that contain significant deposits of nickel and cobalt. Ores generated by chemical mobilization include uranium deposits that are produced by weathering of granitic rocks under oxic conditions and subsequent concentration by sorption and precipitation ( Misra, 2000).Over the last several decades, estimating rates of silicate weathering has become important in addressing new environmental issues. Acidification of soils, rivers, and lakes has become a major concern in many parts of North America and Europe. Areas at particular risk are uplands where silicate bedrock, resistant to chemical weathering, is overlain by thin organic-rich soils (Driscoll et al., 1989). Although atmospheric deposition is the most important factor in watershed acidification, land use practices, such as conifer reforestation, also create acidification problems ( Farley and Werritty, 1989). In such environments, silicate hydrolysis reactions are the principal buffer against acidification. As pointed out by Drever and Clow (1995), a reasonable environmental objective is to decrease the inputs of acidity such that they are equal to or less than the rate of neutralization by weathering in sensitive watersheds.The intensive interest in past and present global climate change has renewed efforts to understand quantitatively feedback mechanisms between climate and chemical weathering. On timescales longer than

White, A. F.

2003-12-01

305

Exploratory Observations of Physical Processes in the upper Sulu Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Sulu Sea extends roughly 600 km in all directions, is up to 5 km deep, and is connected to the Pacific Ocean, but only via surrounding seas through several straits of varying width and depth. The Dipolog Strait between the Philippine islands of Mindanao and Negros connects the Sulu to the Bohol Sea. Straits between the islands of Panay, Palawan and Borneo connect the Sulu to the South China Sea. Straits between Borneo and Mindanao connect the Sulu to the Sulawesi Sea. External interactions with the Sulu Sea include strait currents, monsoon wind stress, tides and internal waves propagating into the sea from the perimeter. Mooring observations indicate large intraseasonal signals in currents through the Dipolog Strait and the Cuyo East Passage, west of Panay. Known impacts on the Sulu thus have timescales ranging from a day to a year. Currents through the boundary straits reverse direction with depth and so have a complex interaction with the Sulu Sea. To explore physical processes in the Sulu Sea, four in situ surveys were conducted between June 2007 and March 2009 during the Philippines Straits Dynamics Experiment (PhilEx). Observations collected include current from hull-mounted Doppler sonar and temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen and fluorescence from station casts and underway surface measurements. Horizontal shear dominates the surface current pattern. The shear’s horizontal scales are small compared to the Sulu Sea’s dimensions. The surface water also has significant density fronts at scales similar to the horizontal shear. This horizontal structure is described by viewing observed properties on maps and as a function of along-track position. Horizontal structure is quantified by computing basic statistics along-track and through spectral and wavelet analysis. A topic investigated is the relative role of boundary strait current variability and wind forcing in generating the observed horizontal shear and density fronts. When currents directed into the Sulu are stronger, more energy could be available for eddies in the sea and these eddies could have sizes related to strait dimensions. Sulu Sea water is traced to sources in boundary straits. One example is relatively warm and fresh surface water which appears to come from the Balabac Strait between Palawan and Borneo. A broader horizontal picture of the Sulu Sea is established by using remote sensing and numerical model output.

Martin, J. P.; Gordon, A. L.

2010-12-01

306

Phytoplankton distributions across the Texas-Louisiana shelf in relation to coastal physical processes  

E-print Network

The relationships between phytoplankton pigment distributions and coastal physical processes were investigated as part of the Texas-Louisiana Shelf Circulation and Transport Processes Study (LATEX A). Surface to bottom water samples were obtained...

Neuhard, Carrie Ann

2012-06-07

307

Dissolution of Olivine, Siderite, and Basalt at 80 Deg C in 0.1 M H2SO4 in a Flow Through Process: Insights into Acidic Weathering on Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The occurrence of jarosite, other sulfates (e.g., Mg-and Ca-sulfates), and hematite along with silicic-lastic materials in outcrops of sedimentary materials at Meridiani Planum (MP) and detection of silica rich deposits in Gusev crater, Mars, are strong indicators of local acidic aqueous processes [1,2,3,4,5]. The formation of sediments at Meridiani Planum may have involved the evaporation of fluids derived from acid weathering of Martian basalts and subsequent diagenesis [6,7]. Also, our previous work on acid weathering of basaltic materials in a closed hydro-thermal system was focused on the mineralogy of the acid weathering products including the formation of jarosite and gray hematite spherules [8,9,10]. The object of this re-search is to extend our earlier qualitative work on acidic weathering of rocks to determine acidic dissolution rates of Mars analog basaltic materials at 80 C using a flow-thru reactor. We also characterized residual phases, including poorly crystalline or amorphous phases and precipitates, that remained after the treatments of olivine, siderite, and basalt which represent likely MP source rocks. This study is a stepping stone for a future simulation of the formation of MP rocks under a range of T and P.

Golden, D. C.; Ming, D. W.; Hausrath, E. M.; Morris, R. V.; Niles, P. B.; Achilles, C. N.; Ross, D. K.; Cooper, B. L.; Gonzalex, C. P.; Mertzman, S. A.

2012-01-01

308

Comprehensive study of the weathered condition of welded tuff from a historic stone bridge in Kagoshima, Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with the problematic weathering of a 150 year old historic stone bridge made of welded tuff. The weathered condition of the structurally important arch stone from the bridge is studied comprehensively by physical, chemical, and mechanical methods. As a result of this study, a physical weathering degree index (PWD), a chemical weathering degree index (CWD) and related

T. Esaki; K. Jiang

2000-01-01

309

Comprehensive study of the weathered condition of welded tuff from a historic stone bridge in Kagoshima, Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with the problematic weathering of a 150year old historic stone bridge made of welded tuff. The weathered condition of the structurally important arch stone from the bridge is studied comprehensively by physical, chemical, and mechanical methods. As a result of this study, a physical weathering degree index (PWD), a chemical weathering degree index (CWD) and related experimental

T. Esaki; K. Jiang

2000-01-01

310

Electrochemical Acceleration of Chemical Weathering as an  

E-print Network

ocean acidification. Applicationofthistechnologymayinvolveneutralizingthealkaline solution the atmosphere that involves enhancing the solubility of CO2 in the ocean by a process equivalent to the natural silicate weathering reaction. HCl is electrochemically removed from the ocean and neutralized through

Schrag, Daniel

311

NOAA Daily Weather Maps  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The charts on this website are the principal charts of the former Weather Bureau publication, "Daily Weather Map." They are the Surface Weather Map, the 500-Millibar Height Contours chart, the Highest and Lowest Temperatures chart, and the Precipitation Areas and Amounts chart. For each day, simple charts are arranged on a single page. These charts are the surface analysis of pressure and fronts, color shading, in ten degree intervals,of maximum and minimum temperature, 500-Millibar height contours, and color shaded 24-hour total precipitation. These charts act as links to their respective Daily Weather Map charts. All charts are derived from the operational weather maps prepared at the National Centers for Environmental Prediction, Hydrometeorological Prediction Center, National Weather Service.

Hydrometeorological Prediction Center

2011-01-01

312

Physical processes of quartz amorphization due to friction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solid state amorphization of minerals occurs in indentations, in shock experiments, and in high pressure metamorphic quartz rock. A production of amorphous material is also reported in experimentally created silicate gouges (Yund et al., 1990), and in San Andreas Fault core samples (Janssen et al., 2010). Rotary-shear friction experiments of quartz rocks imply dynamic weakening at seismic rates (Di Toro et al., 2004). These experiments have suggested that weakening is caused by formation and thixotropic behavior of a silica gel layer which comprises of very fine particles of hydrated amorphous silica on fault gouges (Goldsby & Tullis, 2002; Hayashi & Tsutsumi, 2010). Therefore, physical processes of amorphization are important to better understand weakening of quartz bearing rocks. In this study, we conducted a pin-on-disk friction experiment to investigate details of quartz amorphization (Muto et al, 2007). Disks were made of single crystals of synthetic and Brazilian quartz. The normal load F and sliding velocity V were ranged from 0.01 N to 1 N and from 0.01 m/s to 2.6 m/s, respectively. The friction was conducted using quartz and diamond pins (curvature radii of 0.2 ~ 3 mm) to large displacements (> 1000 m) under controlled atmosphere. We analyzed experiment samples by Raman spectroscopy and FT-IR. Raman spectroscopy (excitation wavelength 532.1 nm) provides lattice vibration modes, and was used to investigate the degree of amorphization of samples. Raman spectra of friction tracks on the disk show clear bands at wavenumbers of 126, 204, 356, 394, and 464 cm-1, characteristic of intact ?-quartz. Remarkably, in experiments using diamond pins (F = 0.8 N, normal stress ?r calculated by contact area = 293 ~ 440 MPa, V = 0.12 ~ 0.23 m/s), the bands at 204 and 464 cm-1 gradually broaden to reveal shoulders on the higher-wavenumber sides of these peaks. Especially, two distinguished peaks at 490 and 515 cm-1 and a weak broad peak at 606 cm-1 appear sporadically on the track after the slip distance of 43 m. The bands at 490 and 606 cm-1 can be assigned to the symmetric stretching of four-membered Si-O ring (D1 band) and planar three-membered Si-O ring (D2 band) in amorphous silica, respectively. The peak at 515 cm-1 corresponds to the strongest coesite A1 mode arising from four-membered Si-O ring structure. On the other hand, the bands at 464 cm-1 broaden to reveal a shoulder adjacent to the main peak in experiments using quartz pins (F = 1 N, ?r = 1 MPa, V = 0.01 ~ 2.6 m/s) after a large displacement (>1000m). These results indicate that quartz change intermediate range structure of SiO2 network during friction, and four or three-membered Si-O rings gradually increase in six-membered quartz. The results of FT-IR analyses on friction tracks showed a broad peak at 3000 -3600 cm-1 which indicates the -OH symmetric stretching band of molecular H2O. It shows that hydration of quartz on friction tracks occur due to friction. The results of Raman spectroscopy and FT-IR imply that Si-O-Si bridging of strained rings preferentially react with water to form hydrated amorphous silica layer on friction surfaces, which is likely to occur weakening.

Nakamura, Y.; Muto, J.; Nagahama, H.; Miura, T.; Arakawa, I.; Shimizu, I.

2011-12-01

313

Backyard Weather Stations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learn how to build your own backyard weather station with complete directions provided by FamilyEducation.com's Web site, Backyard Weather Stations. The site shows exactly what you'll need and how to build the necessary components (e.g., rain gauge and barometer), as well as how to keep records of the data collected. Parents and teachers will enjoy watching the kids "learn the basics of scientific observation and record-keeping while satisfying their natural curiosity about weather."

Randall, Dennis.

314

Winter weather activity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This project explores factors that help create severe winter weather. An interactive simulation provides hands-on experience, followed by guiding questions and resource exploration. Weather Maker Simulator Use the weather simulation above to answer the following questions in complete sentences on paper. 1. In general, when are winds formed? 2. When winds are blowing, how can you get them to stop? 3. What usually happens when there is a large difference between the temperatures? 4. What happens when there is high ...

Frankovic, Whitney

2009-09-28

315

Weather Radar Fundamentals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This 2-hour module presents the fundamental principles of Doppler weather radar operation and how to interpret common weather phenomena using radar imagery. This is accomplished via conceptual animations and many interactive radar examples in which the user can practice interpreting both radar reflectivity and radar velocity imagery. Although intended as an accelerated introduction to understanding and using basic Doppler weather radar products, the module can also serve as an excellent refresher for more experienced users.

COMET

2012-03-21

316

Everything Weather- Archived Data  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Users can obtain current weather forecasts for their own areas by entering a ZIP code, or they can access a large archive of historic data on severe weather (tornadoes, hail, high winds, hurricanes). Materials presented in the archive include dates, times, and intensities of storms, a photo gallery, maps, radar and other satellite data, storm chaser reports, and links to other weather sites. Raw data can be found in several forms for teachers wishing to have unprocessed data to work with.

2001-01-01

317

National Weather Service  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sick and tired of the heat? Feel like it will never end? Then check out the National Weather Service's (NWS) Heat Wave, a site devoted to the extreme weather that is crippling the south. The NWS provides information on the heat index, heat's affect on the body, and how to beat the heat. For those who want an up-to-the-minute look at the weather, the site links to current conditions, forecasts, and watches and warnings.

318

s-process nucleosynthesis-nuclear physics and the classical model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among the various processes responsible for the formation of the heavy elements in stars, the slow neutron capture process (s-process) is distinguished by the fact that it involves mostly stable isotopes. Therefore, the relevant nuclear physics data can be determined by experiments. With this rather reliable data basis, s-process nucleosynthesis offers an important testground of models for the late stages

F. Kappeler; H. Beer; K. Wisshak

1989-01-01

319

Study of physical processes related to fisheries oceanography  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the audience or readers to deepen understanding of fisheries oceanography, especially physical fisheries oceanography, this lecture reviews my research work, including clues, failures and management problems encountered during the course of my studies. The contents of this lecture are: (1) introduction, (2) hydrographical feature in and around the Perturbed Area between the Kuroshio and Oyashio Fronts and its fluctuation,

Hideo KawaiT

1987-01-01

320

Dusty Plasmas: Physics, Chemistry and Technological Impacts in Plasma Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

A book on the physics and chemistry of dusty plasmas is very welcome. This book, which is much more than collected works in workshop or conference proceedings, proposes a synthesis of current knowledge published in the different fields of dusty plasmas. It is divided into four chapters of nearly equal length, each of them dealing with an important aspect of

J Pelletier

2000-01-01

321

Evaluation of artificially-weathered standard fuel oil toxicity by marine invertebrate embryogenesis bioassays.  

PubMed

wWeathering of petroleum spilled in the marine environment may not only change its physical and chemical properties but also its effects on the marine ecosystem. The objective of this study was to evaluate the toxicity of the water-accommodated fraction (WAF) obtained from a standard fuel oil following an environmentally realistic simulated weathering process for a period of 80 d. Experimental flasks with 40 g L(-1) of fuel oil were incubated at 18°C with a 14 h light:10 h dark photoperiod and a photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) intensity of 70 ?E m(-2) s(-1). Samples were taken at four weathering periods: 24 h, 7, 21 and 80 d. WAF toxicity was tested using the sea urchin (Paracentrotus lividus) and mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis) embryo-larval bioassays and the aromatic hydrocarbons levels (AH) in the WAF were measured by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. In contrast with the classic assumption of toxicity decrease with oil weathering, the present study shows a progressive increase in WAF toxicity with weathering, being the EC(50) after 80d eightfold lower than the EC(50) at day 1, whereas AH concentration slightly decreased. In the long term, inoculation of WAF with bacteria from a hydrocarbon chronically-polluted harbor slightly reduced toxicity. The differences in toxicity between fresh and weathered fuels could not be explained on the basis of the total AH content and the formation of oxidized derivatives is suggested to explain this toxicity increase. PMID:23022168

Bellas, Juan; Saco-Álvarez, Liliana; Nieto, Óscar; Bayona, Josep María; Albaigés, Joan; Beiras, Ricardo

2013-01-01

322

Winter Storm (weather)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This project explores factors that help create severe winter weather. An interactive simulation provides hands-on experience, followed by guiding questions and resource exploration. First think about these questions: 1. What is your favorite aspect of winter weather? 2. How does the weather effect your everyday life? Form groups of THREE. Explore the following simulation: Weather Maker Simulator Use the simulation to answer the following questions on paper... 1. In general, when are winds formed? 2. When winds are blowing, how can you ...

Miller, Aubree

2009-09-28

323

Pilot Weather Advisor System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Pilot Weather Advisor (PWA) system is an automated satellite radio-broadcasting system that provides nearly real-time weather data to pilots of aircraft in flight anywhere in the continental United States. The system was designed to enhance safety in two distinct ways: First, the automated receipt of information would relieve the pilot of the time-consuming and distracting task of obtaining weather information via voice communication with ground stations. Second, the presentation of the information would be centered around a map format, thereby making the spatial and temporal relationships in the surrounding weather situation much easier to understand

Lindamood, Glenn; Martzaklis, Konstantinos Gus; Hoffler, Keith; Hill, Damon; Mehrotra, Sudhir C.; White, E. Richard; Fisher, Bruce D.; Crabill, Norman L.; Tucholski, Allen D.

2006-01-01

324

Weather: You Like It or Not - Learning about the Importance of and Flaws in Weather Prediction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students explore the importance of weather prediction and learn about some of the flaws inherent in the process. By researching specific storm types, they are able to prepare and deliver their own weather reports. The material includes links to additional information and resources.

Rachel McClain Klein

2001-03-07

325

Weathering: methods and techniques to measure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surface recession takes place when weathered material is removed from the rocks. In order to know how fast does weathering and erosion occur, a review of several methods, analyses and destructive and non-destructive techniques to measure weathering of rocks caused by physico-chemical changes that occur in bedrocks due to salt crystallization, freezing-thaw, thermal shock, influence of water, wind, temperature or any type of environmental agent leading to weathering processes and development of soils, in-situ in the field or through experimental works in the laboratory are addressed. From micro-scale to macro-scale, from the surface down to more in depth, several case studies on in-situ monitoring of quantification of decay on soils and rocks from natural landscapes (mountains, cliffs, caves, etc) or from urban environment (foundations or facades of buildings, retaining walls, etc) or laboratory experimental works, such as artificial accelerated ageing tests (a.a.e.e.) or durability tests -in which one or more than one weathering agents are selected to assess the material behaviour in time and in a cyclic way- performed on specimens of these materials are summarised. Discoloration, structural alteration, precipitation of weathering products (mass transfer), and surface recession (mass loss) are all products of weathering processes. Destructive (SEM-EDX, optical microscopy, mercury intrusion porosimetry, drilling resistance measurement, flexural and compression strength) and Non-destructive (spectrophotocolorimetry, 3D optical surface roughness, Schmidt hammer rebound tester, ultrasound velocity propagation, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance NMR, X ray computed micro-tomography or CT-scan, geo-radar differential global positioning systems) techniques and characterization analyses (e.g. water absorption, permeability, open porosity or porosity accessible to water) to assess their morphological, physico-chemical, mechanical and hydric weathering; consolidation products or methods to stop or to slow down their weathering or durability and stability of soils and rocks are also topics where the methods and techniques deal with the quantification of weathering. Cultural stone weathering studies contribute substantially to the knowledge of weathering rates revealing the importance of specific weathering agents and weathering factors.

Lopez-Arce, P.; Zornoza-Indart, A.; Alvarez de Buergo, M.; Fort, R.

2012-04-01

326

Effect of degree of weathering on dynamic properties of residual soils  

SciTech Connect

The process of soil formation in the tropics is quite different than that of more temperate regions. The weathering processes tend to be intensified by the warm and humid climates that are prevalent in tropical regions. Chemical weathering processes that dominate in these regions, such as decomposition and dissolution, are fairly well understood phenomena. However, the effect this weathering has on the physical, mechanical, and dynamic properties of the rock/soil is not fully understood. This paper presents some laboratory test results and correlations that indicate behavioral trends to be caused by the effects that weathering has on a residual soil from the western coast of Puerto Rico. The study focuses on the dynamic shear modulus G and material damping ratio D of both natural (undisturbed) and remolded samples, for low- to mid-level amplitudes of vibration. The understanding of these effects will allow for a better prediction of phenomena such as soil amplification that may trigger landslides in such soil formations. This study was accomplished with the aid of a computerized resonant column device. Correlations and empirical formulations are presented that demonstrate the effects that the degree of weathering has on the dynamic properties of these residual soils for undisturbed and remolded samples.

Macari, E.J.; Loyos, L. Jr. [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)] [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

1996-12-01

327

Health physics monitoring at the Defense Waste Processing Facility  

SciTech Connect

Remote radiation monitoring has been designed into the Vitrification portion of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site in South Carolina. Local alarms and remote readings are provided for area radiation levels, door alarms, airborne radioactivity, effluent air activity and liquid (process system) activity.

Hogue, M.G.; Priester, H.P.

1994-06-01

328

Studies of Fe/sup 2 +/. -->. Fe/sup 3 +/ transitions during the process of rock weathering by nuclear gamma-resonance spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents a method for the mineral and weathering assessment of rocks and carbonaceous matter based in gamma spectroscopy and transitions between iron ions. The method is applied to rocks collected near the Teberda preserve. Four latitudinal bands of rocks parallel to the Greater Caucasus Ridge are identified in this territory. Isomer shift and hyperfine parameters of the Moessbauer spectra are given.

Vasil'ev, S.P.; Babanin, V.F.; Solov'ev, A.A.

1986-11-01

329

Dimension of physical systems, information processing, and thermodynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We ask how quantum theory compares to more general physical theories from the point of view of dimension. To do so, we first give two model-independent definitions of the dimension of physical systems, based on measurements and the capacity of storing information. While both definitions are equivalent in classical and quantum mechanics, they are different in generalized probabilistic theories. We discuss in detail the case of a theory known as ‘boxworld’, and show that such a theory features systems with dimension mismatch. This dimension mismatch can be made arbitrarily large using an amplification procedure. Furthermore, we show that the dimension mismatch of boxworld has strong consequences on its power for performing information-theoretic tasks, leading to the collapse of communication complexity and to the violation of information causality. Finally, we discuss the consequences of a dimension mismatch from the perspective of thermodynamics, and ask whether this effect could break Landauer?s erasure principle and thus the second law.

Brunner, Nicolas; Kaplan, Marc; Leverrier, Anthony; Skrzypczyk, Paul

2014-12-01

330

Reviews Book: Marie Curie and Her Daughters Resource: Cumulus Equipment: Alpha Particle Scattering Apparatus Equipment: 3D Magnetic Tube Equipment: National Grid Transmission Model Book: Einstein's Physics Equipment: Barton's Pendulums Equipment: Weather Station Web Watch  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

WE RECOMMEND Marie Curie and Her Daughters An insightful study of a resilient and ingenious family and their achievements Cumulus Simple to install and operate and with obvious teaching applications, this weather station 'donationware' is as easy to recommend as it is to use Alpha Particle Scattering Apparatus Good design and construction make for good results National Grid Transmission Model Despite its expense, this resource offers excellent value Einstein's Physics A vivid, accurate, compelling and rigorous treatment, but requiring an investment of time and thought WORTH A LOOK 3D Magnetic Tube Magnetic fields in three dimensions at a low cost Barton's Pendulums A neat, well-made and handy variant, but not a replacement for the more traditional version Weather Station Though not as robust or substantial as hoped for, this can be put to good use with the right software WEB WATCH An online experiment and worksheet are useful for teaching motor efficiency, a glance at CERN, and NASA's interesting information on the alpha-magnetic spectrometer and climate change

2013-09-01

331

Weather and emotional state  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Introduction Given the proven effects of weather on the human organism, an attempt to examine its effects on a psychic and emotional level has been made. Emotions affect the bio-tonus, working ability and concentration, hence their significance in various domains of economic life, such as health care, education, transportation, tourism, etc. Data and methods The research has been made in Sofia City within a period of 8 months, using 5 psychological methods (Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Test for Self-assessment of the emotional state (developed by Wessman and Ricks), Test for evaluation of moods and Test "Self-confidence - Activity - Mood" (developed by the specialists from the Military Academy in Saint Petersburg). The Fiodorov-Chubukov's complex-climatic method was used to characterize meteorological conditions because of the purpose to include in the analysis a maximal number of meteorological elements. 16 weather types are defined in dependence of the meteorological elements values according to this method. Abrupt weather changes from one day to another, defined by the same method, were considered as well. Results and discussions The results obtained by t-test show that the different categories of weather lead to changes in the emotional status, which indicates a character either positive or negative for the organism. The abrupt weather changes, according to expectations, have negative effect on human emotions but only when a transition to the cloudy weather or weather type, classified as "unfavourable" has been realized. The relationship between weather and human emotions is rather complicated since it depends on individual characteristics of people. One of these individual psychological characteristics, marked by the dimension "neuroticism", has a strong effect on emotional reactions in different weather conditions. Emotionally stable individuals are more "protected" to the weather influence on their emotions, while those who are emotionally unstable have a stronger dependence to the impacts of the weather.

Spasova, Z.

2010-09-01

332

Growing Up Fast: Stress Exposure and Subjective "Weathering" in Emerging Adulthood  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We examine "subjective weathering" among females entering adulthood, using three waves of a national study. Subjective weathering is a social psychological component of aging that is associated with "physical weathering" previously observed in research on physical health. We examine the influence of stressors from childhood and adolescence on…

Foster, Holly; Hagan, John; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

2008-01-01

333

Time delayed processes in physics, biophysics and archaeology  

E-print Network

The motion of particles, where the particles: electrons, ions in microtubules or migrated peoples can be described as the superposition of diffusion and ordered waves. In this paper it is shown that the master equation for transport processes can be formulated as the time delayed hyperbolic partial equation. The equation describes the processes with memory. For characteristic times shorter than the relaxation time the master equation is the generalized Klein - Gordon equation. Key words: hyperbolic transport, microtubules, heat waves, Neolithic migration

Magdalena Anna Pelc

2007-05-31

334

What Is Space Weather?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource provides a brief overview of the phenomenon known as space weather, which happens when energetic particles emitted by the Sun impact the Earth's magnetosphere. Users can view images, video clips, and animations of auroras and other types of space weather. A set of links to related websites is also provided.

335

People and Weather.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides: (1) background information on ways weather influences human lives; (2) activities related to this topic; and (3) a ready-to-copy page with weather trivia. Each activity includes an objective, list of materials needed, recommended age level(s), subject area(s), and instructional strategies. (JN)

NatureScope, 1985

1985-01-01

336

Mild and Wild Weather.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents background information and six activities that focus on clouds, precipitation, and stormy weather. Each activity includes an objective, recommended age level(s), subject area(s), and instructional strategies. Also provided are two ready-to-copy pages (a coloring page on lightning and a list of weather riddles to solve). (JN)

NatureScope, 1985

1985-01-01

337

Sedimentary Rocks and Weathering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site contains 42 questions on the topic of sedimentary rocks and weathering including clast sizes, depositional environments, and products of weathering. This is part of the Principles of Earth Science course at the University of South Dakota. Users select an answer and are provided immediate feedback.

Heaton, Timothy

338

Designing a Weather Station  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The collection and analysis of weather data is crucial to the location of alternate energy systems like solar and wind. This article presents a design challenge that gives students a chance to design a weather station to collect data in advance of a large wind turbine installation. Data analysis is a crucial part of any science or engineering…

Roman, Harry T.

2012-01-01

339

Weather Fundamentals: Wind. [Videotape].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The videos in this educational series, for grades 4-7, help students understand the science behind weather phenomena through dramatic live-action footage, vivid animated graphics, detailed weather maps, and hands-on experiments. This episode (23 minutes) describes the roles of the sun, temperature, and air pressure in creating the incredible power…

1998

340

Weather Fundamentals: Clouds. [Videotape].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The videos in this educational series, for grades 4-7, help students understand the science behind weather phenomena through dramatic live-action footage, vivid animated graphics, detailed weather maps, and hands-on experiments. This episode (23 minutes) discusses how clouds form, the different types of clouds, and the important role they play in…

1998

341

Uncertain weather, uncertain climate  

E-print Network

of the Speckled Band" "Good-morning, madam," said Holmes cheerily. "My name is Sherlock Holmes. #12;222b Baker sit on the left-hand side of the driver." #12;Holmes' calculation D. Nychka Uncertain weather Maximize over vehicle #12;D. Nychka Uncertain weather, uncertain climate 8 Holmes' conclusion ­ the highest

Nychka, Douglas

342

Solar and Space Physics PhD Production and Job Availability: Implications for the Future of the Space Weather Research Workforce  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To assess the state-of-health of the field of Solar and Space Physics an analysis of the number of Ph.D.s produced and number of Job Postings each year was done for the decade 2001-2010. To determine the number of Ph.D's produced in the field, the University of Michigan Ph.D. Dissertation Archive (Proquest) was queried for Solar and Space Physics dissertations produced in North America. The field generated about 30 Ph.D. per year from 2001 to 2006, but then saw the number increase to 50 to 70 per year for the rest of the decade. Only 14 institutions account for the majority of Solar and Space Physics PhDs. To estimate the number of jobs available each year in the field, a compilation of the job advertisements listed in the American Astronomical Society's Solar Physics Division (SPD) and the American Geophysical Union's Space Physics and Aeronomy (SPA) electronic newsletters was done. The positions were sorted into four types (Faculty, Post-doctoral Researcher, and Scientist/Researcher or Staff), institution type (academic, government lab, or industry) and if the position was located inside or outside the United States. Overall worldwide, 943 Solar and Space Physics positions were advertised over the decade. Of this total, 52% were for positions outside the US. Within Solar Physics, 44% of the positions were in the US, while in Space Physics 57% of the positions were for US institutions. The annual average for positions in the US were 26.9 for Solar Physics and 31.5 for Space Physics though there is much variability year-to-year particularly in Solar Physics positions outside the US. A disconcerting trend is a decline in job advertisements in the last two years for Solar Physics positions and between 2009 and 2010 for Space Physics positions. For both communities within the US in 2010, the total job ads reached their lowest levels in the decade (14), approximately half the decadal average number of job advertisements.

Moldwin, M.; Morrow, C. A.; Moldwin, L. A.; Torrence, J.

2012-12-01

343

Procedure for Packing Weather Files for DOE-2e  

E-print Network

................................................................................................................................................. 7 1. OVERVIEW ..................................................................................................................................... 7 2. PROCESS OF PACKING WEATHER DATA FOR DOE-2e SIMULATION ............................... 8 2....1. ORIGINAL DATA ................................................................................................................... 8 2.2. GAPS...

Kim, K. H.; Baltazar-Cervantes, J. C.

344

Highlights of Space Weather Services/Capabilities at NASA/GSFC Space Weather Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The importance of space weather has been recognized world-wide. Our society depends increasingly on technological infrastructure, including the power grid as well as satellites used for communication and navigation. Such technologies, however, are vulnerable to space weather effects caused by the Sun's variability. NASA GSFC's Space Weather Center (SWC) (http://science.gsfc.nasa.gov//674/swx services/swx services.html) has developed space weather products/capabilities/services that not only respond to NASA's needs but also address broader interests by leveraging the latest scientific research results and state-of-the-art models hosted at the Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMC: http://ccmc.gsfc.nasa.gov). By combining forefront space weather science and models, employing an innovative and configurable dissemination system (iSWA.gsfc.nasa.gov), taking advantage of scientific expertise both in-house and from the broader community as well as fostering and actively participating in multilateral collaborations both nationally and internationally, NASA/GSFC space weather Center, as a sibling organization to CCMC, is poised to address NASA's space weather needs (and needs of various partners) and to help enhancing space weather forecasting capabilities collaboratively. With a large number of state-of-the-art physics-based models running in real-time covering the whole space weather domain, it offers predictive capabilities and a comprehensive view of space weather events throughout the solar system. In this paper, we will provide some highlights of our service products/capabilities. In particular, we will take the 23 January and the 27 January space weather events as examples to illustrate how we can use the iSWA system to track them in the interplanetary space and forecast their impacts.

Fok, Mei-Ching; Zheng, Yihua; Hesse, Michael; Kuznetsova, Maria; Pulkkinen, Antti; Taktakishvili, Aleksandre; Mays, Leila; Chulaki, Anna; Lee, Hyesook

2012-01-01

345

A Model for Formation of Dust, Soil and Rock Coatings on Mars: Physical and Chemical Processes on the Martian Surface  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This model is one of many possible scenarios to explain the generation of the current surface material on Mars using chemical, magnetic and spectroscopic data From Mars and geologic analogs from terrestrial sites. One basic premise of this model is that the dust/soil units are not derived exclusively from local rocks, but are rather a product of global, and possibly remote, weathering processes. Another assumption in this model is that there are physical and chemical interactions of the atmospheric dust particles and that these two processes create distinctly different results on the surface. Physical processes distribute dust particles on rocks and drift units, forming physically-aggregated layers; these are reversible processes. Chemical reactions of the dust/soil particles create alteration rinds on rock surfaces and cohesive, crusted surface units between rocks, both of which are relatively permanent materials. According to this model the dominant components of the dust/soil particles are derived from alteration of volcanic ash and tephra, and contain primarily nanophase and poorly crystalline ferric oxides/oxyhydroxide phases as well as silicates. These phases are the alteration products that formed in a low moisture environment. These dust/soil particles also contain a smaller amount of material that was exposed to more water and contains crystalline ferric oxides/oxyhydroxides, sulfates and clay silicates. These components could have formed through hydrothermal alteration at steam vents or fumeroles, thermal fluids, or through evaporite deposits. Wet/dry cycling experiments are presented here on mixtures containing poorly crystalline and crystalline ferric oxides/oxyhydroxides, sulfates and silicates that range in size from nanophase to 1-2 pm diameter particles. Cemented products of these soil mixtures are formed in these experiments and variation in the surface texture was observed for samples containing smectites, non-hydrated silicates or sulfates. Reflectance spectra were measured of the initial particulate mixtures, the cemented products and ground versions of the cemented material. The spectral contrast in the visible/near-infrared and mid-infrared regions is significantly reduced for the cemented material compared to the initial soil, and somewhat reduced for the ground, cemented soil compared to the initial soil. The results of this study suggest that diurnal and seasonal cycling on Mars will have a profound effect on the texture and spectral properties of the dust/soil particles on the surface. The model developed in this study provides an explanation for the generation of cemented or crusted soil units and rock coatings on Mars and may explain albedo variations on the surface observed near large rocks or crater rims.

Bishop, Janice; Murchie, Scott L.; Pieters, Carle M.; Zent, Aaron P.

2001-01-01

346

Process dominance shift in solute chemistry as revealed by long-term high-frequency water chemistry observations of groundwater flowing through weathered argillite underlying a steep forested hillslope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Significant solute flux from the weathered bedrock zone - which underlies soils and saprolite - has been suggested by many studies. However, controlling processes for the hydrochemistry dynamics in this zone are poorly understood. This work reports the first results from a four-year (2009-2012) high-frequency (1-3 day) monitoring of major solutes (Ca, Mg, Na, K and Si) in the perched, dynamic groundwater in a 4000 m2 zero-order basin located at the Angelo Coast Range Reserve, Northern California. Groundwater samples were autonomously collected at three wells (downslope, mid-slope, and upslope) aligned with the axis of the drainage. Rain and throughfall samples, profiles of well headspace pCO2, vertical profiles and time series of groundwater temperature, and contemporaneous data from an extensive hydrologic and climate sensor network provided the framework for data analysis. All runoff at this soil-mantled site occurs by vertical unsaturated flow through a 5-25 m thick weathered argillite and then by lateral flows to the adjacent channel as groundwater perched over fresher bedrock. Driven by strongly seasonal rainfall, over each of the four years of observations, the hydrochemistry of the groundwater at each well repeats an annual cycle, which can be explained by two end-member processes. The first end-member process, which dominates during the winter high-flow season in mid- and upslope areas, is CO2 enhanced cation exchange reaction in the vadose zone in the more shallow conductive weathered bedrock. This process rapidly increases the cation concentrations of the infiltrated rainwater, which is responsible for the lowest cation concentration of groundwater. The second-end member process occurs in the deeper perched groundwater and either dominates year-round (at the downslope well) or becomes progressively dominant during low flow season at the two upper slope wells. This process is the equilibrium reaction with minerals such as calcite and clay minerals, but not with primary minerals, suggesting the critical role of the residence time of the water. Collectively, our measurements reveal that the hydrochemistry dynamics of the groundwater in the weathered bedrock zone is governed by two end-member processes whose dominance varies with critical zone structure, the relative importance of vadose versus groundwater zone processes, and thus with the seasonal variation of the chemistry of recharge and runoff.

Kim, Hyojin; Bishop, James K. B.; Dietrich, William E.; Fung, Inez Y.

2014-09-01

347

2007 Weather and Aeolian Sand-Transport Data from the Colorado River Corridor, Grand Canyon, Arizona  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Weather data constitute an integral part of ecosystem monitoring in the Colorado River corridor and are particularly valuable for understanding processes of landscape change that contribute to the stability of archeological sites. Data collected in 2007 are reported from nine weather stations in the Colorado River corridor through Grand Canyon, Ariz. The stations were deployed in February and March 2007 to measure wind speed and direction, rainfall, air temperature, relative humidity, and barometric pressure. Sand traps near each weather station collect windblown sand, from which daily aeolian sand-transport rates are calculated. The data reported here were collected as part of an ongoing study to test and evaluate methods for quantifying processes that affect the physical integrity of archeological sites along the river corridor; as such, these data can be used to identify rainfall events capable of causing gully incision and to predict likely transport pathways for aeolian sand, two landscape processes integral to the preservation of archeological sites. Weather data also have widespread applications to other studies of physical, cultural, and biological resources in Grand Canyon. Aeolian sand-transport data reported here, collected in the year before the March 2008 High-Flow Experiment (HFE) at Glen Canyon Dam, represent baseline data against which the effects of the 2008 HFE on windblown sand will be compared in future reports.

Draut, Amy E.; Andrews, Timothy; Fairley, Helen C.; Brown, Christopher R.

2009-01-01

348

Perceptual and processing differences between physical and dichorhinic odor mixtures.  

PubMed

Perceptual integration of sensory input from our two nostrils has received little attention in comparison to lateralized inputs for vision and hearing. Here, we investigated whether a binary odor mixture of eugenol and l-carvone (smells of cloves and caraway) would be perceived differently if presented as a mixture in one nostril (physical mixture), vs. the same two odorants in separate nostrils (dichorhinic mixture). In parallel, we investigated whether the different types of presentation resulted in differences in olfactory event-related potentials (OERP). Psychophysical ratings showed that the dichorhinic mixtures were perceived as more intense than the physical mixtures. A tendency for shift in perceived quality was also observed. In line with these perceptual changes, the OERP showed a shift in latencies and amplitudes for early (more "sensory") peaks P1 and N1 whereas no significant differences were observed for the later (more "cognitive") peak P2. The results altogether suggest that the peripheral level is a site of interaction between odorants. Both psychophysical ratings and, for the first time, electrophysiological measurements converge on this conclusion. PMID:24240030

Schütze, M; Negoias, S; Olsson, M J; Hummel, T

2014-01-31

349

Predicting the Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Topic in Depth explores the science behind predicting the weather. First, the United States Search and Rescue Task Force describe the basic tools and knowledge used to create weather forecasts (1). Students can find concise, clear explanations of weather, fronts and air masses, high and low pressure, precipitation, and water vapor and humidity as well. By performing the activities presented in the second website, fourth grade students can learn about weather instruments and data collection (2). This website, produced by the Government of Saskatchewan, also explores how the weather can impact local communities. Third, Edheads offers a Macromedia Flash Player enhanced interactive module allowing students to predict the weather by examining weather maps (3 ). Through this website, users can become familiar with the concepts of warm and cold fronts, wind direction and speed, air pressure, and humidity. The fourth website, supplied by Annenberg / CPB, discusses weather satellites, Doppler radar, and additional tools forecasters use to predict the weather (4). Students can find a wind chill calculator along with a brief discussion of the history of forecasting and weather lore. Next, NOAA provides graphics for five forecast models: the ETA, the Global Forecast System (GFS), the Wave Watch III (WW3), the Nested Grid model (NGM), and the Rapid Update Cycle (RUC) (5). Outputs are available for North America, North Pacific, Western North Atlantic, and the Polar Ice Drift. Users can find links to detailed descriptions of the inputs and history of each model. Sixth, the British government's Met Office describes numerical modeling and its components (6). Students and educators can learn about the future in forecasting as well as educational opportunities with the Cooperative Program for Meteorology, Education, and Training (COMET).

350

A Model of the Creative Process Based on Quantum Physics and Vedic Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using tenets from Vedic science and quantum physics, this model of the creative process suggests that the unified field of creation is pure consciousness, and that the development of the creative process within individuals mirrors the creative process within the universe. Rational and supra-rational creative thinking techniques are also described.…

Rose, Laura Hall

1988-01-01

351

Physical Review Letters (at press) Edge-mediated dislocation processes in carbon nano-onions?  

E-print Network

Physical Review Letters (at press) Edge-mediated dislocation processes in carbon nano-onions? E processes in individual nanometer-sized carbon onions. Essential for these processes is the counter] in nested multi-shell car- bon onions [5, 6], a complex system that was not consid- ered before

Dumitrica,Traian

352

Environmental Education Tips: Weather Activities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides weather activities including questions, on weather, heating the earth's surface, air, tools of the meteorologist, clouds, humidity, wind, and evaporation. Shows an example of a weather chart activity. (RT)

Brainard, Audrey H.

1989-01-01

353

A Analysis of the Development of Weather Concepts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Weather information in all forms is poorly understood and often misinterpreted by the general public. Weather literacy is necessary for everyone if critical weather messages, designed to save lives and protect property, are to be effective. The purpose of this study was to seek content and causal evidence for a developmental concept of Weather Information Processing that was consistent with Piagetian Cognitive Stages of Development. Three ordinal Content Stages Of Weather Information Processing (phenomena, process and mechanism) and three ordinal Causal Explanation Stages Of Weather Information Processing (non-real, natural, and scientifically valid abstract ideas) were explored for their relationship with Piaget's Pre-Operational, Concrete and Formal Stages of Development. One hundred and fifty -five elementary and secondary school students from two school districts were administered a written Piagetian exam. Commonly available television weather programs were categorized, randomly assigned and viewed by 42 randomly selected students who were administered three Piagetian tasks. Students were clinically interviewed for the level of content information and causal explanations (reasoning). Results indicated that content information and causal reasoning of students to televised weather information is significantly related (p <.01) to age, and Piagetian Cognitive Stages of Development. Two Piagetian logic operations (seriation and correlation) were established as significantly different (p <.05) when related to age. These findings support a developmental concept of Weather Information Processing and have implications for teaching and presenting weather information to the public.

Mroz, Paul John

354

Space Weather, Environment and Societies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our planet exists within a space environment affected by constantly changing solar atmosphere producing cosmic particles and electromagnetic waves. This "space weather" profoundly influences the performance of our technology because we primarily use two means for transmitting information and energy; namely, electromagnetic waves and electricity. On an everyday basis, we have developed methods to cope with the normal conditions. However, the sun remains a fiery star whose 'angry' outbursts can potentially destroy spacecrafts, kill astronauts, melt electricity transformers, stop trains, and generally wreak havoc with human activities. Space Weather is the developing field within astronomy that aims at predicting the sun's violent activity and minimizing the impacts on our daily lives. Space Weather, Environment, and Societies explains why our technological societies are so dependent on solar activity and how the Sun disturbs the transmission of information and energy. Footnotes expand specific points and the appendices facilitate a more thorough command of the physics involved. Link: http://www.springer.com/sgw/cda/frontpage/0,11855,5-102-22-90815733-0,00.html?changeHeader=true

Lilensten, Jean; Bornarel, Jean

2005-12-01

355

Health Issues and Space Weather  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The possibility that solar activity and variations in the Earth's magnetic field may affect human health has been debated for many decades but is still a "scientific topic" in its infancy. By learning whether and, if so, how much the Earth's space weather can influence the daily health of people will be of practical importance. Knowing whether human genetics, include regulating factors that take into account fluctuations of the Earth's magnetic field and solar disturbances, indeed exist will also benefit future interplanetary space travelers. Because the atmospheres on other planets are different from ours, as well as their interaction with the space environment, one may ask whether we are equipped with the genetics necessary to take this variability into account. The goal of this presentation is to define what is meant by space weather as a health risk and identify the long-term socio-economic effects on society that such health risks would have. Identifying the physical links between space weather sources and different effects on human health, as well as the parameters (direct and indirect) to be monitored, the potential for such a cross-disciplinary study will be invaluable, for scientists and medical doctors, as well as for engineers.

Crosby, N.

2009-04-01

356

Relativity Based on Physical Processes Rather Than Space-Time  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Physicists' understanding of relativity and the way it is handled is at present dominated by the interpretation of Albert Einstein, who related relativity to specific properties of space and time. The principal alternative to Einstein's interpretation is based on a concept proposed by Hendrik A. Lorentz, which uses knowledge of classical physics to explain relativistic phenomena. In this paper, we will show that on the one hand the Lorentz-based interpretation provides a simpler mathematical way of arriving at the known results for both Special and General Relativity. On the other hand, it is able to solve problems which have remained open to this day. Furthermore, a particle model will be presented, based on Lorentzian relativity, which explains the origin of mass without the use of the Higgs mechanism, based on the finiteness of the speed of light, and which provides the classical results for particle properties that are currently only accessible through quantum mechanics.

Giese, Albrecht

2013-09-01

357

Weather based risks and insurances for crop production in Belgium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Extreme weather events such as late frosts, droughts, heat waves and rain storms can have devastating effects on cropping systems. Damages due to extreme events are strongly dependent on crop type, crop stage, soil type and soil conditions. The perspective of rising risk-exposure is exacerbated further by limited aid received for agricultural damage, an overall reduction of direct income support to farmers and projected intensification of weather extremes with climate change. According to both the agriculture and finance sectors, a risk assessment of extreme weather events and their impact on cropping systems is needed. The impact of extreme weather events particularly during the sensitive periods of the farming calendar requires a modelling approach to capture the mixture of non-linear interactions between the crop, its environment and the occurrence of the meteorological event. The risk of soil moisture deficit increases towards harvesting, such that drought stress occurs in spring and summer. Conversely, waterlogging occurs mostly during early spring and autumn. Risks of temperature stress appear during winter and spring for chilling and during summer for heat. Since crop development is driven by thermal time and photoperiod, the regional crop model REGCROP (Gobin, 2010) enabled to examine the likely frequency, magnitude and impacts of frost, drought, heat stress and waterlogging in relation to the cropping season and crop sensitive stages. The risk profiles were subsequently confronted with yields, yield losses and insurance claims for different crops. Physically based crop models such as REGCROP assist in understanding the links between different factors causing crop damage as demonstrated for cropping systems in Belgium. Extreme weather events have already precipitated contraction of insurance coverage in some markets (e.g. hail insurance), and the process can be expected to continue if the losses or damages from such events increase in the future. Climate change will stress this further and impacts on crop growth are expected to be twofold, owing to the sensitive stages occurring earlier during the growing season and to the changes in return period of extreme weather events. Though average yields have risen continuously due to technological advances, there is no evidence that relative tolerance to adverse weather events has improved. The research is funded by the Belgian Science Policy Organisation (Belspo) under contract nr SD/RI/03A.

Gobin, Anne

2014-05-01

358

Applying user-centered design process to non-physical designs in Malaysia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interface Design (ID) involves the design of everyday products in tangible (physical) and non-tangible (non-physical) aspects. This paper addresses an applied user-centered product development process for non-physical interface designs. As a case, this paper reports on a user-centered design (UCD) model applied by interface designers in an institution of higher learning in Malaysia. This UCD model has been practised by

Anthony Man Leong Wong; Chee Weng Khong

2011-01-01

359

Removing Weather Effects from Monochrome Images Srinivasa G. Narasimhan and Shree K. Nayar  

E-print Network

Removing Weather Effects from Monochrome Images Srinivasa G. Narasimhan and Shree K. Nayar}@cs.columbia.edu Abstract Images of outdoor scenes captured in bad weather suffer from poor contrast. Under bad weather space invariant image processing techniques are not sufficient to remove weather effects from images

Treuille, Adrien

360

Cosmochemical implications of the physical processing of cometary nuclei  

SciTech Connect

Comets are not necessarily pristine nebular and interstellar material, despite a common perception to that effect. Alteration processes may occur during comet formation in the outer planet region, during their dispersal to or residence within the Oort cloud, and after their return to the planetary region. Processes that may have significantly modified cometary nuclei include heating, impacts, and irradiation. Possible consequences include phase changes in ices, hydration reactions in silicates, synthesis of organic compounds, collisional disruption and re-accretion, shock and irradiation effects in minerals and ices, cosmogenic nuclide formation, redistribution or loss of volatiles, and formation of a refractory veneer. A model of cometary nuclei that emerges from these considerations provides a framework for understanding observations of comets and future samples.

McSween, H.Y. Jr. (Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville (USA)); Weissman, P.R. (Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA (USA))

1989-12-01

361

Control of physical properties on solid surface via laser processing  

SciTech Connect

In a safety operation of a nuclear power plant, vapor conditions such as a droplet or liquid membrane toward a solid surface of a heat exchanger and reactor vessel is important. In the present study, focusing on the droplet, the wettability on solid surface and surface free energy of solid are evaluated. In addition, wettability on a metal plate fabricated by laser processing is also considered for the nuclear engineering application.

Yonemoto, Yukihiro; Nishimura, Akihiko [Applied Laser Technology Institute, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 65-20 Kizaki, Tsuruga, Fukui (Japan)

2012-07-11

362

Applications of the First Law to Ecological Systems. Physical Processes in Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecosystems, Thermodynamics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These materials were designed to be used by life science students for instruction in the application of physical theory to ecosystem operation. Most modules contain computer programs which are built around a particular application of a physical process. This report describes concepts presented in another module called "The First Law of…

Stevenson, R. D.

363

Physical Basement for SuperHigh Speed Processing Spatially-Modulated Field Signals  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the physical basis of the superfast VLSI components for processing spatially modulated electromagnetic field signals. The analysis of the main physical effects which are capable to influence on VLSI components speed is given. The possibility of fulfillment of subpicosecond analog and digital operations for spatially modulated signals with the help of passive microstrip micron-sized components is conducted

G. Kouzaev; I. Nazarov; A. Tcherkasov

1998-01-01

364

Programmer's Guide for FFORM. Physical Processes in Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecosystems, Computer Programs and Graphics Capabilities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This module is part of a series designed to be used by life science students for instruction in the application of physical theory to ecosystem operation. Most modules contain computer programs which are built around a particular application of a physical process. FFORM is a portable format-free input subroutine package written in ANSI Fortran IV…

Anderson, Lougenia; Gales, Larry

365

THE PHYSICS OF ARC WELDING PROCESSES Department of Materials Science and Engineering,  

E-print Network

) THE PHYSICS OF ARC WELDING PROCESSES T.W.EAGAR Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Abstract Welding is an extremely complex proce ss; however, due to its Wor ds: Arc Welding, Arc Physics, Shielding Gases, Gas Metal Arc Welding. 1. Introduction Langmuir

Eagar, Thomas W.

366

The First Law of Thermodynamics for Ecosystems. Physical Processes in Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecosystems, Thermodynamics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These materials were designed to be used by life science students for instruction in the application of physical theory to ecosystem operation. Most modules contain computer programs which are built around a particular application of a physical process. This module and a comparison module are concerned with elementary concepts of thermodynamics as…

Stevenson, R. D.

367

Examining Relations of Power in a Process of Curriculum Change: The Case of VCE Physics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Probes, through interviews with members of the setting panel, the process of setting the first external test for the Victorian Certificate of Education (VCE) physics course when it was implemented in 1992. Some implications are noted for future efforts to reform curriculum and assessment in physics, and for current classroom practice. (Author/MM)

Hart, Christina

2001-01-01

368

Physical modeling and analysis of rain and clouds by anisotropic scaling multiplicative processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We argue that the basic properties of rain and cloud fields (particularly their scaling and intermittency) are best understood in terms of coupled (anisotropic and scaling) cascade processes. We show how such cascades provide a framework not only for theoretically and empirically investigating these fields, but also for constructing physically based stochastic models. This physical basis is provided by cascade

Daniel Schertzer; Shaun Lovejoy

1987-01-01

369

Calculus - Differentiation. Physical Processes in Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecosystems, Applied Mathematics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This module is part of a series designed to be used by life science students for instruction in the application of physical theory to ecosystem operation. Most modules contain computer programs which are built around a particular application of a physical process. This module is used to introduce the biology student to differential calculus, a…

Hertzberg, Richard C.

370

Physics as Quantum Information Processing: Quantum Fields as Quantum Automata 1  

E-print Network

Physics as Quantum Information Processing: Quantum Fields as Quantum Automata 1 Giacomo Mauro D Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Gruppo IV, Sezione di Pavia Abstract. Can we reduce Quantum Field Theory (QFT) to a quantum computation? Can physics be simulated by a quantum computer? Do we believe that a quantum field

D'Ariano, Giacomo Mauro

371

The Use of Interaction Analysis in Describing Instructional Processes in Physical Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A review is presented of research concerning physical education instruction, focusing upon those studies which use interaction analysis as a method of systematically observing the instructional process. A brief overview of the development of interaction analysis systems in physical education cites instruments which were designed for focusing on…

Tinning, Richard I.

372

The Kinetics and Thermodynamics of the Phenol from Cumene Process: A Physical Chemistry Experiment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a physical chemistry experiment demonstrating the differences between thermodynamics and kinetics. The experiment used the formation of phenol and acetone from cumene hydroperoxide, also providing an example of an industrially significant process. (CS)

Chen, Edward C. M.; Sjoberg, Stephen L.

1980-01-01

373

Development of a Fast and Detailed Model of Urban-Scale Chemical and Physical Processing  

E-print Network

A reduced form metamodel has been produced to simulate the effects of physical, chemical, and meteorological processing of highly reactive trace species in hypothetical urban areas, which is capable of efficiently simulating ...

Prinn, Ronald G.

374

Educating Emergency Managers About Weather -Related Hazards  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The most common crises that emergency managers face are those related to hazardous weather - snowstorms, floods, hurricanes, heat waves, tornadoes, etc. However, man-made disasters, such as accidental releases of hazardous substances or terrorist acts, also often have a weather component. For example, after the bombing of the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City, emergency managers were concerned that thunderstorms in the area might cause the building to collapse, putting rescuers in further danger. Training emergency managers to recognize the importance of weather in disaster planning and response has been a small but important focus of the COMET Program's educational development effort. Topics addressed in COMET training modules that are pertinent to emergency management include fire weather, hurricanes, flood events, and air contaminant dispersion. Additionally, the module entitled Anticipating Hazardous Weather and Community Risk provides an overview of basic meteorological processes, describes a broad range of weather phenomenon, and then addresses what forecast products are available to emergency managers to assess a threat to their community. In many of the modules, learners are presented with scenarios that give them the opportunity to practice decision-making in hazardous weather situations. We will demonstrate some of those scenarios and discuss how training can be used to model good emergency management skills. We will discuss ways to communicate with the emergency management community and provide examples of how distance learning can be used to educate and train emergency managers.

Spangler, T. C.; Johnson, V.

2006-12-01

375

Physical control of biological processes in the central equatorial Pacific Ocean  

Microsoft Academic Search

A five-component (phytoplankton, zooplankton, ammonium, nitrate, detritus) physical–biological model was developed to investigate the effects of physical processes on daily to interannual time scales, on the lower trophic levels of the central equatorial Pacific. Many of the biological processes included in the ecosystem model respond to environmental fluctuations with time scales between 1 and 10d, which are not typically resolved

Marjorie A. M. Friedrichs; Eileen E. Hofmann

2001-01-01

376

Space Weather Now  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The NOAA Space Weather Now website provides non-technical information and an assortment of images detailing current space weather. Visitors can find summaries describing auroras, plots of current auroral ovals on the poles, and viewing information for the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. The Real-Time Solar Wind Pages furnish dynamic plots of data, geomagnetic activity test product information, and resources about the four instruments used to collect data on geomagnetic storms. The website features Space Weather Scales to help the public understand the severity of environmental disturbances due to geomagnetic storms, solar radiation storms, and radio blackouts. Visitors can find the latest news, alerts, advisory bulletins, and much more.

377

Weather Observing Fundamentals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"Weather Observing Fundamentals" provides guidance for U.S. Navy Aerographer's Mates, Quartermasters, and civilian observers tasked with taking and reporting routine, special, and synoptic observations. Although the focus of this lesson is on shipboard observations, much of the content applies to land-based observing and reporting as well. The lesson details standard procedures for taking accurate weather observations and for encoding those observations on COMNAVMETOCCOM Report 3141/3. Exercises throughout the lesson and four weather identification drills at the end provide learners with opportunities to practice and build their skills. The lesson covers a large amount of content. You may wish to work through the material in multiple sessions.

2014-09-14

378

World Weather Information Service  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The World Meteorological Organization Web site offers the World Weather Information Service page. Here, visitors will find official weather forecasts and climatological information for selected cities worldwide. Users choose a particular continent and country, and are then presented with a list of various cities they can get information on. This includes the date and time of the current forecast, minimum and maximum temperatures for that day, a general cloud description, and a monthly review of various data for that city. If for nothing else, the site does a good job of providing a very straightforward and easy way to find weather information from hundreds of cities around the globe.

379

Weather Map Assignment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

I gave this assignment so that students could relate real-time weather changes to mid-latitude cyclones and air mass movement. Basically, by the time I assigned the project, we have discussed all the necessary weather phenomena and this project gives the students a way to apply what we have discussed to "reality" by explaining why the weather occurred the way it did over a short time period. It also provides me with a way to assess how well they are able to tie all the major concepts together, which is one of the goals of the course.

Brueseke, Matt

380

Weather and Climate  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This unit introduces younger students to the concepts of weather and climate. Topics include the structure of the atmosphere, the definitions of weather and climate, and temperature and how it is measured. There are also discussions of heat transfers (radiation, conduction, convection), air pressure, wind, and the Coriolis effect. Other topics include types of storms, larger-scale weather systems such as pressure systems and fronts, and factors (insolation, land-sea breezes, orographic effect) that influence the climate in a given region. A vocabulary list and downloadable, printable student worksheets are provided.

Medina, Philip

381

Extreme Weather Sourcebook 2001  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Originally reviewed in the February 26, 1999 Scout Report, the latest version of the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Extreme Weather Sourcebook offers easy access to updated data on the economic damage from hurricanes, floods, and tornadoes in the United States and its territories. Time spans for each type of extreme weather vary, with hurricane data covering 1900-99, tornadoes 1950-99, floods 1955-1999, and lightning 1959-1994; however, all damage data are reported in constant 1999 dollars to simplify comparisons. The data are offered by weather event and state by rank or alphabetically.

2001-01-01

382

WeatherTracker  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

WeatherTracker is the ideal desktop application for anyone who always wants to know what the weather outside is like. The temperature, barometric pressure, humidity, winds, and current conditions can be displayed in three different formats, updated hourly for North American Cities. The local forecasts, climate data and near shore marine forecasts can be displayed in other windows and are available for select North American cities. Other cities are limited to temperature and current conditions. WeatherTracker is shareware with a fee of $20.00.

383

Physical processes affecting the sedimentary environments of Long Island Sound  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A modeling study was undertaken to simulate the bottom tidal-, wave-, and wind-driven currents in Long Island Sound in order to provide a general physical oceanographic framework for understanding the characteristics and distribution of seafloor sedimentary environments. Tidal currents are important in the funnel-shaped eastern part of the Sound, where a strong gradient of tidal-current speed was found. This current gradient parallels the general westward progression of sedimentary environments from erosion or non-deposition, through bedload transport and sediment sorting, to fine-grained deposition. Wave-driven currents, meanwhile, appear to be important along the shallow margins of the basin, explaining the occurrence of relatively coarse sediments in regions where tidal currents alone are not strong enough to move sediment. Finally, westerly wind events are shown to locally enhance bottom currents along the axial depression of the sound, providing a possible explanation for the relatively coarse sediments found in the depression despite tide- and wave-induced currents below the threshold of sediment movement. The strong correlation between the near-bottom current intensity based on the model results and the sediment response as indicated by the distribution of sedimentary environments provides a framework for predicting the long-term effects of anthropogenic activities.

Signell, R.P.; Knebel, H. J.; List, J.H.; Farris, A.S.

1997-01-01

384

Prescribing effective human problem solving processes: Problem description in physics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A theoretical model specifying the underlying knowledge and procedures whereby human subjects can generate effective initial descriptions of scientific problems was formulated. The model is prescriptive since it does not necessarily try to simulate the behavior of actual experts nor assume that their performance is optimal. The model, elaborated in the domain of mechanics, specifies explicit procedures for redescribing problems in terms of a relevant knowledge base. To test the model, carefully controlled experiments were devised where human subjects were induced to act in accordance with alternative models and where their resulting performance was observed in detail. Such experiments, carried out with undergraduate physics students, showed that the proposed model is sufficient to generate excellent problem descriptions, that these markedly improve subsequent problem solutions, and that most components of the model are indeed necessary for good performance. Detailed data analysis also showed how the model predictably prevents the occurrence of many common errors. Such a validated model of effective problem description provides a useful basis for teaching students improved scientific problem-solving skills.

Heller, Joan I.; Reif, Frederick

2006-06-09

385

Physical modulation of intracellular signaling processes by locational regulation.  

PubMed Central

Recent observations in the field of signal transduction suggest that where a protein is located within a cell can be as important as its activity measured in solution for activation of its downstream pathway. The physical organization of the cell can provide an additional layer of control upon the chemical reaction networks that govern ultimately perceived signals. Using the cytosol and plasma membrane as relevant compartmental distinctions, we analyze the effect of relocation on the rate of association with a membrane-associated target. We quantify this effect as an enhancement factor E in terms of measurable parameters such as the number of available targets, molecular diffusivities, and intrinsic reaction rate constants. We then employ two simple yet relevant example models to illustrate how relocation can affect the dynamics of signal transduction pathways. The temporal profiles and phase behavior of these models are investigated. We also relate experimentally observable aspects of signal transduction such as peak activation and the relative time scales of stimulus and response to quantitative aspects of the relocation mechanisms in our models. In our example schemes, nearly complete relocation of the cytosolic species in the signaling pair is required to generate meaningful activation of the model pathways when the association rate enhancement factor E is as low as 10; when E is 100 or greater, only a small fraction of the protein must be relocated. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 3 PMID:9129805

Haugh, J M; Lauffenburger, D A

1997-01-01

386

Weathering Grade Classification of Granite Stone Monument Using Reflectance Spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stone monument has been placed in field and exposed to rain and wind. This outdoor environment and air pollution induced weathering of stone monument. Weathering grade classification is necessary to manage and conserve stone monuments. Visual interpretation by geologist and laboratory experiments using specimens fallen off from the monument to avoid damage on the monument have been applied to classify weathering grade conventionally. Rocks and minerals absorb some particular wavelength ranges of electromagnetic energy by electronic process and vibrational process of composing elements and these phenomena produce intrinsic diagnostic spectral reflectance curve. Non-destructive technique for weathering degree assessment measures those diagnostic absorption features of weathering products and converts the depths of features related to abundance of the materials to relative weathering degree. We selected granite outcrop to apply conventional six folded weathering grade classification method using Schmidt hammer rebound teste. The correlations between Schmidt hammer rebound values and absorption depths of iron oxides such as ferric oxide in the vicinity of 0.9 micrometer wavelength and clay minerals such as illite and kaolinite in the vicinity of 2.2 micrometer wavelength, representative weathering products of granite, were analyzed. The Schmidt hammer rebound value decreased according to increase of absorption depths induced from those weathering products. Weathering grade classification on the granite stone monument was conducted by using absorption depths of weathering products This research is supported from National Research Institute of Cultural Heritage and we appreciate for this.

Hyun, C.; Roh, T.; Choi, M.; Park, H.

2009-05-01

387

77 FR 33253 - Regulatory Guide 8.24, Revision 2, Health Physics Surveys During Enriched Uranium-235 Processing...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Health Physics Surveys During Enriched Uranium-235 Processing and Fuel Fabrication...INFORMATION CONTACT: Gregory Chapman, Uranium Enrichment Branch, Division of Fuel Cycle...Health Physics Surveys During Enriched Uranium-235 Processing and Fuel...

2012-06-05

388

Processing of speech signals for physical and sensory disabilities.  

PubMed Central

Assistive technology involving voice communication is used primarily by people who are deaf, hard of hearing, or who have speech and/or language disabilities. It is also used to a lesser extent by people with visual or motor disabilities. A very wide range of devices has been developed for people with hearing loss. These devices can be categorized not only by the modality of stimulation [i.e., auditory, visual, tactile, or direct electrical stimulation of the auditory nerve (auditory-neural)] but also in terms of the degree of speech processing that is used. At least four such categories can be distinguished: assistive devices (a) that are not designed specifically for speech, (b) that take the average characteristics of speech into account, (c) that process articulatory or phonetic characteristics of speech, and (d) that embody some degree of automatic speech recognition. Assistive devices for people with speech and/or language disabilities typically involve some form of speech synthesis or symbol generation for severe forms of language disability. Speech synthesis is also used in text-to-speech systems for sightless persons. Other applications of assistive technology involving voice communication include voice control of wheelchairs and other devices for people with mobility disabilities. Images Fig. 4 PMID:7479816

Levitt, H

1995-01-01

389

Operational Space Weather in USAF Education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most education programs offering space weather courses are understandably and traditionally heavily weighted with theoretical space physics that is the basis for most of what is researched and modeled. While understanding the theory is a good and necessary grounding for anyone working the field of space weather, few military or commercial jobs employ such theory in real-time operations. The operations sites/centers are much more geared toward use of applied theory-resultant models, tools and products. To ensure its operations centers personnel, commanders, real-time system operators and other customers affected by the space environment are educated on available and soon-to-be operational space weather models and products, the USAF has developed applicable course/lecture material taught at various institutions to include the Air Force Institute of Technology (AFIT) and the Joint Weather Training Complex (335th/TRS/OUA). Less frequent training of operational space weather is available via other venues that will be discussed, and associated course material is also being developed for potential use at the National Security Space Institute (NSSI). This presentation provides an overview of the programs, locations, courses and material developed and/or taught by or for USAF personnel dealing with operational space weather. It also provides general information on student research project results that may be used in operational support, along with observations regarding logistical and professional benefits of teaching such non-theoretical/non-traditional material.

Smithtro, C.; Quigley, S.

2006-12-01

390

Take a Tumble: Weathering and Erosion Using a Rock Tumbler  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Weathering--the physical and chemical breakdown of geologic materials--and erosion--the transport of materials by wind, water, or ice--can be subtle, yet powerful forces. For example, shale, a rock made of mud-sized particles, is by far the most common sedimentary rock, a testament to the ability of weathering and erosion to take a rock and reduce…

Coffey, Patrick; Mattox, Steve

2006-01-01

391

A DETAILLED WEATHER DATA GENERATOR FOR BUILDINGS SIMULATION  

E-print Network

A DETAILLED WEATHER DATA GENERATOR FOR BUILDINGS SIMULATION L. ADELARD*, H. BOYER, F. GARDE, J evaluation studies. Few tools can make significant meteorological data available such as generated typical characterisation. 3.3 Module of weather data generation 3.4 Physical modelling module 4. Applications in building

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

392

Modeling High-Impact Weather and Climate: Lessons From a Tropical Cyclone Perspective  

SciTech Connect

Although the societal impact of a weather event increases with the rarity of the event, our current ability to assess extreme events and their impacts is limited by not only rarity but also by current model fidelity and a lack of understanding of the underlying physical processes. This challenge is driving fresh approaches to assess high-impact weather and climate. Recent lessons learned in modeling high-impact weather and climate are presented using the case of tropical cyclones as an illustrative example. Through examples using the Nested Regional Climate Model to dynamically downscale large-scale climate data the need to treat bias in the driving data is illustrated. Domain size, location, and resolution are also shown to be critical and should be guided by the need to: include relevant regional climate physical processes; resolve key impact parameters; and to accurately simulate the response to changes in external forcing. The notion of sufficient model resolution is introduced together with the added value in combining dynamical and statistical assessments to fill out the parent distribution of high-impact parameters. Finally, through the example of a tropical cyclone damage index, direct impact assessments are presented as powerful tools that distill complex datasets into concise statements on likely impact, and as highly effective communication devices. Capsule: "Combining dynamical modeling of high-impact weather using traditional regional climate models with statistical techniques allows for comprehensive sampling of the full distribution, uncertainty estimation, direct assessment of impacts, and increased confidence in future changes."

Done, James; Holland, Greg; Bruyere, Cindy; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Suzuki-Parker, Asuka

2012-06-01

393

Entropy increase during physical processes for black holes in Lanczos-Lovelock gravity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study quasistationary physical process for black holes within the context of Lanczos-Lovelock gravity. We show that the Wald entropy of the stationary black holes in Lanczos-Lovelock gravity monotonically increases for quasistationary physical processes in which the horizon is perturbed by the accretion of positive energy matter and the black hole ultimately settles down to a stationary state. This result reinforces the physical interpretation of Wald entropy for Lanczos-Lovelock models and takes a step towards proving the analogue of the black hole area increase theorem in a wider class of gravitational theories.

Kolekar, Sanved; Padmanabhan, T.; Sarkar, Sudipta

2012-07-01

394

What SImilar Physical Processes Occur on Both Earth and Mars?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Similar features exist on the surfaces of Earth and Mars. This investigation includes satellite images of five Earth features and five Martian features, none of which are labeled. Students must compare and contrast those images to produce five matching pairs, list the similarities and differences, and speculate about the processes that formed each feature. The URL opens to the investigation directory, with links to teacher and student materials, lesson extensions, resources, teaching tips, and assessment strategies. Note that this is Investigation 3 of four found in the Grades 5-8 Module 2 of Mission Geography. The Mission Geography curriculum integrates data and images from NASA missions with the National Geography Standards. Each of the four investigations in Module 2, while related, can be done independently.

395

Radon: Chemical and physical processes associated with its distribution  

SciTech Connect

Assessing the mechanisms which govern the distribution, fate, and pathways of entry into biological systems, as well as the ultimate hazards associated with the radon progeny and their secondary reaction products, depends on knowledge of their chemistry. Our studies are directed toward developing fundamental information which will provide a basis for modeling studies that are requisite in obtaining a complete picture of growth, attachment to aerosols, and transport to the bioreceptor and ultimate incorporation within. Our program is divided into three major areas of research. These include measurement of the determination of their mobilities, study of the role of radon progeny ions in affecting reactions, including study of the influence of the degree of solvation (clustering), and examination of the important secondary reaction products, with particular attention to processes leading to chemical conversion of either the core ions or the ligands as a function of the degree of clustering.

Castleman, A.W. Jr.

1992-01-01

396

Building a Weather-Ready Nation Winter Weather Safety  

E-print Network

-Ready Nation Flooding Winter Weather Safety www.weather.gov · Flooding is possible due to snowmelt, ice jams and coastal storms such as Nor'easters. · Ice jams are common during the winter. · As ice moves downstream www.weather.gov · Snow/Ice · Blizzards · Flooding · Cold Temperatures #12;Building a Weather

397

Summary of the NASA/MSFC FY-79 Severe Storm and Local Weather research review. [cloud physics, atmospheric electricity, and mesoscale/storm dynamics reserach  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Significant acomplishments, current focus of work, plans for FY-80, and recommendations for new research are outlined for 36 research projects proposed for technical monitoring by the Atmospheric Sciences Division at Marshall Space Flight Center. Topics of the investigations, which were reviewed at a two-day meeting, relate to cloud physics, atmospheric electricity, and mesoscale/storm dynamics.

1979-01-01

398

Weathering of Martian Evaporites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Evaporites in martian meteorites contain weathering or alteration features that may provide clues about the martian near-surface environment over time. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

Wentworth, S. J.; Velbel, M. A.; Thomas-Keprta, K. L.; Longazo, T. G.; McKay, D. S.

2001-01-01

399

Alternative Processes for Water Reclamation and Solid Waste Processing in a Physical/chemical Bioregenerative Life Support System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Viewgraphs on alternative processes for water reclamation and solid waste processing in a physical/chemical-bioregenerative life support system are presented. The main objective is to focus attention on emerging influences of secondary factors (i.e., waste composition, type and level of chemical contaminants, and effects of microorganisms, primarily bacteria) and to constructively address these issues by discussing approaches which attack them in a direct manner.

Rogers, Tom D.

1990-01-01

400

TypoWeather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The TypoWeather application is a great way to stay on top of the latest weather conditions. This handy device presents users with a five day outlook and an hourly breakdown that is updated based on data from the National Meteorological Service. Visitors can customize their layout to include alerts about certain meteorological conditions, such as wind patterns, humidity, and more. This version is compatible with all operating systems.

2014-03-13

401

Wonderful World of Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This standards-based unit has been created for use by students in the elementary grades to investigate weather phenomena both locally as well as in other places around the world. By using hands-on activities and real-time data investigations, students develop a basic understanding of how weather can be described in measurable quantities. The lesson plans have been designed to allow teachers to select the ones which fit into their curriculum, and to allow for flexibility in implementation.

2011-01-01

402

Extreme Weather Sourcebook: Tornadoes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Extreme Weather Sourcebook is a database maintained by the Societal Impacts Program (SIP) at NCAR of statistics on extreme weather events. The Sourcebook is intended as a resource for researchers, policy makers, the media, and the general public, among other users. This page from the Sourcebook showcases data on tornado damages as total losses for the years 1950-2009 in the United States.

University Consortium for Atmospheric Research (UCAR)

403

Silicate weathering in anoxic marine sediments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two sediment cores retrieved at the northern slope of Sakhalin Island, Sea of Okhotsk, were analyzed for biogenic opal, organic carbon, carbonate, sulfur, major element concentrations, mineral contents, and dissolved substances including nutrients, sulfate, methane, major cations, humic substances, and total alkalinity. Down-core trends in mineral abundance suggest that plagioclase feldspars and other reactive silicate phases (olivine, pyroxene, volcanic ash) are transformed into smectite in the methanogenic sediment sections. The element ratios Na/Al, Mg/Al, and Ca/Al in the solid phase decrease with sediment depth indicating a loss of mobile cations with depth and producing a significant down-core increase in the chemical index of alteration. Pore waters separated from the sediment cores are highly enriched in dissolved magnesium, total alkalinity, humic substances, and boron. The high contents of dissolved organic carbon in the deeper methanogenic sediment sections (50-150 mg dm-3) may promote the dissolution of silicate phases through complexation of Al3+ and other structure-building cations. A non-steady state transport-reaction model was developed and applied to evaluate the down-core trends observed in the solid and dissolved phases. Dissolved Mg and total alkalinity were used to track the in-situ rates of marine silicate weathering since thermodynamic equilibrium calculations showed that these tracers are not affected by ion exchange processes with sediment surfaces. The modeling showed that silicate weathering is limited to the deeper methanogenic sediment section whereas reverse weathering was the dominant process in the overlying surface sediments. Depth-integrated rates of marine silicate weathering in methanogenic sediments derived from the model (81.4-99.2 mmol CO2 m-2 year-1) are lower than the marine weathering rates calculated from the solid phase data (198-245 mmol CO2 m-2 year-1) suggesting a decrease in marine weathering over time. The production of CO2 through reverse weathering in surface sediments (4.22-15.0 mmol CO2 m-2 year-1) is about one order of magnitude smaller than the weathering-induced CO2 consumption in the underlying sediments. The evaluation of pore water data from other continental margin sites shows that silicate weathering is a common process in methanogenic sediments. The global rate of CO2 consumption through marine silicate weathering estimated here as 5-20 Tmol CO2 year-1 is as high as the global rate of continental silicate weathering.

Wallmann, K.; Aloisi, G.; Haeckel, M.; Tishchenko, P.; Pavlova, G.; Greinert, J.; Kutterolf, S.; Eisenhauer, A.

2008-06-01

404

CO2-ECBM related coupled physical and mechanical transport processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The interrelation of cleat transport processes and mechanical properties was investigated by permeability tests at different stress levels (60% to 130% of in-situ stress) with sorbing (CH4, CO2) and inert gases (N2, Ar, He) on a subbituminous A coal from the Surat Basin, Queensland Australia (figure). From the flow tests under controlled triaxial stress conditions the Klinkenberg-corrected "true" permeability coefficients and the Klinkenberg slip factors were derived. The "true"-, absolute or Klinkenberg-corrected permeability depends on gas type. Following the approach of Seidle et al. (1992) the cleat volume compressibility (cf) was calculated from observed changes in apparent permeability upon variation of external stress (at equal mean gas pressures). The observed effects also show a clear dependence on gas type. Due to pore or cleat compressibility the cleat aperture decreases with increasing effective stress. Vice versa, with increasing mean pore pressure at lower confining pressure an increase in permeability is observed, which is attributed to a widening of cleat aperture. Non-sorbing gases like helium and argon show higher apparent permeabilities than sorbing gases like methane and CO2. Permeability coefficients measured with successively increasing mean gas pressures were consistently lower than those determined at decreasing mean gas pressures. The kinetics of matrix transport processes were studied by sorption tests on different particle sizes at various moisture contents and temperatures (cf. Busch et al., 2006). Methane uptake rates were determined from the pressure decline curves recorded for each particle-size fraction, and "diffusion coefficients" were calculated using several unipore and bidisperse diffusion models. While the CH4 sorption capacity of moisture-equilibrated coals was significantly lower (by 50%) than that of dry coals, no hysteresis was observed between sorption and desorption on dry and moisture-equilibrated samples and the sorption isotherms recorded for different particle sizes were essentially identical. The CH4 uptake rates were lower by a factor of two for moist coals than for dry coals. Busch, A., Gensterblum, Y., Krooss, B.M. and Siemons, N., 2006. Investigation of high-pressure selective adsorption/desorption behaviour of CO2 and CH4 on coals: An experimental study. International Journal of Coal Geology, 66(1-2): 53-68. Seidle, J.P., Jeansonne, M.W. and Erickson, D.J., 1992. Application of Matchstick Geometry to Stress-Dependent Permeability in Coals, SPE Rocky Mountain Regional Meeting, Casper, Wyoming.

Gensterblum, Y.; Sartorius, M.; Busch, A.; Krooss, B. M.; Littke, R.

2012-12-01

405

Cockpit weather information system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Weather information, periodically collected from throughout a global region, is periodically assimilated and compiled at a central source and sent via a high speed data link to a satellite communication service, such as COMSAT. That communication service converts the compiled weather information to GSDB format, and transmits the GSDB encoded information to an orbiting broadcast satellite, INMARSAT, transmitting the information at a data rate of no less than 10.5 kilobits per second. The INMARSAT satellite receives that data over its P-channel and rebroadcasts the GDSB encoded weather information, in the microwave L-band, throughout the global region at a rate of no less than 10.5 KB/S. The transmission is received aboard an aircraft by means of an onboard SATCOM receiver and the output is furnished to a weather information processor. A touch sensitive liquid crystal panel display allows the pilot to select the weather function by touching a predefined icon overlain on the display's surface and in response a color graphic display of the weather is displayed for the pilot.

Tu, Jeffrey Chen-Yu (Inventor)

2000-01-01

406

Application of green IT for physics data processing at INCDTIM  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Green IT is the next generation technology used in all datacenter around the world. Its benefit is of economic and financial interest. The new technologies are energy efficient, reduce cost and avoid potential disruptions to the existing infrastructure. The most important problem appears at the cooling systems which are the most important in the functionality of a datacenter. Green IT used in Grid Network will benefit the environment and is the next phase in computer infrastructure that will fundamentally change the way we think about and use computing power. At the National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies Cluj-Napoca (INCDTIM) we have implemented such kind of technology and its support helped us in processing multiple data in different domains, which brought INCDTIM on the major Grid domain with the RO-14-ITIM Grid site. In this paper we present benefits that the new technology brought us and the result obtained in the last year after the implementation of the new green technology.

Farcas, Felix; Trusca, Radu; Albert, Stefan; Szabo, Izabella; Popeneciu, Gabriel

2012-02-01

407

CO2-ECBM related coupled physical and mechanical transport processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The interrelation of cleat transport processes and mechanical properties was investigated by permeability tests at different stress levels (60% to 130% of in-situ stress) with sorbing (CH4, CO2) and inert gases (N2, Ar, He) on a sub bituminous A coal from the Surat Basin, Queensland Australia. From the flow tests under controlled triaxial stress conditions the Klinkenberg-corrected "true" permeability coefficients and the Klinkenberg slip factors were derived. The "true"-, absolute or Klinkenberg corrected permeability shows a gas type dependence. Following the approach of Seidle et al. (1992) the cleat volume compressibility (cf) was calculated from observed changes in apparent permeability upon variation of external stress (at equal mean gas pressures). The observed effects also show a clear dependence on gas type. Due to pore or cleat compressibility the cleat aperture decreases with increasing effective stress. Vice versa we observe with increasing mean pressure at lower confining pressure an increase in permeability which we attribute to a cleat aperture widening. The cleat volume compressibility (cf) also shows a dependence on the mean pore pressure. Non-sorbing gases like helium and argon show higher apparent permeabilities than sorbing gases like methane. Permeability coefficients measured with successively increasing mean gas pressures were consistently lower than those determined at decreasing mean gas pressures. This permeability hysteresis is in accordance with results reported by Harpalani and McPherson (1985). The kinetics of matrix transport processes were studied by sorption tests on different particle sizes at various moisture contents and temperatures (cf. Busch et al., 2006). Methane uptake rates were determined from the pressure decline curves recorded for each particle-size fraction, and "diffusion coefficients" were calculated using several unipore and bidisperse diffusion models. While the CH4 sorption capacity of moisture-equilibrated coals was significantly lower (by 50%) than of dry coals, no hysteresis was observed between sorption and desorption on dry and moisture-equilibrated samples and the sorption isotherms recorded for different particle sizes were essentially identical. The CH4 uptake rates were lower by a factor of two for moist coals than for dry coals. Busch, A., Gensterblum, Y., Krooss, B.M. and Siemons, N., 2006. Investigation of high-pressure selective adsorption/desorption behaviour of CO2 and CH4 on coals: An experimental study. International Journal of Coal Geology, 66(1-2): 53-68. Harpalani, S. and McPherson, M.J., 1985. Effect of stress on permeability of coal. Quarterly Review of methane from coal seams technology, 3(2): 23-29. Seidle, J.P., Jeansonne, M.W. and Erickson, D.J., 1992. Application of Matchstick Geometry to Stress-Dependent Permeability in Coals, SPE Rocky Mountain Regional Meeting, Casper, Wyoming.

Gensterblum, Y.; Sartorius, M.; Busch, A.; Cumming, D.; Krooss, B. M.

2012-04-01

408

CO2-ECBM related coupled physical and mechanical transport processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The interrelation of cleat transport processes and mechanical properties was investigated by permeability tests at different stress levels (60% to 130% of in-situ stress) with sorbing (CH4, CO2) and inert gases (N2, Ar, He) on a sub bituminous A coal from the Surat Basin, Queensland Australia. From the flow tests under controlled triaxial stress conditions the Klinkenberg-corrected "true" permeability coefficients and the Klinkenberg slip factors were derived. The "true"-, absolute or Klinkenberg corrected permeability shows a gas type dependence. Following the approach of Seidle et al. (1992) the cleat volume compressibility (cf) was calculated from observed changes in apparent permeability upon variation of external stress (at equal mean gas pressures). The observed effects also show a clear dependence on gas type. Due to pore or cleat compressibility the cleat aperture decreases with increasing effective stress. Vice versa we observe with increasing mean pressure at lower confining pressure an increase in permeability which we attribute to a cleat aperture widening. The cleat volume compressibility (cf) also shows a dependence on the mean pore pressure. Non-sorbing gases like helium and argon show higher apparent permeabilities than sorbing gases like methane. Permeability coefficients measured with successively increasing mean gas pressures were consistently lower than those determined at decreasing mean gas pressures. This permeability hysteresis is in accordance with results reported by Harpalani and McPherson (1985). The kinetics of matrix transport processes were studied by sorption tests on different particle sizes at various moisture contents and temperatures (cf. Busch et al., 2006). Methane uptake rates were determined from the pressure decline curves recorded for each particle-size fraction, and "diffusion coefficients" were calculated using several unipore and bidisperse diffusion models. While the CH4 sorption capacity of moisture-equilibrated coals was significantly lower (by 50%) than of dry coals, no hysteresis was observed between sorption and desorption on dry and moisture-equilibrated samples and the sorption isotherms recorded for different particle sizes were essentially identical. The CH4 uptake rates were lower by a factor of two for moist coals than for dry coals. Busch, A., Gensterblum, Y., Krooss, B.M. and Siemons, N., 2006. Investigation of high-pressure selective adsorption/desorption behaviour of CO2 and CH4 on coals: An experimental study. International Journal of Coal Geology, 66(1-2): 53-68. Harpalani, S. and McPherson, M.J., 1985. Effect of stress on permeability of coal. Quarterly Review of methane from coal seams technology, 3(2): 23-29. Seidle, J.P., Jeansonne, M.W. and Erickson, D.J., 1992. Application of Matchstick Geometry to Stress-Dependent Permeability in Coals, SPE Rocky Mountain Regional Meeting, Casper, Wyoming.

Gensterblum, Yves; Satorius, Michael; Busch, Andreas; Krooß, Bernhard

2013-04-01

409

Mathematical modeling of physical processes in inorganic chemistry  

SciTech Connect

The first part deals with the rapid calculation of steady-state concentration profiles in contactors using the Purex Process. Most of the computer codes simulating the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel generate the steady-state properties by calculating the transient behavior of the contactors. In this study, the author simulates the steady-state concentration profiles directly without first generating the transient behavior. Two computer codes are developed, PUMA (Plutonium-Uranium-Matrix-Algorithm) and PUNE (Plutonium-Uranium-Non-Equilibrium). The first one simulates the steady-state concentration profiles under conditions of equilibrium mass transfer. The second one accounts for deviations from mass transfer equilibrium. The second part of this dissertation shows how to use the classical trajectory method to study the equilibrium and saddle-point geometries of MX{sub n} (n = 2-7) molecules. Two nuclear potential functions that have the property of invariance to the operations of the permutation group of nuclei in molecules of the general formula MX{sub n} are described. Such potential functions allow equivalent isomers to have equal energies so that various statistical mechanical properties can be simply determined. The first function contains two center interactions between pairs of peripheral atoms and its defined by V(r) = 1/2{Sigma}{sub {alpha}}k{triangle}r{sub {alpha}{mu}}{sup 2} + {Sigma}{sub {alpha}< {beta}} QR{sub {alpha}{beta}}{sup {minus}n} (n = 1,2...). The second function contains two and three center interactions and is defined by V({Theta}) = 1/2{Sigma}{sub {alpha}}K{triangle}{sub {alpha}{mu}}{sup 2} + 1/2{Sigma}{sub {alpha}<{beta}}Qr{sub 0}{sup 2} ({Theta}{sub {alpha}{mu}{beta}} - {pi}){sup 2}.

Chiu, H.L.

1988-01-01

410

Seafloor weathering buffering climate: numerical experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Continental silicate weathering is widely held to consume atmospheric CO2 at a rate controlled in part by temperature, resulting in a climate-weathering feedback [Walker et al., 1981]. It has been suggested that weathering of oceanic crust of warm mid-ocean ridge flanks also has a CO2 uptake rate that is controlled by climate [Sleep and Zahnle, 2001; Brady and Gislason, 1997]. Although this effect might not be significant on present-day Earth [Caldeira, 1995], seafloor weathering may be more pronounced during snowball states [Le Hir et al., 2008], during the Archean when seafloor spreading rates were faster [Sleep and Zahnle, 2001], and on waterworld planets [Abbot et al., 2012]. Previous studies of seafloor weathering have made significant contributions using qualitative, generally one-box, models, and the logical next step is to extend this work using a spatially resolved model. For example, experiments demonstrate that seafloor weathering reactions are temperature dependent, but it is not clear whether the deep ocean temperature affects the temperature at which the reactions occur, or if instead this temperature is set only by geothermal processes. Our goal is to develop a 2-D numerical model that can simulate hydrothermal circulation and resulting alteration of oceanic basalts, and can therefore address such questions. A model of diffusive and convective heat transfer in fluid-saturated porous media simulates hydrothermal circulation through porous oceanic basalt. Unsteady natural convection is solved for using a Darcy model of porous media flow that has been extensively benchmarked. Background hydrothermal circulation is coupled to mineral reaction kinetics of basaltic alteration and hydrothermal mineral precipitation. In order to quantify seafloor weathering as a climate-weathering feedback process, this model focuses on hydrothermal reactions that influence carbon uptake as well as ocean alkalinity: silicate rock dissolution, calcium and magnesium leaching reactions, carbonate precipitation, and clay formation.

Farahat, N. X.; Archer, D. E.; Abbot, D. S.

2013-12-01

411

2012 Severe Weather Awareness Guide  

E-print Network

Florida's 2012 Severe Weather Awareness Guide 2012 Severe Weather Awareness Guide F L O R I D A D I of Emergency Management #12;Florida's Severe Weather Awareness Guide 2 Florida is affected by many natural. That is why I am proud to present the 2012 Severe Weather Awareness Guide. By reading this guide you can learn

Meyers, Steven D.

412

The Process Learning Components of Introductory Physical Science: A Pilot Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Test of Science Processes was administered as a pre- and post-test to 92 eighth grade students studying the first five chapters of the Introductory Physical Science materials to determine if process learning was significantly changed. The students were in four homogeneously grouped classes all taught by the same teacher. There were significant…

Butzow, John W.; Sewell, Leyton E.

413

An Investigation of Introductory Physical Science Using the Test of Science Process  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Grade 8 students using the Introductory Physical Science course improved their scores on a test of science processes (observing, comparing, classifying, quantifying, etc.) after studying the first five chapters of the materials. Some evidence supporting a hierarchy of process skills is reported. (AL)

Butzow, John W.; Sewell, Leyton E.

1972-01-01

414

COGNITIVE PROCESSES AND THE LEARNING OF PHYSICS PART II: MEDIATED ACTION  

E-print Network

1 COGNITIVE PROCESSES AND THE LEARNING OF PHYSICS PART II: MEDIATED ACTION Valerie K. Otero School theoretical perspectives of cognition where learning is viewed as the process of doing and participating "context." One of the fundamental features of the socio- cultural perspective is the notion that cognition

Colorado at Boulder, University of

415

Physical processes involved in strip electrode welding using the method of slatted splicing  

SciTech Connect

Physical processes that take place in a strip electrode during welding using the slatted splicing technique are considered. Flowing of the welding current in the electrode is shown to be the key process which determines electrode heating and melting. Technological receipts are proposed that allow obtaining high-quality welds by the method of slatted splicing.

Bushma, V. O. [Moscow State Technological University 'Stankin' (Russian Federation)

2010-12-15

416

Technological development of eb flue gas treatment based on physics and chemistry of the process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Technological and engineering solutions of the process are based on the knowledge of the most important physical and chemical mechanism of SO2 and NOx transformation due to radiation and thermal induced reactions, and aerosol formation. The data for process upscaling can be obtained on big industrial pilot plants; four of them for coal fired boilers have been constructed all over

Andrzej G Chmielewski

1995-01-01

417

Physical Processes in the Vicinity of a Supermassive Black Hole  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Galactic center offers us an opportunity to study the environment around a supermassive black hole at a level of detail not possible in other galactic nuclei. This potential has been greatly expanded by the implementation of laser guide star adaptive optics and integral field spectroscopy on large ground-based telescopes. This thesis takes advantage of these technologies to address the nature of the variable near-infrared emission from the black hole as well as test theories of the equilibrium configuration of a star cluster with a supermassive black hole at its center. First, we present the results of near-infrared (2 and 3 micron) monitoring of Sgr A*-IR with 1 min time sampling. Sgr A*-IR was observed continuously for up to three hours on each of seven nights, between 2005 July and 2007 August. Sgr A*-IR is detectable at all times and is continuously variable, with a median observed 2 micron flux density of 0.192 mJy, corresponding to 16.3 magnitude at K^'. These observations allow us to investigate Nyquist sampled periods ranging from about 2 minutes to an hour. Using Monte Carlo simulations, we find that the variability of Sgr A* in this data set is consistent with models based on correlated noise with power spectra having frequency dependent power law slopes between 2.0 to 3.0, consistent with those reported for AGN light curves. Of particular interest are periods of ˜ 20 min, corresponding to a quasi-periodic signal claimed based upon previous near-infrared observations and interpreted as the orbit of a `hot spot' at or near the last stable orbit of a spinning black hole. We find no significant periodicity at any time scale probed in these new observations for periodic signals. This study is sensitive to periodic signals with amplitudes greater than 20% of the maximum amplitude of the underlying red noise component for light curves with duration greater than ˜ 2 hours at a 98% confidence limit. Second, we report on the structure of the nuclear star cluster in the innermost 0.16 pc of the Galaxy as measured by the number density profile of late-type giants. Using laser guide star adaptive optics in conjunction with the integral field spectrograph, OSIRIS, at the Keck II telescope, we are able to differentiate between the older, late-type (˜ 1 Gyr) stars, which are presumed to be dynamically relaxed, and the unrelaxed young (˜ 6 Myr) population. This distinction is crucial for testing models of stellar cusp formation in the vicinity of a black hole, as the models assume that the cusp stars are in dynamical equilibrium in the black hole potential. In the survey region, we classified 77 stars as early-type 79 stars as late-type. We find that contamination from young stars is significant, with more than twice as many young stars as old stars in our sensitivity range (K' < 15.5) within the central arcsecond. Based on the late-type stars alone, the surface stellar number density profile, ?(R) ? R(-?) , is flat, with ? = -0.26±0.24. Monte Carlo simulations of the possible de-projected volume density profile, n(r) ? r^{-?}, show that ? is less than 1.0 at the 99.7 % confidence level. These results are consistent with the nuclear star cluster having no cusp, with a core profile that is significantly flatter than predicted by most cusp formation theories, and even allows for the presence of a central hole in the stellar distribution. Of the possible dynamical interactions that can lead to the depletion of the red giants observable in this survey - stellar collisions, mass segregation from stellar remnants, or a recent merger event - mass segregation is the only one that can be ruled out as the dominant depletion mechanism. The degeneracy in the true distribution of stars cannot be broken with number counts alone, but we show how the addition of kinematic measurements can remov! e the degeneracy. Resolving the physical origin of the lack of a stellar cusp will have important implications for black hole growth models and inferences on the presence of a black hole based upon stellar distributions.

Do, Tuan

2010-08-01

418

Statistics-related and reliability-physics-related failure processes in electronics devices and products  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The well known and widely used experimental reliability "passport" of a mass manufactured electronic or a photonic product — the bathtub curve — reflects the combined contribution of the statistics-related and reliability-physics (physics-of-failure)-related processes. When time progresses, the first process results in a decreasing failure rate, while the second process associated with the material aging and degradation leads to an increased failure rate. An attempt has been made in this analysis to assess the level of the reliability physics-related aging process from the available bathtub curve (diagram). It is assumed that the products of interest underwent the burn-in testing and therefore the obtained bathtub curve does not contain the infant mortality portion. It has been also assumed that the two random processes in question are statistically independent, and that the failure rate of the physical process can be obtained by deducting the theoretically assessed statistical failure rate from the bathtub curve ordinates. In the carried out numerical example, the Raleigh distribution for the statistical failure rate was used, for the sake of a relatively simple illustration. The developed methodology can be used in reliability physics evaluations, when there is a need to better understand the roles of the statistics-related and reliability-physics-related irreversible random processes in reliability evaluations. The future work should include investigations on how powerful and flexible methods and approaches of the statistical mechanics can be effectively employed, in addition to reliability physics techniques, to model the operational reliability of electronic and photonic products.

Suhir, E.

2014-05-01

419

Effect of degree of weathering on dynamic properties of residual soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The process of soil formation in the tropics is quite different than that of more temperate regions. The weathering processes tend to be intensified by the warm and humid climates that are prevalent in tropical regions. Chemical weathering processes that dominate in these regions, such as decomposition and dissolution, are fairly well understood phenomena. However, the effect this weathering has

Emir Jose? Macari; L. Jr. Loyos

1996-01-01

420

From Fundamental Physical Fluvial Processes To River Patterns  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rivers are ubiquitous on planetary surfaces and their patterns show great variation. The fundamental fluvial processes of flow and sediment transport are relatively well understood, solvable in linearized form and implemented in sophisticated nonlinear numerical models. We successfully modeled formation and evolution of large-scale and long-term patterns that look like braided and meandering river. But what characterizes and discriminates the patterns, and how do the modeled patterns quantitatively compare to natural patterns? Here we focus on characteristics of fluvial bars as building blocks of river patterns. Bars are much larger than grid cells and emerge at length scales predictable by analytical solutions. We used the morphodynamic numerical model Delft3D, which solves the 3D flow and computes sediment transport and bed level change, incorporating the effect of transverse bed slope. We identify bars as connected sand bodies above the average bed level and characterize their shape quantitatively. To reduce computational time and allow high resolution long-term calculations, bed level changes are multiplied by a morphological factor O(100) for each flow time step. This assumes that no significant morphodynamics occur at the time scale in which significant flow takes place. At the moment, desktop computers allow high-resolution century-scale calculations for the largest rivers on Earth. The results show that both meandering and braiding rivers can be modeled by solving the flow and sediment dynamics, and can be characterized by bars. In meandering rivers streamline curvature and bank erosion leads to formation of scroll bars. In braided rivers, large compound bars are formed by merging of unit bars, forming scroll-bars, and smaller compound bars. The results show that nonlinear numerical solution of small-scale flow and sediment transport results in realistic large scale river patterns depending on boundary conditions. As attested by verification in many engineering applications of this model, a second-order (nonlinear) numerical scheme and the transverse bed slope effect are essential for accurate bar dimensions which have not been reproduced in cellular automata. We conclude that a reductionist approach at realistic fluvial landscape modeling is feasible given growing computing power, and successful when evaluated on quantitative characteristics of emergent landforms that compose the landscape.

Schuurman, F.; Kleinhans, M. G.; Geurts, A. H.

2012-12-01

421

Cave development by frost weathering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper deals with the description and genesis of a special type of shelter cave. In German they are termed Auswitterungshöhlen which goes back to the 19th century and the genesis is supposed to be related to frost weathering, but to our knowledge, detailed studies are missing so far. This type of cave is very common in the area of investigation that comprises pre-Alpine and Alpine regions in the north-eastern part of the Eastern Alps: They make up 32% of the 5138 registered caves but surprisingly they entirely developed in carbonate rocks. Although most of them are smaller than a dozen metres, some have lengths of more than 50 m and entrances can be more than 100 m wide or similarly high. Besides general observations that lead to a list of characteristics for these caves, two of them in a pre-Alpine setting were studied in-depth. A detailed map, descriptions, and measurements concerning cave morphology, host rock geology, and climate are given. The thickness and composition of clastic sediments were investigated by small trenches and electric resistivity measurements. Sediment thicknesses reach up to 2 m inside the caves and below the entrances. For one year nets were installed to measure rockfall in both caves. In warm periods generally less than 5 g/month of debris could be collected, but a few 100 g/month for frost periods. This strong correlation and the significant amount of debris together with other observations suggest that frost weathering is an on-going and very important process for the formation of these caves. Grain-size distribution of the collected debris argues for the activity of both microgelivation and ice segregation. Therefore we suggest that the term frost weathering caves should be used for shelter caves whose genesis is related to frost weathering. As dissolution seems to be of marginal importance for the genesis they are a paradox as they develop in karstic rock but have pseudokarst features.

Oberender, Pauline; Plan, Lukas

2015-01-01

422

The effects of physical environments in medical wards on medication communication processes affecting patient safety.  

PubMed

Physical environments of clinical settings play an important role in health communication processes. Effective medication management requires seamless communication among health professionals of different disciplines. This paper explores how physical environments affect communication processes for managing medications and patient safety in acute care hospital settings. Findings highlighted the impact of environmental interruptions on communication processes about medications. In response to frequent interruptions and limited space within working environments, nurses, doctors and pharmacists developed adaptive practices in the local clinical context. Communication difficulties were associated with the ward physical layout, the controlled drug key and the medication retrieving device. Health professionals should be provided with opportunities to discuss the effects of ward environments on medication communication processes and how this impacts medication safety. Hospital administrators and architects need to consider health professionals' views and experiences when designing hospital spaces. PMID:24486620

Liu, Wei; Manias, Elizabeth; Gerdtz, Marie

2014-03-01

423

PREFACE: First International Workshop on Nonequilibrium Processes in Plasma Physics and Studies of Environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This volume is a collection of papers associated with a series of invited lectures presented at the First Workshop on Nonequilibrium processes in Plasma Physics and studies of Environment that was held at Mt Kopaonik in August 2006. The workshop originated as a part of the FP6 COE 026328 which had the basic aim of promoting centers of excellence in Western Balkan countries, to facilitate dissemination of their results and to help them establish themselves in the broader arena of European and international science. So the best way to achieve all those goals was to prepare a workshop associated with the local conference SPIG (Symposium on Physics of Ionized Gases) where the participants could attend sessions in which the host Laboratory presented progress reports and papers and thereby gain a full perspective of our results. At the same time this allowed participants in the COE the opportunity to compare their results with the results of external speakers and to gain new perspectives and knowledge. The program of the workshop was augmented by inviting some of our colleagues who visited the COE in recent years or have an active collaboration with a participating member. In that respect this volume is not only a proceedings of the workshop but a collection of papers related to the topic of the workshop: Non-equilibrium phenomena in plasmas and in the science of our environment. The idea is to offer review articles either summarizing a broader area of published or about to be published work or to give overviews showing preliminary results of the works in progress. The refereeing of the papers consisted of two parts, first in selection of the invitees and second in checking the submitted manuscripts. The papers were refereed to the standard of the Journal. As the program of the COE covers a wide area of topics from application of plasmas in nano- electronics to monitoring and removal of pollutants in the atmosphere, so the program of the workshop covered an even broader range of topics with the common thread of non- equilibrium phenomena playing a major part in the basic physics and also in the technological applications. The universal symbol of non-equilibrium phenomena is Maxwell's demon and it was selected, as designed by Professor Rastko ?iri? (of Belgrade's University for Fine Arts), to be the symbol of the conference. In plasma physics, the field is usually divided between equilibrium and non-equilibrium plasmas. The advantage of studying plasmas in thermal equilibrium is that they may be described by universal laws, such as Saha and Boltzmann equations. The only problem is that, apart from the very early stages in the development of the universe, such plasmas do not exist, although there are plasmas that come very close and at least satisfy the thermal laws locally. Non-equilibrium plasmas have laws unique to each situation and studies of their idiosyncrasies continue to provide a lot of food for thought for scientists, possibilities for applications and job opportunities. Or as Tolstoy wrote, `Happy families are all alike; every unhappy family is unhappy in its own way?'. So, while making analogy of the non-equilibrium with the lack of happiness may sound discouraging, the scientists who try to observe these phenomena (like psychologists in the case of families) have plenty to study and are, therefore, likely to be happy. At the same time non-equilibrium phenomena in plasmas and in the atmosphere are extremely important. A fact we should be aware of every time we use an integrated circuit manufactured after the late 1970s or whenever weather changes, wind blows and pollution is carried in from some distant locations. This volume starts with a paper by D Batani (Milano, Italy) on shock waves, an example of plasmas that may be locally thermal but display very strong gradients, M Pinheiro (Lisboa, Portugal) contributed an article on anomalous diffusion in magnetized plasmas, a problem that has been addressed in the literature from many different standpoints. A special case of non-equilibrium is that of non-neutral plasm

Petrovi?, Z. Lj; Malovi?, G.; Tasi?, M.; Nikitovi?, Ž.

2007-06-01

424

Iron isotopic fractionation during continental weathering  

SciTech Connect

The biological activity on continents and the oxygen content of the atmosphere determine the chemical pathways through which Fe is processed at the Earth's surface. Experiments have shown that the relevant chemical pathways fractionate Fe isotopes. Measurements of soils, streams, and deep-sea clay indicate that the {sup 56}Fe/{sup 54}Fe ratio ({delta}{sup 56}Fe relative to igneous rocks) varies from +1{per_thousand} for weathering residues like soils and clays, to -3{per_thousand} for dissolved Fe in streams. These measurements confirm that weathering processes produce substantial fractionation of Fe isotopes in the modern oxidizing Earth surface environment. The results imply that biologically-mediated processes, which preferentially mobilize light Fe isotopes, are critical to Fe chemistry in weathering environments, and that the {delta}{sup 56}Fe of marine dissolved Fe should be variable and negative. Diagenetic reduction of Fe in marine sediments may also be a significant component of the global Fe isotope cycle. Iron isotopes provide a tracer for the influence of biological activity and oxygen in weathering processes through Earth history. Iron isotopic fractionation during weathering may have been smaller or absent in an oxygen-poor environment such as that of the early Precambrian Earth.

Fantle, Matthew S.; DePaolo, Donald J.

2003-10-01

425

Geography 101: The Physical Environment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This introductory physical geography course about the atmosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere and lithosphere covers topics such as: atmospheric processes, weather and geographic patterns of climate; soil and vegetation processes, and resulting geographic patterns; water in all its phases, movement and geographic distribution; and the formation, modification and geographic distribution of various landforms. The site contains a syllabus, course calendar, course outline, study suggestions, exam reviews, and internet references.

Karen Lemke

426

Utilization of Live Localized Weather Information for Sustainable Agriculture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Authors: Jim Anderson VP, Global Network and Business Development WeatherBug® Professional Jeremy Usher Managing Director, Europe WeatherBug® Professional Localized, real-time weather information is vital for day-to-day agronomic management of all crops. The challenge for agriculture is twofold in that local and timely weather data is not often available for producers and farmers, and it is not integrated into decision-support tools they require. Many of the traditional sources of weather information are not sufficient for agricultural applications because of the long distances between weather stations, meaning the data is not always applicable for on-farm decision making processes. The second constraint with traditional weather information is the timeliness of the data. Most delivery systems are designed on a one-hour time step, whereas many decisions in agriculture are based on minute-by-minute weather conditions. This is especially true for decisions surrounding chemical and fertilizer application and frost events. This presentation will outline how the creation of an agricultural mesonet (weather network) can enable producers and farmers with live, local weather information from weather stations installed in farm/field locations. The live weather information collected from each weather station is integrated into a web-enabled decision support tool, supporting numerous on-farm agronomic activities such as pest management, or dealing with heavy rainfall and frost events. Agronomic models can be used to assess the potential of disease pressure, enhance the farmer's abilities to time pesticide applications, or assess conditions contributing to yield and quality fluctuations. Farmers and industry stakeholders may also view quality-assured historical weather variables at any location. This serves as a record-management tool for viewing previously uncharted agronomic weather events in graph or table form. This set of weather tools is unique and provides a significant enhancement to the agronomic decision-support process. Direct benefits to growers can take the form of increased yield and grade potential, as well as savings in money and time. Pest management strategies become more efficient due to timely and localized disease and pest modelling, and increased efficacy of pest and weed control. Examples from the Canadian Wheat Board (CWB) WeatherFarm weather network will be utilized to illustrate the processes, decision tools and benefits to producers and farmers.

Anderson, J.; Usher, J.

2010-09-01

427

Oceans, Climate and Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What is the difference between weather and climate? What do the oceans have to do with them? Weather is the day-to-day state of the atmosphere and its short-term (minutes to weeks) variation. Climate is typically described by the regional patterns of seasonal temperature and precipitation over 30 years. The averages of annual temperature, rainfall, cloud cover, and depth of frost penetration are all typical climate-related statistics. The oceans influence the worlds climate by storing solar energy and distributing it around the planet through currents and atmospheric winds.This publication is all about developing your students understandings of earths oceans and the major effect they have on climate. Understanding and interpreting local weather data and understanding the relationship between weather and climate are important first steps to understanding larger-scale global climate changes. Activities that ask students to collect and analyze local weather data as well as analyze global data can be found in the Lessons and Activities section. Analyzing and interpreting data is a major focus of this publication. Numerous data sets can be found in the Sources for Real Data section. The Background Information section and the article Tomorrows Forecast will help reinforce your own content knowledge.

Lightle, Kimberly

2006-01-01

428

Chemistry of uranium, thorium, and radium isotopes in the Ganga-Brahmaputra river system: Weathering processes and fluxes to the Bay of Bengal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The most comprehensive data set on uranium, thorium, and radium isotopes in the Ganga-Brahmaputra, one of the major river systems of the world, is reported here. The dissolved 238U concentration in these river waters ranges between 0.44 and 8.32 ?/1, and it exhibits a positive correlation with major cations (Na + K + Mg + Ca). The 238U /?Cations ratio in waters is very similar to that measured in the suspended sediments, indicating congruent weathering of uranium and major cations. The regional variations observed in the [ 234U /238U ] activity ratio are consistent with the lithology of the drainage basins. The lowland tributaries (Chambal, Betwa, Ken, and Son), draining through the igneous and metamorphic rocks of the Deccan Traps and the Vindhyan-Bundelkhand Plateau, have [ 234U /238U ] ratio in the range 1.16 to 1.84. This range is significantly higher than the near equilibrium ratio (~1.05) observed in the highland rivers which drain through sedimentary terrains. The dissolved 226Ra concentration ranges between 0.03 and 0.22 dpm/1. The striking feature of the radium isotopes data is the distinct difference in the 228Ra and 226Ra abundances between the highland and lowland rivers. The lowland waters are enriched in 228Ra while the highland waters contain more 226Ra. This difference mainly results from the differences in their weathering regimes. The discharge-weighted mean concentration of dissolved 238U in the Ganga (at Patna) and in the Brahmaputra (at Goalpara) are 1.81 and 0.63 ?/1, respectively. The Ganga-Brahmaputra river system constitutes the major source of dissolved uranium to the Bay of Bengal. These rivers transport annually about 1000 tons of uranium to their estuaries, about 10% of the estimated global supply of dissolved uranium to the oceans via rivers. The transport of uranium by these rivers far exceeds that of the Amazon, although their water discharge is only about 20% of that of the Amazon. The high intensity of weathering of uranium in the Ganga-Brahmapura River system can also be deduced from the [ 232Th /238U ] and [ 230Th /238U ] activity ratios measured in the suspended sediments. 230Th is enriched by about 19% in the suspended sediments relative to its parent 238U. The flux of excess 230Th supplied to the Bay of Bengal via these river sediments is 980 × 10 12 dpm/a, about six times more than its in situ production from seawater in the entire Bay of Bengal.

Sarin, M. M.; Krishnaswami, S.; somayajulu, B. L. K.; Moore, W. S.

1990-05-01

429

Sediment and process water characterization in support of 300 Area North Process Pond physical soil washing test  

SciTech Connect

The sediments in the 300 Area North Process Pond are being considered for clean-up using soil washing processes. Prior to site clean-up several preliminary pilot-scale physical washing campaigns were performed by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) staff in the summer of 1993. WHC used equipment that was obtained from the US Environmental Protection Agency. Specific details are found in the 300-FF-1 Physical Separations CERCLA Treatability Test Plan. Physical soil washing includes separation and proper containment of the contaminant-rich fines and residual liquid effluent and release of the coarse ``clean`` fraction, should it meet minimum performance levels for residual contaminant concentration to the site being cleaned. A goal of the demonstration is to concentrate the contaminants into {le}10% of the soil volume excavated and, therefore, to release {ge}90% of the soil back to the site as clean soil. To support interpretation of the WHC soil washing treatability study, PNL performed some sediment and process water characterization on samples taken during three major and one small campaign. This report documents particle-size distributions in various field washed piles, and chemical and gama emitting radionuclide contents as a function of particle-size distribution for the field washed sediments and contents in the spent process water. All of the particle fractions were separated by wet sieving, but two field samples were also subjected to dry sieving and attrition scrubbing followed by wet sieving.

Field, J.G.

1994-02-18

430

Probability for Weather and Climate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the last 60 years, the availability of large-scale electronic computers has stimulated rapid and significant advances both in meteorology and in our understanding of the Earth System as a whole. The speed of these advances was due, in large part, to the sudden ability to explore nonlinear systems of equations. The computer allows the meteorologist to carry a physical argument to its conclusion; the time scales of weather phenomena then allow the refinement of physical theory, numerical approximation or both in light of new observations. Prior to this extension, as Charney noted, the practicing meteorologist could ignore the results of theory with good conscience. Today, neither the practicing meteorologist nor the practicing climatologist can do so, but to what extent, and in what contexts, should they place the insights of theory above quantitative simulation? And in what circumstances can one confidently estimate the probability of events in the world from model-based simulations? Despite solid advances of theory and insight made possible by the computer, the fidelity of our models of climate differs in kind from the fidelity of models of weather. While all prediction is extrapolation in time, weather resembles interpolation in state space, while climate change is fundamentally an extrapolation. The trichotomy of simulation, observation and theory which has proven essential in meteorology will remain incomplete in climate science. Operationally, the roles of probability, indeed the kinds of probability one has access too, are different in operational weather forecasting and climate services. Significant barriers to forming probability forecasts (which can be used rationally as probabilities) are identified. Monte Carlo ensembles can explore sensitivity, diversity, and (sometimes) the likely impact of measurement uncertainty and structural model error. The aims of different ensemble strategies, and fundamental differences in ensemble design to support of decision making versus advance science, are noted. It is argued that, just as no point forecast is complete without an estimate of its accuracy, no model-based probability forecast is complete without an estimate of its own irrelevance. The same nonlinearities that made the electronic computer so valuable links the selection and assimilation of observations, the formation of ensembles, the evolution of models, the casting of model simulations back into observables, and the presentation of this information to those who use it to take action or to advance science. Timescales of interest exceed the lifetime of a climate model and the career of a climate scientist, disarming the trichotomy that lead to swift advances in weather forecasting. Providing credible, informative climate services is a more difficult task. In this context, the value of comparing the forecasts of simulation models not only with each other but also with the performance of simple empirical models, whenever possible, is stressed. The credibility of meteorology is based on its ability to forecast and explain the weather. The credibility of climatology will always be based on flimsier stuff. Solid insights of climate science may be obscured if the severe limits on our ability to see the details of the future even probabilistically are not communicated clearly.

Smith, L. A.

2013-12-01

431

Sharp decrease in long-term chemical weathering rates along an altitudinal transect  

E-print Network

Sharp decrease in long-term chemical weathering rates along an altitudinal transect§ Cli¡ord S long-term rates of chemical weathering and physical erosion across a steep climatic gradient analyses indicate that, relative to the parent rock, soils are less intensively weathered with increasing

Kirchner, James W.

432

Entropy Shows that Global Warming Should Cause Increased Variability in the Weather  

E-print Network

Elementary physical reasoning seems to leave it inevitable that global warming would increase the variability of the weather. The first two terms in an approximation to the global entropy are used to show that global warming has increased the free energy available to drive the weather, and that the variance of the weather should increase correspondingly.

John Michael Williams

2001-02-21

433

Field Guide to Rock Weathering. Earth Science Curriculum Project Pamphlet Series PS-1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Highlighted are the effects of weathering through field investigations of the environment, both natural rocks, and the urban environment's pavements, buildings, and cemeteries. Both physical weathering and chemical weathering are discussed. Questions are presented for post-field trip discussion. References and a glossary are provided. (Author/RE)

Boyer, Robert E.