Science.gov

Sample records for physics aspects severe

  1. Aspects of B physics

    SciTech Connect

    Gaillard, M.K.

    1987-10-14

    Various aspects of weak decays are commented on. Probing of the standard model and of phenomena beyond the standard model are discussed, followed by a theoretical view of B mesons and some experimental observations on B mesons. The point is made that any data on B decay would be interesting in that it would provide powerful new constraints in analyses of the standard model and extensions thereof. (LEW)

  2. Aspects of hadron physics.

    SciTech Connect

    Bhagwat, M. S.; Hoell, A.; Roberts, C. D.; Wright, S. V.; Physics; Univ. Rostock

    2007-01-01

    Detailed investigations of the structure of hadrons are essential for understanding how matter is constructed from the quarks and gluons of Quantum chromodynamics (QCD), and amongst the questions posed to modern hadron physics, three stand out. What is the rigorous, quantitative mechanism responsible for confinement? What is the connection between confinement and dynamical chiral symmetry breaking? And are these phenomena together sufficient to explain the origin of more than 98% of the mass of the observable universe? Such questions may only be answered using the full machinery of nonperturbative relativistic quantum field theory. This contribution provides a perspective on progress toward answering these key questions. In so doing it will provide an overview of the contemporary application of Dyson-Schwinger equations in Hadron Physics, additional information on which may be found in Refs. [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6]. The presentation assumes that the reader is familiar with the concepts and notation of relativistic quantum mechanics, with the functional integral formulation of quantum field theory and with regularization and renormalization in its perturbative formulation. For these topics, in order of appearance, Refs. [7, 8, 9, 10] are useful. In addition, Chaps. 1 and 2 of Ref. [5] review the bulk of the necessary concepts. Hadron physics is a key part of the international effort in basic science. For example, in the USA we currently have the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLab) and the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) while in Europe hadron physics is studied at the Frascati National Laboratory and is an important part of a forthcoming pan-European initiative; namely, the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) at GSI-Darmstadt. Progress in this field is gauged via the successful completion of precision measurements of fundamental properties of hadrons; e.g., the pion, proton and neutron, and simple nuclei, for comparison with

  3. New Aspects of Plasma Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schukla, Padma K.; Stenflo, Lennart; Eliasson, Bengt

    2008-03-01

    Nonlinear collective processes in very dense plasmas / P. K. Shukla, B. Eliasson and D. Shaikh -- Quantum, spin and QED effects in plasmas / G. Brodin and M. Marklund -- Spin quantum plasmas - new aspects of collective dynamics / M. Marklund and G. Brodin -- Revised quantum electrodynamics with fundamental applications / B. Lehnert -- Quantum methodologies in beam, fluid and plasma physics / R. Fedele -- Plasma effects in cold atom physics / J. T. Mendonca ... [et al.] -- General properties of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability in different plasma configurations: the plasma foil model / F. Pegoraro and S. V. Bulanov -- The Rayleigh-Taylor instability of a plasma foil accelerated by the radiation pressure of an ultra intense laser pulse / F. Pegoraro and S. V. Bulanov -- Generation of galactic seed magnetic fields / H. Saleem -- Nonlinear dynamics of mirror waves in non-Maxwellian plasmas / O. A. Pokhotelov et al. -- Formation of mirror structures near instability threshold / E. A. Kuznetsov, T. Passot and P. L. Sulem -- Nonlinear dispersive Alfvén waves in magnetoplasmas / P. K. Shukla ... [et al.] -- Properties of drift and Alfvén waves in collisional plasmas / J. Vranjes, S. Poedts and B. P. Pandey -- Current driven acoustic perturbations in partially ionized collisional plasmas / J. Vranjes ... [et al.] -- Multifluid theory of solitons / F. Verheest -- Nonlinear wavepackets in pair-ion and electron-positron-ion plasmas / I. Kourakis et al. -- Electro-acoustic solitary waves in dusty plasmas / A. A. Mamun and P. K. Shukla -- Physics of dust in magnetic fusion devices / Z. Wang et al. -- Short wavelength ballooning mode in Tokamaks / A. Hirose and N. Joiner -- Effects of perpendicular shear superposition and hybrid ions intruduction on parallel shear driven plasma instabilities / T. Kaneko and R. Hatakeyama.

  4. Contemporary Aspects of Atomic Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knott, R. G. A.

    1972-01-01

    The approach generally used in writing undergraduate textbooks on Atomic and Nuclear Physics presents this branch as historical in nature. Describes the concepts of astrophysics, plasma physics and spectroscopy as contemporary and intriguing for modern scientists. (PS)

  5. Physical aspects of protein dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parak, Fritz G.

    2003-02-01

    Protein dynamics is essential for specific biological functions. This paper reviews a large number of experiments and theoretical methods which have been applied in order to get a reliable physical picture. Many examples given here deal with myoglobin (Mb) which has been extensively investigated by several groups. It serves as a kind of `model protein'. The comparison of experiments at unphysiologically low temperatures with those at physiological temperatures proved to be of great help to separate the general dynamics of solids and modes of motion, which are essential for the biological function and become activated only above a characteristic temperature which is often called the dynamical transition temperature. By normal mode analysis a good insight into the molecular vibrations has been obtained. Recently, the Mössbauer effect with synchrotron radiation has been used to determine a density spectrum of phonons coupling to the heme iron in Mb. From this spectrum the mean square displacements at the position of the iron were calculated. The results are compared with those from incoherent neutron scattering. A normal mode refinement of x-ray structures of Mb in the temperature range from 40 to 300 K is discussed, which was used to determine the zero point structural distributions of protein molecules. Protein specific motions above a characteristic temperature have been investigated by Mössbauer absorption spectroscopy and incoherent neutron scattering. Different models to analyse the experiments are discussed, in particular two `state models' are compared. In the simplest case, atoms or groups of atoms jump between two positions which may be inequivalent in energy. At both positions they perform the same harmonic motions. In a more realistic assumption there are two types of states with different backdriving forces. At low temperatures the molecules are trapped in `rigid' states which are often called `conformational substates' in the literature. At increasing

  6. Clinical Aspects of Uncomplicated and Severe Malaria

    PubMed Central

    Bartoloni, Alessandro; Zammarchi, Lorenzo

    2012-01-01

    The first symptoms of malaria, common to all the different malaria species, are nonspecific and mimic a flu-like syndrome. Although fever represents the cardinal feature, clinical findings in malaria are extremely diverse and may range in severity from mild headache to serious complications leading to death, particularly in falciparum malaria. As the progression to these complications can be rapid, any malaria patient must be assessed and treated rapidly, and frequent observations are needed to look for early signs of systemic complications. In fact, severe malaria is a life threatening but treatable disease. The protean and nonspecific clinical findings occurring in malaria (fever, malaise, headache, myalgias, jaundice and sometimes gastrointestinal symptoms of nausea, vomiting and diarrhoea) may lead physicians who see malaria infrequently to a wrong diagnosis, such as influenza (particularly during the seasonal epidemic flu), dengue, gastroenteritis, typhoid fever, viral hepatitis, encephalitis. Physicians should be aware that malaria is not a clinical diagnosis but must be diagnosed, or excluded, by performing microscopic examination of blood films. Prompt diagnosis and appropriate treatment are then crucial to prevent morbidity and fatal outcomes. Although Plasmodium falciparum malaria is the major cause of severe malaria and death, increasing evidence has recently emerged that Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium knowlesi can also be severe and even fatal. PMID:22708041

  7. ITER physics design guidelines at high aspect ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uckan, N. A.

    1991-09-01

    The physics requirements for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) design are formulated in a set of physics design guidelines. These guidelines, established by the ITER Physics Group during the Conceptual Design Activity (CDA, 1988--90), were based on credible extrapolations of the tokamak physics database as assessed during the CDA, and defined a class of tokamak designs (with plasma current I is approximately 20 MA and aspect ratio A is approximately 2.5--3.5) that meet the ITER objectives. Recent U.S. studies have indicated that there may be significant benefits if the ITER-CDA design point is moved from the low aspect ratio, high current baseline (A = 2.79, I = 22 MA) to a high aspect ratio machine at Ais approximately 4, I is approximately 15 MA, especially regarding steady-state, technology-testing performance. To adequately assess the physics and technology testing capability of higher aspect ratio design options, several changes are proposed to the original ITER guidelines to reflect the latest developments in physics understanding at higher aspect ratios. The critical issues for higher aspect ratio design options are the uncertainty in scaling of confinement with aspect ratio, the variation of vertical stability with elongation and aspect ratio, plasma shaping requirements, ability to control and maintain plasma current and q-profiles for MHD stability (and volt-second consumption), access for current drive, restrictions on field ripple and divertor plate incident angles, etc.

  8. Interdisciplinary Aspects of Learning: Physics and Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oleg, Yavoruk

    2015-01-01

    The article deals with interdisciplinary aspects of learning in the case of physics and psychology. It describes the lab-based academic course focused on: observation and experimentation; discovery of new scientific facts; measurement; identification of errors; the study of psychological characteristics of people (time perception, the reaction…

  9. Collider Aspects of Flavour Physics at High Q

    SciTech Connect

    del Aguila, F.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J.A.; Allanach, B.C.; Alwall, J.; Andreev, Yu.; Aristizabal Sierra, D.; Bartl, A.; Beccaria, M.; Bejar, S.; Benucci, L.; Bityukov, S.; Borjanovic, I.; Bozzi, G.; Burdman, G.; Carvalho, J.; Castro, N.; Clerbaux, B.; de Campos, F.; de Gouvea, A.; Dennis, C.; Djouadi, A.; /Cambridge U., DAMTP /Louvain U., CP3 /Moscow, INR /Valencia U. /Vienna U. /Salento U. /INFN, Lecce /Barcelona, Autonoma U. /Barcelona, IFAE /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U. /Karlsruhe U. /Sao Paulo U. /LIP, Coimbra /Brussels U. /Sao Paulo U., Guaratingueta /Northwestern U. /Oxford U. /Orsay, LPT /Athens U. /Lisbon U.

    2008-03-07

    This chapter of the report of the 'Flavour in the era of LHC' workshop discusses flavor related issues in the production and decays of heavy states at LHC, both from the experimental side and from the theoretical side. We review top quark physics and discuss flavor aspects of several extensions of the Standard Model, such as supersymmetry, little Higgs model or models with extra dimensions. This includes discovery aspects as well as measurement of several properties of these heavy states. We also present public available computational tools related to this topic.

  10. Physical Aspects of Fruit Growth 1

    PubMed Central

    Considine, John; Brown, Ken

    1981-01-01

    The theory of shells has been applied to some aspects of the physics of fruit growth. Four form and structural attributes are identified which may intensify mechanical stress in the skin of a growing fruit and alter the distribution of that stress. One is a radius-related factor introduced by deviation of shape from that of a sphere and the other three are related to attachment of a fruit to a plant and to provision of a vascular system: core diameter, core tensile strength, and structure of the core/skin interface. The last factor also applies in principle to a hole which may be introduced for example at the style canal. These factors either alone or in combination can cause stresses far in excess of those predicted for a spherical shell of similar volume and wall thickness. They are considered in relation to their effect on fruit morphogenesis and the occurrence of disorders such as rainfall-induced splitting and cracking. PMID:16661919

  11. Physics aspects of the Compact Ignition Tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Post, D.; Bateman, G.; Houlberg, W.; Bromberg, L.; Cohn, D.; Colestock, P.; Hughes, M.; Ignat, D.; Izzo, R.; Jardin, S.

    1986-11-01

    The Compact Ignition Tokamak (CIT) is a proposed modest-size ignition experiment designed to study the physics of alpha-particle heating. The basic concept is to achieve ignition in a modest-size minimum cost experiment by using a high plasma density to achieve the condition of ntau/sub E/ approx. 2 x 10/sup 20/ sec m/sup -3/ required for ignition. The high density requires a high toroidal field (10 T). The high toroidal field allows a large plasma current (10 MA) which improves the energy confinement, and provides a high level of ohmic heating. The present CIT design also has a gigh degree of elongation (k approx. 1.8) to aid in producing the large plasma current. A double null poloidal divertor and a pellet injector are part of the design to provide impurity and particle control, improve the confinement, and provide flexibility for impurity and particle control, improve the confinement, and provide flexibility for improving the plasma profiles. Since auxiliary heating is expected to be necessary to achieve ignition, 10 to 20 MW of Ion Cyclotron Radio Frequency (ICRF) is to be provided.

  12. Physics and technological aspects of nanofluidics.

    PubMed

    Bocquet, Lyderic; Tabeling, Patrick

    2014-09-01

    From a physical perspective, nanofluidics represents an extremely rich domain. It hosts many mechanisms acting on the nanoscale, which combine together or interact with the confinement to generate new phenomena. Superfast flows in carbon nanotubes, nonlinear electrokinetic transport, slippage over smooth surfaces, nanobubble stability, etc. are the most striking phenomena that have been unveiled over the past few years, and some of them are still awaiting an explanation. One may anticipate that new nanofluidic effects will be discovered in the future, but at the moment, the technological barrier is high. Fabrication of nanochannels is most often a tour de force, slow and costly. However, with the accumulation of technological skills along with the use of new nanofluidic materials (like nanotubes), nanofluidics is becoming increasingly accessible to experimentalists. Among the technological challenges faced by the field, fabricating devices mimicking natural nanometric systems, such as aquaporins, ionic pumps or kidney osmotic filtering, seems the most demanding in terms of groundbreaking ideas. Nanoflow characterization remains delicate, although considerable progress has been achieved over the past years. The targeted application of nanofluidics is not only in the field of genomics and membrane science--with disruptive developments to be expected for water purification, desalination, and energy harvesting--but also for oil and gas production from unconventional reservoirs. Today, in view of the markets that are targeted, nanofluidics may well impact the industry more than microfluidics; this would represent an unexpected paradox. These successes rely on using a variety of materials and technologies, using state-of-the-art nanofabrication, or low-tech inexpensive approaches. As a whole, nanofluidics is a fascinating field that is facing considerable challenges today. It possesses a formidable potential and offers much space for creative groundbreaking ideas. PMID

  13. Predicting Mild and Severe Husband-to-Wife Physical Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pan, Helen S.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Estimated odds of mild and severe husband-to-wife physical aggression in 11,870 white men. Being younger, having lower income, and having alcohol problem significantly increased odds of either mild or severe physical aggression. Drug problem uniquely increased risk of severe physical aggression. Marital discord and depression further increased…

  14. Severe acute pancreatitis: Pathogenetic aspects and prognostic factors

    PubMed Central

    Mofleh, Ibrahim A Al

    2008-01-01

    Approximately 20% of patients with acute pancreatitis develop a severe disease associated with complications and high risk of mortality. The purpose of this study is to review pathogenesis and prognostic factors of severe acute pancreatitis (SAP). An extensive medline search was undertaken with focusing on pathogenesis, complications and prognostic evaluation of SAP. Cytokines and other inflammatory markers play a major role in the pathogenesis and course of SAP and can be used as prognostic markers in its early phase. Other markers such as simple prognostic scores have been found to be as effective as multifactorial scoring systems (MFSS) at 48 h with the advantage of simplicity, efficacy, low cost, accuracy and early prediction of SAP. Recently, several laboratory markers including hematocrit, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine, matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and serum amyloid A (SAA) have been used as early predictors of severity within the first 24 h. The last few years have witnessed a tremendous progress in understanding the pathogenesis and predicting the outcome of SAP. In this review we classified the prognostic markers into predictors of severity, pancreatic necrosis (PN), infected PN (IPN) and mortality. PMID:18205255

  15. Severe neurological impairment: legal aspects of decisions to reduce care.

    PubMed

    Beresford, H R

    1984-05-01

    Decisions to reduce care for patients with severe neurological impairment may raise legal questions. The laws of most states now authorize physicians to stop care for those who have suffered irreversible cessation of all functions of the brain ("brain death"). Where state law is not explicit, it is nevertheless probably lawful to regard brain death as death for legal purposes so long as currently accepted criteria are satisfied. Several courts have ruled that it is lawful to reduce care for patients in vegetative states, but have prescribed differing standards and procedures for implementing such decisions. The issue of whether parents can authorize physicians to reduce care for neurologically impaired children is the focus of current litigation. Implicit in this litigation is the question of how severe neurological impairment must be before parents and physicians may lawfully agree to reduce care. For severely impaired but not vegetative adults, there is some legal authority to justify certain decisions to reduce care. The issue of whether withholding feeding from a severely demented patient with life-threatening medical problems constitutes criminal behavior is now being considered by a state supreme court. PMID:6732188

  16. Severe scorpion envenomation in Brazil. Clinical, laboratory and anatomopathological aspects.

    PubMed

    Cupo, P; Jurca, M; Azeedo-Marques, M M; Oliveira, J S; Hering, S E

    1994-01-01

    Scorpion stings in Brazil are important not only because of their incidence but also for their potential ability to induce severe, and often fatal, clinical situations, especially among children. In this report we present the clinical and laboratory data of 4 patients victims of scorpion stings by T. serrulatus, who developed heart failure and pulmonary edema, with 3 of them dying within 24 hours of the sting. Anatomopathologic study of these patients revealed diffuse areas of myocardiocytolysis in addition to pulmonary edema. The surviving child presented enzymatic, electrocardiographic and echocardiographic changes compatible with severe cardiac involvement, which were reversed within 5 days. These findings reinforce the need for continuous monitoring of patients with severe scorpion envenoming during the hours immediately following the sting. PMID:7997776

  17. Thermo-physical aspects of energy conversion, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Gunn, M.E. ); Knoebel, D.H. ); Mills, J.I. ); Chen, F.C. )

    1990-01-01

    These paper were presented in three technical sessions on the Thermo-Physical Aspects of Energy Conversion. The sessions were organized under the auspices of the Advanced Energy Systems Division to review the recent results of experimental and theoretical investigations and analyses important to the development of energy conversion technology. Topics included in the thermo-physical aspects of energy conversion are combustion, innovative thermodynamic cycles, and novel transport processes. This collection of papers clearly shows that the technical community maintains significant interest in enhancing development of enabling energy conversion technologies needed by society to meet current and future energy efficiency and environmental goals.

  18. Severe Congenital Protein C Deficiency: Practical Aspects of Management.

    PubMed

    Shah, Ravi; Ferreira, Patrick; Karmali, Shelina; Le, Doan

    2016-08-01

    Subcutaneous (SC) protein C (PC) was used in a child with purpura fulminans secondary to severe congenital PC deficiency. For maintenance, PC 80-120 IU/kg, given over 60-90 min SC Q48hr, has been successful as a home therapy for more than 3 years. The treatment was monitored by measuring trough PC chromogenic activity (target ≥15%) and D-dimer levels. No change in clinical course was appreciated after discontinuing enoxaparin (and leaving the patient on prophylactic PC replacement alone). A significant discrepancy between clotting-based and chromogenic-based PC activity is shown. PMID:27138381

  19. (The latest developments of the physical aspects of electrochemistry)

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, S.H.

    1990-09-24

    The author was one of 26 invited lecturers to discuss the latest developments of the physical aspects of electrochemistry. He interacted extensively with other lecturers and many participants from developing countries. He also visited with the Director of the Italian Synchrotron Radiation Source now under construction in Trieste, Italy.

  20. Aspects of the Cognitive Model of Physics Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brekke, Stewart E.

    Various aspects of the cognitive model of physics problem solving are discussed in detail including relevant cues, encoding, memory, and input stimuli. The learning process involved in the recognition of familiar and non-familiar sensory stimuli is highlighted. Its four components include selection, acquisition, construction, and integration. The…

  1. Aspects of Particle Physics Beyond the Standard Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Xiaochuan

    This dissertation describes a few aspects of particles beyond the Standard Model, with a focus on the remaining questions after the discovery of a Standard Model-like Higgs boson. In specific, three topics are discussed in sequence: neutrino mass and baryon asymmetry, naturalness problem of Higgs mass, and placing constraints on theoretical models from precision measurements. First, the consequence of the neutrino mass anarchy on cosmology is studied. Attentions are paid in particular to the total mass of neutrinos and baryon asymmetry through leptogenesis. With the assumption of independence among mass matrix entries in addition to the basis independence, Gaussian measure is the only choice. On top of Gaussian measure, a simple approximate U(1) flavor symmetry makes leptogenesis highly successful. Correlations between the baryon asymmetry and the light-neutrino quantities are investigated. Also discussed are possible implications of recently suggested large total mass of neutrinos by the SDSS/BOSS data. Second, the Higgs mass implies fine-tuning for minimal theories of weak-scale supersymmetry (SUSY). Non-decoupling effects can boost the Higgs mass when new states interact with the Higgs, but new sources of SUSY breaking that accompany such extensions threaten naturalness. I will show that two singlets with a Dirac mass can increase the Higgs mass while maintaining naturalness in the presence of large SUSY breaking in the singlet sector. The modified Higgs phenomenology of this scenario, termed "Dirac NMSSM", is also studied. Finally, the sensitivities of future precision measurements in probing physics beyond the Standard Model are studied. A practical three-step procedure is presented for using the Standard Model effective field theory (SM EFT) to connect ultraviolet (UV) models of new physics with weak scale precision observables. With this procedure, one can interpret precision measurements as constraints on the UV model concerned. A detailed explanation is

  2. The relationships between posttraumatic stress disorder severity, depression severity and physical health.

    PubMed

    Rytwinski, Nina K; Avena, Jennifer S; Echiverri-Cohen, Aileen M; Zoellner, Lori A; Feeny, Norah C

    2014-04-01

    This study examines the relationship among posttraumatic stress disorder severity, depression severity, and subjective and objective physical health in a sample of 200 adults with posttraumatic stress disorder. Posttraumatic stress disorder severity was correlated with subjective, but not objective, health. Similarly, depression symptoms had an indirect effect on the relationship between posttraumatic stress disorder symptom severity and three measures of subjective physical health. Finally, depression symptoms had an indirect effect on the relationship between both reexperiencing and hyperarousal symptoms and subjective physical health. This research underscores the important role that posttraumatic stress disorder, particularly reexperiencing and hyperarousal symptoms, and depression may have on perceptions of physical health. PMID:23449677

  3. The relationships between posttraumatic stress disorder severity, depression severity and physical health

    PubMed Central

    Rytwinski, Nina K; Avena, Jennifer S; Echiverri-Cohen, Aileen M; Zoellner, Lori A; Feeny, Norah C

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the relationship among posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) severity, depression severity, and subjective and objective physical health in a sample of 200 adults with PTSD. PTSD severity was correlated with subjective, but not objective, health. Similarly, depression symptoms had an indirect effect on the relationship between PTSD symptom severity and three measures of subjective physical health. Finally, depression symptoms had an indirect effect on the relationship between both reexperiencing and hyperarousal symptoms and subjective physical health. This research underscores the important role that PTSD, particularly reexperiencing and hyperarousal symptoms, and depression may have on perceptions of physical health. PMID:23449677

  4. Physical aspects of computing the flow of a viscous fluid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehta, U. B.

    1984-01-01

    One of the main themes in fluid dynamics at present and in the future is going to be computational fluid dynamics with the primary focus on the determination of drag, flow separation, vortex flows, and unsteady flows. A computation of the flow of a viscous fluid requires an understanding and consideration of the physical aspects of the flow. This is done by identifying the flow regimes and the scales of fluid motion, and the sources of vorticity. Discussions of flow regimes deal with conditions of incompressibility, transitional and turbulent flows, Navier-Stokes and non-Navier-Stokes regimes, shock waves, and strain fields. Discussions of the scales of fluid motion consider transitional and turbulent flows, thin- and slender-shear layers, triple- and four-deck regions, viscous-inviscid interactions, shock waves, strain rates, and temporal scales. In addition, the significance and generation of vorticity are discussed. These physical aspects mainly guide computations of the flow of a viscous fluid.

  5. Physical aspects of 0-3 dielectric composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lin; Bass, Patrick; Cheng, Z.-Y.

    2015-05-01

    0-3 dielectric composites with high dielectric constants have received great interest for various technological applications. Great achievements have been made in the development of high performance of 0-3 composites, which can be classified into dielectric-dielectric (DDCs) and conductor-dielectric composites (CDCs). However, predicting the dielectric properties of a composite is still a challenging problem of both theoretical and practical importance. Here, the physical aspects of 0-3 dielectric composites are reviewed. The limitation of current understanding and new developments in the physics of dielectric properties for dielectric composites are discussed. It is indicated that the current models cannot explain well the physical aspects for the dielectric properties of 0-3 dielectric composites. For the CDCs, experimental results show that there is a need to find new equations/models to predict the percolative behavior incorporating more parameters to describe the behavior of these materials. For the DDCs, it is indicated that the dielectric loss of each constituent has to be considered, and that it plays a critical role in the determination of the dielectric response of these types of composites. The differences in the loss of the constituents can result in a higher dielectric constant than both of the constituents combined, which breaks the Wiener limits.

  6. Screening for Physical Problems in Classrooms for Severely Handicapped Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dever, Richard; Knapczyk, Dennis

    1980-01-01

    The authors present a screening device with which teachers of severely handicapped students may detect the presence of a physical problem. The screening approach covers vision, auditory problems, seizures, orthopedic problems, and pain. (CL)

  7. Recent research on the physical aspects of earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheidegger, A. E.

    1985-11-01

    Recent developments in the field of physical aspects of earthquakes, which encompasses in present-day terminology the analysis of focal dynamics and of catastrophic effects of earthquakes, are reviewed. In particular individual sections of this review deal with the earthquake source, effects of earthquakes on the ground, the geographic and temporal distribution of earthquakes, the characterization of seismic risk, earthquake prediction and with the artificial release of earthquakes. In this instance, the review supplements earlier information by the author (1975) by new data published mainly between 1975 and 1984.

  8. Aspects of New Physics at the TeV Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Jiayin

    The Standard Model, despite its great success, is generally considered as an incomplete theory and various reasons suggest that new physics may appear around the TeV scale. The LHC discovered a Standard Model like Higgs boson at around 126 GeV, but has not observed any evidence of new physics yet. As the tension is increasing between the expectation of the TeV scale new physics and the lack of experimental discovery, it is helpful to consider new model building directions and new search strategies. In this thesis, we present a few studies on different aspects of new physics at the TeV scale. First, we present a composite Higgs model based on the top seesaw mechanism. We show that with an approximate U(3)L chiral symmetry, associated with a vector-like quark and the (t, b)L doublet, the lightest CP-even neutral state of the composite scalar sector is lighter than the top quark and can be identified as the newly discovered Higgs boson. Second, we present two studies of search strategies of the stop particle, with the first one focusing on the semi-leptonic channel and the second one focusing on the di-leptonic channel with compressed signal spectra. In both cases, we introduce new kinematic variables which can substantially improve the signal significance. We also present a mass measurement method at hadron colliders for a decay chain of two steps, which ends with a missing particle. We show that it is possible to extract all three invisible particle masses with reasonable accuracies, which was previously thought to be impossible. With the upgrade of the LHC and the possibilities of new larger colliders in the future, the search for new physics will continue on, and our studies can help.

  9. Radiation protection aspects of EMITEL Encyclopaedia of Medical Physics.

    PubMed

    Stoeva, M; Tabakov, S; Lewis, C; Tabakova, V; Thurston, J; Smith, P

    2015-07-01

    The Encyclopaedia of Medical Physics EMITEL was developed under the EU pilot project European Medical Imaging Technology e-Encyclopaedia for Lifelong Learning. This large reference material includes 3400 articles on 2100 pages supported by thousands of illustrations. All materials are available free at the website, www.emitel2.eu. The articles are grouped in seven categories--physics of: X-ray diagnostic radiology, nuclear medicine, radiotherapy, magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasound imaging, radiation protection and general terms. The radiation protection part of EMITEL includes 450 articles. These were organised in several sub-groups including: nuclear and atomic physics; ionizing radiation interactions and biological effects; radiation detection and measurement; dosimetric quantities and units; and general radiation protection and international bodies. EMITEL project was developed over 3 y and attracted as contributors 250+ senior specialists from 35 countries. After its successful launching, EMITEL is actively used by thousands of professionals around the world. PMID:25848099

  10. Health physics aspects of processing EBR-I coolant

    SciTech Connect

    Burke, L.L.; Thalgott, J.O.; Poston, J.W. Jr.

    1998-12-31

    The sodium-potassium reactor coolant removed from the Experimental Breeder Reactor Number One after a partial reactor core meltdown had been stored at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory for 40 years. The State of Idaho considered this waste the most hazardous waste stored in the state and required its processing. The reactor coolant was processed in three phases. The first phase converted the alkali metal into a liquid sodium-potassium hydroxide. The second phase converted this caustic to a liquid sodium-potassium carbonate. The third phase solidified the sodium-potassium carbonate into a form acceptable for land disposal. Health physics aspects and dose received during each phase of the processing are discussed.

  11. Independent Swimming for Children with Severe Physical Impairments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grosse, Susan J.; McGill, Christine D.

    1979-01-01

    Techniques are described for teaching severely physically disabled persons to swim. Approaches begin with a discussion of water adjustment progression and proceed through achieving breath control, mobility, developing movement in a supine position, and developing recovery. The conclusion addresses such final steps toward independence as pool entry…

  12. Physical Activities for Children with Severe Multiple Impairments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grosse, Susan J.

    1981-01-01

    Intended for teachers of students with severe multiple impairments, the booklet examines the role of physical activities in the education of this population and suggests approaches to exhancing their motor development. Suggestions are offered for stimulating movement in preschool, elementary, and secondary immobile children, including tactile…

  13. Quantifying the Influence of Hillslope Form, Aspect and Burn Severity on Post-Wildfire Hillslope Erosion Rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perreault, L. M.; Yager, E. M.; Aalto, R. E.

    2010-12-01

    Wildfires can profoundly affect hillslope erosion rates by altering the physical and chemical attributes of the soil and denuding stabilizing vegetation. Increased hillslope erosion can raise stream channel sediment loads, which can change the channel morphology and impact aquatic habitat structure and downstream dam sedimentation. Current climate change predictions for the intermountain West forecast more frequent and severe droughts, and correspondingly more severe fire events, increasing the potential for post-fire erosion. Despite the widespread impacts of such erosion events, hillslope erosion processes remain poorly understood. Thus, to better understand these processes, we measure hillslope erosion rates in the mountainous terrain of central Idaho following a large, severe 2007 forest fire. Specifically, we use radionuclide (Lead-210, Cesium-137) inventories to quantify hillslope erosion rates in several watersheds with different burn severity (severe, moderate and unburned), on different aspects (north vs. south facing slopes), and on different hillslope forms (concave vs. convex profiles). In mid-latitude areas of high relief, aspect strongly influences the amount of solar radiation received and thus impacts local moisture conditions, vegetation and soil development, all of which can affect soil erosion rates. Hillslope form may influence the dominant erosion process, with convex profiles characterized by diffusive erosion, and concave profiles potentially enabling more overland flow, rill and gully formation. These variables, in addition to burn severity, are therefore likely to affect erosion rates. Our study quantifies the effect of burn severity, hillslope form, and aspect on the rates and processes of post-fire hillslope erosion. In addition, our study offers insight into the relatively novel use of radionuclide inventories to measure post-wildfire erosion rates. An improved quantitative understanding of hillslope erosion processes would enable us to

  14. A Search for Extraterrestrial Eukaryotes: Physical and Paleontological Aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chela-Flores, J.

    1998-10-01

    Physical and biochemical aspects of a proposed search for extraterrestrial eukaryotes (SETE) are considered. Such a program should approach the distinction between a primitive eukaryote and an archaebacteria. The emphasis on gene silencing suggests a possible assay suitable for a robotic investigation of eukaryoticity, so as to be able to decide whether the first steps towards eukaryogenesis have been taken in an extraterrestrial planet, or satellite. The experiment would consist of searching for cellular division and the systematic related delay in replication of heterochromatic chromosome segments. It should be noticed that the direct search for a membrane-bounded set of chromosomes does not necessarily determine eukaryotic identity, as there are prokaryotes that have membrane-bounded nucleoids. A closer look at the protein fraction of chromatin (mainly histones) does not help either, as there are some eukaryotes that may lack histones; there are also some bacteria as well as archaebacteria with histone-like proteins in their nucleoids. Comments on the recent suggestion of possible environments for a SETE program are discussed: the deep crust of Mars, and the Jovian satellite Europa, provided the existence of an ocean under its ice-covered surface is confirmed by the current Galileo mission.

  15. Physical and Chemical Aspects of Stabilization of Compounds in Silk

    PubMed Central

    Pritchard, Eleanor M.; Dennis, Patrick B.; Omenetto, Fiorenzo; Naik, Rajesh R.; Kaplan, David L.

    2015-01-01

    The challenge of stabilization of small molecules and proteins has received considerable interest. The biological activity of small molecules can be lost as a consequence of chemical modifications, while protein activity may be lost due to chemical or structural degradation, such as a change in macromolecular conformation or aggregation. In these cases stabilization is required to preserve therapeutic and bioactivity efficacy and safety. In addition to use in therapeutic applications, strategies to stabilize small molecules and proteins also have applications in industrial processes, diagnostics, and consumer products like food and cosmetics. Traditionally, therapeutic drug formulation efforts have focused on maintaining stability during product preparation and storage. However, with growing interest in the fields of encapsulation, tissue engineering and controlled release drug delivery systems, new stabilization challenges are being addressed; the compounds or protein of interest must be stabilized during: (1) fabrication of the protein or small molecule loaded carrier, (2) device storage, and (3) for the duration of intended release needs in vitro or in vivo. We review common mechanisms of compound degradation for small molecules and proteins during biomaterial preparation (including tissue engineering scaffolds and drug delivery systems), storage and in vivo implantation. We also review the physical and chemical aspects of polymer-based stabilization approaches, with a particular focus on the stabilizing properties of silk fibroin biomaterials. PMID:22270942

  16. A search for extraterrestrial eukaryotes: physical and paleontological aspects.

    PubMed

    Chela-Flores, J

    1998-10-01

    Physical and biochemical aspects of a proposed search for extraterrestrial eukaryotes (SETE) are considered. Such a program should approach the distinction between a primitive eukaryote and an archaebacteria. The emphasis on gene silencing suggests a possible assay suitable for a robotic investigation of eukaryoticity, so as to be able to decide whether the first steps towards eukaryogenesis have been taken in an extraterrestrial planet, or satellite. The experiment would consist of searching for cellular division and the systematic related delay in replication of heterochromatic chromosome segments. It should be noticed that the direct search for a membrane-bounded set of chromosomes does not necessarily determine eukaryotic identity, as there are prokaryotes that have membrane-bounded nucleoids. A closer look at the protein fraction of chromatin (mainly histones) does not help either, as there are some eukaryotes that may lack histones; there are also some bacteria as well as archaebacteria with histone-like proteins in their nucleoids. Comments on the recent suggestion of possible environments for a SETE program are discussed: the deep crust of Mars, and the Jovian satellite Europa, provided the existence of an ocean under its ice-covered surface is confirmed by the current Galileo mission. PMID:9742730

  17. Some Aspects of the Physics of Shooting a Basketball

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontanella, John J.

    2006-12-01

    The flight of a basketball is considered.1 Video analysis of the path and spin for several shots was carried out. It is shown that four forces are required to reproduce the trajectory: gravity, buoyancy, the drag force and the Magnus force. The relative contribution of each force is determined. The model is used to evaluate what it is that good shooters do. For a foul shot, the approach speed (speed when the basketball is just above the rim), launch speed, and launch angle were calculated. It is found that the minimum in the approach speed occurs at a launch angle closer to the experimental values for good shooters than does the minimum in the launch speed. This suggests the hoopothesis that a good shooter strives for the “softest” shot. 1. J. J. Fontanella, The Physics of Basketball, The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, 2006.

  18. Physical Aspects of Magnetic Induction Heating in Hyperthermia.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Mann-Tchao

    The technical aspects of the heating of a deep -seated lung tumor by electromagnetic induction have been explored by means of a theoretical model. It was found that frequencies up to 30 MHz can be used without significant losses in magnetic field depth penetration. Steady-state temperature solutions to the bio-heat equation are presented for the heating of a thorax model consisting of a spherical tumor embedded in lung tissue which is layered by muscle and fatty tissue. Analytical solutions are presented for each of the tissue regions along with their numerical evaluations over a range of physical characteristics, including surface cooling effects. A strong dependence of tumor temperature on size and blood perfusion rate is shown to exist and can be used to optimize treatment parameters. Tendencies of the chest muscles and overlaying fatty tissue to overheat, particularly in the case of an obese patient, are discussed along with the alleviating influence of surface cooling. Healthy lung tissue, on the other hand, is shown to be safe from any significant damage in such a heating situation. Transient times required for tumors to achieve thermal equilibrium are computed and shown to depend strongly on tumor size and, to a lesser extent, on blood perfusion rate. The overall results obtained from the model are compared with available clinical data and are found to be in line with those observations. The design and construction of an apparatus which can produce the required induction fields is described. The device consists of a single-turn induction coil with a resonant capacitor and two coupling capacitors. It can be tuned for any patient to represent a 50 ohm matched load at 13.56 MHz. The design is carefully balanced for minimum interference with the thermocouple thermometer, making it possible to make measurements while the radio frequency power is turned on.

  19. On several aspects and applications of the multigrid method for solving partial differential equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dinar, N.

    1978-01-01

    Several aspects of multigrid methods are briefly described. The main subjects include the development of very efficient multigrid algorithms for systems of elliptic equations (Cauchy-Riemann, Stokes, Navier-Stokes), as well as the development of control and prediction tools (based on local mode Fourier analysis), used to analyze, check and improve these algorithms. Preliminary research on multigrid algorithms for time dependent parabolic equations is also described. Improvements in existing multigrid processes and algorithms for elliptic equations were studied.

  20. Severe physical exertion, oxidative stress, and acute lung injury.

    PubMed

    Shah, Nikunj R; Iqbal, M Bilal; Barlow, Andrew; Bayliss, John

    2011-11-01

    We report the case of a 27-year-old male athlete presenting with severe dyspnoea 24 hours after completing an "Ironman Triathlon." Subsequent chest radiology excluded pulmonary embolus but confirmed an acute lung injury (ALI). Echocardiography corroborated a normal brain natriuretic peptide level by demonstrating good biventricular systolic function with no regional wall motion abnormalities. He recovered well, without requiring ventilatory support, on supplemental oxygen therapy and empirical antibiotics. To date, ALI following severe physical exertion has never been described. Exercise is a form of physiological stress resulting in oxidative stress through generation of reactive oxygen/nitrogen species. In its extreme form, there is potential for an excessive oxidative stress response--one that overwhelms the body's protective antioxidant mechanisms. As our case demonstrated, oxidative stress secondary to severe physical exertion was the most likely factor in the pathogenesis of ALI. Further studies are necessary to explore the pathological consequences of exercise-induced oxidative stress. Although unproven as of yet, further research may be needed to demonstrate if antioxidant therapy can prevent or ameliorate potential life-threatening complications in the acute setting. PMID:22064719

  1. Early developments: Particle physics aspects of cosmic rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grupen, Claus

    2014-01-01

    Cosmic rays is the birthplace of elementary particle physics. The 1936 Nobel prize was shared between Victor Hess and Carl Anderson. Anderson discovered the positron in a cloud chamber. The positron was predicted by Dirac several years earlier. In subsequent cloud chamber investigations Anderson and Neddermeyer saw the muon, which for some time was considered to be a candidate for the Yukawa particle responsible for nuclear binding. Measurements with nuclear emulsions by Lattes, Powell, Occhialini and Muirhead clarified the situation by the discovery of the charged pions in cosmic rays. The cloud chamber continued to be a powerful instrument in cosmic ray studies. Rochester and Butler found V's, which turned out to be shortlived neutral kaons decaying into a pair of charged pions. Also Λ's, Σ's, and Ξ's were found in cosmic rays. But after that accelerators and storage rings took over. The unexpected renaissance of cosmic rays started with the search for solar neutrinos and the observation of the supernova 1987A. Cosmic ray neutrino results were best explained by the assumption of neutrino oscillations opening a view beyond the standard model of elementary particles. After 100 years of cosmic ray research we are again at the beginning of a new era, and cosmic rays may contribute to solve the many open questions, like dark matter and dark energy, by providing energies well beyond those of accelerators.

  2. Quality and usability aspects of space physics data archive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laakso, H. E.; Escoubet, C. P.; Masson, A.; Perry, C. H.; Taylor, M. G.

    2012-12-01

    The ESA Cluster Active Archive (CAA) was opened to public in February 2006 after an initial three-year development phase. It provides access to the calibrated full-resolution observations of the four-satellite Cluster mission that has been in operation since February 2001. The data archive is required to include all full-resolution measurements, be publicly accessible and suitable for science use and publication by the world-wide scientific community. The guidelines for the development of the archive system include the following two key terms: quality and usability. The former is essentially related to the quality of the data products, in particular as far as the quality of instrument calibrations is concerned. To help this activity, the CAA runs two calibration/cross-calibration workshops where the calibration results and activities are discussed in great detail. The usability is related to the usability of the data access tools (both web GUI and command-line tool are available) but also to the content of the data products (e.g. all necessary science and auxiliary parameters must be included) in order to fully exploit the observations. Both aspects are critical to the success of the Cluster archive that has currently about 1500 different users who can have highly varying knowledge of the Cluster instruments and observations. There is a large group of Cluster investigators who are fully capable of assessing the quality of the archived data products which however may require various additional science and auxiliary data that must all be included in the archive. On the other hand there is a much larger group of users who have very limited knowledge, if any, of the Cluster mission and all they need is a number of physical parameters either measured or determined by the four Cluster spacecraft. The latter forms a major challenge particularly for the completeness of the metadata as one must include a complete set of information about each data product. The CAA attempts

  3. Some aspects of Physics beyond the Standard Model at LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casas, J. Alberto

    2014-03-01

    The LHC is constraining BSM physics at an impressive efficience, but no sign of new physics has been found yet. SUSY (and other BSM scenarios) are starting to be in trouble, though there is still room for new physics able to solve the Hierarchy Problem. This situation poses new challenges to optimize the LHC discovery potential using smarter strategies for analysis. In this sense, direct and indirect searches of new physics can play complementary roles.

  4. An Update on Hidradenitis Suppurativa (Part I): Epidemiology, Clinical Aspects, and Definition of Disease Severity.

    PubMed

    Martorell, A; García-Martínez, F J; Jiménez-Gallo, D; Pascual, J C; Pereyra-Rodriguez, J; Salgado, L; Vilarrasa, E

    2015-11-01

    Hidradenitis suppurativa is a chronic inflammatory disorder that has attracted increasing attention in recent years due to underestimations of prevalence and the considerable impact of the condition on interpersonal relationships, physical appearance, self-esteem, and body image. Although hidradenitis suppurative has a significant psychological impact on patients and can even cause physical limitations when thick scarring results in limb mobility limitation, until very recently little evidence was available relating to its epidemiology, etiology, or pathogenesis. In this review, we highlight the latest advances in our understanding of the epidemiological and clinical aspects of hidradenitis suppurativa. We will also look at the different classification systems for hidradenitis suppurativa and discuss the emergence of skin ultrasound as a promising technique for monitoring the course of this chronic inflammatory disease. PMID:26254550

  5. On physical aspects of the Jiles-Atherton hysteresis models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zirka, Sergey E.; Moroz, Yuriy I.; Harrison, Robert G.; Chwastek, Krzysztof

    2012-08-01

    The physical assumptions underlying the static and dynamic Jiles-Atherton (JA) hysteresis models are critically analyzed. It is shown that the energy-balance method used in deriving these models is actually closer to a balance of coenergies, thereby depriving the resulting JA phenomenology of physical meaning. The non-physical basis of its dynamic extension is demonstrated by a sharp contrast between hysteresis loops predicted by the model and those measured for grain-oriented steel under conditions of controlled sinusoidal flux density at frequencies of 50, 100, and 200 Hz.

  6. Random aspects of beam physics and laser-plasma interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charman, Andrew Emile

    Aspects of the dynamics of charged particle and radiation beams, and of the interaction of plasmas with radiation are investigated, informed by concerns of classical and quantum mechanical uncertainty and noise, and related by notions of particle and radiation phase space manipulation, overlap, and control. We begin by studying questions of optimal longitudinal pulse-shaping in laser wakefield accelerators, based on a one-dimensional model with prescribed laser drive and either a linearized or fully nonlinear quasi-static plasma response. After discussing various figures of-merit, we advocate maximizing the peak wake amplitude instead of the transformer ratio. A number of new results are demonstrated, certain conjectures are rigorously proved for the first time, and some erroneous claims corrected. Instead of using short laser pulses to excite plasma waves, one can employ the beat wave between two co-propagating lasers to excite a Langmuir wave with high phase velocity suitable for acceleration of relativistic electrons. A modified version of this plasma beat-wave accelerator scheme is introduced and analyzed, which is based on autoresonant phase-locking of the nonlinear Langmuir wave to the slowly chirped beat frequency of the driving lasers via adiabatic passage through resonance. This new scheme is designed to overcome some of the well-known limitations of previous approaches, such as relativistic detuning and nonlinear modulation of the driven Langmuir wave amplitude, as well as sen sitivity to frequency mismatch due to measurement uncertainties and density fluctuations or inhomogeneities. From radiation exciting plasmas, we turn to issues of plasmas or beams emitting radiation. We develop a Hilbert-space and operator-based approach to electromagnetic radiation, and use this formalism to derive a maximum-power variational principle (MPVP) for spontaneous radiation from prescribed classical harmonic sources. Results are first derived in the paraxial limit, based

  7. Interesting aspects of the STAR detector and physics program

    SciTech Connect

    Hallman, T.J.; STAR Collaboration

    1996-12-31

    The Solenoidal Tracker At RHIC (STAR) is a large acceptance collider detector scheduled to begin operation at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) in the fall of 1999. Simply stated, the physics goals of STAR are, (1) to study the behavior of strongly interacting matter at high energy density; (2) to search for signatures of a deconfined partonic phase of matter; and (3) to study the importance of spin as a fundamental property of QCD interactions and measure the spin-dependent parton distributions (gluon, valence quark, sea quark) of the proton. The detector design and methods of accomplishing the physics goals are addressed in this report.

  8. Visual communication interface for severe physically disabled patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savino, M. J.; Fernández, E. A.

    2007-11-01

    During the last years several interfaces have been developed to allow communication to those patients suffering serious physical disabilities. In this work, a computer based communication interface is presented. It was designed to allow communication to those patients that cannot use neither their hands nor their voice but they can do it through their eyes. The system monitors the eyes movements by means of a webcam. Then, by means of an Artificial Neural Network, the system allows the identification of specified position on the screen through the identification of the eyes positions. This way the user can control a virtual keyboard on a screen that allows him to write and browse the system and enables him to send e-mails, SMS, activate video/music programs and control environmental devices. A patient was simulated to evaluate the versatility of the system. Its operation was satisfactory and it allowed the evaluation of the system potential. The development of this system requires low cost elements that are easily found in the market.

  9. Nuclear and particle physics aspects of hyperon and antinucleon interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Dover, C.B.

    1984-01-01

    A discussion is given of hyperon (Y) and antinucleon (anti N) interactions with nucleons and nuclei, emphasizing some of the future prospects for nuclear structure and elementary particle physics studies at LEAR or a future kaon factory. The topics addressed include: (1) production and decay of strange dibaryons; (2) spectroscopy of strangeness S = -2 many body systems; (3) N anti N annihilation mechanisms; and (4) inelastic anti N-nucleus scattering and spin-flip excitations in nuclei. 36 references.

  10. Physical and microstructural aspects of iron sulfide degradation in concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, Thomas; Gallucci, Emanuel; Scrivener, Karen

    2011-03-15

    The microstructural aspects of iron sulfide degradation in dam concrete were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) in both dam concrete samples and laboratory concrete. The results show that iron sulfide inclusions with a diameter of a few micrometers in the aggregates are reactive and appear to generate expansion first in the aggregates and consequently in the cement paste. The expansion from the iron sulfides is a consequence of the increase in volume of the reaction products formed. The types of iron sulfide present in the aggregate, mainly pyrrhotite (FeS) and pyrite (FeS{sub 2}), show similar reaction behavior in the aggregates. The released sulfate can lead to a secondary ettringite formation in the concrete matrix, but the degradation associated with this appears to be minor. The reaction of the iron sulfides was found to be very slow even when laboratory samples were exposed to elevated temperatures.

  11. Clinical aspects and cytokine response in severe H1N1 influenza A virus infection

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction The immune responses in patients with novel A(H1N1) virus infection (nvA(H1N1)) are incompletely characterized. We investigated the profile of Th1 and Th17 mediators and interferon-inducible protein-10 (IP-10) in groups with severe and mild nvA(H1N1) disease and correlated them with clinical aspects. Methods Thirty-two patients hospitalized with confirmed nvA(H1N1) infection were enrolled in the study: 21 patients with nvA(H1N1)-acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and 11 patients with mild disease. One group of 20 patients with bacterial sepsis-ARDS and another group of 15 healthy volunteers were added to compare their cytokine levels with pandemic influenza groups. In the nvA(H1N1)-ARDS group, the serum cytokine samples were obtained on admission and 3 days later. The clinical aspects were recorded prospectively. Results In the nvA(H1N1)-ARDS group, obesity and lymphocytopenia were more common and IP-10, interleukin (IL)-12, IL-15, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)α, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-9 were significantly increased versus control. When comparing mild with severe nvA(H1N1) groups, IL-6, IL-8, IL-15 and TNFα were significantly higher in the severe group. In nonsurvivors versus survivors, IL-6 and IL-15 were increased on admission and remained higher 3 days later. A positive correlation of IL-6, IL-8 and IL-15 levels with C-reactive protein and with > 5-day interval between symptom onset and admission, and a negative correlation with the PaO2:FiO2 ratio, were found in nvA(H1N1) groups. In obese patients with influenza disease, a significant increased level of IL-8 was found. When comparing viral ARDS with bacterial ARDS, the level of IL-8, IL-17 and TNFα was significantly higher in bacterial ARDS and IL-12 was increased only in viral ARDS. Conclusions In our critically ill patients with novel influenza A(H1N1) virus infection, the hallmarks of the severity of disease were IL-6, IL-15, IL-8 and TNFα. These cytokines, except TNFα, had a positive

  12. Motivational and evolutionary aspects of a physical exercise training program: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Rosa, João P P; de Souza, Altay A L; de Lima, Giscard H O; Rodrigues, Dayane F; de Aquino Lemos, Valdir; da Silva Alves, Eduardo; Tufik, Sergio; de Mello, Marco T

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have indicated that motivational level and prior expectations influence one's commitment to physical activity. Moreover, these aspects are not properly described in terms of proximal (SDT, Self Determination Theory) and distal (evolutionary) explanations in the literature. This paper aims to verify if level of motivation (BREQ-2, Behavioral Regulation in Exercise Questionnaire-2) and expectations regarding regular physical exercise (IMPRAF-54) before starting a 1-year exercise program could determine likelihood of completion. Ninety-four volunteers (53 women) included a completed protocol group (CPG; n = 21) and drop-out group (n = 73). The IMPRAF-54 scale was used to assess six different expectations associated with physical activity, and the BREQ-2 inventory was used to assess the level of motivation in five steps (from amotivation to intrinsic motivation). Both questionnaires were assessed before starting a regular exercise program. The CPG group presented higher sociability and lower pleasure scores according to IMPRAF-54 domains. A logistic regression analysis showed that a one-point increment on sociability score increased the chance of completing the program by 10%, and the same one-point increment on pleasure score reduced the chance of completing the protocol by 16%. ROC curves were also calculated to establish IMPRAF-54 cutoffs for adherence (Sociability - 18.5 points - 81% sensibility/50% specificity) and dropout (Pleasure - 25.5 points - 86% sensibility/20% specificity) of the exercise protocol. Our results indicate that an expectation of social interaction was a positive factor in predicting adherence to exercise. Grounded in SDT and its innate needs (competence, autonomy, relatedness), physical exercise is not an end; it is a means to achieve autonomy and self-cohesion. The association of physical activity with social practices, as occurs in hunter-gathering groups, can engage people to be physically active and can provide better

  13. Motivational and evolutionary aspects of a physical exercise training program: a longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Rosa, João P. P.; de Souza, Altay A. L.; de Lima, Giscard H. O.; Rodrigues, Dayane F.; de Aquino Lemos, Valdir; da Silva Alves, Eduardo; Tufik, Sergio; de Mello, Marco T.

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have indicated that motivational level and prior expectations influence one’s commitment to physical activity. Moreover, these aspects are not properly described in terms of proximal (SDT, Self Determination Theory) and distal (evolutionary) explanations in the literature. This paper aims to verify if level of motivation (BREQ-2, Behavioral Regulation in Exercise Questionnaire-2) and expectations regarding regular physical exercise (IMPRAF-54) before starting a 1-year exercise program could determine likelihood of completion. Ninety-four volunteers (53 women) included a completed protocol group (CPG; n = 21) and drop-out group (n = 73). The IMPRAF-54 scale was used to assess six different expectations associated with physical activity, and the BREQ-2 inventory was used to assess the level of motivation in five steps (from amotivation to intrinsic motivation). Both questionnaires were assessed before starting a regular exercise program. The CPG group presented higher sociability and lower pleasure scores according to IMPRAF-54 domains. A logistic regression analysis showed that a one-point increment on sociability score increased the chance of completing the program by 10%, and the same one-point increment on pleasure score reduced the chance of completing the protocol by 16%. ROC curves were also calculated to establish IMPRAF-54 cutoffs for adherence (Sociability – 18.5 points – 81% sensibility/50% specificity) and dropout (Pleasure – 25.5 points – 86% sensibility/20% specificity) of the exercise protocol. Our results indicate that an expectation of social interaction was a positive factor in predicting adherence to exercise. Grounded in SDT and its innate needs (competence, autonomy, relatedness), physical exercise is not an end; it is a means to achieve autonomy and self-cohesion. The association of physical activity with social practices, as occurs in hunter-gathering groups, can engage people to be physically active and can provide

  14. Vortical flow aerodynamics - Physical aspects and numerical simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newsome, Richard W.; Kandil, Osama A.

    1987-01-01

    Progress in the numerical simulation of vortical flow due to three-dimensional flow separation about flight vehicles at high angles of attack and quasi-steady flight conditions is surveyed. Primary emphasis is placed on Euler and Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes methods where the vortices are 'captured' as a solution to the governing equations. A discussion of the relevant flow physics provides a perspective from which to assess numerical solutions. Current numerical prediction capabilities and their evolutionary development are surveyed. Future trends and challenges are identified and discussed.

  15. Circulatory bubble dynamics: from physical to biological aspects.

    PubMed

    Papadopoulou, Virginie; Tang, Meng-Xing; Balestra, Costantino; Eckersley, Robert J; Karapantsios, Thodoris D

    2014-04-01

    Bubbles can form in the body during or after decompression from pressure exposures such as those undergone by scuba divers, astronauts, caisson and tunnel workers. Bubble growth and detachment physics then becomes significant in predicting and controlling the probability of these bubbles causing mechanical problems by blocking vessels, displacing tissues, or inducing an inflammatory cascade if they persist for too long in the body before being dissolved. By contrast to decompression induced bubbles whose site of initial formation and exact composition are debated, there are other instances of bubbles in the bloodstream which are well-defined. Gas emboli unwillingly introduced during surgical procedures and ultrasound microbubbles injected for use as contrast or drug delivery agents are therefore also discussed. After presenting the different ways that bubbles can end up in the human bloodstream, the general mathematical formalism related to the physics of bubble growth and detachment from decompression is reviewed. Bubble behavior in the bloodstream is then discussed, including bubble dissolution in blood, bubble rheology and biological interactions for the different cases of bubble and blood composition considered. PMID:24534474

  16. Physical aspects of sensory transduction on seeing, hearing and smelling

    PubMed Central

    Yoshioka, Tohru; Sakakibara, Manabu

    2013-01-01

    What is the general principle of sensory transduction? Sensory transduction is defined as energy transformation from the external world to the internal world. The energy of the external world, such as thermal energy (heat), electro-magnetic energy (light), mechanical energy (sound) and the energy from molecules (chemicals), is converted into electrochemical events in the animal nervous system. The following five classes of special sense receptors are utilized for energy conversion: vision (photo); audition (sound); taste and smell (chemo); and tactile (mechano). There are also other special sense receptors, including thermo and noxious receptors. The focus of this study is on photoreceptors, sound-receptors and odorant-receptors because the transduction mechanisms of these receptors are explained biochemically and understood by a common physical principle; these biochemical models are well known in neuroscience. The following notable problems are inherent in these biochemical models: the cGMP ionophore model of the vertebrate photoreceptor cannot explain the fast photo-response (∼msec); the tip links connection model of stereocilia in the basilar membrane for opening the K+ channel on the tip of a hair has difficulty explaining the high frequency vibration of hair cells without a damping of the oscillation, and the odorant shape-specific receptor model for olfactory transduction has difficulty in discriminating the minute differences among similar fragrant smells of essential oils with different molecular shapes. These difficulties might arise from a lack of the physical sense when the transduction models were proposed. This article will reconsider these problems and propose rational models for visual, olfactory and auditory transduction. PMID:27493557

  17. Physical and Chemical Aspects of Fire Suppression in Extraterrestrial Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takahashi, F.; Linteris, G. T.; Katta, V. R.

    2001-01-01

    A fire, whether in a spacecraft or in occupied spaces on extraterrestrial bases, can lead to mission termination or loss of life. While the fire-safety record of US space missions has been excellent, the advent of longer duration missions to Mars, the moon, or aboard the International Space Station (ISS) increases the likelihood of fire events, with more limited mission termination options. The fire safety program of NASA's manned space flight program is based largely upon the principles of controlling the flammability of on-board materials and greatly eliminating sources of ignition. As a result, very little research has been conducted on fire suppression in the microgravity or reduced-gravity environment. The objectives of this study are: to obtain fundamental knowledge of physical and chemical processes of fire suppression, using gravity and oxygen concentration as independent variables to simulate various extraterrestrial environments, including spacecraft and surface bases in Mars and moon missions; to provide rigorous testing of analytical models, which include comprehensive descriptions of combustion and suppression chemistry; and to provide basic research results useful for technological advances in fire safety, including the development of new fire-extinguishing agents and approaches, in the microgravity environment associated with ISS and in the partial-gravity Martian and lunar environments.

  18. Physics Studies of a Proposed Small Aspect Ratio Torsatron-Tokamak Hybrid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valanju, P. M.; Gentle, K. W.; McCool, S.; Miner, W. H., Jr.; Ross, D. W.; Wiley, J. C.; Wootton, A. J.

    1996-11-01

    Physics studies of a proposed small aspect ratio torsatron-tokamak hybrid (SMARTH) are presented. This small aspect ratio configuration attempts to remedy a major drawback of conventional stellarator reactors, viz. the large volume resulting from the large aspect ratio. Considering a small aspect ratio machine with 8 field periods (m=8) and with 8 or 16 modular coils, we investigate vacuum configurations and MHD equilibria to determine the optimum configuration which produces large rotational transform, large plasma volume, large beta, and small field ripple. Implications for particle confinement will also be discussed. Effects of radial electric fields on orbit losses and confinement will also be explored.

  19. Stress related aspects of GaN technology physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suhir, Ephraim

    2015-03-01

    Simple, easy-to-use and physically meaningful analytical models have been developed for the assessment of the combined effect of the lattice and thermal mismatch on the induced stresses in an elongated bi-material assembly, as well as on the thermal mismatch on the thermal stresses in a tri-material assembly, in which the lattice mismatched stresses are eliminated in one way or another. This could be done, e.g., by using a polished or an etched substrate. The analysis is carried out in application to Gallium Nitride (GaN)-Silicon Carbide (SiC) and GaN-diamond (C) filmsubstrate assemblies. The calculated data are obtained, assuming that no annealing or other stress reduction means is applied. The data agree reasonably well with the reported (available) in-situ measurements. The most important conclusion from the computed data is that even if a reasonably good lattice match takes place (as, e.g., in the case of a GaN film fabricated on a SiC substrate, when the mismatch strain is only about 3%) and, in addition, the temperature change (from the fabrication/growth temperature to the operation temperature) is significant (as high as 1000 °C), the thermal stresses are still considerably lower than the lattice-mismatch stresses. Although there are structural and technological means for further reduction of the lattice-mismatch stresses (e.g., by high temperature annealing or by providing one or more buffering layers, or by using patterned or porous substrates), there is still a strong incentive to eliminate completely the lattice mismatch stresses. This seems to be indeed possible, if polished or otherwise flattened (e.g., chemically etched) substrates and sputter deposited GaN film is employed. In such a case only thermal stresses remain, but even these could be reduced, if necessary, by using compliant buffering layers, including layers of variable compliance, or by introducing variable compliance into the properly engineered substrate. In any event, it is expected

  20. Physical Activity in Individuals with Severe Mental Illness: Client versus Case Manager Ratings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bezyak, Jill L.; Chan, Fong; Lee, Eun-Jeong; Catalano, Denise; Chiu, Chung-Yi

    2012-01-01

    The "Physical Activity Scale for Individuals With Physical Disabilities" was examined as a physical activity measure for people with severe mental illness. Case manager ratings were more closely related to body mass index than clients' ratings, challenging the accuracy of self-report physical activity measures for individuals with severe mental…

  1. Structural Aspects of Several Oxide Glasses as Elucidated by Multinuclear NMR.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Jianhui

    1988-03-01

    NMR is sensitive to many interactions that the nucleus experiences with its environment. Included among these interactions are two that were heavily exploited in this thesis. They are the electric quadrupole interaction and the chemical shift interaction. These interactions yield structural information on short-range order and atom coordinations, which are very valuable and important to the understanding of properties and microstructures of glasses. Both the static or MASS NMR at high field and low field CW NMR were utilized to obtain information concerning the coordinations and local environments of several oxide glasses. For some systems, other spectroscopic methods (thermal analysis, X-ray and IR spectroscopies) were also used to assist NMR studies. In Chapter I relevant NMR theory and detection techniques used for this work are introduced. In Chapters 2-4, some structural aspects of alkali borate, borosilicate or alkali boroaluminate glasses are studied. In particular, boron coordinations in these glasses are carefully reinvestigated. The relationship between the change in boron coordinations and the changes in macroscopic characteristics of the glasses (such as electric conductivity and the mixed alkali effects) are studied. In mixed alkali glasses, the postulated alkali -pairing model provides a reasonable explanation for the structural changes. Chapter 5 is dedicated to the ^{71}Ga and ^{69 }Ga NMR studies of alkali gallate glasses. The glassforming range is explored and the gallium atom coordinations are studied. A structural model for the glass systems is suggested based on the distribution of galliums of different coordinations and structural parameters (quadrupole coupling constants, asymmetry parameters, and isotropic chemical shifts, etc.). A study of ^{31} P spectra in lead-iron-phosphate nuclear waste glasses is presented in Chapter 6. By subjecting the samples to various magnetic field strengths and different temperatures, information on the local

  2. The forces that shape embryos: physical aspects of convergent extension by cell intercalation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, Ray; Shook, David; Skoglund, Paul

    2008-03-01

    We discuss the physical aspects of the morphogenic process of convergence (narrowing) and extension (lengthening) of tissues by cell intercalation. These movements, often referred to as 'convergent extension', occur in both epithelial and mesenchymal tissues during embryogenesis and organogenesis of invertebrates and vertebrates, and they play large roles in shaping the body plan during development. Our focus is on the presumptive mesodermal and neural tissues of the Xenopus (frog) embryo, tissues for which some physical measurements have been made. We discuss the physical aspects of how polarized cell motility, oriented along future tissue axes, generate the forces that drive oriented cell intercalation and how this intercalation results in convergence and extension or convergence and thickening of the tissue. Our goal is to identify aspects of these morphogenic movements for further biophysical, molecular and cell biological, and modeling studies.

  3. J. J. Sakurai Prize for Theoretical Particle Physics Lecture: Some QCD aspects of physics beyond the standard model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sjostrand, Torbjorn

    2012-03-01

    The nature of observable events at the LHC is mainly determined by QCD physics, i.e. strong interactions. The search for new physics obviously implies a desire to go beyond QCD. Nevertheless, also in cases where non-QCD processes are studied, new aspects of QCD physics may enter the back door. We here give three examples: decays with R-parity violation in SUSY, the formation of long-lived R-hadrons in SUSY, and parton showers and hadronization in Hidden Valley scenarios. These three possibilities have been implemented in the general-purpose PYTHIA event generator, so that detailed studies of consequences can be performed.

  4. Relationships between gross- and fine motor functions, cognitive abilities, and self-regulatory aspects of students with physical disabilities.

    PubMed

    Varsamis, Panagiotis; Agaliotis, Ioannis

    2015-12-01

    This article reports research on self-regulatory aspects (i.e., goal-setting, self-efficacy and self-evaluation) of secondary and post-secondary students with congenital motor disabilities, who performed a ball-throwing-at-a-target task. Participants were divided into four subgroups presenting distinct combinations of motor and cognitive abilities (i.e., normal cognitive development and mild physical disabilities, normal cognitive development and severe physical disabilities, mild-to-moderate intellectual disability and mild physical disabilities, and mild-to-moderate intellectual disability and severe physical disabilities). Results showed that students presenting mild motor disabilities exhibited a positive self-concept and self-regulation profile, irrespective of their cognitive functioning. Students with considerable motor disabilities, but without cognitive challenges, presented a negative, though realistic self-concept and self-regulation profile. Finally, students with considerable motor disabilities and mild-to-moderate cognitive disabilities showed a positive, though unrealistic, self-regulation profile. The nature of the diverse relationship of motor and cognitive (dis)abilities to specific self-regulatory aspects are discussed, and important instructional implications are mentioned. PMID:26519661

  5. Physical, Spatial, and Molecular Aspects of Extracellular Matrix of In Vivo Niches and Artificial Scaffolds Relevant to Stem Cells Research.

    PubMed

    Akhmanova, Maria; Osidak, Egor; Domogatsky, Sergey; Rodin, Sergey; Domogatskaya, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Extracellular matrix can influence stem cell choices, such as self-renewal, quiescence, migration, proliferation, phenotype maintenance, differentiation, or apoptosis. Three aspects of extracellular matrix were extensively studied during the last decade: physical properties, spatial presentation of adhesive epitopes, and molecular complexity. Over 15 different parameters have been shown to influence stem cell choices. Physical aspects include stiffness (or elasticity), viscoelasticity, pore size, porosity, amplitude and frequency of static and dynamic deformations applied to the matrix. Spatial aspects include scaffold dimensionality (2D or 3D) and thickness; cell polarity; area, shape, and microscale topography of cell adhesion surface; epitope concentration, epitope clustering characteristics (number of epitopes per cluster, spacing between epitopes within cluster, spacing between separate clusters, cluster patterns, and level of disorder in epitope arrangement), and nanotopography. Biochemical characteristics of natural extracellular matrix molecules regard diversity and structural complexity of matrix molecules, affinity and specificity of epitope interaction with cell receptors, role of non-affinity domains, complexity of supramolecular organization, and co-signaling by growth factors or matrix epitopes. Synergy between several matrix aspects enables stem cells to retain their function in vivo and may be a key to generation of long-term, robust, and effective in vitro stem cell culture systems. PMID:26351461

  6. Physical, Spatial, and Molecular Aspects of Extracellular Matrix of In Vivo Niches and Artificial Scaffolds Relevant to Stem Cells Research

    PubMed Central

    Akhmanova, Maria; Osidak, Egor; Domogatsky, Sergey; Rodin, Sergey; Domogatskaya, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Extracellular matrix can influence stem cell choices, such as self-renewal, quiescence, migration, proliferation, phenotype maintenance, differentiation, or apoptosis. Three aspects of extracellular matrix were extensively studied during the last decade: physical properties, spatial presentation of adhesive epitopes, and molecular complexity. Over 15 different parameters have been shown to influence stem cell choices. Physical aspects include stiffness (or elasticity), viscoelasticity, pore size, porosity, amplitude and frequency of static and dynamic deformations applied to the matrix. Spatial aspects include scaffold dimensionality (2D or 3D) and thickness; cell polarity; area, shape, and microscale topography of cell adhesion surface; epitope concentration, epitope clustering characteristics (number of epitopes per cluster, spacing between epitopes within cluster, spacing between separate clusters, cluster patterns, and level of disorder in epitope arrangement), and nanotopography. Biochemical characteristics of natural extracellular matrix molecules regard diversity and structural complexity of matrix molecules, affinity and specificity of epitope interaction with cell receptors, role of non-affinity domains, complexity of supramolecular organization, and co-signaling by growth factors or matrix epitopes. Synergy between several matrix aspects enables stem cells to retain their function in vivo and may be a key to generation of long-term, robust, and effective in vitro stem cell culture systems. PMID:26351461

  7. The Upgrade of CEBAF to 12 GeV: Physics Motivations and Technical Aspects

    SciTech Connect

    Bernhard Mecking; Larry Cardman

    2002-08-01

    The Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility, CEBAF, makes use of electron and photon beams with an energy up to 6 GeV to investigate the electromagnetic structure of mesons, nucleons, and nuclei. We discuss the physics motivation for upgrading the facility to a maximum energy of 12 GeV and some of the key technological aspects of the upgrade.

  8. Severe Traumatic Brain Injury, Frontal Lesions, and Social Aspects of Language Use: A Study of French-Speaking Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dardier, Virginie; Bernicot, Josie; Delanoe, Anaig; Vanberten, Melanie; Fayada, Catherine; Chevignard, Mathilde; Delaye, Corinne; Laurent-Vannier, Anne; Dubois, Bruno

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to gain insight into the social (pragmatic) aspects of language use by French-speaking individuals with frontal lesions following a severe traumatic brain injury. Eleven participants with traumatic brain injury performed tasks in three areas of communication: production (interview situation), comprehension (direct…

  9. SEVERE MALARIA IN SUDANESE CHILDREN: CLINICAL ASPECTS AND PROGNOSIS IN HOSPITILIZED PATIENTS

    PubMed Central

    Zeidan, Zeidan A.; Kojal, Elkhir M.; Habour, Ali B.; Nowary, Kamal A.; Mohammed, Fatih H.; Awadelkareem, Mohammed A.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To asssess the epidemiology, clinical presentations, disease mangement, outcome and risk factors associatted with severe malaria in children in four hospitals in Sudan. Methods: Follow-up prospective design was used to fulfil the objectives of the study in four hospitals: Omdurman paediatrics hospital, located in the capital (Khartoum) compared to Madani, Gadarif and Sennar hospitals located in other states. The results: Total admission of severe malaria was 543 children representing 21% of all paediatric admissions, and 12% of malaria outpatient cases. Median age of children with severe malaria was 48 months. 93% of children with severe malaria died before the age of 9 years. Case fatlality rate was 2.6%. The risk of dying because of delay was four times more than when there was no delay , 95% CI (1.5 – 14.3). Other risks of death were severe malaria associated with coma, inability to sit or eat and hyperpyrexia. Omdurman hospital in Khartoum State in the capital, had the highest case management performance percentage compared to other regional hospitals. Conclusions: In view of this, it can be argued that deaths due to severe malaria could be reduced by improving health management and planning with the redistribution of resources (including consultants) at the central and regional levels and the conduct of proper training programs on the management of severe malaria at all levels. Raising the awareness of parents about seeking treatment for malaria early in order to avoid unnecessary deaths is vital. PMID:23012090

  10. Mechanistic aspects of biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles by several Fusarium oxysporum strains

    PubMed Central

    Durán, Nelson; Marcato, Priscyla D; Alves, Oswaldo L; De Souza, Gabriel IH; Esposito, Elisa

    2005-01-01

    Extracellular production of metal nanoparticles by several strains of the fungus Fusarium oxysporum was carried out. It was found that aqueous silver ions when exposed to several Fusarium oxysporum strains are reduced in solution, thereby leading to the formation of silver hydrosol. The silver nanoparticles were in the range of 20–50 nm in dimensions. The reduction of the metal ions occurs by a nitrate-dependent reductase and a shuttle quinone extracellular process. The potentialities of this nanotechnological design based in fugal biosynthesis of nanoparticles for several technical applications are important, including their high potential as antibacterial material. PMID:16014167

  11. Choosing Home or Residential Care: A Guide for Families of Children with Severe Physical Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lash, Marilyn; Kahn, Paul

    This guide is designed to help families identify and explore common questions, concerns, and dilemmas as they consider the advantages and drawbacks of raising a child with severe physical disabilities at home or arranging for care in a residential program. Chapters address: (1) options for the care of children with severe physical disabilities in…

  12. 78 FR 12219 - Excepted Service-Appointment of Persons With Intellectual Disabilities, Severe Physical...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-22

    ... RIN 3206-AM07 Excepted Service--Appointment of Persons With Intellectual Disabilities, Severe Physical... to the appointment of persons with intellectual disabilities, severe physical disabilities, and... retardation'' with ``intellectual disability.'' OPM received 12 sets of comments in response to the...

  13. Engaging with Life: Therapeutic Benefits of the Physical Aspects of Adventure Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maizell, Rich

    2000-01-01

    Adventure therapy infuses experiential, physical activity into traditional talk therapy, drawing support from Piaget's theory that children construct knowledge from their actions on the environment. Several vignettes illustrate the point, noting the importance of laughter and physical touch to therapy. Using ropes for a "touch without touching" is…

  14. Dual-aspect monism à la Pauli and Jung perforates the completeness of physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atmanspacher, Harald

    2012-12-01

    In the mid 19th century, the physicist Wolfgang Pauli and the psychologist Carl Gustav Jung developed a philosophical position for the mind-matter problem that is today called dual-aspect monism. They conjectured a picture in which the mental and the material arise as two complementary aspects of one underlying psychophysically neutral reality to which they cannot be reduced and to which direct empirical access is impossible. This picture suggests structural, persistent,re-producible mind-matter correlations by splitting the underlying reality into aspects. In addition, it suggests induced, occasional, evasive mind-matter correlations above and below, respectively, those stable baseline correlations. These correlations, and the way they arise, suggest that the domain of the physical is not completely independent of the domain of the mental, and both are not independent from the assumed reality underlying them. Some ideas are presented of how these relationships might be conceived.

  15. Clinico-statistical and morphological aspects of severe traumatic brain injuries.

    PubMed

    Florou, Charoula; Zorilă, Andreea Lavinia; Zorilă, Marian Valentin; Marinescu, Magdalena Alice; Andrei, Cristina Maria; Păvăloiu, Raluca Maria; Mogoantă, LaurenŢiu; Zăvoi, Roxana Eugenia

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) represent a problem of public health all over the world if we consider its incidence, mortality and the big social costs. The increase of road and train traffic, the development of industry, the growth of alcohol consumption, the emergence and increase of terrorist attacks have led to more frequent and severe TBIs. There were registered 3260 deaths at the Institute of Forensic Medicine in Craiova, Romania, between 2010 and 2014; they were the result of severe traumas, 622 (19.07%) being caused by TBIs. The most affected by TBIs were men (the men÷women ratio was of 3÷1) and the elderly, mainly in the rural area. The main risk factor was alcohol intake; about 44% of the deceased people were under alcohol influence. The forensic examination highlighted the severity of cerebral meningeal lesions, the most frequent being cerebral and vascular lesions. The histopathological and immunohistochemical examinations emphasized various microscopic changes in accordance with the severity of the trauma and the time passed from impact until death. PMID:27516010

  16. Physical aspects of unitary evolution of Bianchi-I quantum cosmological model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, Sridip

    2016-02-01

    In this study, we examine some physical aspects of unitary evolution of the Bianchi-I model. In particular, we investigate the behavior of the volume and the scale factor as a function of time for the Bianchi-I universe with ultra-relativistic fluid (α = 1). The expectation value of volume is shown not to hit any singularity. We elucidate on the anisotropic nature of the solution and physically interpret the wavefunction as a superposition of collapsing universe and expanding universe mimicking Hartle-Hawking type wavefunction. The same analysis has been done for α \

  17. Some Aspects of Forecasting Severe Thunderstorms during Cool-Season Return-Flow Episodes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, Steven J.

    1992-08-01

    Historically, the Gulf of Mexico has been considered a primary source of water vapor that influences the weather for much of the United States east of the Rocky Mountains. Although severe thunderstorms and tornadoes occur most frequently during the spring and summer months, the periodic transport of Gulf moisture inland ahead of traveling baroclinic waves can result in significant severe-weather episodes during the cool season.To gain insight into the short-range skill in forecasting surface synoptic patterns associated with moisture return from the Gulf, operational numerical weather prediction models from the National Meteorological Center were examined. Sea level pressure fields from the Limited-Area Fine-Mesh Model (LFM), Nested Grid Model (NGM), and the aviation (AVN) run of the Global Spectral Model, valid 48 h after initial data time, were evaluated for three cool-season cases that preceded severe local storm outbreaks. The NGM and AVN provided useful guidance in forecasting the onset of return flow along the Gulf coast. There was a slight tendency for these models to be slightly slow in the development of return flow. In contrast the LFM typically overforecasts the occurrence of return flow and tends to `open the Gulf' from west to east too quickly.Although the low-level synoptic pattern may be forecast correctly, the overall prediction process is hampered by a data void over the Gulf. It is hypothesized that when the return-flow moisture is located over the Gulf, model forecasts of stability and the resultant operational severe local storm forecasts are less skillful compared to situations when the moisture has spread inland already. This hypothesis is tested by examining the performance of the initial second-day (day 2) severe thunderstorm outlook issued by the National Severe Storms Forecast Center during the Gulf of Mexico Experiment (GUFMEX) in early 1988.It has been found that characteristically different air masses were present along the Gulf coast

  18. The Fifth Symposium on Numerical and Physical Aspects of Aerodynamic Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This volume contains the papers presented at the Fifth Symposium on Numerical and Physical Aspects of Aerodynamic Flows, held at the California State University, Long Beach, from 13 to 15 January 1992. The symposium, like its immediate predecessors, considers the calculation of flows of relevance to aircraft, ships, and missiles with emphasis on the solution of two-dimensional unsteady and three-dimensional equations.

  19. On some physical aspects of isotropic cosmology in Riemann-Cartan spacetime

    SciTech Connect

    Minkevich, A.V.; Garkun, A.S.; Kudin, V.I. E-mail: awm@matman.uwm.edu.pl E-mail: kudzin_w@tut.by

    2013-03-01

    Isotropic cosmology built in the framework of the Poincaré gauge theory of gravity based on sufficiently general expression of gravitational Lagrangian is considered. The derivation of cosmological equations and equations for torsion functions in the case of the most general homogeneous isotropic models is given. Physical aspects of isotropic cosmology connected with possible solution of dark energy problem and problem of cosmological singularity are discussed.

  20. Several aspects of cultivating leaf greens in bioregenerative life support systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levinskikh, M. A.; Podolsky, I. G.; Sychev, V. N.

    Available results of theoretical and empirical studies of closed eco-systems lay the ground for the common opinion concerning desirability of incorporating higher plant cultivation equipment in the life support systems of closed habitats of varying purpose (space stations, Martian expedition, hyperbaric complexes in deep waters etc.) in order to add fresh greens to food rations, regenerate air and water, and to better the psychological climate. Design and functional features of this equipment and choice of plants are determined by the dimensions of habitat, power generation, length of self-sustained existence beyond Earth's biosphere and other factors. We are going to consider a particular case of fresh green biomass production for space crew nutrition with limited size and energy resources. The paper presents results of ground and space experimental investigations of a number of aspects of cultivating leaf plant species as applied to research and productive greenhouses. Goals of the investigations were to prepare for flight experiments in greenhouses LADA aboard ISS, and determination of specifications for future productive greenhouses for a Martian mission and its prototyping in ground-based simulations. The following objectives were pursued: - selection of the seeding surface shape and spatial configuration of productive and research greenhouses that can be proposed for the orbital station or a Martian vehicle comparison of productivity of leaf greens cultivated on different substrates; - determination of the maximal plant biomass yield and number of crops that can be gathered from root module without substrate change; - choice of leaf culture cultivars and species featured by very quick biomass buildup and pleasant taste qualities.

  1. Mechanical and microstructural aspects of severe plastic deformation of austenitic steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodak, K.; Pawlicki, J.; Tkocz, M.

    2012-05-01

    The paper presents the effects of severe plastic deformation by multiple compression in the orthogonal directions on the microstructure and the mechanical properties of austenitic steel. Several deformation variants were conducted with different number of passes. FEM simulations were performed in order to evaluate the actual values of the effective strain in the examined, central parts of the compressed samples. The deformed microstructure was investigated by means of the scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) and the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) supported by the electron back scattered diffraction (EBSD). X-ray phase analysis was performed to evaluate the martensite volume fraction. The mechanical properties were determined by means of the digital image correlation method and hardness testing. It is shown that the applied forming technique leads to strong grain refinement in the austenitic steel. Moreover, deformation induces the martensitic γ- α' transformation. The microstructural changes cause an improvement in the strength properties. The material exhibits the ultimate tensile strength of 1560 MPa and the yield stress of 1500 MPa after reaching the effective strain of 10.

  2. 77 FR 6022 - Excepted Service-Appointment of Persons With Intellectual Disabilities, Severe Physical...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-07

    ... Intellectual Disabilities, Severe Physical Disabilities, and Psychiatric Disabilities AGENCY: U.S. Office of... substitute the phrase ``intellectual disability'' for the phrase ``mental retardation'' throughout this Part... retardation'' to ``intellectual disability'' or ``individual with intellectual disability'' in......

  3. Endoscopic evaluation of celiac disease severity and its correlation with histopathological aspects of the duodenal mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Bonatto, Mauro W.; Kotze, Luiz; Orlandoski, Marcia; Tsuchyia, Ricardo; de Carvalho, Carlos A.; Lima, Doryane; Kurachi, Gustavo; Orso, Ivan R.B.; Kotze, Lorete

    2016-01-01

    Background and study aims: Celiac disease (CD) is a chronic systemic autoimmune disorder affecting genetically predisposed individuals, triggered and maintained by the ingestion of gluten. Triggered and maintained by the ingestion of gluten, celiac disease is a chronic systemic autoimmune disorder affecting genetically predisposed individuals. Persistent related inflammation of the duodenal mucosa causes atrophy architecture detectable on esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) and histopathology. We investigated the association between endoscopic features and histopathological findings (Marsh) for duodenal mucosa in celiac disease patients and propose an endoscopic classification of severity. Patients and methods: Between January 2000 and March 2010, an electronic database containing 34,540 EDGs of patients aged > 14 years was searched for cases of CD. Out of 109 cases, 85 met the inclusion criteria: conventional EGD combined with chromoendoscopy, zoom and biopsy. EGD types 0, I and II corresponds to Marsh grades 0, 1 and 2, respectively, while EGD type III corresponds to Marsh grade 3 and 4. Results: Five patients (5.8 %) were EGD I but not Marsh grade 1; 25 patients (29.4 %) were EGD II, 4 of whom (16 %) were classified as Marsh grade 2; and 55 patients (64.7 %) were EGD III, 51 (92.7 %) of whom were classified as Marsh grades 3 and 4. The Spearman correlation coefficient (r = 0.33) revealed a significant association between the methods (P = 0.002). Conclusions: Changes in the duodenal mucosa detected on EGD were significantly and positively associated with histopathologic findings. The use of chromoendoscopy in addition to conventional EGD enhances changes in the duodenal mucosa and permits diagnosis of CD, even in routine examinations. The proposed endoscopic classification is practical and easily reproducible and provides valuable information regarding disease extension. PMID:27556094

  4. Parents' Use of Physical Interventions in the Management of Their Children's Severe Challenging Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, David; Hawkins, Sarah; Cooper, Viv

    2006-01-01

    Background: Although training staff supporting people with challenging behaviour in physical interventions has become accepted practice, parents are often left to fend for themselves while managing equivalent behaviours. The study explores parents' experience of managing severe challenging behaviours, their use of physical interventions and access…

  5. Post-fire Vegetation regeneration effects on runoff and sediment yield: slope, aspect and fire severityPost-fire Vegetation regeneration effects on runoff and sediment yield: slope, aspect and fire severity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barzilai, R.; Wittenberg, L.; Malkinson, D.

    2009-04-01

    1 Post-fire Vegetation regeneration effects on runoff and sediment yield: slope, aspect and fire severity During the last several decades fire occurrence at the Carmel Mountain ridge has been increasing, showing similar trends to the ones observed in the Mediterranean basin. Wildfires damage and destroy the vegetation and therefore alter the components of the eco-geomorphic system, which leads to an increase in runoff and sediment yields. In April, 2005 a wildfire consuming 154 ha of planted and natural vegetation occurred at the north-western part of the Carmel ridge. Following the event, a 2x2x2 factorial design of monitoring plots was established to examine the relationship between vegetation recovery, runoff and sediment yield. Namely, slope aspect, slope steepness and fire severity were specifically examined in relation to the above mentioned response variables. The research methods included (a) the establishment of 14 plots of ~ 10.5m2 each, designed for runoff and sediment collection and for monitoring vegetation cover change. (b) Monthly aerial photography of the research plots using a pole-mounted camera. The images were digitally classified to identify rock cover, vegetation cover, and bare soil patches. The time dependent vegetation regeneration was used for assessing landscape recovery. (c) Collection of runoff and sediment yield after each rain event. Multiple regression analysis was conducted in order to determine the relative importance of land cover classes and different precipitation parameters on runoff and sediment yield. Vegetation recovery rates during the first wet season were relatively low; by the end of the first spring season vegetation cover reached 30%-35%. During the first summer, a year after the fire, there was a slight decrease in vegetation cover, due to the die off of the annual herbaceous vegetation. In the second winter vegetation cover continued to increase, and by the end of the research period (summer 2007) average vegetation

  6. Efficacy of lifestyle interventions in physical health management of patients with severe mental illness

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Awareness of the importance of maintaining physical health for patients with severe mental illnesses has recently been on the increase. Although there are several elements contributing to poor physical health among these patients as compared with the general population, risk factors for cardiovascular disease such as smoking, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, dyslipidemia, metabolic syndrome, and obesity are of particular significance due to their relationship with mortality and morbidity. These patients present higher vulnerability to cardiovascular risk factors based on several issues, such as genetic predisposition to certain pathologies, poor eating habits and sedentary lifestyles, high proportions of smokers and drug abusers, less access to regular health care services, and potential adverse events during pharmacological treatment. Nevertheless, there is ample scientific evidence supporting the benefits of lifestyle interventions based on diet and exercise designed to minimize and reduce the negative impact of these risk factors on the physical health of patients with severe mental illnesses. PMID:21929761

  7. Physics Basis for High-Beta, Low-Aspect-Ratio Stellarator Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    A. Brooks; A.H. Reiman; G.H. Neilson; M.C. Zarnstorff; et al

    1999-11-01

    High-beta, low-aspect-ratio (compact) stellarators are promising solutions to the problem of developing a magnetic plasma configuration for magnetic fusion power plants that can be sustained in steady-state without disrupting. These concepts combine features of stellarators and advanced tokamaks and have aspect ratios similar to those of tokamaks (2-4). They are based on computed plasma configurations that are shaped in three dimensions to provide desired stability and transport properties. Experiments are planned as part of a program to develop this concept. A beta = 4% quasi-axisymmetric plasma configuration has been evaluated for the National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX). It has a substantial bootstrap current and is shaped to stabilize ballooning, external kink, vertical, and neoclassical tearing modes without feedback or close-fitting conductors. Quasi-omnigeneous plasma configurations stable to ballooning modes at beta = 4% have been evaluated for the Quasi-Omnigeneous Stellarator (QOS) experiment. These equilibria have relatively low bootstrap currents and are insensitive to changes in beta. Coil configurations have been calculated that reconstruct these plasma configurations, preserving their important physics properties. Theory- and experiment-based confinement analyses are used to evaluate the technical capabilities needed to reach target plasma conditions. The physics basis for these complementary experiments is described.

  8. Aspects of e/sup +/e/sup/minus// physics at 1 TeV

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, D.C.

    1988-09-01

    A summary of several recent studies of electroweak e/sup +/e/sup /minus// physics is provided. The significance of upcoming SLC/LEP measurements of Z and W properties is discussed, with special emphasis placed on radiative corrections and polarization. New electroweak physics at a proposed TeV e/sup +/e/sup /minus// collider is presented as a natural outgrowth of the SLC/LEP programs. Precise tests of the trilinear gauge boson vertex through W pair production, searching for the disturbance of perturbative unitarity by radiative corrections, and of the gauge structure of a Z', through polarized e/sup /minus// beams, are presented. 19 refs.

  9. Physical and psychosocial aspects of the learning environment in information technology rich classrooms.

    PubMed

    Zandvliet, D B; Straker, L M

    2001-07-15

    This paper reports on a study of environments in emerging Internet classrooms. At issue for this study is to what extent these 'technological classrooms' are providing a positive learning environment for students. To investigate this issue, this study involved an evaluation of the physical and psychosocial environments in computerized school settings through a combination of questionnaires and inventories that were later cross-referenced to case studies on a subset of these classrooms. Data were obtained from a series of physical evaluations of 43 settings in 24 school locations in British Columbia, Canada and Western Australia. Evaluations consisted of detailed inventories of the physical environment using the Computerised Classroom Environment Inventory (CCEI): an instrument developed specifically for this study. Data on psychosocial aspects of the environment were obtained with the What is Happening in this Class? (WIHIC) questionnaire administered to 1404 high school students making routine use of these computerized classrooms. Potential deficiencies in the physical environment of these locations included problems with individual workspaces, lighting and air quality, whereas deficiencies in the psychosocial environment were confined to the dimension of Autonomy. Further analysis of these classroom environment data indicated that student Autonomy and Task orientation were independently associated with students' Satisfaction with learning and that many physical (e.g. lighting and workspace dimensions) and psychosocial factors (e.g. students' perceptions of Co-operation and Collaboration) were also associated. The results provide a descriptive account of the learning environment in 'technology-rich' classrooms and, further, indicate that ergonomic guidelines used in the implementation of IT in classrooms may have a positive influence on the learning environment. PMID:11560365

  10. New aspects of the formation of physical hydrogels of chitosan in a hydroalcoholic medium.

    PubMed

    Boucard, Nadège; Viton, Christophe; Domard, Alain

    2005-01-01

    New aspects concerning the mechanism of formation of chitosan physical hydrogels without any cross-linking agent were studied. The gelation took place during the evaporation of a hydroalcoholic solution of chitosan. We first demonstrated that it was possible to form a physical hydrogel from a hydrochloride form of chitosan. Chromatographic methods showed that during the gel formation, when the initial concentration is over C, the critical concentration of chain entanglement, the water and acid used for the solubilization of the polymer were both eliminated. This particular situation contributed to decrease the dielectric constant of the medium and the apparent charge density of chitosan chains, thus inducing the formation of a three-dimensional network through hydrophobic interactions and hydrogen bonding. In the gelation process, this step was kinetically determining. The speed of evaporation of water and acid were determined and different initial conditions were compared. Thus, we investigated the influence of: the initial polymer concentration, the nature of the counterion and the alcohol, the temperature and the geometry of the reactor. Our results allowed us to confirm the existence of a second critical initial concentration C, from which the evaporation of water became more difficult. We suggested that C corresponded to a reorganization of the solution involving the presence of gel precursors. Then, a mechanism of formation of physical hydrogels of chitosan in a hydroalcoholic medium could be proposed. For the first time, we demonstrated that it was possible to generate physical hydrogels in the presence of various diols, which size of the carbonated chain appeared as a limiting factor for the gelation process. These physical hydrogels of chitosan are currently used in our laboratory for tissue engineering in the treatment of third degree burns with the possibility to adapt their mechanical properties from the choice of both the acid or the alcohol used. PMID

  11. Lifetime Physical and Sexual Abuse and Self-Harm in Women With Severe Mental Illness.

    PubMed

    O'Hare, Thomas; Shen, Ce; Sherrer, Margaret V

    2016-09-01

    In a sample of 242 women in treatment for severe mental illness (SMI), we used regression analysis to test the hypothesis that lifetime physical and sexual abuse would correlate with self-harm behaviors (thoughts of self-harm and suicide, self-harming behaviors, and suicide attempts) when controlling for psychiatric symptoms, substance abuse, and negative appraisals of trauma. Lifetime physical abuse and alcohol use were the only significant factors in the model. Women with SMI should be screened regularly for physical abuse, alcohol use, as well as thoughts and behaviors related to self-harming behaviors. Limitations of the study include its cross-sectional design. PMID:26719079

  12. Software Aspects of IEEE Floating-Point Computations for Numerical Applications in High Energy Physics

    SciTech Connect

    2010-05-11

    Floating-point computations are at the heart of much of the computing done in high energy physics. The correctness, speed and accuracy of these computations are of paramount importance. The lack of any of these characteristics can mean the difference between new, exciting physics and an embarrassing correction. This talk will examine practical aspects of IEEE 754-2008 floating-point arithmetic as encountered in HEP applications. After describing the basic features of IEEE floating-point arithmetic, the presentation will cover: common hardware implementations (SSE, x87) techniques for improving the accuracy of summation, multiplication and data interchange compiler options for gcc and icc affecting floating-point operations hazards to be avoided About the speaker Jeffrey M Arnold is a Senior Software Engineer in the Intel Compiler and Languages group at Intel Corporation. He has been part of the Digital->Compaq->Intel compiler organization for nearly 20 years; part of that time, he worked on both low- and high-level math libraries. Prior to that, he was in the VMS Engineering organization at Digital Equipment Corporation. In the late 1980s, Jeff spent 2½ years at CERN as part of the CERN/Digital Joint Project. In 2008, he returned to CERN to spent 10 weeks working with CERN/openlab. Since that time, he has returned to CERN multiple times to teach at openlab workshops and consult with various LHC experiments. Jeff received his Ph.D. in physics from Case Western Reserve University.

  13. Physical and Chemical Aspects of Pharmaceutical Solids: Fundamentals of Polymorphs, Hydrates and Solvates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reutzel-Edens, Susan

    2007-03-01

    Crystal polymorphs are solid phases of a given compound resulting from the possibility of at least two different arrangements of the molecules of that compound in the solid state. Solvates form when the solvent is incorporated in the crystal structure of a compound; hydrates form when water is the solvent of crystallization. The potential effects of crystal polymorphism and hydration on the quality and performance of drug products is widely recognized by the pharmaceutical industry. Investigations of crystal polymorphism and hydration are usually conducted early in drug development to optimize the physical properties of a pharmaceutical solid. Although the thermodynamically most stable crystal form is generally selected for commercial development to mitigate the risk of undesired phase transformations, form selection oftentimes involves a compromise among different physical properties of various drug crystal forms. Controlling polymorph (or hydrate) appearance must be accomplished through careful evaluation of both thermodynamic (tendency toward the formation of more stable crystal forms) and kinetic parameters (which lead to the formation of metastable forms) in the crystallization process. In this presentation, fundamental aspects of polymorphs and solvates (hydrates) will be explored. Particular attention will be given to the structure and stability relationships between polymorphs and hydrates, kinetic vs. thermodynamic transitions, and the impact of polymorphism and hydration on the chemical and physical stability of an active pharmaceutical ingredient.

  14. Software Aspects of IEEE Floating-Point Computations for Numerical Applications in High Energy Physics

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2011-10-06

    Floating-point computations are at the heart of much of the computing done in high energy physics. The correctness, speed and accuracy of these computations are of paramount importance. The lack of any of these characteristics can mean the difference between new, exciting physics and an embarrassing correction. This talk will examine practical aspects of IEEE 754-2008 floating-point arithmetic as encountered in HEP applications. After describing the basic features of IEEE floating-point arithmetic, the presentation will cover: common hardware implementations (SSE, x87) techniques for improving the accuracy of summation, multiplication and data interchange compiler options for gcc and icc affecting floating-point operations hazards to be avoided About the speaker Jeffrey M Arnold is a Senior Software Engineer in the Intel Compiler and Languages group at Intel Corporation. He has been part of the Digital->Compaq->Intel compiler organization for nearly 20 years; part of that time, he worked on both low- and high-level math libraries. Prior to that, he was in the VMS Engineering organization at Digital Equipment Corporation. In the late 1980s, Jeff spent 2½ years at CERN as part of the CERN/Digital Joint Project. In 2008, he returned to CERN to spent 10 weeks working with CERN/openlab. Since that time, he has returned to CERN multiple times to teach at openlab workshops and consult with various LHC experiments. Jeff received his Ph.D. in physics from Case Western Reserve University.

  15. On physical nanoscale aspects of compatibility of steels with hydrogen and natural gas.

    PubMed

    Nechaev, Yu S; Ochsner, A

    2010-02-01

    The possibilities of effective solutions of relevant technological problems are considered based on the analysis of fundamental physical aspects, elucidation of the nano-structural mechanisms and interrelations of aging and hydrogen embrittlement of materials (steels) in the hydrogen industry and gas-main industries. The adverse effects which these mechanisms and processes have on the service properties and technological lifetime of materials are analyzed. The concomitant fundamental process of formation of carbohydride-like and other segregation nanostructures at dislocations (with the segregation capacity 1 to 1.5 orders of magnitude greater than in the widely used Cottrell 'atmosphere' model) and grain boundaries is discussed in the context of how these nanostructures affect technological processes (aging, hydrogen embrittlement, stress corrosion damage, and failure) and the physicomechanical properties of the metallic materials (including the technological lifetimes of pipeline steels). PMID:20352806

  16. Oral, physical, and behavioral aspects of patient with chromosome 47, XYY syndrome.

    PubMed

    Scheidt, Lisa; Sanabe, Mariane Emi; Diniz, Michele Baffi

    2015-01-01

    Chromosome 47, XYY syndrome is usually diagnosed late. Some of the clinical characteristics of XYY syndrome may be perceptible in dental care. The slow development of cognitive and motor activities and tall stature is common in XYY patients. The aim of this article was to relate the oral, physical, and behavioral aspects of a 6-year-old patient with the chromosome 47, XYY syndrome, diagnosed by means of karyotyping. The patient presented motor difficulty, which led to a fall and traumatism in the anterior region. In the radiography, agenesia of the permanent maxillary lateral incisors, presence of taurodontism in the primary molars, and macrodontia of the maxillary central incisors and permanent molars could be observed. Once the diagnosis was made, it was possible to understand his difficulty at school, and make available appropriate monitoring by a suitable multidisciplinary team to stimulate, control, and minimize the day-to-day difficulties found by patients with this syndrome. PMID:26381641

  17. Physical, consumer, and social aspects of measuring the food environment among diverse low-income populations.

    PubMed

    Gittelsohn, Joel; Sharma, Sangita

    2009-04-01

    Obesity and other diet-related chronic diseases are directly related to the food environment. We describe how to better assess the food environment in specific ethnic minority settings for designing and implementing interventions, based on a review of our previous work on the food environment in American Indian reservations, Canadian First Nations reserves, the Republic of the Marshall Islands, and inner-city Baltimore. The types of food stores available within each setting and the range of healthy foods available varied greatly across these geographic regions. In all settings, proximity to food stores/supermarkets, cost, and limited availability of healthful foods were common features, which limited access to health-promoting food options. Features specific to each population should be considered in an assessment of the food environment, including physical (e.g., openness of stores, mix of types of food sources); consumer (e.g., adequacy of the food supply, seasonal factors); and social (e.g., inter-household food sharing, perceptions of food quality, language differences) aspects. The food environments common in low-income ethnic subpopulations require special focus and consideration due to the vulnerability of the populations and to specific and unique aspects of each setting. PMID:19285208

  18. Assimilation of sea-ice concentration in a global climate model - physical and statistical aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tietsche, S.; Notz, D.; Jungclaus, J. H.; Marotzke, J.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the initialisation of Northern Hemisphere sea ice in the global climate model ECHAM5/MPI-OM by assimilating sea-ice concentration data. The analysis updates for concentration are given by Newtonian relaxation, and we discuss different ways of specifying the analysis updates for mean thickness. Because the conservation of mean ice thickness or actual ice thickness in the analysis updates leads to poor assimilation performance, we introduce a proportional dependence between concentration and mean thickness analysis updates. Assimilation with these proportional mean-thickness analysis updates leads to good assimilation performance for sea-ice concentration and thickness, both in identical-twin experiments and when assimilating sea-ice observations. The simulation of other Arctic surface fields in the coupled model is, however, not significantly improved by the assimilation. To understand the physical aspects of assimilation errors, we construct a simple prognostic model of the sea-ice thermodynamics, and analyse its response to the assimilation. We find that an adjustment of mean ice thickness in the analysis update is essential to arrive at plausible state estimates. To understand the statistical aspects of assimilation errors, we study the model background error covariance between ice concentration and ice thickness. We find that the spatial structure of covariances is best represented by the proportional mean-thickness analysis updates. Both physical and statistical evidence supports the experimental finding that assimilation with proportional mean-thickness updates outperforms the other two methods considered. The method described here is very simple to implement, and gives results that are sufficiently good to be used for initialising sea ice in a global climate model for seasonal to decadal predictions.

  19. Assimilation of sea-ice concentration in a global climate model - physical and statistical aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tietsche, S.; Notz, D.; Jungclaus, J. H.; Marotzke, J.

    2012-07-01

    We investigate the initialization of Northern-hemisphere sea ice in the global climate model ECHAM5/MPI-OM by assimilating sea-ice concentration data. The analysis updates for concentration are given by Newtonian relaxation, and we discuss different ways of specifying the analysis updates for mean thickness. Because the conservation of mean ice thickness or actual ice thickness in the analysis updates leads to poor assimilation performance, we introduce a proportional dependence between concentration and mean thickness analysis updates. Assimilation with these proportional mean-thickness analysis updates significantly reduces assimilation error both in identical-twin experiments and when assimilating sea-ice observations, reducing the concentration error by a factor of four to six, and the thickness error by a factor of two. To understand the physical aspects of assimilation errors, we construct a simple prognostic model of the sea-ice thermodynamics, and analyse its response to the assimilation. We find that the strong dependence of thermodynamic ice growth on ice concentration necessitates an adjustment of mean ice thickness in the analysis update. To understand the statistical aspects of assimilation errors, we study the model background error covariance between ice concentration and ice thickness. We find that the spatial structure of covariances is best represented by the proportional mean-thickness analysis updates. Both physical and statistical evidence supports the experimental finding that proportional mean-thickness updates are superior to the other two methods considered and enable us to assimilate sea ice in a global climate model using simple Newtonian relaxation.

  20. Reviving the 'double jeopardy' hypothesis: physical health inequalities, ethnicity and severe mental illness.

    PubMed

    Das-Munshi, Jayati; Stewart, Robert; Morgan, Craig; Nazroo, James; Thornicroft, Graham; Prince, Martin

    2016-09-01

    People with severe mental illness (SMI) experience a reduction in life expectancy of 15-20 years. Physical health and mortality experience may be even worse for ethnic minority groups with SMI, but evidence is limited. We suggest clinical, policy and research recommendations to address this inequality. PMID:27587757

  1. Culturally Responsive Instruction for Students with Multiple or Severe Physical Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glimps, Blanche Jackson; Ford, Theron

    2006-01-01

    Are there students with physical disabilities who are so severely impaired that their culture can not be taken into consideration? Growing numbers of preschool and school age children with such disabilities are from non-European countries including Africa, South America, East Asia, and the Caribbean Islands. In addition, children who are American…

  2. Secondary Physical Education Teachers' Beliefs and Practices in Teaching Students with Severe Disabilities: A Descriptive Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ammah, Jonathan O. A.; Hodge, Samuel R.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose was to describe the beliefs and practices of general physical education (GPE) teachers at the high school level on inclusion and teaching students with severe disabilities. Participants were two experienced GPE teachers at separate suburban high schools. The research paradigm was descriptive using a combination of naturalistic…

  3. The Herald: An Electronic Aid to Communication for Severely Physically Handicapped.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkins, Robert L.; Means, Diane W.

    Examined are ways in which adaptive aids make communication available to nonverbal severely physically handicapped persons. Techniques for initial assessment are described, including evaluation of outward orientation, motor control and binary choice system. The Herald, an electronic communication board, is said to meet criteria of adaptability,…

  4. Personal Assistant Support for Students with Severe Physical Disabilities in Postsecondary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedrick, Bradley N.; Stumbo, Norma J.; Martin, Jay K.; Martin, Liam G.; Nordstrom, David L.; Morrill, Joshua H.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory research is to document the level of personal assistance support provided to students with severe physical disabilities by disability support services in higher education institutions across the United States. A national survey was conducted of members of the Association of Higher Education And Disability (AHEAD)…

  5. Adolescence Education: Physical Aspect, Module One; Social Aspects, Module Two; Sex Roles, Module Three; Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Module Four.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Principal Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific.

    Adolescence Education is a family life education training program designed to assist young people in their physical, social, emotional, and moral development as they prepare for adulthood, marriage, parenthood, aging, and social relationships in the context of family and society. This package consists of four individually bound modules: (1)…

  6. Depression severity, diet quality, and physical activity in women with obesity and depression.

    PubMed

    Appelhans, Bradley M; Whited, Matthew C; Schneider, Kristin L; Ma, Yunsheng; Oleski, Jessica L; Merriam, Philip A; Waring, Molly E; Olendzki, Barbara C; Mann, Devin M; Ockene, Ira S; Pagoto, Sherry L

    2012-05-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is prevalent in clinical weight-loss settings and predicts poor weight-loss outcomes. It is unknown whether the severity of depressive symptoms among those with MDD is associated with diet quality or physical activity levels. This knowledge is important for improving weight-loss treatment for these patients. It was hypothesized that more severe depression is associated with poorer diet quality and lower physical activity levels among individuals with obesity and MDD. Participants were 161 women with current MDD and obesity enrolled in the baseline phase of a weight-loss trial between 2007 and 2010. Depression severity was measured with the Beck Depression Inventory II. The Alternate Healthy Eating Index was applied to data from three 24-hour diet recalls to capture overall diet quality. Daily metabolic equivalents expended per day were calculated from three 24-hour physical activity recalls. Greater depression severity was associated with poorer overall diet quality (estimate=-0.26, standard error 0.11; P=0.02), but not with physical activity (estimate=0.07, standard error 0.05; P=0.18), in linear regression models controlling for income, education, depression-related appetite change, binge eating disorder, and other potential confounds. Associations with diet quality were primarily driven by greater intake of sugar (r=0.20; P<0.01), saturated fat (r=0.21; P<0.01), and sodium (r=0.22; P<0.01). More severe depression was associated with poorer overall diet quality, but not physical activity, among treatment-seeking women with MDD and obesity. Future studies should identify mechanisms linking depression to diet quality and determine whether diet quality improves with depression treatment. PMID:22709773

  7. Depression severity, diet quality, and physical activity in women with obesity and depression

    PubMed Central

    Appelhans, Bradley M.; Whited, Matthew C.; Schneider, Kristin L.; Ma, Yunsheng; Oleski, Jessica L.; Merriam, Philip A.; Waring, Molly E.; Olendzki, Barbara C.; Mann, Devin M.; Ockene, Ira S.; Pagoto, Sherry L.

    2012-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is prevalent in clinical weight loss settings and predicts poor weight loss outcomes. It is unknown whether the severity of depressive symptoms among those with MDD is associated with diet quality or physical activity levels. This knowledge is important for improving weight loss treatment for these patients. It was hypothesized that more severe depression is associated with poorer diet quality and lower physical activity levels among individuals with obesity and MDD. Participants were 161 women with current MDD and obesity enrolled in the baseline phase of a weight loss trial between 2007 and 2010. Depression severity was measured with the Beck Depression Inventory II. The Alternate Healthy Eating Index (AHEI) was applied to data from three 24-hour diet recalls to capture overall diet quality. Daily metabolic equivalents expended per day (MET-hrs/d) were calculated from three 24-hour physical activity recalls. Greater depression severity was associated with poorer overall diet quality (estimate=−.26, SE=.11, p=.02), but not with physical activity (estimate=.07, SE=.05, p=.18), in linear regression models controlling for income, education, depression-related appetite change, binge eating disorder, and other potential confounds. Associations with diet quality were primarily driven by greater intake of sugar (r=.20, p<.01), saturated fat (r=.21, p<.01), and sodium (r=.22, p<.01). More severe depression was associated with poorer overall diet quality, but not physical activity, among treatment-seeking women with MDD and obesity. Future studies should identify mechanisms linking depression to diet quality, and determine whether diet quality improves with depression treatment. PMID:22709773

  8. Anxiety and physical health problems increase the odds of women having more severe symptoms of depression.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Sandra J; Simeonova, Diana I; Kimmel, Mary C; Battle, Cynthia L; Maki, Pauline M; Flynn, Heather A

    2016-06-01

    Severely depressed women incur substantial disability and suicide risk, necessitating an understanding of factors that may contribute to severe depression. The purpose of this research was to determine the degree to which age, physical morbidity, anxiety, and hormonal status predict the likelihood of severe depression among women with mood disorders (n = 298). Data arose from a standardized battery of measures in a multi-center clinical registry of patients with mood disorders. The women were being treated at 17 participating sites of the National Network of Depression Centers. Results of logistic regression analyses indicate that a woman's level of anxiety was the strongest predictor of her likelihood of having severe depression (Exp(B) = 1.33, p = .000), including thoughts of death or suicide. The number of physical health problems that a woman reported was also a significant predictor (Exp(B) = 1.09, p = .04). Neither age nor hormonal status was significant in the final model, although a trend was observed for women with surgically induced menopause to have more severe depression. Findings support the need to work closely with medical practitioners to address physical health problems as part of the treatment plan for depression and to give comorbid anxiety and depression equal priority in symptom management. PMID:26403982

  9. Medical physics aspects of the synchrotron radiation therapies: Microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) and synchrotron stereotactic radiotherapy (SSRT).

    PubMed

    Bräuer-Krisch, Elke; Adam, Jean-Francois; Alagoz, Enver; Bartzsch, Stefan; Crosbie, Jeff; DeWagter, Carlos; Dipuglia, Andrew; Donzelli, Mattia; Doran, Simon; Fournier, Pauline; Kalef-Ezra, John; Kock, Angela; Lerch, Michael; McErlean, Ciara; Oelfke, Uwe; Olko, Pawel; Petasecca, Marco; Povoli, Marco; Rosenfeld, Anatoly; Siegbahn, Erik A; Sporea, Dan; Stugu, Bjarne

    2015-09-01

    Stereotactic Synchrotron Radiotherapy (SSRT) and Microbeam Radiation Therapy (MRT) are both novel approaches to treat brain tumor and potentially other tumors using synchrotron radiation. Although the techniques differ by their principles, SSRT and MRT share certain common aspects with the possibility of combining their advantages in the future. For MRT, the technique uses highly collimated, quasi-parallel arrays of X-ray microbeams between 50 and 600 keV. Important features of highly brilliant Synchrotron sources are a very small beam divergence and an extremely high dose rate. The minimal beam divergence allows the insertion of so called Multi Slit Collimators (MSC) to produce spatially fractionated beams of typically ∼25-75 micron-wide microplanar beams separated by wider (100-400 microns center-to-center(ctc)) spaces with a very sharp penumbra. Peak entrance doses of several hundreds of Gy are extremely well tolerated by normal tissues and at the same time provide a higher therapeutic index for various tumor models in rodents. The hypothesis of a selective radio-vulnerability of the tumor vasculature versus normal blood vessels by MRT was recently more solidified. SSRT (Synchrotron Stereotactic Radiotherapy) is based on a local drug uptake of high-Z elements in tumors followed by stereotactic irradiation with 80 keV photons to enhance the dose deposition only within the tumor. With SSRT already in its clinical trial stage at the ESRF, most medical physics problems are already solved and the implemented solutions are briefly described, while the medical physics aspects in MRT will be discussed in more detail in this paper. PMID:26043881

  10. Aspects of activity behavior as a determinant of the physical activity level.

    PubMed

    Bonomi, A G; Plasqui, G; Goris, A H C; Westerterp, K R

    2012-02-01

    This study investigated which aspects of the individuals' activity behavior determine the physical activity level (PAL). Habitual physical activity of 20 Dutch adults (age: 26-60 years, body mass index: 24.5 ± 2.7 kg/m(2)) was measured using a tri-axial accelerometer. Accelerometer output was used to identify the engagement in different types of daily activities with a classification tree algorithm. Activity behavior was described by the daily duration of sleeping, sedentary behavior (lying, sitting, and standing), walking, running, bicycling, and generic standing activities. Simultaneously, the total energy expenditure (TEE) was measured using doubly labeled water. PAL was calculated as TEE divided by sleeping metabolic rate. PAL was significantly associated (P<0.05) with sedentary time (R=-0.72), and the duration of walking (R=0.49), bicycling (R=0.77), and active standing (R=0.62). A negative association was observed between sedentary time and the duration of active standing (R=-0.87; P<0.001). A multiple-linear regression analysis showed that 75% of the variance in PAL could be predicted by the duration of bicycling (Partial R(2) =59%; P<0.01), walking (Partial R(2) =9%; P<0.05) and being sedentary (Partial R(2) =7%; P<0.05). In conclusion, there is objective evidence that sedentary time and activities related to transportation and commuting, such as walking and bicycling, contribute significantly to the average PAL. PMID:20536909

  11. Relationship factors and depressive symptomatology associated with mild and severe husband-to-wife physical aggression.

    PubMed

    Vivian, D; Malone, J

    1997-01-01

    This study uses a gender-specific approach to investigate the association among relationship factors, depressive symptomatology and husbands' marital violence in 327 couples who attended a marital therapy clinic. Both spouses reports were used to group couples according to husbands' verbal (VA), mild physical (MA), and severe physical (SA) aggression as measured by the Conflict Tactics Scale (Straus, 1979). Frequency of aggression and spouses' perceptions about their partners' communication skills during conflict (i.e., use of hostile, verbally aggressive and avoidant conflict styles) were different for all groups. Reports on marital quality, conflict management style, cognitions about marriage, and individual affective state were more negative for both spouses when husbands were severely physically aggressive. Wives in the SA group were most likely to believe that partners cannot change. Discriminant function analysis provided substantial prediction of group membership when husbands were verbally or severely aggressive, but weaker prediction when husbands engaged in mild physical aggression. The limits of current measures of dyadic processes for marital violence research are discussed. PMID:9360285

  12. Studies of the physical aspects of intumescence using advance diagnostics methods

    SciTech Connect

    Saeed, Hussain Huang, Hua Wei Zhang, Yang

    2014-04-11

    The use of intumescent paints as an active fire protection method has gained immense interest in recent years. A significant aspect of research has focused on studying the chemical aspects of the system to improve performance. The dynamics and physical aspects of intumescence in real time fire conditions are still unclear. The present research uses an experimental approach where diagnostics techniques such as thermal imaging camera was used to study intumescent characteristics that have been not been reported in great detail. T-panels are a substitute to the most commonly used part in construction, the I-beam. Studies were conducted using a cone calorimeter that provided a uniform heat flux through radiation on steel T-panel samples. The complex nature of char movement was recorded and a novel algorithm was used to track the growing char laye07r. The samples are designed to cater to different fire conditions. Therefore, the degree of intumescence was observed to be very different in the samples. The samples designed for low temperature cellulosic fires focus on high degree of intumesce. Whereas, mechanical strength is the focus for samples used in high temperature turbulent hydrocarbon fire conditions. The variation in the internal structure of the sample is presented. Furthermore, the phenomenon is phase shift is discussed. The phase shift is an essential part of the process of intumescence when the majority of intumescence occurs. It was observed to be different in all the samples. The movement of the samples is a property of great interest. This is because if any part of the substrate is exposed then the formulation does not meet strict commercialisation criterion. The movement was diagonal in nature as compared to flat panels where it is perpendicular. This is due tot the heating pattern of the plate that results in the web part of the panel to influence the growth of char on the flange part of the panel. A special case of char cracking is also highlighted and

  13. Studies of the physical aspects of intumescence using advance diagnostics methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saeed, Hussain; Huang, Hua Wei; Zhang, Yang

    2014-04-01

    The use of intumescent paints as an active fire protection method has gained immense interest in recent years. A significant aspect of research has focused on studying the chemical aspects of the system to improve performance. The dynamics and physical aspects of intumescence in real time fire conditions are still unclear. The present research uses an experimental approach where diagnostics techniques such as thermal imaging camera was used to study intumescent characteristics that have been not been reported in great detail. T-panels are a substitute to the most commonly used part in construction, the I-beam. Studies were conducted using a cone calorimeter that provided a uniform heat flux through radiation on steel T-panel samples. The complex nature of char movement was recorded and a novel algorithm was used to track the growing char laye07r. The samples are designed to cater to different fire conditions. Therefore, the degree of intumescence was observed to be very different in the samples. The samples designed for low temperature cellulosic fires focus on high degree of intumesce. Whereas, mechanical strength is the focus for samples used in high temperature turbulent hydrocarbon fire conditions. The variation in the internal structure of the sample is presented. Furthermore, the phenomenon is phase shift is discussed. The phase shift is an essential part of the process of intumescence when the majority of intumescence occurs. It was observed to be different in all the samples. The movement of the samples is a property of great interest. This is because if any part of the substrate is exposed then the formulation does not meet strict commercialisation criterion. The movement was diagonal in nature as compared to flat panels where it is perpendicular. This is due tot the heating pattern of the plate that results in the web part of the panel to influence the growth of char on the flange part of the panel. A special case of char cracking is also highlighted and

  14. Physical therapy as an adjunctive treatment for severe osteoarthritis in a Komodo dragon (Varanus komodoensis).

    PubMed

    Wolfe, Tammy Culpepper; Stringer, Elizabeth; Krauss, Sue; Trout, Tim

    2015-03-01

    This case report describes a new physical therapy technique, specifically the Wolfe Kinetic Technique, as adjunctive therapy in the treatment of severe osteoarthritis in a 20-yr-old Komodo dragon (Varanus komodoensis). This animal was managed with oral analgesics for 3 yr with fair to minimal response over time. Due to worsening of lameness and mobility, physical therapy was initiated. Ten treatment sessions were administered at 1-wk intervals. Within 1 mo the Komodo dragon exhibited marked improvement in gait and function, increased responsiveness to his environment, and increased mobility which continued to improve over the subsequent sessions. Although outcomes could not be measured by standardized objective measures, this study provides a reference for treatment of future cases and a foundation for future research substantiating treatment practices in animal physical therapy. PMID:25831594

  15. The Physical Origin of Severe Low-Frequency Pressure Fluctuations in Giant Francis Turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, R.-K.; Cai, Q.-D.; Wu, J.-Z.; Wu, Y.-L.; Liu, S.-H.; Zhang, L.

    The physical origin of severe low-frequency pressure fluctuation frequently observed in Francis hydraulic turbines under off-design conditions, which greatly damages the structural stability of turbines and even power stations, is analyzed based on the hydrodynamic stability theory and our Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equation simulation (RANS) of the flow in the entire passage of a Francis turbine. We find that spontaneous unsteady vortex ropes, which induce severe pressure fluctuations, are formed due to the absolute instability of the swirling flow at the conical inlet of the turbine's draft tube.

  16. Participant Satisfaction in a Study of Stimulant, Parent Training, and Risperidone in Children with Severe Physical Aggression

    PubMed Central

    Townsend, Lisa D.; Schneider, Jayne; Farmer, Cristan A.; Molina, Brooke B.S.G.; Findling, Robert L.; Gadow, Kenneth D.; Bukstein, Oscar G.; Kolko, David J.; Buchan-Page, Kristin A.; McNamara, Nora K.; Michel, Chenel; Austin, Adrienne; Kipp, Heidi; Rice, Robert R.; Aman, Michael G.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine the satisfaction of families who participated in the Treatment of Severe Childhood Aggression (TOSCA) study. Methods: TOSCA was a randomized clinical trial of psychostimulant plus parent training plus placebo (basic treatment) versus psychostimulant plus parent training plus risperidone (augmented treatment) for children with severe physical aggression, disruptive behavior disorder, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Parents completed a standardized Parent Satisfaction Questionnaire (PSQ). Results: Of the 168 families randomized, 150 (89.3%) provided consumer satisfaction data. When they were asked if they would join the study again if they had the option to repeat, 136 (91%) said “yes,” 11 (7%) said “maybe,” and one (<1%) said “no.” When asked if they would recommend the study to other parents with children having similar problems, 147 (98%) said “yes” and 3 (2%) said “maybe.” Between 71% (rating one aspect of the Parent Training) and 96% (regarding the diagnostic interview) endorsed study procedures using the most positive response option. Asked if there were certain aspects of the study that they especially liked, 64 (43%) spontaneously reported parent training. Treatment assignment (basic vs. augmented) and responder status were not associated with reported satisfaction. However, responder status was strongly associated with parent confidence in managing present (p<0.001) and future (p<0.005) problem behaviors. Conclusions: These findings indicate high levels of satisfaction with TOSCA study involvement and, taken together with previous pediatric psychopharmacology social validity studies, suggest high levels of support for the research experience. These findings may inform research bioethics and may have implications for deliberations of institutional review boards. Trial Registry: Treatment of Severe Childhood Aggression (The TOSCA Study), NCT00796302, clinicaltrials

  17. Self-referring DNA and protein: a remark on physical and geometrical aspects.

    PubMed

    Tlusty, Tsvi

    2016-03-13

    All known life forms are based upon a hierarchy of interwoven feedback loops, operating over a cascade of space, time and energy scales. Among the most basic loops are those connecting DNA and proteins. For example, in genetic networks, DNA genes are expressed as proteins, which may bind near the same genes and thereby control their own expression. In this molecular type of self-reference, information is mapped from the DNA sequence to the protein and back to DNA. There is a variety of dynamic DNA-protein self-reference loops, and the purpose of this remark is to discuss certain geometrical and physical aspects related to the back and forth mapping between DNA and proteins. The mappings are examined as dimensional reductions and expansions between high- and low-dimensional manifolds in molecular spaces. The discussion raises basic questions regarding the nature of DNA and proteins as self-referring matter, which are examined in a simple toy model. PMID:26857671

  18. [A case of anorexia nervosa with severe physical complications resulting in long-term hospitalization].

    PubMed

    Saito, Shinnosuke; Sato, Mamoru; Kobayashi, Toshiyuki; Kato, Satoshi

    2013-01-01

    We report the case of a woman in her late twenties with anorexia nervosa who was difficult to treat both psychologically and physically because she resisted being treated despite presenting with various and severe physical complications, such as a refractory tracheoesophageal fistula. On admission, she weighed 24.8 kg and her body mass index was 9.6 kg/m2. Treatment on a medical ward was not possible due to her resistance to being fed and repeated secretive and deviant behaviors. Therefore, she was treated mainly on a psychiatric ward, with a psychiatrist as the attending doctor. After hospitalization for more than 3 years, she had sufficiently recovered to leave the hospital. She was discharged weighing 37.7 kg and her body mass index was 14.5 kg/m2. As physical complications, the patient manifested with a tracheoesophageal fistula, duodenal bulb perforation, and tension pneumothorax, which were considered to reflect the vulnerability of the intrapleural and intraperitoneal soft tissue. She also manifested with lower limb edema, pulmonary edema, pleural effusion, overreaction to a diuretic, dehydration, and hypernatremia, which were considered to reflect the disturbances of water balance. As seen in this case, a patient with anorexia nervosa who resists being fed, even though treatment of the physical complications requires an improved nutritional status above all, may require treatment on a psychiatric ward even at the risk of providing less than ideal care for the physical complications. We discuss "medical psychiatry" as a model for treating anorexia nervosa patients with severe physical complications. In this concept of "medical psychiatry", it is the most important that staff on the psychiatric ward take an interest in and have concerns about the patient's physical complications. If the psychiatrist as the attending doctor actively and continuously participates in the treatment of physical complications, it should be possible to create a treatment plan that

  19. Physical Activity, Health Status and Risk of Hospitalization in Patients with Severe Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Benzo, Roberto P.; Chang, Chung-Chou H.; Farrell, Max H.; Kaplan, Robert; Ries, Andrew; Martinez, Fernando J.; Wise, Robert; Make, Barry; Sciurba, Frank

    2010-01-01

    Background Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a leading cause of death and 70% of the cost of COPD is due to hospitalizations. Self-reported daily physical activity and health status have been reported as predictors of a hospitalization in COPD but are not routinely assessed. Objectives We tested the hypothesis that self-reported daily physical activity and health status assessed by a simple question were predictors of a hospitalization in a well-characterized cohort of patients with severe emphysema. Methods Investigators gathered daily physical activity and health status data assessed by a simple question in 597 patients with severe emphysema and tested the association of those patient-reported outcomes to the occurrence of a hospitalization in the following year. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to determine predictors of hospitalization during the first 12 months after randomization. Results The two variables tested in the hypothesis were significant predictors of a hospitalization after adjusting for all univariable significant predictors: >2 h of physical activity per week had a protective effect [odds ratio (OR) 0.60; 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.41–0.88] and self-reported health status as fair or poor had a deleterious effect (OR 1.57; 95% CI 1.10–2.23). In addition, two other variables became significant in the multivariate model: total lung capacity (every 10% increase) had a protective effect (OR 0.88; 95% CI 0.78–0.99) and self-reported anxiety had a deleterious effect (OR 1.75; 95% CI 1.13–2.70). Conclusion Self-reported daily physical activity and health status are independently associated with COPD hospitalizations. Our findings, assessed by simple questions, suggest the value of patient-reported outcomes in developing risk assessment tools that are easy to use. PMID:20234126

  20. Structural and topological aspects of borophosphate glasses and their relation to physical properties.

    PubMed

    Hermansen, Christian; Youngman, Randall E; Wang, John; Yue, Yuanzheng

    2015-05-14

    We establish a topological model of alkali borophosphate and calcium borophosphate glasses, which describes the effect of both the network formers and network modifiers on physical properties. We show that the glass transition temperature (Tg), Vickers hardness (HV), liquid fragility (m), and isobaric heat capacity jump at Tg (ΔCp) of these glasses are related to the network topology, which is determined by structure of the glass. Therefore, we also demonstrate that the temperature dependent constraint theory can quantitatively explain the mixed network former effect in borophosphate glasses. The origin of the effect of the type of network modifying oxide on Tg, HV, m, and ΔCp of calcium borophosphate glasses is revealed in terms of the modifying ion sub-network. The same topological principles quantitatively explain the significant differences in physical properties between the alkali and the calcium borophosphate glasses. This work has implications for quantifying structure-property relations in complex glass forming systems containing several types of network forming and modifying oxides. PMID:25978896

  1. Structural and topological aspects of borophosphate glasses and their relation to physical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermansen, Christian; Youngman, Randall E.; Wang, John; Yue, Yuanzheng

    2015-05-01

    We establish a topological model of alkali borophosphate and calcium borophosphate glasses, which describes the effect of both the network formers and network modifiers on physical properties. We show that the glass transition temperature (Tg), Vickers hardness (HV), liquid fragility (m), and isobaric heat capacity jump at Tg (ΔCp) of these glasses are related to the network topology, which is determined by structure of the glass. Therefore, we also demonstrate that the temperature dependent constraint theory can quantitatively explain the mixed network former effect in borophosphate glasses. The origin of the effect of the type of network modifying oxide on Tg, HV, m, and ΔCp of calcium borophosphate glasses is revealed in terms of the modifying ion sub-network. The same topological principles quantitatively explain the significant differences in physical properties between the alkali and the calcium borophosphate glasses. This work has implications for quantifying structure-property relations in complex glass forming systems containing several types of network forming and modifying oxides.

  2. What Did They Learn in School Today? A Method for Exploring Aspects of Learning in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quennerstedt, Mikael; Annerstedt, Claes; Barker, Dean; Karlefors, Inger; Larsson, Håkan; Redelius, Karin; Öhman, Marie

    2014-01-01

    This paper outlines a method for exploring learning in educational practice. The suggested method combines an explicit learning theory with robust methodological steps in order to explore aspects of learning in school physical education. The design of the study is based on sociocultural learning theory, and the approach adds to previous research…

  3. Severe physical punishment: risk of mental health problems for poor urban children in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Duarte, Cristiane S; Peres, Clovis A; Nascimento, Rosimeire; Curto, Bartira M; Paula, Cristiane S

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Objective To examine the relationship between specific types of child mental health problems and severe physical punishment, in combination with other important known risk factors. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study in Embu, São Paulo, Brazil, as the Brazilian component of a multicountry survey on abuse in the family environment. From a probabilistic sample of clusters that included all eligible households (women aged 15–49 years with a son or daughter < 18 years of age), we randomly selected one mother–child pair per household (n = 813; attrition rate: 17.6%). This study focused on children aged 6–17 years (n = 480). Child Behaviour Checklist CBCL/6–18 was used to identify children with internalizing problems only, externalizing problems only, and both internalizing and externalizing problems (comorbidity). Severe physical punishment was defined as being hit with an object, being kicked, choked, smothered, burnt, scalded, branded, beaten or threatened with a weapon. We examined other potential correlates from four domains: child (gender, age, ever witnessing marital violence); mother (education, unemployment, anxiety or depression, marital violence); father (absence, drunkenness); and family (socioeconomic status). The WHO Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20) was used to identify maternal anxiety or depression (score > 7). Backward logistic regression analysis identified independent correlates and significant interactions. Findings Multivariate modelling showed that severe punishment was an independent correlate of comorbid internalizing and externalizing problems but was not associated with internalizing problems only. It increased the risk of externalizing problems alone only for children and adolescents not exposed to maternal anxiety or depression. Maternal anxiety or depression increased the risk only for children or adolescents not exposed to severe punishment. Conclusion Severe punishment may be related to child mental

  4. Depression is correlated with the psychological and physical aspects of sexual dysfunction in men.

    PubMed

    Pastuszak, A W; Badhiwala, N; Lipshultz, L I; Khera, M

    2013-09-01

    Few studies have objectively examined the relationship between depression and various stages of sexual function. Here we associate depression and sexual function using validated questionnaires. A retrospective review of 186 men was performed; demographics and serum hormone levels were obtained. Responses to questionnaires evaluating depressive symptoms (Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9)), sexual function (International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF)) and hypogonadal symptoms (quantitative Androgen Decline in the Aging Male (qADAM)) completed by each patient were correlated using Spearman's rank correlation. Mean±s.d. subject age: 52.6±12.7 years; mean serum hormone levels: TT 429.8±239.2 ng dl(-1), free testosterone 9.72±7.5 pg ml(-1) and estradiol 34.4±22.8 pg ml(-1). Negative correlations were observed between total PHQ-9 score and the sexual desire (ρ=-0.210, P=0.006), intercourse satisfaction (ρ=-0.293, P<0.0001) and overall satisfaction (ρ=-0.413, P<0.0001) domains of the IIEF and individual IIEF questions pertaining to erectile function. Men with a PHQ-9 score 10 (mild depression or worse), had lower sexual desire and sex life satisfaction. A negative correlation between PHQ-9 score and qADAM score (ρ=-0.634, P<0.0001) was observed and men with higher PHQ-9 score had lower qADAM scores. Depressive symptoms in men correlate with both psychological as well as physical aspects of sexual function. PMID:23466661

  5. Daytime Physical Activity and Sleep in Hospitalized Older Adults: Association with Demographic Characteristics and Disease Severity

    PubMed Central

    Beveridge, Claire; Knutson, Kristen; Spampinato, Lisa; Flores, Andrea; Meltzer, David O.; Van Cauter, Eve; Arora, Vineet M.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To assess objectively measured daytime physical activity and sleep duration and efficiency in hospitalized older adults and explore associations with demographic characteristics and disease severity. DESIGN Prospective cohort study. SETTING University of Chicago Medical Center general medicine wards. PARTICIPANTS Community-dwelling inpatients aged 50 and older (N = 120) MEASUREMENTS Physical activity and sleep were measured using wrist accelerometers. Information on Charlson Comorbidity Index and length of stay was collected from charts. Random-effects linear regression analysis was used to examine the association between in-hospital sleep and physical activity. RESULTS From March 2010 to May 2013, 120 participants wore wrist actigraphy monitors for at least 2 nights and 1 intervening day. Median activity level over the waking period was 77 counts/min (interquartile range 51–121 counts/min), an activity level that approximately corresponds to sitting while watching television (65 counts/min). Mean sleep duration the night before the activity interval was 289 ± 157 minutes, and mean sleep efficiency the night before the activity interval was 65.2 ± 26.9%. Mean activity counts/min were lowest for the oldest participants (oldest quartile 62, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 50–75; youngest quartile 121, 95% CI = 98–145, trend test P < .001) and those with highest Charlson Comorbidity Index (highest tertile 71, 95% CI = 60–83; lowest tertile 125, 95% CI = 104–147, trend test P = .01). Controlling for severity of illness and demographic characteristics, activity declined by 3 counts/min (95% CI = −5.65 to −0.43, P = .02) for each additional hour of inpatient sleep. CONCLUSION Older, sicker adults are less physically active during hospitalization. In contrast to studies in the community, inpatients who slept more were not more active. This may highlight that need for sleep is greater in the hospital than in the community. PMID:26131982

  6. Physical Inactivity Is Associated with Moderate-Severe Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, Laila; McArdle, Nigel; Eastwood, Peter R.; Ward, Kim L.; Cooper, Matthew N.; Wilson, Annette C.; Hillman, David R.; Palmer, Lyle J.; Mukherjee, Sutapa

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: To investigate whether low levels of physical activity were associated with an increased occurrence of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), OSA-related symptoms, and cardiometabolic risk. Methods: A case-control study design was used. OSA cases were patients referred to a sleep clinic for suspected OSA (n = 2,340). Controls comprised participants from the Busselton community (n = 1,931). Exercise and occupational activity were derived from questionnaire data. Associations were modelled using logistic and linear regression and adjusted for confounders. Results: In comparison with moderate exercise, the high, low, and nil exercise groups had an odds ratio (OR) for moderate-severe OSA of 0.6 (95% CI 0.5–0.8), 1.6 (95% CI 1.2–2.0), and 2.7 (95% CI 1.9–3.7), respectively. Relative to men in heavy activity occupations, men in medium, light and sedentary occupations had an OR for moderate-severe OSA of 1.7 (95% CI 1.1–2.5), 2.1 (95% CI 1.4–3.2), and 1.8 (95% CI 1.2–2.8), respectively. Relative to women in medium activity occupations, women in light and sedentary occupations had an OR for moderate-severe OSA of 4.2 (95% CI 2.6–7.2) and 3.5 (2.0–6.0). OSA patients who adequately exercised had lower: levels of doctor-diagnosed depression (p = 0.047); symptoms of fatigue (p < 0.0001); systolic (p = 0.015) and diastolic blood pressure (p = 0.015); and C-reactive protein (CRP) (p = 0.003). Conclusions: Low levels of physical activity were associated with moderate-severe OSA. Exercise in individuals with OSA is associated with lower levels of depression, fatigue, blood pressure and CRP. Citation: Simpson L, McArdle N, Eastwood PR, Ward KL, Cooper MN, Wilson AC, Hillman DR, Palmer LJ, Mukherjee S. Physical inactivity is associated with moderate-severe obstructive sleep apnea. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(10):1091–1099. PMID:26285117

  7. Le Developpement Physique de L'Eleve: Cadre de Developpement Aspect Physique. Monographie (Students' Physical Growth: Developmental Framework, Physical Dimension).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.

    This report puts forth the position of the Ministry of Education of Alberta, Canada, with respect to the physical development of the elementary school student as the basis for his or her cognitive, emotional, social, and moral development. The report describes normal physical development during the first 10 years of life in the domains of…

  8. 47 CFR 63.501 - Contents of applications to sever physical connection or to terminate or suspend interchange of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contents of applications to sever physical... Contents of applications to sever physical connection or to terminate or suspend interchange of traffic... application is to be addressed; (c) Nature of the proposed change; (d) Identification of community or part...

  9. 47 CFR 63.501 - Contents of applications to sever physical connection or to terminate or suspend interchange of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Contents of applications to sever physical... Contents of applications to sever physical connection or to terminate or suspend interchange of traffic... application is to be addressed; (c) Nature of the proposed change; (d) Identification of community or part...

  10. 47 CFR 63.501 - Contents of applications to sever physical connection or to terminate or suspend interchange of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Contents of applications to sever physical... Contents of applications to sever physical connection or to terminate or suspend interchange of traffic... application is to be addressed; (c) Nature of the proposed change; (d) Identification of community or part...

  11. 47 CFR 63.501 - Contents of applications to sever physical connection or to terminate or suspend interchange of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Contents of applications to sever physical... Contents of applications to sever physical connection or to terminate or suspend interchange of traffic... application is to be addressed; (c) Nature of the proposed change; (d) Identification of community or part...

  12. Simulation of ITER full-field ICWC scenario in JET: RF physics aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyssoivan, A.; Douai, D.; Koch, R.; Ongena, J.; Philipps, V.; Schüller, F. C.; Van Eester, D.; Wauters, T.; Blackman, T.; Bobkov, V.; Brezinsek, S.; de la Cal, E.; Durodié, F.; Gauthier, E.; Gerbaud, T.; Graham, M.; Jachmich, S.; Joffrin, E.; Kreter, A.; Kyrytsya, V.; Lerche, E.; Lomas, P.; Louche, F.; Maslov, M.; Mayoral, M.-L.; Moiseenko, V.; Monakhov, I.; Pankratov, I.; Paul, M. K.; Pitts, R. A.; Plyusnin, V.; Sergienko, G.; Shimada, M.; Vdovin, V. L.; contributors, JET-EFDA

    2012-07-01

    ITER as a superconducting fusion machine needs efficient wall conditioning techniques for application in the presence of the permanent high toroidal magnetic field for (i) reducing the in-vessel impurity content, (ii) controlling the surface hydrogen isotopic ratio and (iii) mitigating the in-vessel long-term tritium inventory build-up. Encouraging results recently obtained with ion-cyclotron wall conditioning (ICWC) in the present-day tokamaks and stellarators have raised ICWC to the status of one of the most promising techniques available to ITER for routine inter-pulse and overnight conditioning with the ITER main ICRF heating system in the presence of the permanent high toroidal magnetic field. This paper is dedicated to a milestone experiment in ICWC research: the first simulation of ICWC operation in an equivalent ITER full-field scenario and the assessment of the wall conditioning effect on the carbon wall in the largest present-day tokamak JET. In addition, we address in this paper the following topics: (i) an analysis of the radio frequency (RF) physics of ICWC discharges, (ii) the optimization of the operation of ICRF antennas for plasma startup and (iii) an outlook for the performance of ICWC in ITER using the ICRF heating system. Important operational aspects of the conventional ICRF heating system in JET (the so-called A2 antenna system) for use in the ICWC mode are highlighted: (i) the ability of the antenna to ignite the cleaning discharge safely and reliably in different gases, (ii) the capacity of the antennas to couple a large fraction of the RF generator power (>50%) to low-density (≈1016-1018 m-3) plasmas and (iii) the ICRF absorption schemes aimed at improved RF plasma homogeneity and enhanced conditioning effect. Successful optimization of the JET-ICWC discharge parameters (BT = 3.3 T, f = 25 MHz) resulted in a reliable operation of the JET A2 antennas and a high conditioning efficiency in a scenario imitating closely ITER full

  13. Use of physical therapy in a dog with bilateral severe plantigrade stance.

    PubMed

    Ree, Jennifer; Hayashi, Kei; Woelz, Jacqueline; Kim, Sun Young

    2015-01-01

    A 3.5 yr old spayed female Staffordshire terrier weighing 25.5 kg was presented with a 7 wk history of bilateral plantigrade stance in the pelvic limbs directly following an ovariohysterectomy procedure. Upon presentation, the dog had bilateral atrophy of the distal pelvic limb muscles, enlarged popliteal lymph nodes, and ulcerative wounds on the dorsa of her rear paws. Orthopedic examination revealed intact calcaneal tendons bilaterally and neurologic examination localized the lesion to the distal sciatic nerve. A diagnosis of compressive and stretch neuropathy was made affecting the distal sciatic nerve branches. Physical therapy modalities included neuromuscular electrical stimulation, ultrasound, and low-level laser therapy. Other therapeutic modalities included the use of orthotics and progressive wound care. The dog had increased muscle mass, return of segmental reflexes, return of nociception, and the ability to walk on pelvic limbs with higher carriage of the hock 15 mo following presentation. The use of custom orthotics greatly increased the quality of life and other physical therapy modalities may have improved the prognosis in this dog with severe bilateral plantigrade stance due to neuropathy. PMID:25415214

  14. Analysis of the development of wave mechanics: aspects from the history of physics and the philosophy of science

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhn, W.

    1988-03-01

    This review and analysis of wave mechanics and the role played by Erwin Schroedinger in its development begins with a biographical sketch of Schroedinger and his scientific and philosophical association with physicists contemporary to him and engaged also in wave and quantum studies. The paper then goes on to establish the philosophical and historical aspects behind Schroedinger's contribution to quantum mechanics and discusses his more personal dilemma over the changes in wave and particle physics in which he was instrumental.

  15. Parents who hit and scream: interactive effects of verbal and severe physical aggression on clinic-referred adolescents' adjustment.

    PubMed

    LeRoy, Michelle; Mahoney, Annette; Boxer, Paul; Gullan, Rebecca Lakin; Fang, Qijuan

    2014-05-01

    The goals of this study were first, to delineate the co-occurrence of parental severe physical aggression and verbal aggression toward clinic-referred adolescents, and second, to examine the interactive effects of parental severe physical aggression and verbal aggression on adolescent externalizing and internalizing behavior problems. This research involved 239 referrals of 11- to 18-year-old youth and their dual-parent families to a non-profit, private community mental health center in a semi-rural Midwest community. Multiple informants (i.e., adolescents and mothers) were used to assess parental aggression and adolescent behavior problems. More than half of clinic-referred adolescents (51%) experienced severe physical aggression and/or high verbal aggression from one or both parents. A pattern of interactive effects of mother-to-adolescent severe physical aggression and verbal aggression on adolescent behavior problems emerged, indicating that when severe physical aggression was present, mother-to-adolescent verbal aggression was positively associated with greater adolescent behavior problems whereas when severe physical aggression was not present, the links between verbal aggression and behavior problems was no longer significant. No interactive effects were found for father-to-adolescent severe physical aggression and verbal aggression on adolescent adjustment; however, higher father-to-adolescent verbal aggression was consistently linked to behavior problems above and beyond the influence of severe physical aggression. The results of this study should promote the practice of routinely assessing clinic-referred adolescents and their parents about their experiences of verbal aggression in addition to severe physical aggression and other forms of abuse. PMID:24252744

  16. Evolution of the sensor fish device for measuring physical conditions in sever hydraulic environments

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, Thomas J.; Duncan, J. P.

    2003-03-01

    To assist in deriving biological specifications for design of turbine rehabilitation measures, new “fish-friendly” turbines, and spillway designs and operations, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) scientists have developed and tested an autonomous multi-sensor device called a Sensor Fish that can acquire pressure and tri-axial linear acceleration data during passage through severe hydraulic conditions. The purpose of the Sensor Fish is to characterize physical conditions fish experience during passage through hydro turbines, spill stilling basins, high-discharge outfalls, and other dam passage routes. This report discusses the development and field tests of the Sensor Fish at Rock Island, McNary, The Dalles, Bonneville, and Wanapum dams on the Columbia River and the Prosser Irrigation District on the Yakima River, which have shown that the device can withstand the severe environments of turbine, spill, and fish bypass passage and provide useful environmental data that can ultimately aid in the design and operation of new and existing turbines, spill, and dam fish bypass facilities.

  17. Evolution of the Sensor Fish Device for Measuring Physical Conditions in Severe Hydraulic Environments

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, Thomas J.; Duncan, Joanne P.

    2003-02-28

    To assist in deriving biological specifications for design of turbine rehabilitation measures, new ''fish-friendly'' turbines, and spillway designs and operations, scientists at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) have developed and tested an autonomous multi-sensor device called a Sensor Fish that can acquire pressure and tri-axial linear acceleration data during passage through severe hydraulic conditions. The purpose of the Sensor Fish is to characterize physical conditions fish experience during passage through hydro turbines, spill stilling basins, high-discharge outfalls, and other dam passage routes. The Sensor Fish was developed with the support of the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Hydropower Turbine System program. Field tests of the Sensor Fish at Rock Island, McNary, The Dalles, Bonneville, and Wanapum dams on the Columbia River and the Prosser Irrigation District on the Yakima River have shown that the device can withstand the severe environments of turbine, spill, and fish bypass passage and provide useful environmental data that can ultimately aid in the design and operation of new and existing turbines, spill, and dam fish bypass facilities.

  18. Light and Sound: Evolutionary Aspects. Physical Processes in Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecosystems, Transport Processes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roseman, Leonard D.

    These materials were designed to be used by life science students for instruction in the application of physical theory to ecosystem operation. Most modules contain computer programs which are built around a particular application of a physical process. This module is concerned with the exchange of energy between an organism and its environment in…

  19. Is Physicality an Important Aspect of Learning through Science Experimentation among Kindergarten Students?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zacharia, Zacharias C.; Loizou, Eleni; Papaevripidou, Marios

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether physicality (actual and active touch of concrete material), as such, is a necessity for science experimentation learning at the kindergarten level. We compared the effects of student experimentation with Physical Manipulatives (PM) and Virtual Manipulatives (VM) on kindergarten students'…

  20. Aspects of Childhood Physical Punishment and Family Environment Correlates in Bulimia Nervosa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rorty, Marcia; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This study compared childhood parental physical punishment among 80 women with and 40 women without a lifetime history of bulimia nervosa. Although the women with bulimia reported more and harsher physical punishment than the control group, they did not differ in the extent to which they believed the punishment was deserved or whether they were…

  1. Neuropsychiatric aspects of adult-onset Tay-Sachs disease: two case reports with several new findings.

    PubMed

    Hurowitz, G I; Silver, J M; Brin, M F; Williams, D T; Johnson, W G

    1993-01-01

    Deficiency of hexosaminidase A causes the GM2 gangliosidosis known as Tay-Sachs disease. It is now known that this condition has several late-onset variants that cause numerous neuropsychiatric disturbances. Early recognition is important because treatment with phenothiazines and heterocyclic antidepressants may worsen the course. The authors report two cases with several new findings, including prominent psychiatric symptoms without psychosis early in the course of the illness. PMID:8428133

  2. Benefits of Distinguishing between Physical and Social-Verbal Aspects of Behavior: An Example of Generalized Anxiety.

    PubMed

    Trofimova, Irina; Sulis, William

    2016-01-01

    Temperament traits and mental illness have been linked to varying degrees of imbalances in neurotransmitter systems of behavior regulation. If a temperament model has been carefully structured to reflect weak imbalances within systems of behavior regulation, then in the presence of mental illness, these profiles should exhibit distinct patterns consistent with symptoms of mental illness. In contrast to other temperament models used in studies of anxiety disorders, the Functional Ensemble of Temperament (FET) model differentiates not only between emotionality traits, but also between traits related to physical, social-verbal and mental aspects of behavior. This paper analyzed the predictions of the FET model, which maps 12 functional aspects of behavior to symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) as described in the DSM/ICD. As an example, the paper describes a study of the coupling of sex, age and temperament traits with GAD using the FET framework. The intake records of 116 clients in treatment with confirmed diagnosis of GAD in a private psychological practice were compared using ANOVA against records of 146 healthy clients using their scores on the FET-based questionnaire, in age groups 17-24, 25-45, 46-65. Patients with GAD in all age groups reported significantly lower Social Endurance, Social Tempo, Probabilistic reasoning (but not in physical aspects of behavior) and higher Neuroticism than healthy individuals, however, no effects on the scales of Motor Endurance or Tempo were found. These findings show the benefits of differentiation between motor-physical and social-verbal aspects of behavior in psychological assessment of mental disorders. PMID:27014146

  3. Benefits of Distinguishing between Physical and Social-Verbal Aspects of Behavior: An Example of Generalized Anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Trofimova, Irina; Sulis, William

    2016-01-01

    Temperament traits and mental illness have been linked to varying degrees of imbalances in neurotransmitter systems of behavior regulation. If a temperament model has been carefully structured to reflect weak imbalances within systems of behavior regulation, then in the presence of mental illness, these profiles should exhibit distinct patterns consistent with symptoms of mental illness. In contrast to other temperament models used in studies of anxiety disorders, the Functional Ensemble of Temperament (FET) model differentiates not only between emotionality traits, but also between traits related to physical, social-verbal and mental aspects of behavior. This paper analyzed the predictions of the FET model, which maps 12 functional aspects of behavior to symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) as described in the DSM/ICD. As an example, the paper describes a study of the coupling of sex, age and temperament traits with GAD using the FET framework. The intake records of 116 clients in treatment with confirmed diagnosis of GAD in a private psychological practice were compared using ANOVA against records of 146 healthy clients using their scores on the FET-based questionnaire, in age groups 17–24, 25–45, 46–65. Patients with GAD in all age groups reported significantly lower Social Endurance, Social Tempo, Probabilistic reasoning (but not in physical aspects of behavior) and higher Neuroticism than healthy individuals, however, no effects on the scales of Motor Endurance or Tempo were found. These findings show the benefits of differentiation between motor-physical and social-verbal aspects of behavior in psychological assessment of mental disorders. PMID:27014146

  4. Detailed pressure distribution measurements obtained on several configurations of an aspect-ratio-7 variable twist wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holbrook, G. T.; Dunham, D. M.

    1985-01-01

    Detailed pressure distribution measurements were made for 11 twist configurations of a unique, multisegmented wing model having an aspect ratio of 7 and a taper ratio of 1. These configurations encompassed span loads ranging from that of an untwisted wing to simple flapped wings both with and without upper-surface spoilers attached. For each of the wing twist configurations, electronic scanning pressure transducers were used to obtain 580 surface pressure measurements over the wing in about 0.1 sec. Integrated pressure distribution measurements compared favorably with force-balance measurements of lift on the model when the model centerbody lift was included. Complete plots and tabulations of the pressure distribution data for each wing twist configuration are provided.

  5. Relationship Between Loneliness, Psychiatric Disorders and Physical Health ? A Review on the Psychological Aspects of Loneliness

    PubMed Central

    Shoib, Sheikh; Shah, Tabindah; Mushtaq, Sahil

    2014-01-01

    Human beings are social species which require safe and secure social surroundings to survive. Satisfying social relationships are essential for mental and physical well beings. Impaired social relationship can lead to loneliness. Since the time of dawn, loneliness is perceived as a global human phenomenon. Loneliness can lead to various psychiatric disorders like depression, alcohol abuse, child abuse, sleep problems, personality disorders and Alzheimer’s disease. It also leads to various physical disorders like diabetes, autoimmune disorders like rheumatoid arthritis, lupus and cardiovascular diseases like coronary heart disease, hypertension (HTN), obesity, physiological aging, cancer, poor hearing and poor health. Left untended, loneliness can have serious consequences for mental and physical health of people. Therefore it is important to intervene at the right time to prevent loneliness, so that physical and mental health of patients is maintained. PMID:25386507

  6. Relationship between loneliness, psychiatric disorders and physical health ? A review on the psychological aspects of loneliness.

    PubMed

    Mushtaq, Raheel; Shoib, Sheikh; Shah, Tabindah; Mushtaq, Sahil

    2014-09-01

    Human beings are social species which require safe and secure social surroundings to survive. Satisfying social relationships are essential for mental and physical well beings. Impaired social relationship can lead to loneliness. Since the time of dawn, loneliness is perceived as a global human phenomenon. Loneliness can lead to various psychiatric disorders like depression, alcohol abuse, child abuse, sleep problems, personality disorders and Alzheimer's disease. It also leads to various physical disorders like diabetes, autoimmune disorders like rheumatoid arthritis, lupus and cardiovascular diseases like coronary heart disease, hypertension (HTN), obesity, physiological aging, cancer, poor hearing and poor health. Left untended, loneliness can have serious consequences for mental and physical health of people. Therefore it is important to intervene at the right time to prevent loneliness, so that physical and mental health of patients is maintained. PMID:25386507

  7. Some physiological aspects of artificial gravity. [gravitational effects on human orthostatic tolerance and physical fitness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cramer, D. B.; Graybiel, A.

    1973-01-01

    The effects of increasing artificial gravity exposure on four aspects of physiological fitness are examined in four young men who, prior to exposure, were deconditioned with bed rest and water immersion. The four aspects of physiological fitness are orthostatic tolerance, exercise tolerance, forearm endurance, and maximum strength. Orthostatic tolerance was sharply reduced by deconditioning and was substantially improved by walking in simulated lunar gravity (1/6 g) for 2.5 hours daily for 7 days or by walking in 1/2 g and 1 g for 1 hour daily for 3 days. Exercise tolerance was also sharply reduced by deconditioning but did not significantly improve with increasing g-exposure. Walking in 1 g for 1 hour daily for 3 days raised exercise tolerance only a little above the low produced by deconditioning. Forearm endurance and maximum strength were relatively unaffected by deconditioning and subsequent g-exposure.

  8. Physical illness in patients with severe mental disorders. II. Barriers to care, monitoring and treatment guidelines, plus recommendations at the system and individual level

    PubMed Central

    DE HERT, MARC; COHEN, DAN; BOBES, JULIO; CETKOVICH-BAKMAS, MARCELO; LEUCHT, STEFAN; M. NDETEI, DAVID; W. NEWCOMER, JOHN; UWAKWE, RICHARD; ASAI, ITSUO; MÖLLER, HANS-JURGEN; GAUTAM, SHIV; DETRAUX, JOHAN; U. CORRELL, CHRISTOPH

    2011-01-01

    Physical disorders are, compared to the general population, more prevalent in people with severe mental illness (SMI). Although this excess morbidity and mortality is largely due to modifiable lifestyle risk factors, the screening and assessment of physical health aspects remains poor, even in developed countries. Moreover, specific patient, provider, treatment and system factors act as barriers to the recognition and to the management of physical diseases in people with SMI. Psychiatrists can play a pivotal role in the improvement of the physical health of these patients by expanding their task from clinical psychiatric care to the monitoring and treatment of crucial physical parameters. At a system level, actions are not easy to realize, especially for developing countries. However, at an individual level, even simple and very basic monitoring and treatment actions, undertaken by the treating clinician, can already improve the problem of suboptimal medical care in this population. Adhering to monitoring and treatment guidelines will result in a substantial enhancement of physical health outcomes. Furthermore, psychiatrists can help educate and motivate people with SMI to address their suboptimal lifestyle, including smoking, unhealthy diet and lack of exercise. The adoption of the recommendations presented in this paper across health care systems throughout the world will contribute to a significant improvement in the medical and related psychiatric health outcomes of patients with SMI. PMID:21633691

  9. Physical Activity in the Life of a Woman with Severe Cerebral Palsy: Showing Competence and Being Socially Connected

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaskin, Cadeyrn J.; Andersen, Mark B.; Morris, Tony

    2009-01-01

    We used a life-history approach to investigate the meanings and experiences of physical activity in the life of a 25-year-old woman with severe cerebral palsy (Amy). Amy and her mother were interviewed about Amy's life and her involvement in physical activity. The conversation was audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. We interpreted Amy's story…

  10. Virtual Reality as Means to Improve Physical Fitness of Individuals at a Severe Level of Intellectual and Developmental Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lotan, Meir; Yalon-Chamovitz, Shira; Weiss, Patrice L.

    2010-01-01

    Individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) are in need of effective and motivating physical fitness training programs. The aim was to test the effectiveness of a virtual reality (VR)-based exercise program in improving the physical fitness of adults with severe IDD when implemented by on-site caregivers. A research group (N…

  11. Physical and geometrical aspects of de sitter interior of a gravastar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morawiec, Pawel Jan

    The principal motivation for the investigations reported in this thesis is the gravastar model for physical black holes. According to this model the final state of the gravitational collapse of cold super-dense stars with the mass greater than some critical value is a non-singular object called a gravastar. This thesis presents results related to the various aspects of the de Sitter interior of a gravastar. The main object of the research was a generalized rotating interior of a gravastar. It was shown that the rotation, characterized by the vorticity, is localized on the vortex line. The metric under considerations is the de Sitter metric, however in some variant of the oblate spheroidal coordinates. Additionally a cosmic string on the rotation axis is present. This new result is the de Sitter version of the Mazur string, which was obtained from the four dimensional Levi-Civita metric as the generalization of the three-dimensional cosmic string by Adler and Jackiw. Also, using analogy between rotation in the superfluid and the magnetic field we gave another example of the Cosmic No Hair Theorem, this time "no magnetic fields in de Sitter space". But we also have shown that when the de Sitter event horizon is replaced by a thin shell (with a finite thickness), as it is in the gravastar model, the non-vanishing magnetic field could be present. To our knowledge these are new results. In this thesis we have studied behavior of the massless Dirac field as an example of a matter field in the de Sitter spacetime in the vicinity of an event horizon. We found convenient to work in the frame of the optical geometry of the de Sitter space as it is related to the metric in the static coordinates through a conformal Weyl rescaling and the dynamics of the massless Dirac fields is conformally invariant. The fact that the spatial part of the metric in the optical geometry of de Sitter space is the constant negative curvature Lobachevski space (the Euclidean ant-de Sitter space

  12. A Comparative Study of Alternative Controls and Displays for by the Severely Physically Handicapped

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, D.; Simpson, C.; Barker, M.

    1984-01-01

    A modification of a row/column scanning system was investigated in order to increase the speed and accuracy with which communication aids can be accessed with one or two switches. A selection algorithm was developed and programmed in BASIC to automatically select individuals with the characteristic difficulty in controlling time dependent control and display systems. Four systems were compared: (1) row/column directed scan (2 switches); (2) row/column auto scan (1 switch); (3) row auto scan (1 switch); and (4) column auto scan (1 switch). For this sample population, there were no significant differences among systems for scan time to select the correct target. The row/column auto scan system resulted in significantly more errors than any of the other three systems. Thus, the most widely prescribed system for severely physically disabled individuals turns out for this group to have a higher error rate and no faster communication rate than three other systems that have been considered inappropriate for this group.

  13. Motivation for physical activity and exercise in severe mental illness: A systematic review of intervention studies.

    PubMed

    Farholm, Anders; Sørensen, Marit

    2016-06-01

    There has been increasing interest for research on motivation for physical activity (PA) and exercise among individuals with severe mental illness (SMI). The aim of this systematic review is to summarize findings from all intervention studies on PA or exercise that either include empirical data on motivational constructs or apply motivational techniques/theories in their intervention. Systematic searches of seven databases were conducted from database inception to February 2015. Studies were eligible if they: (i) included participants with SMI, (ii) had PA as part of the intervention, and (iii) reported empirical data on motivational constructs related to PA or incorporated motivational techniques/theory in their intervention. Of the 79 studies that met the inclusion criteria only one had motivation for PA as its main outcome. Nine additional interventions reported empirical data on motivational constructs. Altogether these studies yielded mixed results with respect to change in motivational constructs. Only one of those examined the association between motivation and PA, but found none. Sixty-four studies reported using motivational techniques/theory in their intervention. Motivational interviewing and goal-setting were the most popular techniques. Due to the exploratory nature of most of these studies, findings from intervention studies do not so far give very clear directions for motivational work with the patients. There is an urgent need for a more systematic theory based approach when developing strategies that target to increase engagement in PA among people with SMI. PMID:26916699

  14. High School Physical Education Teachers' Beliefs about Teaching Students with Mild to Severe Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casebolt, Kevin M.; Hodge, Samuel R.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze high school physical education teachers' beliefs about teaching students with disabilities in inclusive physical education. The participants (3 men, 2 women) were certified physical education teachers at four suburban high schools. The research method was descriptive-qualitative using a case study approach…

  15. The aftermath: aspects of recovery described by perpetrators of maternal filicide committed in the context of severe mental illness.

    PubMed

    Stanton, Josephine; Simpson, Alexander I F

    2006-01-01

    Mentally abnormal maternal filicide is a rare and horrifying event. Clinicians are unlikely to develop broad experience with this and there is little information available about recovery. This paper presents a range of descriptions of recovery experiences derived from a qualitative study of mentally abnormal maternal filicide perpetrators. Transcripts from a qualitative, semi-structured interview study of six women who committed filicide in the context of major mental illness were reviewed. Descriptions related to rehabilitation issues were grouped and themes extracted. The women described patchy but horrific memories they avoided thinking and talking about. They described intense self-judgement and self-hate. They valued ongoing relationships with surviving children and were distressed by perceptions that they might be a danger to other children. Managing illness was not described as a major challenge. Acknowledgement of illness was described as important in coming to terms with what they had done. Surviving children and relationships with family and other support networks were described as important in their rehabilitation. We conclude that optimizing treatment and rehabilitation for mental illness, supporting the woman to acknowledge the role of illness in the offence, maximizing support from personal networks, and enabling her to regain some aspect of the mother role may be more efficacious than debriefing with respect to the offence. PMID:16491479

  16. The Learning Environment Associated with Information Technology Education in Taiwan: Combining Psychosocial and Physical Aspects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Chia-Ju; Zandvliet, David B.; Hou, I.-Ling

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated perceptions of senior high school students towards the Taiwanese information technology (IT) classroom with the What Is Happening in this Class? (WIHIC) survey and explored the physical learning environment of the IT classroom using the Computerised Classroom Environment Inventory (CCEI). The participants included 2,869…

  17. Some Aspects of Rubberlike Elasticity Useful in Teaching Basic Concepts in Physical Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mark, J. E.

    2002-01-01

    Explains the benefits of including polymer topics in both graduate and undergraduate physical chemistry courses. Provides examples of how to use rubberlike elasticity to demonstrate some of the general and thermodynamic concepts including equations of state, Carnot cycles and mechanochemistry, gel collapse, energy storage and hysteresis, and…

  18. Determinants of change in physical activity during moderate-to-severe COPD exacerbation

    PubMed Central

    Esteban, Cristóbal; Quintana, José M; Garcia-Gutierrez, Susana; Anton-Ladislao, Ane; Gonzalez, Nerea; Baré, Marisa; Fernández de Larrea, Nerea; Rivas-Ruiz, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Background Data are scarce on patient physical activity (PA) level during exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (eCOPD). The objective of the study was to evaluate the level and determinants of change in PA during an eCOPD. Materials and methods We conducted a prospective cohort study with recruitment from emergency departments (EDs) of 16 participating hospitals from June 2008 to September 2010. Data were recorded on socioeconomic characteristics, dyspnea, forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1%), comorbidities, health-related quality of life, factors related to exacerbation, and PA in a stable clinical condition and during the eCOPD episode. Results We evaluated 2,487 patients. Common factors related to the change in PA during hospital admission or 7 days after discharge to home from the ED were lower PA at baseline and during the first 24 hours after the index evaluation. Age, quality of life, living alone, length of hospital stay, and use of anticholinergic or systemic corticosteroids in treating the exacerbation were associated with the change in PA among hospitalized patients. Predictors of change among patients not admitted to hospital were baseline FEV1% and dyspnea at rest on ED arrival. Conclusion Among the patients evaluated in an ED for an eCOPD, the level and change in PA was markedly variable. Factors associated with exacerbation (PA 24 hours after admission, medication during admission, and length of hospital stay) and variables reflecting patients’ stable clinical condition (low level of PA, age, quality of life, FEV1%) are predictors of the change in PA during a moderate-to-severe eCOPD. PMID:26893555

  19. Medical physics aspects of cancer care in the Asia Pacific region

    PubMed Central

    Kron, T; Cheung, KY; Dai, J; Ravindran, P; Soejoko, D; Inamura, K; Song, JY; Bold, L; Srivastava, R; Rodriguez, L; Wong, TJ; Kumara, A; Lee, CC; Krisanachinda, A; Nguyen, XC; Ng, KH

    2008-01-01

    Medical physics plays an essential role in modern medicine. This is particularly evident in cancer care where medical physicists are involved in radiotherapy treatment planning and quality assurance as well as in imaging and radiation protection. Due to the large variety of tasks and interests, medical physics is often subdivided into specialties such as radiology, nuclear medicine and radiation oncology medical physics. However, even within their specialty, the role of radiation oncology medical physicists (ROMPs) is diverse and varies between different societies. Therefore, a questionnaire was sent to leading medical physicists in most countries/areas in the Asia/Pacific region to determine the education, role and status of medical physicists. Answers were received from 17 countries/areas representing nearly 2800 radiation oncology medical physicists. There was general agreement that medical physicists should have both academic (typically at MSc level) and clinical (typically at least 2 years) training. ROMPs spent most of their time working in radiotherapy treatment planning (average 17 hours per week); however radiation protection and engineering tasks were also common. Typically, only physicists in large centres are involved in research and teaching. Most respondents thought that the workload of physicists was high, with more than 500 patients per year per physicist, less than one ROMP per two oncologists being the norm, and on average, one megavoltage treatment unit per medical physicist. There was also a clear indication of increased complexity of technology in the region with many countries/areas reporting to have installed helical tomotherapy, IMRT (Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy), IGRT (Image Guided Radiation Therapy), Gamma-knife and Cyber-knife units. This and the continued workload from brachytherapy will require growing expertise and numbers in the medical physics workforce. Addressing these needs will be an important challenge for the future

  20. Biological effects and physical safety aspects of NMR imaging and in vivo spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Tenforde, T.S.; Budinger, T.F.

    1985-08-01

    An assessment is made of the biological effects and physical hazards of static and time-varying fields associated with the NMR devices that are being used for clinical imaging and in vivo spectroscopy. A summary is given of the current state of knowledge concerning the mechanisms of interaction and the bioeffects of these fields. Additional topics that are discussed include: (1) physical effects on pacemakers and metallic implants such as aneurysm clips, (2) human health studies related to the effects of exposure to nonionizing electromagnetic radiation, and (3) extant guidelines for limiting exposure of patients and medical personnel to the fields produced by NMR devices. On the basis of information available at the present time, it is concluded that the fields associated with the current generation of NMR devices do not pose a significant health risk in themselves. However, rigorous guidelines must be followed to avoid the physical interaction of these fields with metallic implants and medical electronic devices. 476 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Sexual and Physical Revictimization among Victims of Severe Childhood Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Jaclyn E.; Noll, Jennie G.; Putnam, Frank W.; Trickett, Penelope K.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This 15-year prospective, longitudinal study examines adolescent and young-adult female self-reports of traumatic sexual and physical experiences occurring subsequent to substantiated childhood sexual abuse-revictimizations (N=89). Method: These incidences were contrasted to sexual and physical victimizations reported by a group of…

  2. Love at First Sight: Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy with an Adolescent Boy with Severe Physical Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pozzi, Maria E.

    2005-01-01

    The content of this paper reflects the title but it expands upon the technical issues encountered right from the beginning of the assessment. These technical difficulties include the management of physical pain during sessions and the request by the patient for physical interventions as well as contact. The problem of discrimination in the setting…

  3. Longitudinal Changes in Drug Use Severity and Physical Health-Related Quality of Life among Untreated Stimulant Users

    PubMed Central

    Borders, Tyrone F.; Booth, Brenda M.; Falck, Russel S.; Leukefeld, Carl; Wang, Jichuan; Carlson, Robert G.

    2009-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to investigate whether drug use severity is associated with physical health-related quality of life (HRQL) over time. Data are from a longitudinal, multi-state, natural history community study of users of cocaine and/or methamphetamine who were interviewed at 6-month intervals over 2 years with a 79% follow-up participation rate. Physical HRQL was assessed with the physical component summary (PCS) of the SF-8™ Health Survey and drug, alcohol, and psychiatric severity were all assessed with the Addiction Severity Index (ASI). Random coefficient regression analyses were conducted to test for longitudinal associations between the independent variables and SF-8 PCS scores. Reductions in drug use severity over time were accompanied by only minor improvements in SF-8 PCS scores, underscoring the potential long-term harm of illicit drug use on physical health. Greater psychiatric severity was strongly associated with lower SF-8 PCS scores, suggesting that clinical attention to mental health issues could potentially lead to improvements in perceived physical health as well among stimulant users. PMID:19560873

  4. How preschool executive functioning predicts several aspects of math achievement in Grades 1 and 3: A longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Viterbori, Paola; Usai, M Carmen; Traverso, Laura; De Franchis, Valentina

    2015-12-01

    This longitudinal study analyzes whether selected components of executive function (EF) measured during the preschool period predict several indices of math achievement in primary school. Six EF measures were assessed in a sample of 5-year-old children (N = 175). The math achievement of the same children was then tested in Grades 1 and 3 using both a composite math score and three single indices of written calculation, arithmetical facts, and problem solving. Using previous results obtained from the same sample of children, a confirmatory factor analysis examining the latent EF structure in kindergarten indicated that a two-factor model provided the best fit for the data. In this model, inhibition and working memory (WM)-flexibility were separate dimensions. A full structural equation model was then used to test the hypothesis that math achievement (the composite math score and single math scores) in Grades 1 and 3 could be explained by the two EF components comprising the kindergarten model. The results indicate that the WM-flexibility component measured during the preschool period substantially predicts mathematical achievement, especially in Grade 3. The math composite scores were predicted by the WM-flexibility factor at both grade levels. In Grade 3, both problem solving and arithmetical facts were predicted by the WM-flexibility component. The results empirically support interventions that target EF as an important component of early childhood mathematics education. PMID:26218333

  5. An Exploratory Study to Investigate the Impact of an Enrichment Program on Aspects of Einsteinian Physics on Year 6 Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitts, Marina; Venville, Grady; Blair, David; Zadnik, Marjan

    2014-06-01

    Concepts related to Einsteinian physics are usually not taught until students are in university, denying younger children access to this powerful way of understanding space, time and gravity. Considerable research has shown, however, that complex and abstract scientific ideas can be presented in age appropriate ways that result in measurable learning. The purpose of the research presented in this paper was to explore the impact of an enrichment program on aspects of Einsteinian physics on year 6 (10 and 11 years old) children's understanding of and attitudes towards this topic. The research design was an exploratory case study of one class of 26 students who participated in six in-class lessons as well as an excursion to a science centre, the Gravity Discovery Centre, and a scripted play about relevant key scientists. Mixed methods of data collection included a pre/post-instruction questionnaire, classroom observations and an interview with the physics professor who conducted the program. The results indicated a statistically significant improvement in children's conceptual understanding on the pre/post-questionnaire with a small effect size. Analysis of individual items on the questionnaire indicated variable results with regard to particular concepts. For example, after the enrichment program, students were better able to understand curved space, but little improvement was observed in their understanding of gravity on the Moon. The majority of students reported being interested and engaged in the program of activities and did not feel that they were too young to learn concepts related to Einstein's physics.

  6. Social aspects of classroom learning: Results of a discourse analysis in an inquiry-oriented physical chemistry class

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Nicole M.

    Engaging students in classroom discourse offers opportunities for students to participate in the construction of joint understandings, to negotiate relationships between different types of evidence, and to practice making evidence-based claims about science content. However, close attention to social aspects of learning is critical to creating inquiry-oriented classroom environments in which students learn with understanding. This study examined the social influences that contribute to classroom learning in an inquiry-oriented undergraduate physical chemistry class using the Process Oriented Guided Inquiry Learning (POGIL) approach. A qualitative approach to analyzing classroom discourse derived from Toulmin's (1968) model of argumentation was used to document patterns in classroom reasoning that reflect normative aspects of social interaction. Adapting the constructs of social and sociomathematical norms from the work of Yackel and Cobb (1996), I describe social aspects of the classroom environment by discussing normative aspects of social interaction (social norms) and discipline-specific criteria related to reasoning and justification in chemistry contexts, referred to here as sociochemical norms. This work discusses four social norms and two sociochemical norms that were documented over a five-week period of observation in Dr. Black's POGIL physical chemistry class. In small group activities, the socially established expectations that students explain reasoning, negotiate understandings of terminology and symbolic representations, and arrive at a consensus on critical thinking questions shaped small group interactions and reasoning. In whole class discussion, there was an expectation that students share reasoning with the class, and that the instructor provide feedback on student reasoning in ways that extended student contributions and elaborated relationships between macroscopic, particulate, and symbolic-level ideas. The ways in which the class constructed

  7. Aspects Of Multicriterial Mathematical Modeling And Of The Fuzzy Formalism For The Hierarchization Of Study Programs Based On Several Quality Characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bucur, Amelia

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this paper is to present aspects of mathematical modeling for the hierarchization of study programs from universities, based on several quality characteristics. The tools used pertain to multicriterial optimization, to the different methods of assessing importance coefficients, to the utility theory, the fuzzy formalism, and to the fuzzy simple additive weighting method. The conclusion is that multicriterial decision-making methods can be efficiently used in assessing the quality of study programs, noting that, just like other methods from the decision theory, the multicriterial decision-making methods highlight aspects of problems differently, therefore, there can be no comparison or competitiveness between them, and choosing one over the other is up to the decision-maker.

  8. On the Mental Basis and Some Physical Aspects of Tongue-Height Features.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krohn, Robert

    This paper argues that Chomsky's and Halle's restriction on the features [+high, +low] are too severe; that this restriction is inconsistent with the generative treatment of affricates, laterally-released stops, and prenasalized stops; and that the restriction is inconsistent with the notion that linguistic descriptions are abstract theories about…

  9. Physical aspects of the structure and function of helicases as rotary molecular motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pikin, S. A.

    2009-11-01

    Helicases were shown to have common physical properties with rotary molecular motors, such as F 0 F 1-ATP synthase and type I restriction-modification (RM) enzymes. The necessary conditions for action of molecular motors are chirality, the presence of the C 2 (or lower) symmetry axis within rather large atomic groups, and polarization properties. The estimates were made for the material parameters of helicases, which translocate DNA due to moving chiral kinks without DNA cleavage and are characterized by higher viscosity, low mobility, and smaller chiral kinetic coefficients than type II RM enzymes. This paper discusses the efficiency of helicases with opposite polarities that drive DNA translocation in opposite directions.

  10. Physical aspects of a length scale for the Gulf Stream front

    SciTech Connect

    Kao, T.W.

    1983-07-20

    A discussion is presented of the physical interpretation of the length scale, lambda, introduced in a recent paper by Kao and Cheney (1982) to scale the sea surface height anomaly across the Gulf Stream front. Additional results of sea-surface height anomaly profiles computed from the hydrographic data from Fuglister's GULF STREAM 60 are also included. In all cases the width of the anomaly is spanned rather precisely by 2lambda. The relationship between lambda and the internal Rossby radius of deformation lambda, is discussed.

  11. Falling of Shoemaker-Levy Comet on Jupiter Planet. Physical and Epistmological Aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sofonea, Liviu

    The author is discussing Physical and Epistemological consequences of the Shoemeker-Levy Comet impact on Jupiter. The impact excited a major interest from many of phylosophers of science. The main topic of their investigations is the Human condition. It is to mention, that the Shoemaker-Levy comet was not an obvious event. Since some of scientists predicted the impact, it is necessary to mention the validity of scientific research. Most of astronomers consider that the Impact Shoemaker-Levy Comet and Jupiter was one of maximal scientific magnitude (interest). In view of this it is to add, that the impact was the most violent astrophysical phenomenon observed during the last years. The reasearh of the impact and the knowledge of the physical characteristics of the Comet will generate informations of very great value: gnoseologic, methodologic and historical. The scietific methodology used was adequate and complex in the preparation of observations, observations itselves, collection of observational data, the data procession, the information of scientific community, mass media and amateur astronomers. The modelling of the phenomenon was necessary and adequate. The author is pledging for an energic continuation of space researches in view of their very great impact on Humans civilisation development.

  12. Cyber attack analysis on cyber-physical systems: Detectability, severity, and attenuation strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Cheolhyeon

    Security of Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) against malicious cyber attacks is an important yet challenging problem. Since most cyber attacks happen in erratic ways, it is usually intractable to describe and diagnose them systematically. Motivated by such difficulties, this thesis presents a set of theories and algorithms for a cyber-secure architecture of the CPS within the control theoretic perspective. Here, instead of identifying a specific cyber attack model, we are focused on analyzing the system's response during cyber attacks. Firstly, we investigate the detectability of the cyber attacks from the system's behavior under cyber attacks. Specifically, we conduct a study on the vulnerabilities in the CPS's monitoring system against the stealthy cyber attack that is carefully designed to avoid being detected by its detection scheme. After classifying three kinds of cyber attacks according to the attacker's ability to compromise the system, we derive the necessary and sufficient conditions under which such stealthy cyber attacks can be designed to cause the unbounded estimation error while not being detected. Then, the analytical design method of the optimal stealthy cyber attack that maximizes the estimation error is developed. The proposed stealthy cyber attack analysis is demonstrated with illustrative examples on Air Traffic Control (ATC) system and Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) navigation system applications. Secondly, in an attempt to study the CPSs' vulnerabilities in more detail, we further discuss a methodology to identify potential cyber threats inherent in the given CPSs and quantify the attack severity accordingly. We then develop an analytical algorithm to test the behavior of the CPS under various cyber attack combinations. Compared to a numerical approach, the analytical algorithm enables the prediction of the most effective cyber attack combinations without computing the severity of all possible attack combinations, thereby greatly reducing the

  13. Biological-physical-chemical aspects of a human life support system for a lunar base.

    PubMed

    Gitelson, J I; Blum, V; Grigoriev, A I; Lisovsky, G M; Manukovsky, N S; Sinyak YuE; Ushakova, S A

    1995-10-01

    To create a life support system based on biological and physical-chemical processes is the optimum solution providing full-valued conditions for existence and efficient work of people at a lunar base. Long-standing experience in experimental research or closed ecosystems and their components allows us to suggest a realistic functional structure of the lunar base and to estimate qualitatively its parameters. The original restrictions are as follows: 1) the basic source of energy to support the biological processes has to be the solar radiation; 2) the initial amount of basic biological elements forming the turnover of substances (C, O, H, P, K, N) has to be delivered from Earth; 3). Moon materials are not to be used in the biological turnover inside the base; 4) the base is to supply the crew fully with atmosphere and water, and with 90% (A scenario) or 40% (B scenario) of food. Experimental data about the plant productivity under the "Moon" rhythm of light and darkness allow us to suggest that the A scenario requires per one human: plant area--40 m2 irradiated during the lunar day by 250-300 W/m2 PAR producing 1250 g of dry biomass a terrestrial day; a heterotrophic component of "biological incineration" of inedible plant biomass (800 g/day) including the aquaculture of fish to produce animal products and contaminating the environment less than birds and mammals, and the culture of edible mushrooms; a component of physical-chemical correction for the LSS environment including the subsystems of: deep oxidation of organic impurities in the atmosphere and of water, organic wastes of human activity and that biological components (420 g/day) CO2 concentration in "Moon" nights, damping O2 in "Moon" days, etc. The stock of prestored or delivered from Earth substances (food additions, seeds, etc.) to be involved in biological turnover is to be about 50 kg/year per man. Increase of the mass of prestored substances per man up to 220 kg/year would reduce twice the plant area

  14. Some aspects of wind tunnel magnetic suspension systems with special application at large physical scales

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britcher, C. P.

    1983-01-01

    Wind tunnel magnetic suspension and balance systems (MSBSs) have so far failed to find application at the large physical scales necessary for the majority of aerodynamic testing. Three areas of technology relevant to such application are investigated. Two variants of the Spanwise Magnet roll torque generation scheme are studied. Spanwise Permanent Magnets are shown to be practical and are experimentally demonstrated. Extensive computations of the performance of the Spanwise Iron Magnet scheme indicate powerful capability, limited principally be electromagnet technology. Aerodynamic testing at extreme attitudes is shown to be practical in relatively conventional MSBSs. Preliminary operation of the MSBS over a wide range of angles of attack is demonstrated. The impact of a requirement for highly reliable operation on the overall architecture of Large MSBSs is studied and it is concluded that system cost and complexity need not be seriously increased.

  15. Physical aspects of the structure and function of helicases as rotary molecular motors

    SciTech Connect

    Pikin, S. A.

    2009-11-15

    Helicases were shown to have common physical properties with rotary molecular motors, such as F{sub 0}F{sub 1}-ATP synthase and type I restriction-modification (RM) enzymes. The necessary conditions for action of molecular motors are chirality, the presence of the C{sub 2} (or lower) symmetry axis within rather large atomic groups, and polarization properties. The estimates were made for the material parameters of helicases, which translocate DNA due to moving chiral kinks without DNA cleavage and are characterized by higher viscosity, low mobility, and smaller chiral kinetic coefficients than type II RM enzymes. This paper discusses the efficiency of helicases with opposite polarities that drive DNA translocation in opposite directions.

  16. Activities in connection with quality assurance in radiation therapy performed in Argentina: physical aspects.

    PubMed

    González, R O

    1984-06-01

    Quality assurance in radiotherapy is performed in different ways in Argentina than in other countries. A part of this program is carried out by the Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory (SSDL-WHO/IAEA), which is a part of the Atomic Energy Commission. This laboratory organizes TLD postal intercomparison; calibrates and checks radiotherapy units and dosimeters; gives education in the physics of radiotherapy; has collaborated in the production of rules for the operation of radiation therapy units and maintains the application of these rules. Other activities in connection with quality assurance, such as personnel, dosimetry, radiation surveys or those related to treatment planning are performed by other groups of the Atomic Energy Commission, by other institutions or by people working in radiotherapy centers. A description of the activities of the SSDL and a brief explanation about the other activities, the present situation and future plans are discussed. PMID:6735801

  17. Comment on 'Mathematical and physical aspects of Kappa velocity distribution' [Phys. Plasmas 14, 110702 (2007)

    SciTech Connect

    Hellberg, M. A.; Mace, R. L.; Baluku, T. K.; Kourakis, I.; Saini, N. S.

    2009-09-15

    A recent paper [L.-N. Hau and W.-Z. Fu, Phys. Plasmas 14, 110702 (2007)] deals with certain mathematical and physical properties of the kappa distribution. We comment on the authors' use of a form of distribution function that is different from the 'standard' form of the kappa distribution, and hence their results, inter alia for an expansion of the distribution function and for the associated number density in an electrostatic potential, do not fully reflect the dependence on {kappa} that would be associated with the conventional kappa distribution. We note that their definition of the kappa distribution function is also different from a modified distribution based on the notion of nonextensive entropy.

  18. On determining important aspects of mathematical models: Application to problems in physics and chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rabitz, Herschel

    1987-01-01

    The use of parametric and functional gradient sensitivity analysis techniques is considered for models described by partial differential equations. By interchanging appropriate dependent and independent variables, questions of inverse sensitivity may be addressed to gain insight into the inversion of observational data for parameter and function identification in mathematical models. It may be argued that the presence of a subset of dominantly strong coupled dependent variables will result in the overall system sensitivity behavior collapsing into a simple set of scaling and self similarity relations amongst elements of the entire matrix of sensitivity coefficients. These general tools are generic in nature, but herein their application to problems arising in selected areas of physics and chemistry is presented.

  19. Comment on ``Mathematical and physical aspects of Kappa velocity distribution'' [Phys. Plasmas 14, 110702 (2007)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellberg, M. A.; Mace, R. L.; Baluku, T. K.; Kourakis, I.; Saini, N. S.

    2009-09-01

    A recent paper [L.-N. Hau and W.-Z. Fu, Phys. Plasmas 14, 110702 (2007)] deals with certain mathematical and physical properties of the kappa distribution. We comment on the authors' use of a form of distribution function that is different from the "standard" form of the kappa distribution, and hence their results, inter alia for an expansion of the distribution function and for the associated number density in an electrostatic potential, do not fully reflect the dependence on κ that would be associated with the conventional kappa distribution. We note that their definition of the kappa distribution function is also different from a modified distribution based on the notion of nonextensive entropy.

  20. Theoretical aspects of electroweak and other interactions in medium energy nuclear physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukhopadhyay, N. C.

    1994-12-01

    Significant progress has been made in the current project year in the development of chiral soliton model and its applications to the electroweak structure of the nucleon and the Delta (1232) resonance. Further progress also has been made in the application of the perturbative QCD (pQCD) and the study of physics beyond the standard model. The postdoctoral associate and the graduate student working towards his Ph.D. degree have both made good progress. The review panel of the DOE has rated this program as a 'strong, high priority' one. A total of fifteen research communications -- eight journal papers and, conference reports and seven other communications -- have been made during the project year so far.

  1. Exchange of futures for physicals offers several hedging strategies for volatile markets

    SciTech Connect

    Kane, G.J.; Scott, D.C.

    1989-01-23

    Exchange of futures for physicals (EFP), as applied to the Nymex energy complex, is in its simplest form, a mechanism for pricing a contract for physicals made basis a futures price, or exchanging a futures position (either long or short) for a similar position in the physical market. The level at which the futures are exchanged becomes the reference price used to establish the final flat price for the physical transaction. In most cases, EFPs are used to manage price risk, and at the same time, establish contractual commitments in the cash market with terms and conditions that are tailored to the needs of industry participants. Hence, EFPs nominally combine the making or taking of delivery of petroleum products against Nymex futures positions, but they are primarily used by the industry to hedge transactions and fix prices for cash deals. Most future markets are used primarily by commercial participants to hedge exposure to changing prices. Some future markets have no mechanism for the actual delivery of the physical commodity; settlement is made in cash. In most markets where there is a physical delivery, most positions are unwound before the delivery date. Likewise, actual delivery under Nymex energy contracts constitutes a small percentage of the total number of contracts traded.

  2. The MaPLE device of Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics: Construction and its plasma aspects

    SciTech Connect

    Pal, Rabindranath; Biswas, Subir; Basu, Subhasis; Chattopadhyay, Monobir; Basu, Debjyoti; Chaudhuri, Manis

    2010-07-15

    The Magnetized Plasma Linear Experimental (MaPLE) device is a low cost laboratory plasma device at Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics fabricated in-house with the primary aim of studying basic plasma physics phenomena such as plasma instabilities, wave propagation, and their nonlinear behavior in magnetized plasma regime in a controlled manner. The machine is specially designed to be a versatile laboratory device that can provide a number of magnetic and electric scenario to facilitate such studies. A total of 36 number of 20-turn magnet coils, designed such as to allow easy handling, is capable of producing a uniform, dc magnetic field of about 0.35 T inside the plasma chamber of diameter 0.30 m. Support structure of the coils is planned in an innovative way facilitating straightforward fabrication and easy positioning of the coils. Further special feature lies in the arrangement of the spacers between the coils that can be maneuvered rather easily to create different magnetic configurations. Various methods of plasma production can be suitably utilized according to the experimental needs at either end of the vacuum vessel. In the present paper, characteristics of a steady state plasma generated by electron cyclotron resonance method using 2.45 GHz microwave power are presented. Scans using simple probe drives revealed that a uniform and long plasma column having electron density {approx}3-5x10{sup 10} cm{sup -3} and temperature {approx}7-10 eV, is formed in the center of the plasma chamber which is suitable for wave launching experiments.

  3. Medical physics aspects of cancer care in the Asia Pacific region: 2011 survey results

    PubMed Central

    Kron, T; Azhari, HA; Voon, EO; Cheung, KY; Ravindran, P; Soejoko, D; Inamura, K; Han, Y; Ung, NM; Bold, L; Win, UM; Srivastava, R; Meyer, J; Farrukh, S; Rodriguez, L; Kuo, M; Lee, JCL; Kumara, A; Lee, CC; Krisanachinda, A; Nguyen, XC; Ng, KH

    2012-01-01

    Background: Medical physicists are essential members of the radiation oncology team. Given the increasing complexity of radiotherapy delivery, it is important to ensure adequate training and staffing. The aim of the present study was to update a similar survey from 2008 and assess the situation of medical physicists in the large and diverse Asia Pacific region. Methods: Between March and July 2011, a survey on profession and practice of radiation oncology medical physicists (ROMPs) in the Asia Pacific region was performed. The survey was sent to senior physicists in 22 countries. Replies were received from countries that collectively represent more than half of the world’s population. The survey questions explored five areas: education, staffing, work patterns including research and teaching, resources available, and job satisfaction. Results and discussion: Compared to a data from a similar survey conducted three years ago, the number of medical physicists in participating countries increased by 29% on average. This increase is similar to the increase in the number of linear accelerators, showing that previously identified staff shortages have yet to be substantially addressed. This is also highlighted by the fact that most ROMPs are expected to work overtime often and without adequate compensation. While job satisfaction has stayed similar compared to the previous survey, expectations for education and training have increased somewhat. This is in line with a trend towards certification of ROMPs. Conclusion: As organisations such as the International Labour Organization (ILO) start to recognise medical physics as a profession, it is evident that despite some encouraging signs there is still a lot of work required towards establishing an adequately trained and resourced medical physics workforce in the Asia Pacific region. PMID:22970066

  4. Hans A. Bethe Prize: Astrophysical, observational and nuclear-physics aspects of r-process nucleosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kratz, Karl-Ludwig

    2014-03-01

    Guided by the Solar System (S.S.) abundance peaks at A ~= 130 and A ~= 195, the basic mechanisms for the rapid neutron-capture process (the r-process) have been known for over 50 years. However, even today, all proposed scenarios and sites face problems with astrophysical conditions as well as with the necessary nuclear-physics input. In my talk, I will describe efforts in experimental and theoretical nuclear-structure data for modeling today's three groups of r-process ``observables'', i.e. the bulk S.S. isotopic abundances, the elemental abundances in metal-poor halo stars, and peculiar isotopic patterns measured in certain cosmic stardust grains. To set a historical basis, I will briefly recall our site-independent ``waiting-point'' model, with superpositions of neutron-density components and the use of the first global, unified nuclear input based on the mass model FRDM(1992). This approach provided a considerable leap forward in the basic understanding of the required astrophysical conditions, as well as of specific shell-structure properties far from stability. Starting in the early millenium, the above simple model has been replaced by more realistic, dynamical parameter studies within the high-entropy wind scenario of core-collapse supernovae, now with superpositions of entropy (S) and electron-fraction (Ye) components. Furthermore, an improved, global set of nuclear-physics data is used today, based on the new mass model FRDM(2012). With this nuclear and astrophysics parameter combination, a new fit to the S.S. r-abundances will be shown, and its improvements and remaining deficiencies in terms of underlying shell structure will be discussed. Concerning the abundance patterns in metal-poor halo stars, an interpretation of the production of ``r-rich'' (e.g. CS 22892-052) and ``r-poor'' (e.g. HD 122563) stars in terms of different (Ye), S combinations will be presented. Finally, for the third group of ``r-observables'', a possible origin of the anomalous Xe

  5. Earth Rotation: Theoretical aspects, observation of temporal variations and physical interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dehant, Véronique; Folgueira, Marta; Koot, Laurence; Laguerre, Raphael; Puica, Mihaela; Rekier, Jérémy; Rivoldini, Attilio; Andres Triana, Santiago; Trinh, Antony; Van Hoolst, Tim; Zhu, Ping

    2016-04-01

    In this invited talk we will concentrate on nutation period time-scale and on the Earth orientation changes and vaguely cover rest. We will revise the determination of the interior Earth parameters as determined from VLBI data and their interpretation in terms of physics of the Earth deep interior (in collaboration with Zhu Ping, Laurence Koot and Attilio Rivoldini). These parameters and in particular values determined at the core-mantle boundary (CMB) and at the inner core boundary (ICB) can be interpreted in terms of coupling mechanisms at the CMB and ICB. We will describe the electromagnetic, topographic, gravitational and viscous coupling and detail the recent advances in these computations. In particular the topographic coupling will be evaluated in collaboration with Jérémy Rekier, Marta Folgueira, Antony Trinh. The existence of inertial waves inside the fluid core has been examined in that frame. These inertial waves consequences on the fluid behaviour, which will be illuminated as well with the help of numerical simulations (collaboration with Raphael Laguerre, Santiago Andres Triana, Antony Trinh). Numerical simulations will be presented in detail at EGU in session GD4.1/PS9.10 but the most important consequences will be revised here. VLBI analysis results in this session.

  6. Medical physics aspects of cancer care in the Asia Pacific region: 2014 survey results.

    PubMed

    Kron, Tomas; Azhari, H A; Voon, E O; Cheung, K Y; Ravindran, P; Soejoko, D; Inamura, K; Han, Y; Ung, N M; TsedenIsh, Bolortuya; Win, U M; Srivastava, R; Marsh, S; Farrukh, S; Rodriguez, L; Kuo, Men; Baggarley, S; DilipKumara, A H; Lee, C C; Krisanachinda, A; Nguyen, X C; Ng, K H

    2015-09-01

    It was the aim of this work to assess and track the workload, working conditions and professional recognition of radiation oncology medical physicists (ROMPs) in the Asia Pacific region over time. In this third survey since 2008, a structured questionnaire was mailed in 2014 to 22 senior medical physicists representing 23 countries. As in previous surveys the questionnaire covered seven themes: 1 education, training and professional certification, 2 staffing, 3 typical tasks, 4 professional organisations, 5 resources, 6 research and teaching, and 7 job satisfaction. The response rate of 100% is a result of performing a survey through a network, which allows easy follow-up. The replies cover 4841 ROMPs in 23 countries. Compared to 2008, the number of medical physicists in many countries has doubled. However, the number of experienced ROMPs compared to the overall workforce is still small, especially in low and middle income countries. The increase in staff is matched by a similar increase in the number of treatment units over the years. Furthermore, the number of countries using complex techniques (IMRT, IGRT) or installing high end equipment (tomotherapy, robotic linear accelerators) is increasing. Overall, ROMPs still feel generally overworked and the professional recognition, while varying widely, appears to be improving only slightly. Radiation oncology medical physics practice has not changed significantly over the last 6 years in the Asia Pacific Region even if the number of physicists and the number and complexity of treatment techniques and technologies have increased dramatically. PMID:26346030

  7. Physical Methods for Intracellular Delivery: Practical Aspects from Laboratory Use to Industrial-Scale Processing

    PubMed Central

    Meacham, J. Mark; Durvasula, Kiranmai; Degertekin, F. Levent; Fedorov, Andrei G.

    2015-01-01

    Effective intracellular delivery is a significant impediment to research and therapeutic applications at all processing scales. Physical delivery methods have long demonstrated the ability to deliver cargo molecules directly to the cytoplasm or nucleus, and the mechanisms underlying the most common approaches (microinjection, electroporation, and sonoporation) have been extensively investigated. In this review, we discuss established approaches, as well as emerging techniques (magnetofection, optoinjection, and combined modalities). In addition to operating principles and implementation strategies, we address applicability and limitations of various in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo platforms. Importantly, we perform critical assessments regarding (1) treatment efficacy with diverse cell types and delivered cargo molecules, (2) suitability to different processing scales (from single cell to large populations), (3) suitability for automation/integration with existing workflows, and (4) multiplexing potential and flexibility/adaptability to enable rapid changeover between treatments of varied cell types. Existing techniques typically fall short in one or more of these criteria; however, introduction of micro-/nanotechnology concepts, as well as synergistic coupling of complementary method(s), can improve performance and applicability of a particular approach, overcoming barriers to practical implementation. For this reason, we emphasize these strategies in examining recent advances in development of delivery systems. PMID:23813915

  8. Physical methods for intracellular delivery: practical aspects from laboratory use to industrial-scale processing.

    PubMed

    Meacham, J Mark; Durvasula, Kiranmai; Degertekin, F Levent; Fedorov, Andrei G

    2014-02-01

    Effective intracellular delivery is a significant impediment to research and therapeutic applications at all processing scales. Physical delivery methods have long demonstrated the ability to deliver cargo molecules directly to the cytoplasm or nucleus, and the mechanisms underlying the most common approaches (microinjection, electroporation, and sonoporation) have been extensively investigated. In this review, we discuss established approaches, as well as emerging techniques (magnetofection, optoinjection, and combined modalities). In addition to operating principles and implementation strategies, we address applicability and limitations of various in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo platforms. Importantly, we perform critical assessments regarding (1) treatment efficacy with diverse cell types and delivered cargo molecules, (2) suitability to different processing scales (from single cell to large populations), (3) suitability for automation/integration with existing workflows, and (4) multiplexing potential and flexibility/adaptability to enable rapid changeover between treatments of varied cell types. Existing techniques typically fall short in one or more of these criteria; however, introduction of micro-/nanotechnology concepts, as well as synergistic coupling of complementary method(s), can improve performance and applicability of a particular approach, overcoming barriers to practical implementation. For this reason, we emphasize these strategies in examining recent advances in development of delivery systems. PMID:23813915

  9. Aspects of the use of saturated fluorocarbon fluids in high energy physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallewell, G.

    2011-05-01

    The excellent dielectric properties of saturated fluorocarbons have allowed their use in direct immersion liquid cooling of electronics, including supercomputers and as heat transfer media in vapour phase soldering and burn-in testing of electronics. Their high density, UV transparency, non-flammability, non-toxicity and radiation tolerance have led to their use as liquid and gas radiator media for RICH detectors in numerous particle physics experiments. Systems to circulate and purify saturated fluorocarbon Cherenkov radiator vapours often rely on thermodynamic evaporation-condensation cycles similar to those used in refrigeration. Their use as evaporative refrigerants was pioneered for the ATLAS silicon tracker, and they are now also used as evaporative coolants in ALICE and TOTEM and as liquid coolants in ATLAS and CMS. Ultrasonic techniques for vapour phase analysis of fluorocarbon mixtures—developed for the SLAC SLD barrel CRID radiator during the 1980s as an alternative to UV refractometry are again under development for the ATLAS tracker evaporative cooling system. Examples of fluorocarbon circulation systems, together with purification and analysis techniques for these versatile fluids are mentioned.

  10. Some Important Aspects of Physical Modelling of Liquefaction in 1-g Shaking Table

    SciTech Connect

    Alam, Md. Jahangir; Towhata, Ikuo

    2008-07-08

    Physical modeling of liquefaction in 1-g shaking table and dynamic centrifuge test become very popular to simulate the ground behavior during earthquake motion. 1-g shaking table tests require scaled down model ground which can be prepared in three methods; water sedimentation, moist tamping and dry deposition method. Moist tamping and dry deposition method need saturation of model ground which is expensive and very difficult to achieve. Some model tests were performed in 1-g shaking table to see the influence of preparation method of model ground. Wet tamping and water sedimentation method of ground preparation were compared in these tests. Behavior of level ground and slope were also examined. Slope and level ground model test increased the understanding of excess pore pressure generation in both cases. Wet tamping method has a possibility of not being fully saturated. Pore pressure transducers should be fixed vertically so that it can not settle down during shaking but can move with ground. There was insignificant difference in acceleration and excess pore pressure responses between wet tamping and water sedimentation method in case of level ground. Spiky accelerations were prominent in slope prepared by water sedimentation method. Spiky accelerations were the result of lateral displacement induced dilatancy of soil.

  11. Imaging key aspects of fast ion physics in the DIII-D tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Zeeland, M. A.; Yu, J. H.; Heidbrink, W. W.; Brooks, N. H.; Burrell, K. H.; Chu, M. S.; Hyatt, A. W.; Muscatello, C.; Nazikian, R.; Pablant, N. A.; Pace, D. C.; Solomon, W. M.; Wade, M. R.

    2010-08-01

    Visible imaging has been used to provide the 2D spatial structure and temporal evolution of the profile of high-energy neutrals introduced by neutral beam injection, the fast ion profile and a variety of plasma instabilities in DIII-D plasmas; the combination of these techniques form a comprehensive fast ion physics diagnostic suite. The injected neutral profile is imaged in Doppler shifted Dα light induced by collisional excitation. Fast ion profile information was obtained through imaging of Doppler shifted fast ion Dα light (FIDA) emitted by re-neutralized energetic ions. Imaging of FIDA emission during sawtooth events shows a large central depletion following sawtooth crashes—indicative of a broad redistribution of fast ions. Two examples of instability structure measurements are given. Measurements of the detailed 2D poloidal structure of rotating tearing modes were obtained using spectrally filtered fast imaging of broadband visible bremsstrahlung emission, a method which is capable of imaging with high resolution the structure of coherent oscillations in the core of current and next-step fusion plasma experiments and can be applied to virtually any mode with a finite perturbed bremsstrahlung emissivity and frequency in the laboratory frame. Measurements are also presented of the n = 0 energetic particle geodesic acoustic mode which were made by observing fluctuations in active emission.

  12. Physical and microstructural aspects of sulfate attack on ordinary and limestone blended Portland cements

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, Thomas; Lothenbach, Barbara; Romer, Michael; Neuenschwander, Juerg; Scrivener, Karen

    2009-12-15

    The consequences of external sulfate attack were investigated by traditional test methods, i.e. length and mass change, as well as by a newly developed, surface sensitive ultrasonic method, using Leaky Rayleigh waves (1 MHz). The macroscopic changes are discussed and compared with thermodynamic calculations and microstructural findings (SEM/EDS). The results show that the main impact of limestone additions on resistance to sulfate degradation are physical - i.e. addition of a few percent in Portland cement reduces the porosity and increases the resistance of Portland cement systems to sulfate; but higher addition of 25% increase porosity and lower resistance to sulfate. The kinetics of degradation were dramatically affected by the solution concentration (4 or 44 g Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}/l) and the higher concentration also resulted in the formation of gypsum, which did not occur at the low concentration. However the pattern of cracking was similar in both cases and it appears that gypsum precipitates opportunistically in pre-formed cracks so it is not considered as making a significant contribution to the degradation. At 8 deg. C limited formation of thaumasite occurred in the surface region of the samples made from cement with limestone additions. This thaumasite formation led to loss of cohesion of the paste and loss of material from the surface of the samples. However thaumasite formation was always preceded by expansion and cracking of the samples due to ettringite formation and given the very slow kinetics of thaumasite formation it was probably facilitated by the opening up of the structure due to ettringite induced cracking. The expansion of the samples showed a steady stage, followed by a rapidly accelerating stage, with destruction of the samples. The onset of the rapidly accelerating stage occurred when the thickness of the cracked surface layer reached about 1-1.5 mm-10-15% of the total specimen thickness (10 mm).

  13. Physical and chemical aspects of fluid evolution in hydrothermal ore systems

    SciTech Connect

    Cline, J.S.

    1990-01-01

    A one-dimensional, physical model describing two-phase fluid flow is used to simulate the effect of boiling on silica precipitation in geothermal and epithermal precious metal systems. The extent to which decreasing temperature and fluid vaporization are responsible for quartz precipitation is dependent on three related factors-the temperature of the fluid entering the two-phase system, the change in fluid temperature with respect to distance of fluid travel, and the extent of fluid vaporization in regions of gradual temperature decline. Boiling contributes to significant quartz precipitation in systems with high-temperature basal fluids, and in deeper portions of systems in which extensive vaporization occurs. Temperature reduction is a dominate precipitation mechanism in near-surface regions where temperature reduction is rapid, and in systems with lower temperature fluids. Quartz precipitation is most intense in systems with high mass flux/permeability ratios and low initial fluid temperatures. Geothermal systems with high mass flux/permeability and moderately low initial fluid temperatures are most effective in producing epithermal systems with abundant gold. Fluid evolution during the magnetic-hydrothermal transition and coincident molybdenite precipitation at Questa, New Mexico, has been traced using fluid inclusion microthermometry. The lack of cogenetic liquid- and vapor-rich inclusions, plus final homogenization of most saline, liquid-rich inclusions by halite dissolution indicate that high-salinity fluids were generated by a mechanism other than fluid immiscibility. Pressure flucuations are capable of producing the observed fluids and inclusion behavior. Solubility data indicate that the crystallizing aplite porphyry generated fluids with salinates as high as 57 wt.% NaCl equivalent.

  14. Type, Rather than Number, of Mental and Physical Comorbidities Increases the Severity of Symptoms in Patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Lackner, Jeffrey M.; Ma, Chang-Xing; Keefer, Laurie A.; Brenner, Darren M.; Gudleski, Gregory D.; Satchidanand, Nikhil; Firth, Rebecca; Sitrin, Michael D.; Katz, Leonard; Krasner, Susan S.; Ballou, Sarah K; Naliboff, Bruce D.; Mayer, Emeran A.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) has significant mental and physical comorbidities. However, little is known about the day-to-day burden these comorbidities place on quality of life (QOL), physical and mental function, distress, and symptoms of patients. METHODS We collected cross sectional data from 175 patients with IBS, diagnosed based on Rome III criteria (median age, 41 y; 78% women), referred to 2 specialty care clinics. Patients completed psychiatric interviews, a physical comorbidity checklist, the IBS symptom severity scale, the IBS quality of life instrument, the brief symptom inventory, the abdominal pain intensity scale, and the SF-12 health survey. RESULTS Patients with IBS reported an average of 5 comorbidities (1 mental, 4 physical). Subjects with more comorbidities reported worse QOL after adjusting for confounding variables. Multiple linear regression analyses indicated that comorbidity type was more consistently and strongly associated with illness burden indicators than disease counts. Of 10, 296 possible physical–mental comorbidity pairs, 6 of the 10 most frequent dyads involved specific conditions (generalized anxiety, depression, back pain, agoraphobia, tension headache, insomnia). These combinations were consistently associated with greater illness and symptom burdens (QOL, mental and physical function, distress, more severe symptoms of IBS, pain). CONCLUSIONS Comorbidities are common among patients with IBS. They are associated with distress and reduced QOL. Specific comorbidities are associated with more severe symptoms of IBS. PMID:23524278

  15. Selecting the Correct Solution to a Physics Problem when Given Several Possibilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Evan Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Despite decades of research on what learning actions are associated with effective learners (Palincsar and Brown, 1984; Atkinson, et al., 2000), the literature has not fully addressed how to cue those actions (particularly within the realm of physics). Recent reforms that integrate incorrect solutions suggest a possible avenue to reach those…

  16. The Prevalence and Severity of Physical Mobility Limitations in Older Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleaver, Shaun; Ouellette-Kuntz, Helene; Hunter, Duncan

    2009-01-01

    Background: The population of older adults with intellectual disabilities is growing, creating new challenges for individuals, families and service providers. Although there has been increased research into the ageing process for adults with intellectual disabilities, there is little focused research investigating physical mobility. Materials and…

  17. Stability of Interests after Severe Physical Disability: An 11-Year Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohe, Daniel E.; Krause, J. Stuart

    1998-01-01

    Of 117 males with spinal-cord injuries who completed the Strong Campbell Interest Inventory in 1985, 70 took the Strong Interest Inventory in 1996. Interests remained as stable as those of nondisabled persons. Anticipated age-related increases in artistic/social and decreases in physically demanding/adventuresome interests did not occur. (SK)

  18. The Ocular Communicator: A Device to Enable Persons with Severe Physical Disabilities to Communicate Using Eye Movements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, James L.; Mercer, R. B.

    1987-01-01

    The article describes the "Ocular Communicator" and its use with a severely physically disabled 14-year-old male. The device is designed for persons who have minimal motor function and employs eye movements for the operation of a printer or computer keyboard. (Author/DB)

  19. Reports of Severe Physical Punishment and Exposure to Animal Cruelty by Inmates Convicted of Felonies and by University Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Karla S.; Knutson, John F.

    1997-01-01

    A self-report questionnaire designed to assess abusive childhood environments and exposure to animal cruelty was administered to 314 prison inmates. Although high rates of physical punishment characterized the entire sample, persons charged with violent but nonhomicidal crimes reported more severely punitive childhood histories than those charged…

  20. Teacher-Child Relationship, Parenting, and Growth in Likelihood and Severity of Physical Aggression in the Early School Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Runions, Kevin C.; Vitaro, Fank; Cross, Donna; Shaw, Thérèse; Hall, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    This investigation used two-part growth modeling and cross-lagged panel analysis to examine the predictive function of parenting and teacher-child relationship on the likelihood of children showing problems with parent-rated physical aggression, and on the severity of problems, for 374 children followed from prekindergarten and first grade.…

  1. 47 CFR 63.501 - Contents of applications to sever physical connection or to terminate or suspend interchange of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Contents of applications to sever physical connection or to terminate or suspend interchange of traffic with another carrier. 63.501 Section 63.501 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) EXTENSION OF LINES, NEW LINES, AND...

  2. Eye gaze performance for children with severe physical impairments using gaze-based assistive technology—A longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Borgestig, Maria; Sandqvist, Jan; Parsons, Richard; Falkmer, Torbjörn; Hemmingsson, Helena

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Gaze-based assistive technology (gaze-based AT) has the potential to provide children affected by severe physical impairments with opportunities for communication and activities. This study aimed to examine changes in eye gaze performance over time (time on task and accuracy) in children with severe physical impairments, without speaking ability, using gaze-based AT. A longitudinal study with a before and after design was conducted on 10 children (aged 1–15 years) with severe physical impairments, who were beginners to gaze-based AT at baseline. Thereafter, all children used the gaze-based AT in daily activities over the course of the study. Compass computer software was used to measure time on task and accuracy with eye selection of targets on screen, and tests were performed with the children at baseline, after 5 months, 9–11 months, and after 15–20 months. Findings showed that the children improved in time on task after 5 months and became more accurate in selecting targets after 15–20 months. This study indicates that these children with severe physical impairments, who were unable to speak, could improve in eye gaze performance. However, the children needed time to practice on a long-term basis to acquire skills needed to develop fast and accurate eye gaze performance. PMID:26496529

  3. Teaching Students with Severe Speech and Physical Impairments a Decoding Strategy Using Internal Speech and Motoric Indicators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swinehart-Jones, Dawn; Heller, Kathryn Wolff

    2009-01-01

    Children who have severe speech and physical impairments often have difficulty acquiring literacy skills. One critical area of literacy instruction involves promoting word identification though the development of decoding strategies that can be implemented by students independently. This study investigated teaching four students who have cerebral…

  4. Eye gaze performance for children with severe physical impairments using gaze-based assistive technology-A longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Borgestig, Maria; Sandqvist, Jan; Parsons, Richard; Falkmer, Torbjörn; Hemmingsson, Helena

    2016-01-01

    Gaze-based assistive technology (gaze-based AT) has the potential to provide children affected by severe physical impairments with opportunities for communication and activities. This study aimed to examine changes in eye gaze performance over time (time on task and accuracy) in children with severe physical impairments, without speaking ability, using gaze-based AT. A longitudinal study with a before and after design was conducted on 10 children (aged 1-15 years) with severe physical impairments, who were beginners to gaze-based AT at baseline. Thereafter, all children used the gaze-based AT in daily activities over the course of the study. Compass computer software was used to measure time on task and accuracy with eye selection of targets on screen, and tests were performed with the children at baseline, after 5 months, 9-11 months, and after 15-20 months. Findings showed that the children improved in time on task after 5 months and became more accurate in selecting targets after 15-20 months. This study indicates that these children with severe physical impairments, who were unable to speak, could improve in eye gaze performance. However, the children needed time to practice on a long-term basis to acquire skills needed to develop fast and accurate eye gaze performance. PMID:26496529

  5. Predicting Long-Term Outcomes for Women Physically Abused in Childhood: Contribution of Abuse Severity versus Family Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Margaret L.; Amodeo, Maryann

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Child physical abuse (CPA) has been associated with adverse adult psychosocial outcomes, although some reports describe minimal long-term effects. The search for the explanation for heterogeneous outcomes in women with CPA has led to an examination of a range of CPA-related factors, from the severity of CPA incidents to the childhood…

  6. Effect on Public Policy from Macro to Nano Aspects of the Deadliest Illness of Mankind: Important Role of Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saxena, Arjun

    2013-04-01

    The effect on public policy of macro to nano aspects of the deadliest Illness known to mankind is given. The focus is on the important role of physics which has been ignored so far to solve its problems. It is now acknowledged that the deadliest illness is actually a group of illnesses which are lumped together as mental illnesses. They are the most widespread and damaging illnesses in the world. Their impact on the entire society globally is huge because they afflict majority of the people irrespective of race, religion, sex, age, education and economic status. In USA alone, the number afflicted according to the official count is about 80 million (out of a total population of 315 million), and it is projected to increase to about 25 to 30% of the population within two decades. A model is given in this paper to address some of the key issues from macro to nano aspects of the deadliest illness. The information given in this paper is scientific though easy to understand. It will help the elected policy makers, public, physicists, neuroscientists, doctors, and care giving personnel world wide. The model explains the missing links in the diagnosis and treatment of mental illnesses. Additional evidence from other recent studies shall also be given.

  7. Some Aspects of the Physical Variability of the Caribbean Sea Relevant to Regional Climate Variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mooers, C. N.

    2001-12-01

    The Caribbean Sea is the least studied portion of the Intra-Americas Sea (IAS), which is the combined Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico, Straits of Florida, and the adjacent western North Atlantic. The upstream elements of the Gulf Stream System are the dominant features of the upper ocean circulation in the Caribbean Sea. The Trade Winds superimpose a coastal upwelling regime along the northern coast of South America and a coastal downwelling regime along the southern coasts of Cuba and Hispaniola. The inflow from the Atlantic through several Antillean passages is derived from tropical and subtropical sources and is relatively weak, shallow, and variable; the outflow to the Gulf of Mexico through the Yucatan Channel is relatively strong, deep, and variable. The variability includes mesoscale eddies and meanders as well as the seasonal cycle and year-to-year variability; it also includes lengthy plumes from the Orinoco and other rivers and lengthy filaments from coastal upwelling centers. Some of the mesoscale variability originates in the Eastern Caribbean; other components originate in the Western Caribbean, especially in the cyclonic Panama-Colombia Gyre. The upper ocean of the Caribbean Sea is not only under the influence of the Trade Winds and their seasonal and longer term variability but also two other, not mutually exclusive, sources of variability: the seasonal heating and precipitation cycles on one hand, and synoptic scale and mesoscale phenomena on the other hand. For example, there are wet and dry seasons, and the Eastern Caribbean is typically dry and the Western Caribbean typically wet, with a heavy rainfall zone off the coast of Central America. And the patterns of atmospheric deep convection and subsidence apparently account for the summertime intensification of an extensive "warm pool" concentrated in the Northwestern Caribbean, which is exported to the Gulf of Mexico. As another example, the weekly Tropical Easterly Waves (TEWs) are the predominant

  8. Source quality variations tied to sequence development: Integration of physical and chemical aspects, Lower to Middle Triassic, western Barents Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Bohacs, K.M.; Isaksen, G.H. )

    1991-03-01

    Triassic mudrocks from the Barents Sea area demonstrate to covariance of physical and chemical properties of mudrocks deposited in shelfal environments and the aspect of depositional sequences in distal settings. The tie of physical parameters to chemical character within a detailed sequence-stratigraphic framework enables the construction of depositional-facies models to predict organic-matter content and quality. This allows the explorer to more closely constrain and predict the nature of potential source rocks using seismic and well-log data. Changes in lithology, bedding geometry, sedimentary structures, body and trace-fossil assemblages, and inorganic, bulk-organic, and molecular geochemistry revealed the detailed depositional environments. The depositional environments stack predictably, according to their position in the depositional sequence: from aerobic lower-shoreface--offshore transition environments in lowstand systems tracts to dysaerobic-anaerobic distal open-marine-shelf environment in transgressive and early highstand systems tracts. Quantitative molecular geochemistry also revealed variations within this distal setting and strong covariance with sequence position. Input of organic matter from terrigenous higher plants dominates the lowstands whereas marine-algal organic matter is most prevalent within transgressive and highstand systems tracts. Specifically, the abundance of C{sub 30} steranes, total steranes, and moretane reflected development of the sequences.

  9. Do Touch: Physical Contact and People Who Have Severe, Profound and Multiple Learning Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewett, Dave

    2007-01-01

    Dave Hewett PhD. is well known within the education and care fields for his invaluable work on communication with both children and adults who have severe and profound learning difficulties (with or without autism). However, because his work until recent times has tended to occur within more segregated services, he is only now becoming known to…

  10. Selecting Toys and Gifts for Severely Mentally and Physically Handicapped People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgia Learning Resources System/Child Serve, Scottdale.

    Suggestions are given regarding selection of gifts and toys for severely handicapped persons. General principles (such as safety and durability) are followed by specific suggestions about clothes, food, toys (including musical instruments and balls), books and records, and various types of equipment (such as blenders for food preparation, tape…

  11. Physical Growth and Maturation Following Early Severe Institutional Deprivation: Do They Mediate Specific Psychopathological Effects?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J.; Schlotz, Wolff; Rutter, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The authors' previous work and the data reported in the preceding chapters of this monograph provide conclusive evidence of the persistent nature of the negative impact of early severe deprivation. Institutional deprivation, despite the good outcomes for many, was often associated with substantial impairment and disorder across a wide range of…

  12. Gains in cognition through combined cognitive and physical training: the role of training dosage and severity of neurocognitive disorder

    PubMed Central

    Bamidis, Panagiotis D.; Fissler, Patrick; Papageorgiou, Sokratis G.; Zilidou, Vasiliki; Konstantinidis, Evdokimos I.; Billis, Antonis S.; Romanopoulou, Evangelia; Karagianni, Maria; Beratis, Ion; Tsapanou, Angeliki; Tsilikopoulou, Georgia; Grigoriadou, Eirini; Ladas, Aristea; Kyrillidou, Athina; Tsolaki, Anthoula; Frantzidis, Christos; Sidiropoulos, Efstathios; Siountas, Anastasios; Matsi, Stavroula; Papatriantafyllou, John; Margioti, Eleni; Nika, Aspasia; Schlee, Winfried; Elbert, Thomas; Tsolaki, Magda; Vivas, Ana B.; Kolassa, Iris-Tatjana

    2015-01-01

    Physical as well as cognitive training interventions improve specific cognitive functions but effects barely generalize on global cognition. Combined physical and cognitive training may overcome this shortcoming as physical training may facilitate the neuroplastic potential which, in turn, may be guided by cognitive training. This study aimed at investigating the benefits of combined training on global cognition while assessing the effect of training dosage and exploring the role of several potential effect modifiers. In this multi-center study, 322 older adults with or without neurocognitive disorders (NCDs) were allocated to a computerized, game-based, combined physical and cognitive training group (n = 237) or a passive control group (n = 85). Training group participants were allocated to different training dosages ranging from 24 to 110 potential sessions. In a pre-post-test design, global cognition was assessed by averaging standardized performance in working memory, episodic memory and executive function tests. The intervention group increased in global cognition compared to the control group, p = 0.002, Cohen’s d = 0.31. Exploratory analysis revealed a trend for less benefits in participants with more severe NCD, p = 0.08 (cognitively healthy: d = 0.54; mild cognitive impairment: d = 0.19; dementia: d = 0.04). In participants without dementia, we found a dose-response effect of the potential number and of the completed number of training sessions on global cognition, p = 0.008 and p = 0.04, respectively. The results indicate that combined physical and cognitive training improves global cognition in a dose-responsive manner but these benefits may be less pronounced in older adults with more severe NCD. The long-lasting impact of combined training on the incidence and trajectory of NCDs in relation to its severity should be assessed in future long-term trials. PMID:26300772

  13. Gains in cognition through combined cognitive and physical training: the role of training dosage and severity of neurocognitive disorder.

    PubMed

    Bamidis, Panagiotis D; Fissler, Patrick; Papageorgiou, Sokratis G; Zilidou, Vasiliki; Konstantinidis, Evdokimos I; Billis, Antonis S; Romanopoulou, Evangelia; Karagianni, Maria; Beratis, Ion; Tsapanou, Angeliki; Tsilikopoulou, Georgia; Grigoriadou, Eirini; Ladas, Aristea; Kyrillidou, Athina; Tsolaki, Anthoula; Frantzidis, Christos; Sidiropoulos, Efstathios; Siountas, Anastasios; Matsi, Stavroula; Papatriantafyllou, John; Margioti, Eleni; Nika, Aspasia; Schlee, Winfried; Elbert, Thomas; Tsolaki, Magda; Vivas, Ana B; Kolassa, Iris-Tatjana

    2015-01-01

    Physical as well as cognitive training interventions improve specific cognitive functions but effects barely generalize on global cognition. Combined physical and cognitive training may overcome this shortcoming as physical training may facilitate the neuroplastic potential which, in turn, may be guided by cognitive training. This study aimed at investigating the benefits of combined training on global cognition while assessing the effect of training dosage and exploring the role of several potential effect modifiers. In this multi-center study, 322 older adults with or without neurocognitive disorders (NCDs) were allocated to a computerized, game-based, combined physical and cognitive training group (n = 237) or a passive control group (n = 85). Training group participants were allocated to different training dosages ranging from 24 to 110 potential sessions. In a pre-post-test design, global cognition was assessed by averaging standardized performance in working memory, episodic memory and executive function tests. The intervention group increased in global cognition compared to the control group, p = 0.002, Cohen's d = 0.31. Exploratory analysis revealed a trend for less benefits in participants with more severe NCD, p = 0.08 (cognitively healthy: d = 0.54; mild cognitive impairment: d = 0.19; dementia: d = 0.04). In participants without dementia, we found a dose-response effect of the potential number and of the completed number of training sessions on global cognition, p = 0.008 and p = 0.04, respectively. The results indicate that combined physical and cognitive training improves global cognition in a dose-responsive manner but these benefits may be less pronounced in older adults with more severe NCD. The long-lasting impact of combined training on the incidence and trajectory of NCDs in relation to its severity should be assessed in future long-term trials. PMID:26300772

  14. Physical and psychological effects of 6-week tactile massage on elderly patients with severe dementia.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Mizue; Tatsumi, Asami; Otsuka, Toshiko; Kikuchi, Keiko; Mizuta, Akiko; Makino, Kimiko; Kimoto, Akie; Fujiwara, Kiyoe; Abe, Toshihiko; Nakagomi, Toshihiro; Hayashi, Tatsuya; Saruhara, Takayuki

    2010-12-01

    Tactile massage is a soft massage that improves physical relaxation and psychological well-being. The purpose of this study was to clarify the effects of a 6-week tactile massage on changes in physical and mental function, symptoms of behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) among elderly patients with dementia. In addition, chromogranin A (CgA) levels as an index of stress examined the effects of tactile massage intervention. A tactile massage group consisting of elderly patients with dementia received tactile massage therapy a total of 30 times each for about 20 minutes between 16:00 and 17:00 hours. In the control group, the mean scores for ''intellectual'' and ''emotional function'' score decreased significantly after 6 weeks (P < .05); however, no change was observed in the tactile massage group. Both the ''aggressiveness'' score (P < .05) and CgA levels decreased significantly after 6 weeks in the tactile massage group. These results suggest that tactile massage reduces aggressiveness and stress level in patients with dementia. PMID:21131675

  15. Physical illness in patients with severe mental disorders. I. Prevalence, impact of medications and disparities in health care

    PubMed Central

    DE HERT, MARC; CORRELL, CHRISTOPH U.; BOBES, JULIO; CETKOVICH-BAKMAS, MARCELO; COHEN, DAN; ASAI, ITSUO; DETRAUX, JOHAN; GAUTAM, SHIV; MÖLLER, HANS-JURGEN; NDETEI, DAVID M.; NEWCOMER, JOHN W.; UWAKWE, RICHARD; LEUCHT, STEFAN

    2011-01-01

    The lifespan of people with severe mental illness (SMI) is shorter compared to the general population. This excess mortality is mainly due to physical illness. We report prevalence rates of different physical illnesses as well as important individual lifestyle choices, side effects of psychotropic treatment and disparities in health care access, utilization and provision that contribute to these poor physical health outcomes. We searched MEDLINE (1966 – August 2010) combining the MeSH terms of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder with the different MeSH terms of general physical disease categories to select pertinent reviews and additional relevant studies through cross-referencing to identify prevalence figures and factors contributing to the excess morbidity and mortality rates. Nutritional and metabolic diseases, cardiovascular diseases, viral diseases, respiratory tract diseases, musculoskeletal diseases, sexual dysfunction, pregnancy complications, stomatognathic diseases, and possibly obesity-related cancers are, compared to the general population, more prevalent among people with SMI. It seems that lifestyle as well as treatment specific factors account for much of the increased risk for most of these physical diseases. Moreover, there is sufficient evidence that people with SMI are less likely to receive standard levels of care for most of these diseases. Lifestyle factors, relatively easy to measure, are barely considered for screening; baseline testing of numerous important physical parameters is insufficiently performed. Besides modifiable lifestyle factors and side effects of psychotropic medications, access to and quality of health care remains to be improved for individuals with SMI. PMID:21379357

  16. Recovery of functional capacity in severe trauma victims at one year after injury: association with trauma-related and hospital stay aspects.

    PubMed

    Padovani, Cauê; Da Silva, Janete Maria; Rotta, Bruna Peruzzo; Neto, Ruy De Camargo Pires; Fu, Carolina; Tanaka, Clarice

    2016-05-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to investigate the functional capacity of trauma survivors one year after hospital discharge and to identify associations with trauma- and hospital stay-related aspects in a developing country. [Subjects and Methods] This study included severe trauma patients (Injury Severity Score ≥16; ≥18 years old) who were admitted to an intensive care unit in Sao Paulo, Brazil. Hospital stay data were collected from the patients' records. Functional capacity was assessed using the Glasgow Outcome Scale and Lawton Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Scale one year after hospital discharge. Patients were asked if they had returned to work/school. [Results] Forty-nine patients completed follow-up. According to the Glasgow Outcome Scale data, most patients had moderate or mild/no dysfunction. The Lawton Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Scale showed that 60-70% of the subjects performed most activities independently. Multiple linear regression of the Glasgow score, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Disease Classification System II score, length of mechanical ventilation, and hospital length of stay revealed an association between the Lawton Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Scale and hospital length of stay. Overall, 32.6% of the subjects had returned to work/school. [Conclusion] Most severe trauma patients experienced functional recovery, although only one-third had returned to work/school one year after hospital discharge. Hospital length of stay was identified as a significant predictor of functional recovery. PMID:27313345

  17. Recovery of functional capacity in severe trauma victims at one year after injury: association with trauma-related and hospital stay aspects

    PubMed Central

    Padovani, Cauê; Da Silva, Janete Maria; Rotta, Bruna Peruzzo; Neto, Ruy De Camargo Pires; Fu, Carolina; Tanaka, Clarice

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to investigate the functional capacity of trauma survivors one year after hospital discharge and to identify associations with trauma- and hospital stay-related aspects in a developing country. [Subjects and Methods] This study included severe trauma patients (Injury Severity Score ≥16; ≥18 years old) who were admitted to an intensive care unit in Sao Paulo, Brazil. Hospital stay data were collected from the patients’ records. Functional capacity was assessed using the Glasgow Outcome Scale and Lawton Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Scale one year after hospital discharge. Patients were asked if they had returned to work/school. [Results] Forty-nine patients completed follow-up. According to the Glasgow Outcome Scale data, most patients had moderate or mild/no dysfunction. The Lawton Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Scale showed that 60–70% of the subjects performed most activities independently. Multiple linear regression of the Glasgow score, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Disease Classification System II score, length of mechanical ventilation, and hospital length of stay revealed an association between the Lawton Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Scale and hospital length of stay. Overall, 32.6% of the subjects had returned to work/school. [Conclusion] Most severe trauma patients experienced functional recovery, although only one-third had returned to work/school one year after hospital discharge. Hospital length of stay was identified as a significant predictor of functional recovery. PMID:27313345

  18. Variational symmetries, conserved quantities and identities for several equations of mathematical physics

    SciTech Connect

    Donchev, Veliko

    2014-03-15

    We find variational symmetries, conserved quantities and identities for several equations: envelope equation, Böcher equation, the propagation of sound waves with losses, flow of a gas with losses, and the nonlinear Schrödinger equation with losses or gains, and an electro-magnetic interaction. Most of these equations do not have a variational description with the classical variational principle and we find such a description with the generalized variational principle of Herglotz.

  19. Survey of physical property data for several alloys. [Nitronic 33; copper C10400; copper C17510

    SciTech Connect

    Pawel, R.E.; Williams, R.K.

    1985-08-01

    This report summarizes an examination of physical property data available in the literature for six alloys of potential interest to the Toroidal Fusion Core Experiment in the Fusion Energy Program. The properties of thermal expansion, density, specific heat, electrical resistivity, and thermal conductivity were compiled for six alloys: Nitronic 33, a low-nickel, high manganese stainless steel; nickel-base Inconnel Alloys 625, 718, and X-750; and copper alloys C10400 and C17510. The temperatures of interest were 4-500 K for the Nitronic 33 and the Inconels, and 250-400 K for the copper alloys. Where data were lacking, estimates were made based on theory or comparisons with similar materials.

  20. Sexuality in Persons with Severe Physical Disability: A Guide to the Physician

    PubMed Central

    Szasz, George

    1989-01-01

    Persons with disabilities, as a group, may have distinctly fewer options for functioning sexually according to their own needs and goals than have able persons. Physicians have three special roles in providing sexual health care: identifying problems that are sexual; assessing these problems; and providing in-depth management. Assessment includes a review of the disabled person's sexual response abilities, fertility potential and capability to use birth control, and estimates of musculoskeletal functions for intimate physical contact and bowel and urinary continence. Other areas to assess include partnership capabilities, sexual self-esteem, and sexual interest levels. Management is a team effort. Psychological, medical, and surgical methods developed for sexually dysfunctional persons may be adapted for persons with disabling conditions. PMID:21248893

  1. Nuclear physics: Macroscopic aspects

    SciTech Connect

    Swiatecki, W.J.

    1993-12-01

    A systematic macroscopic, leptodermous approach to nuclear statics and dynamics is described, based formally on the assumptions {h_bar} {yields} 0 and b/R << 1, where b is the surface diffuseness and R the nuclear radius. The resulting static model of shell-corrected nuclear binding energies and deformabilities is accurate to better than 1 part in a thousand and yields a firm determination of the principal properties of the nuclear fluid. As regards dynamics, the above approach suggests that nuclear shape evolutions will often be dominated by dissipation, but quantitative comparisons with experimental data are more difficult than in the case of statics. In its simplest liquid drop version the model exhibits interesting formal connections to the classic astronomical problem of rotating gravitating masses.

  2. Ring chromosome 5 associated with severe growth retardation as the sole major physical abnormality

    SciTech Connect

    Migliori, M.V.; Pettinari, A.; Cherubini, V.; Bartolotta, E.; Pecora, R.

    1994-01-01

    The authors report on a case of ring chromosome 5 in a 36-month-old girl with severe growth retardation, clinodactyly, mild psychological abnormalities, and normal facial appearance. Endocrine tests showed partial growth hormone deficiency. Cytogenetic investigation failed to demonstrate any apparent microscopic deletion of either the short or long arm of chromosome 5 as a consequence of ring formation. In 12% of cells examined, the ring was either absent or present in multiple copies. Only 3 previous cases of ring chromosome 5 have been reported in association with short stature of prenatal onset and minor anomalies, without mental retardation. 12 refs., 3 figs.

  3. Improved Therapeutic Benefits by Combining Physical Cooling With Pharmacological Hypothermia After Severe Stroke in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jin Hwan; Wei, Ling; Gu, Xiaohuan; Won, Soonmi; Wei, Zheng Zachory; Dix, Thomas A.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose— Therapeutic hypothermia is a promising strategy for treatment of acute stroke. Clinical translation of therapeutic hypothermia, however, has been hindered because of the lack of efficiency and adverse effects. We sought to enhance the clinical potential of therapeutic hypothermia by combining physical cooling (PC) with pharmacologically induced hypothermia after ischemic stroke. Methods— Wistar rats were subjected to 90-minute middle cerebral artery occlusion by insertion of an intraluminal filament. Mild-to-moderate hypothermia was induced 120 minutes after the onset of stroke by PC alone, a neurotensin receptor 1 (NTR1) agonist HPI-201 (formally ABS-201) alone or the combination of both. The outcomes of stroke were evaluated at 3 and 21 days after stroke. Results— PC or HPI-201 each showed hypothermic effect and neuroprotection in stroke rats. The combination of PC and HPI-201 exhibited synergistic effects in cooling process, reduced infarct formation, cell death, and blood-brain barrier damages and improved functional recovery after stroke. Importantly, coapplied HPI-201 completely inhibited PC-associated shivering and tachycardia. Conclusions— The centrally acting hypothermic drug HPI-201 greatly enhanced the efficiency and efficacy of conventional PC; this combined cooling therapy may facilitate clinical translation of hypothermic treatment for stroke. PMID:27301934

  4. A physical analysis of the severe 2013/2014 cold winter in North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Bin; Zhang, Xuebin

    2015-10-01

    The severe 2013/2014 cold winter has been examined in the context of the previous 55 winters using the National Centers for Environmental Prediction reanalysis data for the period 1960-2014. North America is dominated by pronounced cold anomalies over the Great Plains and Great Lakes in December 2013 and February 2014 but exhibits an east-west contrast pattern with warm anomalies over most of the North American West in January 2014. A relevant temperature index, defined as land surface temperature anomalies averaged over (40°-60°N, 105°-80°W), reveals a warming trend as well as interannual variability with a significant power peak of 6.0 years. While 2013/2014 was the second coldest winter during 1960-2014, it is the coldest one in the linearly detrended series, with a negative anomaly of 2.63 standard deviations. This indicates that the long-term warming has made the 2013/2014 winter less severe than it could have been. The temperature and circulation variability in association with the zonally symmetric variability of the polar vortex projects weakly on the corresponding anomalies in the 2013/2014 winter, whereas the variability associated with the principal mode of North American surface temperature projects strongly on the corresponding anomalies in the winter. This mode is associated with a sea surface temperature (SST) pattern of significant anomalies over the North Pacific and North Atlantic middle and high latitudes. The anomalous atmospheric circulation shows an anticyclonic anomaly over the Gulf of Alaska-Bering Sea and a cyclonic anomaly downstream over North America. It bears resemblance to the North Pacific Oscillation/Western Pacific pattern and drives the SST in the North Pacific. Over western-central Canada and the northern U.S., below-average heights are associated with above-normal precipitation, implying enhanced upward vertical motion and variation of local cloud forcing, leading to a variation of the surface energy budget dominated by

  5. Changes in microstructure and physical properties of skutterudites after severe plastic deformation.

    PubMed

    Rogl, Gerda; Grytsiv, Andriy; Bursik, Jiri; Horky, Jelena; Anbalagan, Ramakrishnan; Bauer, Ernst; Mallik, Ramesh Chandra; Rogl, Peter; Zehetbauer, Michael

    2015-02-01

    The best p-type skutterudites with ZT > 1.1 so far are didymium (DD) filled, Fe/Co substituted, Sb-based skutterudites. DD0.68Fe3CoSb12 was prepared using an annealing-reacting-melting-quenching technique followed by ball milling and hot pressing. After severe plastic deformation via high-pressure torsion (HPT), no phase changes but particular structural variations were achieved, leading to modified transport properties with higher ZT values. Although after measurement-induced heating some of the HPT induced defects were annealed out, a still attractive ZT-value was preserved. In this paper we focus on explanations for these changes via TEM investigations, Raman spectroscopy and texture measurements. The grain sizes and dislocation densities, evaluated from TEM images, showed that (i) the majority of cracks generated during high-pressure torsion are healed during annealing, leaving only small pores, that (ii) the grains have grown, and that (iii) the dislocation density is decreased. While Raman spectra indicate that after HPT processing and annealing the vibration modes related to the shorter Sb-Sb bonds in the Sb4 rings are more affected than those related to the longer Sb-Sb bonds, almost no visible changes were observed in the pole intensity and/or orientation. PMID:25556702

  6. Report to the American Physical Society of the Study Group on Radionuclide Release From Severe Accidents at Nuclear Power Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, George

    The release of radioiodine during the Three Mile Island (TMI) accident was more than an order of magnitude smaller than what had been predicted from analyses of hypothetical nuclear accidents. The Reactor Safety Study of 1975 (RSS), which carried out the analyses, is a fundamental factor in formulating regulations concerned with such accidents. This American Physical Society (APS) study group report is a result of the obvious need to reevaluate the RSS analysis of the “source term,” that is, the amount of various radionuclides that are predicted to be emitted under various reactor failure scenarios.The report includes an introductory background to the history of nuclear reactor accidents and accident studies and to the health aspects of radionuclide releases. It then describes nuclear reactors and reactor failure modes, including reasonably detailed descriptions of particular modes thought to be especially critical. The most extensive discussion concerns the chemical and physical processes important in the generation, transport, and release of radionuclides. The large computer codes used to model these processes are considered and evaluated. The results of some of the computer runs are examined in the light of a simplified but informative model to evaluate those features of an accident that are most likely to affect the source term. A review of the research programs currently underway precedes both the study group conclusions about the need to revise the source terms from those in the RSS and recommendations for further studies that are necessary to better evaluate the source term.

  7. Factors and associations for physical activity in severely obese adults during a two-year lifestyle intervention.

    PubMed

    Jepsen, Randi; Aadland, Eivind; Robertson, Lesley; Kristiansen, Merete; Andersen, John Roger; Natvig, Gerd Karin

    2014-01-01

    Objective. This study of severely obese adults participating in a two-year lifestyle intervention investigates associations between the independent variables: change in self-efficacy for physical activity (PA) in the face of psychological barriers, perceived behavioural control over PA, and PA self-identity and the dependent variable of change in objectively assessed PA. The intervention comprised four residential periods in a rehabilitation centre and combined diet, physical activity, and cognitive behavioural therapy. Materials and Methods. Forty-nine severely obese adults (37 women, mean body mass index 42.1 kg/m(2)) were included in the study. Assessment was done four times using questionnaires and an accelerometer. A linear mixed model based on restricted maximum likelihood was used in analyses for change over time. Associations were studied using linear regression analyses. Age, gender, and change in body mass index were used as control variables. Results. In the adjusted analyses, change in perceived behavioural control over PA was associated with change in PA (Stand. coeff. = 0.32, p = .005). Change in PA was not associated with either change in self-efficacy over PA in the face of psychological barriers (Stand. coeff. = 0.13, p = .259) or PA self-identity (Stand. coeff. = -0.07, p = .538). Conclusion. Perceived behavioural control may be a valid target to increase and maintain PA in severely obese adults participating in lifestyle interventions. More research is needed to investigate the process of behaviour change in this population. PMID:25165622

  8. Prevalence, Severity, and Co-occurrence of Chronic Physical Health Problems of Persons With Serious Mental Illness

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Danson R.; Macias, Cathaleene; Barreira, Paul J.; Fisher, William H.; Hargreaves, William A.; Harding, Courtenay M.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: This study examined Medicaid claims forms to determine the prevalence, severity, and co-occurrence of physical illness within a representative sample of persons with serious mental illness (N=147). Methods: Representativeness of health problems in the study sample was established through comparison with a larger sample of persons with serious mental illness enrolled in Medicaid within the same state. Standardized annual costs were then assigned to Medicaid claims diagnoses, and individual health problem severity was measured as the sum of estimated treatment costs for diagnosed conditions. Results: Seventy-four percent of the study sample (N=109) had been given a diagnosis of at least one chronic health problem, and 50 percent (N=73) had been given a diagnosis of two or more chronic health problems. Of the 14 chronic health conditions surveyed, chronic pulmonary illness was the most prevalent (31 percent incidence) and the most comorbid. Persons with chronic pulmonary illness were second only to those with infectious diseases in average annual cost of treatment ($8,277). Also, 50 percent or more of participants in eight other diagnostic categories had chronic pulmonary illness. A regression analysis identified age, obesity, and substance use disorders as significant predictors of individual health problem severity. Conclusions: Risk adjustment for physical health is essential when setting performance standards or cost expectations for mental health treatment. Excluding persons with chronic health problems from mental health service evaluations restricts generalizability of research findings and may promote interventions that are inappropriate for many persons with serious mental illness. PMID:15534013

  9. Methods to estimate aspects of physical activity and sedentary behavior from high-frequency wrist accelerometer measurements.

    PubMed

    Staudenmayer, John; He, Shai; Hickey, Amanda; Sasaki, Jeffer; Freedson, Patty

    2015-08-15

    This investigation developed models to estimate aspects of physical activity and sedentary behavior from three-axis high-frequency wrist-worn accelerometer data. The models were developed and tested on 20 participants (n = 10 males, n = 10 females, mean age = 24.1, mean body mass index = 23.9), who wore an ActiGraph GT3X+ accelerometer on their dominant wrist and an ActiGraph GT3X on the hip while performing a variety of scripted activities. Energy expenditure was concurrently measured by a portable indirect calorimetry system. Those calibration data were then used to develop and assess both machine-learning and simpler models with fewer unknown parameters (linear regression and decision trees) to estimate metabolic equivalent scores (METs) and to classify activity intensity, sedentary time, and locomotion time. The wrist models, applied to 15-s windows, estimated METs [random forest: root mean squared error (rSME) = 1.21 METs, hip: rMSE = 1.67 METs] and activity intensity (random forest: 75% correct, hip: 60% correct) better than a previously developed model that used counts per minute measured at the hip. In a separate set of comparisons, the simpler decision trees classified activity intensity (random forest: 75% correct, tree: 74% correct), sedentary time (random forest: 96% correct, decision tree: 97% correct), and locomotion time (random forest: 99% correct, decision tree: 96% correct) nearly as well or better than the machine-learning approaches. Preliminary investigation of the models' performance on two free-living people suggests that they may work well outside of controlled conditions. PMID:26112238

  10. On the physical- and socioeconomic aspects of land degradation in the Guadalentin basin (SE-Spain): Towards comprehensive understanding for effective remediation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Vente, J.; Solé-Benet, A.; Boix-Fayos, C.; Nainggolan, D.

    2009-04-01

    During the last two decades, the Guadalentin basin in south-eastern Spain has been the study area for many national- and international studies dealing with land degradation and desertification. One of the reasons for such a broad interest in the Guadalentin basin is that land degradation is generally considered severe in large parts of the basin due to a combination of the Mediterranean climate characterised by dry summers followed by intense autumn rainfall, steep topography that marks most parts of the landscape, and fragile soils on erodible lithologies. The main types of degradation are due to soil erosion, soil surface crusting, aridity, soil organic matter decline and salinisation. Moreover, triggered by various political and socioeconomic drivers, important land use and management changes have taken place over the last centuries, which have formed an important driver for further land degradation. Examples of such changes are large-scale land abandonment, a shift from dryland cereals production to large almond plantations, large scale land levelling for irrigated horticulture and urban expansions, and several types of agricultural subsidies. Numerous publications have been produced based on works done to address land degradation in the Guadalentin. However, until now there is no concise and integrated overview of what has been done and what is still missing regarding the study of the physical- and socioeconomic aspects of land degradation and conservation. This is in fact crucial to assist policy makers in making decisions that would effectively navigate land management in the area to a sustainable way. Here, we aim to provide such an overview by listing and discussing the main studies performed in this area, and by providing an integrated synthesis of the main physical- and socioeconomic factors identified in these studies as being responsible for land degradation, with a focus on feasible soil conservation strategies. In overall, there has been a strong

  11. Physical and Psychosocial Aspects of the Learning Environment in the Science Laboratory and Their Relationship to Teacher Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Che Ahmad, Che Nidzam; Osman, Kamisah; Halim, Lilia

    2013-01-01

    This paper is a report of a survey conducted to determine teachers' perception of the science laboratory learning environment and the relationship between different aspects of this environment and satisfaction from teaching and learning. Teachers' perceptions of psychosocial aspects were measured by use of the Science Laboratory…

  12. Physical health symptoms reported by trafficked women receiving post-trafficking support in Moldova: prevalence, severity and associated factors

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Many trafficked people suffer high levels of physical, sexual and psychological abuse. Yet, there has been limited research on the physical health problems associated with human trafficking or how the health needs of women in post-trafficking support settings vary according to socio-demographic or trafficking characteristics. Methods We analysed the prevalence and severity of 15 health symptoms reported by 120 trafficked women who had returned to Moldova between December 2007 and December 2008 and were registered with the International Organisation for Migration Assistance and Protection Programme. Women had returned to Moldova an average of 5.9 months prior to interview (range 2-12 months). Results Headaches (61.7%), stomach pain (60.9%), memory problems (44.2%), back pain (42.5%), loss of appetite (35%), and tooth pain (35%) were amongst the most commonly reported symptoms amongst both women trafficked for sexual exploitation and women trafficked for labour exploitation. The prevalence of headache and memory problems was strongly associated with duration of exploitation. Conclusions Trafficked women who register for post-trafficking support services after returning to their country of origin are likely to have long-term physical and dental health needs and should be provided with access to comprehensive medical services. Health problems among women who register for post-trafficking support services after returning to their country of origin are not limited to women trafficked for sexual exploitation but are also experienced by victims of labour exploitation. PMID:22834807

  13. Refocusing on physical health: Community psychiatric nurses' perceptions of using enhanced health checks for people with severe mental illness.

    PubMed

    Bressington, Daniel; Mui, Jolene; Wells, Harvey; Chien, Wai Tong; Lam, Claire; White, Jacquie; Gray, Richard

    2016-06-01

    In the present qualitative, descriptive study, we explored Hong Kong community psychiatric nurses' (CPN) perceptions of using comprehensive physical health checks for service users diagnosed with severe mental illness (SMI). Research interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of 11 CPN in order to explore their perceptions about the use of the Health Improvement Profile (HIP) over a 1-year period. Interview data were analysed using inductive thematic analysis. The analysis revealed that the majority of CPN appreciated the comprehensive focus on the physical health of their clients and reported positive changes in their clinical practice. Many of them observed an increase in the motivation of their clients to improve their physical health, and also noted observable benefits in service users' well-being. The use of the HIP also helped the CPN identify implementation barriers, and highlighted areas of the tool that required modifications to suit the local cultural and clinical context. To our knowledge, this is the first study conducted in an Asian mental health service that explores nurses' views about using comprehensive health checks for people with SMI. The findings suggest that such approaches are viewed as being acceptable, feasible, and potentially beneficial in the community mental health setting. PMID:26857108

  14. Simulating Cortical Development as a Self Constructing Process: A Novel Multi-Scale Approach Combining Molecular and Physical Aspects

    PubMed Central

    Zubler, Frederic; Hauri, Andreas; Pfister, Sabina; Bauer, Roman; Anderson, John C.; Whatley, Adrian M.; Douglas, Rodney J.

    2013-01-01

    Current models of embryological development focus on intracellular processes such as gene expression and protein networks, rather than on the complex relationship between subcellular processes and the collective cellular organization these processes support. We have explored this collective behavior in the context of neocortical development, by modeling the expansion of a small number of progenitor cells into a laminated cortex with layer and cell type specific projections. The developmental process is steered by a formal language analogous to genomic instructions, and takes place in a physically realistic three-dimensional environment. A common genome inserted into individual cells control their individual behaviors, and thereby gives rise to collective developmental sequences in a biologically plausible manner. The simulation begins with a single progenitor cell containing the artificial genome. This progenitor then gives rise through a lineage of offspring to distinct populations of neuronal precursors that migrate to form the cortical laminae. The precursors differentiate by extending dendrites and axons, which reproduce the experimentally determined branching patterns of a number of different neuronal cell types observed in the cat visual cortex. This result is the first comprehensive demonstration of the principles of self-construction whereby the cortical architecture develops. In addition, our model makes several testable predictions concerning cell migration and branching mechanisms. PMID:23966845

  15. Technology-Aided Programs to Support Positive Verbal and Physical Engagement in Persons with Moderate or Severe Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Lancioni, Giulio E; Singh, Nirbhay N; O'Reilly, Mark F; Sigafoos, Jeff; D'Amico, Fiora; Renna, Caterina; Pinto, Katia

    2016-01-01

    Pilot studies using technology-aided programs to promote verbal reminiscence and mild physical activity (i.e., positive forms of engagement) in persons with moderate or severe Alzheimer's disease have provided promising results (Lancioni et al., 2015a,b). The present two studies were aimed at upgrading and/or extending the assessment of those programs. Specifically, Study 1 upgraded the program for verbal reminiscence and assessed it with eight new participants. The upgraded version automatically monitored the participants' verbal behavior during the sessions, in which photos and brief videos were used to foster verbal reminiscence. Monitoring allowed computer approval and reminders to be consistent with the participants' behavior. Study 2 extended the assessment of the program for promoting mild physical activity with 10 new participants for whom arm-raising responses were targeted. The results of Study 1 showed that the participants' mean percentages of intervals with verbal engagement/reminiscence were below 10 during baseline and control sessions and between above 50 and nearly 80 during the intervention. The results of Study 2 showed that the mean frequencies of arm-raising responses were about or below four and between about 10 and 19 per session during the baseline and the intervention, respectively. The general implications of the aforementioned results and the need for new research in the area were discussed. PMID:27148050

  16. Applying the European protocol for the quality control of the physical and technical aspects of mammography screening threshold contrast visibility assessment to digital systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Metter, Richard; Heath, Michael; Fletcher-Heath, Lynn

    2006-03-01

    The need to assure the image quality of digital systems for mammography screening applications is now widely recognized. One approach is embodied in Part B of the European Protocol for the Quality Control of the Physical and Technical Aspects of Mammography Screening (EPQCM), which prescribes criteria for several interconnected image quality metrics. The focus of this study is on the "threshold contrast visibility" (TCV) protocol (section 2.4.1 of the EPQCM), in which human observers score images of a CDMAM or similar 4-AFC phantom. This section of the EPQCM currently omits many critical experimental details, which must be gleaned from ancillary documents. Given these, the purpose of this study is to quantify the effects of several remaining experimental variables, including phantom design, and the methods used for scoring and analysis, on the measured results. Preliminary studies of two CDMAM version 3.4 (CDMAM 3.4) phantoms have revealed a 17% difference in TCV when averaged over all target diameters from 0.1 to 2.0 mm. This indicates phantom variability may affect results at some sites. More importantly, we have shown that the current CDMAM phantom design, methods for scoring, and analysis, substantially limit the ability to measure system performance accurately and precisely. An improved phantom design has been shown to avoid these limitations. Viewing environment and presentation context affect the performance and efficiency of visual scoring of phantom images. An automated display tool has been developed that isolates individual 4-AFC targets of CDMAM phantom images, automatically optimizes window/level, and automatically records observers' scores. While not substantially changing TCV, the tool has increased scoring efficiency while mitigating several of the limitations associated with unassisted visual scoring. For example, learning bias and navigational issues are completely avoided. Ultimately, software-based ideal observer scoring will likely prove to be

  17. Health aspects, nutrition and physical characteristics in matched samples of institutionalized vegetarian and non-vegetarian elderly (> 65yrs)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Epidemiological studies indicate that a well balanced vegetarian diet offers several health benefits including a lower prevalence of prosperity diseases in vegetarians compared to omnivores. It was the purpose of the present study to compare nutritional and physical characteristics in matched samples of institutionalized vegetarian (V) and non-vegetarian (NV) elderly. Methods Twenty-two female and 7 male V (females: 84.1 ± 5.1yrs, males: 80.5 ± 7.5yrs) and 23 female and 7 male NV (females: 84.3 ± 5.0yrs, males: 80.6 ± 7.3yrs) participated. All subjects were over 65 years of age, and free of major disease or physical handicap. Dietary intake, blood profile, anthropometrics, and handgrip strength were determined. Results Mean daily energy intake was 6.8 ± 2.0MJ in V females, and 8.0 ± 1.4MJ in the NV females, only the V did not reach the recommended value of 7.8 MJ. Male V and NV had a mean daily energy intake of 8.7 ± 1.6MJ and 8.7 ± 1.2MJ respectively (RDI: 8.8 MJ). Mean carbohydrate intake was significantly below the RDI in NV only (female V: 47.8 ± 7.5E%, female NV: 43.3 ± 4.6E%, male V: 48.1 ± 6.4E%, male NV: 42.3 ± 3.6E%), while protein (female V: 17.3 ± 3.4E%, female NV: 19.5 ± 3.5E%, male V: 17.8 ± 3.4E%, male NV: 21.0 ± 2.0E%), and saturated fat intake (female V: 25.4 ± 8.2 g/day, female NV: 32.2 ± 6.9 g/day, male V: 31.4 ± 12.9 g/day, male NV: 33.4 ± 4.7 g/day) were too high in both V and NV. Mean micronutrient intakes met the RDI's in all 4 groups. Mean blood concentrations for vitamin B12, folic acid, iron, and calcium were normal in all 4 groups. Mean zinc blood serum was below the reference value in all groups, whereas estimated zinc intake was in agreement with the RDI. The mean blood cholesterol concentration was above the 200 mg/dl upper limit in the V group (213 ± 40 mg/dl) and below that limit in the NV (188 ± 33 mg/dl) group. Mean BMI was 26.1 ± 4.7 kg/m2 in the female V, 26.8 ± 3.7 kg/m2 in the female NV, 23.5

  18. Physical Aspects of Light--"Seeing Parameters". Lighting Techniques in Architecture (Madison, December 9-10, 1969).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turek, Robert W.

    In order to judge or design the lighting of an interior a person must be able to understand and take into account many aspects of seeing and illumination. Important areas of consideration are--(1) factors that contribute to the visibility of an object: size, brightness, contrast, and time, (2) radiant energy with regard to the visible spectrums of…

  19. Social Aspects of Classroom Learning: Results of a Discourse Analysis in an Inquiry-Oriented Physical Chemistry Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Nicole M.

    2012-01-01

    Engaging students in classroom discourse offers opportunities for students to participate in the construction of joint understandings, to negotiate relationships between different types of evidence, and to practice making evidence-based claims about science content. However, close attention to social aspects of learning is critical to creating…

  20. Impact of physical parameterization schemes on track and intensity of severe cyclonic storms in Bay of Bengal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanase, Radhika D.; Salvekar, P. S.

    2015-10-01

    The objective of the present study is to investigate in detail the impact of different physical parameterization schemes on track and intensity of two severe cyclonic storms, AILA and JAL, which formed over Bay of Bengal, using a WRF mesoscale model. Three 2-way interactive nested domains with horizontal resolutions of 60, 20 and 6.6 km are used with initial and boundary conditions from NCEP-FNL data. Three sets of experiments include sensitivity to cumulus, microphysics and planetary boundary layer parameterization schemes, respectively. From cumulus parameterization experiments, Betts-Miller-Janjic is found to be better in the group. The strength of mid-latitude trough and presence of southward wind surge for cyclone AILA, the strength of the cross-equatorial flow as well as stronger easterly wind fields in the mid-tropospheric levels for cyclone JAL, and the amount of potential vorticity for both cyclones are some of the factors, which affect the large-scale flow and, hence, the track of both storms. WSM6 Microphysics scheme is able to produce a realistic feature of the cyclones as compared to the other schemes. The realistic representation of mid-tropospheric heating contributed by snow and graupel hydrometeors may be one of the reasons for better intensity simulation by WSM6. The higher values of relative humidity in and above the boundary layer favor the deep vertical mixing in YSU and thus contribute towards the better intensity simulation.

  1. [Viscoelastic behaviour of inlay waxes (part 1). Physical and dynamic viscoelastic properties of several raw material waxes (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Katakura, N

    1980-07-01

    Several raw material waxes used in the inlay waxes, such as paraffins, carnauba wax, beeswax and dammar were investigated by measurements of X-ray diffraction, dilatometry, differential thermal analysis and dynamic viscoelasticity. The relationships between the viscoelastic behaviour and the physical properties of these waxes were discussed. The solid-solid phase transition from orthorhombic to hexagonal occurred in paraffins and the difference of the crystal transition temperature was observed between the kinds of paraffins. The viscoelastic properties and the thermal expansion of paraffins changed considerably in the crystal transition temperature region. Carnauba wax was an orthorhombic material, but such a crystal transition as paraffins did not appear. The dynamic modules of carnauba wax was greater than that of paraffin and decreased slowly to 70 degrees C and the loss tangent was small in this region. It was found, therefore, that carnauba wax had an elastic property in the crystal transition region of paraffin. Beeswax was also an orthorhombic material. The dynamic modulus of this was smallest in these waxes and the loss tangent increased relatively slowly with increases in temperature. Dammar was an amorphous solid. The dynamic modulus and the loss tangent were approximately constant in the low temperature region and changed greatly in the glass transition region. The thermal expansion of dammar was smallest in these waxes. PMID:6934229

  2. Effect of an oxygen plasma on the physical and chemical properties of several fluids for the liquid droplet radiator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gulino, D. A.; Coles, C. E.

    1986-01-01

    The Liquid Droplet Radiator is one of several radiator systems currently under investigation by NASA Lewis Research Center. It involves the direct exposure of the radiator working fluid to the space environment. An area of concern is the potential harmful effects of the low-Earth-orbit atomic oxygen environment on the radiator working fluid. To address this issue, seven candidate fluids were exposed to an oxygen plasma environment in a laboratory plasma asher. The fluids studied included Dow Corning 705 Diffusion Pump Fluid, polymethylphenylsiloxane and polydimethlsiloxane, both of which are experimental fluids made by Dow Corning, Fomblin Z25, made by Montedison, and three fluids from the Krytox family of fluids, Krytox 143AB, 1502, and 16256, which are made by DuPont. The fluids were characterized by noting changes in visual appearance, physical state, mass, and infrared spectra. Of the fluids tested, the Fomblin and the three Krytoxes were the least affected by the oxygen plasma. The only effect noted was a change in mass, which was most likely due to an oxygen-catalyzed deploymerization of the fluid molecule.

  3. Decomposing identity: differential relationships between several aspects of ethnic identity and the negative effects of perceived discrimination among First Nations adults in Canada.

    PubMed

    Bombay, Amy; Matheson, Kimberly; Anisman, Hymie

    2010-10-01

    The present investigation examined the relationship between perceived discrimination and depressive symptoms among First Nations adults in Canada (N = 220). It was considered that specific aspects of ethnic identity (in-group affect, centrality, in-group ties) could serve as resilience and/or vulnerability factors. Whereas in-group affect (positive feelings regarding one's group) was directly associated with decreased depressive symptoms and buffered against perceived discrimination, high levels of centrality (salience of group membership) was associated with increased symptomatology and intensified the relation between perceived discrimination and depressive symptoms. In-group ties (connection to other group members) buffered against perceived discrimination, although this protective effect only applied for males. The data underscore the importance of examining different aspects of identity and gender differences in determining the role of ethnic identity in the well-being of minority populations. PMID:21058814

  4. [Controlled release oxycodone--a new option in the treatment of severe and very severe pain. Review of studies on neuropathic, physical activity-related and postoperative pain].

    PubMed

    Stiehl, M

    2004-08-01

    Opioids are used not only in the treatment of cancer pain, but also pain of non-malignant genesis. In recent years, the efficacy of controlled release (CR) oxycodone in the treatment of the above-mentioned types of pain has been investigated in a number of clinical studies. The present article reviews the clinical studies that have been already published. Thanks to its outstanding pharmacological and pharmacodynamic properties, CR oxycodone is fast acting and brings about long lasting pain relief, coupled with benefits for physical and mental activities. This results in a significant quality-of-life improvement. Oral therapy with CR oxycodone is safe and can be precisely controlled. Since there are no clinical relevant metabolites, there is no danger of accumulation in patients with renal infarction due to these metabolites. Side effects are those typical for opioids, and are readily manageable. CR oxycodone is a good alternative in the treatment of non-cancer pain and can be recommended as first-line treatment for the above-mentioned indications. PMID:16739361

  5. Sexual Aggression Experiences Among Male Victims of Physical Partner Violence: Prevalence, Severity, and Health Correlates for Male Victims and Their Children.

    PubMed

    Hines, Denise A; Douglas, Emily M

    2016-07-01

    Although research has documented the prevalence and health correlates of sexual aggression among women who have experienced severe partner violence (PV), no research has documented the parallel issues among male victims of severe PV. Research also suggests that children of female victims of both physical and sexual PV have worse mental health than children of female victims of physical PV only, but no research has assessed the mental health of children whose fathers experienced both physical and sexual PV. We surveyed 611 men who experienced physical PV from their female partners and sought help. We assessed the types and extent of various forms of PV, the men's mental and physical health, and the mental health of their oldest child. Results showed that almost half of the men experienced sexual aggression in their relationship, and 28 % severe sexual aggression. Increasing levels of severity of sexual aggression victimization was associated with greater prevalence and types of other forms of PV. In addition, greater levels of severity of sexual aggression victimization among the men was significantly associated with depression symptoms, post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms, physical health symptoms, and poor health, and attention deficit and affective symptoms among their children. These associations held after controlling for demographics and other violence and trauma exposure. Discussion focused on the importance of broadening our conceptualization of PV against men by women to include sexual aggression as well. PMID:25501862

  6. Knee pain during activities of daily living and its relationship with physical activity in patients with early and severe knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Fukutani, Naoto; Iijima, Hirotaka; Aoyama, Tomoki; Yamamoto, Yuko; Hiraoka, Masakazu; Miyanobu, Kazuyuki; Jinnouchi, Masashi; Kaneda, Eishi; Tsuboyama, Tadao; Matsuda, Shuichi

    2016-09-01

    This study aimed to investigate whether knee pain during various activities of daily living (ADLs) is associated with physical activity in patients with early and severe knee osteoarthritis (OA). We hypothesized that the painful ADLs associated with decreased physical activity differ according to disease severity. This cross-sectional study enrolled 270 patients with medial knee OA, assigned to either the early (Kellgren Lawrence [K/L] grade 1-2) or the severe group (K/L grade 3-4). Physical activity was assessed using a pedometer. Knee pain during six ADLs (waking up in the morning, walking on a flat surface, ascending stairs, etc.) was evaluated using a questionnaire. We performed multiple regression and quantile regression analysis to investigate whether knee pain during each ADL was associated with physical activity. In the early group, the more knee pain they experienced while ascending stairs, the lower their physical activity was (75th regression coefficient = -1033.70, P = 0.018). In the severe group, the more knee pain they experienced while walking on a flat surface or bending to the floor or standing up, the lower their physical activity was (unstandardized coefficients = -1850.87, P = 0.026; unstandardized coefficients = -2640.35, P = 0.010). Knee pain while ascending stairs and while walking on a flat surface or bending to the floor or standing up was a probable limiting factor for physical activity in early and severe knee OA, respectively. These findings suggested that a reduction in task-specific knee pain according to disease severity could improve physical activity levels. PMID:27041381

  7. THE PHYSICAL ASPECTS OF URBANIZATION, PHYSICAL CONSIDERATIONS IN COMMUNITY ACTION. KANSAS STATE UNIVERSITY SHORT COURSE SERIES IN PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT, 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MCGRAW, EUGENE T.

    PART OF A KANSAS STATE UNIVERSITY SERIES ON COMMUNITY PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT, THIS MONOGRAPH DESCRIBES AND DEFINES THE NATURE OF URBAN CENTERS AS PHYSICAL ENTITIES. BASIC LAND USE CATEGORIES AND SUBDIVISIONS, FUNCTIONAL CLASSIFICATIONS OF COMMUNITIES IN THE UNITED STATES (MANUFACTURING, RETAIL, WHOLESALE, DIVERSIFIED, TRANSPORTATION, MINING,…

  8. An Exploratory Study to Investigate the Impact of an Enrichment Program on Aspects of Einsteinian Physics on Year 6 Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pitts, Marina; Venville, Grady; Blair, David; Zadnik, Marjan

    2014-01-01

    Concepts related to Einsteinian physics are usually not taught until students are in university, denying younger children access to this powerful way of understanding space, time and gravity. Considerable research has shown, however, that complex and abstract scientific ideas can be presented in age appropriate ways that result in measurable…

  9. Proceedings of the workshop on nuclear and particle physics at energies up to 31 GeV: new and future aspects

    SciTech Connect

    Bowman, J.D.; Kisslinger, L.S.; Silbar, R.R.

    1981-03-01

    This report contains the proceedings of the LAMPF Workshop on Nuclear and Particle Physics at Energies up to 31 GeV, New and Future Aspects, held in Los Alamos, January 5 to 8, 1981. Included are invited talks and contributed papers covering recent developments in (a) weak and unified interactions (including discussions of neutrino oscillations), (b) the hadronic description of strong interactions, (c) the quark description of strong interactions, (d) hypernuclei, and (e) new facilities and proposed experiments. One of the motivations for the Workshop was to explore physics justifications for a future high-intensity proton accelerator in this energy regime. Separate abstracts were prepared for papers from this meeting. Six papers were previously included in the data base.

  10. Aspects That Concern Assessing Lower Secondary School Students at the Physics National Contest Exemplification for the 7th Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florian, Gabriel

    2014-01-01

    In the present article, we aim at analysing the results obtained by the 7th grade students who participated in the 50th edition of the Physics National Contest, which took place in Cluj-Napoca between the 6th and the 11th of April, 2014. Why have we chosen the 7th grade? One of the reasons is represented by the good results obtained by the…

  11. The association between childhood sexual and physical abuse with incident adult severe obesity across 13 years of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Andrea S.; Dietz, William H.; Gordon-Larsen, Penny

    2013-01-01

    Background Severe obesity has increased yet childhood antecedents of adult severe obesity are not well understood. Objective Estimate adult-onset severe obesity risk in individuals with history of childhood physical and/or sexual abuse compared to those who did not report abuse. Methods Longitudinal analysis of participants from the U.S. National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N=10,774) Wave II (1996; aged 12–22 years) followed through Wave IV (2008–09; aged 24–34 years). New cases of adult-onset severe obesity (BMI≥40 kg/m2 using measured height and weight) in individuals followed over 13 years who were not severely obese during adolescence (BMI <120% of 95th percentile CDC/NCHS growth curves). Results The combined occurrence of self-reported sexual and physical abuse during childhood was associated with an increased risk of incident severe obesity in adulthood in non-minority females (Hazard Ratio=2.5; 1.3, 4.8) and males (Hazard Ratio=3.6; 1.5, 8.5) compared to individuals with no history of abuse. Conclusion In addition to other social and emotional risks, exposure to sexual and physical abuse during childhood may increase risk of severe obesity later in life. Consideration of the confluence of childhood abuse might be considered as part of preventive and therapeutic approaches to address severe obesity. PMID:24115589

  12. The high prevalence of poor physical health and unhealthy lifestyle behaviours in individuals with severe mental illness.

    PubMed

    Scott, David; Happell, Brenda

    2011-01-01

    Recent mental health care policy has addressed the need for health care professionals to consider the physical health of consumers. Mental health nurses are particularly well-placed for this role. To provide mental health nurses with practical information, this narrative review summarises evidence from recent research on the physical health of individuals with Serious Mental Illness (SMI). In those with SMI, the international prevalence of obesity, the metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus, symptoms of cardiovascular disease, and respiratory disease all exceed that of the general population by at least two times, and HIV prevalence may be increased by as much as eight times. This increased prevalence of chronic disease may be largely responsible for an increased risk of death of up to five times, resulting in as much as 30 years of potential life lost. Of particular concern, the recent evidence suggests that for physical health and increased mortality, the gap between individuals with SMI and the general population is worsening. Unhealthy lifestyle behaviours undoubtedly play a role in the development of poor physical health and chronic disease, and the present review indicates that low physical activity, poor diet, smoking, alcohol and substance abuse, and risky sexual behaviour are common in individuals with SMI. This narrative review demonstrates that the prevalence of poor physical health and health behaviours in people with SMI far exceed that observed in the general population, and reinforces the urgent need for mental health nurses to address physical health concerns in patients. PMID:21859410

  13. Patterns of Communicative Interaction between a Child with Severe Speech and Physical Impairments and Her Caregiver during a Mealtime Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferm, Ulrika; Ahlsen, Elisabeth; Bjorck-Akesson, Eva

    2012-01-01

    Background: Interaction between caregivers and children with severe impairments is closely related to the demands of daily activities. This study examines the relationship between interaction and the routine mealtime activity at home. Method: Patterns of interaction between a child (aged 6 years and 6 months) with severe speech and physical…

  14. Characterization of the aspects of osteoprogenitor cell interactions with physical tetracalcium phosphate anchorage on titanium implant surfaces.

    PubMed

    Ko, Chia-Ling; Chang, Ya-Yuan; Liou, Cian-Hua; Chen, Wen-Cheng

    2015-04-01

    Well-designed implants are used not only to modify the geometry of the implant but also to change the chemical properties of its surfaces. The present study aims to assess the biofunctional effects of tetracalcium phosphate (TTCP) particles as a physical anchor on the implant surface derived through sandblasting. The characteristics of the surface, cell viability, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity toward osteoprogenitor cells (D1) were obtained. D1 cells were cultured on a plain surface that underwent sandblasting and acid etching (SLA) (control SLA group) and on different SLA surfaces with different anchoring TTCP rates (new test groups, M and H). The mean anchoring rates were 57% (M) and 74% (H), and the anchored thickness was estimated to range from 12.6μm to 18.3μm. Compared with the control SLA surface on Ti substrate, the new test groups with different TTCP anchoring rates (M and H) failed to improve cell proliferation significantly but had a well-differentiated D1 cell phenotype that enhanced ALP expression in the early stage of cell cultures, specifically, at day 7. Results suggest that the SLA surface with anchored TTCP can accelerate progenitor bone cell mineralization. This study shows the potential clinical application of the constructed geometry in TTCP anchorage on Ti for dental implant surface modification. PMID:25686921

  15. Physical and plasmachemical aspects of diffuse coplanar barrier discharge as a novel atmospheric-pressure plasma source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cernak, M.; Kovacik, D.; Zahoranova, A.; Rahel, J.

    2008-07-01

    Collaborating Czech and Slovakian university teams have recently developed an innovative plasma source, the so-called Diffuse Coplanar Surface Barrier Discharge (DCSBD), which has the potential to move a step closer to the industry requirement for in-line treatment of low-added-value materials using a highly-nonequlibrium ambient air plasma (Simor et al. 2002, The idea is to generate a thin (on the order of 0.1 mm) layer of highly-nonequlibrium plasma with a high power density (up to 100 W/cm^3) in the immediate vicinity of the treated surface and bring it into a close contact with the treated surface. Comparing to atmospheric-pressure glow discharge, volume dielectric barrier discharge, and plasma jet plasmas, such a diffuse plasma layer is believed to provide substantial advantages in energy consumption, exposure time, and technical simplicity. A brief outline of physical mechanism and basic properties of DCSBD will given using the results of emission spectroscopy, high-speed camera, and spatially resolved cross-correlation spectroscopy studies. The presentation will review also a current state of the art in in-line plasma treatment of low-cost materials and opportunities for the use of the so-called Diffuse Coplanar Surface Dielectric Barrier Discharge (DCSBD). The results obtained on the ambient air plasma treatments of textile, paper, wood, and glass illustrate that DCSBD offers outstanding performance with extremely low energy consumption for large area, uniform surface modifications of materials under continuous process conditions.

  16. Psychological Factors Associated with Weight Loss in Obese and Severely Obese Women in a Behavioral Physical Activity Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Annesi, James J.; Whitaker, Ann C.

    2010-01-01

    The behavioral processes of weight reduction are poorly understood, and responses to treatments based primarily on caloric restriction have been unfavorable. A theory-based path derived from proposed relations of physical activity, changes in psychological factors, and weight loss was separately tested with women with Class I and Class II obesity…

  17. Organizational Citizenship Levels of Academicians in Terms of Several Variables: The Sample of Physical Education and Sports Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aydin, Ali Dursun

    2015-01-01

    This study is performed with 176 academicians working in the institutions related to physical education and sports at universities. It aims to analyze organizational citizenship behaviours of academic personnel about the institutions they have been working in. Descriptive survey model was used, along with demographic data like gender, marital…

  18. Attention Problems Mediate the Association between Severity of Physical Abuse and Aggressive Behavior in a Sample of Maltreated Early Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrido, Edward F.; Taussig, Heather N.; Culhane, Sara E.; Raviv, Tali

    2011-01-01

    Empirical evidence has accumulated documenting an association between childhood physical abuse and aggressive behavior. Relatively fewer studies have explored possible mediating mechanisms that may explain this association. The purpose of the current study was to examine whether caregiver- and youth-reported attention problems mediate the…

  19. A Pilot Program in Creative Growth for Severely Physically Handicapped Secondary Students of the Human Resources School, Albertson, New York: A Descriptive Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gamble, Michael W.

    A creative drama program for eight secondary school aged severely physically handicapped students is described. The 20-session program is explained to have focused on effective communication through such drama activities as sensory exploration tasks, poetry, pantomime and improvisation. Space and time limitations of the program are cited. (CL)

  20. An investigation of several aspects of LANDSAT-5 data quality. [Palmer County, Shelby, mt; White sands, NM; Great Salt Lake, UT; San Matted Bridge and Sacramento, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wrigley, R. C. (Principal Investigator)

    1984-01-01

    Band-to-band registration, geodetic registration, interdector noise, and the modulation transfer function (MTE) are discussed for the Palmer County; TX scene. Band combinations for several LANDSAT 4 and LANDSAT 5 scenes; the geodetic registration test for the Sacramento, CA area; periodic noise components in TM band 5; and grey level measurements by detector for Great Salt Lake (UT) dark water forescans and backscans are considered. Results of MTF analyses of the San Mateo Bridge and of TM high resolution and aerial Daedalus scanner imagery are consistent and appear to be repeatable. An oil-on-sand target was constructed on the White Sands Missile Range in New Mexico. The two-image analysis procedure used is summarized.

  1. Physical-chemical aspects of protein corona: relevance to in vitro and in vivo biological impacts of nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Monopoli, Marco P; Walczyk, Dorota; Campbell, Abigail; Elia, Giuliano; Lynch, Iseult; Bombelli, Francesca Baldelli; Dawson, Kenneth A

    2011-03-01

    It is now clearly emerging that besides size and shape, the other primary defining element of nanoscale objects in biological media is their long-lived protein ("hard") corona. This corona may be expressed as a durable, stabilizing coating of the bare surface of nanoparticle (NP) monomers, or it may be reflected in different subpopulations of particle assemblies, each presenting a durable protein coating. Using the approach and concepts of physical chemistry, we relate studies on the composition of the protein corona at different plasma concentrations with structural data on the complexes both in situ and free from excess plasma. This enables a high degree of confidence in the meaning of the hard protein corona in a biological context. Here, we present the protein adsorption for two compositionally different NPs, namely sulfonated polystyrene and silica NPs. NP-protein complexes are characterized by differential centrifugal sedimentation, dynamic light scattering, and zeta-potential both in situ and once isolated from plasma as a function of the protein/NP surface area ratio. We then introduce a semiquantitative determination of their hard corona composition using one-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and electrospray liquid chromatography mass spectrometry, which allows us to follow the total binding isotherms for the particles, identifying simultaneously the nature and amount of the most relevant proteins as a function of the plasma concentration. We find that the hard corona can evolve quite significantly as one passes from protein concentrations appropriate to in vitro cell studies to those present in in vivo studies, which has deep implications for in vitro-in vivo extrapolations and will require some consideration in the future. PMID:21288025

  2. Morphological aspects and physical properties of enamel and dentine of Sus domesticus: A tooth model in laboratory research.

    PubMed

    Fagundes, Nathalia Carolina Fernandes; Cardoso, Miquéias André Gomes; Miranda, Mayara Sabrina Luz; Silva, Raira de Brito; Teixeira, Francisco Bruno; Nogueira, Bárbara Catarina Lima; Nogueira, Brenna Magdalena Lima; de Melo, Sara Elisama Silva; da Costa, Natacha Malu Miranda; Lima, Rafael Rodrigues

    2015-11-01

    This study aims to describe and analyze morphological and physical properties of deciduous teeth of Sus domesticus. Ultrastructural analysis, mineral composition and microhardness of enamel and dentine tissues were performed on 10 skulls of S. domesticus. External anatomic characteristics and the internal anatomy of the teeth were also described. Data regarding microhardness and ultrastructural analysis were subjected to statistical tests. For ultrastructural analysis, we used the analysis of variance (ANOVA) with Tukey's post hoc (p≤0.05) test. In the analysis of microhardness, the difference between the enamel and dentine tissues was analyzed by a Student's t test. Values were expressed as mean with standard error. The results of ultrastructural analysis showed the presence of an enamel prism pattern. A dentinal tubule pattern was also observed, with a larger diameter in the pulp chamber and the cervical third, in comparison to middle and apical thirds. We observed an average microhardness of 259.2kgf/mm(2) for enamel and 55.17kgf/mm(2) for dentine. In porcine enamel and dentine, the chemical elements Ca and P showed the highest concentration. The analysis of internal anatomy revealed the presence of a simple root canal system and the occurrence of main canals in the roots. The observed features are compatible with the functional demand of these animals, following a pattern very similar to that seen in other groups of mammals, which can encourage the development of research using dental elements from the pig as a substitute for human teeth in laboratory research. PMID:26434756

  3. CORE AND EDGE ASPECTS OF QUIESCENT DOUBLE BARRIER OPERATION ON DIII-D.WITH RELEVANCE TO CRITICAL ITB PHYSICS ISSUES

    SciTech Connect

    DOYLE,EJ; CASPER,TA; BURRELL,KH; GREENFIELD,CM; WEST,WP; BUDNY,RV; DeBOO,JC; GAROFALO,AM; GOHIL,P; GROEBNER,RJ; HYATT,AW; JACKSON,GL; JERINGAN,TC; KINSEY,JE; LAO,LL; LASNIER,CJ; LEBOEUF,JN; LUCE,TC; MAKOWSKI,MA; McKEE,GR

    2003-03-01

    OAK-B135 Recent results from DIII-D address critical internal transport barrier (ITB) research issues relating to sustainability, impurity accumulation and ITB control, and have also demonstrated successful application of general profile control tools. In addition, substantial progress has been made in understanding the physics of the Quiescent Double Barrier (QDB) regime, increasing the demonstrating operating space for the regime and improving performance. Highlights include: (1) a clear demonstration of q-profile modification using electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD); (2) successful use of localized profile control using electron cyclotron heating (ECH) or ECCD to reduce central high-Z impurity accumulation associated with density peaking; (3) theory-based modeling codes are now being used to design experiments; (4) the operating space for Quiescent H-mode (QH-mode) has been substantially broadened, in particular higher density operation has been achieved; (5) absolute ({beta} 3.8%, neutron rate S{sub n} {le} 5.5 x 10{sup 15} s{sup -1}) and relative ({beta}{sub N}H{sub 89} = 7 for 10 {tau}{sub E}) performance has been increased; (6) with regard to sustainment, QDB plasmas have been run for 3.8 s or 26 {tau}{sub E}. These results emphasize that it is possible to produce sustained high quality H-mode performance with an edge localized mode (ELM)-free edge, directly addressing a major issue in fusion research, of how to ameliorate or eliminate ELM induced pulsed divertor particle and heat loads.

  4. Implants and sinus-inlay bone grafts in a 1-stage procedure on severely atrophied maxillae: surgical aspects of a 3-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Johansson, B; Wannfors, K; Ekenbäck, J; Smedberg, J I; Hirsch, J

    1999-01-01

    This 3-year follow-up study compares implant treatment in 39 1-stage sinus-inlay block-grafted patients (study group) with 37 patients treated without bone grafting (reference group), all of whom were edentulous in the maxilla and were treated over the same time period. The cumulative success rate (CSR) of implant stability after 3 years in the study group was 75.3% in grafted areas and 82.2% in non-grafted areas. The CSR after 3 years in the reference group was 93.1%. The mean marginal bone resorption after 3 years of loading was 1.4 mm in grafted areas and 1.6 mm in non-grafted areas in the study group and 1.1 mm in the reference group. Complications noted during the postoperative healing periods correlated significantly with implant failures later on (P < .05). Since prosthesis stability (CSR) after 3 years was 94.9% in the study group and 97.3% in the reference group, it can be concluded that 1-stage sinus-inlay block grafts can be regarded as a safe method with a predictable outcome for use on patients with severely atrophied edentulous maxillae, although increased failure rates are to be expected for implants placed in bone-grafted regions. PMID:10612917

  5. Using a Physically-based Model to Examine the Potential Effects of Climate Change on Ecologically Relevant Aspects of Streamflow Regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sazib, N. S.; Tarboton, D. G.; Dhungel, S.; Hawkins, C. P.

    2014-12-01

    Climate change may affect ecologically relevant aspects of the streamflow regime. We used TOPNET, a physically based semi-distributed hydrologic model, to model 16 ecologically important aspects of the flow regime at eight watersheds that represented the range of streamflow regimes within the conterminous USA. The physical-based modeling was conducted to determine if previously developed statistical models could be used to predict shifts in flow regimes associated with climate change (stationarity is dead). TOPNET inputs were derived from Daymet climate data [1], SSURGO soil data, and National Land Cover (NLCD) data. USGS streamflow data were used to calibrate and validate each model for a separate period of record. The models were then driven by downscaled future climate data to project near (2046-65) and far (2076-95) future changes in the 16 streamflow regime variables. For most of the watersheds, the model performed well in calibration and validation and streamflow regime variables derived from calibrated flow compared well with those from the observed flow. A number of flow regime variables quantified magnitude aspects of the streamflow regime, and magnitude tended to increase with future climate change. Watersheds that exhibited increases in precipitation also exhibited increases in the number of high-flow events. We also found changes in timing quantified by the time of the water year by which 50% of the total flow has occurred. Snow-fed streams had earlier timing, whereas rainfall-driven systems had little change of time of 50% flow. These predictions of changes in streamflow regime variables due to climate change help understand how climate change may impact stream flows and hence stream ecosystems. Such considerations are important for water management and mitigation of the impacts of climate change on ecosystems . References: [1] Thornton, P. E., Thornton, M. M., Mayer, B. W., Wilhelmi, N., Wei, Y., Devarakonda, R., & Cook, R. (2012). Daymet: Daily

  6. Risk factors of severity of post-traumatic stress disorder among survivors with physical disabilities one year after the Wenchuan earthquake.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiaobo; Song, Hui; Hu, Min; Li, Xiaolin; Cai, Ying; Huang, Guoping; Li, Jun; Kang, Lin; Li, Jing

    2015-08-30

    On May 12, 2008, a devastating earthquake measuring 8.0 on the Richter scale struck Wenchuan County and surrounding areas in China. This study aimed to assess post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in the aftermath of the earthquake, and to evaluate factors of severity of PTSD symptoms among survivors with physical disabilities. We conducted a population-based cross-sectional survey and recruited 817 survivors with physical disabilities in three stricken areas. Assessment measures included the PTSD Checklist-Civilian Version (PCL-C) and the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). Our study showed that 27.42% of the survivors with physical disabilities had PTSD symptoms one year after the Wenchuan earthquake. In the regression model, geographic location, female, suffering from paralysis following the earthquake, and going into a coma in the earthquake were associated with severe PTSD symptoms. Our findings suggest that a substantial proportion of physically disabled survivors of a big earthquake may have severe PTSD symptoms. The associated factors of PTSD identified in our study could inform the implementation of preventive programs for this population and give hint on the way to cope with this kind of disaster in the future. PMID:26163729

  7. Aspects of physical medicine and rehabilitation in the treatment of deconditioned patients in the acute care setting: the role of skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Quittan, Michael

    2016-02-01

    Skeletal muscles are essential for movement as well as for survival. Knowledge about the organ skeletal muscle is underrepresented. Ageing and multiple chronic diseases are accompanied by loss of muscle mass, termed "muscle wasting". Nevertheless, muscles are one of the target organs within the rehabilitation process. This review highlights the role of skeletal muscles from various aspects, diagnostic procedures to quantify muscle mass and strength and, most importantly, lists countermeasures to muscle wasting. Although structured and progressive strength training is the cornerstone in the treatment of muscle wasting, several other methods exist to slow down or reverse the process of muscle wasting. Among them are neuromuscular electrical stimulation and alternative exercise modes, positioning, stretching and, as an emerging field, drug therapy. PMID:26758982

  8. Associations between physical activity and quality of life outcomes in adults with severe obesity: a cross-sectional study prior to the beginning of a lifestyle intervention

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Severely obese individuals who seek lifestyle interventions have impaired quality of life (QoL). Research suggests that physical activity (PA) plays a role in weight reduction and improved health in this group, but knowledge about the association of PA with QoL outcomes is sparse and inconsistent. The aim of this study was to investigate whether a higher level of PA was independently associated with higher QoL in severely obese individuals prior to the beginning of a lifestyle intervention. Methods During 2010, a total of 49 severely obese individuals who began a lifestyle intervention programme in Western Norway agreed to participate in the study. Data were collected prior to the beginning of the intervention. QoL was measured by a one-item scale on life satisfaction and the SF-36, PA was measured by an accelerometer, and clinical data were collected by health staff. Linear regression analyses were used to determine the associations between PA and QoL outcomes (life satisfaction, physical functioning, and mental health), adjusting for age, gender, and body mass index (BMI). Results In the adjusted analyses, we found positive relationships between PA and life satisfaction (Stand. coeff. 0.39, p = 0.024) and physical functioning (Stand. coeff. 0.34, p = 0.025). There was no association between PA and mental health (Stand. coeff. 0.15, p = 0.376). Conclusion This study detected associations between objectively measured PA and life satisfaction as well as physical functioning in a group of severely obese individuals before they began a lifestyle intervention programme. PMID:24188415

  9. Molecular aspects of charm physics

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez, F.; Ortega, P. G.; Entem, D. R.

    2013-03-25

    We study the influence of possible molecular structures in the charmonium spectrum. We focus on the 0{sup ++}, 1{sup ++} and 1{sup --} sectors. In the first one we coupled the 2{sup 3}P{sub 0}cc pair with DD, J/{psi}{omega}, D{sub s}D{sub s} and J/{psi}{phi} channels and we obtain two states compatibles with the X(3945) and the Y(3940). In the second one we couple the 2{sup 3}P{sub 1}cc state with the DD{sup *} channel and we obtain a dressed state compatible with the X(3940) and a new state that we assign to the X(3872). In the third one we include the 3{sup 3}S{sub 1} and 2{sup 3}D{sub 1} charmonium states coupled to DD, DD{sup *}, D{sup *}D{sup *}, D{sub s}D{sub s}, D{sub s}D{sup *}s and D{sup *}{sub s}D{sup *}{sub s}. In this calculation we obtain a new molecular state that could be the G(3900) or the controversial Y(4008) and two cc states dressed by the molecular components assigned to the {psi}(4040) and the {psi}(4160). Finally we perform a calculation in the five quark sector where we can describe the {Lambda}{sub c}(2940){sup +} as a ND{sup *} molecular state and predict a {Lambda}{sub b}(6248){sup +} state.

  10. Physics and Physics Education at Clarion University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aravind, Vasudeva

    Clarion University is located in the rolling hills of western Pennsylvania. We are a primarily undergraduate public institution serving about 6000 students. We graduate students who take different career paths, one of them being teaching physics at high schools. Since educating teachers of tomorrow requires us to introduce currently trending, research proven pedagogical methods, we incorporate several aspects of physics pedagogies such as peer instruction, flipped classroom and hands on experimentation in a studio physics lab format. In this talk, I discuss some of our projects on physics education, and seek to find potential collaborators interested in working along similar lines.

  11. Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bromley, D. Allan

    1980-01-01

    The author presents the argument that the past few years, in terms of new discoveries, insights, and questions raised, have been among the most productive in the history of physics. Selected for discussion are some of the most important new developments in physics research. (Author/SA)

  12. Enhanced physical health screening for people with severe mental illness in Hong Kong: results from a one-year prospective case series study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background People with severe mental illness have significantly poorer physical health compared to the general population; previous health screening studies conducted outside Asian countries have demonstrated the potential in addressing this issue. This case series aimed to explore the effects and utility of integrating an enhanced physical health screening programme for community dwelling patients with severe mental illness into routine clinical practice in Hong Kong. Method This study utilises a consecutive prospective case series design. The serious mental illness Health Improvement Profile (HIP) was used as a screening tool at baseline and repeated at 12 months follow-up. Results A total of 148 community-based patients with severe mental illness completed the study. At one year follow-up analysis showed a significant improvement in self-reported levels of exercise and a reduction in the numbers of patients prescribed medications for diabetes However, mean waist circumference increased at follow-up. In addition to the statistically significant results some general trends were observed, including: a lack of deterioration in most areas of cardiovascular risk; a reduction in medicines prescribed for physical health problems; and general improvements in health behaviours over the 12 month period. Conclusions The findings demonstrate that using the HIP is feasible and acceptable in Hong Kong. The results of the enhanced physical health-screening programme are promising, but require further testing using a randomised controlled trial design in order to more confidently attribute the improvements in well-being and health behaviours to the HIP. Trial registration Clinical trial registration number: ISRCTN12582470 PMID:24576042

  13. Inequalities in physical comorbidity: a longitudinal comparative cohort study of people with severe mental illness in the UK

    PubMed Central

    Reilly, Siobhan; Olier, Ivan; Planner, Claire; Doran, Tim; Reeves, David; Ashcroft, Darren M; Gask, Linda; Kontopantelis, Evangelos

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Little is known about the prevalence of comorbidity rates in people with severe mental illness (SMI) in UK primary care. We calculated the prevalence of SMI by UK country, English region and deprivation quintile, antipsychotic and antidepressant medication prescription rates for people with SMI, and prevalence rates of common comorbidities in people with SMI compared with people without SMI. Design Retrospective cohort study from 2000 to 2012. Setting 627 general practices contributing to the Clinical Practice Research Datalink, a UK primary care database. Participants Each identified case (346 551) was matched for age, sex and general practice with 5 randomly selected control cases (1 732 755) with no diagnosis of SMI in each yearly time point. Outcome measures Prevalence rates were calculated for 16 conditions. Results SMI rates were highest in Scotland and in more deprived areas. Rates increased in England, Wales and Northern Ireland over time, with the largest increase in Northern Ireland (0.48% in 2000/2001 to 0.69% in 2011/2012). Annual prevalence rates of all conditions were higher in people with SMI compared with those without SMI. The discrepancy between the prevalence of those with and without SMI increased over time for most conditions. A greater increase in the mean number of additional conditions was observed in the SMI population over the study period (0.6 in 2000/2001 to 1.0 in 2011/2012) compared with those without SMI (0.5 in 2000/2001 to 0.6 in 2011/2012). For both groups, most conditions were more prevalent in more deprived areas, whereas for the SMI group conditions such as hypothyroidism, chronic kidney disease and cancer were more prevalent in more affluent areas. Conclusions Our findings highlight the health inequalities faced by people with SMI. The provision of appropriate timely health prevention, promotion and monitoring activities to reduce these health inequalities are needed, especially in deprived areas. PMID:26671955

  14. Sick-listed employees with severe medically unexplained physical symptoms: burden or routine for the occupational health physician? A cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The two primary objectives of this study were to the assess consultation load of occupational health physicians (OHPs), and their difficulties and needs with regard to their sickness certification tasks in sick-listed employees with severe medical unexplained physical symptoms (MUPS). Third objective was to determine which disease-, patient-, doctor- and practice-related factors are associated with the difficulties and needs of the OHPs. Methods In this cross-sectional study, 43 participating OHPs from 5 group practices assessed 489 sick-listed employees with and without severe MUPS. The OHPs filled in a questionnaire about difficulties concerning sickness certification tasks, consultation time, their needs with regard to consultation with or referral to a psychiatrist or psychologist, and communication with GPs. The OHPs also completed a questionnaire about their personal characteristics. Results OHPs only experienced task difficulties in employees with severe MUPS in relation to their communication with the treating physician. This only occured in cases in which the OHP attributed the physical symptoms to somatoform causes. If they attributed the physical symptoms to mental causes, the OHPs reported a need to consultate a psychiatrist about the diagnosis and treatment. Conclusions OHPs experience few difficulties with their sickness certification tasks and consultation load concerning employees with severe MUPS. However, they encounter problems if the diagnostic uncertainties of the treating physician interfere with the return to work process. OHPs have a need for psychiatric expertise whenever they are uncertain about the psychiatric causes of a delayed return to work process. We recommend further training programs for OHPs. They should also have more opportunity for consultation and referral to a psychiatrist, and their communication with treating physicians should be improved. PMID:21059232

  15. Physics-aspects of dose accuracy in high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy: source dosimetry, treatment planning, equipment performance and in vivo verification techniques

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, David; Nisbet, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    This study provides a review of recent publications on the physics-aspects of dosimetric accuracy in high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy. The discussion of accuracy is primarily concerned with uncertainties, but methods to improve dose conformation to the prescribed intended dose distribution are also noted. The main aim of the paper is to review current practical techniques and methods employed for HDR brachytherapy dosimetry. This includes work on the determination of dose rate fields around brachytherapy sources, the capability of treatment planning systems, the performance of treatment units and methods to verify dose delivery. This work highlights the determinants of accuracy in HDR dosimetry and treatment delivery and presents a selection of papers, focusing on articles from the last five years, to reflect active areas of research and development. Apart from Monte Carlo modelling of source dosimetry, there is no clear consensus on the optimum techniques to be used to assure dosimetric accuracy through all the processes involved in HDR brachytherapy treatment. With the exception of the ESTRO mailed dosimetry service, there is little dosimetric audit activity reported in the literature, when compared with external beam radiotherapy verification. PMID:23349649

  16. Regulatory aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stern, Arthur M.

    1986-07-01

    At this time, there is no US legislation that is specifically aimed at regulating the environmental release of genetically engineered organisms or their modified components, either during the research and development stage or during application. There are some statutes, administered by several federal agencies, whose language is broad enough to allow the extension of intended coverage to include certain aspects of biotechnology. The one possible exception is FIFRA, which has already brought about the registration of several natural microbial pesticides but which also has provision for requiring the registration of “strain improved” microbial pesticides. Nevertheless, there may be gaps in coverage even if all pertinent statutes were to be actively applied to the control of environmental release of genetically modified substances. The decision to regulate biotechnology under TSCA was justified, in part, on the basis of its intended role as a gap-filling piece of environmental legislation. The advantage of regulating biotechnology under TSCA is that this statute, unlike others, is concerned with all media of exposure (air, water, soil, sediment, biota) that may pose health and environmental hazards. Experience may show that extending existing legislation to regulate biotechnology is a poor compromise compared to the promulgation of new legislation specifically designed for this purpose. It appears that many other countries are ultimately going to take the latter course to regulate biotechnology.

  17. Subjects with Higher Physical Activity Levels Have More Severe Focal Knee lesions diagnosed with 3T MRI: Analysis of a Non Symptomatic Cohort of the Osteoarthritis Initiative

    PubMed Central

    Stehling, Christoph; Lane, Nancy E.; Nevitt, Michael C.; Lynch, John; McCulloch, Charles E.; Link, Thomas M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To study the prevalence of focal knee abnormalities using 3 Tesla (T) MR studies in relation to physical activity levels in asymptomatic, middle-aged subjects from the Osteoarthritis Initiative (OAI). Material and Methods We analyzed baseline data from 236 45–55 years old individuals (136 women, 100 men) without knee pain (based on WOMAC scores) and a BMI of 19–27 kg/m2. Physical activity levels were determined in all subjects using the Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly (PASE). MRI at 3T was performed using coronal intermediate-weighted (IW) 2D fast spin-echo (FSE), sagittal 3D dual-echo in steady state (DESS) and 2D IW fat-suppressed (fs) FSE sequences of the right knee. All images were analyzed by two musculoskeletal radiologists identifying and grading cartilage, meniscal, ligamentous and other knee abnormalities using the WORMS MRI OA scoring method. Statistical significances between subjects with different activity levels were determined using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), chi-square tests and a multivariate regression model adjusted for gender, age, BMI, KL-Score and OA risk factors. Results Meniscal lesions were found in 47% of the 236 subjects, cartilage lesions in 74.6%, bone marrow edema pattern (BMEP) in 40.3% and ligament lesions in 17%. Stratification of subjects by physical activity resulted in an increasing incidence of cartilage, meniscus and ligament abnormalities, BMEP and joint effusion according to activity levels (PASE). The severity grade of cartilage lesions was also associated with PASE levels and presence of other knee abnormalities was also significantly associated with cartilage defects. Conclusion Asymptomatic middle-aged individuals from the OAI incidence cohort had a high prevalence of knee abnormalities; more physically active individuals had significantly more and more severe knee abnormalities independently of gender, age, BMI, KL-Score and OA risk factors. This data therefore also suggests that subjects

  18. Correlations Between Gait Speed, 6-Minute Walk Distance, Physical Activity, and Self-Efficacy in Patients With Severe Chronic Lung Disease

    PubMed Central

    DePew, Zachary S; Karpman, Craig; Novotny, Paul J; Benzo, Roberto P

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Four-meter gait speed (4MGS) has been associated with functional capacity and overall mortality in elderly patients, and may easily be translated to daily practice. We evaluated the association of 4MGS with meaningful outcomes. METHODS In 70 subjects we conducted the 4MGS, 6-min walk test (6MWT), objectively measured physical activity, and assessed dyspnea, quality of life, and self-efficacy for walking and routine physical activity. 4MGS was measured in 3 separate time epochs during the 6MWT, to explore 4MGS variability. RESULTS Diagnoses included COPD (51.4%), interstitial lung disease (38.6%), and other pulmonary conditions (10%). The mean ± SD values were: 4MGS 0.85 ± 0.21 m/s, 6-min walk distance (6MWD) 305 ± 115 m, and physical activity level 1.28 ± 0.17, which is consistent with severe physical inactivity. The gait speeds within the time epochs 1–2, 3–4, and 5–6 min during the 6MWT were not significantly different: 1.01 ± 0.29 m/s, 0.98 ± 0.31 m/s, and 1.00 ± 0.31 m/s, respectively. 4MGS had a significant correlation with 6MWD (r = 0.70, P < .001). 6MWD was the dominant variable for predicting 4MGS. Other significant predictors of 4MGS included dyspnea, self-efficacy, quality of life, and objectively measured physical activity. CONCLUSIONS 4MGS is significantly and independently associated with 6MWD, and may serve as a reasonable simple surrogate for 6MWD in subjects with chronic lung disease. Gait speed was remarkably stable throughout the 6MWT, which supports the validity of an abbreviated walk test such as 4MGS. PMID:23696689

  19. [Retrospective analysis of 5,108 pediatric case files under traumatological and forensic aspects: a contribution to the differential diagnosis of physical child abuse vs. falls].

    PubMed

    Hennig, Christine; Tsokos, Michael

    2007-01-01

    We retrospectively evaluated 5108 case files from all children and adolescents under 16 years who were treated as in-patients during a four-year-period (2001-2004) in the Pediatric Department of a large University Hospital in Northern Germany. Statistical evaluation was performed with the epidemiologic software Epi Info 6.0. 472 cases where a trauma was diagnosed or suspected upon admission to hospital were further evaluated. Most frequently concerned were children between two and five years and the most common cause for their injuries, according to the anamnesis, were falls. These falls were analysed on the basis of the reported story and the established injury pattern. The height of the falls and the severity of injuries correlated well in most cases. The often critically discussed falling height of about 100 cm. which is obviously often stated by caregivers to cover up nonaccidental injuries, proved to be again the decisive problematic aspect concerning the differentiation between non-accidental (abusive) and accidental injuries. PMID:18260566

  20. Legal aspects.

    PubMed

    Escher, A

    1975-01-01

    The manufacture, application, use and disposal of fluorescent whitening agents (FWAs) may give rise to legal questions relating mainly to environmental protection and the effects on man and animals. In addition to legal aspects, certain commercial aspects such as the law of competition and the obligations of industry, including compensation for damage caused by FWAs, are discussed. PMID:1064546

  1. Effects of an intensive behavioral weight loss intervention consisting of caloric restriction with or without physical activity on common carotid artery remodeling in severely obese adults

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Jennifer N.; Columbus, Mindy L.; Shields, Kelly J.; Asubonteng, Julius; Meyer, Michelle L.; Sutton-Tyrrell, Kim; Goodpaster, Bret H.; DeLany, James P.; Jakicic, John M.; Barinas-Mitchell, Emma

    2012-01-01

    Objective Obesity increases cardiovascular disease risk and adversely affects vascular structure and function. Few studies have evaluated the vascular effects of non-surgical weight reduction in the severely obese. We hypothesized that weight loss and improvements in cardiometabolic factors would reduce common carotid artery intima-media thickness (CIMT) and inter-adventitial diameter (AD) in severely obese adults. Methods We performed carotid ultrasound and measured cardiometabolic factors in 90 severely obese participants (body mass index (BMI)≥35 kg/m2, age 30–55) at baseline and 6 months in a randomized clinical trial of dietary intervention with (n=45) or without (n=45) physical activity. Results The achieved weight loss (mean=8%) did not differ significantly by intervention group (P=0.10) and resulted in a 0.07 mm mean decrease in AD (P=0.001). AD change was positively correlated with changes in BMI, waist circumference, abdominal visceral and subcutaneous fat, and body fat mass, and AD decreased more in men (P<0.05 for all). After multivariable adjustment, changes in BMI (P=0.03) and abdominal subcutaneous fat (P=0.04) were significant determinants of AD change. Although CIMT did not decrease significantly overall (−0.008 mm, P=0.16), individuals who lost at least 5% of their body weight experienced a significant mean reduction in CIMT of 0.02 mm (P=0.002). CIMT change was positively correlated with changes in BMI, waist circumference, fat-free mass, leptin, and insulin (P<0.05 for all). After multivariable adjustment, insulin reduction remained a significant determinant of CIMT decrease (P=0.03). Conclusion A6 month intensive behavioral intervention can significantly reverse metabolic and vascular abnormalities in severely obese adults. PMID:22579053

  2. The impact of physical therapy in patients with severe traumatic brain injury during acute and post-acute rehabilitation according to coma duration

    PubMed Central

    Lendraitienė, Eglė; Petruševičienė, Daiva; Savickas, Raimondas; Žemaitienė, Ieva; Mingaila, Sigitas

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of study was to evaluate the impact of physical therapy on the recovery of motor and mental status in patients who sustained a severe traumatic brain injury, according to coma duration in acute and post-acute rehabilitation. [Subjects and Methods] The study population comprised patients with levels of consciousness ranging from 3 to 8 according to Glasgow Coma Scale score. The patients were divided into 2 groups based on coma duration as follows: group 1, those who were in a coma up to 1 week, and group 2, those who were in a coma for more than 2 weeks. The recovery of the patients’ motor function was evaluated according to the Motor Assessment Scale and the recovery of mental status according to the Mini-Mental State Examination. [Results] The evaluation of motor and mental status recovery revealed that the patients who were in a coma up to 1 week recovered significantly better after physical therapy during the acute rehabilitation than those who were in a coma for longer than 2 weeks. [Conclusion] The recovery of motor and mental status of the patients in acute rehabilitation was significantly better for those in a coma for a shorter period. PMID:27512262

  3. The impact of physical therapy in patients with severe traumatic brain injury during acute and post-acute rehabilitation according to coma duration.

    PubMed

    Lendraitienė, Eglė; Petruševičienė, Daiva; Savickas, Raimondas; Žemaitienė, Ieva; Mingaila, Sigitas

    2016-07-01

    [Purpose] The aim of study was to evaluate the impact of physical therapy on the recovery of motor and mental status in patients who sustained a severe traumatic brain injury, according to coma duration in acute and post-acute rehabilitation. [Subjects and Methods] The study population comprised patients with levels of consciousness ranging from 3 to 8 according to Glasgow Coma Scale score. The patients were divided into 2 groups based on coma duration as follows: group 1, those who were in a coma up to 1 week, and group 2, those who were in a coma for more than 2 weeks. The recovery of the patients' motor function was evaluated according to the Motor Assessment Scale and the recovery of mental status according to the Mini-Mental State Examination. [Results] The evaluation of motor and mental status recovery revealed that the patients who were in a coma up to 1 week recovered significantly better after physical therapy during the acute rehabilitation than those who were in a coma for longer than 2 weeks. [Conclusion] The recovery of motor and mental status of the patients in acute rehabilitation was significantly better for those in a coma for a shorter period. PMID:27512262

  4. Technology-Aided Programs to Support Positive Verbal and Physical Engagement in Persons with Moderate or Severe Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Lancioni, Giulio E.; Singh, Nirbhay N.; O’Reilly, Mark F.; Sigafoos, Jeff; D’Amico, Fiora; Renna, Caterina; Pinto, Katia

    2016-01-01

    Pilot studies using technology-aided programs to promote verbal reminiscence and mild physical activity (i.e., positive forms of engagement) in persons with moderate or severe Alzheimer’s disease have provided promising results (Lancioni et al., 2015a,b). The present two studies were aimed at upgrading and/or extending the assessment of those programs. Specifically, Study 1 upgraded the program for verbal reminiscence and assessed it with eight new participants. The upgraded version automatically monitored the participants’ verbal behavior during the sessions, in which photos and brief videos were used to foster verbal reminiscence. Monitoring allowed computer approval and reminders to be consistent with the participants’ behavior. Study 2 extended the assessment of the program for promoting mild physical activity with 10 new participants for whom arm-raising responses were targeted. The results of Study 1 showed that the participants’ mean percentages of intervals with verbal engagement/reminiscence were below 10 during baseline and control sessions and between above 50 and nearly 80 during the intervention. The results of Study 2 showed that the mean frequencies of arm-raising responses were about or below four and between about 10 and 19 per session during the baseline and the intervention, respectively. The general implications of the aforementioned results and the need for new research in the area were discussed. PMID:27148050

  5. MAOA Alters the Effects of Heavy Drinking and Childhood Physical Abuse on Risk for Severe Impulsive Acts of Violence Among Alcoholic Violent Offenders

    PubMed Central

    Tikkanen, Roope; Ducci, Francesca; Goldman, David; Holi, Matti; Lindberg, Nina; Tiihonen, Jari; Virkkunen, Matti

    2011-01-01

    Background A polymorphism in the promoter region of the monoamine oxidase A gene (MAOA) has been shown to alter the effect of persistent drinking and childhood maltreatment on the risk for violent and antisocial behaviors. These findings indicate that MAOA could contribute to inter-individual differences in stress resiliency. Methods Recidivism in severe violent crimes was assessed after 8 years of nonincarcerated follow-up in a male sample of 174 impulsive Finnish alcoholic violent offenders, the majority of whom exhibited antisocial (ASPD) or borderline personality disorder (BPD) or both. We examined whether MAOA genotype alters the effects of heavy drinking and childhood physical abuse (CPA) on the risk for committing impulsive recidivistic violent crimes. Results Logistic regression analyses showed that both heavy drinking and CPA were significant independent predictors of recidivism in violent behavior (OR 5.2, p = 0.004 and OR 5.3, p = 0.003) among offenders having the high MAOA activity genotype (MAOA-H), but these predictors showed no effect among offenders carrying the low MAOA activity genotype (MAOA-L). Conclusion Carriers of the MAOA-H allele have a high risk to commit severe recidivistic impulsive violent crimes after exposure to heavy drinking and CPA. PMID:20201935

  6. The role of beta-arrestin2 in the severity of antinociceptive tolerance and physical dependence induced by different opioid pain therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Raehal, Kirsten M.; Bohn, Laura M.

    2010-01-01

    Ligands acting at the same receptor can differentially activate distinct signal transduction pathways, which in turn, can have diverse functional consequences. Further, receptors expressed in different tissues may utilize intracellular signaling proteins in response to a ligand differently as well. The mu opioid receptor (MOR), which mediates many of the pharmacological actions of opiate therapeutics, is also subject to differential signaling in response to diverse agonists. To study the effect of diverse agonists on MOR signaling, we examined the effects of chronic opiate treatment on two distinct physiological endpoints, antinociceptive tolerance and physical dependence, in mice lacking the intracellular regulatory molecule, βarrestin2. While βarrestin2 knockout (βarr2-KO) mice do not become tolerant to the antinociceptive effects of chronic morphine in a hot plate test, tolerance develops to the same degree in both wild type and βarr2-KO mice following chronic infusion with methadone, fentanyl, and oxycodone. Studies here also assess the severity of withdrawal signs precipitated by naloxone following chronic infusions at three different doses of each opiate agonist. While there are no differences in withdrawal responses between genotypes at the highest dose of morphine tested (48 mg/kg/day), the βarr2-KO mice display several less severe withdrawal responses when the infusion dose is lowered (12 or 24 mg/kg/day). Chronic infusion of methadone, fentanyl, and oxycodone all lead to equivalent naloxone-precipitated withdrawal responses in both genotypes at all doses tested. These results lend further evidence that distinct agonists can differentially impact on opioid-mediated responses in vivo in a βarrestin2-dependent manner. PMID:20713067

  7. Risk of Severe Knee and Hip Osteoarthritis in Relation to Level of Physical Exercise: A Prospective Cohort Study of Long-Distance Skiers in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Michaëlsson, Karl; Byberg, Liisa; Ahlbom, Anders; Melhus, Håkan; Farahmand, Bahman Y.

    2011-01-01

    Background To complete long-distance ski races, regular physical exercise is required. This includes not only cross-country skiing but also endurance exercise during the snow-free seasons. The aim of this study was to determine whether the level of physical exercise is associated with future risk of severe osteoarthritis independent of previous diseases and injuries. Methodology/Principal Findings We used a cohort that consisted of 48 574 men and 5 409 women who participated in the 90 km ski race Vasaloppet at least once between 1989 and 1998. Number of performed races and finishing time were used as estimates of exercise level. By matching to the National Patient Register we identified participants with severe osteoarthritis, defined as arthroplasty of knee or hip due to osteoarthritis. With an average follow-up of 10 years, we identified 528 men and 42 women with incident osteoarthritis. The crude rate was 1.1/1000 person-years for men and 0.8/1000 person-years for women. Compared with racing once, participation in ≥5 races was associated with a 70% higher rate of osteoarthritis (multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio (HR) 1.72, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.33 to 2.22). The association was dose-dependent with an adjusted HR of 1.09, 95% CI 1.05 to 1.13 for each completed race. A faster finishing time, in comparison with a slow finishing time, was also associated with an increased rate (adjusted HR 1.51, 95% CI 1.14 to 2.01). Contrasting those with 5 or more ski races and a fast finish time to those who only participated once with a slow finish time, the adjusted HR of osteoarthritis was 2.73, 95% CI 1.78 to 4.18. Conclusions/Significance Participants with multiple and fast races have an increased risk of subsequent arthroplasty of knee and hip due to osteoarthritis, suggesting that intensive exercise may increase the risk. PMID:21479136

  8. Various aspects of gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jankiewicz, Marcin

    2007-12-01

    This thesis summarizes research projects that I have been involved in during my graduate studies at Vanderbilt University. My research spanned different areas of theoretical high energy physics with gravity as a common denominator. I explore both fundamental and phenomenological aspects of: (i) mathematical physics where I have studied relations between partition functions of certain class of conformal field theories and Fischer-Griess Monster group; (ii) cosmology, where I performed a numerical study of a horizon size modes of scalar field; (iii) a black hole physics project involving possible extensions of the non-hair theorem in a presence of exotic types of scalar field; and (iv) a study of phenomenological space-time foam models and their relation to Planck scale physics.

  9. Experimental and Calculated Characteristics of Several NACA 44-series Wings with Aspect Ratios of 8, 10, and 12 and Taper Ratios of 2.5 and 3.5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neely, Robert H; Bollech, Thomas V; Westrick, Gertrude C

    1947-01-01

    The aerodynamic characteristics of seven unswept tapered wings were determined by calculation from two-dimensional data and by wind-tunnel tests in order to demonstrate the accuracy of the calculations and to show some of the effects of aspect ratio, taper ratio, and root thickness-chord ratio. The characteristics were calculated by the usual application of the lifting-line theory which assumes linear section lift curves and also by an application of the theory which allows the use of nonlinear lift curves. A correction to the lift for the effect of chord was made by using the Jones edge-velocity factor. The wings had aspect ratios of 8, 10, and 12, taper ratios of 2.5 and 3.5, and NACA 44-series airfoils.

  10. Severity Scales for Use in Primary Health Care to Assess Chronic Fatigue Syndrome/Myalgic Encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Hardcastle, Sharni Lee; Brenu, Ekua Weba; Johnston, Samantha; Staines, Donald; Marshall-Gradisnik, Sonya

    2016-06-01

    Chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME) is a physical and cognitive disabling illness, characterized by severe fatigue and a range of physiological symptoms, that primarily affects women. The immense variation in clinical presentation suggests differences in severity based on symptomology and physical and cognitive functional capacities. In this article, we examine a number of severity scales used in assessing severity of patients with CFS/ME and the clinical aspects of CFS/ME severity subgroups. The use of severity scales may be important in CFS/ME because it permits the establishment of subgroups that may improve accuracy in both clinical and research settings. PMID:25315708

  11. Publisher's Note: ''The MaPLE device of Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics: Construction and its plasma aspects'' [Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 073507 (2010)

    SciTech Connect

    Pal, Rabindranath; Biswas, Subir; Basu, Subhasis; Chattopadhyay, Monobir; Basu, Debjyoti; Chaudhuri, Manis

    2010-07-15

    The Magnetized Plasma Linear Experimental (MaPLE) device is a low cost laboratory plasma device at Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics fabricated in-house with the primary aim of studying basic plasma physics phenomena such as plasma instabilities, wave propagation, and their nonlinear behavior in magnetized plasma regime in a controlled manner. The machine is specially designed to be a versatile laboratory device that can provide a number of magnetic and electric scenario to facilitate such studies. A total of 36 number of 20-turn magnet coils, designed such as to allow easy handling, is capable of producing a uniform, dc magnetic field of about 0.35 T inside the plasma chamber of diameter 0.30 m. Support structure of the coils is planned in an innovative way facilitating straightforward fabrication and easy positioning of the coils. Further special feature lies in the arrangement of the spacers between the coils that can be maneuvered rather easily to create different magnetic configurations. Various methods of plasma production can be suitably utilized according to the experimental needs at either end of the vacuum vessel. In the present paper, characteristics of a steady state plasma generated by electron cyclotron resonance method using 2.45 GHz microwave power are presented. Scans using simple probe drives revealed that a uniform and long plasma column having electron density {approx} 3-5 Multiplication-Sign 1010 cm-3 and temperature {approx} 7-10 eV, is formed in the center of the plasma chamber which is suitable for wave launching experiments.

  12. Comparison of Frequency of Frailty and Severely Impaired Physical Function in Patients ≥60 Years Hospitalized With Acute Decompensated Heart Failure Versus Chronic Stable Heart Failure With Reduced and Preserved Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction.

    PubMed

    Reeves, Gordon R; Whellan, David J; Patel, Mahesh J; O'Connor, Christopher M; Duncan, Pamela; Eggebeen, Joel D; Morgan, Timothy M; Hewston, Leigh A; Pastva, Amy M; Kitzman, Dalane W

    2016-06-15

    Older patients with acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) have persistently poor outcomes including frequent rehospitalization despite guidelines-based therapy. We hypothesized that such patients have multiple, severe impairments in physical function, cognition, and mood that are not addressed by current care pathways. We prospectively examined frailty, physical function, cognition, mood, and quality of life in 27 consecutive older patients with ADHF at 3 medical centers and compared these with 197 participants in 3 age-matched cohorts: stable heart failure (HF) with preserved ejection fraction (n = 80), stable HF with reduced ejection fraction (n = 56), and healthy older adults (n = 61). Based on Fried criteria, frailty was present in 56% of patients with ADHF versus 0 for the age-matched chronic HF and health cohorts. Patients with ADHF had markedly reduced Short Physical Performance Battery score (5.3 ± 2.8) and 6-minute walk distance (178 ± 102 m) (p <0.001 vs other cohorts), with severe deficits in all domains of physical function: balance, mobility, strength, and endurance. In the patients with ADHF, cognitive impairment (78%) and depression (30%) were common, and quality of life was poor. In conclusion, older patients with ADHF are frequently frail with severe and widespread impairments in physical function, cognition, mood, and quality of life that may contribute to their persistently poor outcomes, are frequently unrecognized, are not addressed in current ADHF care paradigms, and are potentially modifiable with targeted interventions. PMID:27156830

  13. Summary of the NASA/MSFC FY-79 Severe Storm and Local Weather research review. [cloud physics, atmospheric electricity, and mesoscale/storm dynamics reserach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Significant acomplishments, current focus of work, plans for FY-80, and recommendations for new research are outlined for 36 research projects proposed for technical monitoring by the Atmospheric Sciences Division at Marshall Space Flight Center. Topics of the investigations, which were reviewed at a two-day meeting, relate to cloud physics, atmospheric electricity, and mesoscale/storm dynamics.

  14. Soft coral abundance on the central Great Barrier Reef: effects of Acanthaster planci, space availability, and aspects of the physical environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabricius, K. E.

    1997-07-01

    The distribution and abundance of soft coral genera on reefs of the central Great Barrier Reef was investigated in relation to reef position, recent history of disturbance, wave exposure, substratum slope and depth. Eighty-five 25 m long transects were surveyed at 10 m depth on windward sides of 14 mid- and outer-shelf reefs. A further 75 transects in different zones on one mid-shelf reef (Davies Reef) between 5 and 30 m depth were investigated. The crown-of-thorns starfish Acanthaster planci had caused large-scale mortality of scleractinians on eight of these reefs five to ten years prior to the study, and as a result, scleractinian cover was only 35-55% of that on the six unimpacted reefs. On the impacted reefs, stony corals with massive and encrusting growths form had smaller average colony diameters but similar or slightly lower numerical abundance. In contrast, mean colony size, cover and abundance of branching stony corals showed no difference between impacted and unimpacted reefs. Twenty-four genera of soft corals (in eight families) were recorded, and none showed different abundance or cover in areas of former A. planci impact, compared to unaffected sites. Similarly, no difference was detected among locations in the numbers or area cover of sponges, tunicates, zoanthids, Halimeda or other macro-algae. Mean soft coral cover was 2 to 5% at 10 m on sheltered mid-shelf reefs, and 12 to 17% on more current-exposed reefs. Highest cover and abundances generally occurred on platforms of outer-shelf reefs exposed to relatively strong currents but low wave energy. On Davies Reef, cover and colony numbers of the families Nephtheidae and Xeniidae were low within the zone of wave impact, in flow-protected bays and lagoons, on shaded steep slopes, and at depths above 10 and below 25 m. In contrast, distributions of genera of the family Alcyoniidae were not related to these physical parameters. The physical conditions of a large proportion of habitats appear "sub

  15. Human development VII: a spiral fractal model of fine structure of physical energy could explain central aspects of biological information, biological organization and biological creativity.

    PubMed

    Ventegodt, Søren; Hermansen, Tyge Dahl; Flensborg-Madsen, Trine; Rald, Erik; Nielsen, Maj Lyck; Merrick, Joav

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we have made a draft of a physical fractal essence of the universe, a sketch of a new cosmology, which we believe to lay at the root of our new holistic biological paradigm. We present the fractal roomy spiraled structures and the energy-rich dancing "infinite strings" or lines of the universe that our hypothesis is based upon. The geometric language of this cosmology is symbolic and both pre-mathematical and pre-philosophical. The symbols are both text and figures, and using these we step by step explain the new model that at least to some extent is able to explain the complex informational system behind morphogenesis, ontogenesis, regeneration and healing. We suggest that it is from this highly dynamic spiraled structure that organization of cells, organs, and the wholeness of the human being including consciousness emerge. The model of "dancing fractal spirals" carries many similarities to premodern cultures descriptions of the energy of the life and universe. Examples are the Native American shamanistic descriptions of their perception of energy and the old Indian Yogis descriptions of the life-energy within the body and outside. Similar ideas of energy and matter are found in the modern superstring theories. The model of the informational system of the organism gives new meaning to Bateson's definition of information: "A difference that makes a difference", and indicates how information-directed self-organization can exist on high structural levels in living organisms, giving birth to their subjectivity and consciousness. PMID:17115083

  16. Severe Weather

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forde, Evan B.

    2004-01-01

    Educating the public about safety issues related to severe weather is part of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) mission. This article deals with a poster entitled, "Severe Weather," that has been created by NOAA to help educate the public about hazardous weather conditions. The four types of severe weather highlighted in…

  17. Severe Weather

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forde, Evan B.

    2004-01-01

    Educating the public about safety issues related to severe weather is part of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) mission. This month's insert, Severe Weather, has been created by NOAA to help educate the public about hazardous weather conditions. The four types of severe weather highlighted in this poster are hurricanes,…

  18. Physical dependence on gamma-hydroxybutrate (GHB) prodrug 1,4-butanediol (1,4-BD): Time course and severity of withdrawal in baboons

    PubMed Central

    Goodwin, Amy K.; Gibson, K. Michael; Weerts, Elise M.

    2013-01-01

    Background 1,4-butanediol (1,4-BD) is a gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) pro-drug, with multiple commercial uses, and a drug of abuse. Although there are case reports of a withdrawal syndrome following 1,4-BD use, no studies have evaluated the physical dependence potential of 1,4-BD and characterized the time course of withdrawal. Methods Vehicle and then 1,4-BD were administered continuously 24 h/day via intragastric catheters in male baboons (Papio anubis, n=3). Dosing was initiated at 100 mg/kg and increased by 100 mg/kg/day to 400 mg/kg. After a stabilization period, doses of 500 and then 600 mg/kg/day were each maintained for 3-4 weeks. Plasma levels of 1,4-BD and GHB were determined for each dose condition. Physical dependence was assessed via administration of a GABA-B antagonist (precipitated withdrawal test) during administration of the 600 mg/kg dose and via abrupt termination of chronic 1,4-BD administration (spontaneous withdrawal test). Outcome measures included the number of food pellets earned, performance on a fine-motor task, observed behaviors, and plasma levels of GHB and 1,4-BD. Results Following maintenance of 1,4-BD 600 mg/kg for 3 weeks, the number of food pellets earned was significantly decreased. At the end of chronic 1,4-BD dosing, the levels of GHB in plasma ranged from 1290- 2300 μmol/L and levels of 1,4-BD in plasma ranged from 13.1 -37.9 μmol/L. Signs of physical dependence were observed following precipitated and spontaneous withdrawal tests. Seizures were not observed. Conclusions These data indicate chronic 1,4-BD produced physical dependence in baboons and the withdrawal syndrome can be characterized as mild to intermediate. PMID:23538206

  19. Detectable Aspects Of Alaska, and the Southwests Kokopelli, Indicate That Environmental Monitoring By Native Americans Utilized Several Sensory Modes, and That Their Conservation Held Moral Value Within Their Traditional Culture.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ochs, Michael Ann; Mc Leod, Roger D.

    2004-03-01

    Place-names of Alaska and the Americas, in names like Natick, MA, Matagamon, ME, Matacumbe Key, FL, Tecate Mt, CA, and Tacoma, WA as well as Allapatah, FL, and Issaqua, WA indicate Native Americans all monitored equivalent aspects of the earths EMF. Former coastal and island areas of Native American activity and culture in Alaska show a traditional, historic leader climbed the mountain of one cliff-like island area for weather prediction. We suggest that the ascent onto the mountain and the subsequent significant stay there was for purposes of cultural and religious reverence associated with direct observation of phenomena associated with known weather sequences. Similar cultural awareness of EMF phenomena and weather-making could be related to practices of the MiKmaw/Micmac Indians of the northeast, and the so-called rain-dance of the Hopi of the southwest. *This paper does not necessarily represent the views of the U.S. E.P.A

  20. Aspects of emergent symmetries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomes, Pedro R. S.

    2016-03-01

    These are intended to be review notes on emergent symmetries, i.e. symmetries which manifest themselves in specific sectors of energy in many systems. The emphasis is on the physical aspects rather than computation methods. We include some background material and go through more recent problems in field theory, statistical mechanics and condensed matter. These problems illustrate how some important symmetries, such as Lorentz invariance and supersymmetry, usually believed to be fundamental, can arise naturally in low-energy regimes of systems involving a large number of degrees of freedom. The aim is to discuss how these examples could help us to face other complex and fundamental problems.

  1. The associations of body mass index with physical and mental aspects of health-related quality of life in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: results from a cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This study aimed to determine the associations of various clinical factors with generic health-related quality of life (HRQOL) scores among Hong Kong Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in the outpatient primary care setting using the short-form 12 (SF-12). Methods A cross-sectional survey of 488 Chinese adults with T2DM recruited from a primary care outpatient clinic was conducted from May to August 2008. Data on the standard Chinese (HK) SF-12 Health Survey and patients’ socio-demographics were collected from face-to-face interviews. Glycaemic control, body mass index (BMI), chronic co-morbidities, diabetic complications and treatment modalities were determined for each patient through medical records. Associations of socio-demographic and clinical factors with physical component summary (PCS-12) and mental component summary scores (MCS-12) were evaluated using multiple linear regression. Results The socio-demographic correlates of PCS-12 and MCS-12 were age, gender and BMI. After adjustment for socio-demographic variables, the BMI was negatively associated with PCS-12 but positively associated with MCS-12. The presence of diabetic complications was associated with lower PCS-12 (regression coefficient:-3.0 points, p < 0.05) while being on insulin treatment was associated with lower MCS-12 (regression coefficient:-5.8 points, p < 0.05). In contrast, glycaemic control, duration of T2DM and treatment with oral hypoglycaemic drugs were not significantly associated with PCS-12 or MCS-12. Conclusions Among T2DM subjects in the primary care setting, impairments in the physical aspect of HRQOL were evident in subjects who were obese or had diabetic complications whereas defects in the mental aspect of HRQOL were observed in patients with lower BMI or receiving insulin injections. PMID:23964785

  2. Role of Multiple Representations in Physics Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maries, Alexandru

    2013-01-01

    This thesis explores the role of multiple representations in introductory physics students' problem solving performance through several investigations. Representations can help students focus on the conceptual aspects of physics and play a major role in effective problem solving. Diagrammatic representations can play a particularly important role…

  3. Sever's Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Tests How do I know if my child's heel pain is caused by Sever's disease? In Sever's disease, heel pain can be in one or both heels. It ... cut down or stop any activity that causes heel pain. Apply ice to the injured heel for 20 ...

  4. Severe Sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Kouranos, Vasileios; Jacob, Joe; Wells, Athol U

    2015-12-01

    In sarcoidosis, reduction in mortality and the prevention of disability due to major organ involvement are treatment goals. Thus, it is important to recognize severe disease and identify patients at higher risk of progression to severe disease. In this article, fibrotic lung disease and cardiac sarcoidosis are reviewed as the major contributors to sarcoidosis mortality and morbidity. In the absence of a standardized definition of severe pulmonary disease, a multidisciplinary approach to clinical staging is suggested, based on symptoms, pulmonary function tests, and imaging findings at presentation, integrated with the duration of disease and longitudinal disease behavior during early follow-up. PMID:26593144

  5. Sever's Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Are Reading Upsetting News Reports? What to Say Vaccines: Which Ones & When? Smart School Lunches Emmy-Nominated Video "Cerebral Palsy: Shannon's Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Sever's Disease KidsHealth > ...

  6. Insights and Puzzles in Particle Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leutwyler, H.

    2015-03-01

    I briefly review the conceptual developments that led to the Standard Model and discuss some of its remarkable qualitative features. On the way, I draw attention to several puzzling aspects that are beyond the reach of our present understanding of the basic laws of physics.

  7. Insights and puzzles in particle physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leutwyler, H.

    2015-01-01

    I briefly review the conceptual developments that led to the Standard Model and discuss some of its remarkable qualitative features. On the way, I draw attention to several puzzling aspects that are beyond the reach of our present understanding of the basic laws of physics.

  8. The comparative uptake and interaction of several radionuclides in the trophic levels surrounding the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) waste water ponds

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, G.H. Jr.

    1989-08-01

    A study was undertaken to examine the uptake, distribution, and interaction of five activation products (Co-57, Be-7, Cs-134, Rb-83, and Mn-54) within the biotic and abiotic components surrounding the waste treatment lagoons of the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF). The study attempted to ascertain where, and what specific interactions were taking place among the isotopes and the biotic/abiotic components. A statistical approach, utilizing Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA), was conducted testing the radioisotopic concentrations by (1) the trophic levels (TROPLVL) in each position sampled on the grid, (2) where sampled on the grid (TRAN), (3) where sampled with-in each grid line (PLOT), and (4) the side with which sampled (SIDE). This provided both the dependent and independent variables that would be tested. The Null Hypothesis (Ho) tested the difference in the mean values of the isotopes within/between each of the four independent variables. The Rb-83 statistic indicated an accumulation within the TRAN and PLOT variables within the sampled area. The Co-57 test statistic provided a value which indicated that accumulation of this isotope within TROPLVL was taking place. Mn-54 test values indicated that accumulation was also taking place at the higher trophic levels within the PLOT, TRAN, and SIDE positions. Cs-134 was found to accumulate to third level in this trophic level structure (TROPLVL-(vegetation)), and then decrease from there. The Be-7 component provided no variance from known compartmental transfers. 210 refs., 17 figs., 4 tabs.

  9. Relationships between stable fly infestation with some physical facility characteristics and sanitation practices in several dairy farms in the State of Aguascalientes, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Vázquez, C; Ramos-Parra, M; Vitela-Mendoza, I; García-Vázquez, Z; Quintero-Martínez, M T

    2007-11-10

    The possible relationships between stable fly infestation with dairy farm facilities and sanitation practices were studied using path analysis. Twelve dairies located in four counties of Aguascalientes dairy region were selected. The dairies were monitored from May to November 2003. In each occasion, fly infestation, individual physical facility characteristics, and sanitation practices were recorded. In all, 11 independent variables were involved in the study and related variables were grouped together and analyzed in two blocks by path analysis for each one of five population events (begin of fly season, first peak, fluctuation, second peak and decrease). There were significant regression coefficients only in the second peak for two variables, the distance to the silos and the distance to the dung heap (r(2)=0.96 for the full model). Among the 11 variables examined in the study, none had a statistical significant indirect contribution to fly infestation; direct contribution was observed for distance to the silos and for distance to the dung heap variables. However, only the distance to the silos variable was significantly related to stable fly Infestation. PMID:17900810

  10. Physics of some environmental aspects of energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hafemeister, David

    1985-11-01

    Approximate numerical estimates are carried out on the following environmental effects from energy production and conservation: (1) The greenhouse effect caused by increased CO2 in the atmosphere; (2) Loss of coolant accidents in nuclear reactors; (3) Increased radon concentrations in buildings with very low air infiltration rates; (4) Acid rain from the combustion of fossil fuels; and (5) Explosions of liquified natural gas (LNG).

  11. Physics of some environmental aspects of energy

    SciTech Connect

    Hafemeister, D.

    1985-11-25

    Approximate numerical estimates are carried out on the following environmental effects from energy production and conservation: (1) The greenhouse effect caused by increased CO/sub 2/ in the atmosphere; (2) Loss of coolant accidents in nuclear reactors; (3) Increased radon concentrations in buildings with very low air infiltration rates; (4) Acid rain from the combustion of fossil fuels; and (5) Explosions of liquified natural gas (LNG).

  12. Development of curcumin nanocrystal: physical aspects.

    PubMed

    Rachmawati, Heni; Al Shaal, Loaye; Müller, Rainer H; Keck, Cornelia M

    2013-01-01

    Curcumin, a naturally occuring polyphenolic phytoconstituent, is isolated from the rhizomes of Curcuma longa Linn. (Zingiberaceae). It is water insoluble under acidic or neutral conditions but dissolves in alkaline environment. In neutral or alkaline conditions, curcumin is highly unstable undergoing rapid hydrolytic degradation to feruloyl methane and ferulic acid. Thus, the use of curcumin is limited by its poor aqueous solubility in acidic or neutral conditions and instability in alkaline pH. In the present study, curcumin nanocrystals were prepared using high-pressure homogenization, to improve its solubility. Five different stabilizers [polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP), d-α-tocopherol polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS), sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), carboxymethylcellulose sodium salt] possessing different stabilization mechanism were investigated. The nanoparticles were characterized with regard to size, surface charge, shape and morphology, thermal property, and crystallinity. A short-term stability study was performed storing the differently stabilized nanoparticles at 4°C and room temperature. PVA, PVP, TPGS, and SDS successfully produced curcumin nanoparticle with the particle size in the range of 500-700 nm. PVA, PVP, and TPGS showed similar performance in preserving the curcumin nanosuspension stability. However, PVP is the most efficient polymer to stabilize curcumin nanoparticle. This study illustrates that the developed curcumin nanoparticle held great potential as a possible approach to improve the curcumin solubility then enhancing bioavailability. PMID:23047816

  13. Physical and Chemical Characterization of Therapeutic Iron Containing Materials: A Study of Several Superparamagnetic Drug Formulations with the β-FeOOH or Ferrihydrite Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Funk, Felix; Long, Gary J.; Hautot, Dimitri; Büchi, Ruth; Christl, Iso; Weidler, Peter G.

    2001-03-01

    The effectiveness of therapeutically used iron compounds is related to their physical and chemical properties. Four different iron compounds used in oral, intravenous, and intramuscular therapy have been examined by X-ray powder diffraction, iron-57 Mössbauer spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, BET surface area measurement, potentiometric titration and studied through dissolution kinetics determinations using acid, reducing and chelating agents. All compounds are nanosized with particle diameters, as determined by X-ray diffraction, ranging from 1 to 4.1 nm. The superparamagnetic blocking temperatures, as determined by Mössbauer spectroscopy, indicate that the relative diameters of the aggregates range from 2.5 to 4.1 nm. Three of the iron compounds have an akaganeite-like structure, whereas one has a ferrihydrite-like structure. As powders the particles form large and dense aggregates which have a very low surface area on the order of 1 m2 g-1. There is evidence, however, that in a colloidal solution the surface area is increased by two to three orders of magnitude, presumably as a result of the break up of the aggregates. Iron release kinetics by acid, chelating and reducing agents reflect the high surface area, the size and crystallinity of the particles, and the presence of the protective carbohydrate layer coating the iron compound. Within a physiologically relevant time period, the iron release produced by acid or large chelating ligands is small. In contrast, iron is rapidly mobilized by small organic chelating agents, such as oxalate, or by chelate-forming reductants, such as thioglycolate.

  14. The role of quality of care and attitude towards disability in the relationship between severity of disability and quality of life: findings from a cross-sectional survey among people with physical disability in China

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background People with physical disability (PWPD) is the largest subgroup of people with disability (PWD) in China, but few studies have been conducted among this vulnerable population. The objective of this study was to investigate the level of quality of life (QoL), self-perceived quality of care and support (QOCS), severity of disability and personal attitude towards disability among people with physical disability in China, as well as to identify how QoL can be affected by severity of disability through QOCS and personal attitude towards disability among PWPD. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1,853 PWPD in Guangzhou, China. Data were collected on participants’ QoL, QOCS, personal attitude towards disability and severity of disability. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the effects of the other variables on QoL. Results Even with a mild disability (mean score:1.72), relatively low levels of QoL (mean score: 2.65- 3.22) and QOCS (mean score: 2.95 to 3.28), as well as unfavorable personal attitude towards disability (mean score: 2.75 to 3.36) were identified among PWPD. According to SEM, we found that the influence of severity of physical disability on QoL is not only exerted directly, but is also indirectly through QOCS and their personal attitudes towards disability, with QOCS playing a more important mediating role than PWPD’s attitudes towards their own disability. Conclusions Unfavorable health status was identified among PWPD in China. Focusing on improvement of assistance and care services has the potential to substantially improve PWPD’s QoL. Further research should focus on understanding the needs and their current state of health care of PWPD in China thus being able to develop better interventions for them. PMID:24559096

  15. Aspects of Gond astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vahia, M. N.; Halkare, Ganesh

    2013-03-01

    The Gond community is considered to be one of the most ancient tribes of India with a continuing history of several thousand years. They are also known for their largely isolated history which they have retained through the millennia. Several of their intellectual traditions therefore are a record of parallel aspects of human intellectual growth, and still preserve their original flavour and have not been homogenised by the later traditions of India. In view of this, the Gonds provide a special window to the different currents that constitute contemporary India. In the present study, we summarise their mythology, genetics and script. We then investigate their astronomical traditions and try to understand this community through a survey of 15 Gond villages spread over Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh. We show that they have a distinctly different view of the sky from the conventional astronomical ideas encountered elsewhere in India, which is both interesting and informative. We briefly comment on other aspects of their life as culled from our encounters with different members of the Gond community.

  16. Severe gastrointestinal bleeding.

    PubMed

    Isaacs, K L

    1994-02-01

    Severe gastrointestinal bleeding is a common cause of admission of the elderly to intensive care units. Differentiation between upper and lower gastrointestinal bleeding is made on the basis of history, physical examination, and diagnostic tests. Therapy is based in part on the severity of the bleeding episode and on the cause of the hemorrhage. Therapeutic intervention may involve medical therapy, endoscopic therapy, angiographic therapy, and surgery. Patient outcome is often related to other underlying disease states. PMID:8168017

  17. Distinct and common aspects of physical and psychological self-representation in the brain: A meta-analysis of self-bias in facial and self-referential judgements.

    PubMed

    Hu, Chuanpeng; Di, Xin; Eickhoff, Simon B; Zhang, Mingjun; Peng, Kaiping; Guo, Hua; Sui, Jie

    2016-02-01

    The neural representation of self is a fundamental question for brain research. Employing activation likelihood estimation (ALE) meta-analyses, we assessed the commonalities and distinctions between different components of the self by focusing on the 'physical' self and the 'psychological' self --assessed respectively through face processing and self-referential tasks. We first conducted ALE meta-analyses by computing the convergence of findings on brain activation in self-face recognition and self-referential studies respectively. Contrast and conjunction analyses of these two meta-analytic results were then applied to extract the distinctions and commonalities in self-face and self-reference tasks. Facial self processing was particularly associated with lateral brain regions with a right hemispheric dominance, while processing psychological self predominantly activated cortical midline structures, more specifically the anterior cingulate cortex/superior frontal cortex. In contrast, the conjunction analyses showed that the two aspects of self-processing recruit the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex and the left inferior frontal gyrus extending to the insula. A framework including both distinct and common neural representation of selfs is discussed. PMID:26695384

  18. Antihydrogen Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madsen, Niels

    Antihydrogen, the bound state of an antiproton and a positron, is now routinely made and trapped and the era of antihydrogen physics has started. This development owes much to physics of trapped charged particles. With a focus on this aspect, we discuss the various techniques used for making and trapping antihydrogen as well as some of the more peculiar issues that arise from the combined traps that must hold both charged and neutral species.

  19. [Severe asthma].

    PubMed

    González, Claudio D

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this work were to investigate the frequency of severe asthma (SA) according to WHO definition and to compare SA patients' characteristics with those of non-severe asthma (NSA); secondly, to investigate the level of control reached throughout a period of regular treatment. Between 1-1-2005 and 12-31-2014, 471 medical records from patients with bronchial asthma assisted in Buenos Aires City were analyzed. SA frequency was 40.1% (189/471), being significantly higher among patients from the public health system (47.7%, 108/226 vs. 33%, 81/245, p = 0.001). SA patients were older than NSA ones (51.3 ± 17.4 vs. 42.6 ± 17.1 years, p = 0.000), presented longer time since onset of the disease (median 30 vs. 20 years, p = 0.000), lower educational levels (secondary level or higher 41.7% vs. 58.1%, p = 0.000), lower frequency of rhinitis (47% vs. 60.6%, p = 0.004), more severe levels of airway obstruction (FEV% 50.2 ± 13.7 vs. 77.7 ± 12.4, p = 0.000), more frequent antecedents of Near Fatal Asthma (11.1% vs. 2.8%, p = 0.000), higher levels of serum IgE (median of 410 vs. 279 UI/l, p = 0.01) and higher demand of systemic steroids requirements and hospitalizations (68.7% vs. 50.7%, p = 0.000 and 37.5% vs. 15.9%, p = 0.000, respectively). A 30.6% of SA patients (58/189) reached a follow-up period of 12 months, 13 (22.5%) of whom reached the controlled asthma level. The frequency of SA found seems to be considerable. Multicenter studies to investigate the levels of control reached by SA patients with access to proper treatment are recommended. PMID:26826988

  20. Development and Validation of Scientific Literacy Achievement Test to Assess Senior Secondary School Students' Literacy Acquisition in Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adeleke, A. A.; Joshua, E. O.

    2015-01-01

    Physics literacy plays a crucial part in global technological development as several aspects of science and technology apply concepts and principles of physics in their operations. However, the acquisition of scientific literacy in physics in our society today is not encouraging enough to the desirable standard. Therefore, this study focuses on…

  1. Integrated Services for the Severely Physically Disabled

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrick, Donald

    1975-01-01

    Describes cooperative planning among a non-profit metropolitan tuberculosis sanitorium, a state vocational rehabilitation service and a medical center to provide a comprehensive rehabilitation program at Lakeshore Hospital, Birmingham, Alabama. (Author/EJT)

  2. EDITORIAL: Physics competitions Physics competitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordens, H.; Mathelitsch, L.

    2009-11-01

    1. Physics competitions: aims and realizations One aim of physics competitions is to increase the interest of young students, primarily at upper secondary level, to physics and natural sciences in general. A competition has motivational aspects known usually from sports events or games—comparing one's own ability with others, of course with the desire to be better and to win. If competitions reach nationwide and even international levels, additional stimulation is created. Competitions provide greatest attraction to possible winners, to the group of gifted people in a particular field. This implies that science contests are excellent tools for the promotion of talented students. Traditional teaching has been shown to have problems in supporting this group of students. Very often teachers are overstretched with the demands of teaching both low- and high-level students. Extracurricular activities are therefore a good chance to relieve the teacher, and to give talented students the opportunity for appropriate training and challenge. The competitions, however, have a broader impact and address more young people than one might guess from the statements above. Training courses and selection at school level give a larger group of students extra and, to some extent, complimentary education in physics. The degree of complexity of the tasks corresponds very often to the standards of the next level of education in the school system. Interestingly, many physics competitions have their origin in countries beyond the former Iron Curtain. They started as regional and national tournaments, were joined by neighbouring countries and have grown, in some cases, to events with participants from more than 80 countries. Although the features mentioned above are common to the different competitions, there are distinct differences between them [1]. The International Physics Olympiad (IPhO) is the oldest international physics competition for students at upper secondary level [2]. It dates

  3. Hyperoxia Inhibits Several Critical Aspects of Vascular Development

    PubMed Central

    Uno, Koichi; Merges, Carol A.; Grebe, Rhonda; Lutty, Gerard A.; Prow, Tarl W.

    2016-01-01

    Normal human retinal vascular development uses angiogenesis and vasculogenesis, both of which are interrupted in the vaso-obliteration phase of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). Canine oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR) closely resembles human ROP. Canine retinal endothelial cells (ECs) and angioblasts were used to model OIR and characterize the effects of hyperoxia on angiogenesis and vasculogenesis. Cell cycle analysis showed that hyperoxia reduced the number of G1 phase cells and showed increased arrest in S phase for both cell types. Migration of ECs was significantly inhibited in hyperoxia (P < 0.01). Hyperoxia disrupted the cytoskeleton of angioblasts but not ECs after 2 days. Differentiation of angioblasts into ECs (determined by acetylated low-density lipoprotein uptake) was evaluated after basic fibroblast growth factor treatment. Differentiation of angioblasts into pericytes was determined by smooth muscle actin expression after treatment with platelet-derived growth factor. Differentiation into ECs was significantly inhibited by hyperoxia (P < 0.0001). The percentage of CXCR4+ cells (a marker for retinal vascular precursors) increased in both treatment groups after hyperoxia. These data show novel mechanisms of hyperoxia-induced disruption of vascular development. PMID:17366630

  4. Aspect-Oriented Design with Reusable Aspect Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kienzle, Jörg; Al Abed, Wisam; Fleurey, Franck; Jézéquel, Jean-Marc; Klein, Jacques

    The idea behind Aspect-Oriented Modeling (AOM) is to apply aspect-oriented techniques to (software) models with the aim of modularizing crosscutting concerns. This can be done within different modeling notations, at different levels of abstraction, and at different moments during the software development process. This paper demonstrates the applicability of AOM during the software design phase by presenting parts of an aspect-oriented design of a crisis management system. The design solution proposed in this paper is based on the Reusable Aspect Models (RAM) approach, which allows a modeler to express the structure and behavior of a complex system using class, state and sequence diagrams encapsulated in several aspect models. The paper describes how the model of the "create mission" functionality of the server backend can be decomposed into 23 inter-dependent aspect models. The presentation of the design is followed by a discussion on the lessons learned from the case study. Next, RAM is compared to 8 other AOM approaches according to 6 criteria: language, concern composition, asymmetric and symmetric composition, maturity, and tool support. To conclude the paper, a discussion section points out the features of RAM that specifically support reuse.

  5. Nuclear physics and cosmology

    SciTech Connect

    Coc, Alain

    2014-05-09

    There are important aspects of Cosmology, the scientific study of the large scale properties of the universe as a whole, for which nuclear physics can provide insights. Here, we will focus on Standard Big-Bang Nucleosynthesis and we refer to the previous edition of the School [1] for the aspects concerning the variations of constants in nuclear cosmo-physics.

  6. Immunotherapy in all aspects.

    PubMed

    Hanci, Deniz; Şahin, Ethem; Muluk, Nuray Bayar; Cingi, Cemal

    2016-06-01

    Allergen immunotherapy is a form of long-term treatment that decreases symptoms for many people with allergic rhinitis, allergic asthma, conjunctivitis (eye allergy) or stinging insect allergy. In this review, we presented the important topics in immunotherapy. The important aspects of immunotherapy are considered to be "Immunologıcal responses to immunotherapy"; "The principal types of immunotherapy"; "Effectiveness"; "Indications"; "Contraindications"; "Allergen immunotherapy in children"; "Safety"; and "Anaphylactic reactions after immunotherapy". The principal types of immunotherapy are subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT) and sublingual immunotherapy. Both of them can be used in indicated cases. When using SCIT, physicians must be more careful because of reported rare fatal cases. The risks and benefits of continuing allergen immunotherapy in patients who have experienced severe systemic reactions should be carefully considered. PMID:25673026

  7. Electroweak Physics at the Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Sekaric, J.; /Kansas U.

    2011-06-08

    The most recent Electroweak results from the Tevatron are presented. The importance of precise Standard Model measurements in the Higgs sector, quantum chromodynamics and searches for new physics is emphasized. Analyzed data correspond to 1-7 fb{sup -1} of integrated luminosity recorded by the CDF and D0 detectors at the Tevatron Collider at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV during the period between 2002-2010. The main goal of the Electroweak (EW) physics is to probe the mechanism of the EW symmetry breaking. An important aspect of these studies is related to precise measurements of the Standard Model (SM) parameters and tests of the SU(2) x U(1) gauge symmetry. Deviations from the SM may be indicative of new physics. Thus, the interplay between the tests of the 'standard' physics and searches for a 'nonstandard' physics is an important aspect of the EW measurements. The observables commonly used in these measurements are cross sections, gauge boson couplings, differential distributions, asymmetries, etc. Besides, many EW processes represent a non-negligible background in a Higgs boson and top quark production, and production of supersymmetric particles. Therefore, the complete and detailed understanding of EW processes is a mandatory precondition for early discoveries of very small new physics signals. Furthermore, several EW analyses represent a proving ground for analysis techniques and statistical treatments used in the Tevatron Higgs searches.

  8. EDITORIAL: Physics competitions Physics competitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordens, H.; Mathelitsch, L.

    2009-11-01

    1. Physics competitions: aims and realizations One aim of physics competitions is to increase the interest of young students, primarily at upper secondary level, to physics and natural sciences in general. A competition has motivational aspects known usually from sports events or games—comparing one's own ability with others, of course with the desire to be better and to win. If competitions reach nationwide and even international levels, additional stimulation is created. Competitions provide greatest attraction to possible winners, to the group of gifted people in a particular field. This implies that science contests are excellent tools for the promotion of talented students. Traditional teaching has been shown to have problems in supporting this group of students. Very often teachers are overstretched with the demands of teaching both low- and high-level students. Extracurricular activities are therefore a good chance to relieve the teacher, and to give talented students the opportunity for appropriate training and challenge. The competitions, however, have a broader impact and address more young people than one might guess from the statements above. Training courses and selection at school level give a larger group of students extra and, to some extent, complimentary education in physics. The degree of complexity of the tasks corresponds very often to the standards of the next level of education in the school system. Interestingly, many physics competitions have their origin in countries beyond the former Iron Curtain. They started as regional and national tournaments, were joined by neighbouring countries and have grown, in some cases, to events with participants from more than 80 countries. Although the features mentioned above are common to the different competitions, there are distinct differences between them [1]. The International Physics Olympiad (IPhO) is the oldest international physics competition for students at upper secondary level [2]. It dates

  9. Magic Physics?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Featonby, David

    2010-01-01

    This article examines several readily available "magic tricks" which base their "trickery" on physics principles, and questions the use of the word "magic" in the 21st century, both in popular children's science and in everyday language. (Contains 18 figures.)

  10. Wellness Assessment: A Rationale, A Measure, and Physical/Psychological Components.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shuffield, Gilda; Dana, Richard H.

    Wellness, or holistic health, represents a positive attitude toward the integration of physical and psychological aspects of lifestyle. There have been few attempts to assess wellness that contain more than questionnaire items across several component areas. This paper describes a test battery that includes physical (nutrition, cardiorespiratory…

  11. Dynamic aspects of musical imagery.

    PubMed

    Halpern, Andrea R

    2012-04-01

    Auditory imagery can represent many aspects of music, such as the starting pitches of a tune or the instrument that typically plays it. In this paper, I concentrate on more dynamic, or time-sensitive aspects of musical imagery, as demonstrated in two recently published studies. The first was a behavioral study that examined the ability to make emotional judgments about both heard and imagined music in real time. The second was a neuroimaging study on the neural correlates of anticipating an upcoming tune, after hearing a cue tune. That study found activation of several sequence-learning brain areas, some of which varied with the vividness of the anticipated musical memory. Both studies speak to the ways in which musical imagery allows us to judge temporally changing aspects of the represented musical experience. These judgments can be quite precise, despite the complexity of generating the rich internal representations of imagery. PMID:22524360

  12. Electrical aspects of rainout

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenkilde, C.E.

    1981-11-23

    Rainout commonly denotes the aggregate of phenomena associated with precipitation scavenging of radioactivity from a cloud of nuclear debris that is within a natural rain cloud. (In contrast, the term, washout, is applicable when the nuclear cloud is below the rain cloud and the term, fallout, commonly denotes the direct gravitational settling of contaminated solid material from a nuclear cloud.) Nuclear debris aerosols may be scavenged within natural clouds by a variety of different physical processes which may involve diffusion, convection, impaction, nucleation, phoresis, turbulence, and/or electricity among others. Processes which involve electrical aspects are scrutinized for their susceptibility to the intimate presence of the radioactive-cloud environment. This particular choice of electrical processes is not accidental. Nearly all of the listed processes were examined earlier by Williams. His rough estimates suggested that electrical effects, and to a lesser extent turbulence, could enhance the scavenging of those submicron aerosols which reside in the size-range that bridges the minimum in the scavenging rate coefficient which is commonly called the Greenfield gap. This minimum in the scavenging-rate coefficient is created by the simultaneous reduction of scavenging via diffusion and the reduction of scavenging via inertial impaction. However, Williams omitted the specific influence of a radioactive environment. This report aims to remedy this omission.

  13. Psychiatric aspects of pain in cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Ozkan, Sedat

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this review is to discuss the psychiatric aspects of pain in cancer patients from a biopsychosocial approach. Pain in cancer patients is considered as a complex reaction causing severe suffering and involves many psychological aspects. It has many dimensions such as personality, affect, cognition and social relations. The pain experience may also be influenced by some psychological factors such as anxiety, depression and the meaning of pain. Therefore, a successful management of cancer pain requires a multidisciplinary approach. Since cancer pain is generally treated medically, the psychological impact of pain is often underestimated. However, cancer pain is usually related to high levels of psychological distress. Culture, as an important factor affecting cancer pain, will also be discussed during this review. It is crucial to understand cultural diversity in the treatment of cancer patients with pain. Research shows that a minority patients of various ethnicities have less control of their pain because of the miscommunication problem within the medical setting. By paying attention to patients' cultural diversities, problems such as miscommunication causing inadequate control of pain can be eliminated. In order to manage pain in cancer patients, cognitive-behavioral interventions may be integrated with pharmacotherapy. The main goal of these strategies is to provide a sense of control and better coping skills to deal with cancer. Patients' maladaptive thoughts or behaviors may cause physical and emotional stress. Main behavioral strategies include biofeedback, relaxation training, and hypnosis. Cognitive strategies include guided imagery, distraction, thought monitoring and problem solving. By discussing all of these aspects of cancer pain, the multidimensional characteristic of pain and the relation between cancer pain and psychiatric factors will be clarified. PMID:20590361

  14. Aspects of flux compactification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Tao

    In this thesis, we study three main aspects of flux compactifications: (1) classify supergravity solutions from flux compactification; (2) construct flux-deformed geometry and 4D low-energy theory to describe these flux vacua; and (3) study 4D particle phenomenology and cosmology of flux vacua. In the first part, we review G-structure, the basic tool to study supersymmetric flux solutions, and some typical solutions obtained in heterotic, type IIA and type IIB string theories. Then we present a comprehensive classification of supersymmetric vacua of M-theory compactification on 7D manifolds with general four-form fluxes. We analyze the cases where the resulting four-dimensional vacua have N = 1, 2, 3, 4 supersymmetry and the internal space allows for SU(2)-, SU(3)- or G 2-structures. In particular, we find for N = 2 supersymmetry, that the external space-time is Minkowski and the base manifold of the internal space is conformally Kahler for SU(2) structures, while for SU(3) structures the internal space has to be Einstein-Sasaki and no internal fluxes are allowed. Moreover, we provide a new vacuum with N = 1 supersymmetry and SU(3) structure, where all fluxes are non-zero and the first order differential equations are solved. In the second part, we simply review the methods used to construct one subclass of fluxed-deformed geometry or the so-called "twisted manifold", and the associated 4D effective theory describing these flux vacua. Then by employing (generalized) Scherk-Schwarz reduction, we construct the geometric twisting for Calabi-Yau manifolds of Voisin-Borcea type (K 3 x T2)/ Z2 and study the superpotential in a type IIA orientifold based on this geometry. The twists modify the direct product by fibering the K 3 over T2 while preserving the Z2 involution. As an important application, the Voisin-Borcea class contains T6/( Z2 x Z2 ), the usual setting for intersecting D6 brane model building. Past work in this context considered only those twists inherited

  15. Magnetotail physics

    SciTech Connect

    Lui, A.T.Y.

    1987-01-01

    Recent theoretical and experimental investigations of magnetotails (MTs) are examined in reviews and reports based on papers presented at the Chapman Conference on Magnetotail Physics, held at the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory in October 1985. Topics addressed include the MT configuration, fluid and kinetic aspects of MT dynamics, active diagnosis of the earth MT, and the MTs of celestial objects. Also provided are an overview of the conference findings and summaries of panel discussions on injection-layer and Alfven-layer models, reconnection and viscous-interaction models of solar-wind/magnetosphere energy transfer, and phenomenological models of MT substorms.

  16. Some Legal Aspects of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kowalski, Casimir J.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    This article explores some legal aspects of public and private education, as well as several Amendments to the Constitution and their relationships to higher education: the First, Fourth, Fifth, Sixth, and Fourteenth Amendments. (Author)

  17. Aspects of perturbative unitarity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anselmi, Damiano

    2016-07-01

    We reconsider perturbative unitarity in quantum field theory and upgrade several arguments and results. The minimum assumptions that lead to the largest time equation, the cutting equations and the unitarity equation are identified. Using this knowledge and a special gauge, we give a new, simpler proof of perturbative unitarity in gauge theories and generalize it to quantum gravity, in four and higher dimensions. The special gauge interpolates between the Feynman gauge and the Coulomb gauge without double poles. When the Coulomb limit is approached, the unphysical particles drop out of the cuts and the cutting equations are consistently projected onto the physical subspace. The proof does not extend to nonlocal quantum field theories of gauge fields and gravity, whose unitarity remains uncertain.

  18. Operational health physics training

    SciTech Connect

    1992-06-01

    The initial four sections treat basic information concerning atomic structure and other useful physical quantities, natural radioactivity, the properties of {alpha}, {beta}, {gamma}, x rays and neutrons, and the concepts and units of radiation dosimetry (including SI units). Section 5 deals with biological effects and the risks associated with radiation exposure. Background radiation and man-made sources are discussed next. The basic recommendations of the ICRP concerning dose limitations: justification, optimization (ALARA concepts and applications) and dose limits are covered in Section seven. Section eight is an expanded version of shielding, and the internal dosimetry discussion has been extensively revised to reflect the concepts contained in the MIRD methodology and ICRP 30. The remaining sections discuss the operational health physics approach to monitoring radiation. Individual sections include radiation detection principles, instrument operation and counting statistics, health physics instruments and personnel monitoring devices. The last five sections deal with the nature of, operation principles of, health physics aspects of, and monitoring approaches to air sampling, reactors, nuclear safety, gloveboxes and hot cells, accelerators and x ray sources. Decontamination, waste disposal and transportation of radionuclides are added topics. Several appendices containing constants, symbols, selected mathematical topics, and the Chart of the Nuclides, and an index have been included.

  19. Industrial noise control: architectural and environmental aspects. January, 1975-August, 1981 (citations from the International Information Service for the Physics and Engineering Communities Data Base). Report for Jan 75-Aug 81

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-08-01

    The architectural and environmental aspects of noise control are discussed in terms of the effect of building standards as well as the proper installation of equipment to reduce vibration of air control equipment. (Contains 114 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)

  20. Noise of Embedded High Aspect Ratio Nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bridges, James E.

    2011-01-01

    future design work be done more by physics-based computations and less by experiments, several codes under development were evaluated against these test cases. Preliminary results show that the RANS-based code JeNo predicts the spectral directivity of the low aspect ratio jets well, but has no capability to predict the non-axisymmetry. An effort to address this limitations, used in the RANS-based code of Leib and Goldstein, overpredicted the impact of aspect ratio. The broadband shock noise code RISN, also limited to axisymmetric assumptions, did a good job of predicting the spectral directivity of underexpanded 2:1 cold jet case but was not as successful on high aspect ratio jets, particularly when they are hot. All results are preliminary because the underlying CFD has not been validated yet. An effort using a Large Eddy Simulation code by Stanford University predicted noise that agreed with experiments to within a few dB.

  1. Interactive Physics Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Philip

    1973-01-01

    Presents an annotated list of 13 programs which are used to discuss such physical aspects as trajectories, refraction indices, equipotential lines, force fields, computer plots, kinematics applications, Fermat's principle, and measurements of electricity and magnetism knowledge. (CC)

  2. Personality aspects in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Diana, R; Grosz, A; Mancini, E

    1985-12-01

    To test the claim that peculiar personality bias is detectable in multiple sclerosis (MS) we used the Szondi test to investigate the psychodynamic aspects of 110 MS patients in comparison with 200 healthy subjects. MS patients appeared to have a greater need for love in a passive form than normal people, rigid defense mechanisms, difficulty in resolving their inner conflicts either by sublimation or by internalization of satisfactory new emotional experiences, feelings of autoaggressiveness, and many symptoms of depression. Some of these aspects correlate with the severity of the disease, others seem to date back to early childhood as peculiar personality patterns. An investigation of childhood events in 110 controls confirmed that MS patients had had many more unhappy experiences in childhood than might commonly be expected. Further, the oft-reported psychiatric troubles preceding MS clinical onset suggest that at least in some MS patients there are specific gaps in personality structure dating back to early phases of their development. PMID:4086262

  3. Psychosocial aspects of cancer pain.

    PubMed

    Stiefel, F

    1993-05-01

    Pain, and especially cancer pain, is not a pure nociceptive, physical experience, but involves different dimensions of man, such as personality, affect, cognition, behavior and social relations. Cancer pain is best conceptualized as the convergence of multiple activated systems with feedback mechanisms to a complex, multidimensional model. The psychosocial aspects of this multidimensional model will be analyzed with special emphasis on results from recent research. Although most research has been conducted on the role of affect and cognition in cancer pain, data on other factors such as personality, behavior or social aspects exist and will be presented. In the second part of this paper the implications of these results for therapeutic strategies in clinical work will be discussed. Although a considerable body of knowledge exists to support the hypothesis of a multidimensional model of cancer pain, where psychosocial variables play an important role, only a few studies address the issue of to what degree different factors exercise their influence. This may be different from patient to patient and may change over the course of the disease. Whatever importance these single variables in the multidimensional model of cancer pain may have, the patient is best treated when none of these aspects is neglected in the assessment and all are taken care of in the treatment. A multidisciplinary team, with a psychiatrist as one of the team members, is often best prepared to fulfill this task. PMID:8149139

  4. Physical urticaria.

    PubMed

    Dice, John P

    2004-05-01

    Physical urticarias are a unique subgroup of chronic urticaria in which patients develop urticaria secondary to environmental stimuli. Common triggers include exercise, temperature changes, cold, heat, pressure, sunlight, vibration, and water. Systemic symptoms have occurred during severe episodes. Physical urticarias are responsible for approximately 20% to 30% of all cases of chronic urticaria. A basic knowledge of these unusual disorders is important for all healthcare providers. This article covers the following types of physical urticarias: dermatographism, cholinergic urticaria, local heat urticaria, exercise-induced anaphylaxis, vibratory angioedema, solar urticaria, and aquagenic urticaria. PMID:15120149

  5. [Medical aspects of fasting].

    PubMed

    Gavrankapetanović, F

    1997-01-01

    Fasting (arabic-savm) was proclaimed through islam, and thus it is an obligation for Holly Prophet Muhammad s.a.v.s.-Peace be to Him-in the second year after Hijra (in 624 after Milad-born of Isa a.s.). There is a month of fasting-Ramadan-each lunar (hijra) year. So, it was 1415th fasting this year. Former Prophets have brought obligative messages on fasting to their people; so there are also certain forms of fasting with other religions i.e. with Catholics, Jews, Orthodox. These kinds of fasting above differ from muslim fasting, but they also appear obligative. All revelations have brought fasting as obligative. From medical point of view, fasting has two basical components: psychical and physical. Psychical sphere correlate closely with its fundamental ideological message. Allah dz.s. says in Quran: "... Fasting is obligative for you, as it was obligative to your precedents, as to avoid sins; during very few days (II, II, 183 & 184)." Will strength, control of passions, effort and self-discipline makes a pure faithfull person, who purify its mind and body through fasting. Thinking about The Creator is more intensive, character is more solid; and spirit and will get stronger. We will mention the hadith saying: "Essaihune humus saimun!" That means: "Travellers at the Earth are fasters (of my ummet)." The commentary of this hadith, in the Collection of 1001 hadiths (Bin bir hadis), number 485, says: "There are no travelling dervishs or monks in islam; thus there is no such a kind of relligousity in islam. In stead, it is changed by fasting and constant attending of mosque. That was proclaimed as obligation, although there were few cases of travelling in the name of relligousity, like travelling dervishs and sheichs." In this paper, the author discusses medical aspects of fasting and its positive characteristics in the respect of healthy life style and prevention of many sicks. The author mentions positive influence of fasting to certain system and organs of human

  6. High Aspect Ratio Wrinkles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yu-Cheng; Crosby, Alfred

    2015-03-01

    Buckling-induced surface undulations are widely found in living creatures, for instance, gut villi and the surface of flower petal cells. These undulations provide unique functionalities with their extremely high aspect ratios. For the synthetic systems, sinusoidal wrinkles that are induced by buckling a thin film attached on a soft substrate have been proposed to many applications. However, the impact of the synthetic wrinkles have been restricted by limited aspect ratios, ranging from 0 to 0.35. Within this range, wrinkle aspect ratio is known to increase with increasing compressive strain until a critical strain is reached, at which point wrinkles transition to localizations, such as folds or period doublings. Inspired by the living creatures, we propose that wrinkles can be stabilized in high aspect ratio by manipulating the strain energy in the substrate. We experimentally demonstrate this idea by forming a secondary crosslinking network in the wrinkled surface and successfully achieve aspect ratio as large as 0.8. This work not only provides insights for the mechanism of high aspect ratio structures seen in living creatures, but also demonstrates significant promise for future wrinkle-based applications.

  7. [Theoretical aspects of electroweak and other interactions in medium energy nuclear physics] Final report on Grant DOE Award No. DE-FG02-88ER40448 and its extensions

    SciTech Connect

    Stoler, Paul; Davidson, Richard M.

    2002-07-01

    Theoretical research was carried out to elucidate the quark-gluon structure of nuclei and hadrons as revealed by electroweak interactions. Research was carried out in collaboration with theorists at other institutions and experimentalists in the RPI group. Numerous research articles were published in the leading physics journals.

  8. Unparticle Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Georgi, Howard

    2007-06-01

    I discuss some simple aspects of the low-energy physics of a nontrivial scale invariant sector of an effective field theory--physics that cannot be described in terms of particles. I argue that it is important to take seriously the possibility that the unparticle stuff described by such a theory might actually exist in our world. I suggest a scenario in which some details of the production of unparticle stuff can be calculated. I find that in the appropriate low-energy limit, unparticle stuff with scale dimension d{sub U} looks like a nonintegral number d{sub U} of invisible particles. Thus dramatic evidence for a nontrivial scale invariant sector could show up experimentally in missing energy distributions.

  9. Architectural Physics: Lighting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopkinson, R. G.

    The author coordinates the many diverse branches of knowledge which have dealt with the field of lighting--physiology, psychology, engineering, physics, and architectural design. Part I, "The Elements of Architectural Physics", discusses the physiological aspects of lighting, visual performance, lighting design, calculations and measurements of…

  10. Severe storm electricity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rust, W. D.; Macgorman, D. R.; Taylor, W.; Arnold, R. T.

    1984-01-01

    Severe storms and lightning were measured with a NASA U2 and ground based facilities, both fixed base and mobile. Aspects of this program are reported. The following results are presented: (1) ground truth measurements of lightning for comparison with those obtained by the U2. These measurements include flash type identification, electric field changes, optical waveforms, and ground strike location; (2) simultaneous extremely low frequency (ELF) waveforms for cloud to ground (CG) flashes; (3) the CG strike location system (LLP) using a combination of mobile laboratory and television video data are assessed; (4) continued development of analog-to-digital conversion techniques for processing lightning data from the U2, mobile laboratory, and NSSL sensors; (5) completion of an all azimuth TV system for CG ground truth; (6) a preliminary analysis of both IC and CG lightning in a mesocyclone; and (7) the finding of a bimodal peak in altitude lightning activity in some storms in the Great Plains and on the east coast. In the forms on the Great Plains, there was a distinct class of flash what forms the upper mode of the distribution. These flashes are smaller horizontal extent, but occur more frequently than flashes in the lower mode of the distribution.

  11. Mathematical Aspects of Scattering Amplitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duhr, Claude

    In these lectures we discuss some of the mathematical structures that appear when computing multi-loop Feynman integrals. We focus on a specific class of special functions, the so-called multiple polylogarithms, and introduce their Hopf algebra structure. We show how these mathematical concepts are useful in physics by illustrating on several examples how these algebraic structures are useful to perform analytic computations of loop integrals, in particular to derive functional equations among polylogarithms.

  12. Physical urticarias.

    PubMed

    Mahmood, T

    1994-05-01

    Chronic urticaria can be produced by a number of stimuli that cause mast cell mediator release. Patients with urticaria caused by physical agents account for roughly one-fifth of all cases of chronic urticaria. There are about 20 different types of physical urticaria. Two forms, dermographism and cholinergic urticaria, are quite common and represent more than two-thirds of all cases of physically caused urticaria. More than one agent may precipitate urticaria in a given individual. Urticarial response can be easily reproduced in the sensitive patient and, generally, lasts less than one hour. Systemic features such as flushing, dizziness, headaches, and even hypotension, may occur during severe episodes. Identification of the causative physical agent is necessary for effective therapy. PMID:8172038

  13. Cognitive aspects of color

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derefeldt, Gunilla A. M.; Menu, Jean-Pierre; Swartling, Tiina

    1995-04-01

    This report surveys cognitive aspects of color in terms of behavioral, neuropsychological, and neurophysiological data. Color is usually defined as psychophysical color or as perceived color. Behavioral data on categorical color perception, absolute judgement of colors, color coding, visual search, and visual awareness refer to the more cognitive aspects of color. These are of major importance in visual synthesis and spatial organization, as already shown by the Gestalt psychologists. Neuropsychological and neurophysiological findings provide evidence for an interrelation between cognitive color and spatial organization. Color also enhances planning strategies, as has been shown by studies on color and eye movements. Memory colors and the color- language connections in the brain also belong among the cognitive aspects of color.

  14. [Pulmonary Echinococcosis: Surgical Aspects].

    PubMed

    Eichhorn, M E; Hoffmann, H; Dienemann, H

    2015-10-01

    Pulmonary cystic echinococcosis is a very rare disease in Germany. It is caused by the larvae of the dog tapeworm (echinococcus granulosus). The liver is the most affected organ, followed by the lungs. Surgery remains the main therapeutic approach for pulmonary CE. Whenever possible, parenchyma-preserving lung surgery should be preferred over anatomic lung resections. To ensure best therapeutic results, surgery needs to be performed under precise consideration of important infectiological aspects and patients should be treated in specialised centres based on interdisciplinary consensus. In addition to surgical aspects, this review summarises special infectiological features of this disease, which are crucial to the surgical approach. PMID:26351761

  15. [Modern psychosomatic aspects of dermatology].

    PubMed

    Jovanović, M; Duran, V; Poljacki, M; Misić-Pavkov, G; Matović, L; Subotić, M; Golub, R

    1994-01-01

    Concerning their origin most diseases are multifactorial and that goes for skin diseases too. Emphasizing just one must not exclude further research and other aspects of etiopathogenetic mechanisms. It has been known for along time that psychological factors have a certain influence on the start, aggravation and maintenance on skin changes and that cosmetic defects of this kind disturb the psychological peace of the sick person and his capacity of establishing satisfactory social relations. Psychosomatic approach in dermatology cannot be reduced to investigation of specific etiology in the field of psyche without physical or social spheres. It unites all of them and in that way the old question what cause and what the consequence is has no importance, because there is no time or distance limit among them. They act simultaneously, holistically. PMID:7739438

  16. Medical Aspects of Surfing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renneker, Mark

    1987-01-01

    The medical aspects of surfing include ear and eye injuries and sprains and strains of the lower back and neck, as well as skin cancer from exposure to the sun. Treatment, rehabilitation, and prevention of these problems are discussed. Surfing is recommended as part of an exercise program for reasonably healthy people. (Author/MT)

  17. Sociological Aspects of Deafness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Federation of the Deaf, Rome (Italy).

    Nine conference papers treat the sociological aspects of deafness. Included are "Individuals Being Deaf and Blind and Living with a Well Hearing Society" by A. Marx (German Federal Republic), "A Deaf Man's Experiences in a Hearing World" by A. B. Simon(U.S.A.), "Problem of Text Books and School Appliances for Vocational Education of Deaf Adults"…

  18. Aspects of Marine Ecology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Awkerman, Gary L.

    This publication is designed for use in standard science curricula to develop oceanologic manifestations of certain science topics. Included are teacher guides, student activities, and demonstrations to impart ocean science understanding, specifically, aspects of marine ecology, to high school students. The course objectives include the ability of…

  19. Aspects of Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolinger, Dwight

    A survey of the substance of linguistics and of the activities of linguists is presented in an attempt to acquaint ordinary readers with the various aspects of la"guage. A discussion of the human tendency toward speech, of the traits of language, and of phonetic elements prepares the way for an analysis of the structure of languag e in terms of…

  20. Psychological Aspects of Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mooney, Craig M.

    1980-01-01

    Psychological aspects of aging, based on gerontological hypotheses and research, are presented under three headings: intellectual abilities; emotional capacities; and motor capabilities. Consequences are discussed. Well-being throughout life depends on fulfillment of fundamental human needs; existential needs for nourishment, stimulation, rest,…

  1. Promoting Cognitive and Social Aspects of Inquiry through Classroom Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jin, Hui; Wei, Xin; Duan, Peiran; Guo, Yuying; Wang, Wenxia

    2016-01-01

    We investigated how Chinese physics teachers structured classroom discourse to support the cognitive and social aspects of inquiry-based science learning. Regarding the cognitive aspect, we examined to what extent the cognitive processes underlying the scientific skills and the disciplinary reasoning behind the content knowledge were taught.…

  2. Psychosocial Aspects of Nuclear Developments. Task Force Report 20.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychiatric Association, Washington, DC.

    This is the report of a task force formed to bring psychological understanding to bear on the various aspects of the development of nuclear arms and nuclear energy and the threat they pose to human physical, mental, and emotional health. The first of seven articles considers the sociopsychological aspects of the nuclear arms race. Other articles…

  3. Psychopathological aspects of the toxic oil syndrome catastrophe.

    PubMed

    López-Ibor, J J; Soria, J; Cañas, F; Rodriguez-Gamazo, M

    1985-10-01

    In May 1981 a new disease caused by widespread food-poisoning (probably with adulterated rape-seed oil) appeared in Spain. More than 20000 people were affected, and about 350 patients have died. The clinical syndrome consisted of pulmonary, neuromuscular and systemic symptoms, which evolved to produce mild or severe physical disabilities. Although the disease is not primarily a psychiatric condition, more than 6000 TOS patients have been referred to a psychiatrist: these patients show a well-defined 'reactive disaster syndrome', vulnerability being associated with female sex, low income and class, and a personal history of 'nervous' disorders. The enormous public repercussions of the disease and the specific administrative measures it provoked are discussed and evaluated. This unique experience of a specific disaster can contribute to our knowledge of the psychological and psychiatric aspects of disasters in general; and it suggests that teams of psychologists and psychiatrists should play a significant role in managing the effects of major catastrophes. PMID:4075022

  4. Psychosocial Aspects of Obesity.

    PubMed

    Beck, Amy R

    2016-01-01

    This article is the sixth in a series of the comorbidities of childhood obesity and reviews psychosocial aspects with a focus on weight-based victimization and discrimination stemming from weight bias and stigma. Outcomes from these bullying and discriminatory experiences are pervasive and impact youth across all settings, including school. Lastly, this article provides recommendations on how to reduce bias and stigma to better serve these students in the school environment. PMID:26739931

  5. Exploring Woman University Physics Students "Doing Gender" and "Doing Physics"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danielsson, Anna T.

    2012-01-01

    This article explores what it can mean to be a woman physics student. A case study approach is used to explore how five women who are studying physics at a Swedish university simultaneously negotiate their doing of physics and their doing of gender. By conceptualising both gender and learning as aspects of identity formation, the analysis of the…

  6. Gender Disparities in Second-Semester College Physics: The Incremental Effects of a "Smog of Bias"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kost-Smith, Lauren E.; Pollock, Steven J.; Finkelstein, Noah D.

    2010-01-01

    Our previous research [Kost et al., Phys. Rev. ST Phys. Educ. Res. 5, 010101 (2009)] examined gender differences in the first-semester, introductory physics class at the University of Colorado at Boulder. We found that: (1) there were gender differences in several aspects of the course, including conceptual survey performance, (2) these…

  7. Developmental Aspects of English Segment Duration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Bruce L.

    The experiment reported here attempted to investigate the nature of both intrinsic, unlearned temporal parameters as well as learned, language-specific durational properties in the speech of young children. Developmental aspects of several temporal parameters were investigated in the speech of ten 2 1/2 to 3-year-old and ten 4 to 4 1/2-year-old…

  8. Some Economic Aspects of the Internet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Donald W.

    1998-01-01

    Describes a broad framework for examining economic aspects of the Internet; the framework consists of four sets of processes, services, and participants, including information creation, use, communication, and value-added information processes. Each process involves several economic measures and relationships among these measures. Examples are…

  9. Introducing the Practical Aspects of Computational Chemistry to Undergraduate Chemistry Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, Jason K.

    2007-01-01

    Various efforts are being made to introduce the different physical aspects and uses of computational chemistry to the undergraduate chemistry students. A new laboratory approach that demonstrates all such aspects via experiments has been devised for the purpose.

  10. Physics and Picasso

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Daegene

    2014-09-01

    Paintings from four different periods are considered in chronological order to review an aspect of the `advancement' of arts. In particular, on the basis of a distinction between matter and mind, it is discussed that the Western arts have progressed from involving mainly matter, or objective description, to placing greater emphasis on mind, or subjective imagination. An examination of the advancement of arts may hint that physics, which has dealt with matter so far, may address the aspect of mind in the future.

  11. Physics and the Vertical Jump

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Offenbacher, Elmer L.

    1970-01-01

    The physics of vertical jumping is described as an interesting illustration for motivating students in a general physics course to master the kinematics and dynamics of one dimensional motion. The author suggests that mastery of the physical principles of the jump may promote understanding of certain biological phenomena, aspects of physical…

  12. The Physics of Sports: A Physicist's View

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faller, James

    2006-10-01

    In this talk, I will present a physicist's way of looking at various aspects of sports. In particular, I will focus the discussion on how one might improve or enhance performance by thinking as a physicist about the processes involved. Examples that will be discussed will range from why hockey sticks are (today) curved to why good (basketball) dribbling should be ``heard.'' I will present several examples of the benefits of effecting efficiency in motion. This talk will draw on portions of presentations that I have given in the Boulder-Denver area during the past 30 years on the physics of sports. In all these presentations, my purpose was to teach and develop student interest in physics while talking about -- and showing the relevance of physics to -- sports.

  13. Rotational energy in a physical pendulum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monteiro, Martín; Cabeza, Cecilia; Marti, Arturo C.

    2014-03-01

    Smartphone usage has expanded dramatically in recent years worldwide. This revolution also has impact in undergraduate laboratories where different experiences are facilitated by the use of the sensors usually included in these devices. Recently, in several articles published in the literature, the use of smartphones has been proposed for several physics experiments. Although most previous articles focused on mechanical experiments, an aspect that has received less attention is the use of rotation sensors or gyroscopes. Indeed, the use of these sensors paves the way for new experiments enabling the measurement of angular velocities. In a very recent paper the conservation of the angular momentum is considered using rotation sensors.3 In this paper we present an analysis of the rotational energy of a physical pendulum.

  14. Some economic aspects of recreational injuries.

    PubMed

    Arundel, J T

    1974-06-01

    This paper deals with some basic features of accidents in recreation and will attempt to throw some light on their economic consequences. Let us examine sport as one aspect of recreation. As Williams (1973) put it, "Sport is a phenomenon of simple definition, but with well recognised features. It is essentially recreational, essentially physical, frequently competitive and always contrived." The number and type of participants has increased, along with the range of activities available. Classifications of sport, at best, are arbitrary but nevertheless are useful for analysis. These divisions may be land/air/water types; indoor/outdoor; team/individual; body contact/non-contact/vehicular; amateur/professional. Sports injuries are of two types, intrinsic or self-inflicted (Williams, 1973) and extrinsic. Intrinsic injuries refer to those as a result of over-use (leading, for example, to stress fractures) and to specific incidents not involving outside agents. Extrinsic injuries are caused by contact with external objects and form the bulk of injuries sustained in body-contact, vehicular (horses, cars, skis) and environmental-type sports. Extrinsic injuries are generally more severe because greater forces and velocities are involved. Appendix 1 lists the main sporting activities according to location of sport; individual or team participation; likelihood of extensive body contact; and professional status. Professional players not only suffer loss of earning capacity but may reflect a bad investment for an entrepreneur or reduce spectator attendance and gate taking. It is apparent that team sports, having substantial body contact, face a higher risk of moderate to serious injury than do individual, non-contact sports, although major injuries can be sustained in the latter, for example, sprains and dislocations in athletics, golf, tennis, etc. Other sports must be classed as dangerous because of the nature of competition, for example, motor racing and flying. These

  15. Ceramics with decorative aspect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voica, Cezara

    2009-08-01

    The last decades brought the development of bone china techniques used for producing the decorative articles. These products can be glazed with a transparent and thin glaze layer, even with more special (decorative) ones which gives new aesthetic aspect. The present article presents the results obtained after the studies performed for matte glazes for decorative bone china. As microcrystalization agent were used zinc oxide; the content of this oxide bring some changes of the basic glaze thus the chemical composition must be adjusted as the fluxes would present the desired properties after the heating process.

  16. Physical modeling studies of electrolyte flow due to gas evolution and some aspects of bubble behavior in advanced hall cells: Part I. Flow in cells with a flat anode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shekhar, R.; Evans, J. W.

    1994-06-01

    The need for energy reduction in the electrolytic production of aluminum led to the concept of advanced Hall cells that can be operated at lower interelectrode gaps compared to existing cells. However, gas bubbles generated by the anodic reaction increase the resistivity of electrolyte and cancel out part of the reduction in interelectrode resistance expected from bringing the electrodes closer together. Therefore, the primary objective of this work was to determine a cell design in which flow can be managed to promote the removal of anode gas bubbles from the interelectrode gap. In particular, this article focuses on advanced Hall cells equipped with “flat” anodes, similar to those used in existing cells. The principal experimental tool has been a “water” model consisting of a large tank in which simulated anodes can be suspended in either the horizontal or near-horizontal configurations. Gas was generated by forcing compressed air through porous graphite, and the fine bubbles characteristic of inert anodes used in advanced Hall cells were produced by adding butanol to water. Velocities were measured using a laser-Doppler velocimeter (LDV). This study indicates that the existing cell configuration might not be the optimum configuration for advanced Hall cells. The results also show that operation of an advanced Hall cell with a fully submerged anode should give rise to higher electrolyte velocities and thus rapid removal of bubbles. The bubble effect should be further lowered in a near-horizontal configuration; however, the flow pattern could have an adverse effect on current efficiency and alumina distribution in the cell. It has also been shown that the bubble size, and, therefore, the physical properties of the electrolyte, can have a significant effect on the electrolyte flow pattern in the interelectrode gap.

  17. Severe acute malnutrition and infection

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Kelsey D J; Berkley, James A

    2014-01-01

    Severe acute malnutrition (SAM) is associated with increased severity of common infectious diseases, and death amongst children with SAM is almost always as a result of infection. The diagnosis and management of infection are often different in malnourished versus well-nourished children. The objectives of this brief are to outline the evidence underpinning important practical questions relating to the management of infectious diseases in children with SAM and to highlight research gaps. Overall, the evidence base for many aspects covered in this brief is very poor. The brief addresses antimicrobials; antipyretics; tuberculosis; HIV; malaria; pneumonia; diarrhoea; sepsis; measles; urinary tract infection; nosocomial Infections; soil transmitted helminths; skin infections and pharmacology in the context of SAM. The brief is structured into sets of clinical questions, which we hope will maximise the relevance to contemporary practice. PMID:25475887

  18. Fundamental Aspects of CAL!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, David F., Ed.; Smith, P. R., Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Topics discussed in 14 papers concerned with software design, curriculum development, evaluation, and intelligent systems include teaching and learning systems, development of computer-assisted learning (CAL) courseware (music and reading), evaluation of CAL packages for mastery learning and modelling, assessment of CAL in physics and the primary…

  19. Physics Matters: An Introduction to Conceptual Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trefil, James; Hazen, Robert M.

    2003-12-01

    From amusement park rides to critical environmental issues such as energy generation-physics affects almost every aspect of our world. In PHYSICS MATTERS, James Trefil and Robert Hazen examine the fundamental physics principles at work behind the many practical applications that fuel our society and individual lives. Their goal is to promote a deeper understanding of how the great ideas of physics connect to form a much larger understanding of the universe in which we live. Highlights Helps readers build a general knowledge of key ideas in physics and their connection to technology and other areas of science. Promotes an appreciation of what science is, how scientific knowledge is developed, and how it differs from other intellectual activities. Examines modern technologies, including GPS, the Internet, and information technologies, as well as medical technologies, such as MRI, PET scans, CAT scans, and radioisotope tracers. Explores key issues facing the world today, such as global warning, nuclear waste, and government funding for research.

  20. [Psychosomatic and somatopsychic aspects of progressive chronic polyarthritis (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Pieringer, W

    1978-01-01

    By means of psychiatric depth-psychological investigations in more than 100 patients with PCP the somatopsychic aspect of the disease is described, which manifests itself in two thirds of the patients as an inhibited to agitated humble-depressive psychosyndrome. On the basis of family anamneses and analytical inquiries the somatopsychic aspects of the disease is described in more the half of the patients as consistent continuation of a specific way of life, so that psychosomatic and somatopsychic aspects of the disease are mentioned as one strategy persuing the same fictitious goal. Both aspects appear as functions of a seemingly threatened psychic-physical motivity. PMID:281059

  1. Regulatory aspects on nanomedicines.

    PubMed

    Sainz, Vanessa; Conniot, João; Matos, Ana I; Peres, Carina; Zupancic, Eva; Moura, Liane; Silva, Liana C; Florindo, Helena F; Gaspar, Rogério S

    2015-12-18

    Nanomedicines have been in the forefront of pharmaceutical research in the last decades, creating new challenges for research community, industry, and regulators. There is a strong demand for the fast development of scientific and technological tools to address unmet medical needs, thus improving human health care and life quality. Tremendous advances in the biomaterials and nanotechnology fields have prompted their use as promising tools to overcome important drawbacks, mostly associated to the non-specific effects of conventional therapeutic approaches. However, the wide range of application of nanomedicines demands a profound knowledge and characterization of these complex products. Their properties need to be extensively understood to avoid unpredicted effects on patients, such as potential immune reactivity. Research policy and alliances have been bringing together scientists, regulators, industry, and, more frequently in recent years, patient representatives and patient advocacy institutions. In order to successfully enhance the development of new technologies, improved strategies for research-based corporate organizations, more integrated research tools dealing with appropriate translational requirements aiming at clinical development, and proactive regulatory policies are essential in the near future. This review focuses on the most important aspects currently recognized as key factors for the regulation of nanomedicines, discussing the efforts under development by industry and regulatory agencies to promote their translation into the market. Regulatory Science aspects driving a faster and safer development of nanomedicines will be a central issue for the next years. PMID:26260323

  2. Postmenopausal osteoporosis: microradiographic aspects.

    PubMed

    Dhem, A; Nyssen-Behets, C; Coppens, J

    1998-01-01

    A comparative microradiographic and histologic analysis of undecalcified bone samples was performed in men and women aged 18-98 years. These morphological methods showed that besides usual lamellar bone remodelling, all the so-called inert surfaces, namely both haversian and vascular canals as well as trabecular surfaces, were involved in weathering alterations of the superficial lamellae, resulting in eroded outlines devoid of osteoclast. These aspects, recorded in all pieces of our material, were visible from the earliest adult age and were randomly distributed. Except the grade of osteoporosis at a given age, the microradiographic and histologic aspects were similar in both aged men and women and did not allow sex distinction. These observations were consistent with the hypothesis of a particular destructive process affecting all the quiescent lamellar bone surfaces without osteoclast or cell participation. This kind of erosion, termed delitescence, could be at least partially responsible for the age-related and postmenopausal bone loss. In order to explain the increasing osteoporosis after menopause, it has been suggested that the estrogen deficiency could increase the percentage of dead osteocytes. Thereby the reduced cellular control on the bone surface could impair the remodeling process and fail to adapt the bone structure by repairing the microscopic lesions. PMID:11315966

  3. [Psychodynamic aspects of the epileptic experience].

    PubMed

    Mazza, S; Azzoni, A

    1989-01-01

    The authors deal with the problem of epileptic manifestations from a psychodynamic point of view. The complex aspects of "mind-body" relationship are pointed out. Starting from Freud's theory, several interpretations of the epileptic experience are reviewed. A special attention is drawn to Bion's theory of "protomental apparatus". The authors conclude that it is possible to integrate neuro-physiologic data with psychic aspects of the phenomenon, through a search of its roots in the early phases of Self-setting. PMID:2467374

  4. Medical Aspects of Lightning

    MedlinePlus

    ... FORECAST Local Graphical Aviation Marine Rivers and Lakes Hurricanes Severe Weather Fire Weather Sun/Moon Long Range ... Safety Campaigns Air Quality Drought Floods Fog Heat Hurricanes Lightning Rip Currents Safe Boating Space Weather Tornadoes, ...

  5. Radiation Physics for Medical Physicists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podgorsak, Ervin B.

    This book summarizes the radiation physics knowledge that professionals working in medical physics need to master for efficient and safe dealings with ionizing radiation. It contains eight chapters, each chapter covering a specific group of subjects related to radiation physics and is intended as a textbook for a course in radiation physics in medical-physics graduate programs. However, the book may also be of interest to the large number of professionals, not only medical physicists, who in their daily occupations deal with various aspects of medical physics and find a need to improve their understanding of radiation physics.

  6. [Treatment of severe scoliosis].

    PubMed

    Helenius, Ilkka; Pajulo, Olli

    2015-01-01

    Untreated severe scoliosis results in a serious malposition of the back, restrictive lung disease and increases mortality compared with the normal population. Idiopathic scoliosis rarely reaches a severe degree. In the treatment of severe scoliosis, preoperative head traction of several weeks' duration has proven a safe and effective method of correcting the malposition, and will also make scoliosis surgery technically easier. Most cases of severe scoliosis can be treated with anterior pedicle screw instrumentation, and vertebrectomy is only seldom required. PMID:26638663

  7. Physical View of Cloud Seeding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tribus, Myron

    1970-01-01

    Reviews experimental data on various aspects of climate control. Includes a discussion of (1) the physics of cloud seeding, (2) the applications of cloud seeding, and (3) the role of statistics in the field of weather modification. Bibliography. (LC)

  8. Microcomputers! Applications to Physics Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tinker, Robert F.; Stringer, Gene A.

    1978-01-01

    Reviews the use of computers in various aspects of physics teaching. Introduces some basic hardware and software concepts and jargon. Illustrates these ideas using four vastly different microcomputers, with prices, to help in choosing the right educational computer system. (GA)

  9. Aspects of Plant Intelligence

    PubMed Central

    TREWAVAS, ANTHONY

    2003-01-01

    Intelligence is not a term commonly used when plants are discussed. However, I believe that this is an omission based not on a true assessment of the ability of plants to compute complex aspects of their environment, but solely a reflection of a sessile lifestyle. This article, which is admittedly controversial, attempts to raise many issues that surround this area. To commence use of the term intelligence with regard to plant behaviour will lead to a better understanding of the complexity of plant signal transduction and the discrimination and sensitivity with which plants construct images of their environment, and raises critical questions concerning how plants compute responses at the whole‐plant level. Approaches to investigating learning and memory in plants will also be considered. PMID:12740212

  10. Aspects, Wrappers and Events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Filman, Robert E.

    2003-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides information on Object Infrastructure Framework (OIF), an Aspect-Oriented Programming (AOP) system. The presentation begins with an introduction to the difficulties and requirements of distributed computing, including functional and non-functional requirements (ilities). The architecture of Distributed Object Technology includes stubs, proxies for implementation objects, and skeletons, proxies for client applications. The key OIF ideas (injecting behavior, annotated communications, thread contexts, and pragma) are discussed. OIF is an AOP mechanism; AOP is centered on: 1) Separate expression of crosscutting concerns; 2) Mechanisms to weave the separate expressions into a unified system. AOP is software engineering technology for separately expressing systematic properties while nevertheless producing running systems that embody these properties.

  11. Geometrical aspects of entanglement

    SciTech Connect

    Leinaas, Jon Magne; Myrheim, Jan; Ovrum, Eirik

    2006-07-15

    We study geometrical aspects of entanglement, with the Hilbert-Schmidt norm defining the metric on the set of density matrices. We focus first on the simplest case of two two-level systems and show that a 'relativistic' formulation leads to a complete analysis of the question of separability. Our approach is based on Schmidt decomposition of density matrices for a composite system and nonunitary transformations to a standard form. The positivity of the density matrices is crucial for the method to work. A similar approach works to some extent in higher dimensions, but is a less powerful tool. We further present a numerical method for examining separability and illustrate the method by a numerical study of bound entanglement in a composite system of two three-level systems.

  12. The German Physical Society Under National Socialism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, Dieter; Walker, Mark

    2004-12-01

    The history of the German Physical Society from 1933 to 1945 is not the same as a comprehensive history of physics under Adolf Hitler, but it does reflect important aspects of physicists' work and life during the Third Reich.

  13. Geometrical aspects of quantum spaces

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, P.M.

    1996-05-11

    Various geometrical aspects of quantum spaces are presented showing the possibility of building physics on quantum spaces. In the first chapter the authors give the motivations for studying noncommutative geometry and also review the definition of a Hopf algebra and some general features of the differential geometry on quantum groups and quantum planes. In Chapter 2 and Chapter 3 the noncommutative version of differential calculus, integration and complex structure are established for the quantum sphere S{sub 1}{sup 2} and the quantum complex projective space CP{sub q}(N), on which there are quantum group symmetries that are represented nonlinearly, and are respected by all the aforementioned structures. The braiding of S{sub q}{sup 2} and CP{sub q}(N) is also described. In Chapter 4 the quantum projective geometry over the quantum projective space CP{sub q}(N) is developed. Collinearity conditions, coplanarity conditions, intersections and anharmonic ratios is described. In Chapter 5 an algebraic formulation of Reimannian geometry on quantum spaces is presented where Riemannian metric, distance, Laplacian, connection, and curvature have their quantum counterparts. This attempt is also extended to complex manifolds. Examples include the quantum sphere, the complex quantum projective space and the two-sheeted space. The quantum group of general coordinate transformations on some quantum spaces is also given.

  14. Cosmological aspects of spontaneous baryogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Simone, Andrea; Kobayashi, Takeshi

    2016-08-01

    We investigate cosmological aspects of spontaneous baryogenesis driven by a scalar field, and present general constraints that are independent of the particle physics model. The relevant constraints are obtained by studying the backreaction of the produced baryons on the scalar field, the cosmological expansion history after baryogenesis, and the baryon isocurvature perturbations. We show that cosmological considerations alone provide powerful constraints, especially for the minimal scenario with a quadratic scalar potential. Intriguingly, we find that for a given inflation scale, the other parameters including the reheat temperature, decoupling temperature of the baryon violating interactions, and the mass and decay constant of the scalar are restricted to lie within ranges of at most a few orders of magnitude. We also discuss possible extensions to the minimal setup, and propose two ideas for evading constraints on isocurvature perturbations: one is to suppress the baryon isocurvature with nonquadratic scalar potentials, another is to compensate the baryon isocurvature with cold dark matter isocurvature by making the scalar survive until the present.

  15. Integrated information theory: from consciousness to its physical substrate.

    PubMed

    Tononi, Giulio; Boly, Melanie; Massimini, Marcello; Koch, Christof

    2016-07-01

    In this Opinion article, we discuss how integrated information theory accounts for several aspects of the relationship between consciousness and the brain. Integrated information theory starts from the essential properties of phenomenal experience, from which it derives the requirements for the physical substrate of consciousness. It argues that the physical substrate of consciousness must be a maximum of intrinsic cause-effect power and provides a means to determine, in principle, the quality and quantity of experience. The theory leads to some counterintuitive predictions and can be used to develop new tools for assessing consciousness in non-communicative patients. PMID:27225071

  16. EDITORIAL: Physics competitions Physics competitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordens, H.; Mathelitsch, L.

    2011-07-01

    International tests on competences, such as TIMSS or PISA, and knowledge of young students have revealed low average scores in many countries, often unexpectedly. One effective measure to increase the average standard of a population is to bring the last third of the group to a higher level. Therefore, many nations put some effort into this activity. This brings the danger that not enough attention is paid to students at the other end, those who are talented. Indeed, it is a very difficult task for a teacher to support the less able and at the same time challenge the gifted students, to lead them to the limits of their abilities and provide for a smooth transition to university study. Physics competitions have been proven to fulfil these last demands to a large degree, and therefore are an important additional and, to some extent, complementary tool for the promotion of talented students. This third special section on physics competitions in European Journal of Physics contains three papers, each dealing with a different form of science contest. The first continues the series of presentations of tasks performed at the International Young Physicists' Tournament, which was held in Vienna in 2011. First place went to the team from Singapore, and they have put their investigation on vertical oscillations of coupled magnets into written form (not required by the tournament, where an oral presentation and a defence and discussion are the central aspects). Their paper shows how rich in physics this problem is, and what level of solutions high-school students can already achieve. Sadly, those responsible for the organization of last year's International Physics Olympiad did not provide us with a report on this competition. This is unfortunate, since the Olympiad in Zagreb was very successful and, in particular, the experimental tasks were creative and demanding. Very similar to the aims and the execution of the Physics Olympiad is the International Olympiad on Astronomy

  17. Colloidal aspects of texture perception.

    PubMed

    van Vliet, Ton; van Aken, George A; de Jongh, Harmen H J; Hamer, Rob J

    2009-08-30

    Recently, considerable attention has been given to the understanding of texture attributes that cannot directly be related to physical properties of food, such as creamy, crumbly and watery. The perception of these attributes is strongly related to the way the food is processed during food intake, mastication, swallowing of it and during the cleaning of the mouth after swallowing. Moreover, their perception is modulated by the interaction with other basic attributes, such as taste and aroma attributes (e.g. sourness and vanilla). To be able to link the composition and structure of food products to more complicated texture attributes, their initial physical/colloid chemical properties and the oral processing of these products must be well understood. Understanding of the processes in the mouth at colloidal length scales turned out to be essential to grasp the interplay between perception, oral physiology and food properties. In view of the huge differences in physical chemical properties between food products, it is practical to make a distinction between solid, semi-solid, and liquid food products. The latter ones are often liquid dispersions of emulsion droplets or particles in general. For liquid food products for instance flow behaviour and colloidal stability of dispersed particles play a main role in determining their textural properties. For most solid products stiffness and fracture behaviour in relation to water content are essential while for semi-solids a much larger range of mechanical properties will play a role. Examples of colloidal aspects of texture perception will be discussed for these three categories of products based on selected sensory attributes and/or relevant colloidal processes. For solid products some main factors determining crispness will be discussed. For crispiness of dry cellular solid products these are water content and the architecture of the product at mesoscopic length scales (20-1000 microm). In addition the distribution of

  18. Psychosocial Aspects of Scleroderma.

    PubMed

    Kwakkenbos, Linda; Delisle, Vanessa C; Fox, Rina S; Gholizadeh, Shadi; Jewett, Lisa R; Levis, Brooke; Milette, Katherine; Mills, Sarah D; Malcarne, Vanessa L; Thombs, Brett D

    2015-08-01

    Patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc; also called scleroderma) have to cope with not only the physical impacts of the disease but also the emotional and social consequences of living with the condition. Because there is no cure for SSc, improving quality of life is a primary focus of treatment and an important clinical challenge. This article summarizes significant problems faced by patients with SSc, including depression, anxiety, fatigue, sleep disruption, pain, pruritus, body image dissatisfaction, and sexual dysfunction, and describes options to help patients cope with the consequences of the disease. PMID:26210133

  19. Physics in a Brewery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palacci, Jeremie

    Looking through the glass, and what Physics found there. A story of beer. Bubbles, heads and temperature make for a great pint, and a vast playground for the physicist. We will discuss a variety of aspects of the science of beer and reflect on the rational of the tricks pulled by professional brewers! - In partnership with Mike Hess Brewery, San Diego.

  20. Psychosocial aspects of abortion

    PubMed Central

    Illsley, Raymond; Hall, Marion H.

    1976-01-01

    The literature on psychosocial aspects of abortion is confusing. Individual publications must be interpreted in the context of cultural, religious, and legal constraints obtaining in a particular society at a given time, with due attention to the status and availability of alternatives to abortion that might be chosen by a woman with an “unwanted” pregnancy. A review of the literature shows that, where careful pre- and post-abortion assessments are made, the evidence is that psychological benefit commonly results, and serious adverse emotional sequelae are rare. The outcome of refused abortion seems less satisfactory, with regrets and distress frequently occurring. Research on the administration of abortion services suggests that counselling is often of value, that distress is frequently caused by delays in deciding upon and in carrying out abortions, and by unsympathetic attitudes of service providers. The phenomenon of repeated abortion seeking should be seen in the context of the availability and cost of contraception and sterilization. The place of sterilization with abortion requires careful study. A recommendation is made for observational descriptive research on populations of women with potentially unwanted pregnancies in different cultures, with comparisons of management systems and an evaluation of their impact on service users. PMID:1085671

  1. Strategic Aspects of Communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagen, Edward; Hammerstein, Peter; Hess, Nicole

    Rarely do human behavioral scientists and scholars study language, music, and other forms of communication as strategies—a means to some end. Some even deny that communication is the primary function of these phenomena. Here we draw upon selections of our earlier work to briefly define the strategy concept and sketch how decision theory, developed to explain the behavior of rational actors, is applied to evolved agents. Communication can then be interpreted as a strategy that advances the "fitness interests" of such agents. When this perspective is applied to agents with conflicts of interest, deception emerges as an important aspect of communication. We briefly review costly signaling, one solution to the problem of honest communication among agents with conflicts of interest. We also explore the subversion of cooperative signals by parasites and by plants defending themselves against herbivores, and we touch on biases in human gossip. Experiments with artificial embodied and communicating agents confirm that when there are conflicts of interest among agents, deception readily evolves. Finally, we consider signaling among super-organisms and the possible implications for understanding human music and language.

  2. Nutritional aspects of depression.

    PubMed

    Lang, Undine E; Beglinger, Christoph; Schweinfurth, Nina; Walter, Marc; Borgwardt, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Several nutrition, food and dietary compounds have been suggested to be involved in the onset and maintenance of depressive disorders and in the severity of depressive symptoms. Nutritional compounds might modulate depression associated biomarkers and parallel the development of depression, obesity and diabetes. In this context, recent studies revealed new mediators of both energy homeostasis and mood changes (i.e. IGF-1, NPY, BDNF, ghrelin, leptin, CCK, GLP-1, AGE, glucose metabolism and microbiota) acting in gut brain circuits. In this context several healthy foods such as olive oil, fish, fruits, vegetables, nuts, legumes, poultry, dairy and unprocessed meat have been inversely associated with depression risk and even have been postulated to improve depressive symptoms. In contrast, unhealthy western dietary patterns including the consumption of sweetened beverage, refined food, fried food, processed meat, refined grain, and high fat diary, biscuits, snacking and pastries have been shown to be associated with an increased risk of depression in longitudinal studies. However, it is always difficult to conclude a real prospective causal relationship from these mostly retrospective studies as depressed individuals might also change their eating habits secondarily to their depression. Additionally specific selected nutritional compounds, e.g. calcium, chromium, folate, PUFAs, vitamin D, B12, zinc, magnesium and D-serine have been postulated to be used as ad-on strategies in antidepressant treatment. In this context, dietary and lifestyle interventions may be a desirable, effective, pragmatical and non-stigmatizing prevention and treatment strategy for depression. At last, several medications (pioglitazone, metformin, exenatide, atorvastatin, gram-negative antibiotics), which have traditionally been used to treat metabolic disorders showed a certain potential to treat depression in first randomized controlled clinical trials. PMID:26402520

  3. Physical and chemical characterization of beryllium particles from several workplaces in Québec, Canada--part A: determining methods for the analysis of low levels of beryllium.

    PubMed

    Rouleau, Mathieu; Dion, Chantal; Plamondon, Philippe; Kennedy, Greg; L'Espérance, Gilles; Zayed, Joseph

    2005-11-12

    Chemical and physical characterizations of beryllium (Be) particles found in settled dust samples from four industries based in Québec were attempted using a variety of analytical methods. Bulk particle chemistry was determined using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS), and instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Time-of-flight secondary-ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS), transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction (XRD), electron energy loss spectrometry (EELS), and Auger microscopy were used to characterize physicochemical properties of particles. These analyses were deemed important based on the hypotheses that (1) different chemical forms of Be do not present the same risks, and (2) different morphologies lead to different risks. Standards were used to prove the adequacy of XRD, EELS, and Auger microscopy prior to the analyses of industrial samples. However, low concentrations of Be in samples were a limiting factor for most methods; few detected Be in industrial samples. Only ICP-MS, GFAAS, and TOF-SIMS were able to detect Be in industrial samples analyzed in this study. Characterization of settled dust samples showed high number of Be particles, even for Be concentrations below 100 ppm. Furthermore, Be seems to be present as fine particles of Be metal, possibly mechanically agglomerated or aggregated to larger particles or compounds such as cryolite. Other major elements detected with INAA present in the samples were limited to Na, Al, Ca, and F. It was concluded that TOF-SIMS is a valid method for characterizing particles containing approximately 0.01% Be. PMID:16207636

  4. “Too Young to be Worried!” Psychiatric Assessment and Follow-up of Young People After Severe Physical Assault in an Inner City Hospital of South London

    PubMed Central

    Viswanathan, S; Datta, SS; Sheridan, PB; Lax-Pericall, T

    2014-01-01

    Background: Interpersonal violence amongst youth is on the rise world-wide and London is no exception. The resulting injuries can be very serious and even result in death. This is a difficult to engage subgroup of patients and there is likely to be significant unmet social and mental health needs. Aim: The current paper discusses the results of immediate psychiatric and social assessment of young people following a serious physical assault as assessed by a pediatric liaison Child and Adolescent Mental Health Service (CAMHS). CAMHS in Kings College Hospital, London in one calendar year and also the help seeking behavior of the young people following the assault. Subjects and Methods: The Department of Pediatric Liaison Psychiatry is based within the Kings College Hospital and has a multidisciplinary team comprising of nurses, consultant child and adolescent psychiatrists and social workers who reviewed all patients who were referred to them following an episode of assault. All young people who were referred to the department of pediatric liaison psychiatry based within Kings College Hospital over one calendar year were included in the analysis. Results: 83% (29/35) of the victims were male and 83% (29/35) were from minority ethnic backgrounds. Although 70% (25/35) of the young people included in this study had significant safe guarding concerns, only 17% (6/35) turned up for their follow-up appointments with child mental health teams. Conclusions: Innovative models of service delivery are required to cater to the unique needs of this group of extremely vulnerable young people. PMID:24669337

  5. Psychological Aspects of Retirement

    PubMed Central

    Harris, David J.

    1983-01-01

    Retirement is a normal phenomenon which is not a crisis for most people. However, those who have previously had difficulty coping with major life events may be expected to experience difficulties at this time of life. Some will experience mild symptoms of anxiety, as part of an adjustment reaction to late life. A minority will suffer a significant depressive reaction. In most of these cases, however, other significant life events and factors will have triggered breakdown. In the milder cases psychotherapy is the main treatment of choice, either individually or conjointly with the spouse. Antidepressant drugs and other physical treatments may have a part to play in some cases. Imagesp529-a PMID:21283348

  6. Probabistic Aspect of Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goradia, Shantilal

    2008-04-01

    We postulate that every particle has a Planck size quantum mouth it stretches to interact with other particles, making all interactions between quantum mouths and the probability of an interaction between two particles is inversely proportional to the square of the statistical number of Planck lengths separating the particles [1], linking entropy, fine-structure constant and cosmological constant, explaining quantum tunneling, dark energy and some other issues consistent with some great minds. This was presented at the ``Concepts of Entropy and Their Applications'' conference in Melbourne, Australia on Dec 29, 2007. The natural logarithm connects the statistical entropy to thermodynamic and makes it consistent with the observed expansion of the universe with Hubble constant. [1] http://www.arXiv.org/physics/0210040

  7. Cultural aspects of suicide.

    PubMed

    Maharajh, Hari D; Abdool, Petal S

    2005-09-01

    Undefined cultural factors cannot be dismissed and significantly contribute to the worldwide incidence of death by suicide. Culture is an all embracing term and defines the relationship of an individual to his environment. This study seeks to investigate the effect of culture on suicide both regionally and internationally. Culture-bound syndrome with suicidal behaviours specific to a particular culture or geographical region are discussed. Opinions are divided as to the status of religious martyrs. The law itself is silent on many aspects of suicidal behaviour and despite decriminalization of suicide as self-murder, the latter remains on the statutes of many developing countries. The Caribbean region is of concern due to its steady rise in mean suicide rate, especially in Trinidad and Tobago where socio-cultural factors are instrumental in influencing suicidal behaviour. These include transgenerational cultural conflicts, psycho-social problems, media exposure, unemployment, social distress, religion and family structure. The methods used are attributed to accessibility and lethality. Ingestion of poisonous substances is most popular followed by hanging. The gender differences seen with regard to suicidality can also be attributed to gender related psychopathology and psychosocial differences in help-seeking behaviour. These are influenced by the cultural environment to which the individual is exposed. Culture provides coping strategies to individuals; as civilization advances many of these coping mechanisms are lost unclothing the genetic predisposition of vulnerable groups. In the management of suicidal behaviour, a system of therapeutic re-culturation is needed with an emphasis on relevant culture- based therapies. PMID:16155688

  8. [Psychosomatic aspects of endometriosis].

    PubMed

    Lütje, W; Brandenburg, U

    2003-01-01

    Endometriosis is a varied and unspecific disorder, which can be detected by way of subtle diagnostics in almost every woman. In one case it is a minor accidental finding, in another case it is a cancer-like, mostly incurable, chronic painful a disease, which often has sterility and aggressive therapies as subsequence. For the origin of endometriosis many causes are discussed. The theory of retrograde menstruation through an hyperperistaltic-dystocic uterus presents on one hand an organic explanation-concept. From the psychosomatic point of view this unphysiological menstruation could also be seen as the result of an unsolved conflict, which might be connected with the gender-role or personal, familiar and social attitudes about menstruation. The exo- and endogenic supply with hormones in a time with less pregnancies and therefore more menstruation is also a contributing factor to the origin and development of this disturbance. Beside the theory of endometriosis as an autoimmune disease also implicates psychosomatic thoughts. Though there is always a repeatedly talk the "cancer of the career-woman", there are however very few psychosomatic research projects regarding endometriosis. Therefore it is a characteristic of this disease, that finding and feeling are very often controversial. This emphasizes the importance of psychosomatic, psychosexual, social and biographical aspects in connection with endometriosis. This point of view makes a relative plausible and comfortable explanation for the CPPS and sterility uncertain. Without question diagnosis and therapy of endometriosis followed on one hand by stigmatization and on the other hand by often restriction of quality of life leads to a lot of subsequent psychosocial problems. PMID:14505264

  9. Some Physical and Engineering Aspects of High Current EBIS

    SciTech Connect

    Pikin, A; Prelec, K.

    1999-05-21

    Some applications of an Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS) require intensities of highly charged ions significantly greater than those which have been achieved in present EBIS sources. For example, the ion source for the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) must be capable of generating 3 x 10{sup 9} ions of Au{sup 35+} or 2 x 10{sup 9} ions of U{sup 45+} per pulse. In this case, if the fraction of ions of interest is 20% of the total ion space charge, the total extracted charge is {approximately} 5 x 10{sup 11}. It is also desirable to extract these ions in a 10 {micro}s pulse to allow single turn injection into the first synchrotrons. Requirements for an EBIS which could meet the needs of the LHC at CERN are similar ({approximately} 1.5 x 10{sup 9} ions of Pb{sup 54+} in 5.5 {micro}s). This charge yield is about an order of magnitude greater than that achieved in existing EBIS sources, and is what is meant here by high current. This also implies, then, an EBIS with a high electron beam current.

  10. Designing the IShTAR antenna: Physics and engineering aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Louche, F.; Jacquot, J.; Crombé, K.; Van Eester, D.; D'Inca, R.; Devaux, S.; Faudot, E.; Faugel, H.; Fünfgelder, H.; Heuraux, S.; Morgal, I.; Moritz, J.; Ochoukov, R.; Noterdaeme, J.-M.

    2015-12-01

    IShTAR (Ion cyclotron Sheath Test ARrangement) is a magnetised plasma test facility installed at the Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik in Garching, Germany. The main purpose of this device is the study of RF sheaths generated in front of ICRF (Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequency) antennas in magnetically confined plasmas. The plasma is generated by a helical RF antenna potentially able to reach a helicon mode. We present in this work recent modelling activities dedicated to IShTAR. On the one hand a parameterized magnetostatic model of the magnetic configuration was created with the finite element solver COMSOL Multiphysics [3]. The model considers two non-axial sets of coils and notably reproduces the magnetic field lines deviation at the center of the main vessel and the ripples observed during experiments. From this model we can infer that kA are required in the 2 main large coils of IShTAR for 1 kA in the 4 small coils to generate a "smooth" magnetic field along field lines. On the other hand an ICRF antenna has been designed for IShTAR. A tridimensional model of the IShTAR vessel was developed with the electromagnetic code MicroWave Studio (MWS [4]) for this purpose and a first antenna model made of a single strap inside a box was included. The strap is fed through the upper port located at the helicon source side. The antenna is fully immersed into the loading medium (plasma or homogeneous dielectric) and the curved strap front face is aligned with the magnetic surfaces to simplify the modelling. The initial design of this antenna has been studied with MWS in the presence of homogeneous dielectric. The presence of a back wall will be discussed.

  11. Old and New Aspects of Prominence Physics from Coronal Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koutchmy, S.; Filippov, B.; Lamy, P.

    2007-05-01

    Classical W-L eclipse observations at typical spatial resolution of 10 arcsec show dark cavities surrounding prominences. Images at higher spatial resolution processed with a spatial filter reveal small dynamical cool clouds moving inside the inner corona around prominences. More recently EIT/SoHO observations taken using the 304 Å channel showed He+ prominences sometimes not seen in cooler lines. TRACE movies of the Fe IX and XI emissions where prominences are seen in absorption also bring appreciable informations on the dynamical surrounding of prominences, without showing obvious correlations between prominence and coronal structures. Accordingly, we re-examine the significance of the cavity and propose a possible interpretation as magnetic interlaced 3-D flux ropes and loops evacuating the corona, in addition to twisted flux ropes where the prominence plasma is condensing. Future space missions like ASPIICS should pay more attention to cavities and emptiness, to coronal dynamics around prominences, in order to resolve the long-standing problem of the origin of prominences and perhaps, perform a new diagnostic of the erupting process responsible for many CMEs.

  12. Chemical and physical aspects of refining coal liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, Y. T.; Stiegel, G. J.; Krishnamurthy, S.

    1981-02-01

    Increasing costs and declining reserves of petroleum are forcing oil importing countries to develop alternate energy sources. The direct liquefaction of coal is currently being investigated as a viable means of producing substitute liquid fuels. The coal liquids derived from such processes are typically high in nitrogen, oxygen and sulfur besides having a high aromatic and metals content. It is therefore envisaged that modifications to existing petroleum refining technology will be necessary in order to economically upgrade coal liquids. In this review, compositional data for various coal liquids are presented and compared with those for petroleum fuels. Studies reported on the stability of coal liquids are discussed. The feasibility of processing blends of coal liquids with petroleum feedstocks in existing refineries is evaluated. The chemistry of hydroprocessing is discussed through kinetic and mechanistic studies using compounds which are commonly detected in coal liquids. The pros and cons of using conventional petroleum refining catalysts for upgrading coal liquids are discussed.

  13. Physical aspects of Hurricane Hugo in Puerto Rico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scatena, F.N.; Larsen, Matthew C.

    1991-01-01

    On 18 September 1989 the western part ofHurricane Hugo crossed eastern Puerto Rico and the Luquillo Experimental Forest (LEF). Storm-facing slopes on the northeastern part of the island that were within 15 km of the eye and received greater than 200 mm of rain were most affected by the storm. In the LEF and nearby area, recurrence intervals associated with Hurricane Hugo were 50 yr for wind velocity, 10 to 31 yr for stream discharge, and 5 yr for rainfall intensity. To compare the magnitudes of the six hurricanes to pass over PuertoRico since 1899, 3 indices were developed using the standardized values of the product of: the maximum sustained wind speed at San Juan squared and storm duration; the square of the product of the maximum sustained wind velocity at San Juan and the ratio of the distance between the hurricane eye and San Juan to the distance between the eye and percentage of average annual rainfall delivered by the storm. Based on these indices, HurricaneHugo was of moderate intensity. However, because of the path of Hurricane Hugo, only one of these six storms (the 1932 storm) caused more damage to the LEF than Hurricane Hugo. Hurricanes of Hugo's magnitude are estimated to pass over the LEF once every 50-60 yr, on average. 

  14. Photogeology: Part Y: physical and geological aspects of heiligenschein measurements

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wildey, Robert L.

    1972-01-01

    Heiligenschein is the upsurge in reflected brightness as zero-phase angle is approached. For the first time, an effort has been made to investigate the diagnostic value of the heiligenschein photometric magnitude on a statistically significant scale. This investigation was performed by using the vertical photography of the Apollo 16 metric camera. The brightness surge of reflected light near zero-phase angle was studied with the expectation that it might be related to lunar geologic setting. Although previous work suggests that a real effect is present (refs. 29-121 and 29-122), the data set was small, and no correlations with other lunar surface properties were attempted. The problem is complex enough to warrant massive effort. This subsection is merely a status report.

  15. Infertility: A Review of Physical and Emotional Aspects

    PubMed Central

    Kredentser, Jeremy V.

    1986-01-01

    Infertility affects 15% of couples. The primary causes are poor sperm production, ovulation defects, and fallopian tube obstruction, which can be detected by a simple, logical investigation. Infertility and its investigation precipitate characteristic emotional responses that require care by an informed, sensitive physician. PMID:21267117

  16. Physical aspects of the prediction of solar flares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sturrock, P. A.

    1984-11-01

    The properties of a solar flare depend critically on the preflare magnetic-field configuration and the way that this configuration evolves during the flare process. The flare process often, if not always, involves the eruption of a filament or similar structure, possibly leading to complete ejection from the Sun. This eruption will generate an extensive current sheet: reconnection of this sheet contributes to the gradual phase and perhaps also to the impulsive phase. It is proposed that reconnection of a current sheet (pre-existing, or generated by filament eruption) is required for a gamma-ray event or a particle event. A particle event requires also an escape mechanism that could be provided either by a pre-existing open current sheet or by the ejection of the magnetic-field configuration associated with a filament. Following these guidelines, it is possible to propose a classification of flares into seven categories and to propose whether or not each category will lead to the following phenomena: mass ejection, shock wave, gamma-ray emission, and particle event.

  17. Physical aspects of electron-beam arc therapy.

    PubMed

    Khan, F M; Fullerton, G D; Lee, J M; Moore, V C; Levitt, S H

    1977-08-01

    The effect of different parameters on dose distribution in electron-beam arc therapy was studied in order to develop a technique for routine clinical use. A special diaphragm was designed to facilitate telecentric rotation. Dosimetry was performed with an ion chamber, film, and LiF powder in cylindrical polystyrene phantoms and an Alderson Rando phantom. Dose distributions were evaluated with regard to dose homogeneity, and a method of sharpening the dose fall-off near the ends of the arc was proposed. Criteria for selection of isocenter depth and field size were developed. Methods of dose calculation, calibration, and treatment planning are discussed. PMID:406643

  18. Microbial, chemical and physical aspects of citrus waste composting.

    PubMed

    van Heerden, I; Cronjé, C; Swart, S H; Kotzé, J M

    2002-01-01

    Citrus waste supplemented with calcium hydroxide and with a C/N ratio of 24:1, pH of 6.3 and moisture content of 60% was composted by piling under shelter. With regular turning over of the pile and replenishment of moisture, the thermic phase lasted for 65-70 days and composting was completed after 3 months. Compost thus prepared had an air-filled porosity of 14%, water-holding capacity of 590 ml l(-1), bulk density of 1.05 g cm(-3) and conductivity of 480 mS m(-1). Phosphorus content (in mg l(-1)) was 15, potassium 1,170, calcium 362, magnesium 121, sodium 32, chloride 143, boron 0.31, and water-soluble nitrogen and organic matter 126 and 4788, respectively. Total carbon amounted to 8.85% and total nitrogen to 1.26% of the dry weight, giving a C/N ratio of 7. Mature compost showed some, but acceptable, levels of phytotoxicity. Raw citrus waste was predominantly colonised by mesophilic yeasts. Thermophilous microorganisms present during the thermic phase mainly comprised the bacterial species Bacillus licheniformis, B. macerans and B. stearothermophilus and, to a lesser extent, fungi such as Absidia corymbifera, Aspergillus fumigatus, Emericella nidulans, Penicillium diversum, Paecilomyces variotii, Rhizomucor pusillus, Talaromyces thermophilus and Thermomyces lanuginosus. Bacteria prevalent in the final product included B. licheniformis, B. macerans, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, P. fluorescens, P. luteola and Serratia marcescens, whereas fungi isolated most frequently comprised Aspergillus puniceus, A. ustus, E. nidulans. Paecilomyces lilacinus, T lanuginosus, yeasts and a basidiomycetous species, probably Coprinus lagopus. PMID:11708757

  19. Physical aspects of the initial phase of endocytosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhdanov, Vladimir P.

    2013-12-01

    The endocytotic mechanism of entry of virions into cells includes wrapping of a virion by the host membrane with subsequent formation of a vesicle covering a virion. The energy along this pathway depends on the ligand-receptor interaction and deformation of the cell membrane and underlying actin cytoskeleton. The available models describe the cytoskeleton deformation by using the conventional continuum theory of elasticity and predict that this factor often controls the repulsive part of the virion-cell interaction. This approach is, however, debatable because the size of virions is smaller than or comparable to the length scale characterizing the cytoskeleton structure. The author shows that the continuum theory appreciably (up to one order of magnitude) overestimates the cytoskeleton-deformation energy and that the scale of this energy is comparable to that of cell membrane bending.

  20. Physical and engineering aspect of carbon beam therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Kanai, Tatsuaki; Kanematsu, Nobuyuki; Minohara, Shinichi; Yusa, Ken; Urakabe, Eriko; Kanazawa, Mitsutaka; Kitagawa, Atsushi; Tomitani, Takehiro; Mizuno, Hideyuki; Iseki, Yasushi

    2003-08-26

    Conformal irradiation system of HIMAC has been up-graded for a clinical trial using a technique of a layer-stacking method. The system has been developed for localizing irradiation dose to target volume more effectively than the present irradiation dose. With dynamic control of the beam modifying devices, a pair of wobbler magnets, and multileaf collimator and range shifter, during the irradiation, more conformal radiotherapy can be achieved. The system, which has to be adequately safe for patient irradiations, was constructed and tested from a viewpoint of safety and the quality of the dose localization realized. A secondary beam line has been constructed for use of radioactive beam in heavy-ion radiotherapy. Spot scanning method has been adapted for the beam delivery system of the radioactive beam. Dose distributions of the spot beam were measured and analyzed taking into account of aberration of the beam optics. Distributions of the stopped positron-emitter beam can be observed by PET. Pencil beam of the positron-emitter, about 1 mm size, can also be used for measurements ranges of the test beam in patients using positron camera. The positron camera, consisting of a pair of Anger-type scintillation detectors, has been developed for this verification before treatment. Wash-out effect of the positron-emitter was examined using the positron camera installed. In this report, present status of the HIMAC irradiation system is described in detail.

  1. Physical and engineering aspect of carbon beam therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanai, Tatsuaki; Kanematsu, Nobuyuki; Minohara, Shinichi; Yusa, Ken; Urakabe, Eriko; Mizuno, Hideyuki; Iseki, Yasushi; Kanazawa, Mitsutaka; Kitagawa, Atsushi; Tomitani, Takehiro

    2003-08-01

    Conformal irradiation system of HIMAC has been up-graded for a clinical trial using a technique of a layer-stacking method. The system has been developed for localizing irradiation dose to target volume more effectively than the present irradiation dose. With dynamic control of the beam modifying devices, a pair of wobbler magnets, and multileaf collimator and range shifter, during the irradiation, more conformal radiotherapy can be achieved. The system, which has to be adequately safe for patient irradiations, was constructed and tested from a viewpoint of safety and the quality of the dose localization realized. A secondary beam line has been constructed for use of radioactive beam in heavy-ion radiotherapy. Spot scanning method has been adapted for the beam delivery system of the radioactive beam. Dose distributions of the spot beam were measured and analyzed taking into account of aberration of the beam optics. Distributions of the stopped positron-emitter beam can be observed by PET. Pencil beam of the positron-emitter, about 1 mm size, can also be used for measurements ranges of the test beam in patients using positron camera. The positron camera, consisting of a pair of Anger-type scintillation detectors, has been developed for this verification before treatment. Wash-out effect of the positron-emitter was examined using the positron camera installed. In this report, present status of the HIMAC irradiation system is described in detail.

  2. SOME PHYSICAL AND ENGINEERING ASPECTS OF HIGH CURRENT EBIS.

    SciTech Connect

    PIKIN,A.

    1999-05-10

    Some applications of an Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS) require intensities of highly charged ions significantly greater than those which have been achieved in present EBIS sources. For example, the ion source for the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) must be capable of generating 3x10{sup 9} ions of Au{sup 35+} or 2 x 10{sup 9} ions of U{sup 45+} per pulse [1]. In this case, if the fraction of ions of interest is 20% of the total ion space charge, the total extracted charge is {approx}{approx} 5 x 10{sup 11}. It is also desirable to extract these ions in a 10 ps pulse to allow single turn injection into the first synchrotron. Requirements for an EBIS which could meet the needs of the LHC at CERN are similar ({approx} 1.5 x 10{sup 9} ions of Pb{sup 54+} in 5.5 {micro}s). This charge yield is about an order of magnitude greater than that achieved in existing EBIS sources, and is what is meant here by ''high current''. This also implies, then, an EBIS with a high electron beam current. The scope of problems in a high current EBIS is broad, and includes generating a sufficient total charge of electrons in the volume of the ion trap, achieving a stable electron beam (without high frequency oscillations), preventing ions in the trap from acquiring too much energy (which can lead to a high rate of ion loss and increase in the emittance of the extracted ion beam), injection of metal ions into the ion trap, and achieving the appropriate vacuum in the ionization region. Development of the Electron Beam Test Stand (EBTS) at BNL addresses these problems, and is an attempt to develop the technologies relevant to a high current EBIS. The final goal of this development is to build an EBIS for RHIC. The general description of this project is published in [2]. In this chapter the discussion is limited to the handling of a high perveance electron beam and to vacuum issues.

  3. Physical Metallurgy of High-Entropy Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, Jien-Wei

    2015-08-01

    Two definitions of high-entropy alloys (HEAs), based on composition and entropy, are reviewed. Four core effects, i.e., high entropy, sluggish diffusion, severe lattice distortion, and cocktail effects, are mentioned to show the uniqueness of HEAs. The current state of physical metallurgy is discussed. As the compositions of HEAs are entirely different from that of conventional alloys, physical metallurgy principles might need to be modified for HEAs. The thermodynamics, kinetics, structure, and properties of HEAs are briefly discussed relating with the four core effects of HEAs. Among these, a severe lattice distortion effect is particularly emphasized because it exerts direct and indirect influences on many aspects of microstructure and properties. Because a constituent phase in HEAs can be regarded as a whole-solute matrix, every lattice site in the matrix has atomic-scale lattice distortion. In such a distorted lattice, point defects, line defects, and planar defects are different from those in conventional matrices in terms of atomic configuration, defect energy, and dynamic behavior. As a result, mechanical and physical properties are significantly influenced by such a distortion. Suitable mechanisms and theories correlating composition, microstructure, and properties for HEAs are required to be built in the future. Only these understandings make it possible to complete the physical metallurgy of the alloy world.

  4. Severe Strep Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... About NIAID News & Events Volunteer NIAID > Health & Research Topics > Severe Strep Infections Skip Website Tools Website Tools Print this page Order publications Volunteer for Clinical Studies Help people ...

  5. Factors Influencing Physical Fitness Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haarer, Barbara G.

    This annotated bibliography focuses on works that examine areas in which the physical educator can improve the administration of physical fitness tests in the elementary and secondary schools. The first part contains annotations that examine modifications of existing components which measure aspects of muscular and cardiovascular endurance. The…

  6. Down syndrome: a risk factor for malocclusion severity?

    PubMed

    Marques, Leandro Silva; Alcântara, Carlos Eduardo Pinto; Pereira, Luciano José; Ramos-Jorge, Maria Letícia

    2015-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to compare aspects related to malocclusion between individuals with Down syndrome (DS) and a control group, establish malocclusion severity, and identify determinant factors. A total of 120 individuals (60 with DS and 60 with no physical or mental impairment), were included in the study. Data were collected through interviews, analyses of the medical charts, and oral examinations. The criteria of the Dental Aesthetic Index were used for the diagnosis of malocclusion. Chi-square test (p ≤ 0.05) and multivariate logistic regression were used for comparisons between the two groups and to determine the association between the dependent (malocclusion severity) and independent variables. Statistically significant differences were found between the two groups for the following variables: missing teeth, diastema, overjet, mandibular protrusion, anterior open bite, posterior crossbite, facial type, lip incompetence, and Angle classification. DS, a history of premature birth, and long face pattern were found to be associated with malocclusion severity. Individuals with DS exhibited more occlusal problems than those in the control group. PMID:25760064

  7. From A Physical Color Stimulus To A Psychological Color Percept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sporea, Dan G.; Tonnquist, Gunnar

    1989-08-01

    The paper discusses the complexity of color vision in humans, considering the main aspects involved: the physical aspect, the psychophysical aspect, the physiological aspect and the psychological aspect. The meanings of the term color associated to each such aspect (asfor example, color stimulus, color valence, neural color signal and color percept) are introduced. Some types of color defective vision, relevant for color display users, are indicated. The methods to generate color stimuli in modern display devices, employing different technologies, are compared.

  8. Aspects of Quantum Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salam, Abdus; Wigner, E. P.

    2010-03-01

    Preface; List of contributors; Bibliography of P. A. M. Dirac; 1. Dirac in Cambridge R. J. Eden and J. C. Polkinghorne; 2. Travels with Dirac in the Rockies J. H. Van Vleck; 3. 'The golden age of theoretical physics': P. A. M. Dirac's scientific work from 1924 to 1933 Jagdish Mehra; 4. Foundation of quantum field theory Res Jost; 5. The early history of the theory of electron: 1897-1947 A. Pais; 6. The Dirac equation A. S. Wightman; 7. Fermi-Dirac statistics Rudolph Peierls; 8. Indefinite metric in state space W. Heisenberg; 9. On bras and kets J. M. Jauch; 10. The Poisson bracket C. Lanczos; 11. La 'fonction' et les noyaux L. Schwartz; 12. On the Dirac magnetic poles Edoardo Amadli and Nicola Cabibbo; 13. The fundamental constants and their time variation Freeman J. Dyson; 14. On the time-energy uncertainty relation Eugene P. Wigner; 15. The path-integral quantisation of gravity Abdus Salam and J. Strathdee; Index; Plates.

  9. Severe Weather Perceptions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrams, Karol

    Severe weather is an element of nature that cannot be controlled. Therefore, it is important that the general public be aware of severe weather and know how to react quickly and appropriately in a weather emergency. This study, done in the community surrounding the Southern Illinois University at Carbondale, was conducted to compile and analyze…

  10. Psychological aspects of asthma.

    PubMed

    Lehrer, Paul; Feldman, Jonathan; Giardino, Nicholas; Song, Hye-Sue; Schmaling, Karen

    2002-06-01

    Asthma can be affected by stress, anxiety, sadness, and suggestion, as well as by environmental irritants or allergens, exercise, and infection. It also is associated with an elevated prevalence of anxiety and depressive disorders. Asthma and these psychological states and traits may mutually potentiate each other through direct psychophysiological mediation, nonadherence to medical regimen, exposure to asthma triggers, and inaccuracy of asthma symptom perception. Defensiveness is associated with inaccurate perception of airway resistance and stress-related bronchoconstriction. Asthma education programs that teach about the nature of the disease, medications, and trigger avoidance tend to reduce asthma morbidity. Other promising psychological interventions as adjuncts to medical treatment include training in symptom perception, stress management, hypnosis, yoga, and several biofeedback procedures. PMID:12090377

  11. Brittle diabetes: psychopathological aspects.

    PubMed

    Pelizza, Lorenzo; Bonazzi, Federica; Scaltriti, Sara; Milli, Bruna; Giuseppina, Chierici

    2014-01-01

    Background. The term "brittle" is used to described an uncommon subgroup of type I diabetics whose lives are disrupted by severe glycaemic instability with repeated and prolonged hospitalization. Psychosocial problems are the major perceived underlying causes of brittle behaviour. Aim of this study is a systematic psychopathological assessement of brittleness using specific parameters of general psychopathology and personality traits following the multiaxial format (axis I and II) of the current DSM-IV-TR diagnostic criteria for mental disorders. Methods. Patients comprised 21 brittle type I diabetics and a case-control group of 21 stable diabetics, matched for age, gender, years of education, and diabetes duration. General psychopathology and the DSM-IV-TR personality traits/disorders were assessed using the Syptom Checklist-90-R (SCL-90-R) and the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III (MCMI-III). Results. The comparison for SCL-90-R parameters exclusively revealed higher scores in "Phobic Anxiety" subscale in brittle diabetics. No differences in all the other SCL-90-R primary symptom dimensions and in the three SCL-90-R global distress indices were observed between the two diabetic groups, as well as in the all MCMI-III clinical syndrome categories corresponding to DSM-IV-TR specific psychiatric disorders. However, brittle patients presented lower scores in MCMI-III compulsive personality traits and higher scores in paranoid, schizoid, schizotypal, antisocial, borderline, narcissistic, avoidant, dependent, depressive, and passive-aggressive personality traits. Conclusions. In this study, brittle diabetics show no differencies in terms of global severity of psychopathological distress and axis I specific DSM-IV-TR diagnoses in comparison with non-brittle subjects (except for phobic anxiety). Differently, brittle diabetics are characterized from less functional and maladaptive personality features and suffer more frequently and intensively from specific

  12. Psychosocial aspects of rehabilitation in sports.

    PubMed

    Covassin, Tracey; Beidler, Erica; Ostrowski, Jennifer; Wallace, Jessica

    2015-04-01

    When an athlete is injured, the primary focus of the sports medicine team is to treat the physical effects of the injury. However, many injured athletes experience negative psychological responses that should also be addressed throughout the rehabilitation process. Sports medicine professions should use psychosocial skills to help decrease the negative consequences of the injury, such as fear of reinjury, anxiety, depression, and adherence to rehabilitation. These psychosocial skills include goal setting, imagery, relaxation techniques, motivation, and self-talk. This article addresses the negative consequences of injury, psychosocial skills used to aid in the rehabilitation process, and clinical implications of the psychological aspects of rehabilitation in sport. PMID:25818709

  13. Some aspects of virtual black holes

    SciTech Connect

    Faizal, M.

    2012-03-15

    We first consider consistently third-quantize modified gravity. We then analyze certain aspects of virtual black holes in this third-quantized modified gravity. We see how a statistical mechanical origin for the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy naturally arises in this model. Furthermore, the area and hence the entropy of a real macroscopic black hole is quantized in this model. Virtual black holes cause a loss of quantum coherence, which gives an intrinsic entropy to all physical systems that can be used to define a direction of time and hence provide a solution to the problem of time.

  14. The physics of proton therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newhauser, Wayne D.; Zhang, Rui

    2015-04-01

    The physics of proton therapy has advanced considerably since it was proposed in 1946. Today analytical equations and numerical simulation methods are available to predict and characterize many aspects of proton therapy. This article reviews the basic aspects of the physics of proton therapy, including proton interaction mechanisms, proton transport calculations, the determination of dose from therapeutic and stray radiations, and shielding design. The article discusses underlying processes as well as selected practical experimental and theoretical methods. We conclude by briefly speculating on possible future areas of research of relevance to the physics of proton therapy.

  15. The physics of proton therapy

    PubMed Central

    Newhauser, Wayne D; Zhang, Rui

    2015-01-01

    The physics of proton therapy has advanced considerably since it was proposed in 1946. Today analytical equations and numerical simulation methods are available to predict and characterize many aspects of proton therapy. This article reviews the basic aspects of the physics of proton therapy, including proton interaction mechanisms, proton transport calculations, the determination of dose from therapeutic and stray radiations, and shielding design. The article discusses underlying processes as well as selected practical experimental and theoretical methods. We conclude by briefly speculating on possible future areas of research of relevance to the physics of proton therapy. PMID:25803097

  16. EDITORIAL: Physics competitions Physics competitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordens, H.; Mathelitsch, L.

    2010-07-01

    This editorial opens the second special section on physics competitions in European Journal of Physics. In the first section last year, we asked for feedback on the idea of such a section and on the content of the articles. We received no answer whatsoever, which can be interpreted in two ways: the section is not interesting enough to raise motivation for feedback, or the reader is satisfied. Having no indication which scenario is the correct one, we are optimistic and favour the second. The section at hand contains three articles. Again, as last year, the organizer of the annual Olympiad reports on tasks and outcomes of this competition. The Olympiad took place in Merida, Mexico, and was by far the largest event with 316 contestants from 68 countries. Again, the predominance of Asian/Chinese students was manifest, showing how serious the training is taken by both their authorities and students. Unfortunately, the winners of the last International Young Physicists' Tournament (IYPT), the team from Korea, did not accept the offer to report on their prize-winning contribution. We are thankful that two students from Austria, who achieved second place with their team, took over and reported on the task which they presented in the finals of the competition. It connects the fields of sport and physics and explains a special move in skateboarding. The third contribution introduces a different competition, 'International Conference of Young Scientists'. On one hand, as in the Olympiad, it addresses individuals, not teams. On the other, as in the IYPT, students have several months to prepare and also the quality of the presentation is an important element of the judgment. In fact, this competition comes closer to real scientific research compared to the other events. Finally and again, we hope that this section will serve several purposes: To show the competitions as a very important tool in the support of gifted students. To raise awareness amongst university teachers, and

  17. Epidemiological aspects of ageing.

    PubMed

    Khaw, K T

    1997-12-29

    A major societal challenge is to improve quality of life and prevent or reduce disability and dependency in an ageing population. Increasing age is associated with increasing risk of disability and loss of independence, due to functional impairments such as loss of mobility, hearing and vision; a major issue must be how far disability can be prevented. Ageing is associated with loss of bone tissue, reduction in muscle mass, reduced respiratory function, decline in cognitive function, rise in blood pressure and macular degeneration which predispose to disabling conditions such as osteoporosis, heart disease, dementia and blindness. However, there are considerable variations in different communities in terms of the rate of age-related decline. Large geographic and secular variations in the age-adjusted incidence of major chronic diseases such as stroke, hip fracture, coronary heart disease, cancer, visual loss from cataract, glaucoma and macular degeneration suggest strong environmental determinants in diet, physical activity and smoking habit. The evidence suggests that a substantial proportion of chronic disabling conditions associated with ageing are preventable, or at least postponable and not an inevitable accompaniment of growing old. Postponement or prevention of these conditions may not only increase longevity, but, more importantly, reduce the period of illnesses such that the majority of older persons may live high-quality lives, free of disability, until very shortly before death. We need to understand better the factors influencing the onset of age-related disability in the population, so that we have appropriate strategies to maintain optimal health in an ageing population. PMID:9460067

  18. Aspect-Oriented Programming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elrad, Tzilla (Editor); Filman, Robert E. (Editor); Bader, Atef (Editor)

    2001-01-01

    Computer science has experienced an evolution in programming languages and systems from the crude assembly and machine codes of the earliest computers through concepts such as formula translation, procedural programming, structured programming, functional programming, logic programming, and programming with abstract data types. Each of these steps in programming technology has advanced our ability to achieve clear separation of concerns at the source code level. Currently, the dominant programming paradigm is object-oriented programming - the idea that one builds a software system by decomposing a problem into objects and then writing the code of those objects. Such objects abstract together behavior and data into a single conceptual and physical entity. Object-orientation is reflected in the entire spectrum of current software development methodologies and tools - we have OO methodologies, analysis and design tools, and OO programming languages. Writing complex applications such as graphical user interfaces, operating systems, and distributed applications while maintaining comprehensible source code has been made possible with OOP. Success at developing simpler systems leads to aspirations for greater complexity. Object orientation is a clever idea, but has certain limitations. We are now seeing that many requirements do not decompose neatly into behavior centered on a single locus. Object technology has difficulty localizing concerns invoking global constraints and pandemic behaviors, appropriately segregating concerns, and applying domain-specific knowledge. Post-object programming (POP) mechanisms that look to increase the expressiveness of the OO paradigm are a fertile arena for current research. Examples of POP technologies include domain-specific languages, generative programming, generic programming, constraint languages, reflection and metaprogramming, feature-oriented development, views/viewpoints, and asynchronous message brokering. (Czarneclu and

  19. Future Faces of Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauncy, Toni

    2008-10-01

    In keeping with its commitment to help students transform themselves into contributing members of the professional physics community, the Society of Physics Students National Council began efforts aimed at addressing issued of diversity in physics several years ago. One of the projects stemming from these discussions is the adoption of a 2008 theme ``The Future Faces of Physics.'' With this theme, the council aims to raise visibility and focus on issues of student diversity in physics. The initiative included the distribution of ``Future Faces of Physics Kits'' to any chapter hosting zone meetings. A highlight of the kit is the Future Faces of Physics Jeopardy set, which consists of buzzers, a score board, instructions, and a game board. The Future Faces of Physics game is a vehicle for generating discussion and raising awareness. The diversity session is hosted by the SPS Zone 13 and Zone 16 leadership.

  20. Examining the Gender Gap in Introductory Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kost, Lauren; Pollock, Steven; Finkelstein, Noah

    2009-05-01

    Our previous research[1] showed that despite the use of interactive engagement techniques in the introductory physics course, the gap in performance between males and females on a mechanics conceptual learning survey persisted from pre- to post-test, at our institution. Such findings were counter to previously published work[2]. Follow-up studies[3] identified correlations between student performance on the conceptual learning survey and students' prior physics and math knowledge and their incoming attitudes and beliefs about physics and learning physics. The results indicate that the gender gap at our institution is predominantly associated with differences in males' and females' previous physics and math knowledge, and attitudes and beliefs. Our current work extends these results in two ways: 1) we look at the gender gap in the second semester of the introductory sequence and find results similar to those in the first semester course and 2) we identify ways in which males and females differentially experience several aspects of the introductory course. [1] Pollock, et al, Phys Rev: ST: PER 3, 010107. [2] Lorenzo, et al, Am J Phys 74, 118. [3] Kost, et al, PERC Proceedings 2008.

  1. A Network for Physics Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koch, H. William; Herschman, Arthur

    The American Institute of Physics is working toward the development of a national information system for physics, whose objective is the organization of the flow of physics information from the producers to the users. The complete physics information system has several constituent subsystems, among which are: one for the management of the flow of…

  2. Robots in Space -Psychological Aspects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sipes, Walter E.

    2006-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on the psychological aspects of developing robots to perform routine operations associated with monitoring, inspection, maintenance and repair in space is shown. The topics include: 1) Purpose; 2) Vision; 3) Current Robots in Space; 4) Ground Based Robots; 5) AERCam; 6) Rotating Bladder Robot (ROBLR); 7) DART; 8) Robonaut; 9) Full Immersion Telepresence Testbed; 10) ERA; and 11) Psychological Aspects

  3. Working Memory Limitations in Children with Severe Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Daal, John; Verhoeven, Ludo; van Leeuwe, Jan; van Balkom, Hans

    2008-01-01

    In the present study, the relations of various aspects of working memory to various aspects of language problems in a clinical sample of 97 Dutch speaking 5-year-old children with severe language problems were studied. The working memory and language abilities of the children were examined using an extensive battery of tests. Working memory was…

  4. Severe Local Storms Cultural Heritage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gladich, I.; Gallai, I.; Giaiotti, D. B.; Morgan, G. M.; Stel, F.

    2009-09-01

    Local storms always had a deep impact on people communities, mainly because of the severe damage caused, because of their unpredictability and, up to a few years ago, even because of the lack of knowledge and awareness on their physical origin. Because of this large impact on real life and on imagination, people needed and wanted to describe and report the occurrence of these events, giving them suited names. Often, these nouns are related to the myth developed to explain the cause of the events. In this work, a short presentation and description of the popular nouns used to describe severe local storm events in different areas of the World is given. Countries taken into account span from Italy, moving toward Africa and reaching a few communities of Native Americans. The etymology of the names gives interesting information, useful even under the anthropological point of view, on the Culture and Believes of the peoples who adopted them. This research work is the result of an underground activity carried out in the last ten years by the authors, during their contacts with students and researchers coming from different Countries and mainly met at the International Center for Theoretical Physics in Trieste.

  5. Biomarkers in Severe Asthma.

    PubMed

    Wan, Xiao Chloe; Woodruff, Prescott G

    2016-08-01

    Biomarkers have been critical for studies of disease pathogenesis and the development of new therapies in severe asthma. In particular, biomarkers of type 2 inflammation have proven valuable for endotyping and targeting new biological agents. Because of these successes in understanding and marking type 2 inflammation, lack of knowledge regarding non-type 2 inflammatory mechanisms in asthma will soon be the major obstacle to the development of new treatments and management strategies in severe asthma. Biomarkers can play a role in these investigations as well by providing insight into the underlying biology in human studies of patients with severe asthma. PMID:27401625

  6. Fundamental aspects of catalysed coal char gasification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gangwal, S. K.; Truesdale, R. S.

    1980-06-01

    A brief review of the basic aspects of catalysed coal char gasification is presented. Kinetics and mechanisms of catalysed and uncatalysed gasification reactions of coal char with steam, carbon dioxide and hydrogen are discussed. Mass transport effects and internal structure of coals are shown to be important in determining rates of these reactions. The importance of the type of catalyst used is also discussed. Such factors as catalyst cations and anions, the method by which the catalyst is contacted with the coal char, and physical and chemical states of the catalyst both prior to and during reaction are shown to be important in the gasification process. Finally, research instruments and equipment used recently for studies in catalysed gasification are reviewed. These include various types of reactor systems for following the course of these reactions and analytical instruments for assessing the physical and/or chemical state of the catalysts and/or coal char both prior to and during the gasification reactions.

  7. Genetic aspects of pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Whitcomb, David C

    2010-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis and chronic pancreatitis are complex inflammatory disorders of the pancreas with unpredictable severity, complications, and clinical courses. Growing evidence for genetic risk and modifying factors, plus strong evidence that only a minority of patients with these disorders are heavy alcohol drinkers, has revolutionized our concept of these diseases. Once considered a self-inflicted injury, pancreatitis is now recognized as a complex inflammatory condition like inflammatory bowel disease. Genetic linkage and candidate gene studies have identified six pancreas-targeting factors that are associated with changes in susceptibility to acute and/or chronic pancreatitis, including cationic trypsinogen (PRSS1), anionic trypsinogen (PRSS2), serine protease inhibitor Kazal 1 (SPINK1), cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), chymotrypsinogen C (CTRC) and calcium-sensing receptor (CASR). Patients with mutations in these genes are at increased risk of pancreatitis caused by a variety of stresses including hyperlipidemia and hypercalcemia. Multiple studies are reporting new polymorphisms, as well as complex gene x gene and gene x environmental interactions. PMID:20059346

  8. Forensic aspects of starvation.

    PubMed

    Madea, Burkhard; Ortmann, Jan; Doberentz, Elke

    2016-09-01

    Fatal starvation is a rare cause of death in industrialized countries. However, it may have major medicolegal importance if death results from the deliberate withholding of food, especially from infants. In such cases, the task of the forensic pathologist and the medical examiner, respectively, is to clarify the cause of death and give an expert opinion on the degree and duration of starvation. Several classification systems have been developed to estimate protein-energy malnutrition in developing countries. Simpler classifications, such as the Gomez classification, use the weight expected for the respective age group as the standard. However, smaller infants will be lighter, and therefore the classification may not be accurate in this case. Following the Waterlow classification, the extent of stunted growth (referring to growth retardation in cases of chronic malnutrition) is calculated using the ratio of the measured body height to that expected for the age. Using such classification systems, grading of stunting and wasting can be achieved and may greatly help in the assessment of a given child's nutritional status in legal cases. The application of the Waterlow classification to the authors' case material and previously published cases in the literature is herein demonstrated. The Waterlow classification is not only of importance for grading the final stage of fatal starvation, but also for the chronological development of the nutritional status if anthropometrical data have been repeatedly recorded from the affected individual in vivo. PMID:27145935

  9. Stueckelberg and Molecular Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacki, Jan

    The first period of E. C. G. Stueckelberg's scientific career was marked by important contributions he made to molecular physics.1 After publishing his thesis in 1927 in Basel [1] Stueckelberg joined the prestigious Palmer Physical Laboratory in Princeton where he worked under the guidance of Karl Taylor Compton, brother of Arthur Holly Compton. Stueckelberg owed this position devoted several papers to problems of molecular physics. Stueckelberg had the benefit at Princeton of exchanges with other gifted members of the Palmer Physical Laboratory, Philip M. Morse and E. U. Condon among others.3 to a recommendation by A. Sommerfeld.2 In this stimulating environment, he devoted several papers to problems of molecular physics. Stueckelberg had the benefit at Princeton of exchanges with other gifted members of the Palmer Physical Laboratory, Philip M. Morse and E. U. Condon among others.3

  10. Physics in Police Investigations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Peter

    1980-01-01

    Described are several techniques and pieces of equipment developed by the Police Scientific Department Branch in its application of physics to police problems. Topics discussed include fingerprints, documents, and photographs. (Author/DS)

  11. Legal aspects of telepathology.

    PubMed

    Dierks, C

    2000-01-01

    In some legal surroundings telepathology is considered a breach of registrational barriers. The recommendation of the G 8 states in Europe for required legislation in telemedicine suggests to recognise that the localization of the remote health care professional defines the site not only of licensure but also of liability. This approach must be considered helpful, since it can solve many problems brought about by the doubtful results of private international law and conventions like the European Union (EU) and Lugano Convention. Under today's conditions in private international law it must be considered essential to agree upon a choice of law and stipulate a court of jurisdiction when doing telepathology. However, the opposing aims of insuring the patients claims and avoiding jurisdictions that exceed the local expectations of the medical professional must be reconciled. Data protection and data security are other crucial topics that require attention. Generally speaking, the principles of minimum data exchange, anonymity, pseudonymity and cryptography must be established as a basis for all telepathology procedures. Only when personal data is needed, its use can be legitimated. Written consent of the patient is advised. To guarantee a cross-border security level the regulations of the EU-Data Protection Directive need to be transformed into national law. In practise, cross-border dataflow shall only take place where the security level can be maintained even within the other country. Finally, reimbursement questions must be answered to establish a sound economical basis for telepathology. The spatial distance between the participants may yield the question, whether the service has been rendered to an extent necessary and sufficient for reimbursement. If reimbursement takes place on a cross-border or cross-regional level, severe disturbances of the health systems can occur. Regulation schemes or treaties need therefore to be developed to avoid such disturbances and

  12. Innovatory aspects of population education.

    PubMed

    Casassus, J

    1985-06-01

    The expansion of population education activities in the last 10 years has led some authors to consider it as 1 of the most rapidly growing educational innovations in the world. This paper considers some of the most significant innovative aspects that can be drawn from the experience of different countries in the implementation of population education in the formal school system. Educational innovations present 2 phases: 1) the conception phase when the need is identified and the contents are determined and 2) the conduct of the innovation, which is the process through which the innovation is developed, evaluated, expanded, and becomes institutionalized. In the process of construction of population contents, 3 related approaches are used in order to render them meaningful: 1) interdisciplinarity, 2) the systemic approach, and 3) the interrelation between the macro and the micro level. It is commonly accepted that educational contents should meet the following 3 imperatives: relevance, coherence, and balance. The pedagogical act is conditioned by 3 interrelated elements: 1) by goals of education as they are expressed through the curriculum design and the contents developed, 2) by the role assumed by the teacher and the learner in the learning process, and 3) the pedagogical technics used by the teacher in order to attain the desired goals. In several countries, the role of population education has been enlarged to cover areas which had been traditionally confined to the private or family realm. Population education, by the nature of its contents and by the learning methodologies required, can become and has become in some countries, a major source for the renewal of education. PMID:12268121

  13. Severe Traumatic Injury

    PubMed Central

    Minei, Joseph P.; Schmicker, Robert H.; Kerby, Jeffrey D.; Stiell, Ian G.; Schreiber, Martin A.; Bulger, Eileen; Tisherman, Samuel; Hoyt, David B.; Nichol, Graham

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The public health implications of regional variation in incidence and outcome of severe traumatic injury remain to be analyzed. The objective of this study was to determine whether the incidence and outcome associated with severe traumatic injury differs across geographic regions of North America. Methods A prospective, observational study was conducted of the Resuscitation Outcomes Consortium of all patients in 9 North American sites (6 US and 3 Canadian) sustaining severe traumatic injury from April 1, 2006 to March 31, 2007 followed to hospital discharge. Eligible patients were assessed by organized emergency medical services, and had field-based physiologic criteria including systolic blood pressure ≤90 mm Hg, Glasgow Coma Scale score ≤12, respiratory rate <10 or >29 per minute, advanced airway procedure, or traumatic death in the field. Census data were used to determine rates adjusted for age and sex. The main outcome measures were incidence rate, mortality rate, case fatality rate, and survival to discharge for patients sustaining severe traumatic injury assessed by EMS. Results The total catchment population of 20.5 million yielded 7080 cases of severe traumatic injury. Median age was 36 years and 67% were male. The median incidence of EMS-assessed severe traumatic injury per 100,000 population across sites was 37.4 (interquartile range [IQR] = 24.6 – 69.6); survival ranged from 39.8% to 80.8%, with a median of 64.5% (IQR = 55.5–78.4). About 942 cases were pronounced dead at the scene and 5857 patients were transported to hospital; 4477 (63.2%) were discharged alive. The median incidence of severe trauma due to a blunt mechanism, transported to hospital, was 25.8 (IQR = 13.1–44.3); survival ranged from 52.6% to 87.3%, with a median of 78.0% (IQR = 68.4–83.5). The median incidence of severe penetrating trauma, transported to hospital, was 2.6 (IQR = 1.5–10.4); survival ranged from 37.5% to 84.7%, with a median of 67.5% (IQR = 54.1

  14. Disease Severity Index

    PubMed Central

    Maloney, Clifford J.

    1980-01-01

    Workers studying several diseases have devised severity levels under the term “disease staging” to facilitate both research on the disease and the choice of treatment for individual patients. These categories are usually ad hoc, and hence neither widely accepted nor susceptable to improvement with increasing knowledge. Other workers have developed quantitative assays of the sensitivity of biological organisms under the term bioassay. The present paper applies an adaptation of bioassay to the assessment of the degree of sickness severity of individual patients. In practice using the index requires only a simple table look-up. The feasibility and suitability of the technique were tested on records of 908 metastatic breast cancer patients which happened to be available. Study of other data is highly desirable.

  15. [Severe depression : psychoanalysis].

    PubMed

    Bouvet de la Maisonneuve, O

    2009-12-01

    The indication for psychoanalysis in severe depression is not clear. And yet, demands for this type of intervention are increasing, despite the absence of any form of consensus on the subject. Freud considered depression as a failure of analytical efforts and, based on this observation, revised his theory, in particular to include the notions of narcissism and the death drive. Many analysts have been reluctant to follow his teachings on this last point and provide depressed patients with analytical-type therapies aimed at restoring narcissism. Melanie Klein pushed Freud's ideas about depression even further and brought such therapies back to the heart of analytical practice. Jacques Lacan took the debate to another level by proposing an overhaul of the principles on which analysis has been based. Today, while following certain precautionary rules, true psychoanalyses can be proposed to patients with severe depression, whether of the bipolar, recurring or even neurotic type that can reach this level of severity. PMID:20141799

  16. Sports physical

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000673.htm Sports physical To use the sharing features on this ... or routine checkups. Why do you Need a Sports Physical? The sports physical is done to: Find ...

  17. Form matters: morphological aspects of lateral root development

    PubMed Central

    Szymanowska-Pułka, Joanna

    2013-01-01

    Background The crucial role of roots in plant nutrition, and consequently in plant productivity, is a strong motivation to study the growth and functioning of various aspects of the root system. Numerous studies on lateral roots, as a major determinant of the root system architecture, mostly focus on the physiological and molecular bases of developmental processes. Unfortunately, little attention is paid either to the morphological changes accompanying the formation of a lateral root or to morphological defects occurring in lateral root primordia. The latter are observed in some mutants and occasionally in wild-type plants, but may also result from application of external factors. Scope and Conclusions In this review various morphological aspects of lateral branching in roots are analysed. Morphological events occurring during the formation of a typical lateral root are described. This process involves dramatic changes in the geometry of the developing organ that at early stages are associated with oblique cell divisions, leading to breaking of the symmetry of the cell pattern. Several types of defects in the morphology of primordia are indicated and described. Computer simulations show that some of these defects may result from an unstable field of growth rates. Significant changes in both primary and lateral root morphology may also be a consequence of various mutations, some of which are auxin-related. Examples reported in the literature are considered. Finally, lateral root formation is discussed in terms of mechanics. In this approach the primordium is considered as a physical object undergoing deformation and is characterized by specific mechanical properties. PMID:24190952

  18. Quanta of Geometry: Noncommutative Aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chamseddine, Ali H.; Connes, Alain; Mukhanov, Viatcheslav

    2015-03-01

    In the construction of spectral manifolds in noncommutative geometry, a higher degree Heisenberg commutation relation involving the Dirac operator and the Feynman slash of real scalar fields naturally appears and implies, by equality with the index formula, the quantization of the volume. We first show that this condition implies that the manifold decomposes into disconnected spheres, which will represent quanta of geometry. We then refine the condition by involving the real structure and two types of geometric quanta, and show that connected spin manifolds with large quantized volume are then obtained as solutions. The two algebras M2(H ) and M4(C ) are obtained, which are the exact constituents of the standard model. Using the two maps from M4 to S4 the four-manifold is built out of a very large number of the two kinds of spheres of Planckian volume. We give several physical applications of this scheme such as quantization of the cosmological constant, mimetic dark matter, and area quantization of black holes.

  19. Medical aspects of sport diving.

    PubMed

    Bove, A A

    1996-05-01

    Medical issues in sport diving include illnesses that are caused by diving, and medical disorders that compromise safety. Cerebral air embolism and decompression sickness of the brain and spinal cord can result from diving. Sport divers may manifest a spectrum of symptoms from air embolism, which can range from unconsciousness to minimal symptoms, which include fatigue, personality change, poor concentration, irritability, and changes in vision. The physician must search for these minor symptoms in divers who are suspected of pulmonary barotrauma. Medical disorders of concern in diving include diseases of the lungs, the heart, the brain, and the endocrine system, particularly diabetes. Other factors involved in diving safety are exercise capacity and training. Clinical practice standards usually prohibit diving by individuals who have a seizure disorder that requires continuous medication. In the United States, we will not approve diving for individuals who have insulin-dependent diabetes or severe asthma. Some divers can return to diving after myocardial infarction or bypass surgery if they demonstrate good exercise tolerance and no ischemia on a graded exercise test, which simulates the physical activity needed for safe diving. PMID:9148089

  20. Quanta of geometry: noncommutative aspects.

    PubMed

    Chamseddine, Ali H; Connes, Alain; Mukhanov, Viatcheslav

    2015-03-01

    In the construction of spectral manifolds in noncommutative geometry, a higher degree Heisenberg commutation relation involving the Dirac operator and the Feynman slash of real scalar fields naturally appears and implies, by equality with the index formula, the quantization of the volume. We first show that this condition implies that the manifold decomposes into disconnected spheres, which will represent quanta of geometry. We then refine the condition by involving the real structure and two types of geometric quanta, and show that connected spin manifolds with large quantized volume are then obtained as solutions. The two algebras M_{2}(H) and M_{4}(C) are obtained, which are the exact constituents of the standard model. Using the two maps from M_{4} to S^{4} the four-manifold is built out of a very large number of the two kinds of spheres of Planckian volume. We give several physical applications of this scheme such as quantization of the cosmological constant, mimetic dark matter, and area quantization of black holes. PMID:25793795

  1. Novel aspects of plasma control in ITER

    SciTech Connect

    Humphreys, D.; Jackson, G.; Walker, M.; Welander, A.; Ambrosino, G.; Pironti, A.; Felici, F.; Kallenbach, A.; Raupp, G.; Treutterer, W.; Kolemen, E.; Lister, J.; Sauter, O.; Moreau, D.; Schuster, E.

    2015-02-15

    ITER plasma control design solutions and performance requirements are strongly driven by its nuclear mission, aggressive commissioning constraints, and limited number of operational discharges. In addition, high plasma energy content, heat fluxes, neutron fluxes, and very long pulse operation place novel demands on control performance in many areas ranging from plasma boundary and divertor regulation to plasma kinetics and stability control. Both commissioning and experimental operations schedules provide limited time for tuning of control algorithms relative to operating devices. Although many aspects of the control solutions required by ITER have been well-demonstrated in present devices and even designed satisfactorily for ITER application, many elements unique to ITER including various crucial integration issues are presently under development. We describe selected novel aspects of plasma control in ITER, identifying unique parts of the control problem and highlighting some key areas of research remaining. Novel control areas described include control physics understanding (e.g., current profile regulation, tearing mode (TM) suppression), control mathematics (e.g., algorithmic and simulation approaches to high confidence robust performance), and integration solutions (e.g., methods for management of highly subscribed control resources). We identify unique aspects of the ITER TM suppression scheme, which will pulse gyrotrons to drive current within a magnetic island, and turn the drive off following suppression in order to minimize use of auxiliary power and maximize fusion gain. The potential role of active current profile control and approaches to design in ITER are discussed. Issues and approaches to fault handling algorithms are described, along with novel aspects of actuator sharing in ITER.

  2. Novel aspects of plasma control in ITER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humphreys, D.; Ambrosino, G.; de Vries, P.; Felici, F.; Kim, S. H.; Jackson, G.; Kallenbach, A.; Kolemen, E.; Lister, J.; Moreau, D.; Pironti, A.; Raupp, G.; Sauter, O.; Schuster, E.; Snipes, J.; Treutterer, W.; Walker, M.; Welander, A.; Winter, A.; Zabeo, L.

    2015-02-01

    ITER plasma control design solutions and performance requirements are strongly driven by its nuclear mission, aggressive commissioning constraints, and limited number of operational discharges. In addition, high plasma energy content, heat fluxes, neutron fluxes, and very long pulse operation place novel demands on control performance in many areas ranging from plasma boundary and divertor regulation to plasma kinetics and stability control. Both commissioning and experimental operations schedules provide limited time for tuning of control algorithms relative to operating devices. Although many aspects of the control solutions required by ITER have been well-demonstrated in present devices and even designed satisfactorily for ITER application, many elements unique to ITER including various crucial integration issues are presently under development. We describe selected novel aspects of plasma control in ITER, identifying unique parts of the control problem and highlighting some key areas of research remaining. Novel control areas described include control physics understanding (e.g., current profile regulation, tearing mode (TM) suppression), control mathematics (e.g., algorithmic and simulation approaches to high confidence robust performance), and integration solutions (e.g., methods for management of highly subscribed control resources). We identify unique aspects of the ITER TM suppression scheme, which will pulse gyrotrons to drive current within a magnetic island, and turn the drive off following suppression in order to minimize use of auxiliary power and maximize fusion gain. The potential role of active current profile control and approaches to design in ITER are discussed. Issues and approaches to fault handling algorithms are described, along with novel aspects of actuator sharing in ITER.

  3. Administrative Aspects of Human Experimentation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irvine, George W.

    1992-01-01

    The following administrative aspects of scientific experimentation with human subjects are discussed: the definition of human experimentation; the distinction between experimentation and treatment; investigator responsibility; documentation; the elements and principles of informed consent; and the administrator's role in establishing and…

  4. Topological Aspects of Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egghe, Leo; Rousseau, Ronald

    1998-01-01

    Discusses topological aspects of theoretical information retrieval, including retrieval topology; similarity topology; pseudo-metric topology; document spaces as topological spaces; Boolean information retrieval as a subsystem of any topological system; and proofs of theorems. (LRW)

  5. CLINICAL ASPECTS OF VETERINARY LISTERIOSIS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This invited presentation updates the clinical aspects of Listeria monocytogenes in food animals. It summarizes the epidemiology and diagnostic methods. Virtually all domesticated animal species are susceptible to listeric infection, with a large proportion of healthy asymptomatic animals shedding...

  6. Physics and fingerprints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voss-de Haan, Patrick

    2006-08-01

    This article discusses a variety of aspects in the detection and development of fingerprints and the physics involved in it. It gives an introduction to some basic issues like composition and properties of fingerprint deposits and a rudimentary framework of dactyloscopy; it covers various techniques for the visualization of latent fingerprints; and it concludes with a view of current research topics. The techniques range from very common procedures, such as powdering and cyanoacrylate fuming, to more demanding methods, for example luminescence and vacuum metal deposition, to fairly unusual approaches like autoradiography. The emphasis is placed on the physical rather than the forensic aspects of these topics while trying to give the physicist—who is not dealing with fingerprinting and forensic science on a daily basis—a feeling for the problems and solutions in the visualization of latent fingerprints.

  7. Measuring Physical Activity Environments

    PubMed Central

    Sallis, James F.

    2010-01-01

    Physical activity is usually done in specific types of places, referred to as physical activity environments. These often include parks, trails, fitness centers, schools, and streets. In recent years, scientific interest has increased notably in measuring physical activity environments. The present paper provides an historical overview of the contributions of the health, planning, and leisure studies fields to the development of contemporary measures. The emphasis is on attributes of the built environment that can be affected by policies to contribute to the promotion of physical activity. Researchers from health fields assessed a wide variety of built environment variables expected to be related to recreational physical activity. Settings of interest were schools, workplaces, and recreation facilities, and most early measures used direct observation methods with demonstrated inter-observer reliability. Investigators from the city planning field evaluated aspects of community design expected to be related to people’s ability to walk from homes to destinations. GIS was used to assess walkability defined by the 3Ds of residential density, land-use diversity, and pedestrian-oriented designs. Evaluating measures for reliability or validity was rarely done in the planning-related fields. Researchers in the leisure studies and recreation fields studied mainly people’s use of leisure time rather than physical characteristics of parks and other recreation facilities. Although few measures of physical activity environments were developed, measures of aesthetic qualities are available. Each of these fields made unique contributions to the contemporary methods used to assess physical activity environments. PMID:19285214

  8. A Digital Solar Aspect Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albus, James S.

    1961-01-01

    The solar aspect sensor described herein performs the analog-to-digital conversion of data optically. To accomplish this, it uses a binary "Gray code" light mask to produce a digital indication, in vehicle-fixed coordinates, of the elevation and azimuth angles of incident light from the sun. This digital solar aspect sensor system, in Explorer X, provided measurements of both elevation and azimuth angles to +/- 2 degrees at a distance of over 140,000 statute miles.

  9. [Physical exposure by travelling].

    PubMed

    Lange, U

    2011-06-01

    Approximately 40 million Germans travel abroad every year. Air travel is the most frequently used mean of transportation followed by the automobile. During airplane flights rheumatic patients are subjected to numerous physical, biological and climatic factors which can cause stress and adverse effects on general health. Therefore, preventive strategies are helpful to protect against health damage, provided that there is general fitness for air travel. The present article focuses on physical and biological stress as well as psychological aspects during air travel and reviews prophylactic measures. PMID:21533614

  10. Severe sepsis in cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Gustot, Thierry; Durand, François; Lebrec, Didier; Vincent, Jean-Louis; Moreau, Richard

    2009-12-01

    Sepsis is physiologically viewed as a proinflammatory and procoagulant response to invading pathogens. There are three recognized stages in the inflammatory response with progressively increased risk of end-organ failure and death: sepsis, severe sepsis, and septic shock. Patients with cirrhosis are prone to develop sepsis, sepsis-induced organ failure, and death. There is evidence that in cirrhosis, sepsis is accompanied by a markedly imbalanced cytokine response ("cytokine storm"), which converts responses that are normally beneficial for fighting infections into excessive, damaging inflammation. Molecular mechanisms for this excessive proinflammatory response are poorly understood. In patients with cirrhosis and severe sepsis, high production of proinflammatory cytokines seems to play a role in the worsening of liver function and the development of organ/system failures such as shock, renal failure, acute lung injury or acute respiratory distress syndrome, coagulopathy, or hepatic encephalopathy. In addition, these patients may have sepsis-induced hyperglycemia, defective arginine-vasopressin secretion, adrenal insufficiency, or compartmental syndrome. In patients with cirrhosis and spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP), early use of antibiotics and intravenous albumin administration decreases the risk for developing renal failure and improves survival. There are no randomized studies that have been specifically performed in patients with cirrhosis and severe sepsis to evaluate treatments that have been shown to improve outcome in patients without cirrhosis who have severe sepsis or septic shock. These treatments include recombinant human activated C protein and protective-ventilation strategy for respiratory failure. Other treatments should be evaluated in the cirrhotic population with severe sepsis including the early use of antibiotics in "non-SBP" infections, vasopressor therapy, hydrocortisone, renal-replacement therapy and liver support systems, and

  11. Dynamic aspects of large woody debris in river channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vergaro, Alexandra; Caporali, Enrica; Becchi, Ignazio

    2015-04-01

    Large Woody Debris (LWD) are an integral component of the fluvial environment. They represent an environmental resource, but without doubt they represent also a risk factor for the amplification that could give to the destructive power of a flood event. While countless intervention in river channels have reintroduced wood in rivers with restoration and banks protection aims, during several flash flood events LWD have had a great part in catastrophic consequences, pointing out the urgency of an adequate risk assessment procedure. At present wood dynamics in rivers is not systematically considered within the procedures for the elaboration of hazard maps resulting in loss of prediction accuracy and underestimation of hazard impacts. The assessment inconsistency comes from the complexity of the question: several aspects in wood processes are not yet well known and the superposition of different physical phenomena results in great difficulty to predict critical scenarios. The presented research activity has been aimed to improve management skills for the assessment of the hydrologic risk associated to the presence of large woody debris in rivers, improving knowledge about LWD dynamic processes and proposing effective tools for monitoring and mapping river catchments vulnerability. Utilizing critical review of the published works, field surveys and experimental investigations LWD damaging potential has been analysed to support the identification of the exposed sites and the redaction of hazard maps, taking into account that a comprehensive procedure has to involve: a) Identification of the critical cross sections; b) Evaluation of wood availability in the river catchment; c) Prediction of hazard scenarios through the estimation of water discharge, wood recruitment and entrainment, wood transport and destination. Particularly, a survey sheets form for direct measurements has been implemented and tested in field to provide an investigation instruments for wood and river

  12. ALICE physics --- Theoretical overview

    SciTech Connect

    Alessandro, B.; Aurenche, P.; Baier, R.; Becattini, F.; Botje, M.; Csorgo, T.; de Cataldo, G.; Foka, Y.; Giovannini, A.; Giubellino, P.; Guillet, J.Ph.; Heinz, U.; Hencken, K.; Iancu, E.; Kaidalov, A.B.; Kajantie, K.; Karsch, F.; Koch, V.; Kopeliovich, B.Z.; Kurepin, A.B.; Laine, M.; Lednicky, R.; Mangano, M.; Monteno, M.; Paic, G.; Pilon, E.; Pshenichnov, I.A.; Redlich, K.; Revol, J.-P.; Riggi, F.; Safarik, K.; Salgado, C.A.; Schukraft, J.; Sinyukov, Y.; Tomasik, B.; Treleani, D.; Ugoccioni, R.; Venugopalan, R.; Vogt, R.; Wiedemann, U.A.

    2002-09-15

    ALICE is the dedicated heavy ion experiment at the LHC. This note summarizes theoretical developments in the field of hot and dense matter and their relevance for observables accessible to ALICE in nucleus-nucleus, proton-nucleus and proton-proton collisions. In addition, aspects of specific interest for proton-proton, proton-nucleus, ultraperipheral collisions and cosmic ray physics, which can be addressed by ALICE, are also discussed.

  13. [Psychological aspects of induced abortion].

    PubMed

    Mouniq, C; Moron, P

    1982-06-01

    Results are presented of a literature review to identify social and psychological aspects of abortion. The literature does not provide a true profile of women requesting abortions, but some characteristics emerge. Reasons for requesting abortion include economic problems, difficult previous pregnancies, general medical contraindications to pregnancy, marital conflicts, feelings of loneliness, professional aspirations, problems with existing children, and feelings of insecurity about the future. However, the same feelings are found among women carrying their pregnancies to term. Unplanned pregnancies are more common during periods of depression. Most authors have found about 1/2 of women seeking abortions to be single and about 1/2 to be under 25 years old. Religion does not appear to be a determining factor. 1 study of psychological factors in abortion seekers found that a large number of single women seeking abortion had suffered traumatic experiences in childhood and were seeking security in inappropriate amorous relationships. Helene Deutsch stressed the destructive impulses latent in all pregnancies. Others have cited the ambivalence of the desire for pregnancy and feelings of loss after abortion. Studies published after legalization of abortion in the US and France however have stressed the nearly total absence of moderate or severe psychiatric symptoms after abortion. Responses immediately after the abortion may include feelings of relief, guilt, indifference, or ambivalence. Secondary affects appear minor to most authors. Psychological effects do not appear to be influenced by age, marital status, parity, intelligence, occupation, existence of a later pregnancy, or concommitant sterilization. "Premorbidity" and coercion by spouse or family were most closely associated with psychological symptoms. Numerous authors have found about twice as many negative reactions among women undergoing abortion for medical reasons. Most patients undergoing abortions for

  14. An Underdiscussed Aspect of Chomsky (1959)

    PubMed Central

    Adelman, Barry Eshkol

    2007-01-01

    Chomsky's (1959) review of Skinner's (1957) Verbal Behavior has been influential and attributed with a role in the cognitive revolution. However, while counter reviews from within behavior analysis have noted that Chomsky misunderstood the subject matter, certain aspects of his scholarship have been underdiscussed. This includes several instances where Chomsky misquotes Skinner or takes his quotes out of context. Similar to the findings of Sokal (1996a, 1996b), it is speculated that the problems with Chomsky were overlooked by cognitive psychologists because his general outlook was accepted. Implications for the editorial review process are discussed. PMID:22477378

  15. Photodynamic therapy--aspects of pain management.

    PubMed

    Fink, Christine; Enk, Alexander; Gholam, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Topical photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a highly effective and safe treatment method for actinic keratoses with an excellent cosmetic outcome and is commonly used for the therapy of large areas of photodamaged skin with multiple clinically manifest and subclinical lesions. However, the major drawback of photodynamic therapy is the pain experienced during the treatment that can be intense and sometimes even intolerable for patients, requiring interruption or termination of the process. Several strategies for controlling pain during photodynamic therapy have been studied but few effective methods are currently available. Therefore, this review puts the spotlight on predictors on pain intensity and aspects of pain management during photodynamic therapy. PMID:25640485

  16. Flutter analysis of low aspect ratio wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parnell, L. A.

    1986-01-01

    Several very low aspect ratio flat plate wing configurations are analyzed for their aerodynamic instability (flutter) characteristics. All of the wings investigated are delta planforms with clipped tips, made of aluminum alloy plate and cantilevered from the supporting vehicle body. Results of both subsonic and supersonic NASTRAN aeroelastic analyses as well as those from another version of the program implementing the supersonic linearized aerodynamic theory are presented. Results are selectively compared with the experimental data; however, supersonic predictions of the Mach Box method in NASTRAN are found to be erratic and erroneous, requiring the use of a separate program.

  17. Climate Change: Biological and Human Aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wickland, Diane E.

    2008-08-01

    Several months ago a young economist asked me if I could recommend a good book explaining global climate change. At the time, I couldn't think of anything appropriate for a nonscientist. Jonathan Cowie's new book can now meet this need and is especially appropriate for someone interested in human systems. As Cowie explains in his introduction, Climate Change: Biological and Human Aspects is written to be accessible to undergraduates, scientists outside of the life sciences, specialists reading outside of their field, and policy makers and analysts interested in climate change and its relevance to society. In this regard, he succeeds very well.

  18. Biological Aspects of Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia Nervosa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Allan S.; Woodside, D. Blake

    1987-01-01

    Reviews biological factors relevant to the understanding of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. Considers the physical presentation of these disorders; the medical complications of starvation, binging, and purging; and the cognitive and behavioral effects of starvation. Reviews neurophysiological and neurochemical aspects of these illnesses and…

  19. The physics of golf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penner, A. Raymond

    2003-02-01

    An overview of the application of physics to the game of golf is given. The golf swing is modelled as a double pendulum. This model and its variations have been used extensively by researchers in determining the effect that various swing parameters have on clubhead speed. These results as well as examples of three-link models are discussed. Kinematic and kinetic measurements taken on the recorded downswings of golfers as well as force measurements are reviewed. These measurements highlight differences between the swings of skilled and unskilled golfers. Several aspects of the behaviour of a golf ball are examined. Measurements and models of the impact of golf balls with barriers are reviewed. Such measurements have allowed researchers to determine the effect that different golf ball constructions have on their launch parameters. The launch parameters determine not only the length of the golf shot but also the behaviour of the golf ball on impact with the turf. The effect of dimples on the aerodynamics of a golf ball and the length of the golf shot is discussed. Models of the bounce and roll of a golf ball after impact with the turf as well as models of the motion of a putted ball are presented. Researchers have measured and modelled the behaviour of both the shaft and the clubhead during the downswing and at impact. The effect that clubhead mass and loft as well as the shaft length and mass have on the length of a golf shot are considered. Models and measurements of the flexing of the shaft as well as research into the flexing of the clubface and the effects of its surface roughness are presented. An important consideration in clubhead design is its behaviour during off-centre impacts. In line with this, the effects that the curvature of a clubface and the moments of inertia of the clubhead have on the launch parameters and trajectory of an off-centred impacted golf ball are examined.

  20. Recent developments in MAP - MODULAR APPROACH to PHYSICS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rae, Jennifer; Austen, Dave; Brouwer, Wytze

    2002-05-01

    We present recent developments in MAP - MODULAR APPROACH to PHYSICS - JAVA enhanced modules to be used as aids in teaching the first 3 terms of university physics. The MAP project is very comprehensive and consists of a modular approach to physics that utilizes JAVA applets, FLASH animations and HTML based tutorials. The overall instructional philosophy of MAP is constructivist and the project emphasizes active learner participation. In this talk we will provide a quick overview of the project and the results of recent pilot testing at several Canadian universities. It will also include a discussion of the VIDEO LAB aspect of MAP. This is a component that is integrated into MAP and permits students to capture and evaluate otherwise difficult to study phenomena on video.

  1. [Physical activity, eating behavior, and pathology].

    PubMed

    Jáuregui Lobera, Ignacio; Estébanez Humanes, Sonia; Santiago Fernández, María José

    2008-09-01

    Intense physical activity has been reported in patients with eating disorders, and hyperactivity can be found in more than 80% in severe stages. The beginning of food restriction occurs at earlier ages if there is an intense physical activity; body dissatisfaction is more intense among patients who practice exercise; and the presence of intense activity in anorexia nervosa usually precedes to the restrictive diet. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of exercise at the beginning of the eating disorder, and to analyze possible differences in the kind of exercise, according to age, sex and diagnostic subgroups. In order to evaluate the exercise 745 patients were assessed by the Eating Disorders Examination (EDE). The presence of physical activity (driving to caloric consumption, weight loss or modification of body shape), kind of activity, and its intensity were considered. Only the presence of moderate or high intensity clearly related with the mentioned objectives was considered. 407 patients (54.63%) engaged in exercise: 68.96% with anorexia, 68.96% with bulimia, and 34.73% with other non-specified eating disorders. There were not significant differences between men and women. Hyperactivity was the most frequent (47.42%), followed by gym activity (25.79%). Taking into account the different clinic subgroups, we could observe significant differences. To assess eating disorders, a correct evaluation of the physical activity should be necessary in order to include this aspect in treatment programs. PMID:19137991

  2. Severe sepsis during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Pacheco, Luis D; Saade, George R; Hankins, Gary D V

    2014-12-01

    Severe sepsis is a major cause of mortality among critically ill patients. Early recognition accompanied by early initiation of broad-spectrum antibiotics with source control and fluid resuscitation improves outcomes. Hemodynamic resuscitation starts with fluid therapy followed by vasopressors if necessary. Cases refractory to first-line vasopressors (norepinephrine) will require second-line vasopressors (epinephrine or vasopressin) and low-dose steroid therapy. Resuscitation goals should include optimization of central venous oxygenation and serum lactate. PMID:25286297

  3. Epidemiology of severe trauma.

    PubMed

    Alberdi, F; García, I; Atutxa, L; Zabarte, M

    2014-12-01

    Major injury is the sixth leading cause of death worldwide. Among those under 35 years of age, it is the leading cause of death and disability. Traffic accidents alone are the main cause, fundamentally in low- and middle-income countries. Patients over 65 years of age are an increasingly affected group. For similar levels of injury, these patients have twice the mortality rate of young individuals, due to the existence of important comorbidities and associated treatments, and are more likely to die of medical complications late during hospital admission. No worldwide, standardized definitions exist for documenting, reporting and comparing data on severely injured trauma patients. The most common trauma scores are the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS), the Injury Severity Score (ISS) and the Trauma and Injury severity Score (TRISS). Documenting the burden of injury also requires evaluation of the impact of post-trauma impairments, disabilities and handicaps. Trauma epidemiology helps define health service and research priorities, contributes to identify disadvantaged groups, and also facilitates the elaboration of comparable measures for outcome predictions. PMID:25241267

  4. Artemether for severe malaria

    PubMed Central

    Esu, Ekpereonne; Effa, Emmanuel E; Opie, Oko N; Uwaoma, Amirahobu; Meremikwu, Martin M

    2014-01-01

    Background In 2011 the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended parenteral artesunate in preference to quinine as first-line treatment for people with severe malaria. Prior to this recommendation, many countries, particularly in Africa, had begun to use artemether, an alternative artemisinin derivative. This review evaluates intramuscular artemether compared with both quinine and artesunate. Objectives To assess the efficacy and safety of intramuscular artemether versus any other parenteral medication in treating severe malaria in adults and children. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register, CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library), MEDLINE, EMBASE and LILACS, ISI Web of Science, conference proceedings and reference lists of articles. We also searched the WHO clinical trial registry platform, ClinicalTrials.gov and the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) for ongoing trials up to 9 April 2014. Selection criteria Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing intramuscular artemether with intravenous or intramuscular antimalarial for treating severe malaria. Data collection and analysis The primary outcome was all-cause death.Two authors independently assessed trial eligibility, risk of bias and extracted data. We summarized dichotomous outcomes using risk ratios (RR) and continuous outcomes using mean differences (MD), and presented both measures with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Where appropriate, we combined data in meta-analyses and assessed the quality of the evidence using the GRADE approach. Main results We included 18 RCTs, enrolling 2662 adults and children with severe malaria, carried out in Africa (11) and in Asia (7). Artemether versus quinine For children in Africa, there is probably little or no difference in the risk of death between intramuscular artemether and quinine (RR 0.96, 95% CI 0.76 to 1.20; 12 trials, 1447 participants, moderate quality evidence). Coma recovery may be about five hours shorter with

  5. Management of severe hypospadias

    PubMed Central

    Catti, Massimo; Demède, Delphine; Valmalle, Anne-Frédérique; Mure, Pierre-Yves; Hameury, Frédéric; Mouriquand, Pierre

    2008-01-01

    Many classifications of hypospadias have been published, mainly based on the position of the ectopic meatus, which is an insufficient criterion to define the severity of this malformation. What really marks the proximal landmark of this malformation is the level of division of the corpus spongiosum, which is always proximal to the ectopic meatus. In this article, we will focus on the most severe forms of hypospadias which include those with a proximal division of corpus spongiosum (below the midshaft), important chordee and a poor development of the ventral radius, reflecting a marked hypovirilization of the genital tubercle, and cripple hypospadias resulting from several previous failed surgical procedures. The principle of hypospadias surgery will be reviewed together with the outcome of the current surgical techniques. Furthermore, common complications will be outlined. There is no minor or major hypospadias and all forms require a solid experience of the surgeon, as minor looking hypospadias may turn out to be far more complex to repair than they appear once the ventral radius of the penis has been dissected. PMID:19468403

  6. Heavy ion beam probe systems for tight aspect ratio tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Melnikov, A.V.; Zimeleva, L.G.; Krupnik, L.I.; Nedzelskij, I.S.; Trofimenko, Y.V.; Minaev, V.B.

    1997-01-01

    We discuss the specific features of the application of heavy ion beam probe (HIBP) systems to tight aspect ratio tokamaks. We present and compare the HIBP projects for the TUMAN-3, GLOBUS, and COMPASS, where the inner part of the plasma is not available for regular chord diagnostics, so the HIBP becomes very desirable. All existing tight aspect ratio facilities and projects have a low (less than 1.9 T) toroidal field that requires a comparatively low beam energy range. The natural elongation and triangularity in tight aspect ratio tokamaks require an accurate calculation of the three-dimensional magnetic field for probing optimization. In comparison with traditional tokamaks, the detector grids have a wider energy interval. In general, the trajectories and detector grids for tight aspect ratio tokamaks become similar to the stellarator ones. Traditional and new probing schemes are suggested and discussed. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  7. Can Charcoal Provide Information About Fire Effects and Fire Severity?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belcher, Claire; Hudpsith, Victoria; Doerr, Stefan; Santin, Cristina

    2016-04-01

    Building an understanding of the impact of a wildfire is critical to the management of ecosystems. Aspects of fire severity such as the amount of soil heating, can relate to post-fire ecosystem recovery. Yet, there is no quantitative measure of this in current post-burn fire severity assessments, which are mostly qualitative ground-based visual assessments of organic matter loss, and as such can be subjective and variable between ecosystems. In order to develop a unifying fire severity assessment we explore the use of charcoal produced during a wildfire, as a tool. Charcoal has been suggested to retain some information about the nature of the fire in which it was created and one such physical property of charcoal that can be measured post-fire is its ability to reflect light when studied under oil using reflectance microscopy. The amount of light reflected varies between charcoals and is thought to be explained by the differential ordering of graphite-like phases within the char however, to what aspects of a fire's nature this alteration pertains is unknown. We have explored the formation of charcoal reflectance in 1) laboratory-based experiments using an iCone calorimeter and in 2) experimental forest scale and natural wildland fires occurring in Canada in spring 2015. In our laboratory experiments we assessed the formation and evolution of charcoal reflectance during pre-ignition heating, peak fire intensity through to the end of flaming and the transition to oxidative/smoldering heating regimes. In the prescribed and natural wildland fires we positioned the same woods used in our laboratory experiments, rigged with thermocouples in the path of oncoming fires in order to assess the resulting charcoal reflectance in response to the heating regime imposed by the fire on the samples. In this presentation we will outline our approach, findings and discuss the potential for charcoal reflectance to provide a tool in post-fire assessments seeking to determine levels of

  8. Acute Alcoholic Hepatitis, the Clinical Aspects.

    PubMed

    Dugum, Mohannad F; McCullough, Arthur J

    2016-08-01

    Alcoholic hepatitis is an acute form of alcoholic liver disease with variable severity that develops in patients who usually have a history of prolonged and recent alcohol abuse. The diagnosis is clinical and depends on history, physical examination, and laboratory derangements. Liver biopsy is diagnostic but not universally performed, and noninvasive diagnostic modalities are under development. Scoring systems are used to assess severity of disease, predict mortality, and guide decisions for initiation of specific therapies. The natural history and long-term outcomes of alcoholic hepatitis, including recurrence, progression to cirrhosis, and mortality, vary and depend partly on abstinence from alcohol use. PMID:27373612

  9. Treatment of severe malaria.

    PubMed Central

    Warrell, D A

    1989-01-01

    In the treatment of severe Plasmodium falciparum infection antimalarial drugs should, ideally, be given by controlled rate intravenous infusion until the patient is able to swallow tablets. In cases where infection has been acquired in a chloroquine resistant area, and where it has broken through chloroquine prophylaxis or where the geographical origin or species are uncertain, quinine is the treatment of choice. When access to parenteral quinine is likely to be delayed, parenteral quinidine is an effective alternative. A loading dose of quinine is recommended in order to achieve therapeutic plasma concentrations as quickly as possible. In the case of chloroquine sensitive P. falciparum infection, chloroquine, which can be given safely by slow intravenous infusion, may be more rapidly effective and has fewer toxic effects than quinine. There is limited experience with parenteral administration of pyrimethamine sulphonamide combinations such as Fansidar, and resistance to these drugs has developed in South East Asia and elsewhere. Mefloquine and halofantrine cannot be given parenterally. Qinghaosu derivatives are not readily available and have not been adequately tested outside China. Supportive treatment includes the prevention or early detection and treatment of complications, strict attention to fluid balance, provision of adequate nursing for unconscious patients and avoidance of harmful ancillary treatments. Anaemia is inevitable and out of proportion to detectable parasitaemia. Hypotension and shock ('algid malaria') are often attributable to secondary gram-negative septicaemia requiring appropriate antimicrobial therapy and haemodynamic resuscitation. Many patients with severe falciparum malaria are hypovolaemic on admission to hospital and require cautious fluid replacement. Failure to rehydrate these patients may lead to circulatory collapse, lactic acidosis, renal failure and severe hyponatraemia.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2693726

  10. Assessing tremor severity.

    PubMed Central

    Bain, P G; Findley, L J; Atchison, P; Behari, M; Vidailhet, M; Gresty, M; Rothwell, J C; Thompson, P D; Marsden, C D

    1993-01-01

    A clinical rating scale which measured the severity of tremor in 20 patients (12 with essential tremor and 8 with "dystonic" tremor) was assessed at specific anatomical sites for both inter and intra-rater reliability using four raters. The scores obtained with the scale were compared with the results of upper limb accelerometry, an activity of daily living self-questionnaire and estimates of the tremor induced impairment in writing and drawing specimens. The results show that, for the purposes of routine assessment and therapeutic trials, a clinical rating scale can produce reliable results which are a more valid index of tremor induced disability than standard postural accelerometry. PMID:8350102

  11. Atomic physics

    SciTech Connect

    Livingston, A.E.; Kukla, K.; Cheng, S.

    1995-08-01

    In a collaboration with the Atomic Physics group at Argonne and the University of Toledo, the Atomic Physics group at the University of Notre Dame is measuring the fine structure transition energies in highly-charged lithium-like and helium-like ions using beam-foil spectroscopy. Precise measurements of 2s-2p transition energies in simple (few-electron) atomic systems provide stringent tests of several classes of current atomic- structure calculations. Analyses of measurements in helium-like Ar{sup 16+} have been completed, and the results submitted for publication. A current goal is to measure the 1s2s{sup 3}S{sub 1} - 1s2p{sup 3}P{sub 0} transition wavelength in helium-like Ni{sup 26+}. Measurements of the 1s2s{sup 2}S{sub 1/2} - 1s2p{sup 2}P{sub 1/2,3/2} transition wavelengths in lithium-like Kr{sup 33+} is planned. Wavelength and lifetime measurements in copper-like U{sup 63+} are also expected to be initiated. The group is also participating in measurements of forbidden transitions in helium-like ions. A measurement of the lifetime of the 1s2s{sup 3}S{sub 1} state in Kr{sup 34+} was published recently. In a collaboration including P. Mokler of GSI, Darmstadt, measurements have been made of the spectral distribution of the 2E1 decay continuum in helium-like Kr{sup 34+}. Initial results have been reported and further measurements are planned.

  12. Visual Diagnosis: An Adolescent Male With Severe Facial Swelling and Scalp Infection.

    PubMed

    Riney, Lauren C; Shah, Meera; Lopez Domowicz, Denise A

    2015-11-01

    Scalp eruptions are common in infants, children, and adolescents and the etiology can be broad. Allergic contact dermatitis can result after multiple non eventful uses of a hair care product, including shampoo, relaxers, and coloring agents. Symptoms of allergic contact dermatitis include intense pruritus with weeping, pain, and stinging sensations. Signs on physical examination include swelling with scaly erythematous plaques as well as bullae with vesicles and pustules in severe cases. The forehead, eyelids, and postauricular areas also are subject to swelling. Definitive diagnosis of allergic dermatitis involves patch testing to determine the specific allergen. Education about avoidance of the allergen and recommendations for allergen-free products are the most important aspects of managing patients with allergic contact dermatitis. Treatment depends on the severity and extent of involvement. First-line treatment is topical corticosteroids, followed by topical calcineurin inhibitors. For more extensive dermatitis, systemic corticosteroids are beneficial. PMID:26527634

  13. Promoting Lifelong Physical Activity through Quality Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Amelia M.

    2004-01-01

    Despite the recognized health risks associated with physical inactivity, most Americans are not active enough to achieve health benefits, and many report no planned physical activity at all. The Surgeon General's report on physical activity and health and several research studies have provided evidence that most Americans do not exercise and are…

  14. Computer Rehabilitation Training for the Severely Disabled.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge.

    The Computer Rehabilitation Training Program for the Severely Disabled is a job-oriented training program to prepare physically handicapped persons to become computer programmers and analysts. The program is operated by: a nonprofit organization of Baton Rouge-area business people interested in data processing; the Department of Social Services,…

  15. A Computer Application for Severely Handicapped Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huenergard, Cliff; Albertson, Greg

    A severely physically disabled (quadriplegic) third grade student with high average intellectual abilities was fitted with a computer system adapted for maximum student independence. A scanner, the face of which is an integrated circuit board, was constructed to allow accessibility to the computer by a single switch operated by the student's…

  16. Medical Adjustment Services for the Severely Handicapped

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, R. Edward

    1978-01-01

    Management of a spinal cord injury is used as a model to discuss the medical adjustment problems occurring with severe physical handicaps. Topics include the stages of preadmission/admission rehabilitation evaluation, comprehensive rehabilitation treatment, patient communication, patient and family conference, and discharge and follow-up. This…

  17. Channel and physical models of the Jovian subnebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, J. S.

    1982-01-01

    A semiempirical physical model of the Jovian subnebula was developed by analogy with the primitive solar nebula itself. The chemical aspects of this model are developed according to the principles developed in the study of the thermochemistry and gas kinetic behavior of the solar nebula, but with important modifications to take into account the higher pressures and densities in the Jovian subnebula. The bulk compositions and densities of the inner satellites of Jupiter are calculated. It is proposed that Europa differs from Io chiefly in that in has suffered a less severe thermal history. The general features of this model are applicable with minor modification to the systems of Saturn and Uranus.

  18. Terlipressin Induced Severe Hyponatremia.

    PubMed

    Šíma, Martin; Pokorný, Miroslav; Paďour, František; Slanař, Ondřej

    2016-01-01

    Terlipressin is a vasopressin analogue used for its vasoconstrictor effect in the treatment of variceal bleeding. Despite its good safety profile compared to vasopressin, some adverse reactions may occur during its use - e.g. hyponatremia. We describe a case of a cirrhotic patient with active variceal bleeding treated during two separate hospitalizations with terlipressin. In both drug treatment periods, severe laboratory hyponatremia developed. After terlipressin discontinuation, mineral disbalance corrected rapidly. Positive dechallenge and rechallenge corresponding to the drug administration schedule confirms the causality between terlipressin administration and hyponatremia. Hyponatremia was preceded with substantial fluid retention in both episodes. In this case report we want to highlight the need for fluid balance monitoring immediately after first terlipressin dose, which may individually predict the patient risk for the development of hyponatremia as other risk factors have rather limited predictive value in real clinical settings. PMID:26995205

  19. Severe storm electricity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, R. T.; Rust, W. D.

    1984-01-01

    Successful ground truth support of U-2 overflights was been accomplished. Data have been reduced for 4 June 1984 and some of the results have been integrated into some of MSFC's efforts. Staccato lightning (multiply branched, single stroke flash with no continuing current) is prevalent within the rainfree region around the main storm updraft and this is believed to be important, i.e., staccato flashes might be an important indicator of severe storm electrification. Results from data analysis from two stations appear to indicate that charge center heights can be estimated from a combination of intercept data with data from the fixed laboratory at NSSL. An excellent data base has been provided for determining the sight errors and efficiency of NSSL's LLP system. Cloud structures, observable in a low radar reflectivity region and on a scale smaller than is currently resolved by radar, which appear to be related to electrical activity are studied.

  20. LEAD SEVERING CONTRIVANCE

    DOEpatents

    Widmaier, W.

    1958-04-01

    A means for breaking an electrical circuit within an electronic tube during the process of manufacture is described. Frequently such circuits must be employed for gettering or vapor coating purposes, however, since an external pair of corector pins having no use after manufacture, is undesirable, this invention permits the use of existing leads to form a temporary circuit during manufacture, and severing it thereafter. One portion of the temporary circuit, made from a springy material such as tungsten, is spot welded to a fusable member. To cut the circuit an external radiant heat source melts the fusable member, allowing the tensed tungsten spring to contract and break the circuit. This inexpensive arrangement is particularly useful when the tube has a great many external leads crowded into the tube base.